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Sample records for surface transferrin binding

  1. The structural basis of transferrin sequestration by transferrin-binding protein B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmettes, Charles; Alcantara, Joenel; Yu, Rong-Hua; Schryvers, Anthony B.; Moraes, Trevor F. (Toronto); (Calgary)

    2012-03-28

    Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of bacterial meningitis, acquires the essential element iron from the host glycoprotein transferrin during infection through a surface transferrin receptor system composed of proteins TbpA and TbpB. Here we present the crystal structures of TbpB from N. meningitidis in its apo form and in complex with human transferrin. The structure reveals how TbpB sequesters and initiates iron release from human transferrin.

  2. Radiogallium localization in tumors: blood binding and transport and the role of transferrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallabhajosula, S.R.; Harwig, J.F.; Siemsen, J.K.; Wolf, W.

    1980-01-01

    As a crucial step toward the understanding of the tumor localization of gallium, we have re-investigated its binding and transport in blood. The studies were performed in vivo by injection of gallium-67 citrate in rabbits, and in vitro by incubation of gallium-67 citrate with individual plasma proteins. By ultrafiltration and gel filtration chromatography, rabbit plasma samples showed essentially complete protein binding, whereas dialysis indicated considerable nonprotein-bound gallium, the amount depending on the dialysis medium. According to electrophoresis, total binding was inversely proportional to electrophoresis time. Affinity chromatography showed all gallium to be bound to transferrin, whereas electrophoresis caused continuous dissociation of gallium from transferrin, with the resulting unbound radioactivity appearing in various other protein bands. Similarly, the binding of gallium to transferrin in the in vitro incubation studies was inversely proportional to electrophoresis time, whereas ultrafiltration and gel filtration chromatography showed all gallium to be transferrin-bound. No binding of gallium to other proteins, such as albumin, was observed. This study demonstrates that gallium at the tracer level in blood is exclusively bound to and transported by transferrin, and indicates that electrophoresis and dialysis of easily dissociable metal complexes are subject to significant artifacts. Accurate determination of protein binding of radiopharmaceuticals requires a combination of analytical techniques and cautious interpretation of the results

  3. A transferrin-like GPI-linked iron-binding protein in detergent-insoluble noncaveolar microdomains at the apical surface of fetal intestinal epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; van Deurs, B

    1995-01-01

    of ultracryosections of mucosal tissue, the protein was localized to the apical surface of the enterocytes, whereas it was absent from the basolateral plasma membrane. Interestingly, it was mainly found in patches of flat or invaginated apical membrane domains rather than at the surface of microvilli. Caveolae were...

  4. Inactivation of transferrin iron binding capacity by the neutrophil myeloperoxidase system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.A.; Pearson, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    Human serum apotransferrin was exposed to the isolated myeloperoxidase-H2O2-halide system or to phorbol ester-activated human neutrophils. Such treatment resulted in a marked loss in transferrin iron binding capacity as well as concomitant iodination of transferrin. Each component of the cell-free system (myeloperoxidase, H2O2, iodide) or neutrophil system (neutrophils, phorbol ester, iodide) was required in order to observe these changes. In the cell-free system, the H2O2 requirement was fulfilled by either reagent H2O2 or the peroxide-generating system glucose oxidase plus glucose. Both loss of iron binding capacity and transferrin iodination by either the myeloperoxidase system or activated neutrophils were blocked by azide or catalase. The isolated peroxidase system had an acidic pH optimum, whereas the intact cell system was more efficient at neutral pH. The kinetics of changes in iron binding capacity and iodination closely paralleled one another, exhibiting t1/2 values of less than 1 min for the myeloperoxidase-H2O2 system, 3-4 min for the myeloperoxidase-glucose oxidase system, and 8 min for the neutrophil system. That the occupied binding site is protected from the myeloperoxidase system was suggested by (1) a failure to mobilize iron from iron-loaded transferrin, (2) an inverse correlation between initial iron saturation and myeloperoxidase-mediated loss of iron binding capacity, and (3) decreased myeloperoxidase-mediated iodination of iron-loaded versus apotransferrin. Since as little as 1 atom of iodide bound per molecule of transferrin was associated with substantial losses in iron binding capacity, there appears to be a high specificity of myeloperoxidase-catalyzed iodination for residues at or near the iron binding sites. Amino acid analysis of iodinated transferrin (approximately 2 atoms/molecule) demonstrated that iodotyrosine was the predominant iodinated species

  5. Downregulation of transferrin receptor surface expression by intracellular antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Jilin; Wu Sha; Zhao Xiaoping; Wang Min; Li Wenhan; Shen Xin; Liu Jing; Lei Ping; Zhu Huifen; Shen Guanxin

    2007-01-01

    To deplete cellular iron uptake, and consequently inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells, we attempt to block surface expression of transferrin receptor (TfR) by intracellular antibody technology. We constructed two expression plasmids (scFv-HAK and scFv-HA) coding for intracellular single-chain antibody against TfR with or without endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal, respectively. Then they were transfected tumor cells MCF-7 by liposome. Applying RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoelectron microscope experiments, we insure that scFv-HAK intrabody was successfully expressed and retained in ER contrasted to the secreted expression of scFv-HA. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that the TfR surface expression was markedly decreased approximately 83.4 ± 2.5% in scFv-HAK transfected cells, while there was not significantly decrease in scFv-HA transfected cells. Further cell growth and apoptosis characteristics were evaluated by cell cycle analysis, nuclei staining and MTT assay. Results indicated that expression of scFv-HAK can dramatically induce cell cycle G1 phase arrest and apoptosis of tumor cells, and consequently significantly suppress proliferation of tumor cells compared with other control groups. For First time this study demonstrates the potential usage of anti-TfR scFv-intrabody as a growth inhibitor of TfR overexpressing tumors

  6. Studies of metal binding by the iron transport protein transferrin using time differential perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Then, G.M.

    1987-01-01

    The binding of the transition metal hafnium to transferrin was studied under various chemical conditions using time differential perturbed γγ angular correlation spectroscopy (TDPAC). Observing the electric quadrupole interaction of the 181 Hf probe nuclei size and symmetry of the electric field gradient induced by the ligands of the metal ions can be determined. The experimental data suggest how homogeneous the binding conditions are and to which extend relaxation phenomena are involved. Due to the excellent time resolution obtained with new BaF 2 detectors the quadrupole coupling parameters of 181 Hf-transferrin could be determined very accurately. Under nearly physiological conditions different binding configurations were quantitatively characterized by spectroscopic means and distinguished with high specificity. (orig./PW) [de

  7. The distribution of iron between the metal-binding sites of transferrin human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J; Moreton, K

    1980-02-01

    The Makey & Seal [(1976) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 453, 250--256] method of polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in buffer containing 6 M-urea was used to determine the distribution of iron between the N-terminal and C-terminal iron-binding sites of transferrin in human serum. In fresh serum the two sites are unequally occupied; there is preferential occupation of the N-terminal site. On incubation of the serum at 37 degrees C the preference of iron for the N-terminal site becomes more marked. On storage of serum at -15 degrees C the iron distribution changes so that there is a marked preference for the C-terminal site. Dialysis of serum against buffer at pH 7.4 also causes iron to be bound much more strongly by the C-terminal than by the N-terminal site. The original preference for the N-terminal site can be resroted to the dialysed serum by addition of the diffusible fraction.

  8. Erythroblast transferrin receptors and transferrin kinetics in iron deficiency and various anemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muta, K.; Nishimura, J.; Ideguchi, H.; Umemura, T.; Ibayashi, H.

    1987-01-01

    To clarify the role of transferrin receptors in cases of altered iron metabolism in clinical pathological conditions, we studied: number of binding sites; affinity; and recycling kinetics of transferrin receptors on human erythroblasts. Since transferrin receptors are mainly present on erythroblasts, the number of surface transferrin receptors was determined by assay of binding of 125 I-transferrin and the percentage of erythroblasts in bone marrow mononuclear cells. The number of binding sites on erythroblasts from patients with an iron deficiency anemia was significantly greater than in normal subjects. Among those with an aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and polycythemia vera compared to normal subjects, there were no considerable differences in the numbers of binding sites. The dissociation constants (Kd) were measured using Scatchard analysis. The apparent Kd was unchanged (about 10 nmol/L) in patients and normal subjects. The kinetics of endocytosis and exocytosis of 125 I-transferrin, examined by acid treatment, revealed no variations in recycling kinetics among the patients and normal subjects. These data suggest that iron uptake is regulated by modulation of the number of surface transferrin receptors, thereby reflecting the iron demand of the erythroblast

  9. Changes in iron levels, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation in race horses, before and after of physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Abramovitc

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Abramovitc G., Parra A.C. & Fernandes W.R. [Changes in iron levels, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation in race horses, before and after of physical exercise]. Variação de níveis séricos de ferro, da capacidade total de ligação do ferro e da saturação da transferrina em equinos de corrida, antes e após exercício físico. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:289-293, 2014. Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Prof. Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva 87, Cidade Universitária, Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508-270, Brasil. Email: wilsonrf@usp.br The preparation of the horse for physical activities in competition is directly related to important factors such as nutrition, muscle adaptation and blood profile, related to the concentration of serum iron, total capacity total iron binding capacity (TIBC and saturation of transferrin. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of exercise in iron levels, the total iron and transferrin saturation in race horses. One hundred and eleven samples of blood serum were collected from Thoroughbred horses, from the Jockey Club of São Paulo, aged between 3 and 4 years old, male and female, clinically healthy, practitioners turf competition, in sand or grass. The samples were obtained before exercise (control time and 30 minutes after exercise (post exercise. These animals were submitted to gallop training, of high intensity and short duration for this research. As a result, it was observed that the serum concentration of iron (Fe showed a statistically significant lowering post-exercise, due to organic re-balance of iron, while TIBC (total iron binding capacity showed a clear and significant increase in their serum levels due to increased needs of iron during and after exercise. The percentage of transferrin saturation in serum was shown to be lower post-exercise, probably due to the recruitment of

  10. Iron metabolism in BeWo chorion carcinoma cells. Transferrin-mediated uptake and release of iron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ende, A.; du Maine, A.; Simmons, C. F.; Schwartz, A. L.; Strous, G. J.

    1987-01-01

    Growing human choriocarcinoma BeWo b24 cells contain 1.5 X 10(6) functional cell surface transferrin binding sites and 2.0 X 10(6) intracellular binding sites. These cells rapidly accumulate iron at a rate of 360,000 iron atoms/min/cell. During iron uptake the transferrin and its receptor recycle at

  11. Structural and functional consequences of binding site mutations in transferrin: crystal structures of the Asp63Glu and Arg124Ala mutants of the N-lobe of human transferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Heather M; He, Qing-Yu; Briggs, Sara K; Mason, Anne B; Baker, Edward N

    2003-06-17

    Human transferrin is a serum protein whose function is to bind Fe(3+) with very high affinity and transport it to cells, for delivery by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Structurally, the transferrin molecule is folded into two globular lobes, representing its N-terminal and C-terminal halves, with each lobe possessing a high-affinity iron binding site, in a cleft between two domains. Central to function is a highly conserved set of iron ligands, including an aspartate residue (Asp63 in the N-lobe) that also hydrogen bonds between the two domains and an arginine residue (Arg124 in the N-lobe) that binds an iron-bound carbonate ion. To further probe the roles of these residues, we have determined the crystal structures of the D63E and R124A mutants of the N-terminal half-molecule of human transferrin. The structure of the D63E mutant, determined at 1.9 A resolution (R = 0.245, R(free) = 0.261), showed that the carboxyl group still binds to iron despite the larger size of the Glu side chain, with some slight rearrangement of the first turn of alpha-helix residues 63-72, to which it is attached. The structure of the R124A mutant, determined at 2.4 A resolution (R = 0.219, R(free) = 0.288), shows that the loss of the arginine side chain results in a 0.3 A displacement of the carbonate ion, and an accompanying movement of the iron atom. In both mutants, the iron coordination is changed slightly, the principal change being in each case a lengthening of the Fe-N(His249) bond. Both mutants also release iron more readily than the wild type, kinetically and in terms of acid lability of iron binding. We attribute this to more facile protonation of the synergistically bound carbonate ion, in the case of R124A, and to strain resulting from the accommodation of the larger Glu side chain, in the case of D63E. In both cases, the weakened Fe-N(His) bond may also contribute, consistent with protonation of the His ligand being an early intermediate step in iron release, following the

  12. Kinetics of Transferrin and Transferrin-Receptor during Iron Transport through Blood Brain Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aminul; Liu, Jin; Dutta, Prashanta

    2017-11-01

    Transferrin and its receptors play an important role during the uptake and transcytosis of iron by blood brain barrier (BBB) endothelial cells to maintain iron homeostasis in BBB endothelium and brain. In the blood side of BBB, ferric iron binds with the apo-transferrin to form holo-transferrin which enters the endothelial cell via transferrin receptor mediated endocytosis. Depending on the initial concentration of iron inside the cell endocytosed holo-transferrin can either be acidified in the endosome or exocytosed through the basolateral membrane. Acidification of holo-transferrin in the endosome releases ferrous irons which may either be stored and used by the cell or transported into brain side. Exocytosis of the holo-transferrin through basolateral membrane leads to transport of iron bound to transferrin into brain side. In this work, kinetics of internalization, recycling and exocytosis of transferrin and its receptors are modeled by laws of mass action during iron transport in BBB endothelial cell. Kinetic parameters for the model are determined by least square analysis. Our results suggest that the cell's initial iron content determines the extent of the two possible iron transport pathways, which will be presented in this talk Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01GM122081.

  13. Template-directed covalent conjugation of DNA to native antibodies, transferrin and other metal-binding proteins

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    Rosen, Christian B.; Kodal, Anne L. B.; Nielsen, Jesper S.; Schaffert, David H.; Scavenius, Carsten; Okholm, Anders H.; Voigt, Niels V.; Enghild, Jan J.; Kjems, Jørgen; Tørring, Thomas; Gothelf, Kurt V.

    2014-09-01

    DNA-protein conjugates are important in bioanalytical chemistry, molecular diagnostics and bionanotechnology, as the DNA provides a unique handle to identify, functionalize or otherwise manipulate proteins. To maintain protein activity, conjugation of a single DNA handle to a specific location on the protein is often needed. However, preparing such high-quality site-specific conjugates often requires genetically engineered proteins, which is a laborious and technically challenging approach. Here we demonstrate a simpler method to create site-selective DNA-protein conjugates. Using a guiding DNA strand modified with a metal-binding functionality, we directed a second DNA strand to the vicinity of a metal-binding site of His6-tagged or wild-type metal-binding proteins, such as serotransferrin, where it subsequently reacted with lysine residues at that site. This method, DNA-templated protein conjugation, facilitates the production of site-selective protein conjugates, and also conjugation to IgG1 antibodies via a histidine cluster in the constant domain.

  14. Hemin inhibits internalization of transferrin by reticulocytes and promotes phosphorylation of the membrane transferrin receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, T.M.; O'Donnell, M.W.; Aisen, P.; London, I.M.

    1985-01-01

    Addition of hemin to reticulocytes inhibits incorporation of iron from transferrin. Heme also regulates protein synthesis in immature erythroid cells through its effects on phosphorylation of the initiation factor eIF-2. The authors have examined its effects on endocytosis of iron-transferrin and phosphorylation of the transferrin receptor. Hemin reduced iron transport but increased cell-associated transferrin. During uptake of 125 I-labeled transferrin in the steady state, the use of a washing technique to dissociate bound transferrin on the cell membrane showed that radioligand accumulated on the surface of hemin-treated cells. Receptor phosphorylation was investigated by immunoprecipitation of reticulocyte extracts after metabolic labeling with [ 32 P]P/sub i/. In the absence of ligand, phosphorylated receptor was chiefly localized on cell stroma. Exposure to transferrin increased cytosolic phosphorylated receptor from 15-30% to approximately 50% of the total, an effect overcome by hemin treatment. The findings suggest a possible relationship of phosphorylation to endocytosis of the transferrin receptor in reticulocytes

  15. Competitive advantage of diferric transferrin in delivering iron to reticulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebers, H A; Csiba, E; Huebers, E; Finch, C A

    1983-01-01

    Radioiron- and radioiodine-labeled forms of human diferric and monoferric transferrin and apotransferrin, isolated by preparative isoelectric focusing, were used to define transferrin-iron uptake by human reticulocytes. In mixtures of human diferric and monoferric transferrin, the diferric molecule had a constant 7-fold advantage in delivering iron to reticulocytes, as compared with the 2-fold advantage when single solutions of mono- and diferric transferrins were compared. This was shown to be due to competitive interaction in iron delivery, probably at a common membrane-receptor binding site for transferrin. Apotransferrin did not interfere with the iron-donating process and its limited cellular uptake was inhibited in noncompetitive fashion by diferric transferrin. PMID:6572005

  16. Iron, transferrin and myelinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergeant, C. E-mail: sergeant@cenbg.in2p3.fr; Vesvres, M.H.; Deves, G.; Baron, B.; Guillou, F

    2003-09-01

    Transferrin (Tf), the iron binding protein of vertebrates serum, is known to be synthesized by oligodendrocytes (Ols) in the central nervous system. It has been postulated that Tf is involved in Ols maturation and myelinogenesis. This link is particularly important in the understanding of a severe human pathology: the multiple sclerosis, which remains without efficient treatment. We generated transgenic mice containing the complete human Tf gene and extensive regulatory sequences from the 5{sup '} and 3{sup '} untranslated regions that specifically overexpress Tf in Ols. Brain cytoarchitecture of the transgenic mice appears to be normal in all brain regions examined, total myelin content is increased by 30% and motor coordination is significantly improved when compared with non-transgenic littermates. Tf role in the central nervous system may be related to its affinity for metallic cations. Normal and transgenic mice were used for determination of trace metals (iron, copper and zinc) and minerals (potassium and calcium) concentration in cerebellum and corpus callosum. The freeze-dried samples were prepared to allow proton-induced X-ray emission and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analyses with the nuclear microprobe in Bordeaux. Preliminary results were obtained and carbon distribution was revealed as a very good analysis to distinguish precisely the white matter region. A comparison of metallic and mineral elements contents in brain between normal and transgenic mice shows that iron, copper and zinc levels remained constant. This result provides evidence that effects of Tf overexpression in the brain do not solely relate to iron transport.

  17. Iron, transferrin and myelinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Deves, G.; Baron, B.; Guillou, F.

    2003-01-01

    Transferrin (Tf), the iron binding protein of vertebrates serum, is known to be synthesized by oligodendrocytes (Ols) in the central nervous system. It has been postulated that Tf is involved in Ols maturation and myelinogenesis. This link is particularly important in the understanding of a severe human pathology: the multiple sclerosis, which remains without efficient treatment. We generated transgenic mice containing the complete human Tf gene and extensive regulatory sequences from the 5 ' and 3 ' untranslated regions that specifically overexpress Tf in Ols. Brain cytoarchitecture of the transgenic mice appears to be normal in all brain regions examined, total myelin content is increased by 30% and motor coordination is significantly improved when compared with non-transgenic littermates. Tf role in the central nervous system may be related to its affinity for metallic cations. Normal and transgenic mice were used for determination of trace metals (iron, copper and zinc) and minerals (potassium and calcium) concentration in cerebellum and corpus callosum. The freeze-dried samples were prepared to allow proton-induced X-ray emission and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analyses with the nuclear microprobe in Bordeaux. Preliminary results were obtained and carbon distribution was revealed as a very good analysis to distinguish precisely the white matter region. A comparison of metallic and mineral elements contents in brain between normal and transgenic mice shows that iron, copper and zinc levels remained constant. This result provides evidence that effects of Tf overexpression in the brain do not solely relate to iron transport

  18. Role of ARF6 in internalization of metal-binding proteins, metallothionein and transferrin, and cadmium-metallothionein toxicity in kidney proximal tubule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, Natascha A.; Lee, Wing-Kee; Abouhamed, Marouan; Thevenod, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Filtered metal-protein complexes, such as cadmium-metallothionein-1 (CdMT-1) or transferrin (Tf) are apically endocytosed partly via megalin/cubilin by kidney proximal tubule (PT) cells where CdMT-1 internalization causes apoptosis. Small GTPase ARF (ADP-ribosylation factor) proteins regulate endocytosis and vesicular trafficking. We investigated roles of ARF6, which has been shown to be involved in internalization of ligands and endocytic trafficking in PT cells, following MT-1/CdMT-1 and Tf uptake by PT cells. WKPT-0293 Cl.2 cells derived from rat PT S1 segment were transfected with hemagglutinin-tagged wild-type (ARF6-WT) or dominant negative (ARF6-T27N) forms of ARF6. Using immunofluorescence, endogenous ARF6 was associated with the plasma membrane (PM) as well as juxtanuclear and co-localized with Rab5a and Rab11 involved in early and recycling endosomal trafficking. Immunofluorescence staining of megalin showed reduced surface labelling in ARF6 dominant negative (ARF6-DN) cells. Intracellular Alexa Fluor 546-conjugated MT-1 uptake was reduced in ARF6-DN cells and CdMT-1 (14.8 μM for 24 h) toxicity was significantly attenuated from 27.3 ± 3.9% in ARF6-WT to 11.1 ± 4.0% in ARF6-DN cells (n = 6, P < 0.02). Moreover, reduced Alexa Fluor 546-conjugated Tf uptake was observed in ARF-DN cells (75.0 ± 4.6% versus 3.9 ± 3.9% of ARF6-WT cells, n = 3, P < 0.01) and/or remained near the PM (89.3 ± 5. 6% versus 45.2 ± 14.3% of ARF6-WT cells, n = 3, P < 0.05). In conclusion, the data support roles for ARF6 in receptor-mediated endocytosis and trafficking of MT-1/Tf to endosomes/lysosomes and CdMT-1 toxicity of PT cells

  19. The effect of glycosylation on the transferrin structure: A molecular dynamic simulation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Z; Housaindokht, M R; Bozorgmehr, M R; Izadyar, M

    2016-09-07

    Transferrins have been defined by the highly cooperative binding of iron and a carbonate anion to form a Fe-CO3-Tf ternary complex. As such, the layout of the binding site residues affects transferrin function significantly; In contrast to N-lobe, C-lobe binding site of the transferrin structure has been less characterized and little research which surveyed the interaction of carbonate with transferrin in the C-lobe binding site has been found. In the present work, molecular dynamic simulation was employed to gain access into the molecular level understanding of carbonate binding site and their interactions in each lobe. Residues responsible for carbonate binding of transferrin structure were pointed out. In addition, native human transferrin is a glycoprotein that two N-linked complex glycan chains located in the C-lobe. Usually, in the molecular dynamic simulation for simplifying, glycan is removed from the protein structure. Here, we explore the effect of glycosylation on the transferrin structure. Glycosylation appears to have an effect on the layout of the binding site residue and transferrin structure. On the other hand, sometimes the entire transferrin formed by separated lobes that it allows the results to be interpreted in a straightforward manner rather than more parameters required for full length protein. But, it should be noted that there are differences between the separated lobe and full length transferrin, hence, a comparative analysis by the molecular dynamic simulation was performed to investigate such structural variations. Results revealed that separation in C-lobe caused a significant structural variation in comparison to N-lobe. Consequently, the separated lobes and the full length one are different, showing the importance of the interlobe communication and the impact of the lobes on each other in the transferrin structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Transferrin receptors on human reticulocytes: variation in site number in hematologic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumak, K.H.; Rachkewich, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Assays of binding of 125iodine-labeled ( 125 I) human transferrin were used to study transferrin receptor sites on reticulocytes from 15 normal subjects and from 66 patients with various hematologic disorders. In normal subjects, few or no transferrin receptors were detected whereas the average number of receptors per reticulocyte varied greatly from patient to patient, ranging from 0 to 67,700 in samples, from 35 patients, on which Scatchard analysis of binding of [ 125 I]-transferrin was done. Marked heterogeneity in the number of reticulocyte transferrin receptors in different hematologic disorders was also found in assays with [ 125 I]-OKT9 (monoclonal antibody to the human transferrin receptor). The number of receptors was not correlated with either the reticulocyte count or the hemoglobin

  1. Annotating MYC status with 89Zr-transferrin imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Jason P; Evans, Michael J; Rice, Samuel L; Wongvipat, John; Sawyers, Charles L; Lewis, Jason S

    2012-10-01

    A noninvasive technology that quantitatively measures the activity of oncogenic signaling pathways could have a broad impact on cancer diagnosis and treatment with targeted therapies. Here we describe the development of (89)Zr-desferrioxamine-labeled transferrin ((89)Zr-transferrin), a new positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer that binds the transferrin receptor 1 (TFRC, CD71) with high avidity. The use of (89)Zr-transferrin produces high-contrast PET images that quantitatively reflect treatment-induced changes in MYC-regulated TFRC expression in a MYC-driven prostate cancer xenograft model. Moreover, (89)Zr-transferrin imaging can detect the in situ development of prostate cancer in a transgenic MYC prostate cancer model, as well as in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) before histological or anatomic evidence of invasive cancer. These preclinical data establish (89)Zr-transferrin as a sensitive tool for noninvasive measurement of oncogene-driven TFRC expression in prostate and potentially other cancers, with prospective near-term clinical application.

  2. Electrosynthesized MIPs for transferrin: Plastibodies or nano-filters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaorong; Yarman, Aysu; Erdossy, Júlia; Katz, Sagie; Zebger, Ingo; Jetzschmann, Katharina J; Altintas, Zeynep; Wollenberger, Ulla; Gyurcsányi, Róbert E; Scheller, Frieder W

    2018-05-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanofilms for transferrin (Trf) have been synthesized on gold surfaces by electro-polymerizing the functional monomer scopoletin in the presence of the protein target or around pre-adsorbed Trf. As determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) the film thickness was comparable with the molecular dimension of the target. The target (re)binding properties of the electro-synthesized MIP films was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) through the target-binding induced permeability changes of the MIP nanofilms to the ferricyanide redox marker, as well as by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and surface enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS) of the immobilized protein molecules. For Trf a linear concentration dependence in the lower micromolar range and an imprinting factor of ~5 was obtained by SWV and SPR. Furthermore, non-target proteins including the iron-free apo-Trf were discriminated by pronounced size and shape specificity. Whilst it is generally assumed that the rebinding of the target or of cross-reacting proteins exclusively takes place at the polymer here we considered also the interaction of the protein molecules with the underlying gold transducers. We demonstrate by SWV that adsorption of proteins suppresses the signal of the redox marker even at the bare gold surface and by SEIRAS that the treatment of the MIP with proteinase K or NaOH only partially removes the target protein. Therefore, we conclude that when interpreting binding of proteins to directly MIP-covered gold electrodes the interactions between the protein and the gold surface should also be considered. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cloning and characterization of transferrin cDNA and rapid detection of transferrin gene polymorphism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tange, N; Jong-Young, L; Mikawa, N; Hirono, I; Aoki, T

    1997-12-01

    A cDNA clone of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) transferrin was obtained from a liver cDNA library. The 2537-bp cDNA sequence contained an open reading frame encoding 691 amino acids and the 5' and 3' noncoding regions. The amino acid sequences at the iron-binding sites and the two N-linked glycosylation sites, and the cysteine residues were consistent with known, conserved vertebrate transferrin cDNA sequences. Single N-linked glycosylation sites existed on the N- and C-lobe. The deduced amino acid sequence of the rainbow trout transferrin cDNA had 92.9% identities with transferrin of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch); 85%, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar); 67.3%, medaka (Oryzias latipes); 61.3% Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua); and 59.7%, Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). The long and accurate polymerase chain reaction (LA-PCR) was used to amplify approximately 6.5 kb of the transferrin gene from rainbow trout genomic DNA. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of the LA-PCR products revealed three digestion patterns in 22 samples.

  4. Effects of transferrin on aromatase activity in porcine granulosa cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Duda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferating cells have an absolute requirement for iron, which is delivered by transferrin with subsequent intracellular transport via the transferrin receptor. Recent studies have reported that transferrin plays a crucial role in the local regulation of ovarian function, apart from its iron-binding characteristic. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the possible role of transferrin in porcine granulosa cells function by examining its influence on aromatase activity, the most important indicator of follicular cell differentiation. In the first series of studies, pig granulosa cells isolated from small, immature follicles were cultured in the presence of transferrin alone (10 microg/ml or 100 microg/ml or with the addition of FSH (100ng/ml. The second series of studies was undertaken to determine transferrin-stimulated granulosa cells ability to aromatize exogenous testosterone (1x10(-7M. One hour after the establishment of cultures an aromatase inhibitor CGS16949A was added to test its influence on estradiol production. After 48 hours, cultures were terminated and cells were processed for immunocytochemical staining of aromatase. Media were frozen for further estradiol level analysis. Positive immunostaining for aromatase was found in all granulosa cell cultures. The intensity of immunostaining was always stronger in cultures supplemented with FSH whereas the addition of transferrin had no effect. Granulosa cells in vitro synthesized the highest amount of estradiol after the addition of FSH and exogenous testosterone as measured radioimmunologically. Concomitant treatment with FSH and transferrin caused an inhibition of FSH-stimulated aromatase activity. The production of estradiol also declined in the presence of FSH, testosterone and transferrin. This study demonstrates that transferrin had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on FSH-stimulated aromatase activity, which was confirmed by radioimmunoassay. Our results indicate

  5. Surface Passivation in Empirical Tight Binding

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yu; Tan, Yaohua; Jiang, Zhengping; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Kubis, Tillmann

    2015-01-01

    Empirical Tight Binding (TB) methods are widely used in atomistic device simulations. Existing TB methods to passivate dangling bonds fall into two categories: 1) Method that explicitly includes passivation atoms is limited to passivation with atoms and small molecules only. 2) Method that implicitly incorporates passivation does not distinguish passivation atom types. This work introduces an implicit passivation method that is applicable to any passivation scenario with appropriate parameter...

  6. Serum transferrin receptor in polycythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteiga, R; Remacha, A F; Sardà, M P; Ubeda, J

    1998-10-01

    We measured serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) levels in 22 patients with polycythemia vera and in 26 cases of secondary polycythemia. In our study, raised sTfR levels in both polycythemia groups were related to iron deficiency.

  7. Surface Passivation in Empirical Tight Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu; Tan, Yaohua; Jiang, Zhengping; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Kubis, Tillmann

    2016-03-01

    Empirical Tight Binding (TB) methods are widely used in atomistic device simulations. Existing TB methods to passivate dangling bonds fall into two categories: 1) Method that explicitly includes passivation atoms is limited to passivation with atoms and small molecules only. 2) Method that implicitly incorporates passivation does not distinguish passivation atom types. This work introduces an implicit passivation method that is applicable to any passivation scenario with appropriate parameters. This method is applied to a Si quantum well and a Si ultra-thin body transistor oxidized with SiO2 in several oxidation configurations. Comparison with ab-initio results and experiments verifies the presented method. Oxidation configurations that severely hamper the transistor performance are identified. It is also shown that the commonly used implicit H atom passivation overestimates the transistor performance.

  8. Actinide uptake by transferrin and ferritin metalloproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Auwer, C.; Llorens, I.; Moisy, Ph.; Vidaud, C.; Goudard, F.; Barbot, C.; Solari, P.L.; Funke, H.

    2005-01-01

    In order to better understand the mechanisms of actinide uptake by specific biomolecules, it is essential to explore the intramolecular interactions between the cation and the protein binding site. Although this has long been done for widely investigated transition metals, very few studies have been devoted to complexation mechanisms of actinides by active chelation sites of metalloproteins. In this field, X-ray absorption spectroscopy has been extensively used as a structural and electronic metal cation probe. The two examples that are presented here are related to two metalloproteins in charge of iron transport and storage in eukaryote cells: transferrin and ferritin. U(VI)O 2 2+ , Np(IV) and Pu(IV) have been selected because of their possible role as contaminant from the geosphere. (orig.)

  9. Binding of hydrophobic antigens to surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A first aspect of the present invention is a method of detecting antibodies comprising the steps of: i) providing a first group of beads comprising a surface modified with C1-C10 alkyl groups comprising amine, ammonium, ether and/or hydroxyl groups, ii) contacting said first group of beads......-antigen-antibody conjugates, and v) detecting said bead-antigen-antibody conjugates. Further aspects include an antibody detection kit, a bead-antigen conjugate and a composition comprising at least two different groups of bead-antigen-conjugates....

  10. Crystal structure of the botulinum neurotoxin type G binding domain: insight into cell surface binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenmark, Pål; Dong, Min; Dupuy, Jérôme; Chapman, Edwin R; Stevens, Raymond C

    2010-04-16

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) typically bind the neuronal cell surface via dual interactions with both protein receptors and gangliosides. We present here the 1.9-A X-ray structure of the BoNT serotype G (BoNT/G) receptor binding domain (residues 868-1297) and a detailed view of protein receptor and ganglioside binding regions. The ganglioside binding motif (SxWY) has a conserved structure compared to the corresponding regions in BoNT serotype A and BoNT serotype B (BoNT/B), but several features of interactions with the hydrophilic face of the ganglioside are absent at the opposite side of the motif in the BoNT/G ganglioside binding cleft. This may significantly reduce the affinity between BoNT/G and gangliosides. BoNT/G and BoNT/B share the protein receptor synaptotagmin (Syt) I/II. The Syt binding site has a conserved hydrophobic plateau located centrally in the proposed protein receptor binding interface (Tyr1189, Phe1202, Ala1204, Pro1205, and Phe1212). Interestingly, only 5 of 14 residues that are important for binding between Syt-II and BoNT/B are conserved in BoNT/G, suggesting that the means by which BoNT/G and BoNT/B bind Syt diverges more than previously appreciated. Indeed, substitution of Syt-II Phe47 and Phe55 with alanine residues had little effect on the binding of BoNT/G, but strongly reduced the binding of BoNT/B. Furthermore, an extended solvent-exposed hydrophobic loop, located between the Syt binding site and the ganglioside binding cleft, may serve as a third membrane association and binding element to contribute to high-affinity binding to the neuronal membrane. While BoNT/G and BoNT/B are homologous to each other and both utilize Syt-I/Syt-II as their protein receptor, the precise means by which these two toxin serotypes bind to Syt appears surprisingly divergent. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Reversible and Irreversible Binding of Nanoparticles to Polymeric Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang H. Binder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible and irreversible binding of CdSe-nanoparticles and nanorods to polymeric surfaces via a strong, multiple hydrogen bond (= Hamilton-receptor/barbituric acid is described. Based on ROMP-copolymers, the supramolecular interaction on a thin polymer film is controlled by living polymerization methods, attaching the Hamilton-receptor in various architectures, and concentrations. Strong binding is observed with CdSe-nanoparticles and CdSe-nanorods, whose surfaces are equipped with matching barbituric acid-moieties. Addition of polar solvents, able to break the hydrogen bonds leads to the detachment of the nanoparticles from the polymeric film. Irreversible binding is observed if an azide/alkine-“click”-reaction is conducted after supramolecular recognition of the nanoparticles on the polymeric surface. Thus reversible or irreversible attachment of the nanosized objects can be achieved.

  12. Transferrin metabolism in alcoholic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, B.J.; Chapman, R.W.; Nunes, R.M.; Sorrentino, D.; Sherlock, S.

    1985-01-01

    The metabolism of transferrin was studied using purified 125 I-labeled transferrin in 11 alcoholic patients; six with fatty liver and five with cirrhosis. Six healthy subjects whose alcohol intake was les than 40 gm daily were studied as a control group. There were no significant differences in the mean fractional catabolic rate and plasma volume in the alcoholic groups when compared with control subjects. A significantly decreased mean serum transferrin concentration was found in the alcoholic cirrhotic patients (1.8 +/- 0.3 gm per liter vs. 2.9 +/- 0.2; p less than 0.01), resulting from diminished total body synthesis (0.9 +/- 0.2 mg per kg per hr vs. 1.8 +/- 0.2; p less than 0.01). In contrast, in the patients with alcoholic fatty liver, the mean total body transferrin synthesis (2.4 +/- 0.3 mg per kg per hr) was significantly increased when compared with controls (p less than 0.05). For all the alcoholic patients, the serum transferrin correlated with transferrin synthesis (r = +0.70; p less than 0.01) but the serum iron did not. These results suggest that, in alcoholic cirrhosis, transferrin synthesis is decreased, probably reflecting diminished synthetic capacity by the liver. In contrast, in patients with alcoholic fatty liver, transferrin turnover is accelerated

  13. Binding Preferences, Surface Attachment, Diffusivity, and Orientation of a Family 1 Carbohydrate-Binding Module on Cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimlos, M. R.; Beckham, G. T.; Matthews, J. F.; Bu, L.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.

    2012-06-08

    Cellulase enzymes often contain carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) for binding to cellulose. The mechanisms by which CBMs recognize specific surfaces of cellulose and aid in deconstruction are essential to understand cellulase action. The Family 1 CBM from the Trichoderma reesei Family 7 cellobiohydrolase, Cel7A, is known to selectively bind to hydrophobic surfaces of native cellulose. It is most commonly suggested that three aromatic residues identify the planar binding face of this CBM, but several recent studies have challenged this hypothesis. Here, we use molecular simulation to study the CBM binding orientation and affinity on hydrophilic and hydrophobic cellulose surfaces. Roughly 43 {mu}s of molecular dynamics simulations were conducted, which enables statistically significant observations. We quantify the fractions of the CBMs that detach from crystal surfaces or diffuse to other surfaces, the diffusivity along the hydrophobic surface, and the overall orientation of the CBM on both hydrophobic and hydrophilic faces. The simulations demonstrate that there is a thermodynamic driving force for the Cel7A CBM to bind preferentially to the hydrophobic surface of cellulose relative to hydrophilic surfaces. In addition, the simulations demonstrate that the CBM can diffuse from hydrophilic surfaces to the hydrophobic surface, whereas the reverse transition is not observed. Lastly, our simulations suggest that the flat faces of Family 1 CBMs are the preferred binding surfaces. These results enhance our understanding of how Family 1 CBMs interact with and recognize specific cellulose surfaces and provide insights into the initial events of cellulase adsorption and diffusion on cellulose.

  14. The role of hepatic transferrin receptor 2 in the regulation of iron homeostasis in the body.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christal A Worthen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fine tuning of body iron is required to prevent diseases such as iron-overload and anemia. The putative iron-sensor, transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2, is expressed in the liver and mutations in this protein result in the iron-overload disease Type III hereditary hemochromatosis (HH. With the loss of functional TfR2, the liver produces about two-fold less of the peptide hormone hepcidin, which is responsible for negatively regulating iron uptake from the diet. This reduction in hepcidin expression leads to the slow accumulation of iron in the liver, heart, joints, and pancreas and subsequent cirrhosis, heart disease, arthritis, and diabetes. TfR2 can bind iron-loaded transferrin in the bloodstream, and hepatocytes treated with transferrin respond with a two-fold increase in hepcidin expression through stimulation of the BMP-signaling pathway. Loss of functional TfR2 or its binding partner, the original HH protein (HFE, results in a loss of this transferrin-sensitivity. While much is known about the trafficking and regulation of TfR2, the mechanism of its transferrin-sensitivity through the BMP-signaling pathway is still not known.

  15. Adaptation of transferrin protein and glycan synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. de Jong (Gerard); W.L. van Noort (W.); R.A. Feelders (Richard); C.M.H. de Jeu-Jaspars (Nel); H.G. van Eijk (Henk)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractWe report the patterns of variability in transferrin structure in pregnancy, iron deficiency anemia, women using oral contraceptives, nonanaemic rheumatoid arthritis, iron deficient rheumatoid arthritis and anemia of the chronic diseases. Changes in microheterogeneity were assessed by

  16. Imparting albumin-binding affinity to a human protein by mimicking the contact surface of a bacterial binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Satoshi; Honda, Shinya

    2014-04-18

    Attachment of a bacterial albumin-binding protein module is an attractive strategy for extending the plasma residence time of protein therapeutics. However, a protein fused with such a bacterial module could induce unfavorable immune reactions. To address this, we designed an alternative binding protein by imparting albumin-binding affinity to a human protein using molecular surface grafting. The result was a series of human-derived 6 helix-bundle proteins, one of which specifically binds to human serum albumin (HSA) with adequate affinity (KD = 100 nM). The proteins were designed by transferring key binding residues of a bacterial albumin-binding module, Finegoldia magna protein G-related albumin-binding domain (GA) module, onto the human protein scaffold. Despite 13-15 mutations, the designed proteins maintain the original secondary structure by virtue of careful grafting based on structural informatics. Competitive binding assays and thermodynamic analyses of the best binders show that the binding mode resembles that of the GA module, suggesting that the contacting surface of the GA module is mimicked well on the designed protein. These results indicate that the designed protein may act as an alternative low-risk binding module to HSA. Furthermore, molecular surface grafting in combination with structural informatics is an effective approach for avoiding deleterious mutations on a target protein and for imparting the binding function of one protein onto another.

  17. Universal binding energy relation for cleaved and structurally relaxed surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srirangarajan, Aarti; Datta, Aditi; Gandi, Appala Naidu; Ramamurty, U; Waghmare, U V

    2014-01-01

    The universal binding energy relation (UBER), derived earlier to describe the cohesion between two rigid atomic planes, does not accurately capture the cohesive properties when the cleaved surfaces are allowed to relax. We suggest a modified functional form of UBER that is analytical and at the same time accurately models the properties of surfaces relaxed during cleavage. We demonstrate the generality as well as the validity of this modified UBER through first-principles density functional theory calculations of cleavage in a number of crystal systems. Our results show that the total energies of all the relaxed surfaces lie on a single (universal) energy surface, that is given by the proposed functional form which contains an additional length-scale associated with structural relaxation. This functional form could be used in modelling the cohesive zones in crack growth simulation studies. We find that the cohesive law (stress–displacement relation) differs significantly in the case where cracked surfaces are allowed to relax, with lower peak stresses occurring at higher displacements. (paper)

  18. Universal binding energy relation for cleaved and structurally relaxed surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srirangarajan, Aarti; Datta, Aditi; Gandi, Appala Naidu; Ramamurty, U; Waghmare, U V

    2014-02-05

    The universal binding energy relation (UBER), derived earlier to describe the cohesion between two rigid atomic planes, does not accurately capture the cohesive properties when the cleaved surfaces are allowed to relax. We suggest a modified functional form of UBER that is analytical and at the same time accurately models the properties of surfaces relaxed during cleavage. We demonstrate the generality as well as the validity of this modified UBER through first-principles density functional theory calculations of cleavage in a number of crystal systems. Our results show that the total energies of all the relaxed surfaces lie on a single (universal) energy surface, that is given by the proposed functional form which contains an additional length-scale associated with structural relaxation. This functional form could be used in modelling the cohesive zones in crack growth simulation studies. We find that the cohesive law (stress-displacement relation) differs significantly in the case where cracked surfaces are allowed to relax, with lower peak stresses occurring at higher displacements.

  19. Phorbol diesters and transferrin modulate lymphoblastoid cell transferrin receptor expression by two different mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, O.; Phillips, J.L.; Boldt, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    Expression of transferrin receptors (TfR) by activated lymphocytes is necessary for lymphocyte DNA synthesis and proliferation. Regulation of TfR expression, therefore, is a mechanism by which the lymphocyte's proliferative potential may be directed and controlled. The authors studied mechanisms by which lymphoblastoid cells modulate TfR expression during treatment with phorbol diesters or iron transferrin (FeTf), agents which cause downregulation of cell surface TfR. Phorbol diester-induced TfR downregulation occurred rapidly, being detectable at 2 min and reaching maximal decreases of 50% by 15 min. It was inhibited by cold but not by agents that destabilize cytoskeletal elements. Furthermore, this downregulation was reversed rapidly by washing or by treatment with the membrane interactive agent, chlorpromazine. In contrast, FeTf-induced TfR downregulation occurred slowly. Decreased expression of TfR was detectable only after 15 min and maximal downregulation was achieved after 60 min. Although FeTf-induced downregulation also was inhibited by cold, it was inhibited in addition by a group of microtubule destabilizing agents (colchicine, vinblastine, podophyllotoxin) or cytochalasin B, a microfilament inhibitor. Furthermore, FeTf-induced downregulation was not reversed readily by washing or by treatment with chlorpromazine. Phorbol diesters cause TfR downregulation by a cytoskeleton-independent mechanism. These data indicate that TfR expression is regulated by two independent mechanisms in lymphoblastoid cells, and they provide the possibility that downregulation of TfR by different mechanisms may result in different effects in these cells

  20. Influence of carbonate on the complexation of Cm(III) with human serum transferrin studied by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Nicole; Panak, Petra J.

    2015-01-01

    The complexation of Cm(III) with transferrin is investigated in the pH range from 3.5 to 11.0 in the absence of carbonate and at c(carbonate)(tot) = 25 mM. In the absence of carbonate two Cm(III) transferrin species I and II are formed depending on pH. An increase of the total carbonate concentration favors the formation of the Cm(III) transferrin species II with Cm(III) bound at the Fe(III) binding site of transferrin at significantly lower pH values. The spectroscopic results directly prove that carbonate acts as a synergistic anion for Cm(III) complexation at the binding site of transferrin. At c(carbonate)(tot) = 25 mM the formation of the nonspecific Cm(III) transferrin species I is suppressed completely. Instead, three Cm(III) carbonate species Cm(CO 3 ) + , Cm(CO 3 ) 2 - and Cm(CO 3 ) 3 3- are formed successively with increasing pH. The formation of Cm(III) carbonate species results in a decreased fraction of the Cm(III) transferrin species II at pH ≥ 7.4 which indicates that carbonate complexation is an important competition reaction for Cm(III) transferrin complexation at physiological carbonate concentration. (authors)

  1. Isothermal titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance allow quantifying substrate binding to different binding sites of Bacillus subtilis xylanase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuyvers, Sven; Dornez, Emmie; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2012-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance were tested for their ability to study substrate binding to the active site (AS) and to the secondary binding site (SBS) of Bacillus subtilis xylanase A separately. To this end, three enzyme variants were compared. The first...

  2. Specificity of chicken and mammalian transferrins in myogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beach, R.L.; Popiela, Heinz; Festoff, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    Chicken transferrins isolated from eggs, embryo extract, serum or ischiatic-peroneal nerves are able to stimulate incorporation of ( 3 H)thymidine, and promote myogenesis by primary chicken muscles cells in vitro. Mammalian transferrins (bovine, rat, mouse, horse, rabbit, and human) do not promote ( 3 H)thymidine incorporation or myotube development. Comparison of the peptide fragments obtained after chemical or limited proteolytic cleavage demonstrates that the four chicken transferrins are all indistinguishable, but they differ considerably from the mammalian transferrins. The structural differences between chicken and mammalian transferrins probably account for the inability of mammalian transferrins to act as mitogens for, and to support myogenesis of, primary chicken muscle cells. (author)

  3. Effects of obesity, total fasting and re-alimentation on L-thyroxine (T4), 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine (T3), 3,3',5'-L-triiodothyronine (rT3), thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), cortisol, thyrotrophin, cortisol binding globulin (CBG), transferrin, alpha 2-haptoglobin and complement C'3 in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriba, P C; Bauer, M; Emmert, D; Fateh-Moghadam, A; Hofmann, G G; Horn, K; Pickardt, C R

    1979-08-01

    The effects of total fasting for 31 +/- 10 days followed by re-alimentation with an 800 calorie diet on thyroid function, i.e. T4,T3,rT3,RT3U (resin T3 uptake), and TSH, and on TBG levels in serum were studied sequentially in obese hospitalized patients (N=18). Additionally, cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin, parathyrin and free fatty acids were followed as hormonal and metabolic parameters, respectively. Further, CBG, transferrin, alpha 2-haptoglobin and complement C'3 were measured as representatives of other serum proteins. Results before fasting: T4, T3, TBG, cortisol, CBG, alpha 2-haptoglobin and complement C'3 of the obese patients were elevated when compared with healthy normal weight controls, whereas rT3, T4/TBG ratio, T3/TBG ratio, TSH, coritsol/cbg ratio, growth hormone, prolactin, parathyrin and transferrin of the obese group were normal. RT3U and fT4 index were decreased in the obese patients. Results during fasting: Significant decreases were observed during fasting for the following parameters -- T3, TBG, T3/TBG ratio, transferrin, alpha 2-haptoglobin complement C'3. rT3, T4/TBG ratio, RT3U, fT4 index and FFA increased. T4, tsh response to TRH stimulation, cortisol, CBG, cortisol/cbg ratio, parathyrin, growth hormone and prolactin did not change. Results during re-alimentation: T3, TBG, T3/TBG ratio, TSH response to TRH, transferrin, alpha 2-haptoglobin and complement C'3 increased. Conversely, fT3, RT3U, FFA, cortisol and cortisol/cbg ratio decreased whereas the other parameters did not change. 1) There is no evidence for primary hypothyroidism in obese patients during prolonged fasting and re-alimentation. 2) The rapid decrease of T3 and increase of RT3U after initiation of fasting are not fully explained by the observed slower decreases in TBG. 3) The alterations of T3, rT3 and RT3U resemble in their kinetics the changes in FFA levels. 4) Fasting reduced the levels of only certain serum proteins, interestingly TBG, transferrin, alpha 2

  4. Complex formation of transferrin with tetravalent plutonium and cerium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, M.S.; Oomen, I.K.

    1981-01-01

    Gel filtration experiments with 239 Pu labelled In Vitro bovine serum showed that the metal ion is bound to the transferrin of the serum proteins as in the case of iron labelled serum. This was confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The ovotransferrin prepared from chicken egg white which was devoid of hemopexin contaminant was found to complex both tetravalent plutonium and cerium giving visible absorption peak at 365 and 435 nm respectively. The binding capacity of ovotransferrin with tetravalent plutonium and cerium, determined by spectrophotometric titration indicates that two metal ions are bound to each protein molecule as in the case of iron. The average molecular weight computed from this binding capacity measurements was found to be 71,000-75,000. The number of protons liberated for each metal ion bound was found to be three as in the case of iron. (author)

  5. The characteristics of transferrin variants by carbohydrate-deficient transferrin tests using capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Gilsung; Kim, Juwon; Yoon, Kap Joon; Lee, Jong-Han

    2018-04-17

    Transferrin is the major plasma transport protein for iron. We aimed to investigate the characteristics of transferrin variant by carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) test using capillary zone electrophoresis. We retrospectively analyzed the CDT tests of 2449 patients from March 2009 to May 2017 at a tertiary hospital in Korea. CDT was quantified using a Capillarys 2 system (Sebia, Lisses, France) by capillary zone electrophoresis. The characteristics of variant transferrin patterns using electropherogram of CDT tests were analyzed. Seventy-seven (3.1%) patients were classified as variant transferrin. Mean age of these patients was 51.8 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 3.5:1. The most common variants were the BC variants (n = 37), followed by the CD variants (n = 27), unclear patterns (n = 7), BD variants (n = 3), CC variants (n = 2), misclassification (n = 1). In the variant Tf group, the most common disease was alcoholic liver cirrhosis (n = 22, 28.6%), followed by the toxic effects of substances (n = 17, 22.1%), and mental and behavioral disorders attributable to alcohol (n = 11, 14.3%). Nonvariant group showed a predominance of the toxic substance effects (n = 880, 37.1%), a personal history of suicide attempts (n = 634, 26.7%), and mental and behavioral disorders due to alcohol (n = 336, 14.2%). We analyzed the basic characteristics of variant transferrin by CDT tests using capillary zone electrophoresis. The prevalence of variant transferrin was 3.1% of the study subjects. Male patients, alcohol abusers, and liver cirrhosis patients predominated in the variant transferrin population. Further prospective studies are warranted to elucidate variant transferrin in clinical practice. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Sugar-binding sites on the surface of the carbohydrate-binding module of CBH I from Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavagnacco, Letizia; Mason, Philip E; Schnupf, Udo; Pitici, Felicia; Zhong, Linghao; Himmel, Michael E; Crowley, Michael; Cesàro, Attilio; Brady, John W

    2011-05-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out for a system consisting of the carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) of the cellulase CBH I from Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) in a concentrated solution of β-D-glucopyranose, to determine whether there is any tendency for the sugar molecules to bind to the CBM. In spite of the general tendency of glucose to behave as an osmolyte, a marked tendency for the sugar molecules to bind to the protein was observed. However, the glucose molecules tended to bind only to specific sites on the protein. As expected, the hydrophobic face of the sugar molecules, comprising the axial H1, H3, and H5 aliphatic protons, tended to adhere to the flat faces of the three tyrosine side chains on the planar binding surface of the CBM. However, a significant tendency to bind to a groove-like feature on the upper surface of the CBM was also observed. These results would not be inconsistent with a model of the mechanism for this globular domain in which the cellodextrin chain being removed from the surface of crystalline cellulose passes over the upper surface of the CBM, presumably then available for hydrolysis in the active site tunnel of this processive cellulase. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gonadal cell surface receptor for plasma retinol-binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Bhat, M.; Cama, H.R.

    1979-01-01

    A specific membrane receptor for plasma retinol-binding protein has been demonstrated in testicular cells. Prealbumin-2 did not show any specific binding to the membrane. The affinity of retinol-binding protein for receptor drastically decreases upon delivery of retinol and the retinol-binding protein does not enter the cell. The mechanism of delivery of retinol to the target cell by plasma retinol-binding protein has been investigated. The process involves two steps; direct binding of retinol-binding protein to the receptor and uptake of retinol by the target cell with a concomitant drastic reduction in the affinity of the retinol-binding protein to the receptor. Probably the second step of the process needs a cytosolic factor, possibly the cellular retinol-binding protein or an enzyme. The binding of retinol-binding protein to the receptor is saturable and reversible. The interaction shows a Ksub(d) value of 2.1x10 -10 . The specific binding of a retinol-binding protein with great affinity has been employed in the development of a method for radioassay of the receptor. The receptor level of the gonadal cell has been found to vary with the stage of differentiation. The receptor concentrations in 11-week-old birds and adult birds are comparable. Testosterone treatment of 11-week-old birds produced a substantial increase in the receptor concentration over control, while the protein content increased marginally, indicating that, probably, synthesis of the receptor is specifcally induced by testosterone during spermatogenesis, and the concentration of receptor is relatively higher before the formation of the acrosome. (Auth.)

  8. TAF(II)170 interacts with the concave surface of TATA-binding protein to inhibit its DNA binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, L A; van der Knaap, J A; van den Boom, V; van den Heuvel, F A; Timmers, H T

    2001-11-01

    The human RNA polymerase II transcription factor B-TFIID consists of TATA-binding protein (TBP) and the TBP-associated factor (TAF) TAF(II)170 and can rapidly redistribute over promoter DNA. Here we report the identification of human TBP-binding regions in human TAF(II)170. We have defined the TBP interaction domain of TAF(II)170 within three amino-terminal regions: residues 2 to 137, 290 to 381, and 380 to 460. Each region contains a pair of Huntington-elongation-A subunit-Tor repeats and exhibits species-specific interactions with TBP family members. Remarkably, the altered-specificity TBP mutant (TBP(AS)) containing a triple mutation in the concave surface is defective for binding the TAF(II)170 amino-terminal region of residues 1 to 504. Furthermore, within this region the TAF(II)170 residues 290 to 381 can inhibit the interaction between Drosophila TAF(II)230 (residues 2 to 81) and TBP through competition for the concave surface of TBP. Biochemical analyses of TBP binding to the TATA box indicated that TAF(II)170 region 290-381 inhibits TBP-DNA complex formation. Importantly, the TBP(AS) mutant is less sensitive to TAF(II)170 inhibition. Collectively, our results support a mechanism in which TAF(II)170 induces high-mobility DNA binding by TBP through reversible interactions with its concave DNA binding surface.

  9. TTP specifically regulates the internalization of the transferrin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosoni, Daniela; Puri, Claudia; Confalonieri, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    Different plasma membrane receptors are internalized through saturable/noncompetitive pathways, suggesting cargo-specific regulation. Here, we report that TTP (SH3BP4), a SH3-containing protein, specifically regulates the internalization of the transferrin receptor (TfR). TTP interacts...... with endocytic proteins, including clathrin, dynamin, and the TfR, and localizes selectively to TfR-containing coated-pits (CCP) and -vesicles (CCV). Overexpression of TTP specifically inhibits TfR internalization, and causes the formation of morphologically aberrant CCP, which are probably fission impaired....... This effect is mediated by the SH3 of TTP, which can bind to dynamin, and it is rescued by overexpression of dynamin. Functional ablation of TTP causes a reduction in TfR internalization, and reduced cargo loading and size of TfR-CCV. Tyrosine phosphorylation of either TTP or dynamin prevents...

  10. Surface passivation for tight-binding calculations of covalent solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, N

    2007-01-01

    Simulation of a cluster representing a finite portion of a larger covalently bonded system requires the passivation of the cluster surface. We compute the effects of an explicit hybrid orbital passivation (EHOP) on the atomic structure in a model bulk, three-dimensional, narrow gap semiconductor, which is very different from the wide gap, quasi-one-dimensional organic molecules where most passivation schemes have been studied in detail. The EHOP approach is directly applicable to minimal atomic orbital basis methods such as tight-binding. Each broken bond is passivated by a hybrid created from an explicitly expressed linear combination of basis orbitals, chosen to represent the contribution of the missing neighbour, e.g. a sp 3 hybrid for a single bond. The method is tested by computing the forces on atoms near a point defect as a function of cluster geometry. We show that, compared to alternatives such as pseudo-hydrogen passivation, the force on an atom converges to the correct bulk limit more quickly as a function of cluster radius, and that the force is more stable with respect to perturbations in the position of the cluster centre. The EHOP method also obviates the need for parameterizing the interactions between the system atoms and the passivating atoms. The method is useful for cluster calculations of non-periodic defects in large systems and for hybrid schemes that simulate large systems by treating finite regions with a quantum-mechanical model, coupled to an interatomic potential description of the rest of the system

  11. Transferrin-polycation-mediated introduction of DNA into human leukemic cells: Stimulation by agents that affect the survival of transfected DNA or modulate transferrin receptor levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotten, M.; Laengle-Rouault, F.; Kirlappos, H.; Wagner, E.; Mechtler, K.; Zenke, M.; Beug, H.; Birnstiel, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have subverted a receptor-mediated endocytosis event to transport genes into human leukemic cells. By coupling the natural iron-delivery protein transferrin to the DNA-binding polycations polylysine or protamine, they have created protein conjugates that bind nucleic acids and carry them into the cell during the normal transferrin cycle. They demonstrate here that this procedure is useful for a human leukemic cell line. They enhanced the rate of gene delivery by (i) increasing the transferrin receptor density through treatment of the cells with the cell permeable iron chelator desferrioxamine, (ii) interfering with the synthesis of heme with succinyl acetone treatment, or (iii) stimulating the degradation of heme with cobalt chloride treatment. Consistent with gene delivery as an endocytosis event, they show that the subsequent expression in K-562 cells of a gene included in the transported DNA depends upon the cellular presence of the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine. By contrast, monensin blocks transferrinfection, as does incubation of the cells at 18 degree C

  12. Isolation and expression of the genes coding for the membrane bound transglycosylase B (MltB and the transferrin binding protein B (TbpB of the salmon pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIVIAN WILHELM

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated and sequenced the genes encoding the membrane bound transglycosylase B (MltB and the transferring binding protein B (TbpB of the salmon pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis. The results of the sequence revealed two open reading frames that encode proteins with calculated molecular weights of 38,830 and 85,140. The deduced aminoacid sequences of both proteins show a significant homology to the respective protein from phylogenetically related microorganisms. Partial sequences coding the amino and carboxyl regions of MltB and a sequence of 761 base pairs encoding the amino region of TbpB have been expressed in E. coli. The strong humoral response elicited by these proteins in mouse confirmed the immunogenic properties of the recombinant proteins. A similar response was elicited by both proteins when injected intraperitoneally in Atlantic salmon. The present data indicates that these proteins are good candidates to be used in formulations to study the protective immunity of salmon to infection by P. salmonis.

  13. Binding of tryptophan and iron by reptilion plasnna proteins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transport functions. Albumin of the alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) and other reptiles binds, amongst other ions, tryptophan (McMenamy & Watson 1968) and transferrin binds iron (Barber & Sheeler 1963). Multiple transferrins are present in the plasma of many reptiles. (Dessauer et af 1962) and the albumin region of the.

  14. Adherence of platelets to in situ albumin-binding surfaces under flow conditions: role of surface-adsorbed albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha Thakurta, Sanjukta; Miller, Robert; Subramanian, Anuradha

    2012-01-01

    Surfaces that preferentially bind human serum albumin (HSA) were generated by grafting albumin-binding linear peptide (LP1) onto silicon surfaces. The research aim was to evaluate the adsorption pattern of proteins and the adhesion of platelets from platelet-poor plasma and platelet-rich plasma, respectively, by albumin-binding surfaces under physiological shear rate (96 and 319 s −1 ) conditions. Bound proteins were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A ratio of ∼1000:100:1 of adsorbed HSA, human immunoglobulin (HIgG) and human fibrinogen (HFib) was noted, respectively, on LP1-functionalized surfaces, and a ratio of ∼5:2:1 of the same was noted on control surfaces, as confirmed by ELISAs. The surface-adsorbed von Willebrand factor was undetectable by sensitive ELISAs. The amount of adhered platelets correlated with the ratio of adsorbed HSA/HFib. Platelet morphology was more rounded on LP1-functionalized surfaces when compared to control surfaces. The platelet adhesion response on albumin-binding surfaces can be explained by the reduction in the co-adsorption of other plasma proteins in a surface environment where there is an excess of albumin molecules, coupled with restrictions in the conformational transitions of other surface-adsorbed proteins into hemostatically active forms. (paper)

  15. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) in alcoholic cirrhosis: a kinetic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Grønbaek, M; Møller, Søren

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carbohydrate deficient transferrin has been introduced as a marker of excessive alcohol intake. The present study was undertaken in order to measure the circulating level of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and to assess arteriovenous kinetics...... of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in liver and kidney. METHODS/RESULTS: The median value of serum carbohydrate deficient transferrin was 16.0 U/l in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 41), and this value was not significantly different from that of a normal control group (median 17.4 U/l, n = 55, ns......). Carbohydrate deficient transferrin was significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis and high current alcohol intake than in abstaining patients (20 vs. 14 U/l, p 50 g/day) had a significantly higher carbohydrate deficient transferrin...

  16. Binding Ligand Prediction for Proteins Using Partial Matching of Local Surface Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sael

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional elucidation of uncharacterized protein structures is an important task in bioinformatics. We report our new approach for structure-based function prediction which captures local surface features of ligand binding pockets. Function of proteins, specifically, binding ligands of proteins, can be predicted by finding similar local surface regions of known proteins. To enable partial comparison of binding sites in proteins, a weighted bipartite matching algorithm is used to match pairs of surface patches. The surface patches are encoded with the 3D Zernike descriptors. Unlike the existing methods which compare global characteristics of the protein fold or the global pocket shape, the local surface patch method can find functional similarity between non-homologous proteins and binding pockets for flexible ligand molecules. The proposed method improves prediction results over global pocket shape-based method which was previously developed by our group.

  17. Binding ligand prediction for proteins using partial matching of local surface patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sael, Lee; Kihara, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    Functional elucidation of uncharacterized protein structures is an important task in bioinformatics. We report our new approach for structure-based function prediction which captures local surface features of ligand binding pockets. Function of proteins, specifically, binding ligands of proteins, can be predicted by finding similar local surface regions of known proteins. To enable partial comparison of binding sites in proteins, a weighted bipartite matching algorithm is used to match pairs of surface patches. The surface patches are encoded with the 3D Zernike descriptors. Unlike the existing methods which compare global characteristics of the protein fold or the global pocket shape, the local surface patch method can find functional similarity between non-homologous proteins and binding pockets for flexible ligand molecules. The proposed method improves prediction results over global pocket shape-based method which was previously developed by our group.

  18. Coating Nanoparticles with Plant-Produced Transferrin-Hydrophobin Fusion Protein Enhances Their Uptake in Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Lauri J.; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Makila, Ermei M.

    2017-01-01

    can be expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants as a fusion with Trichoderma reesei hydrophobins HFBI, HFBII, or HFBIV. Transferrin-HFBIV was further expressed in tobacco BY-2 suspension cells. Both partners of the fusion protein retained their functionality; the hydrophobin moiety enabled migration...... to a surfactant phase in an aqueous two-phase system, and the transferrin moiety was able to reversibly bind iron. Coating porous silicon nanoparticles with the fusion protein resulted in uptake of the nanoparticles in human cancer cells. This study provides a proof-of concept for the functionalization...

  19. Biodistribution of Ru-97-labeled DTPA, DMSA and transferrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Som, P.; Oster, Z.H.; Fairchild, R.G.; Atkins, H.L.; Brill, A.B.; Gil, M.C.; Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.E.; Goldman, A.G.; Richards, P.

    1980-01-01

    Ruthenium-97 is being produced at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP). The favorable physical properties of Ru-97 and chemical reactivity of ruthenium offer a potential for using this isotope to label compounds useful for delayed scanning. Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), 2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and Transferrin (TF) were labeled with Ru-97-chloride. Ru-97-DTPA and In-111-DTPA, injected intravenously, showed similar organ distribution, kinetics, and more than 80% excretion by 0.5 h. Ru-97-DTPA and In-111-DTPA injected into the cisterna magna of dogs showed similar kinetics in brain, blood, and urinary bladder. The energy deposited by 1 mCi In-111-DTPA is twice that from 1 mCi Ru-97-DTPA. High quality camera images of the CSF space in the dog were obtained with both isotopes. Ru-97-DMSA was prepared with and without the addition of SnCl 2 .2H 2 O. Tin-free DMSA was rapidly excreted via the kidneys, whereas for maximum cortical deposition, the tin-containing preparation was superior. This compound is suitable for delayed imaging of both normal and impaired kidneys. Tissue distribution studies were performed in abscess-bearing rats with Ru-97-transferrin. Although blood levels were higher than with Ga-67-citrate, the abscess had twice as much Ru-97-TF as Ga-67-citrate and the Ru-97 muscle activity was one-third that of Ga-67. Imaging of abscess-bearing rabbits with Ru-97-TF visualized the abscesses as early as 1/2 hr after injection. Since the initial images visualize the abscess so clearly and since the TF portion of the compound binds to the abscess, Tc-99m-TF is being studied for the same purpose. Ru-97-labeled compounds are a promising replacement for In-111 and possibly also for Ga-67 compounds with the advantages of lower radiation dose and high quality image

  20. Surface binding sites in carbohydrate active enzymes: An emerging picture of structural and functional diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Birte; Cockburn, Darrell

    2013-01-01

    is not universal and is in fact rare among some families of enzymes. In some cases an alternative to possessing a CBM is for the enzyme to bind to the substrate at a site on the catalytic domain, but away from the active site. Such a site is termed a surface (or secondary) binding site (SBS). SBSs have been...

  1. Elevated transferrin saturation and risk of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Andersen, Henrik Ullits

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We tested the hypothesis that elevated transferrin saturation is associated with an increased risk of any form of diabetes, as well as type 1 or type 2 diabetes separately. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used two general population studies, The Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS, N = 9......,121) and The Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS, N = 24,195), as well as a 1:1 age- and sex-matched population-based case-control study with 6,129 patients with diabetes from the Steno Diabetes Centre and 6,129 control subjects, totaling 8,535 patients with diabetes and 37,039 control subjects. RESULTS...

  2. Binding and orientation of fibronectin on polystyrene surfaces using immobilized bacterial adhesin-related peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klueh, U; Bryers, J D; Kreutzer, D L

    2003-10-01

    Fibronectin (FN) is known to bind to bacteria via high affinity receptors on bacterial surfaces known as adhesins. The binding of bacteria to FN is thought to have a key role in foreign device associated infections. For example, previous studies have indicated that Staphylococcus aureus adhesins bind to the 29 kDa NH(3) terminus end of FN, and thereby promote bacteria adherence to surfaces. Recently, the peptide sequences within the S. aureus adhesin molecule that are responsible for FN binding have been identified. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that functional FN can be bound and specifically oriented on polystyrene surfaces using bacterial adhesin-related (BRP-A) peptide. We further hypothesize that monoclonal antibodies that react with specific epitopes on the FN can be used to quantify both FN binding and orientation on these surfaces. Based on this hypothesis, we initiated a systematic investigation of the binding and orientation of FN on polystyrene surfaces using BRP-A peptide. To test this hypothesis, the binding and orientation of the FN to immobilized BRP-A was quantified using (125)I-FN, and monoclonal antibodies. (125)I-FN was used to quantitate FN binding to peptide-coated polystyrene surfaces. The orientation of bound FN was demonstrated by the use of monoclonal antibodies, which are reactive with the amine (N) or carboxyl (C) termini of the FN. The results of our studies demonstrated that when the BRP-A peptide was used to bind FN to surfaces that: 1. functional FN was bound to the peptide; 2. anti-C terminus antibodies bound to the peptide FN; and 3. only limited binding of anti-N terminus antibodies to peptide-bound FN occurred. We believe that the data that indicate an enhanced binding of anti-C antibodies reactive to anti-N antibodies are a result of the FN binding in an oriented manner with the N termini of FN bound tightly to the BRP-A on the polystyrene surface. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 67A: 36

  3. Changes in serum iron, total iron binding capacity and transferrin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iron is a vital constituent of cells but in excess may be harmful and is associated with a raised risk for some malignant diseases including breast cancer. We aimed to study changes in iron profile in Sudanese females newly diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods: A case- control study in which serum iron, Total ...

  4. Evidence for low molecular weight, non-transferrin-bound iron in rat brain and cerebrospinal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Torben; Morgan, Evan H.

    1998-01-01

    Neuroscience, blood-brain barrier, choroid plexus, interstitial fluid, transferrin receptor, uptake......Neuroscience, blood-brain barrier, choroid plexus, interstitial fluid, transferrin receptor, uptake...

  5. The influence of surface integrin binding patterns on specific biomaterial-cell interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranek, Maggi Marie

    As the future of biomaterials progresses toward bioactivity, the biomaterial surface must control non-specific protein adsorption and encourage selective protein and cell adsorption. Integrins alphavbeta3, alpha 1beta1, alpha5beta1 and alpha Mbeta2 are expressed on cells involved in endothelialization, inflammation, and intimal hyperplasia. These cellular events play a vital role in biomaterial biocompatibility, especially in the vascular environment. The overall hypothesis of these studies is that biomaterial surfaces exhibit selective integrin binding, which then specifies differential cell binding. To test this hypothesis, four specific aims were developed. The first aim was designed to determine whether metal and polymeric biomaterials exhibit selective integrin binding. The tested materials included 316L stainless steel, nitinol, gold, Elgiloy RTM, poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide), polycarbonate urethane and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene. Discrete integrin binding patterns were detected microscopically using integrin specific fluorescent antibodies. Stainless steel exhibited high level integrin alpha1beta 1 and low level integrin alphaMbeta2 binding pattern. This suggests that this metal surface should selectively encourage endothelial cell to inflammatory cell binding. In contrast, gold bound ten times the amount of integrin alphaMbeta2 compared to integrin alpha1beta1, which should encourage inflammatory cell adhesion. The 65/35 poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) was the only polymeric biomaterial tested that had integrin binding levels comparable to metal biomaterials. Based on these observations, a combinational biomaterial with a surface pattern of 65/35 poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) dots on a 316L stainless steel background was created. A pattern of high level integrin alpha1beta1 binding and low level integrin alpha Mbeta2 binding on this combinational surface indicates that this surface should selectively favor endothelial cell binding. In the second

  6. Kinetic, spectroscopic and chemical modification study of iron release from transferrin; iron(III) complexation to adenosine triphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.P.

    1985-01-01

    Amino acids other than those that serve as ligands have been found to influence the chemical properties of transferrin iron. The catalytic ability of pyrophosphate to mediate transferrin iron release to a terminal acceptor is largely quenched by modification non-liganded histine groups on the protein. The first order rate constants of iron release for several partially histidine modified protein samples were measured. A statistical method was employed to establish that one non-liganded histidine per metal binding domain was responsible for the reduction in rate constant. These results imply that the iron mediated chelator, pyrophosphate, binds directly to a histidine residue on the protein during the iron release process. EPR spectroscopic results are consistent with this interpretation. Kinetic and amino acid sequence studies of ovotransferrin and lactoferrin, in addition to human serum transferrin, have allowed the tentative assignment of His-207 in the N-terminal domain and His-535 in the C-terminal domain as the groups responsible for the reduction in rate of iron release. The above concepts have been extended to lysine modified transferrin. Complexation of iron(II) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was also studied to gain insight into the nature of iron-ATP species present at physiological pH. 31 P NMR spectra are observed when ATP is presented in large excess

  7. Nanopatterned submicron pores as a shield for nonspecific binding in surface plasmon resonance-based sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raz, Sabina Rebe; Marchesini, Gerardo R.; Bremer, Maria G. E. G.; Colpo, Pascal; Garcia, Cesar Pascual; Guidetti, Guido; Norde, Willem; Rossi, Francois

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel approach to tackle the most common drawback of using surface plasmon resonance for analyte screening in complex biological matrices - the nonspecific binding to the sensor chip surface. By using a perforated membrane supported by a polymeric gel structure at the evanescent wave

  8. Nanopatterned submicron pores as a shield for nonspecific binding in surface plasmon resonance-based sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebe-Raz, S.; Marchesini, G.R.; Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Colpo, P.; Garcia, C.P.; Guidetti, G.; Norde, W.; Rossi, F.

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel approach to tackle the most common drawback of using surface plasmon resonance for analyte screening in complex biological matrices – the nonspecific binding to the sensor chip surface. By using a perforated membrane supported by a polymeric gel structure at the evanescent wave

  9. Detecting Local Ligand-Binding Site Similarity in Non-Homologous Proteins by Surface Patch Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sael, Lee; Kihara, Daisuke

    2012-01-01

    Functional elucidation of proteins is one of the essential tasks in biology. Function of a protein, specifically, small ligand molecules that bind to a protein, can be predicted by finding similar local surface regions in binding sites of known proteins. Here, we developed an alignment free local surface comparison method for predicting a ligand molecule which binds to a query protein. The algorithm, named Patch-Surfer, represents a binding pocket as a combination of segmented surface patches, each of which is characterized by its geometrical shape, the electrostatic potential, the hydrophobicity, and the concaveness. Representing a pocket by a set of patches is effective to absorb difference of global pocket shape while capturing local similarity of pockets. The shape and the physicochemical properties of surface patches are represented using the 3D Zernike descriptor, which is a series expansion of mathematical 3D function. Two pockets are compared using a modified weighted bipartite matching algorithm, which matches similar patches from the two pockets. Patch-Surfer was benchmarked on three datasets, which consist in total of 390 proteins that bind to one of 21 ligands. Patch-Surfer showed superior performance to existing methods including a global pocket comparison method, Pocket-Surfer, which we have previously introduced. Particularly, as intended, the accuracy showed large improvement for flexible ligand molecules, which bind to pockets in different conformations. PMID:22275074

  10. Detecting local ligand-binding site similarity in nonhomologous proteins by surface patch comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sael, Lee; Kihara, Daisuke

    2012-04-01

    Functional elucidation of proteins is one of the essential tasks in biology. Function of a protein, specifically, small ligand molecules that bind to a protein, can be predicted by finding similar local surface regions in binding sites of known proteins. Here, we developed an alignment free local surface comparison method for predicting a ligand molecule which binds to a query protein. The algorithm, named Patch-Surfer, represents a binding pocket as a combination of segmented surface patches, each of which is characterized by its geometrical shape, the electrostatic potential, the hydrophobicity, and the concaveness. Representing a pocket by a set of patches is effective to absorb difference of global pocket shape while capturing local similarity of pockets. The shape and the physicochemical properties of surface patches are represented using the 3D Zernike descriptor, which is a series expansion of mathematical 3D function. Two pockets are compared using a modified weighted bipartite matching algorithm, which matches similar patches from the two pockets. Patch-Surfer was benchmarked on three datasets, which consist in total of 390 proteins that bind to one of 21 ligands. Patch-Surfer showed superior performance to existing methods including a global pocket comparison method, Pocket-Surfer, which we have previously introduced. Particularly, as intended, the accuracy showed large improvement for flexible ligand molecules, which bind to pockets in different conformations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Functional Elements on SIRPα IgV domain Mediate Cell Surface Binding to CD47

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yuan; Tong, Qiao; Zhou, Yubin; Lee, Hsiau-Wei; Yang, Jenny J.; Bühring, Hans-Jörg; Chen, Yi-Tien; Ha, Binh; Chen, Celia X-J.; Zen, Ke

    2006-01-01

    SIRPα and SIRPβ1, the two major isoforms of the signal regulatory protein (SIRP) family, are co-expressed in human leukocytes but mediate distinct extracellular binding interactions and divergent cell signaling responses. Previous studies have demonstrated that binding of SIRPα with CD47, another important cell surface molecule, through the extracellular IgV domain regulates important leukocyte functions including macrophage recognition, leukocyte adhesion and transmigration. Although SIRPβ1 ...

  12. Metallofullerenol Inhibits Cellular Iron Uptake by Inducing Transferrin Tetramerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinxia; Xing, Xueqing; Sun, Baoyun; Zhao, Yuliang; Wu, Zhonghua

    2017-10-18

    Herein, A549 tumor cell proliferation was confirmed to be positively dependent on the concentration of Fe 3+ or transferrin (Tf). Gd@C 82 (OH) 22 or C 60 (OH) 22 effectively inhibited the iron uptake and the subsequent proliferation of A549 cells. The conformational changes of Tf mixed with FeCl 3 , GdCl 3 , C 60 (OH) 22 or Gd@C 82 (OH) 22 were obtained by SAXS. The results demonstrate that Tf homodimers can be decomposed into monomers in the presence of FeCl 3 , GdCl 3 or C 60 (OH) 22 , but associated into tetramers in the presence of Gd@C 82 (OH) 22 . The larger change of SAXS shapes between Tf+C 60 (OH) 22 and Tf+FeCl 3 implies that C 60 (OH) 22 is bound to Tf, blocking the iron-binding site. The larger deviation of the SAXS shape from a possible crystal structure of Tf tetramer implies that Gd@C 82 (OH) 22 is bound to the Tf tetramer, thus disturbing iron transport. This study well explains the inhibition mechanism of Gd@C 82 (OH) 22 and C 60 (OH) 22 on the iron uptake and the proliferation of A549 tumor cells and highlights the specific interactions of a nanomedicine with the target biomolecules in cancer therapy. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Lectin binding profiles of SSEA-4 enriched, pluripotent human embryonic stem cell surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, Alison; Mitalipova, Maisam; Lyons, Ian; Jones, Karen; Shin, Soojung; Pierce, Michael; Stice, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Background Pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the potential to form every cell type in the body. These cells must be appropriately characterized prior to differentiation studies or when defining characteristics of the pluripotent state. Some developmentally regulated cell surface antigens identified by monoclonal antibodies in a variety of species and stem cell types have proven to be side chains of membrane glycolipids and glycoproteins. Therefore, to examine hESC surfaces for other potential pluripotent markers, we used a panel of 14 lectins, which were chosen based on their specificity for a variety of carbohydrates and carbohydrate linkages, along with stage specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4), to determine binding quantitation by flow cytometry and binding localization in adherent colonies by immunocytochemistry. Results Enriching cells for SSEA-4 expression increased the percentage of SSEA-4 positive cells to 98–99%. Using enriched high SSEA-4-expressing hESCs, we then analyzed the binding percentages of selected lectins and found a large variation in binding percentages ranging from 4% to 99% binding. Lycopersicon (tomato)esculetum lectin (TL), Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA), and Concanavalin A (Con A) bound to SSEA-4 positive regions of hESCs and with similar binding percentages as SSEA-4. In contrast, we found Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) and Lotus tetragonolobus lectin (LTL) did not bind to hESCs while Phaseolus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin (PHA-L), Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA), Phaseolus vulgaris erythro-agglutinin (PHA-E), and Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA) bound partially to hESCs. These binding percentages correlated well with immunocytochemistry results. Conclusion Our results provide information about types of carbohydrates and carbohydrate linkages found on pluripotent hESC surfaces. We propose that TL, RCA and Con A may be used as markers that are associated with the pluripotent

  14. Lectin binding profiles of SSEA-4 enriched, pluripotent human embryonic stem cell surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Soojung

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs have the potential to form every cell type in the body. These cells must be appropriately characterized prior to differentiation studies or when defining characteristics of the pluripotent state. Some developmentally regulated cell surface antigens identified by monoclonal antibodies in a variety of species and stem cell types have proven to be side chains of membrane glycolipids and glycoproteins. Therefore, to examine hESC surfaces for other potential pluripotent markers, we used a panel of 14 lectins, which were chosen based on their specificity for a variety of carbohydrates and carbohydrate linkages, along with stage specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4, to determine binding quantitation by flow cytometry and binding localization in adherent colonies by immunocytochemistry. Results Enriching cells for SSEA-4 expression increased the percentage of SSEA-4 positive cells to 98–99%. Using enriched high SSEA-4-expressing hESCs, we then analyzed the binding percentages of selected lectins and found a large variation in binding percentages ranging from 4% to 99% binding. Lycopersicon (tomatoesculetum lectin (TL, Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA, and Concanavalin A (Con A bound to SSEA-4 positive regions of hESCs and with similar binding percentages as SSEA-4. In contrast, we found Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA and Lotus tetragonolobus lectin (LTL did not bind to hESCs while Phaseolus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin (PHA-L, Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA, Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA, Phaseolus vulgaris erythro-agglutinin (PHA-E, and Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA bound partially to hESCs. These binding percentages correlated well with immunocytochemistry results. Conclusion Our results provide information about types of carbohydrates and carbohydrate linkages found on pluripotent hESC surfaces. We propose that TL, RCA and Con A may be used as markers that are associated with the

  15. Real-Time Ligand Binding Pocket Database Search Using Local Surface Descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhi, Rayan; Sael, Lee; Kihara, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    Due to the increasing number of structures of unknown function accumulated by ongoing structural genomics projects, there is an urgent need for computational methods for characterizing protein tertiary structures. As functions of many of these proteins are not easily predicted by conventional sequence database searches, a legitimate strategy is to utilize structure information in function characterization. Of a particular interest is prediction of ligand binding to a protein, as ligand molecule recognition is a major part of molecular function of proteins. Predicting whether a ligand molecule binds a protein is a complex problem due to the physical nature of protein-ligand interactions and the flexibility of both binding sites and ligand molecules. However, geometric and physicochemical complementarity is observed between the ligand and its binding site in many cases. Therefore, ligand molecules which bind to a local surface site in a protein can be predicted by finding similar local pockets of known binding ligands in the structure database. Here, we present two representations of ligand binding pockets and utilize them for ligand binding prediction by pocket shape comparison. These representations are based on mapping of surface properties of binding pockets, which are compactly described either by the two dimensional pseudo-Zernike moments or the 3D Zernike descriptors. These compact representations allow a fast real-time pocket searching against a database. Thorough benchmark study employing two different datasets show that our representations are competitive with the other existing methods. Limitations and potentials of the shape-based methods as well as possible improvements are discussed. PMID:20455259

  16. Antibacterial surfaces by adsorptive binding of polyvinyl-sulphonate-stabilized silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilev, Krasimir; Sah, Vasu R; Goreham, Renee V; Short, Robert D [Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia); Ndi, Chi; Griesser, Hans J, E-mail: Krasimir.vasilev@unisa.edu.au [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2010-05-28

    This paper presents a novel and facile method for the generation of efficient antibacterial coatings which can be applied to practically any type of substrate. Silver nanoparticles were stabilized with an adsorbed surface layer of polyvinyl sulphonate (PVS). This steric layer provided excellent colloidal stability, preventing aggregation over periods of months. PVS-coated silver nanoparticles were bound onto amine-containing surfaces, here produced by deposition of an allylamine plasma polymer thin film onto various substrates. SEM imaging showed no aggregation upon surface binding of the nanoparticles; they were well dispersed on amine surfaces. Such nanoparticle-coated surfaces were found to be effective in preventing attachment of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria and also in preventing biofilm formation. Combined with the ability of plasma polymerization to apply the thin polymeric binding layer onto a wide range of materials, this method appears promising for the fabrication of a wide range of infection-resistant biomedical devices.

  17. Flow cytometric analysis of lectin binding to in vitro-cultured Perkinsus marinus surface carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, J.D.; Jenkins, J.A.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2004-01-01

    Parasite surface glycoconjugates are frequently involved in cellular recognition and colonization of the host. This study reports on the identification of Perkinsus marinus surface carbohydrates by flow cytometric analyses of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated lectin binding. Lectin-binding specificity was confirmed by sugar inhibition and Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics. Clear, measurable fluorescence peaks were discriminated, and no parasite autofluorescence was observed. Parasites (GTLA-5 and Perkinsus-1 strains) harvested during log and stationary phases of growth in a protein-free medium reacted strongly with concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin, which bind to glucose-mannose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) moieties, respectively. Both P. marinus strains bound with lower intensity to Maclura pomifera agglutinin, Bauhinia purpurea agglutinin, soybean agglutinin (N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific lectins), peanut agglutinin (PNA) (terminal galactose specific), and Griffonia simplicifolia II (GlcNAc specific). Only background fluorescence levels were detected with Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (L-fucose specific) and Limulus polyphemus agglutinin (sialic acid specific). The lectin-binding profiles were similar for the 2 strains except for a greater relative binding intensity of PNA for Perkinsus-1 and an overall greater lectin-binding capacity of Perkinsus-1 compared with GTLA-5. Growth stage comparisons revealed increased lectin-binding intensities during stationary phase compared with log phase of growth. This is the first report of the identification of surface glycoconjugates on a Perkinsus spp. by flow cytometry and the first to demonstrate that differential surface sugar expression is growth phase and strain dependent. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2004.

  18. Functional Elements on SIRPα IgV domain Mediate Cell Surface Binding to CD47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Tong, Qiao; Zhou, Yubin; Lee, Hsiau-Wei; Yang, Jenny J.; Bühring, Hans-Jörg; Chen, Yi-Tien; Ha, Binh; Chen, Celia X-J.; Zen, Ke

    2007-01-01

    Summary SIRPα and SIRPβ1, the two major isoforms of the signal regulatory protein (SIRP) family, are co-expressed in human leukocytes but mediate distinct extracellular binding interactions and divergent cell signaling responses. Previous studies have demonstrated that binding of SIRPα with CD47, another important cell surface molecule, through the extracellular IgV domain regulates important leukocyte functions including macrophage recognition, leukocyte adhesion and transmigration. Although SIRPβ1 shares highly homologous extracellular IgV structure with SIRPα, it does not bind to CD47. In this study, we defined key amino acid residues exclusively expressing in the IgV domain of SIRPα, but not SIRPβ1, which determine the extracellular binding interaction of SIRPα to CD47. These key residues include Gln67, a small hydrophobic amino acid (Ala or Val) at the 57th position and Met102. We found that Gln67 and Ala/Val57 are critical. Mutation of either of these residues abates SIRPα directly binding to CD47. Functional cell adhesion and leukocyte transmigration assays further demonstrated central roles of Gln67 and Ala/Val57 in SIRPα extracellular binding mediated cell interactions and cell migration. Another SIRPα-specific residue, Met102, appears to assist SIRPα IgV binding through Gln67 and Ala/Val57. An essential role of these amino acids in SIRPα binding to CD47 was further confirmed by introducing these residues into the SIRPβ1 IgV domain, which dramatically converts SIRPβ1 into a CD47-binding molecule. Our results thus revealed the molecular basis by which SIRPα selectively binds to CD47 and shed new light into the structural mechanisms of SIRP isoform mediated distinctive extracellular interactions and cellular responses. PMID:17070842

  19. Functional elements on SIRPalpha IgV domain mediate cell surface binding to CD47.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Tong, Qiao; Zhou, Yubin; Lee, Hsiau-Wei; Yang, Jenny J; Bühring, Hans-Jörg; Chen, Yi-Tien; Ha, Binh; Chen, Celia X-J; Yang, Yang; Zen, Ke

    2007-01-19

    SIRPalpha and SIRPbeta1, the two major isoforms of the signal regulatory protein (SIRP) family, are co-expressed in human leukocytes but mediate distinct extracellular binding interactions and divergent cell signaling responses. Previous studies have demonstrated that binding of SIRPalpha with CD47, another important cell surface molecule, through the extracellular IgV domain regulates important leukocyte functions including macrophage recognition, leukocyte adhesion and transmigration. Although SIRPbeta1 shares highly homologous extracellular IgV structure with SIRPalpha, it does not bind to CD47. Here, we defined key amino acid residues exclusively expressing in the IgV domain of SIRPalpha, but not SIRPbeta1, which determine the extracellular binding interaction of SIRPalpha to CD47. These key residues include Gln67, a small hydrophobic amino acid (Ala or Val) at the 57th position and Met102. We found that Gln67 and Ala/Val57 are critical. Mutation of either of these residues abates SIRPalpha directly binding to CD47. Functional cell adhesion and leukocyte transmigration assays further demonstrated central roles of Gln67 and Ala/Val57 in SIRPalpha extracellular binding mediated cell interactions and cell migration. Another SIRPalpha-specific residue, Met102, appears to assist SIRPalpha IgV binding through Gln67 and Ala/Val57. An essential role of these amino acid residues in SIRPalpha binding to CD47 was further confirmed by introducing these residues into the SIRPbeta1 IgV domain, which dramatically converts SIRPbeta1 into a CD47-binding molecule. Our results thus revealed the molecular basis by which SIRPalpha binds to CD47 and shed new light into the structural mechanisms of SIRP isoform mediated distinctive extracellular interactions and cellular responses.

  20. Intracellular Delivery of a Planar DNA Origami Structure by the Transferrin-Receptor Internalization Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffert, David H; Okholm, Anders H; Sørensen, Rasmus S; Nielsen, Jesper S; Tørring, Thomas; Rosen, Christian B; Kodal, Anne Louise B; Mortensen, Michael R; Gothelf, Kurt V; Kjems, Jørgen

    2016-05-01

    DNA origami provides rapid access to easily functionalized, nanometer-sized structures making it an intriguing platform for the development of defined drug delivery and sensor systems. Low cellular uptake of DNA nanostructures is a major obstacle in the development of DNA-based delivery platforms. Herein, significant strong increase in cellular uptake in an established cancer cell line by modifying a planar DNA origami structure with the iron transport protein transferrin (Tf) is demonstrated. A variable number of Tf molecules are coupled to the origami structure using a DNA-directed, site-selective labeling technique to retain ligand functionality. A combination of confocal fluorescence microscopy and quantitative (qPCR) techniques shows up to 22-fold increased cytoplasmic uptake compared to unmodified structures and with an efficiency that correlates to the number of transferrin molecules on the origami surface. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Equilibrium binding studies of mono, di and triisocyanide ligands on Au powder surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ontko, Alyn [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-10-08

    The author`s group has previously shown that isocyanides are readily adsorbed from solutions to Au powder and bind to the Au surface in an end-on fashion through the terminal carbon. Later work demonstrated that the equilibrium constants for the reversible adsorption of electronically inequivalent isocyanides could be obtained using the Langmuir isotherm technique. This dissertation describes two projects completed which complement the initial findings of this group. Initially, several alkylisocyanides were synthesized to examine the effect of tail length on Au powder adsorption. It was observed that the length of the alkyl chain affected not only the Au surface binding affinity, but also the rate of surface saturation and saturation coverage values. Direct competition studies were also studied using a 13C-labeled isocyanide. These studies demonstrated the stabilization afforded by substrate-substrate packing forces in SAM`s formed by the longer chain isocyanides. In a second study, di and triisocyanides were synthesized to determine the effect that the length of the connecting link and the number of isocyanide groups (as points of attachment) have on Au adsorption stability. The work in this area describes the binding modes, relative binding affinities and surface coverage values for a series of flexible alkyl and xylyldiisocyanides on Au powder surfaces. This report contains only the introductory material, and general summary. Two chapters have been processed separately. 56 refs.

  2. Identification of distant drug off-targets by direct superposition of binding pocket surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Marcel; Armen, Roger S

    2013-01-01

    Correctly predicting off-targets for a given molecular structure, which would have the ability to bind a large range of ligands, is both particularly difficult and important if they share no significant sequence or fold similarity with the respective molecular target ("distant off-targets"). A novel approach for identification of off-targets by direct superposition of protein binding pocket surfaces is presented and applied to a set of well-studied and highly relevant drug targets, including representative kinases and nuclear hormone receptors. The entire Protein Data Bank is searched for similar binding pockets and convincing distant off-target candidates were identified that share no significant sequence or fold similarity with the respective target structure. These putative target off-target pairs are further supported by the existence of compounds that bind strongly to both with high topological similarity, and in some cases, literature examples of individual compounds that bind to both. Also, our results clearly show that it is possible for binding pockets to exhibit a striking surface similarity, while the respective off-target shares neither significant sequence nor significant fold similarity with the respective molecular target ("distant off-target").

  3. An Energy Conservation Approach to Adsorbate-Induced Surface Stress and the Extraction of Binding Energy Using Nanomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A [ORNL; Boiadjiev, Vassil I [ORNL; Fernando, G. W. [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Hawk, J. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Wijewardhana, L.C. R. [University of Cincinnati; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Microcantilevers are ideally-suited for the study of surface phenomena due to their large surface-to-volume ratios, which amplify surface effects. We show that when guest molecules bind to atoms/molecules on a microcantilever surface, the released binding energy is retained in the host surface, leading to a metastable state where the excess energy on the surface is manifested as an increase in surface stress leading to the bending of the microcantilever. When the excess energy is released, the microcantilever relaxes back to the original state, and the relaxation time depends on the particular binding process involved. Such experiments were conducted for three binding processes in vapor phase experiments: physisorption, hydrogen bonding, and chemisorption. To our knowledge, such an energy conservation approach has not been taken into account in adsorbate-induced surface effect investigations. Furthermore, these experiments illustrate that detailed molecular-level information on binding energies can be extracted from this simple micromechanical sensor.

  4. Quantitative monitoring of two simultaneously binding species using Label-Enhanced surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Lars; Garcia, Brandon L; Geisbrecht, Brian V; Hanning, Anders

    2018-02-26

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a well-established method for biomolecular interaction studies. SPR monitors the binding of molecules to a solid surface, embodied as refractive index changes close to the surface. One limitation of conventional SPR is the universal nature of the detection that results in an inability to qualitatively discriminate between different binding species. Furthermore, it is impossible to directly discriminate two species simultaneously binding to different sites on a protein, which limits the utility of SPR, for example, in the study of allosteric binders or bi-specific molecules. It is also impossible in principle to discriminate protein conformation changes from actual binding events. Here we demonstrate how Label-Enhanced SPR can be utilized to discriminate and quantitatively monitor the simultaneous binding of two different species - one dye-labeled and one unlabeled - on a standard, single-wavelength SPR instrument. This new technique increases the versatility of SPR technology by opening up application areas where the usefulness of the approach has previously been limited. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of sodium on cell surface and intracellular 3H-naloxone binding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, A.E.; Wooten, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    The binding of the opiate antagonist 3 H-naloxone was examined in rat whole brain homogenates and in crude subcellular fractions of these homogenates (nuclear, synaptosomal, and mitochondrial fractions) using buffers that approximated intra- (low sodium concentration) and extracellular (high sodium concentration) fluids. Saturation studies showed a two-fold decrease in the dissociation constant (Kd) in all subcellular fractions examined in extracellular buffer compared to intracellular buffer. In contrast, there was no significant effect of the buffers on the Bmax. Thus, 3 H-naloxone did not distinguish between binding sites present on cell surface and intracellular tissues in these two buffers. These results show that the sodium effect of opiate antagonist binding is probably not a function of altered selection of intra- and extracellular binding sites. 17 references, 2 tables

  6. The binding of cytochrome c to neuroglobin: A docking and surface plasmon resonance study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønding, Signe Helbo; Henty, K.; Dingley, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    is associated with a small unfavourable enthalpy change (1.9 kcal mol-1) and a moderately large, favourable entropy change (14.8 cal mol-1 deg-1). The sensitivity of the binding constant to the presence of salt suggests that the complex formation involves electrostatic interactions....... one major binding site for cytochrome c to neuroglobin. The results yield a plausible structure for the most likely complex structure in which the hemes of each protein are in close contact. NMR analysis identifies the formation of a weak complex in which the heme group of cytochrome c is involved....... surface plasmon resonance studies provide a value of 45 μM for the equilibrium constant for cytochrome c binding to neuroglobin, which increases significantly as the ionic strength of the solution increases. The temperature dependence of the binding constant indicates that the complex formation...

  7. Low level chemiluminescence measurement of the binding of 8-methoxypsoralen to proteins and lymphocytic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, B.

    1980-01-01

    Photochemotherapy with 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and longwave ultraviolet light is beneficial in such different disorders like psoriasis, lichen planus, and mykosis fungoides. In contrast to a widely accepted hypothesis 8-MOP does not solely bind to nucleic acid, but also to certain proteins. The mechanism of this binding as well as the precise binding area are unknown. Therefore the UV-provoked reactions of 8-MOP with a lipid mixture, a glucosaminoglycan solution, a protein solution, and lymphocyte suspensions, respectively were investigated using low level chemiluminescence (LLCL). It was found an 8-MOP concentration-dependent decrease of LLCL intensity in the lymphocyte suspensions (10 3 to 10 4 cells/μl). This effect is result of the diminution of the photoactive 8-MOP content of the solution. 8-MOP binds quickly and in the course of a free radical reaction to lymphocytic surfaces and coincidentally loses its potency to start LLCL-detectable free radical chain responses. (author)

  8. Ceruloplasmin/Transferrin Ratio Changes in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Squitti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between iron and Alzheimer's disease (AD has been mainly investigated with a focus on the local accumulation of this metal in specific areas of the brain that are critical for AD. In the present study, we have instead looked at systemic variations of markers of iron metabolism. We measured serum levels of iron, ceruloplasmin, and transferrin and calculated the transferrin saturation and the ceruloplasmin to transferrin ratio (Cp/Tf. Cp/Tf and transferrin saturation increased in AD patients. Cp/Tf ratios also correlated positively with peroxide levels and negatively with serum iron concentrations. Elevated values of ceruloplasmin, peroxides, and Cp/Tf inversely correlated with MMSE scores. Isolated medial temporal lobe atrophy positively correlated with Cp/Tf and negatively with serum iron. All these findings indicate that the local iron accumulation found in brain areas critical for AD should be viewed in the frame of iron systemic alterations.

  9. Selectivity of the surface binding site (SBS) on barley starch synthase I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens, Casper; Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A.; Palcic, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Starch synthase I (SSI) from various sources has been shown to preferentially elongate branch chains of degree of polymerisation (DP) from 6–7 to produce chains of DP 8–12. In the recently determined crystal structure of barley starch synthase I (HvSSI) a so-called surface binding site (SBS) was ...

  10. Autodisplay of an avidin with biotin-binding activity on the surface of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardavé-Alejandre, H D; Alvarado-Yaah, J E; Pompa-Mera, E N; Muñoz-Medina, J E; Sárquiz-Martínez, B; Santacruz-Tinoco, C E; Manning-Cela, R G; Ortíz-Navarrete, V; López-Macías, C; González-Bonilla, C R

    2018-03-01

    To display a recombinant avidin fused to the autotransporter ShdA to bind biotinylated molecules on the surface of Escherichia coli. Two chimeric protein constructs containing avidin fused to the autotransporter ShdA were expressed on the surface of Escherichia coli DH5α. One fusion protein contained 476 amino acids of the ShdA α and β domains, whereas the second consisted of a 314 amino acid from α and truncated β domains. Protein production was verified by SDS-PAGE using an antibody to the molecular FLAG-tag. The surface display of the avidin-shdA fusion protein was confirmed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis, and the biotin-binding activity was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry using biotin-4-fluorescein and biotinylated-ovalbumin (OVA). Expression of a recombinant avidin with biotin-binding activity on the surface of E. coli was achieved using the autotransporter ShdA. This system is an alternative to bind biotinylated molecules to E. coli.

  11. Acquisition of iron from transferrin regulates reticulocyte heme synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponka, P.; Schulman, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Fe-salicylaldehyde isonicotinoylhydrazone (SIH), which can donate iron to reticulocytes without transferrin as a mediator, has been utilized to test the hypothesis that the rate of iron uptake from transferrin limits the rate of heme synthesis in erythroid cells. Reticulocytes take up 59 Fe from [ 59 Fe]SIH and incorporate it into heme to a much greater extent than from saturating concentrations of [ 59 Fe]transferrin. Also, Fe-SIH stimulates [2- 14 C]glycine into heme when compared to the incorporation observed with saturating levels of Fe-transferrin. In addition, delta-aminolevulinic acid does not stimulate 59 Fe incorporation into heme from either [ 59 Fe]transferrin or [ 59 Fe]SIH but does reverse the inhibition of 59 Fe incorporation into heme caused by isoniazid, an inhibitor of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase. Taken together, these results suggest the hypothesis that some step(s) in the pathway of iron from extracellular transferrin to intracellular protoporphyrin limits the overall rate of heme synthesis in reticulocytes

  12. Binding of a cementum attachment protein to extracellular matrix components and to dental surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitaru, S; Hekmati, H [Department of Oral Biology, Goldschleger School of Dental Medicine, Tel Aviv University (Israel); Savion, N [Goldschleger Eye Institute, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University (Israel); Olsen, S; Narayanan, S A [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Cementum proteins (CP) have been shown to mediate cell attachment. Among these, a 55 kDa protein was isolated. The purpose of the present study was to assess the capacity of CP to bind to non-demineralized and demineralized root surfaces and to support cell attachment to dentin. CP were prepared by sequential extraction of bovine cementum with 25 mM EDTA, 0.5 M acetic acid followed by 4 M guanidine HCl. The latter was subjected to ion exchange chromatography on a DEAE-3SW column and eluted stepwise with a 0-0.5 M NaCl gradient. CP were labelled with [sup 125]I and the capacity of [sup 125]I-CP to bind to mineralized and partially demineralized dentin, synthetic hydroxyapatite, collagen, fibronectin and fibrillar collagen-fibronectin cimplex was assessed. It was found that CP bind specifically to mineralized dentin and synthetic hydroxyapatite but not to demineralized dentin. The specific binding was 60% of the total binding. SDS-PAGE analysis of the proteins bound to dentin indicated that the main bound protein had a molecular weight of 55 kDa. CP exhibited high affinity for fibronectin (k[sub D] = 1.56 x 10[sup -10] M) and fibronectincollagen complex, but their binding to either molecular or fibrillar collagen was negligible. It is suggested that CP may play an important role in the attachment of cells of the periodontium to cementum extracellular matrix during homeostasis and regeneration. (au).

  13. The physiological significance of transferrin microheterogeneity : an interpretation of the role of N-linked glycans in transferrin and iron metabolism /

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. de Jong (Gerardus)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe starting point for this thesis was the observation that when attempts are made to separate monoferric transferrins from diferric transferrin by isoelectric focusing, in addition to what was thought to represent the pure monoferric transferrins, a great number of additional bands

  14. Clone and expression of human transferrin receptor gene: a marker gene for magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Liu Lizhi; Lv Yanchun; Liu Xuewen; Cui Chunyan; Wu Peihong; Liu Qicai; Ou Shanxing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To clone human transferrin receptor (hTfR) gene and construct expression vector producing recombination protein. Methods: Human transferrin receptor gene cDNA was amplified by RT-PCR from human embryonic liver and lung tissue. Recombinant pcDNA3-hTfR and pEGFP-Cl-hTfR plasmids were constructed and confirmed by DNA sequencing. These plasmids were stably transfected into the HEK293 cells. The protein expression in vitro was confirmed by Western Blot. The efficiency of expression and the location of hTfR were also investigated by fluorescence microscopy and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Results: The full length cDNA of hTfR gene (2332 bp) was cloned and sequenced. The hTfR (190 000) was overexpressed in transfected HEK293 cells by Western blot analysis. Fluorescence micrographs displayed that the hTfR was expressed at high level and located predominantly in the cell surface. Conclusions: Human transferrin receptor (hTfR) gene has been successfully cloned and obtained high-level expression in HEK293 cells, and the recombination protein of hTfR distributed predominantly in the cell membrane. (authors)

  15. Inverse gas chromatography as a method for determination of surface properties of binding materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jihai; Lu, Xiaolei; Yang, Chunxia; Du, Baoli; Wang, Shuxian; Ye, Zhengmao

    2017-09-01

    Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) is a promising measurement technique for investigating the surface properties of binding materials, which are the major influence element for the adsorption performance of superplasticizer. In this work, using the IGC method, blast furnace slag (BFS), sulphoaluminate cement (SAC) and portland cement (P·O) are employed to systematically evaluate the corresponding dispersive component (γsd), specific surface free energy (γsab), and acid-base properties. The obtained results show that γsd contributes to a major section of the surface free energy in the three binding materials, suggesting they are of a relatively low polarity. Compared to the two kinds of cements, the BFS possesses the highest dispersive and specific surface free energies (the values are 45.01 mJ/m2 and 11.68 mJ/m2, respectively), and also exhibits a wider distribution range of γsd, indicating their surfaces are heterogeneous. For acid-base properties, the results indicate the surfaces of three samples are basic in nature. In addition, the adsorption investigation shows that per unit surface of BFS adsorbs the most superplasticizer molecules, which indicates the higher surface free energies is beneficial to the superplasticizer adsorption.

  16. Secreted glyceraldehye-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is a multifunctional autocrine transferrin receptor for cellular iron acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheokand, Navdeep; Kumar, Santosh; Malhotra, Himanshu; Tillu, Vikas; Raje, Chaaya Iyengar; Raje, Manoj

    2013-06-01

    The long held view is that mammalian cells obtain transferrin (Tf) bound iron utilizing specialized membrane anchored receptors. Here we report that, during increased iron demand, cells secrete the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) which enhances cellular uptake of Tf and iron. These observations could be mimicked by utilizing purified GAPDH injected into mice as well as when supplemented in culture medium of model cell lines and primary cell types that play a key role in iron metabolism. Transferrin and iron delivery was evaluated by biochemical, biophysical and imaging based assays. This mode of iron uptake is a saturable, energy dependent pathway, utilizing raft as well as non-raft domains of the cell membrane and also involves the membrane protein CD87 (uPAR). Tf internalized by this mode is also catabolized. Our research demonstrates that, even in cell types that express the known surface receptor based mechanism for transferrin uptake, more transferrin is delivered by this route which represents a hidden dimension of iron homeostasis. Iron is an essential trace metal for practically all living organisms however its acquisition presents major challenges. The current paradigm is that living organisms have developed well orchestrated and evolved mechanisms involving iron carrier molecules and their specific receptors to regulate its absorption, transport, storage and mobilization. Our research uncovers a hidden and primitive pathway of bulk iron trafficking involving a secreted receptor that is a multifunctional glycolytic enzyme that has implications in pathological conditions such as infectious diseases and cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydration behavior at the ice-binding surface of the Tenebrio molitor antifreeze protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midya, Uday Sankar; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2014-05-08

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been carried out at two different temperatures (300 and 220 K) to study the conformational rigidity of the hyperactive Tenebrio molitor antifreeze protein (TmAFP) in aqueous medium and the structural arrangements of water molecules hydrating its surface. It is found that irrespective of the temperature the ice-binding surface (IBS) of the protein is relatively more rigid than its nonice-binding surface (NIBS). The presence of a set of regularly arranged internally bound water molecules is found to play an important role in maintaining the flat rigid nature of the IBS. Importantly, the calculations reveal that the strategically located hydroxyl oxygens of the threonine (Thr) residues in the IBS influence the arrangements of five sets of ordered waters around it on two parallel planes that closely resemble the basal plane of ice. As a result, these waters can register well with the ice basal plane, thereby allowing the IBS to preferentially bind at the ice interface and inhibit its growth. This provides a possible molecular reason behind the ice-binding activity of TmAFP at the basal plane of ice.

  18. Facile Photoimmobilization of Proteins onto Low-Binding PEG-Coated Polymer Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Esben Kjær Unmack; Mikkelsen, Morten Bo Lindholm; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2014-01-01

    was verified for both enzymes and antibodies, and their presence on the surface was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Conjugation of capture antibody onto the PEG coating was employed for a simplified ELISA protocol without the need for blocking uncoated...... surface areas, showing ng/mL sensitivity to a cytokine antigen target. Moreover, spatially patterned attachment of fluorescently labeled protein onto the low-binding PEG-coated surface was achieved with a projection lithography system that enabled the creation of micrometer-sized protein features....

  19. Enhanced transferrin receptor expression by proinflammatory cytokines in enterocytes as a means for local delivery of drugs to inflamed gut mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrat Harel

    Full Text Available Therapeutic intervention in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs is often associated with adverse effects related to drug distribution into non-diseased tissues, a situation which attracts a rational design of a targeted treatment confined to the inflamed mucosa. Upon activation of immune cells, transferrin receptor (TfR expression increases at their surface. Because TfR is expressed in all cell types we hypothesized that its cell surface levels are regulated also in enterocytes. We, therefore, compared TfR expression in healthy and inflamed human colonic mucosa, as well as healthy and inflamed colonic mucosa of the DNBS-induced rat model. TfR expression was elevated in the colonic mucosa of IBD patients in both the basolateral and apical membranes of the enterocytes. Increased TfR expression was also observed in colonocytes of the induced colitis rats. To explore the underlying mechanism CaCo-2 cells were treated with various proinflammatory cytokines, which increased both TfR expression and transferrin cellular uptake in a mechanism that did not involve hyper proliferation. These findings were then exploited for the design of targetable carrier towards inflamed regions of the colon. Anti-TfR antibodies were conjugated to nano-liposomes. As expected, iron-starved Caco-2 cells internalized anti-TfR immunoliposomes better than controls. Ex vivo binding studies to inflamed mucosa showed that the anti-TfR immunoliposomes accumulated significantly better in the mucosa of DNBS-induced rats than the accumulation of non-specific immunoliposomes. It is concluded that targeting mucosal inflammation can be accomplished by nano-liposomes decorated with anti-TfR due to inflammation-dependent, apical, elevated expression of the receptor.

  20. Tertiary structural changes and iron release from human serum transferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecklenburg, S L; Donohoe, R J; Olah, G A

    1997-08-01

    Iron release from human serum transferrin was investigated by comparison of the extent of bound iron, measured by charge transfer absorption band intensity (465 nm), with changes observed by small-angle solution X-ray scattering (SAXS) for a series of equilibrated samples between pH 5.69 and 7.77. The phosphate buffers used in this study promote iron release at relatively high pH values, with an empirical pK of 6.9 for the convolved release from the two sites. The spectral data reveal that the N-lobe release is nearly complete by pH 7.0, while the C-lobe remains primarily metal-laden. Conversely, the radius of gyration, Rg, determined from the SAXS data remains constant between pH 7.77 and 7.05, and the evolution of Rg between its value observed for the diferric protein at pH 7.77 (31.2+/-0.2 A) and that of the apo protein at pH 5.69 (33.9+/-0.4 A) exhibits an empirical pK of 6.6. While Rg is effectively constant in the pH range associated with iron release from the N-lobe, the radius of gyration of cross-section, Rc, increases from 16.9+/-0.2 A to 17.6+/-0.2 A. Model simulations suggest that two different rotations of the NII domain relative to the NI domain about a hinge deep in the iron-binding cleft of the N-lobe, one parallel with and one perpendicular to the plane of the iron-binding site, can be significantly advanced relative to their holo protein positions while yielding constant Rg and increased Rc values consistent with the scattering data. Rotation of the CII domain parallel with the C-lobe iron-binding site plane can partially account for the increased Rg values measured at low pH; however, no reasonable combined repositioning of the NII and CII domains yields the experimentally observed increase in Rg.

  1. Short term memory for single surface features and bindings in ageing: A replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isella, Valeria; Molteni, Federica; Mapelli, Cristina; Ferrarese, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    In the present study we replicated a previous experiment investigating visuo-spatial short term memory binding in young and older healthy individuals, in the attempt to verify the pattern of impairment that can be observed in normal elderly for short term memory for single items vs short term memory for bindings. Assessing a larger sample size (25 young and 25 older subjects), using a more appropriate measure of accuracy for a change detection task (A'), and adding the evaluation of speed of performance, we confirmed that old normals show a decline in short term memory for bindings of shape and colour that is of comparable extent, and not major, to the decline in memory for single shapes and single colours. The absence of a specific deficit of short term memory for conjunctions of surface features seems to distinguish cognitive ageing from Alzheimer's Disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nucleolin: acharan sulfate–binding protein on the surface of cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Eun Ji; ten Dam, Gerdy B.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Toida, Toshihiko; Linhardt, Robert J.; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2005-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are complex polysaccharides that participate in the regulation of physiological processes through the interactions with a wide variety of proteins. Acharan sulfate (AS), isolated from the giant African snail Achatina fulica, primarily consists of the repeating disaccharide structure α-D-N-acetylglucosaminyl (1→4) 2-sulfoiduronic acid. Exogenous AS was injected subcutaneously near the tumor tissue in C57BL/6 mice that had been implanted with Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LLCs). The location of AS in the tumor was assessed by staining of sectioned tissues with alcian blue and periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) reagent. In vitro assays indicated binding of cells to 50 μg/ml AS (or heparin) after a 5-h incubation. Immunofluorescence assays, using anti-AS antibody, detected AS at the cell surface. The outer-surface of LLCs were next biotinylated to identify the AS-binding proteins. Biotinylated cells were lysed, and the lysates were fractionated on the AS affinity column using a stepwise salt gradient (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, and 2.0 M). The fractions were analyzed by SDS–PAGE with silver staining and western blotting. We focused on the proteins with high affinity for AS (eluting at 1 M NaCl) and detected only two bands by western blotting. ESI Q-TOF MS analysis of one of these bands, molecular weight ~110 kDa, showed it to be nucleolin. A phosphorylated form of nucleolin on the surface of cells acts as a cell surface receptor for a variety of ligands, including growth factors (i.e., basic fibroblast growth factor) and chemokines (i.e., midkine). These results show that nucleolin is one of several AS-binding proteins and suggest that AS might demonstrate its tumor growth inhibitory activity by binding the nucleolin receptor protein on the surface of cancer cells. PMID:15329357

  3. Synthesis and characterization of human transferrin-stabilized gold nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guevel, Xavier; Schneider, Marc; Daum, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Human transferrin has been biolabelled with gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) using a simple, fast and non-toxic method. These nanocrystals ( em = 695 nm). Structural investigation and photophysical measurements show a high population of clusters formed of 22-33 gold atoms covalently bound to the transferrin. In solutions with pH ranging from 5 to 10 and in buffer solutions (PBS, HEPES), those biolabelled proteins exhibit a good stability. No significant quenching effect of the fluorescent transferrin has been detected after iron loading of iron-free transferrin (apoTf) and in the presence of a specific polyclonal antibody. Additionally, antibody-induced agglomeration demonstrates no alteration in the protein activity and the receptor target ability. MTT and Vialight Plus tests show no cytotoxicity of these labelled proteins in cells (1 μg ml -1 -1 mg ml -1 ). Cell line experiments (A549) indicate also an uptake of the iron loaded fluorescent proteins inside cells. These remarkable data highlight the potential of a new type of non-toxic fluorescent transferrin for imaging and targeting.

  4. Use of computational modeling in preparation and evaluation of surface imprinted xerogels for binding tetracycline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, Samantha J.; Nguyen, Eric; Baria, Maximillian P.; Mojica, Elmer-Rico E.

    2015-01-01

    Linear alkyl alkoxysilanes (methoxy and ethoxy-based) of varying length were used in preparing tetracycline surface imprinted silica xerogels by the sol–gel process. The resulting xerogels were characterized in terms of binding tetracycline (TC) by using tritium-labeled TC. Results showed preferential binding in the ethoxysilane based xerogels in comparison to methoxysilane based xerogels. A computational approach using the interaction energy (IE) between TC and each alkyl alkoxysilane was deduced as a rational way of predicting the formulation that would provide the best analytical performance for a given molecularly imprinted xerogel (MIX). Hartree-Fock calculations revealed an increase in IE as the length of the carbon chain increases until an optimum value at C6 in both alkoxysilanes. This is consistent with the experimental results wherein the C6 xerogel formulation has the highest imprinting factor. These results show the potential of using computational modeling as a rational way of preparing surface imprinted materials. (author)

  5. Microassay for measurement of binding of radiolabelled ligands to cell surface molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woof, J.M.; Burton, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    An improved technique for measuring the binding of radiolabelled ligands to cell surface molecules has been developed by modification of a procedure using centrifugation through a water-immiscible oil to separate free and cell-bound ligand. It maximises the percentage of ligand bound since cell-bound and free ligand can be separated easily and reproducibly even when very small reaction volumes are used. This permits low levels of ligand radiolabelling and relatively low numbers of cells to be used

  6. Thorium binding by biochar fibres derived from Luffa Cylindrica after controlled surface oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liatsou, Ioanna; Christodoulou, Eleni; Paschalidis, Ioannis

    2017-04-01

    Controlled surface modification of biochar fibres derived from Luffa Cylindrica sponges has been carried out by nitric acid and the degree of oxidation could be controlled by changing the acid concentration or the reaction time. The extent of surface oxidation has been quantified by acid-base titration and FTIR-spectroscopy. Furthermore, thorium binding has been studied as a function of various parameters and the experimental results show that even under strong acidic conditions the relative sorption is above 70% and the sorption capacity of the biochar fibres for Th(IV) at pH 3 is qmax= 70 gṡkg-1.

  7. Effect of fullerenol surface chemistry on nanoparticle binding-induced protein misfolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radic, Slaven; Nedumpully-Govindan, Praveen; Chen, Ran; Salonen, Emppu; Brown, Jared M.; Ke, Pu Chun; Ding, Feng

    2014-06-01

    Fullerene and its derivatives with different surface chemistry have great potential in biomedical applications. Accordingly, it is important to delineate the impact of these carbon-based nanoparticles on protein structure, dynamics, and subsequently function. Here, we focused on the effect of hydroxylation -- a common strategy for solubilizing and functionalizing fullerene -- on protein-nanoparticle interactions using a model protein, ubiquitin. We applied a set of complementary computational modeling methods, including docking and molecular dynamics simulations with both explicit and implicit solvent, to illustrate the impact of hydroxylated fullerenes on the structure and dynamics of ubiquitin. We found that all derivatives bound to the model protein. Specifically, the more hydrophilic nanoparticles with a higher number of hydroxyl groups bound to the surface of the protein via hydrogen bonds, which stabilized the protein without inducing large conformational changes in the protein structure. In contrast, fullerene derivatives with a smaller number of hydroxyl groups buried their hydrophobic surface inside the protein, thereby causing protein denaturation. Overall, our results revealed a distinct role of surface chemistry on nanoparticle-protein binding and binding-induced protein misfolding.Fullerene and its derivatives with different surface chemistry have great potential in biomedical applications. Accordingly, it is important to delineate the impact of these carbon-based nanoparticles on protein structure, dynamics, and subsequently function. Here, we focused on the effect of hydroxylation -- a common strategy for solubilizing and functionalizing fullerene -- on protein-nanoparticle interactions using a model protein, ubiquitin. We applied a set of complementary computational modeling methods, including docking and molecular dynamics simulations with both explicit and implicit solvent, to illustrate the impact of hydroxylated fullerenes on the structure and

  8. LIGSITEcsc: predicting ligand binding sites using the Connolly surface and degree of conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schroeder Michael

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying pockets on protein surfaces is of great importance for many structure-based drug design applications and protein-ligand docking algorithms. Over the last ten years, many geometric methods for the prediction of ligand-binding sites have been developed. Results We present LIGSITEcsc, an extension and implementation of the LIGSITE algorithm. LIGSITEcsc is based on the notion of surface-solvent-surface events and the degree of conservation of the involved surface residues. We compare our algorithm to four other approaches, LIGSITE, CAST, PASS, and SURFNET, and evaluate all on a dataset of 48 unbound/bound structures and 210 bound-structures. LIGSITEcsc performs slightly better than the other tools and achieves a success rate of 71% and 75%, respectively. Conclusion The use of the Connolly surface leads to slight improvements, the prediction re-ranking by conservation to significant improvements of the binding site predictions. A web server for LIGSITEcsc and its source code is available at scoppi.biotec.tu-dresden.de/pocket.

  9. Second Harmonic Correlation Spectroscopy: Theory and Principles for Determining Surface Binding Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sly, Krystal L; Conboy, John C

    2017-06-01

    A novel application of second harmonic correlation spectroscopy (SHCS) for the direct determination of molecular adsorption and desorption kinetics to a surface is discussed in detail. The surface-specific nature of second harmonic generation (SHG) provides an efficient means to determine the kinetic rates of adsorption and desorption of molecular species to an interface without interference from bulk diffusion, which is a significant limitation of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). The underlying principles of SHCS for the determination of surface binding kinetics are presented, including the role of optical coherence and optical heterodyne mixing. These properties of SHCS are extremely advantageous and lead to an increase in the signal-to-noise (S/N) of the correlation data, increasing the sensitivity of the technique. The influence of experimental parameters, including the uniformity of the TEM00 laser beam, the overall photon flux, and collection time are also discussed, and are shown to significantly affect the S/N of the correlation data. Second harmonic correlation spectroscopy is a powerful, surface-specific, and label-free alternative to other correlation spectroscopic methods for examining surface binding kinetics.

  10. Sensing (un)binding events via surface plasmons: effects of resonator geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antosiewicz, Tomasz J.; Claudio, Virginia; Käll, Mikael

    2016-04-01

    The resonance conditions of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) can be perturbed in any number ways making plasmon nanoresonators viable tools in detection of e.g. phase changes, pH, gasses, and single molecules. Precise measurement via LSPR of molecular concentrations hinge on the ability to confidently count the number of molecules attached to a metal resonator and ideally to track binding and unbinding events in real-time. These two requirements make it necessary to rigorously quantify relations between the number of bound molecules and response of plasmonic sensors. This endeavor is hindered on the one hand by a spatially varying response of a given plasmonic nanosensor. On the other hand movement of molecules is determined by stochastic effects (Brownian motion) as well as deterministic flow, if present, in microfluidic channels. The combination of molecular dynamics and the electromagnetic response of the LSPR yield an uncertainty which is little understood and whose effect is often disregarded in quantitative sensing experiments. Using a combination of electromagnetic finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations of the plasmon resonance peak shift of various metal nanosensors (disk, cone, rod, dimer) and stochastic diffusion-reaction simulations of biomolecular interactions on a sensor surface we clarify the interplay between position dependent binding probability and inhomogeneous sensitivity distribution. We show, how the statistical characteristics of the total signal upon molecular binding are determined. The proposed methodology is, in general, applicable to any sensor and any transduction mechanism, although the specifics of implementation will vary depending on circumstances. In this work we focus on elucidating how the interplay between electromagnetic and stochastic effects impacts the feasibility of employing particular shapes of plasmonic sensors for real-time monitoring of individual binding reactions or sensing low concentrations

  11. NOx Binding and Dissociation: Enhanced Ferroelectric Surface Chemistry by Catalytic Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakekhani, Arvin; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    2013-03-01

    NOx molecules are regulated air pollutants produced during automotive combustion. As part of an effort to design viable catalysts for NOx decomposition operating at higher temperatures that would allow for improved fuel efficiency, we examine NOx chemistry on ferroelectric perovskite surfaces. Changing the direction of ferroelectric polarization can modify surface electronic properties and may lead to switchable surface chemistry. Here, we describe our recent work on potentially enhanced surface chemistry using catalytic RuO2 monolayers on perovskite ferroelectric substrates. In addition to thermodynamic stabilization of the RuO2 layer, we present results on the polarization-dependent binding of NO, O2, N2, and atomic O and N. We present results showing that one key problem with current catalysts, involving the difficulty of releasing dissociation products (especially oxygen), can be ameliorated by this method. Primary support from Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing, North America, Inc.

  12. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy competitive binding biosensor development utilizing surface modification of silver nanocubes and a citrulline aptamer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Brian M.; Jackson, George W.; Deutz, Nicolaas; Cote, Gerard

    2017-07-01

    A point-of-care (PoC) device with the ability to detect biomarkers at low concentrations in bodily fluids would have an enormous potential for medical diagnostics outside the central laboratory. One method to monitor analytes at low concentrations is by using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). In this preliminary study toward using SERS for PoC biosensing, the surface of colloidal silver (Ag) nanocubes has been modified to test the feasibility of a competitive binding SERS assay utilizing aptamers against citrulline. Specifically, Ag nanocubes were functionalized with mercaptobenzoic acid, as well as a heterobifunctional polyethylene glycol linker that forms an amide bond with the amino acid citrulline. After the functionalization, the nanocubes were characterized by zeta-potential, transmission electron microscopy images, ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy, and by SERS. The citrulline aptamers were developed and tested using backscattering interferometry. The data show that our surface modification method does work and that the functionalized nanoparticles can be detected using SERS down to a 24.5 picomolar level. Last, we used microscale thermophoresis to show that the aptamers bind to citrulline with at least a 50 times stronger affinity than other amino acids.

  13. An energy conservation approach to adsorbate-induced surface stress and the extraction of binding energy using nanomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A.; Boiadjiev, Vassil I.; Hawk, John E.; Gehl, Anthony C.; Fernando, Gayanath W.; Rohana Wijewardhana, L. C.

    2008-03-01

    Surface stress induced by molecular adsorption in three different binding processes has been studied experimentally using a microcantilever sensor. A comprehensive free-energy analysis based on an energy conservation approach is proposed to explain the experimental observations. We show that when guest molecules bind to atoms/molecules on a microcantilever surface, the released binding energy is retained in the host surface, leading to a metastable state where the excess energy on the surface is manifested as an increase in surface stress leading to the bending of the microcantilever. The released binding energy appears to be almost exclusively channeled to the surface energy, and energy distribution to other channels, including heat, appears to be inactive for this micromechanical system. When this excess surface energy is released, the microcantilever relaxes back to the original state, and the relaxation time depends on the particular binding process involved. Such vapor phase experiments were conducted for three binding processes: physisorption, hydrogen bonding, and chemisorption. Binding energies for these three processes were also estimated.

  14. An energy conservation approach to adsorbate-induced surface stress and the extraction of binding energy using nanomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A; Boiadjiev, Vassil I; Hawk, John E; Gehl, Anthony C [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6122 (United States); Fernando, Gayanath W [Physics Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Wijewardhana, L C Rohana [Physics Department, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)

    2008-03-12

    Surface stress induced by molecular adsorption in three different binding processes has been studied experimentally using a microcantilever sensor. A comprehensive free-energy analysis based on an energy conservation approach is proposed to explain the experimental observations. We show that when guest molecules bind to atoms/molecules on a microcantilever surface, the released binding energy is retained in the host surface, leading to a metastable state where the excess energy on the surface is manifested as an increase in surface stress leading to the bending of the microcantilever. The released binding energy appears to be almost exclusively channeled to the surface energy, and energy distribution to other channels, including heat, appears to be inactive for this micromechanical system. When this excess surface energy is released, the microcantilever relaxes back to the original state, and the relaxation time depends on the particular binding process involved. Such vapor phase experiments were conducted for three binding processes: physisorption, hydrogen bonding, and chemisorption. Binding energies for these three processes were also estimated.

  15. Characterisation of peptide microarrays for studying antibody-antigen binding using surface plasmon resonance imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Nogues

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-specific binding to biosensor surfaces is a major obstacle to quantitative analysis of selective retention of analytes at immobilized target molecules. Although a range of chemical antifouling monolayers has been developed to address this problem, many macromolecular interactions still remain refractory to analysis due to the prevalent high degree of non-specific binding. We describe how we use the dynamic process of the formation of self assembling monolayers and optimise physical and chemical properties thus reducing considerably non-specific binding and allowing analysis of specific binding of analytes to immobilized target molecules. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We illustrate this approach by the production of specific protein arrays for the analysis of interactions between the 65kDa isoform of human glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65 and a human monoclonal antibody. Our data illustrate that we have effectively eliminated non-specific interactions with the surface containing the immobilised GAD65 molecules. The findings have several implications. First, this approach obviates the dubious process of background subtraction and gives access to more accurate kinetic and equilibrium values that are no longer contaminated by multiphase non-specific binding. Second, an enhanced signal to noise ratio increases not only the sensitivity but also confidence in the use of SPR to generate kinetic constants that may then be inserted into van't Hoff type analyses to provide comparative DeltaG, DeltaS and DeltaH values, making this an efficient, rapid and competitive alternative to ITC measurements used in drug and macromolecular-interaction mechanistic studies. Third, the accuracy of the measurements allows the application of more intricate interaction models than simple Langmuir monophasic binding. CONCLUSIONS: The detection and measurement of antibody binding by the type 1 diabetes autoantigen GAD65 represents an example of an antibody

  16. Aluminum stimulates uptake of non-transferrin bound iron and transferrin bound iron in human glial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yongbae; Olivi, Luisa; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Maertens, Alex; Bressler, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum and other trivalent metals were shown to stimulate uptake of transferrin bound iron and nontransferrin bound iron in erytholeukemia and hepatoma cells. Because of the association between aluminum and Alzheimer's Disease, and findings of higher levels of iron in Alzheimer's disease brains, the effects of aluminum on iron homeostasis were examined in a human glial cell line. Aluminum stimulated dose- and time-dependent uptake of nontransferrin bound iron and iron bound to transferrin. A transporter was likely involved in the uptake of nontransferrin iron because uptake reached saturation, was temperature-dependent, and attenuated by inhibitors of protein synthesis. Interestingly, the effects of aluminum were not blocked by inhibitors of RNA synthesis. Aluminum also decreased the amount of iron bound to ferritin though it did not affect levels of divalent metal transporter 1. These results suggest that aluminum disrupts iron homeostasis in Brain by several mechanisms including the transferrin receptor, a nontransferrin iron transporter, and ferritin

  17. Intracellular Delivery of a Planar DNA Origami Structure by the Transferrin-Receptor Internalization Pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffert, David Henning; Okholm, Anders Hauge; Sørensen, Rasmus Schøler

    2016-01-01

    DNA origami provides rapid access to easily functionalized, nanometer-sized structures making it an intriguing platform for the development of defined drug delivery and sensor systems. Low cellular uptake of DNA nanostructures is a major obstacle in the development of DNA-based delivery platforms....... Herein, significant strong increase in cellular uptake in an established cancer cell line by modifying a planar DNA origami structure with the iron transport protein transferrin (Tf) is demonstrated. A variable number of Tf molecules are coupled to the origami structure using a DNA-directed, site...... on the origami surface....

  18. Many-body dispersion effects in the binding of adsorbates on metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, Reinhard J. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Ruiz, Victor G.; Tkatchenko, Alexandre [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-09-14

    A correct description of electronic exchange and correlation effects for molecules in contact with extended (metal) surfaces is a challenging task for first-principles modeling. In this work, we demonstrate the importance of collective van der Waals dispersion effects beyond the pairwise approximation for organic–inorganic systems on the example of atoms, molecules, and nanostructures adsorbed on metals. We use the recently developed many-body dispersion (MBD) approach in the context of density-functional theory [Tkatchenko et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 236402 (2012) and Ambrosetti et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A508 (2014)] and assess its ability to correctly describe the binding of adsorbates on metal surfaces. We briefly review the MBD method and highlight its similarities to quantum-chemical approaches to electron correlation in a quasiparticle picture. In particular, we study the binding properties of xenon, 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic acid, and a graphene sheet adsorbed on the Ag(111) surface. Accounting for MBD effects, we are able to describe changes in the anisotropic polarizability tensor, improve the description of adsorbate vibrations, and correctly capture the adsorbate–surface interaction screening. Comparison to other methods and experiment reveals that inclusion of MBD effects improves adsorption energies and geometries, by reducing the overbinding typically found in pairwise additive dispersion-correction approaches.

  19. Predicting Ligand Binding Sites on Protein Surfaces by 3-Dimensional Probability Density Distributions of Interacting Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Jhih-Wei; Elumalai, Pavadai; Pitti, Thejkiran; Wu, Chih Yuan; Tsai, Keng-Chang; Chang, Jeng-Yih; Peng, Hung-Pin; Yang, An-Suei

    2016-01-01

    Predicting ligand binding sites (LBSs) on protein structures, which are obtained either from experimental or computational methods, is a useful first step in functional annotation or structure-based drug design for the protein structures. In this work, the structure-based machine learning algorithm ISMBLab-LIG was developed to predict LBSs on protein surfaces with input attributes derived from the three-dimensional probability density maps of interacting atoms, which were reconstructed on the query protein surfaces and were relatively insensitive to local conformational variations of the tentative ligand binding sites. The prediction accuracy of the ISMBLab-LIG predictors is comparable to that of the best LBS predictors benchmarked on several well-established testing datasets. More importantly, the ISMBLab-LIG algorithm has substantial tolerance to the prediction uncertainties of computationally derived protein structure models. As such, the method is particularly useful for predicting LBSs not only on experimental protein structures without known LBS templates in the database but also on computationally predicted model protein structures with structural uncertainties in the tentative ligand binding sites. PMID:27513851

  20. Aflatoxin Toxicity Reduction in Feed by Enhanced Binding to Surface-Modified Clay Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaynes, William F.; Zartman, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Animal feeding studies have demonstrated that clay additives, such as bentonites, can bind aflatoxins in ingested feed and reduce or eliminate the toxicity. Bentonite deposits are found throughout the world and mostly consist of expandable smectite minerals, such as montmorillonite. The surfaces of smectite minerals can be treated with organic compounds to create surface-modified clays that more readily bind some contaminants than the untreated clay. Montmorillonites treated with organic cations, such as hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) and phenyltrimethylammonium (PTMA), more effectively remove organic contaminants, such as benzene and toluene, from water than untreated clay. Similarly, montmorillonite treated with PTMA (Kd = 24,100) retained more aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) from aqueous corn flour than untreated montmorillonite (Kd = 944). Feed additives that reduced aflatoxin toxicity in animal feeding studies adsorbed more AfB1 from aqueous corn flour than feed additives that were less effective. The organic cations HDTMA and PTMA are considered toxic and would not be suitable for clay additives used in feed or food, but other non-toxic or nutrient compounds can be used to prepare surface-modified clays. Montmorillonite (SWy) treated with choline (Kd = 13,800) and carnitine (Kd = 3960) adsorbed much more AfB1 from aqueous corn flour than the untreated clay (Kd = 944). A choline-treated clay prepared from a reduced-charge, high-charge montmorillonite (Kd = 20,100) adsorbed more AfB1 than the choline-treated high-charge montmorillonite (Kd = 1340) or the untreated montmorillonite (Kd = 293). Surface-modified clay additives prepared using low-charge smectites and nutrient or non-toxic organic compounds might be used to more effectively bind aflatoxins in contaminated feed or food and prevent toxicity. PMID:22069725

  1. Detection of vitamin D binding protein on the surface of cytotrophoblasts isolated from human placentae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nestler, J.E.; McLeod, J.F.; Kowalski, M.A.; Strauss, J.F. III; Haddad, J.G. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Vitamin D binding protein (DBP), a Mr 56,000-58,000 alpha 2-glycoprotein, is the major serum protein involved in the transport of vitamin D sterols. Recently it has been suggested that DBP may also be involved in immunoglobulin G binding to cells. Because the trophoblast is involved in the transport of molecules such as vitamin D and immunoglobulin G to the fetus, we asked whether DBP could be detected on the surface of human placental trophoblast cells. Cytotrophoblasts purified from human term placentae were fixed and made permeant with Triton X-100 and examined by indirect immunofluorescence after incubation with a monoclonal antibody to DBP. Greater than 90% of these cells stained positively, whereas no staining was observed with nonimmune antiserum. The presence of DBP on/in the surface of cytotrophoblasts could also be demonstrated by fluorescent cytometry. When cell surface-associated proteins of cytotrophoblasts were radioiodinated, a Mr 57,000 radiolabeled protein could be immunoisolated from the cell lysate with a purified monospecific polyclonal antibody to DBP. Immunoisolation of this radiolabeled protein was prevented by the addition of excess unlabeled human DBP to the cell lysate before incubation with antibody. This Mr 57,000 radiolabeled protein could also be isolated by affinity chromatography selecting for proteins that bind to globular actin. When cytotrophoblasts were incubated with [ 35 S]methionine for 3 or 18 h, active synthesis of DBP could not be demonstrated by immunoisolation techniques. These studies demonstrate the presence of DBP on the surface of well washed, human cytotrophoblasts. This DBP may be maternally derived, since active synthesis of DBP could not be demonstrated

  2. Binding modes and functional surface of anti-mammalian scorpion α-toxins to sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Chung, Shin-Ho

    2012-10-02

    Scorpion α-toxins bind to the voltage-sensing domains of voltage-gated sodium (Na(V)) channels and interfere with the inactivation mechanisms. The functional surface of α-toxins has been shown to contain an NC-domain consisting of the five-residue turn (positions 8-12) and the C-terminus (positions 56-64) and a core-domain centered on the residue 18. The NC- and core-domains are interconnected by the linker-domain (positions 8-18). Here with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we examine the binding modes between two α-toxins, the anti-mammalian AahII and the anti-insect LqhαIT, and the voltage-sensing domain of rat Na(V)1.2, a subtype of Na(V) channels expressed in nerve cells. Both toxins are docked to the extracellular side of the voltage-sensing domain of Na(V)1.2 using molecular dynamics simulations, with the linker-domain assumed to wedge into the binding pocket. Several salt bridges and hydrophobic clusters are observed to form between the NC- and core-domains of the toxins and Na(V)1.2 and stabilize the toxin-channel complexes. The binding modes predicted are consistent with available mutagenesis data and can readily explain the relative affinities of AahII and LqhαIT for Na(V)1.2. The dissociation constants for the two toxin-channel complexes are derived, which compare favorably with experiment. Our models demonstrate that the functional surface of anti-mammalian scorpion α-toxins is centered on the linker-domain, similar to that of β-toxins.

  3. Surface displaced alfa-enolase of Lactobacillus plantarum is a fibronectin binding protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muscariello Lidia

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are one of the most important health promoting groups of the human intestinal microbiota. Their protective role within the gut consists in out competing invading pathogens for ecological niches and metabolic substrates. Among the features necessary to provide health benefits, commensal microorganisms must have the ability to adhere to human intestinal cells and consequently to colonize the gut. Studies on mechanisms mediating adhesion of lactobacilli to human intestinal cells showed that factors involved in the interaction vary mostly among different species and strains, mainly regarding interaction between bacterial adhesins and extracellular matrix or mucus proteins. We have investigated the adhesive properties of Lactobacillus plantarum, a member of the human microbiota of healthy individuals. Results We show the identification of a Lactobacillus plantarum LM3 cell surface protein (48 kDa, which specifically binds to human fibronectin (Fn, an extracellular matrix protein. By means of mass spectrometric analysis this protein was identified as the product of the L. plantarum enoA1 gene, coding the EnoA1 alfa-enolase. Surface localization of EnoA1 was proved by immune electron microscopy. In the mutant strain LM3-CC1, carrying the enoA1 null mutation, the 48 kDa adhesin was not anymore detectable neither by anti-enolase Western blot nor by Fn-overlay immunoblotting assay. Moreover, by an adhesion assay we show that LM3-CC1 cells bind to fibronectin-coated surfaces less efficiently than wild type cells, thus demonstrating the significance of the surface displaced EnoA1 protein for the L. plantarum LM3 adhesion to fibronectin. Conclusion Adhesion to host tissues represents a crucial early step in the colonization process of either pathogens or commensal bacteria. We demonstrated the involvement of the L. plantarum Eno A1 alfa-enolase in Fn-binding, by studying

  4. Analysis of surface binding sites (SBSs) in carbohydrate active enzymes with focus on glycoside hydrolase families 13 and 77

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Darrell; Wilkens, Casper; Ruzanski, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Surface binding sites (SBSs) interact with carbohydrates outside of the enzyme active site. They are frequently situated on catalytic domains and are distinct from carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs). SBSs are found in a variety of enzymes and often seen in crystal structures. Notably about half ...

  5. Monocyte transferrin-iron uptake in hereditary hemochromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizemore, D.J.; Bassett, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Transferrin-iron uptake by peripheral blood monocytes was studied in vitro to test the hypothesis that the relative paucity of mononuclear phagocyte iron loading in hereditary hemochromatosis results from a defect in uptake of iron from transferrin. Monocytes from nine control subjects and 17 patients with hemochromatosis were cultured in the presence of 59Fe-labelled human transferrin. There was no difference in 59Fe uptake between monocytes from control subjects and monocytes from patients with hemochromatosis who had been treated by phlebotomy and who had normal body iron stores. However, 59Fe uptake by monocytes from iron-loaded patients with hemochromatosis was significantly reduced compared with either control subjects or treated hemochromatosis patients. It is likely that this was a secondary effect of iron loading since iron uptake by monocytes from treated hemochromatosis patients was normal. Assuming that monocytes in culture reflect mononuclear phagocyte iron metabolism in vivo, this study suggests that the relative paucity of mononuclear phagocyte iron loading in hemochromatosis is not related to an abnormality in transferrin-iron uptake by these cells

  6. Serum transferrin levels in children with protein-energy malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selime Aydoğdu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although the diagnosis of patients with severemalnutrition is easy, it is very difficult to recognize patientswith mild and moderate malnutrition. A variety of methodsattempts to develop for early diagnosis of these cases.In this study, we evaluated the serum transferrin and albuminlevels in children with mild, moderate and severeprotein-energy malnutrition (PEM.Materials and methods: Children admitted to our policlinic,aged between 3 and 25 months, 45 subjects withPEM and 39 healthy subjects (control group were evaluated.According to the Gomez, Waterlow and Kanawatisubjects with PEM were divided in 3 subgroups mild,moderate and severe PEM. Anthropometric measurementsand biochemical results of 4 groups were compared.Results: For albumin levels in mild to moderate PEMgroups, 37.7% sensitivity, and 28.5% specificity, positivepredictive value 54%; negative predictive value 16.6%was found. For severe PEM sensitivity, specificity, positivepredictive value and negative predictive value were71%, 62.5%, 45%, and 83.3% respectively.With respect to the levels of transferrin, a significant differencewas found between mild PEM-control and moderatePEM-control groups (p0.05.Conclusion: Our study results showed that albumin isa weak indicator in mild-moderate PEM. In these cases,serum transferrin level reduces before decreasing of albuminlevel, thus it may be an early sensitive finding thatcan be used as a sensitive parameter in the diagnosis ofearly stages of malnutrition.Key words: Protein energy malnutrition, children, albumin,transferrin

  7. Isoforms of transferrin in psoriasis patients abusing alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Hoefkens (Peter); E.M. Higgins; R.J. Ward (Roberta); H.G. van Eijk (Henk)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe different isoforms of transferrin have been quantified by isoelectric focusing in the sera of psoriasis patients with and without a history of abusing alcohol. In both male and female psoriasis subjects abusing alcohol, there were significant increases in the

  8. Nonrandom distribution of iron in circulating human transferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, O; Aisen, P

    1986-07-01

    By combining the urea gel electrophoresis technique of Makey and Seal with Western immunoblotting, a method has been developed for analyzing the distribution of iron between the two sites of circulating human transferrin. The new method avoids exposure of samples to a nonphysiologic pH that may promote removal or redistribution of iron from the protein; this facilitates examination of multiple samples at one time. Analysis of 21 freshly drawn specimens from normal human subjects confirms previous reports that iron is not randomly distributed in the specific sites of transferrin. Rather, there is a considerable range in the ratio of occupancies of N-terminal and C-terminal sites (N:C ratio), from 0.31 to 6.87 in the present study, with the N-terminal site predominantly occupied in most subjects. The N:C ratio correlates modestly with serum iron concentration (r = .54). Possible flaws in studies indicating a random occupancy of the specific sites of circulating transferrin may lie in the low pH to which samples may be exposed during procedures based on isoelectric focusing or in drawing inferences from data considering only total monoferric transferrin rather than the two distinguishable monoferric species.

  9. Biocompatible transferrin-conjugated sodium hexametaphosphate-stabilized gold nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parab, Harshala J; Huang, Jing-Hong; Liu, Ru-Shi; Lai, Tsung-Ching; Jan, Yi-Hua; Wang, Jui-Ling; Hsiao, Michael; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Hwu, Yeu-Kuang; Tsai, Din Ping; Chuang, Shih-Yi; Pang, Jong-Hwei S

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for biomedical applications has led to considerable interest in the development of novel synthetic protocols and surface modification strategies for AuNPs to produce biocompatible molecular probes. This investigation is, to our knowledge, the first to elucidate the synthesis and characterization of sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP)-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au-HMP) in an aqueous medium. The role of HMP, a food additive, as a polymeric stabilizing and protecting agent for AuNPs is elucidated. The surface modification of Au-HMP nanoparticles was carried out using polyethylene glycol and transferrin to produce molecular probes for possible clinical applications. In vitro cell viability studies performed using as-synthesized Au-HMP nanoparticles and their surface-modified counterparts reveal the biocompatibility of the nanoparticles. The transferrin-conjugated nanoparticles have significantly higher cellular uptake in J5 cells (liver cancer cells) than control cells (oral mucosa fibroblast cells), as determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This study demonstrates the possibility of using an inexpensive and non-toxic food additive, HMP, as a stabilizer in the large-scale generation of biocompatible and monodispersed AuNPs, which may have future diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  10. Biocompatible transferrin-conjugated sodium hexametaphosphate-stabilized gold nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parab, Harshala J; Huang, Jing-Hong; Liu, Ru-Shi [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lai, Tsung-Ching; Jan, Yi-Hua; Wang, Jui-Ling; Hsiao, Michael; Chen, Chung-Hsuan [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Hwu, Yeu-Kuang [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Din Ping [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Shih-Yi; Pang, Jong-Hwei S, E-mail: rsliu@ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: mhsiao@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-30

    The feasibility of using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for biomedical applications has led to considerable interest in the development of novel synthetic protocols and surface modification strategies for AuNPs to produce biocompatible molecular probes. This investigation is, to our knowledge, the first to elucidate the synthesis and characterization of sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP)-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au-HMP) in an aqueous medium. The role of HMP, a food additive, as a polymeric stabilizing and protecting agent for AuNPs is elucidated. The surface modification of Au-HMP nanoparticles was carried out using polyethylene glycol and transferrin to produce molecular probes for possible clinical applications. In vitro cell viability studies performed using as-synthesized Au-HMP nanoparticles and their surface-modified counterparts reveal the biocompatibility of the nanoparticles. The transferrin-conjugated nanoparticles have significantly higher cellular uptake in J5 cells (liver cancer cells) than control cells (oral mucosa fibroblast cells), as determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This study demonstrates the possibility of using an inexpensive and non-toxic food additive, HMP, as a stabilizer in the large-scale generation of biocompatible and monodispersed AuNPs, which may have future diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  11. Detection of Biomolecular Binding Through Enhancement of Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR by Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Gon Kim

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available To amplify the difference in localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR spectra of gold nano-islands due to intermolecular binding events, gold nanoparticles were used. LSPR-based optical biosensors consisting of gold nano-islands were readily made on glass substrates using evaporation and heat treatment. Streptavidin (STA and biotinylated bovine serum albumin (Bio-BSA were chosen as the model receptor and the model analyte, respectively, to demonstrate the effectiveness of this detection method. Using this model system, we were able to enhance the sensitivity in monitoring the binding of Bio-BSA to gold nano-island surfaces functionalized with STA through the addition of gold nanoparticle-STA conjugates. In addition, SU-8 well chips with gold nano-island surfaces were fabricated through a conventional UV patterning method and were then utilized for image detection using the attenuated total reflection mode. These results suggest that the gold nano-island well chip may have the potential to be used for multiple and simultaneous detection of various bio-substances.

  12. Photoelectron binding energy shifts observed during oxidation of group IIA, IIIA and IVA elemental surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heide, P.A.W. van der

    2006-01-01

    An extensive re-evaluation of XPS binding energies (BE's) and binding energy shifts (ΔBE's) from metals, oxides and the carbonates of the group II, III and IVA elements (exceptions are Be, Mg and Hf) has been carried out using a substrate specific BE referencing approach. From this, O-1s BE's are found to fall into surface oxide, bulk oxide and carbonate groupings, with bulk oxides showing the lowest BE's followed by surface oxides (+∼1.5 eV) and then carbonates (+∼3.0 eV). The O-1s BE's from the bulk oxides also appear to scale with 1/d, where d is inter-atomic distance. The same is noted in the ΔBE's observed from the metallic counterparts during oxidation of the elemental surfaces. This, and the decreasing BE exhibited by Ca, Sr and Ba on oxidation is explained within the charge potential model as resulting from competing inter- and intra-atomic effects, and is shown to be consistent with partial covalency arguments utilizing Madulung potentials. The ΔBE's also fall into groups according to the elements location in the periodic table, i.e. s, p or d block. These trends open up the possibility of approximating ΔBE's arising from initial and final state effects, and bond distances

  13. Cell Surface Properties of Lactococcus lactis Reveal Milk Protein Binding Specifically Evolved in Dairy Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Tarazanova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface properties of bacteria are determined by the molecular composition of the cell wall and they are important for interactions of cells with their environment. Well-known examples of bacterial interactions with surfaces are biofilm formation and the fermentation of solid materials like food and feed. Lactococcus lactis is broadly used for the fermentation of cheese and buttermilk and it is primarily isolated from either plant material or the dairy environment. In this study, we characterized surface hydrophobicity, charge, emulsification properties, and the attachment to milk proteins of 55 L. lactis strains in stationary and exponential growth phases. The attachment to milk protein was assessed through a newly developed flow cytometry-based protocol. Besides finding a high degree of biodiversity, phenotype-genotype matching allowed the identification of candidate genes involved in the modification of the cell surface. Overexpression and gene deletion analysis allowed to verify the predictions for three identified proteins that altered surface hydrophobicity and attachment of milk proteins. The data also showed that lactococci isolated from a dairy environment bind higher amounts of milk proteins when compared to plant isolates. It remains to be determined whether the alteration of surface properties also has potential to alter starter culture functionalities.

  14. Selective Binding, Self-Assembly and Nanopatterning of the Creutz-Taube Ion on Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingling Hang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The surface attachment properties of the Creutz-Taube ion, i.e., [(NH35Ru(pyrazineRu(NH35]5+, on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic types of surfaces were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The results indicated that the Creutz-Taube ions only bound to hydrophilic surfaces, such as SiO2 and –OH terminated organic SAMs on gold substrates. No attachment of the ions on hydrophobic surfaces such as –CH3 terminated organic SAMs and poly(methylmethacrylate (PMMA thin films covered gold or SiO2 substrates was observed. Further ellipsometric, atomic force microscopy (AFM and time-dependent XPS studies suggested that the attached cations could form an inorganic analog of the self-assembled monolayer on SiO2 substrate with a “lying-down” orientation. The strong electrostatic interaction between the highly charged cations and the anionic SiO2 surface was believed to account for these observations. Based on its selective binding property, patterning of wide (~200 nm and narrow (~35 nm lines of the Creutz-Taube ions on SiO2 surface were demonstrated through PMMA electron resist masks written by electron beam lithography (EBL.

  15. Cell Surface Properties of Lactococcus lactis Reveal Milk Protein Binding Specifically Evolved in Dairy Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazanova, Mariya; Huppertz, Thom; Beerthuyzen, Marke; van Schalkwijk, Saskia; Janssen, Patrick; Wels, Michiel; Kok, Jan; Bachmann, Herwig

    2017-01-01

    Surface properties of bacteria are determined by the molecular composition of the cell wall and they are important for interactions of cells with their environment. Well-known examples of bacterial interactions with surfaces are biofilm formation and the fermentation of solid materials like food and feed. Lactococcus lactis is broadly used for the fermentation of cheese and buttermilk and it is primarily isolated from either plant material or the dairy environment. In this study, we characterized surface hydrophobicity, charge, emulsification properties, and the attachment to milk proteins of 55 L. lactis strains in stationary and exponential growth phases. The attachment to milk protein was assessed through a newly developed flow cytometry-based protocol. Besides finding a high degree of biodiversity, phenotype-genotype matching allowed the identification of candidate genes involved in the modification of the cell surface. Overexpression and gene deletion analysis allowed to verify the predictions for three identified proteins that altered surface hydrophobicity and attachment of milk proteins. The data also showed that lactococci isolated from a dairy environment bind higher amounts of milk proteins when compared to plant isolates. It remains to be determined whether the alteration of surface properties also has potential to alter starter culture functionalities. PMID:28936202

  16. Weakly hydrated surfaces and the binding interactions of small biological solutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, John W; Tavagnacco, Letizia; Ehrlich, Laurent; Chen, Mo; Schnupf, Udo; Himmel, Michael E; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Cesàro, Attilio

    2012-04-01

    Extended planar hydrophobic surfaces, such as are found in the side chains of the amino acids histidine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, exhibit an affinity for the weakly hydrated faces of glucopyranose. In addition, molecular species such as these, including indole, caffeine, and imidazole, exhibit a weak tendency to pair together by hydrophobic stacking in aqueous solution. These interactions can be partially understood in terms of recent models for the hydration of extended hydrophobic faces and should provide insight into the architecture of sugar-binding sites in proteins.

  17. Analysis of Surface Binding Sites (SBS) within GH62, GH13, and GH77

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens, Casper; Cockburn, Darrell; Andersen, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Certain interactions between carbohydrate active enzymes and polysaccharides involve surface binding sites (SBS) situated on catalytic domains outside of the active site. We recently undertook to develop a toolbox for SBS identification and characterization. In affinity gel electrophoresis (AGE...... of the reported SBSs. In GH13 SBSs have been seen in 17 subfamilies including SBSs with highly diverse functions in the same enzyme. Circumstantial evidence is provided for an SBS in the GH77 MalQ from Escherichia coli, the bacterial orthologue of Arabidopsis DPE2 involved in starch metabolism. Furthermore...

  18. Non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI uptake by T lymphocytes: evidence for the selective acquisition of oligomeric ferric citrate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Arezes

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential nutrient in several biological processes such as oxygen transport, DNA replication and erythropoiesis. Plasma iron normally circulates bound to transferrin. In iron overload disorders, however, iron concentrations exceed transferrin binding capacity and iron appears complexed with low molecular weight molecules, known as non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI. NTBI is responsible for the toxicity associated with iron-overload pathologies but the mechanisms leading to NTBI uptake are not fully understood. Here we show for the first time that T lymphocytes are able to take up and accumulate NTBI in a manner that resembles that of hepatocytes. Moreover, we show that both hepatocytes and T lymphocytes take up the oligomeric Fe3Cit3 preferentially to other iron-citrate species, suggesting the existence of a selective NTBI carrier. These results provide a tool for the identification of the still elusive ferric-citrate cellular carrier and may also open a new pathway towards the design of more efficient iron chelators for the treatment of iron overload disorders.

  19. Decorin core protein (decoron) shape complements collagen fibril surface structure and mediates its binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgel, Joseph P R O; Eid, Aya; Antipova, Olga; Bella, Jordi; Scott, John E

    2009-09-15

    Decorin is the archetypal small leucine rich repeat proteoglycan of the vertebrate extracellular matrix (ECM). With its glycosaminoglycuronan chain, it is responsible for stabilizing inter-fibrillar organization. Type I collagen is the predominant member of the fibrillar collagen family, fulfilling both organizational and structural roles in animal ECMs. In this study, interactions between decoron (the decorin core protein) and binding sites in the d and e(1) bands of the type I collagen fibril were investigated through molecular modeling of their respective X-ray diffraction structures. Previously, it was proposed that a model-based, highly curved concave decoron interacts with a single collagen molecule, which would form extensive van der Waals contacts and give rise to strong non-specific binding. However, the large well-ordered aggregate that is the collagen fibril places significant restraints on modes of ligand binding and necessitates multi-collagen molecular contacts. We present here a relatively high-resolution model of the decoron-fibril collagen complex. We find that the respective crystal structures complement each other well, although it is the monomeric form of decoron that shows the most appropriate shape complementarity with the fibril surface and favorable calculated energies of interaction. One molecule of decoron interacts with four to six collagen molecules, and the binding specificity relies on a large number of hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions, primarily with the collagen motifs KXGDRGE and AKGDRGE (d and e(1) bands). This work helps us to understand collagen-decorin interactions and the molecular architecture of the fibrillar ECM in health and disease.

  20. Decorin core protein (decoron shape complements collagen fibril surface structure and mediates its binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P R O Orgel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Decorin is the archetypal small leucine rich repeat proteoglycan of the vertebrate extracellular matrix (ECM. With its glycosaminoglycuronan chain, it is responsible for stabilizing inter-fibrillar organization. Type I collagen is the predominant member of the fibrillar collagen family, fulfilling both organizational and structural roles in animal ECMs. In this study, interactions between decoron (the decorin core protein and binding sites in the d and e(1 bands of the type I collagen fibril were investigated through molecular modeling of their respective X-ray diffraction structures. Previously, it was proposed that a model-based, highly curved concave decoron interacts with a single collagen molecule, which would form extensive van der Waals contacts and give rise to strong non-specific binding. However, the large well-ordered aggregate that is the collagen fibril places significant restraints on modes of ligand binding and necessitates multi-collagen molecular contacts. We present here a relatively high-resolution model of the decoron-fibril collagen complex. We find that the respective crystal structures complement each other well, although it is the monomeric form of decoron that shows the most appropriate shape complementarity with the fibril surface and favorable calculated energies of interaction. One molecule of decoron interacts with four to six collagen molecules, and the binding specificity relies on a large number of hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions, primarily with the collagen motifs KXGDRGE and AKGDRGE (d and e(1 bands. This work helps us to understand collagen-decorin interactions and the molecular architecture of the fibrillar ECM in health and disease.

  1. Quantitative analysis of rat Ig (sub)classes binding to cell surface antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, R.; Brodin, T.; Sjoegren, H.-O.

    1982-01-01

    An indirect 125 I-labeled protein A assay for detection of cell surface-bound rat immunoglobulins is presented. The assay is quantitative and rapid and detects as little as 1 ng of cell surface-bound Ig. It discriminates between antibodies belonging to different IgG subclasses, IgM and IgA. The authors describe the production and specificity control of the reagents used and show that the test can be used for quantitative analysis. A large number of sera from untreated rats are tested to evaluate the frequency of falsely positive responses and variation due to age, sex and strain of rat. With this test it is relatively easy to quantitate the binding of classes and subclasses of rat immunoglobulins in a small volume (6 μl) of untreated serum. (Auth.)

  2. Structural motif screening reveals a novel, conserved carbohydrate-binding surface in the pathogenesis-related protein PR-5d

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moffatt Barbara A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromatic amino acids play a critical role in protein-glycan interactions. Clusters of surface aromatic residues and their features may therefore be useful in distinguishing glycan-binding sites as well as predicting novel glycan-binding proteins. In this work, a structural bioinformatics approach was used to screen the Protein Data Bank (PDB for coplanar aromatic motifs similar to those found in known glycan-binding proteins. Results The proteins identified in the screen were significantly associated with carbohydrate-related functions according to gene ontology (GO enrichment analysis, and predicted motifs were found frequently within novel folds and glycan-binding sites not included in the training set. In addition to numerous binding sites predicted in structural genomics proteins of unknown function, one novel prediction was a surface motif (W34/W36/W192 in the tobacco pathogenesis-related protein, PR-5d. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the surface motif is exclusive to a subfamily of PR-5 proteins from the Solanaceae family of plants, and is absent completely in more distant homologs. To confirm PR-5d's insoluble-polysaccharide binding activity, a cellulose-pulldown assay of tobacco proteins was performed and PR-5d was identified in the cellulose-binding fraction by mass spectrometry. Conclusions Based on the combined results, we propose that the putative binding site in PR-5d may be an evolutionary adaptation of Solanaceae plants including potato, tomato, and tobacco, towards defense against cellulose-containing pathogens such as species of the deadly oomycete genus, Phytophthora. More generally, the results demonstrate that coplanar aromatic clusters on protein surfaces are a structural signature of glycan-binding proteins, and can be used to computationally predict novel glycan-binding proteins from 3 D structure.

  3. Structural motif screening reveals a novel, conserved carbohydrate-binding surface in the pathogenesis-related protein PR-5d.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxey, Andrew C; Cheng, Zhenyu; Moffatt, Barbara A; McConkey, Brendan J

    2010-08-03

    Aromatic amino acids play a critical role in protein-glycan interactions. Clusters of surface aromatic residues and their features may therefore be useful in distinguishing glycan-binding sites as well as predicting novel glycan-binding proteins. In this work, a structural bioinformatics approach was used to screen the Protein Data Bank (PDB) for coplanar aromatic motifs similar to those found in known glycan-binding proteins. The proteins identified in the screen were significantly associated with carbohydrate-related functions according to gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, and predicted motifs were found frequently within novel folds and glycan-binding sites not included in the training set. In addition to numerous binding sites predicted in structural genomics proteins of unknown function, one novel prediction was a surface motif (W34/W36/W192) in the tobacco pathogenesis-related protein, PR-5d. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the surface motif is exclusive to a subfamily of PR-5 proteins from the Solanaceae family of plants, and is absent completely in more distant homologs. To confirm PR-5d's insoluble-polysaccharide binding activity, a cellulose-pulldown assay of tobacco proteins was performed and PR-5d was identified in the cellulose-binding fraction by mass spectrometry. Based on the combined results, we propose that the putative binding site in PR-5d may be an evolutionary adaptation of Solanaceae plants including potato, tomato, and tobacco, towards defense against cellulose-containing pathogens such as species of the deadly oomycete genus, Phytophthora. More generally, the results demonstrate that coplanar aromatic clusters on protein surfaces are a structural signature of glycan-binding proteins, and can be used to computationally predict novel glycan-binding proteins from 3 D structure.

  4. Lsa63, a newly identified surface protein of Leptospira interrogans binds laminin and collagen IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Monica L; de Morais, Zenaide M; Gonçales, Amane P; Romero, Eliete C; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Nascimento, Ana L T O

    2010-01-01

    Leptospira interrogans is the etiological agent of leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease that affects populations worldwide. We have identified in proteomic studies a protein that is encoded by the gene LIC10314 and expressed in virulent strain of L. interrogans serovar Pomona. This protein was predicted to be surface exposed by PSORT program and contains a p83/100 domain identified by BLAST analysis that is conserved in protein antigens of several strains of Borrelia and Treponema spp. The proteins containing this domain have been claimed antigen candidates for serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Thus, we have cloned the LIC10314 and expressed the protein in Escherichia coli BL21-SI strain by using the expression vector pAE. The recombinant protein tagged with N-terminal hexahistidine was purified by metal-charged chromatography and characterized by circular dichroism spectroscopy. This protein is conserved among several species of pathogenic Leptospira and absent in the saprophytic strain L. biflexa. We confirm by liquid-phase immunofluorescence assays with living organisms that this protein is most likely a new surface leptospiral protein. The ability of the protein to mediate attachment to ECM components was evaluated by binding assays. The leptospiral protein encoded by LIC10314, named Lsa63 (Leptospiral surface adhesin of 63kDa), binds strongly to laminin and collagen IV in a dose-dependent and saturable fashion. In addition, Lsa63 is probably expressed during infection since it was recognized by antibodies of serum samples of confirmed-leptospirosis patients in convalescent phase of the disease. Altogether, the data suggests that this novel identified surface protein may be involved in leptospiral pathogenesis. 2009 The British Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Transferrin variation and genetic structure of reindeer populations in Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut H. Røed

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to analyse transferrin variation in herds of semi-domestic reindeer from Scandinavia. The results are compared with previously reported values for other populations of both semi-domestic and wild reindeer using the same techniques as in the present study. In all populations the number of alleles was high, ranging from seven to eleven, and the heterozygosity was correspondingly high, with a mean of 0.749. This high genetic variation in all populations suggests that inbreeding is not widespread among Scandinavian reindeer. The pattern of allele frequency distribution indicates a high degree of genetic heterogeneity in the transferrin locus, both between the different semi-domestic herds and between the different wild populations. The mean value of genetic distance was 0.069 between semi-domestic herds and 0.091 between wild populations. Between semi-domestic and wild populations the genetic distance was particularly high, with a mean of 0.188. This high value was mainly due to a different pattern in the distribution of the two most common transferrin alleles: Tfu was most common among semi-domestic herds, while TfEI was most common among wild populations. These differences in transferrin allele distribution are discussed in relation to possible different origins of semi-domestic and wild reindeer in Scandinavia, or alternatively, to different selection forces acting on transferrin genotypes in semi-domestic and wild populations.Transferrin-variasjon og genetisk struktur hos rein i Skandinavia.Abstact in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Transferrin-variasjon i tamreinflokker ble analysert ved hjelp av polyacrylamid gel elektroforese. Resultatene er sammenlignet med verdier som tidligere er beskrevet for både tamrein og villrein hvor det ble benyttet samme metode som i denne undersøkelsen. I alle populasjonene ble det registrert et høyt antall alleler (7-11 og heterozygositeten var tilsvarende høy med en

  6. Roles of multiple surface sites, long substrate binding clefts, and carbohydrate binding modules in the action of amylolytic enzymes on polysaccharide substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Munch; Seo, E.S.; Dilokpimol, Adiphol

    2008-01-01

    Germinating barley seeds contain multiple forms of alpha-amylase, which are subject to both differential gene expression and differential degradation as part of the repertoire of starch-degrading enzymes. The alpha-amylases are endo-acting and possess a long substrate binding cleft with a charact......Germinating barley seeds contain multiple forms of alpha-amylase, which are subject to both differential gene expression and differential degradation as part of the repertoire of starch-degrading enzymes. The alpha-amylases are endo-acting and possess a long substrate binding cleft...... will address surface sites in both barley alpha-amylase 1 and in the related isozyme 2....

  7. Transferrin receptor molecular imaging: targeting for diagnosis and monitoring of gene delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun-Mi Kim; Hwan-Jeong Jeong; Jin-Hee Kim; Chang-Guhn Kim

    2004-01-01

    Tc labeled complexes in the tumor two days after administration was visualized fluorescence microscope. Conclusion: Using 99mTc transferrin conjugate, transferrin binding to transferrin receptor on tumor cell could be seen in vivo. Also we certificated the possibility of monitoring whether the Tf-dendrimer gene complex is delivered to the desirous site. (authors)

  8. Visualisation of variable binding pockets on protein surfaces by probabilistic analysis of related structure sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashford Paul

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein structures provide a valuable resource for rational drug design. For a protein with no known ligand, computational tools can predict surface pockets that are of suitable size and shape to accommodate a complementary small-molecule drug. However, pocket prediction against single static structures may miss features of pockets that arise from proteins' dynamic behaviour. In particular, ligand-binding conformations can be observed as transiently populated states of the apo protein, so it is possible to gain insight into ligand-bound forms by considering conformational variation in apo proteins. This variation can be explored by considering sets of related structures: computationally generated conformers, solution NMR ensembles, multiple crystal structures, homologues or homology models. It is non-trivial to compare pockets, either from different programs or across sets of structures. For a single structure, difficulties arise in defining particular pocket's boundaries. For a set of conformationally distinct structures the challenge is how to make reasonable comparisons between them given that a perfect structural alignment is not possible. Results We have developed a computational method, Provar, that provides a consistent representation of predicted binding pockets across sets of related protein structures. The outputs are probabilities that each atom or residue of the protein borders a predicted pocket. These probabilities can be readily visualised on a protein using existing molecular graphics software. We show how Provar simplifies comparison of the outputs of different pocket prediction algorithms, of pockets across multiple simulated conformations and between homologous structures. We demonstrate the benefits of use of multiple structures for protein-ligand and protein-protein interface analysis on a set of complexes and consider three case studies in detail: i analysis of a kinase superfamily highlights the

  9. Visualisation of variable binding pockets on protein surfaces by probabilistic analysis of related structure sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Paul; Moss, David S; Alex, Alexander; Yeap, Siew K; Povia, Alice; Nobeli, Irene; Williams, Mark A

    2012-03-14

    Protein structures provide a valuable resource for rational drug design. For a protein with no known ligand, computational tools can predict surface pockets that are of suitable size and shape to accommodate a complementary small-molecule drug. However, pocket prediction against single static structures may miss features of pockets that arise from proteins' dynamic behaviour. In particular, ligand-binding conformations can be observed as transiently populated states of the apo protein, so it is possible to gain insight into ligand-bound forms by considering conformational variation in apo proteins. This variation can be explored by considering sets of related structures: computationally generated conformers, solution NMR ensembles, multiple crystal structures, homologues or homology models. It is non-trivial to compare pockets, either from different programs or across sets of structures. For a single structure, difficulties arise in defining particular pocket's boundaries. For a set of conformationally distinct structures the challenge is how to make reasonable comparisons between them given that a perfect structural alignment is not possible. We have developed a computational method, Provar, that provides a consistent representation of predicted binding pockets across sets of related protein structures. The outputs are probabilities that each atom or residue of the protein borders a predicted pocket. These probabilities can be readily visualised on a protein using existing molecular graphics software. We show how Provar simplifies comparison of the outputs of different pocket prediction algorithms, of pockets across multiple simulated conformations and between homologous structures. We demonstrate the benefits of use of multiple structures for protein-ligand and protein-protein interface analysis on a set of complexes and consider three case studies in detail: i) analysis of a kinase superfamily highlights the conserved occurrence of surface pockets at the active

  10. Endocytosis of wheat germ agglutinin binding sites from the cell surface into a tubular endosomal network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raub, T J; Koroly, M J; Roberts, R M

    1990-04-01

    By using fluorescence and electron microscopy, the endocytic pathway encountered by cell surface components after they had bound wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) was visualized. The majority of these components are thought to consist of sialylated glycoproteins (HMWAG) that represent a subpopulation of the total cell surface proteins but most of the externally disposed plasma membrane proteins of the cell. Examination of semi-thin sections by medium- and high-voltage electron microscopy revealed the three-dimensional organization of vesicular and tubular endosomes. Binding of either fluorescein isothiocyanate-, horseradish peroxidase-, or ferritin-conjugated WGA to cells at 4 degrees C showed that the HMWAG were distributed uniformly over the cell surface. Warming of surface-labeled cells to 37 degrees C resulted in the endocytosis of WGA into peripheral endosomes via invagination of regions of both coated and uncoated membrane. The peripheral endosome appeared as isolated complexes comprising a vesicular element (300-400 nm diam.) surrounded by and continuous with tubular cisternae (45-60 nm diam.), which did not interconnect the endosomes. After 30 min or more label also became localized in a network of anastomosing tubules (45-60 nm diam.) that were located in the centrosomal region of the cell. Endocytosed WGA-HMWAG complexes did not become associated with cisternae of the Golgi apparatus, although tubular and vesicular endosomes were noted in the vicinity of the trans-Golgi region. The accumulation of WGA-HMWAG in the endosomes within the centrosomal region was inhibited when cells were incubated at 18 degrees C. None of these compartments contained acid phosphatase activity, a result that is consistent with other data that the HMWAG do not pass through lysosomes initially. The kinetics of labeling were consistent with the interpretation that recycling of most of the WGA binding surface glycoproteins occurred rapidly from early peripheral endosomes followed by the

  11. The transferrin receptor of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae: Quantitation of expression and structural characterization using a peptide-specific monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøg, Yang S.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Bastholm, L.

    2001-01-01

    transferrin. This complex was studied using a monoclonal antibody (Mab 1.48) raised against a synthetic peptide corresponding to a hydrophilic domain of Tbp2 common to several A. pp serotypes. The antibody reacted specifically with a 60-70 kDa Tbp2-antigen found in all serotypes of A. pp obtained from iron...... expressing Tbp2 and in wild type A. pp grown under iron restricted conditions. The subcellular location of Tbp2 in A. pp was studied by immunoelectron microscopy using the Mab 1.48. Interestingly, all antibody binding was found inside the A. pp cells, while Tbp2 expressed in recombinant E. coli was found...

  12. Binding characteristics of thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor to streptococcal surface collagen-like proteins A and B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seron, Mercedes Valls; Plug, Tom; Marquart, J. Arnoud; Marx, Pauline F.; Herwald, Heiko; de Groot, Philip G.; Meijers, Joost C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is the causative agent in a wide range of diseases in humans. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) binds to collagen-like proteins ScIA and ScIB at the surface of S. pyogenes. Activation of TAFI at this surface redirects inflammation from a transient to chronic

  13. Surface-associated plasminogen binding of Cryptococcus neoformans promotes extracellular matrix invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Stie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is a leading cause of illness and death in persons with predisposing factors, including: malignancies, solid organ transplants, and corticosteroid use. C. neoformans is ubiquitous in the environment and enters into the lungs via inhalation, where it can disseminate through the bloodstream and penetrate the central nervous system (CNS, resulting in a difficult to treat and often-fatal infection of the brain, called meningoencephalitis. Plasminogen is a highly abundant protein found in the plasma component of blood and is necessary for the degradation of fibrin, collagen, and other structural components of tissues. This fibrinolytic system is utilized by cancer cells during metastasis and several pathogenic species of bacteria have been found to manipulate the host plasminogen system to facilitate invasion of tissues during infection by modifying the activation of this process through the binding of plasminogen at their surface.The invasion of the brain and the central nervous system by penetration of the protective blood-brain barrier is a prerequisite to the establishment of meningoencephalitis by the opportunistic fungal pathogen C. neoformans. In this study, we examined the ability of C. neoformans to subvert the host plasminogen system to facilitate tissue barrier invasion. Through a combination of biochemical, cell biology, and proteomic approaches, we have shown that C. neoformans utilizes the host plasminogen system to cross tissue barriers, providing support for the hypothesis that plasminogen-binding may contribute to the invasion of the blood-brain barrier by penetration of the brain endothelial cells and underlying matrix. In addition, we have identified the cell wall-associated proteins that serve as plasminogen receptors and characterized both the plasminogen-binding and plasmin-activation potential for this significant human pathogen.The results of this study provide evidence for the

  14. Effect of transferrin saturation on internal iron exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamaschi, G.; Eng, M.J.; Huebers, H.A.; Finch, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Radioiron was introduced into the intestinal lumen to evaluate absorption, injected as nonviable red cells to evaluate reticuloendothelial (RE) processing of iron, and injected as hemoglobin to evaluate hepatocyte iron processing. Redistribution of iron through the plasma was evaluated in control animals and animals whose transferrin was saturated by iron infusion. Radioiron introduced into the lumen of the gut as ferrous sulfate and as transferrin-bound iron was absorbed about half as well in iron-infused animals, and absorbed iron was localized in the liver. The similar absorption of transferrin-bound iron suggested that absorption of ferrous iron occurred via the mucosal cell and did not enter by diffusion. The decrease in absorption was associated with an increase in mucosal iron and ferritin content produced by the iron infusion. An inverse relationship (r = -0.895) was shown between mucosal ferritin iron and absorption. When iron was injected as nonviable red cells, it was deposited predominantly in reticuloendothelial cells of the spleen. Return of this radioiron to the plasma was only 6% of that in control animals. While there was some movement of iron from spleen to liver, this could be accounted for by intravascular hemolysis. Injected hemoglobin tagged with radioiron was for the most part taken up and held by the liver. Some 13% initially localized in the marrow in iron-infused animals was shown to be storage iron unavailable for hemoglobin synthesis. These studies demonstrate the hepatic trapping of absorbed iron and the inability of either RE cell or hepatocyte to release iron in the transferrin-saturated animal

  15. Communication: Photoinduced carbon dioxide binding with surface-functionalized silicon quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-Gallardo, Oscar A.; Sánchez, Cristián Gabriel; Vöhringer-Martinez, Esteban

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, the search for efficient methods able to reduce the high atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration has turned into a very dynamic research area. Several environmental problems have been closely associated with the high atmospheric level of this greenhouse gas. Here, a novel system based on the use of surface-functionalized silicon quantum dots (sf-SiQDs) is theoretically proposed as a versatile device to bind carbon dioxide. Within this approach, carbon dioxide trapping is modulated by a photoinduced charge redistribution between the capping molecule and the silicon quantum dots (SiQDs). The chemical and electronic properties of the proposed SiQDs have been studied with a Density Functional Theory and Density Functional Tight-Binding (DFTB) approach along with a time-dependent model based on the DFTB framework. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that proposes and explores the potential application of a versatile and friendly device based on the use of sf-SiQDs for photochemically activated carbon dioxide fixation.

  16. Fractal binding and dissociation kinetics of lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT), a heart-related compound, on biosensor surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doke, Atul M.; Sadana, Ajit

    2006-05-01

    A fractal analysis is presented for the binding and dissociation of different heart-related compounds in solution to receptors immobilized on biosensor surfaces. The data analyzed include LCAT (lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase) concentrations in solution to egg-white apoA-I rHDL immobilized on a biosensor chip surface.1 Single- and dual- fractal models were employed to fit the data. Values of the binding and the dissociation rate coefficient(s), affinity values, and the fractal dimensions were obtained from the regression analysis provided by Corel Quattro Pro 8.0 (Corel Corporation Limited).2 The binding rate coefficients are quite sensitive to the degree of heterogeneity on the sensor chip surface. Predictive equations are developed for the binding rate coefficient as a function of the degree of heterogeneity present on the sensor chip surface and on the LCAT concentration in solution, and for the affinity as a function of the ratio of fractal dimensions present in the binding and the dissociation phases. The analysis presented provided physical insights into these analyte-receptor reactions occurring on different biosensor surfaces.

  17. Tailoring odorant-binding protein coatings characteristics for surface acoustic wave biosensor development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Pietrantonio, F., E-mail: fabio.dp@idasc.cnr.it [Institute of Acoustics and Sensors “O. M. Corbino”, National Research Council of Italy, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Benetti, M. [Institute of Acoustics and Sensors “O. M. Corbino”, National Research Council of Italy, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Dinca, V. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-16, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Cannatà, D. [Institute of Acoustics and Sensors “O. M. Corbino”, National Research Council of Italy, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Verona, E. [Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies, National Research Council of Italy, Via del Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Rome (Italy); D’Auria, S. [Institute of Protein Biochemistry, National Research Council of Italy, Via Pietro Castellino 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-16, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

    2014-05-01

    In this study, wild type bovine odorant-binding proteins (wtbOBPs) were deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) and utilized as active material on surface acoustic wave (SAW) biosensors. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to determine the chemical, morphological characteristics of the protein thin films. The FTIR data demonstrates that the functional groups of wtbOBPs do not suffer significant changes in the MAPLE-deposited films when compared to the reference one. The topographical studies show that the homogeneity, density and the roughness of the coatings are related mainly to the laser parameters (fluence and number of pulses). SAW biosensor responses to different concentrations of R-(–)-1-octen-3-ol (octenol) and R-(–)-carvone (carvone) were evaluated. The obtained sensitivities, achieved through the optimization of deposition parameters, demonstrated that MAPLE is a promising deposition technique for SAW biosensor implementation.

  18. An Allergen Portrait Gallery: Representative Structures and an Overview of IgE Binding Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Ivanciuc

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in the biochemical classification and structural determination of allergens and allergen–antibody complexes has enhanced our understanding of the molecular determinants of allergenicity. Databases of allergens and their epitopes have facilitated the clustering of allergens according to their sequences and, more recently, their structures. Groups of similar sequences are identified for allergenic proteins from diverse sources, and all allergens are classified into a limited number of protein structural families. A gallery of experimental structures selected from the protein classes with the largest number of allergens demonstrate the structural diversity of the allergen universe. Further comparison of these structures and identification of areas that are different from innocuous proteins within the same protein family can be used to identify features specific to known allergens. Experimental and computational results related to the determination of IgE binding surfaces and methods to define allergen-specific motifs are highlighted.

  19. A novel carbohydrate-binding surface layer protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Shuichiro; Koga, Tomoyuki; Yamashita, Kenichiro; Kuriura, Ryo; Ueda, Toshifumi

    2018-04-08

    In Archaea and Bacteria, surface layer (S-layer) proteins form the cell envelope and are involved in cell protection. In the present study, a putative S-layer protein was purified from the crude extract of Pyrococcus horikoshii using affinity chromatography. The S-layer gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Isothermal titration calorimetry analyses showed that the S-layer protein bound N-acetylglucosamine and induced agglutination of the gram-positive bacterium Micrococcus lysodeikticus. The protein comprised a 21-mer structure, with a molecular mass of 1,340 kDa, as determined using small-angle X-ray scattering. This protein showed high thermal stability, with a midpoint of thermal denaturation of 79 °C in dynamic light scattering experiments. This is the first description of the carbohydrate-binding archaeal S-layer protein and its characteristics.

  20. Changes in cell surface structure by viral transformation studied by binding of lectins differing in sugar specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, M; Kurokawa, T; Takeuchi, M; Sugino, Y

    1975-10-01

    Changes in cell surface structure by viral transformation were studied by examining changes in the binding of various lectins differing in carbohydrate specificities. Binding of lectins was assayed directly using cells grown in coverslips. The following 125I-lectins were used: Concanavalin-A (specific for glucose and mannose), wheat germ agglutinin (specific for N-acetylglucosamine), castor bean agglutinin (specific for galactose), Wistaria floribunda agglutinin (specific for N-acetylgalactosamine), and soybean agglutinin (specific for N-acetyl-galactosamine). Cells for a clone, SS7, transformed by bovine adenovirus type-3, were found to bind 5 to 6 times more Wistaria floribunda agglutinin than the normal counterpart cells (clone C31, from C3H mouse kidney). In contrast, the binding of soybean agglutinin, which has a sugar specificity similar to Wistaria floribunda agglutinin, to normal and transformed cells was similar. The binding of wheat germ agglutinin and castor bean agglutinin, respectively, to normal and transformed cells was also similar. However, normal cells bound twice as much concanavalin-A as transformed cells. Only half as much Wistaria floribunda agglutinin was bound to transformed cells when they had been dispersed with EDTA. These changes in the number of lectin binding sites on transformation are thought to reflect alteration of the cell surface structure. The amount of lectins bound per cell decreased with increase in cell density, especially in the case of binding of Wistaria floribunda agglutinin to normal cells.

  1. Fine definition of the CXCR4-binding region on the V3 loop of feline immunodeficiency virus surface glycoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong-Ying Hu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is shared by primary and laboratory-adapted strains of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV for viral entry. Our previous studies implicated a contiguous nine-amino-acid region of the V3 loop of the FIV envelope surface as important in CXCR4 binding and virus entry. The binding is specific for CXCR4 since it can be inhibited by AMD3100, a selective CXCR4 inhibitor. Additional site-directed mutagenesis was used to further reveal the key residues. Binding studies indicated that basic residues R395, K397, R399 as well as N398 are critical for CXCR4 binding. The effect of other amino acid residues on receptor binding depends on the type of amino acid residue substituted. The binding study results were confirmed on human CXCR4-expressing SupT1 cells and correlated with entry efficiency using a virus entry assay. Amino acid residues critical for CXCR4 are not critical for interactions with the primary binding receptor CD134, which has an equivalent role as CD4 for HIV-1 binding. The ELISA results show that W394 and W400 are crucial for the recognition by neutralizing anti-V3 antibodies. Since certain strains of HIV-1 also use CXCR4 as the entry receptor, the findings make the feline model attractive for development of broad-based entry antagonists and for study of the molecular mechanism of receptor/virus interactions.

  2. Binding of chloroquine to ionic micelles: Effect of pH and micellar surface charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Santos, Marcela de, E-mail: marcelafarmausp77@gmail.com [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida do Café, s/n, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo 14040-903 (Brazil); Perpétua Freire de Morais Del Lama, Maria, E-mail: mpemdel@fcfrp.usp.br [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida do Café, s/n, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo 14040-903 (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Bioanalítica, Departamento de Química Analítica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, s/n, Campinas, São Paulo 13083-970 (Brazil); Siuiti Ito, Amando, E-mail: amandosi@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes, 3900, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo 14040-901 (Brazil); and others

    2014-03-15

    The pharmacological action of chloroquine relies on its ability to cross biological membranes in order to accumulate inside lysosomes. The present work aimed at understanding the basis for the interaction between different chloroquine species and ionic micelles of opposite charges, the latter used as a simple membrane model. The sensitivity of absorbance and fluorescence of chloroquine to changes in its local environment was used to probe its interaction with cetyltrimethylammonium micelles presenting bromide (CTAB) and sulfate (CTAS) as counterions, in addition to dodecyl sulfate micelles bearing sodium (SDS) and tetramethylammonium (TMADS) counterions. Counterion exchange was shown to have little effect on drug–micelle interaction. Chloroquine first dissociation constant (pKa{sub 1}) shifted to opposite directions when anionic and cationic micelles were compared. Chloroquine binding constants (K{sub b}) revealed that electrostatic forces mediate charged drug–micelle association, whereas hydrophobic interactions allowed neutral chloroquine to associate with anionic and cationic micelles. Fluorescence quenching studies indicated that monoprotonated chloroquine is inserted deeper into the micelle surface of anionic micelles than its neutral form, the latter being less exposed to the aqueous phase when associated with cationic over anionic assemblies. The findings provide further evidence that chloroquine–micelle interaction is driven by a tight interplay between the drug form and the micellar surface charge, which can have a major effect on the drug biological activity. -- Highlights: • Chloroquine (CQ) pKa{sub 1} increased for SDS micelles and decreased for CTAB micelles. • CQ is solubilized to the surface of both CTAB and SDS micelles. • Monoprotonated CQ is buried deeper into SDS micelles than neutral CQ. • Neutral CQ is less exposed to aqueous phase in CTAB over SDS micelles. • Local pH and micellar surface charge mediate interaction of CQ with

  3. Bee venom phospholipase A2 as a membrane-binding vector for cell surface display or internalization of soluble proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babon, Aurélie; Wurceldorf, Thibault; Almunia, Christine; Pichard, Sylvain; Chenal, Alexandre; Buhot, Cécile; Beaumelle, Bruno; Gillet, Daniel

    2016-06-15

    We showed that bee venom phospholipase A2 can be used as a membrane-binding vector to anchor to the surface of cells a soluble protein fused to its C-terminus. ZZ, a two-domain derivative of staphylococcal protein A capable of binding constant regions of antibodies was fused to the C-terminus of the phospholipase or to a mutant devoid of enzymatic activity. The fusion proteins bound to the surface of cells and could themselves bind IgGs. Their fate depended on the cell type to which they bound. On the A431 carcinoma cell line the proteins remained exposed on the cell surface. In contrast, on human dendritic cells the proteins were internalized into early endosomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Alkaline phosphatase binds tenaciously to titanium; implications for biological surface evaluation following bone implant retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, J P; Shiel, A I; Harwood, C; Stephens, D

    2017-07-01

    Enhancing the performance and longevity of titanium (Ti) implants continues to be a significant developmental theme in contemporary biomaterials design. Our specific focus pertains to the surface functionalisation of Ti using the bioactive lipid, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and certain phosphatase-resistant analogues of LPA. Coating survivorship to a plethora of testing regimens is required to align with due regulatory process before novel biomaterials can enter clinical trials. One of the key acceptance criteria is coating retention to the physical stresses experienced during implantation. In assessing coating stability to insertion into porcine bone we found that a subsequent in vitro assessment to confirm coating persistence was masked by abundant alkaline phosphatase (ALP) contamination adsorbed to the metal surface. Herein we report that ALP can bind to Ti in a matter of minutes by simply immersing Ti samples in aqueous solutions of the enzyme. We strongly discourage the in vitro monitoring of osteoblast and stromal cell ALP expression when assessing bioactive coating survivorship following Ti implant retrieval form native bone tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Coating magnesium hydroxide on surface of carbon microspheres and interface binding with poly (ethylene terephthalate) matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Baoxia [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Research Center on Advanced Materials Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Textile Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Yuci 030600 (China); Niu, Mei, E-mail: niumei@tyut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Textile Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Yuci 030600 (China); Yang, Yongzhen, E-mail: yyztyut@126.com [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Research Center on Advanced Materials Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Bai, Jie; Song, Yinghao; Peng, Yun [College of Textile Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Yuci 030600 (China); Liu, Xuguang [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Magnesium hydroxide (MH) as a capsule wall was firstly coated on the surface of carbon microspheres (CMSs) to obtain MH@CMSs by liquid phase deposition method. • An organic layer of 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) was then introduced on the surface of MH@CMSs. • The formed two layers provided the FMH@CMSs/PET with good mechanical and flame-retardant properties. - Abstract: In this account, magnesium hydroxide (MH) employed as a capsule wall was firstly coated on the surface of carbon microspheres (CMSs) to obtain MH@CMSs using liquid phase deposition, then was modified by 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) to form FMH@CMSs. To investigate the interface binding forces, a series of PET composites was prepared by melt compounding with MH@CMSs or FMH@CMSs. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform Infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the morphology, chemical structure, and effect of functionalization of CMSs. The coating degree and thermal stability were investigated by thermogravimetry analysis. The results showed that CMSs were coated by an inorganic shell layer of MH as a capsule wall. On the other hand, MH@CMSs were coated with an organic layer of APTS. When compared to MH@CMSs, the interface binding forces between FMH@CMSs and PET matrix were significantly improved, and the tensile strength of FMH@CMSs/PET was higher than that of MH@CMSs/PET. At 1 wt% mass fraction of FMH@CMSs, the limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of PET composites increased from 21% to 27.6% following a V-0 rating. The tensile strength of FMH@CMSs/PET increased by 66.2% to reach 47.20 MPa, a value nearly similar to that of PET. Overall, the formed two layers provided the FMH@CMSs/PET with good mechanical and flame-retardant properties, which would broaden their scope of application.

  6. The Non-Specific Binding of Fluorescent-Labeled MiRNAs on Cell Surface by Hydrophobic Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ting; Lin, Zongwei; Ren, Jianwei; Yao, Peng; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Qunye

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs about 22 nt long that play key roles in almost all biological processes and diseases. The fluorescent labeling and lipofection are two common methods for changing the levels and locating the position of cellular miRNAs. Despite many studies about the mechanism of DNA/RNA lipofection, little is known about the characteristics, mechanisms and specificity of lipofection of fluorescent-labeled miRNAs. Therefore, miRNAs labeled with different fluorescent dyes were transfected into adherent and suspension cells using lipofection reagent. Then, the non-specific binding and its mechanism were investigated by flow cytometer and laser confocal microscopy. The results showed that miRNAs labeled with Cy5 (cyanine fluorescent dye) could firmly bind to the surface of adherent cells (Hela) and suspended cells (K562) even without lipofection reagent. The binding of miRNAs labeled with FAM (carboxyl fluorescein) to K562 cells was obvious, but it was not significant in Hela cells. After lipofectamine reagent was added, most of the fluorescently labeled miRNAs binding to the surface of Hela cells were transfected into intra-cell because of the high transfection efficiency, however, most of them were still binding to the surface of K562 cells. Moreover, the high-salt buffer which could destroy the electrostatic interactions did not affect the above-mentioned non-specific binding, but the organic solvent which could destroy the hydrophobic interactions eliminated it. These results implied that the fluorescent-labeled miRNAs could non-specifically bind to the cell surface by hydrophobic interaction. It would lead to significant errors in the estimation of transfection efficiency only according to the cellular fluorescence intensity. Therefore, other methods to evaluate the transfection efficiency and more appropriate fluorescent dyes should be used according to the cell types for the accuracy of results.

  7. The Non-Specific Binding of Fluorescent-Labeled MiRNAs on Cell Surface by Hydrophobic Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Lu

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs about 22 nt long that play key roles in almost all biological processes and diseases. The fluorescent labeling and lipofection are two common methods for changing the levels and locating the position of cellular miRNAs. Despite many studies about the mechanism of DNA/RNA lipofection, little is known about the characteristics, mechanisms and specificity of lipofection of fluorescent-labeled miRNAs.Therefore, miRNAs labeled with different fluorescent dyes were transfected into adherent and suspension cells using lipofection reagent. Then, the non-specific binding and its mechanism were investigated by flow cytometer and laser confocal microscopy. The results showed that miRNAs labeled with Cy5 (cyanine fluorescent dye could firmly bind to the surface of adherent cells (Hela and suspended cells (K562 even without lipofection reagent. The binding of miRNAs labeled with FAM (carboxyl fluorescein to K562 cells was obvious, but it was not significant in Hela cells. After lipofectamine reagent was added, most of the fluorescently labeled miRNAs binding to the surface of Hela cells were transfected into intra-cell because of the high transfection efficiency, however, most of them were still binding to the surface of K562 cells. Moreover, the high-salt buffer which could destroy the electrostatic interactions did not affect the above-mentioned non-specific binding, but the organic solvent which could destroy the hydrophobic interactions eliminated it.These results implied that the fluorescent-labeled miRNAs could non-specifically bind to the cell surface by hydrophobic interaction. It would lead to significant errors in the estimation of transfection efficiency only according to the cellular fluorescence intensity. Therefore, other methods to evaluate the transfection efficiency and more appropriate fluorescent dyes should be used according to the cell types for the accuracy of results.

  8. Molecular mass spectrometry in metallodrug development: A case of mapping transferrin-mediated transformations for a ruthenium(III) anticancer drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarosz, Maciej [Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego St. 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Matczuk, Magdalena, E-mail: mmatczuk@ch.pw.edu.pl [Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego St. 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Pawlak, Katarzyna [Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego St. 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Timerbaev, Andrei R. [Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kosygin St. 19, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-03

    Highlights: • Extra- and intra-cellular interactions of Ru(III) anticancer drug candidate. • ESI-TOF-MS mapping of the ruthenium species bound to transferring. • ESI-QqQ-MS identification of released Ru species under cytosol simulated conditions. - Abstract: Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) techniques have been used to characterize the speciation of a Ru(III) anticancer drug, indazolium trans-[tetrachloridobis(1H-indazole) ruthenate(III)], upon its binding to transferrin and the impact of cellular reducing components on drug–transferrin adducts. Using time-of-flight ESI-MS, the polymorphism of apo- (iron-free) and holo-form (iron-saturated) of the protein was confirmed. While the ruthenium moieties bound to each of five isoforms under simulated extracellular conditions are essentially identical in numbers for apo- and holo-transferrin, distinct differences were found in the composition of Ru(III) species attached to either of the protein forms, which are dominated by differently coordinated aquated complexes. On the other hand, at least one of the Ru-N bonds in metal-organic framework remains intact even after prolonged interaction with the protein. Triple quadrupole tandem ESI-MS measurements demonstrated that the ruthenium species released from drug adducts with holo-transferrin in simulated cancer cytosol are underwent strong ligand exchange (as compared to the protein-bound forms) but most strikingly, they contain the metal center in the reduced Ru(II) state. In vitro probing the extra- and intracellular interactions of promising Ru(III) drug candidate performed by ESI-MS is thought to shed light on the transportation to tumor cells by transferrin and on the activation to more reactive species by the reducing environment of solid tumors.

  9. Reversible surface binding of cadmium and lead by lactic acid and bifidobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teemu, Halttunen; Seppo, Salminen; Jussi, Meriluoto; Raija, Tahvonen; Kalle, Lertola

    2008-07-15

    Extensive cadmium and lead contamination of water has been reported to occur locally as a result of human activities. Lactic acid bacteria have been reported to remove cadmium and lead from water. The aim of this work was to clarify the mechanisms of cadmium and lead removal from water. In addition, the effect of other metals, reversibility of binding and recyclability of the biomass was assessed. Based on our earlier data, the two most promising lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus fermentum ME3 and Bifidobacterium longum 46, were selected for these experiments. The results showed that the presence of other cationic metals and blocking of carboxyl and phosphoryl groups reduced cadmium and lead removal. These results suggest involvement of electrostatic interactions in cadmium and lead removal, and support our earlier findings. Transmission electron micrographs showed large deposits of lead on the bacterial surface suggesting formation of metallic lead precipitates. Both cadmium and lead removal were reversible processes established by full recovery of removed metal after desorption with dilute solutions of EDTA and HNO(3). Resorption capacity of both biomasses tested was reduced after regeneration with 10 mM EDTA and 15 mM HNO(3). Taken together, the results suggest involvement of several reversible mechanisms such as ion exchange and precipitation in cadmium and lead binding by lactic acid bacteria. The results show that specific lactic acid bacteria have the potential for removal of cadmium and lead from water although reduction in resorption capacity after regeneration of the biomass may form a problem. Since the studies so far have mainly focused on removal of single metals from pure water, metal removal in conditions of natural waters should be assessed in further experiments.

  10. Productivity Analysis of the Botosani Karakul Sheep Depending on the Genetic Types of Serum Transferrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Hrincă

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the sheep productivity of the Botosani Karakul breed in relation to their belonging in different transferrin genotypes. Thirteen electrophoretic phenotypes of transferrin have been identified in this breed. Experimental results show that it is possible to establish correlations between genetic types of serum transferrin and quantitative characteristics of production (meat, wool, milk in this breed depending on age and sex of animals. In lambs, the values of the productive parameters are more grouped in most transferrin genotypes, while in adult animals, more important differentiations of productivity occur among different transferrin genotypes. In adult animals, the productive differentiation among the genotypes Tf is more obvious in rams than in ewes. Irrespective of age and sex, the differences of productivity among transferrin genotypes, in their reciprocity, seldom present significant statistical assurance, a relatively frequent part of them is situated near the first critical threshold of significance, and most of them are unsignificant. Thus, a certain production metabolism is characteristic to each genotype transferrin. But the transferrin genotypes which enhance the sheep productivity, those that differ significantly from the rest of transferrin genotypes, deserve to be taken into account, in the selection works of this breed for its productive improvement.

  11. Iron exchange between transferrin molecules mediated by phosphate compounds and other cell metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, E H

    1977-08-25

    The ability of a large number of cellular metabolites to release iron from transferrin was investigated by measuring the rate at which they could mediate iron exchange between two types of transferrin. Rabbit transferrin labelled with 59Fe was incubated with human apotransferrin in the presence of the metabolites. After varying periods of incubation the human transferrin was separated from the rabbit transferrin by immunoprecipitation. GTP, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, ATP, ADP and citrate produced the most rapid exchange of iron between the two types of transferrin, but many other compounds showed some degree of activity. Iron exchange mediated by the organic phosphates had the characteristics of a single first-order reaction and was sensitive to changes of incubation temperature and pH. The activation energy for the exchange reaction was approx. 13 kcal/mol. The rate of iron exchange from the oxalate - iron - transferrin complex was much lower than from bicarbonate - iron - transferrin. It is concluded that several organic phosphates have the capacity of releasing iron from transferrin. These compounds may represent the means by which the iron is released during the process of cellular uptake.

  12. Distinctive receptor binding properties of the surface glycoprotein of a natural Feline Leukemia Virus isolate with unusual disease spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albritton Lorraine M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline leukemia virus (FeLV-945, a member of the FeLV-A subgroup, was previously isolated from a cohort of naturally infected cats. An unusual multicentric lymphoma of non-T-cell origin was observed in natural and experimental infection with FeLV-945. Previous studies implicated the FeLV-945 surface glycoprotein (SU as a determinant of disease outcome by an as yet unknown mechanism. The present studies demonstrate that FeLV-945 SU confers distinctive properties of binding to the cell surface receptor. Results Virions bearing the FeLV-945 Env protein were observed to bind the cell surface receptor with significantly increased efficiency, as was soluble FeLV-945 SU protein, as compared to the corresponding virions or soluble protein from a prototype FeLV-A isolate. SU proteins cloned from other cohort isolates exhibited increased binding efficiency comparable to or greater than FeLV-945 SU. Mutational analysis implicated a domain containing variable region B (VRB to be the major determinant of increased receptor binding, and identified a single residue, valine 186, to be responsible for the effect. Conclusions The FeLV-945 SU protein binds its cell surface receptor, feTHTR1, with significantly greater efficiency than does that of prototype FeLV-A (FeLV-A/61E when present on the surface of virus particles or in soluble form, demonstrating a 2-fold difference in the relative dissociation constant. The results implicate a single residue, valine 186, as the major determinant of increased binding affinity. Computational modeling suggests a molecular mechanism by which residue 186 interacts with the receptor-binding domain through residue glutamine 110 to effect increased binding affinity. Through its increased receptor binding affinity, FeLV-945 SU might function in pathogenesis by increasing the rate of virus entry and spread in vivo, or by facilitating entry into a novel target cell with a low receptor density.

  13. Characterization of sperm surface protein patterns of ejaculated and capacitated boar sperm, with the detection of ZP binding candidates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zigo, Michal; Jonáková, Věra; Šulc, Miroslav; Maňásková-Postlerová, Pavla

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, oct (2013), s. 322-328 ISSN 0141-8130 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/12/1834 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Sperm surface protein * Zona pellucida-binding receptors * PKDREJ protein Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.096, year: 2013

  14. Dispersion relation and self-collimation frequency of spoof surface plasmon using tight binding model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Sayak; Shah, Kushal

    2015-01-01

    The analytical dispersion relation of spoof surface plasmon (SSP) is known only in the low-frequency limit and thus cannot be used to describe various practically important characteristics of SSP in the high-frequency limit (such as multimodal nature, anisotropic propagation, self-collimation). In this article, we consider a square lattice of holes made on a perfect electric conductor and derive a closed form expression of the SSP dispersion relation in the high-frequency limit using a tight binding model. Instead of using prior knowledge of the band diagram along the entire first Brillouin zone (BZ) edge, we analytically determine the hopping parameters by using the eigenfrequencies only at the three high-symmetry points of the square lattice. Using this dispersion relation, we derive an expression for the self-collimation frequency of SSP. We show that this analytical formulation is also applicable to dielectric photonic crystals and can be used to predict the frequencies corresponding to centimetre-scale supercollimation and second band self-collimation in these structures. Finally, we show that our analytical results are in agreement with the simulation results for both SSP and photonic crystals. (paper)

  15. Enhanced expression of transferrin receptor confers UV-resistance in human and monkey cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zheng; Nomura, Jun; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Nobuo

    2005-01-01

    One of the most intriguing biological subjects is cell-surface molecules that regulate the susceptibility of human cells to cell-killing effects after irradiation with far-ultraviolet light (UV, principally 254 nm wavelength). Human RSa cells have unusual sensitivity to UV-induced cell-killing. We searched for molecules on the cell-surface of RSa cells that were present in different amounts as compared to a variant of these cells, UV r -1 cells, which have increased resistance to UV cell-killing. Among the 21 molecules examined, the amount of transferrin receptor (TfR) protein was found to be 2-fold higher in UV r -1 cells compared with in RSa cells. The amounts of this protein were also higher in the UV-resistant hematopoietic cell lines, CEM6 and Daudi, as compared to the UV-sensitive cell lines, Molt4 and 697. Culturing of UV r -1 cells in a medium containing anti-transferrin antibodies resulted in sensitization of the cells to UV cell-killing as demonstrated by colony formation assay. Similar results were observed by treatment of the cells with TfR siRNA. In contrast, overexpression of TfR protein led to a resistance to UV cell-killing in RSa cells and monkey COS7 cells as demonstrated by both colony formation and apoptosis assay. In TfR-overexpressing cells, reduction of p53 and Bax protein was observed after UV-irradiation. Thus, TfR expression appears to be involved in the regulation of UV-resistance, possibly via modulation of the amount of p53 and Bax protein. (author)

  16. Equilibrium and kinetics of Sin Nombre hantavirus binding at DAF/CD55 functionalized bead surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranda, Tione; Swanson, Scarlett; Bondu, Virginie; Schaefer, Leah; Maclean, James; Mo, Zhenzhen; Wycoff, Keith; Belle, Archana; Hjelle, Brian

    2014-03-10

    Decay accelerating factor (DAF/CD55) is targeted by many pathogens for cell entry. It has been implicated as a co-receptor for hantaviruses. To examine the binding of hantaviruses to DAF, we describe the use of Protein G beads for binding human IgG Fc domain-functionalized DAF ((DAF)₂-Fc). When mixed with Protein G beads the resulting DAF beads can be used as a generalizable platform for measuring kinetic and equilibrium binding constants of DAF binding targets. The hantavirus interaction has high affinity (24-30 nM; k(on) ~ 10⁵ M⁻¹ s⁻¹, k(off) ~ 0.0045 s⁻¹). The bivalent (DAF)₂-Fc/SNV data agree with hantavirus binding to DAF expressed on Tanoue B cells (K(d) = 14.0 nM). Monovalent affinity interaction between SNV and recombinant DAF of 58.0 nM is determined from competition binding. This study serves a dual purpose of presenting a convenient and quantitative approach of measuring binding affinities between DAF and the many cognate viral and bacterial ligands and providing new data on the binding constant of DAF and Sin Nombre hantavirus. Knowledge of the equilibrium binding constant allows for the determination of the relative fractions of bound and free virus particles in cell entry assays. This is important for drug discovery assays for cell entry inhibitors.

  17. Nucleolin inhibits Fas ligand binding and suppresses Fas-mediated apoptosis in vivo via a surface nucleolin-Fas complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Jillian F; Berkova, Zuzana; Mathur, Rohit; Zhu, Haifeng; Braun, Frank K; Tao, Rong-Hua; Sabichi, Anita L; Ao, Xue; Maeng, Hoyoung; Samaniego, Felipe

    2013-06-06

    Resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis is associated with poor cancer outcomes and chemoresistance. To elucidate potential mechanisms of defective Fas signaling, we screened primary lymphoma cell extracts for Fas-associated proteins that would have the potential to regulate Fas signaling. An activation-resistant Fas complex selectively included nucleolin. We confirmed the presence of nucleolin-Fas complexes in B-cell lymphoma cells and primary tissues, and the absence of such complexes in B-lymphocytes from healthy donors. RNA-binding domain 4 and the glycine/arginine-rich domain of nucleolin were essential for its association with Fas. Nucleolin colocalized with Fas on the surface of B-cell lymphoma cells. Nucleolin knockdown sensitized BJAB cells to Fas ligand (FasL)-induced and Fas agonistic antibody-induced apoptosis through enhanced binding, suggesting that nucleolin blocks the FasL-Fas interaction. Mice transfected with nucleolin were protected from the lethal effects of agonistic anti-mouse Fas antibody (Jo2) and had lower rates of hepatocyte apoptosis, compared with vector and a non-Fas-binding mutant of nucleolin. Our results show that cell surface nucleolin binds Fas, inhibits ligand binding, and thus prevents induction of Fas-mediated apoptosis in B-cell lymphomas and may serve as a new therapeutic target.

  18. Surface plasmon resonance imaging reveals multiple binding modes of Agrobacterium transformation mediator VirE2 to ssDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghyun; Zbaida, David; Elbaum, Michael; Leh, Hervé; Nogues, Claude; Buckle, Malcolm

    2015-07-27

    VirE2 is the major secreted protein of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in its genetic transformation of plant hosts. It is co-expressed with a small acidic chaperone VirE1, which prevents VirE2 oligomerization. After secretion into the host cell, VirE2 serves functions similar to a viral capsid in protecting the single-stranded transferred DNA en route to the nucleus. Binding of VirE2 to ssDNA is strongly cooperative and depends moreover on protein-protein interactions. In order to isolate the protein-DNA interactions, imaging surface plasmon resonance (SPRi) studies were conducted using surface-immobilized DNA substrates of length comparable to the protein-binding footprint. Binding curves revealed an important influence of substrate rigidity with a notable preference for poly-T sequences and absence of binding to both poly-A and double-stranded DNA fragments. Dissociation at high salt concentration confirmed the electrostatic nature of the interaction. VirE1-VirE2 heterodimers also bound to ssDNA, though by a different mechanism that was insensitive to high salt. Neither VirE2 nor VirE1-VirE2 followed the Langmuir isotherm expected for reversible monomeric binding. The differences reflect the cooperative self-interactions of VirE2 that are suppressed by VirE1. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Simulation analysis of the cellulase Cel7A carbohydrate binding module on the surface of the cellulose Iβ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekozai, Emal M. [Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); GhattyVenkataKrishna, Pavan K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Uberbacher, Edward C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Crowley, Michael F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Jeremy C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Cheng, Xiaolin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2013-08-22

    The Family 7 cellobiohydrolase (Cel7A) from Trichoderma reesei consists of a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) joined by a linker to a catalytic domain. Cellulose hydrolysis is limited by the accessibility of Cel7A to crystalline substrates, which is perceived to be primarily mediated by the CBM. The binding of CBM to the cellulose I fiber is characterized by combined Brownian dynamics (BD) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our results confirm that CBM prefers to dock to the hydrophobic than to the hydrophilic fiber faces. Both electrostatic (ES) and van der Waals (VDW) interactions are required for achieving the observed binding preference. The VDW interactions play a more important role in stabilizing the CBM-fiber binding, whereas the ES interactions contribute through the formation of a number of hydrogen bonds between the CBM and the fiber. At long distances, an ES steering effect is also observed that tends to align the CBM in an antiparallel manner relative to the fiber axis. Moreover, the MD results reveal hindered diffusion of the CBM on all fiber surfaces. The binding of the CBM to the hydrophobic surfaces is found to involve partial dewetting at the CBM-fiber interface coupled with local structural arrangements of the protein. The present simulation results complement and rationalize a large body of previous work and provide detailed insights into the mechanism of the CBM-cellulose fiber interactions.

  20. Study of the binding of {sup 114m}In radiotracer to human serum components by ultrafiltration and chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulle, M. van; De Cremer, K.; Cornelis, R. [Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium). Lab. for Analytical Chemistry

    2000-10-01

    The chemical speciation of indium in serum was studied. Ultrafiltration was used to investigate the influence of several buffer systems on the binding characteristics of indium in serum and to study the association of indium with transferrin and albumin. This was performed by means of batch incubation experiments with a {sup 114m}In tracer. Different buffer systems were investigated. A series of bicarbonate, Tris:HCl and HEPES buffers were found to fit for this purpose. Phosphate buffer was not suitable, as it is capable of disrupting the binding between indium and transferrin. Batch ultrafiltration experiments with {sup 114m}In incubated solutions of transferrin and albumin showed that both proteins are capable of binding indium to a high degree. Three chromatographic techniques (SEC, AEC, AC) were used to study the different chemically active species of indium in serum. It is concluded that next to transferrin, albumin is also responsible for the binding and transport of indium in serum. (orig.)

  1. Development of a Surface Plasmon Resonance Assay for the Characterization of Small-Molecule Binding Kinetics and Mechanism of Binding to Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poda, Suresh B; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Nachane, Ruta; Menon, Veena; Gandhi, Adarsh S; Budac, David P; Li, Guiying; Campbell, Brian M; Tagmose, Lena

    2015-10-01

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), a pivotal enzyme in the kynurenine pathway, was identified as a potential therapeutic target for treating neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. In this article, we describe a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay that delivers both kinetics and the mechanism of binding (MoB) data, enabling a detailed characterization of KMO inhibitors for the enzyme in real time. SPR assay development included optimization of the protein construct and the buffer conditions. The stability and inhibitor binding activity of the immobilized KMO were significantly improved when the experiments were performed at 10°C using a buffer containing 0.05% n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside (DDM) as the detergent. The KD values of the known KMO inhibitors (UPF648 and RO61-8048) from the SPR assay were in good accordance with the biochemical LC/MS/MS assay. Also, the SPR assay was able to differentiate the binding kinetics (k(a) and k(d)) of the selected unknown KMO inhibitors. For example, the inhibitors that showed comparable IC50 values in the LC/MS/MS assay displayed differences in their residence time (τ = 1/k(d)) in the SPR assay. To better define the MoB of the inhibitors to KMO, an SPR-based competition assay was developed, which demonstrated that both UPF648 and RO61-8048 bound to the substrate-binding site. These results demonstrate the potential of the SPR assay for characterizing the affinity, the kinetics, and the MoB profiles of the KMO inhibitors.

  2. A semi-grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation model for ion binding to ionizable surfaces: proton binding of carboxylated latex particles as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madurga, Sergio; Rey-Castro, Carlos; Pastor, Isabel; Vilaseca, Eudald; David, Calin; Garcés, Josep Lluís; Puy, Jaume; Mas, Francesc

    2011-11-14

    In this paper, we present a computer simulation study of the ion binding process at an ionizable surface using a semi-grand canonical Monte Carlo method that models the surface as a discrete distribution of charged and neutral functional groups in equilibrium with explicit ions modelled in the context of the primitive model. The parameters of the simulation model were tuned and checked by comparison with experimental titrations of carboxylated latex particles in the presence of different ionic strengths of monovalent ions. The titration of these particles was analysed by calculating the degree of dissociation of the latex functional groups vs. pH curves at different background salt concentrations. As the charge of the titrated surface changes during the simulation, a procedure to keep the electroneutrality of the system is required. Here, two approaches are used with the choice depending on the ion selected to maintain electroneutrality: counterion or coion procedures. We compare and discuss the difference between the procedures. The simulations also provided a microscopic description of the electrostatic double layer (EDL) structure as a function of pH and ionic strength. The results allow us to quantify the effect of the size of the background salt ions and of the surface functional groups on the degree of dissociation. The non-homogeneous structure of the EDL was revealed by plotting the counterion density profiles around charged and neutral surface functional groups. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  3. Transferrin variation and evolution of Canadian barren-ground caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut H. Røed

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples were obtained from 95 barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus of the Beverly herd in Northwest Territories, Canada. Polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis was used to score for genetic variation in the locus coding for transferrin. The pattern of allele frequency distribution are compared with previously reported values of Eurasian tundra reindeer (R.t. tarandus, Alaska caribou (R.t. granti, Peary caribou (R.t. pearyi, and Svalbard reindeer (R.t. platyrhynchus. In the Beverly herd a total of 21 different transferrin alleles were detected. The amount of genetic variation was higher in the Canadian barren-ground caribou than what has been detected in other subspecies of reindeer/caribou. Highly gene-tical differences in the allele frequencies were detected between the Canadian barren-ground caribou and the other subspecies. The genetic identity analyses indicates approximately the same amount of genetic differentiation when the Canadian barren-ground caribou are compared with Alaska caribou as with the Peary caribou. The allele frequency pattern could be explained by a possible origin of the Canadian barren-ground caribou from an ancestral population which was genetical influenced by animals surviving the We-ichselian glaciation in refugia both in high Arctic, in Beringia, and south of the ice sheet.

  4. Clinical usefulness of 111In transferrin scintigraphy in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Morihisa; Naruki, Yukihiko; Urita, Yosihisa; Nakatani, Naoto; Otsuka, Sachio; Noguchi, Masahiro; Takano, Masaaki; Maruyama, Yuuzou.

    1993-01-01

    As assessment was made regarding the clinical value of 111 In transferrin in scintigraphy on 28 lesions in 26 cases of colorectal cancer. The positive rate of colorectal cancer was high: 21 lesions out of the 28 (75%) were found to be positive. As for the location of cancer, there was a tendency for the positive rate to be high in the ascending and transverse colon. There was no obvious trend regarding Borrmann's classification, histological type, or macroscopic depth of invasion. There was a trend for cases in which the maximum diameter of the tumor was large and depth of invasion was in progress to be positive. Ten cases in which a specimen was resected were all shown to be positive by scintigraphy. Radioactivity in the tumorous regions was 4.41±2.96 times that of the non-tumorous regions. Moreover, tumorous tissue was strongly stained by the immuno-histological staining with anti-Tf-receptor antibody. From the above findings, it was considered that 111 In transferrin is clinically useful in scintigraphy, since it is evident that it accumulates in the tissue of colorectal cancer. (author)

  5. BLOOD PROTEIN TRANSFERRIN POLYMOROPHISM IN BLACK BENGAL GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Paul

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out with an aim to explore the polymorphism of a blood protein tranferrin using starch gel electrophoresis technique in a total of unrelated 199 Black Bengal goats available in four different districts of West Bengal, India. Banding patterns of transferrin in starch gel revealed six phenovariants TfAA, TfAB, TfBC, TfBB, TfAC and TfCC comprising of three allelomorphs, TfA, TfB and TfC. The genotype frequencies were found to be observed 0.211, 0.347, 0.136, 0.106, 0.136 and 0.065 for six genotypes and the allelic frequencies were 0.452, 0.347 and 0.201 for three alleles, respectively. Result of Chi-square test revealed that the population under study was in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium. There were polymorphism in Transferrin protein and the presence of differences among the frequencies of the three alleles by categories could be a source of genetic variation in Black Bengal goat.

  6. The salivary scavenger and agglutinin (SALSA binds MBL and regulates the lectin pathway of complement in solution and on surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eParnov Reichhardt

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR protein SALSA, also known as gp340, salivary agglutinin (SAG and deleted in malignant brain tumor 1 (DMBT1, is a 340 kDa glycoprotein expressed on mucosal surfaces and secreted into several body fluids. SALSA binds to a broad variety of microbes and endogenous ligands, such as complement factor C1q, surfactant proteins D and A (SP-D and SP-A and IgA. Our search for novel ligands of SALSA by direct protein-interaction studies led to the identification of mannan binding lectin (MBL as a new binding partner. We observed that surface-associated SALSA activates complement via binding of MBL. On the other hand, soluble SALSA was found to inhibit C. albicans-induced complement activation. Thus, SALSA has a dual complement regulatory function. It activates the lectin pathway when bound to a surface and inhibits it when free in the fluid-phase. These activities are mediated via a direct interaction with MBL.

  7. Comparison of transferrin isoform analysis by capillary electrophoresis and HPLC for screening congenital disorders of glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Mihika B; Dherai, Alpa J; Udani, Vrajesh P; Hegde, Anaita U; Desai, Neelu A; Ashavaid, Tester F

    2018-01-01

    Transferrin, a major glycoprotein has different isoforms depending on the number of sialic acid residues present on its oligosaccharide chain. Genetic variants of transferrin as well as the primary (CDG) & secondary glycosylation defects lead to an altered transferrin pattern. Isoform analysis methods are based on charge/mass variations. We aimed to compare the performance of commercially available capillary electrophoresis CDT kit for diagnosing congenital disorders of glycosylation with our in-house optimized HPLC method for transferrin isoform analysis. The isoform pattern of 30 healthy controls & 50 CDG-suspected patients was determined by CE using a Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin kit. The results were compared with in-house HPLC-based assay for transferrin isoforms. Transferrin isoform pattern for healthy individuals showed a predominant tetrasialo transferrin fraction followed by pentasialo, trisialo, and disialotransferrin. Two of 50 CDG-suspected patients showed the presence of asialylated isoforms. The results were comparable with isoform pattern obtained by HPLC. The commercial controls showed a <20% CV for each isoform. Bland Altman plot showed the difference plot to be within +1.96 with no systemic bias in the test results by HPLC & CE. The CE method is rapid, reproducible and comparable with HPLC and can be used for screening Glycosylation defects. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Molecular binding mechanisms of aqueous cadmium and lead to siderophores, bacteria and mineral surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Bhoopesh

    Recent studies have shown that diverse groups of bacteria adsorb metals to similar extents and uptake can be modeled using a universal adsorption model. In this study, XAFS has been used to resolve whether binding sites determined for single species systems are responsible for adsorption in more complex natural bacterial assemblages. Results obtained from a series of XAFS experiments on pure Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains and consortia of bacteria as a function of pH and Cd loading suggests that every bacterial strain has a complex physiology and they are all slightly different from each other. Nevertheless from the metal adsorption chemistry point of view, the main difference between them lies in the site ratio of three fundamental sites only - carboxyl, phosphoryl and sulfide. Two completely different consortia of bacteria (obtained from natural river water, and soil system with severe organic contamination) were successfully modeled in the pH range 3.4--7.8 using the EXAFS models developed for single species systems. Results thus obtained can potentially have very high impact on the modeling of the complex bacterial systems in realistic geological settings, leading to further refinement and development of robust remediation strategies for metal contamination at macroscopic level. In another study, solution speciation of Pb and Cd with DFO-B has been examined using a combination of techniques (ICP, TOC, thermodynamic modeling and XAFS). Results indicate that Pb does not complex with DFO-B at all until about pH 3.5, but forms a totally caged structure at pH 7.5. At intermediate pH conditions, mixture of species (one and two hydroxamate groups complexed) is formed. Cd on the other hand, does not complex until pH 5, forms intermediate complexes at pH 8 and is totally chelated at pH 9. Further studies were conducted for Pb sorption to mineral surface kaolinite with and without DFO-B. In the absence of DFO-B, results suggest outer sphere and inner

  9. Cell surface binding and uptake of arginine- and lysine-rich penetratin peptides in absence and presence of proteoglycans

    KAUST Repository

    Åmand, Helene L.

    2012-11-01

    Cell surface proteoglycans (PGs) appear to promote uptake of arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), but their exact functions are unclear. To address if there is specificity in the interactions of arginines and PGs leading to improved internalization, we used flow cytometry to examine uptake in relation to cell surface binding for penetratin and two arginine/lysine substituted variants (PenArg and PenLys) in wildtype CHO-K1 and PG-deficient A745 cells. All peptides were more efficiently internalized into CHO-K1 than into A745, but their cell surface binding was independent of cell type. Thus, PGs promote internalization of cationic peptides, irrespective of the chemical nature of their positive charges. Uptake of each peptide was linearly dependent on its cell surface binding, and affinity is thus important for efficiency. However, the gradients of these linear dependencies varied significantly. Thus each peptide\\'s ability to stimulate uptake once bound to the cell surface is reliant on formation of specific uptake-promoting interactions. Heparin affinity chromatography and clustering experiments showed that penetratin and PenArg binding to sulfated sugars is stabilized by hydrophobic interactions and result in clustering, whereas PenLys only interacts through electrostatic attraction. This may have implications for the molecular mechanisms behind arginine-specific uptake stimulation as penetratin and PenArg are more efficiently internalized than PenLys upon interaction with PGs. However, PenArg is also least affected by removal of PGs. This indicates that an increased arginine content not only improve PG-dependent uptake but also that PenArg is more adaptable as it can use several portals of entry into the cell. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Screening Mixtures of Small Molecules for Binding to Multiple Sites on the Surface Tetanus Toxin C Fragment by Bioaffinity NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosman, M; Zeller, L; Lightstone, F C; Krishnan, V V; Balhorn, R

    2002-01-01

    The clostridial neurotoxins include the closely related tetanus (TeNT) and botulinum (BoNT) toxins. Botulinum toxin is used to treat severe muscle disorders and as a cosmetic wrinkle reducer. Large quantities of botulinum toxin have also been produced by terrorists for use as a biological weapon. Because there are no known antidotes for these toxins, they thus pose a potential threat to human health whether by an accidental overdose or by a hostile deployment. Thus, the discovery of high specificity and affinity compounds that can inhibit their binding to neural cells can be used as antidotes or in the design of chemical detectors. Using the crystal structure of the C fragment of the tetanus toxin (TetC), which is the cell recognition and cell surface binding domain, and the computational program DOCK, sets of small molecules have been predicted to bind to two different sites located on the surface of this protein. While Site-1 is common to the TeNT and BoNTs, Site-2 is unique to TeNT. Pairs of these molecules from each site can then be linked together synthetically to thereby increase the specificity and affinity for this toxin. Electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy was used to experimentally screen each compound for binding. Mixtures containing binders were further screened for activity under biologically relevant conditions using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods. The screening of mixtures of compounds offers increased efficiency and throughput as compared to testing single compounds and can also evaluate how possible structural changes induced by the binding of one ligand can influence the binding of the second ligand. In addition, competitive binding experiments with mixtures containing ligands predicted to bind the same site could identify the best binder for that site. NMR transfer nuclear Overhauser effect (trNOE) confirm that TetC binds doxorubicin but that this molecule is displaced by N-acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid) in a mixture that

  11. α-Taxilin interacts with sorting nexin 4 and participates in the recycling pathway of transferrin receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Sakane

    Full Text Available Membrane traffic plays a crucial role in delivering proteins and lipids to their intracellular destinations. We previously identified α-taxilin as a binding partner of the syntaxin family, which is involved in intracellular vesicle traffic. α-Taxilin is overexpressed in tumor tissues and interacts with polymerized tubulin, but the precise function of α-taxilin remains unclear. Receptor proteins on the plasma membrane are internalized, delivered to early endosomes and then either sorted to the lysosome for degradation or recycled back to the plasma membrane. In this study, we found that knockdown of α-taxilin induced the lysosomal degradation of transferrin receptor (TfnR, a well-known receptor which is generally recycled back to the plasma membrane after internalization, and impeded the recycling of transferrin. α-Taxilin was immunoprecipitated with sorting nexin 4 (SNX4, which is involved in the recycling of TfnR. Furthermore, knockdown of α-taxilin decreased the number and length of SNX4-positive tubular structures. We report for the first time that α-taxilin interacts with SNX4 and plays a role in the recycling pathway of TfnR.

  12. Atomistic modeling determination of placeholder binding energy of Ti, C, and N atoms on a-Fe (100) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, X J; Liu, Y P; Han, S P

    2015-01-01

    A Fe(100) surface containing Ti, C, and N was constructed and optimized to study the placeholder binding energy of the Ti, C, and N surface atoms; this was achieved by searching the transition state with the LST (linear synchronous transit) method of the CASTEP (Cambridge Serial Total Energy Package) module. Also, the authors analyzed electron structures to determine how Ti, C, and N atoms strengthen the Fe(100) surface. The results show that when Ti, C, or N atoms take placeholder alone, or simultaneously at the Fe(100) surface, the structure stability is at its best. When including Ti, C, and N as solid solutions on the Fe(100) surface, orbital electrons of Fe3d, Ti3d, C2p, and N2p hybridize near the Fermi level; the number of electronic bonding peaks increase and bonding capacity enhances. Also, a large amount of covalent bonds formed. Covalent bonds and metallic bond coexisted. (paper)

  13. Crystal structure of the gamma-2 herpesvirus LANA DNA binding domain identifies charged surface residues which impact viral latency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Correia

    Full Text Available Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA mediates γ2-herpesvirus genome persistence and regulates transcription. We describe the crystal structure of the murine gammaherpesvirus-68 LANA C-terminal domain at 2.2 Å resolution. The structure reveals an alpha-beta fold that assembles as a dimer, reminiscent of Epstein-Barr virus EBNA1. A predicted DNA binding surface is present and opposite this interface is a positive electrostatic patch. Targeted DNA recognition substitutions eliminated DNA binding, while certain charged patch mutations reduced bromodomain protein, BRD4, binding. Virus containing LANA abolished for DNA binding was incapable of viable latent infection in mice. Virus with mutations at the charged patch periphery exhibited substantial deficiency in expansion of latent infection, while central region substitutions had little effect. This deficiency was independent of BRD4. These results elucidate the LANA DNA binding domain structure and reveal a unique charged region that exerts a critical role in viral latent infection, likely acting through a host cell protein(s.

  14. Mutations on the DNA binding surface of TBP discriminate between yeast TATA and TATA-less gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenova, Ivanka; Warfield, Linda; Hahn, Steven

    2014-08-01

    Most RNA polymerase (Pol) II promoters lack a TATA element, yet nearly all Pol II transcription requires TATA binding protein (TBP). While the TBP-TATA interaction is critical for transcription at TATA-containing promoters, it has been unclear whether TBP sequence-specific DNA contacts are required for transcription at TATA-less genes. Transcription factor IID (TFIID), the TBP-containing coactivator that functions at most TATA-less genes, recognizes short sequence-specific promoter elements in metazoans, but analogous promoter elements have not been identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We generated a set of mutations in the yeast TBP DNA binding surface and found that most support growth of yeast. Both in vivo and in vitro, many of these mutations are specifically defective for transcription of two TATA-containing genes with only minor defects in transcription of two TATA-less, TFIID-dependent genes. TBP binds several TATA-less promoters with apparent high affinity, but our results suggest that this binding is not important for transcription activity. Our results are consistent with the model that sequence-specific TBP-DNA contacts are not important at yeast TATA-less genes and suggest that other general transcription factors or coactivator subunits are responsible for recognition of TATA-less promoters. Our results also explain why yeast TBP derivatives defective for TATA binding appear defective in activated transcription. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Effects of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Surface Modification and Purification on Bovine Serum Albumin Binding and Biological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Bai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carboxylation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs has been used to improve solubility in aqueous systems and for further functionalization with biologically active moieties for biomedical uses. An important consideration is that oxidation debris is generated during the process of carboxylation, which can be removed by base washing. We hypothesized that surface modification as well as purification by debris removal may alter physicochemical properties of MWCNTs and their ability to bind proteins. We utilized pristine MWCNT, carboxylated MWCNTs (F-MWCNTs, and base-washed carboxylated MWCNTs (BW-F-MWCNTs to examine formation of a bovine serum albumin (BSA protein corona and impact on biological responses. We found that carboxylation increased the capability of F-MWCNTs to bind BSA, and base washing further increased this binding. Functionalization increased cellular uptake by rat aortic endothelial cells (RAEC and mouse macrophages (RAW264.7, while base washing showed results similar to the functionalized analog. Interestingly, BSA binding downregulated mRNA levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1 in RAEC cells but upregulated the expression of IL-6 and Hmox1 in RAW264.7 cells. Overall, our study demonstrated that surface modification as well as further purification impacted the interaction of MWCNTs with proteins and subsequent cellular responses.

  16. Radiochemical and immunohistochemical detection of low density lipoprotein surface binding by lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melzner, I.; Hambitzer, R.; Haferkamp, O.

    1983-01-01

    Human peripheral blood lymphocytes bind and take up low density lipoprotein (LDL) by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The binding of LDL was determiend by incubation with 125 I-LDL and an immunohistochemical assay. By both techniques a diminished rate of binding was found when cells were freshly isolated from the blood, but increased 5 to 10 fold when lymphocytes were incubated in lipoprotein-deficient medium for 72 hours. In addition, it was shown immunohistochemically that only few ceels showed an LDL-dependent fluorescent labelling: approximately 5 to 10 % of the freshly isolated lymphocytes and 40 to 50 % of the cells incubated for 72 hours under lipoprotein-free conditions. The present data indicate that not only the high affinity LDL receptor described by Goldstein and Braun may be involved in the uptake of cholesterol by lymphocytes, but also other binding sites, which may have immunological function in some lymphocyte subpopulations. (author)

  17. Deciphering the Arginine-binding preferences at the substrate-binding groove of Ser/Thr kinases by computational surface mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avraham Ben-Shimon

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinases are key signaling enzymes that catalyze the transfer of γ-phosphate from an ATP molecule to a phospho-accepting residue in the substrate. Unraveling the molecular features that govern the preference of kinases for particular residues flanking the phosphoacceptor is important for understanding kinase specificities toward their substrates and for designing substrate-like peptidic inhibitors. We applied ANCHORSmap, a new fragment-based computational approach for mapping amino acid side chains on protein surfaces, to predict and characterize the preference of kinases toward Arginine binding. We focus on positions P-2 and P-5, commonly occupied by Arginine (Arg in substrates of basophilic Ser/Thr kinases. The method accurately identified all the P-2/P-5 Arg binding sites previously determined by X-ray crystallography and produced Arg preferences that corresponded to those experimentally found by peptide arrays. The predicted Arg-binding positions and their associated pockets were analyzed in terms of shape, physicochemical properties, amino acid composition, and in-silico mutagenesis, providing structural rationalization for previously unexplained trends in kinase preferences toward Arg moieties. This methodology sheds light on several kinases that were described in the literature as having non-trivial preferences for Arg, and provides some surprising departures from the prevailing views regarding residues that determine kinase specificity toward Arg. In particular, we found that the preference for a P-5 Arg is not necessarily governed by the 170/230 acidic pair, as was previously assumed, but by several different pairs of acidic residues, selected from positions 133, 169, and 230 (PKA numbering. The acidic residue at position 230 serves as a pivotal element in recognizing Arg from both the P-2 and P-5 positions.

  18. Co-binding of pharmaceutical compounds at mineral surfaces: Molecular investigations of dimer formation at goethite/water interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Xu , Jing; Marsac , Rémi; Costa , Dominique; Cheng , Wei; Wu , Feng; Boily , Jean-François; Hanna , Khalil

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The emergence of antibiotic and anti-inflammatory agents in aquatic and terrestrial systems is becoming a serious threat to human and animal health worldwide. Because pharmaceutical compounds rarely exist individually in nature, interactions between various compounds can have unforeseen effects on their binding to mineral surfaces. This work demonstrates this important possibility for the case of two typical antibiotic and anti-inflammatory agents (nalidixic acid (NA) ...

  19. Lethal Cardiomyopathy in Mice Lacking Transferrin Receptor in the Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Xu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Both iron overload and iron deficiency have been associated with cardiomyopathy and heart failure, but cardiac iron utilization is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that the transferrin receptor (Tfr1 might play a role in cardiac iron uptake and used gene targeting to examine the role of Tfr1 in vivo. Surprisingly, we found that decreased iron, due to inactivation of Tfr1, was associated with severe cardiac consequences. Mice lacking Tfr1 in the heart died in the second week of life and had cardiomegaly, poor cardiac function, failure of mitochondrial respiration, and ineffective mitophagy. The phenotype could only be rescued by aggressive iron therapy, but it was ameliorated by administration of nicotinamide riboside, an NAD precursor. Our findings underscore the importance of both Tfr1 and iron in the heart, and may inform therapy for patients with heart failure.

  20. Use of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to study the dissociation and polysaccharide binding of casein micelles and caseins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Abby K; Singh, Harjinder; Dalgleish, Douglas G

    2010-11-24

    Tests were made to determine whether surface plasmon resonance (SPR) could be used as a technique to study the dissociation properties of bovine casein micelles or of sodium caseinate and the interactions between these protein particles and different polysaccharides. Surfaces of bound micelles or caseinate were made, and the changes in refractive index of these layers were used to define changes in the structures of the chemisorbed material. The technique appears to have some potential for studying details of the dissociation of casein micelles and of the binding of different polysaccharides to caseins.

  1. Transferrin-facilitated lipofection gene delivery strategy: characterization of the transfection complexes and intracellular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshee, Nirmal; Bastola, Dhundy R; Cheng, Pi-Wan

    2002-11-01

    We previously showed that mixing transferrin with a cationic liposome prior to the addition of DNA, greatly enhanced the lipofection efficiency. Here, we report characterization of the transfection complexes in formulations prepared with transferrin, lipofectin, and DNA (pCMVlacZ) in various formulations. DNA in all the formulations that contain lipofectin was resistant to DNase I treatment. Transfection experiments performed in Panc 1 cells showed that the standard formulation, which was prepared by adding DNA to a mixture of transferrin and lipofectin, yielded highest transfection efficiency. There was no apparent difference in zeta potential among these formulations, but the most efficient formulation contained complexes with a mean diameter of three to four times that of liposome and the complexes in other gene delivery formulations. Transmission electron microscopic examination of the standard transfection complexes formulated using gold-labeled transferrin showed extended circular DNA decorated with transferrin as compared to extensively condensed DNA found in lipofectin-DNA complexes and heterogeneous structures in other formulations. By confocal microscopy, DNA and transferrin were found to colocalize at the perinuclear space and in the nucleus, suggesting cotransportation intracellularly, including nuclear transport. We propose that transferrin enhances the transfection efficiency of the standard lipofection formulation by preventing DNA condensation, and facilitating endocytosis and nuclear targeting.

  2. A facile drug delivery system preparation through the interaction between drug and iron ion of transferrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Lin; Liu, Jihua; Wei, Shaohua; Ge, Xuefeng; Zhou, Jiahong; Yu, Boyang; Shen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Many anticancer drugs have the capability to form stable complex with metal ions. Based on such property, a simple method to combine these drugs with transferrin, through the interaction between drug and Fe ion of transferrin, to improve their anticancer activity, is proposed. To demonstrate this technique, the complex of photosensitive anticancer drug hypocrellin A and transferrin was prepared by such facile method. The results indicated that the complex of hypocrellin A and transferrin can stabilize in aqueous solution. In vitro studies have demonstrated the superior cancer cell uptake ability of hypocrellin A–transferrin complex to the free hypocrellin A. Significant damage to such drug-impregnated tumor cells was observed upon irradiation and the cancer cells killing ability of hypocrellin A–transferrin was stronger than the free hypocrellin A within a certain range of concentrations. The above results demonstrated the validity and potential of our proposed strategy to prepare the drug delivery system of this type of anti-cancer drugs and transferrin

  3. Evidence that transferrin supports cell proliferation by supplying iron for DNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskey, J.; Webb, I.; Schulman, H.M.; Ponka, P.

    1988-01-01

    Transferrin is essential for cell proliferation and it was suggested that it may trigger a proliferative response following its interaction with receptors, serving as a growth factor. However, since the only clearly defined function of transferrin is iron transport, it may merely serve as an iron donor. To further clarify this issue, the authors took advantage of an iron chelate, ferric salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (Fe-SIH), which they developed and previously demonstrated to efficiently supply iron to cells without using physiological transferrin receptor pathway. As expected, they observed that blocking monoclonal antibodies against transferrin receptors inhibited proliferation of both Raji and murine erythroleukemia cells. This inhibited cell growth was rescued upon the addition of Fe-SIH which was also shown to deliver iron to Raji cells in the presence of blocking anti-transferrin receptor antibodies. Moreover, blocking anti-transferrin receptor antibodies inhibited [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation into DNA and this inhibition could be overcome by added Fe-SIH. In addition, Fe-SIH slightly stimulated, while SIH (an iron chelator) significantly inhibited, DNA synthesis in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that the only function of transferrin supporting cell proliferation is to supply cells with iron

  4. A facile drug delivery system preparation through the interaction between drug and iron ion of transferrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Lin [Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Key Laboratory Biofunctional Materials, Key Laboratory of Applied Photochemistry, Analysis and Testing Center, College of Chemistry and Materials Science (China); Liu, Jihua [China Pharmaceutical University, Department of Complex Prescription of TCM (China); Wei, Shaohua; Ge, Xuefeng; Zhou, Jiahong, E-mail: zhoujiahong@njnu.edu.cn [Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Key Laboratory Biofunctional Materials, Key Laboratory of Applied Photochemistry, Analysis and Testing Center, College of Chemistry and Materials Science (China); Yu, Boyang, E-mail: boyangyu59@163.com [China Pharmaceutical University, Department of Complex Prescription of TCM (China); Shen, Jian [Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Key Laboratory Biofunctional Materials, Key Laboratory of Applied Photochemistry, Analysis and Testing Center, College of Chemistry and Materials Science (China)

    2013-09-15

    Many anticancer drugs have the capability to form stable complex with metal ions. Based on such property, a simple method to combine these drugs with transferrin, through the interaction between drug and Fe ion of transferrin, to improve their anticancer activity, is proposed. To demonstrate this technique, the complex of photosensitive anticancer drug hypocrellin A and transferrin was prepared by such facile method. The results indicated that the complex of hypocrellin A and transferrin can stabilize in aqueous solution. In vitro studies have demonstrated the superior cancer cell uptake ability of hypocrellin A-transferrin complex to the free hypocrellin A. Significant damage to such drug-impregnated tumor cells was observed upon irradiation and the cancer cells killing ability of hypocrellin A-transferrin was stronger than the free hypocrellin A within a certain range of concentrations. The above results demonstrated the validity and potential of our proposed strategy to prepare the drug delivery system of this type of anti-cancer drugs and transferrin.

  5. Insights into cellulase-lignin non-specific binding revealed by computational redesign of the surface of green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarmeyer, Carolyn N; Smith, Matthew D; Chundawat, Shishir P S; Sammond, Deanne; Whitehead, Timothy A

    2017-04-01

    Biological-mediated conversion of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels and biochemicals is a promising avenue toward energy sustainability. However, a critical impediment to the commercialization of cellulosic biofuel production is the high cost of cellulase enzymes needed to deconstruct biomass into fermentable sugars. One major factor driving cost is cellulase adsorption and inactivation in the presence of lignin, yet we currently have a poor understanding of the protein structure-function relationships driving this adsorption. In this work, we have systematically investigated the role of protein surface potential on lignin adsorption using a model monomeric fluorescent protein. We have designed and experimentally characterized 16 model protein variants spanning the physiological range of net charge (-24 to +16 total charges) and total charge density (0.28-0.40 charges per sequence length) typical for natural proteins. Protein designs were expressed, purified, and subjected to in silico and in vitro biophysical measurements to evaluate the relationship between protein surface potential and lignin adsorption properties. The designs were comparable to model fluorescent protein in terms of thermostability and heterologous expression yield, although the majority of the designs unexpectedly formed homodimers. Protein adsorption to lignin was studied at two different temperatures using Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring and a subtractive mass balance assay. We found a weak correlation between protein net charge and protein-binding capacity to lignin. No other single characteristic, including apparent melting temperature and 2nd virial coefficient, showed correlation with lignin binding. Analysis of an unrelated cellulase dataset with mutations localized to a family I carbohydrate-binding module showed a similar correlation between net charge and lignin binding capacity. Overall, our study provides strategies to identify highly active, low

  6. Selective binding of oligonucleotide on TiO2 surfaces modified by swift heavy ion beam lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente Pérez-Girón, J.; Hirtz, M.; McAtamney, C.; Bell, A.P.; Antonio Mas, J.; Jaafar, M.; Luis, O. de; Fuchs, H.

    2014-01-01

    We have used swift heavy-ion beam based lithography to create patterned bio-functional surfaces on rutile TiO 2 single crystals. The applied lithography method generates a permanent and well defined periodic structure of micrometre sized square holes having nanostructured TiO 2 surfaces, presenting different physical and chemical properties compared to the surrounding rutile single crystal surface. On the patterned substrates selective binding of oligonucleotides molecules is possible at the surfaces of the holes. This immobilisation process is only being controlled by UV light exposure. The patterned transparent substrates are compatible with fluorescence detection techniques, are mechanically robust, have a high tolerance to extreme chemical and temperature environments, and apparently do not degrade after ten cycles of use. These qualities make the patterned TiO 2 substrates useful for potential biosensor applications

  7. Selective binding of oligonucleotide on TiO{sub 2} surfaces modified by swift heavy ion beam lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente Pérez-Girón, J. [Nanoate, S.L. C/Poeta Rafael Morales 2, San Sebastian de los Reyes, 28702 Madrid (Spain); Emerging Viruses Department Heinrich Pette Institute, Hamburg 20251 (Germany); Hirtz, M. [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT) and Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); McAtamney, C.; Bell, A.P. [Advanced Microscopy Laboratory, CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Antonio Mas, J. [Laboratorio de Genómica del Centro de Apoyo Tecnológico, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Campus de Alcorcón 28922, Madrid (Spain); Jaafar, M. [Nanoate, S.L. C/Poeta Rafael Morales 2, San Sebastian de los Reyes, 28702 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Luis, O. de [Nanoate, S.L. C/Poeta Rafael Morales 2, San Sebastian de los Reyes, 28702 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Bioquímica, Fisiología y Genética Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Campus de Alcorcón, 28922 Madrid (Spain); Fuchs, H. [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT) and Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Physical Institute and Center for Nanotechnology (CeNTech), Wilhelm-Klemm-Straße 10, University of Münster (Germany); and others

    2014-11-15

    We have used swift heavy-ion beam based lithography to create patterned bio-functional surfaces on rutile TiO{sub 2} single crystals. The applied lithography method generates a permanent and well defined periodic structure of micrometre sized square holes having nanostructured TiO{sub 2} surfaces, presenting different physical and chemical properties compared to the surrounding rutile single crystal surface. On the patterned substrates selective binding of oligonucleotides molecules is possible at the surfaces of the holes. This immobilisation process is only being controlled by UV light exposure. The patterned transparent substrates are compatible with fluorescence detection techniques, are mechanically robust, have a high tolerance to extreme chemical and temperature environments, and apparently do not degrade after ten cycles of use. These qualities make the patterned TiO{sub 2} substrates useful for potential biosensor applications.

  8. Ribosomal protein L5 has a highly twisted concave surface and flexible arms responsible for rRNA binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, T; Yao, M; Kawamura, S; Iwasaki, K; Kimura, M; Tanaka, I

    2001-05-01

    Ribosomal protein L5 is a 5S rRNA binding protein in the large subunit and plays an essential role in the promotion of a particular conformation of 5S rRNA. The crystal structure of the ribosomal protein L5 from Bacillus stearothermophilus has been determined at 1.8 A resolution. The molecule consists of a five-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet and four alpha-helices, which fold in a way that is topologically similar to the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) domain. The molecular shape and electrostatic representation suggest that the concave surface and loop regions are involved in 5S rRNA binding. To identify amino acid residues responsible for 5S rRNA binding, we made use of Ala-scanning mutagenesis of evolutionarily conserved amino acids occurring in the beta-strands and loop regions. The mutations of Asn37 at the beta1-strand and Gln63 at the loop between helix 2 and beta3-strand as well as that of Phe77 at the tip of the loop structure between the beta2- and beta3-strands caused a significant reduction in 5S rRNA binding. In addition, the mutations of Thr90 on the beta3-strand and Ile141 and Asp144 at the loop between beta4- and beta5-strands moderately reduced the 5S rRNA-binding affinity. Comparison of these results with the more recently analyzed structure of the 50S subunit from Haloarcula marismortui suggests that there are significant differences in the structure at N- and C-terminal regions and probably in the 5S rRNA binding.

  9. Analysis of myelomonocytic leukemic differentiation by a cell surface marker panel including a fucose-binding lectin from Lotus tetragonolobus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, L; Van Epps, D E

    1984-06-01

    The fucose-binding lectin from Lotus tetragonolobus ( FBL -L) has been previously shown to bind specifically to normal cells of the myeloid and monocytic lineages. The purpose of this study was to explore the utility of fluoresceinated FBL -L as a leukemia differentiation marker in conjunction with a panel of other frequently used surface markers (Fc receptor, HLA-DR, OKM1, and antimonocyte antibody). FBL -L reacted with leukemic cells in 8/9 cases of clinically recognized acute myeloid leukemia, including myeloid blast crisis of chronic granulocytic leukemia, 3/3 cases of chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia, and in 2/7 cases of clinically undifferentiated acute leukemia. Correlations were noted between reactivity with FBL -L, and DR and Fc receptor expression. Among continuous cell lines, FBL -L bound with high intensity to a majority of HL-60 and U937 cells. The less well differentiated myeloblast cell lines, KG-1, KG1a , and HL-60 blast II, exhibited less FBL -L binding than HL-60 and U937. A moderate proportion of K562 cells exhibited low level binding of FBL -L. Several lymphoblastic cell lines exhibited a pattern of low intensity binding that was distinguishable from the high intensity binding pattern of the myeloblastic lines. FBL -L reactivity of U937 was enhanced by induction of differentiation with leukocyte conditioned medium, but not dimethylsulfoxide. Such treatments induced contrasting patterns of change of HL-60 and U937 when labeled with OKM1, alpha-Mono, and HLA-DR. These studies demonstrate the application of FBL -L to analysis and quantitation of myelomonocytic leukemic differentiation.

  10. Anti-transferrin receptor antibody and antibody-drug conjugates cross the blood-brain barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friden, P.M.; Walus, L.R.; Musso, G.F.; Taylor, M.A.; Malfroy, B.; Starzyk, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Delivery of nonlipophilic drugs to the brain is hindered by the tightly apposed capillary endothelial cells that make up the blood-brain barrier. The authors have examined the ability of a monoclonal antibody (OX-26), which recognizes the rat transferrin receptor, to function as a carrier for the delivery of drugs across the blood-brain barrier. This antibody, which was previously shown to bind preferentially to capillary endothelial cells in the brain after intravenous administration, labels the entire cerebrovascular bed in a dose-dependent manner. The initially uniform labeling of brain capillaries becomes extremely punctate ∼ 4 hr after injection, suggesting a time-dependent sequestering of the antibody. Capillary-depletion experiments, in which the brain is separated into capillary and parenchymal fractions, show a time-dependent migration of radiolabeled antibody from the capillaries into the brain parenchyma, which is consistent with the transcytosis of compounds across the blood-brain barrier. Antibody-methotrexate conjugates were tested in vivo to assess the carrier ability of this antibody. Immunohistochemical staining for either component of an OX-26-methotrexate conjugate revealed patterns of cerebrovascular labeling identical to those observed with the unaltered antibody. Accumulation of radiolabeled methotrexate in the brain parenchyma is greatly enhanced when the drug is conjugated to OX-26

  11. Soluble Form of Canine Transferrin Receptor Inhibits Canine Parvovirus Infection In Vitro and In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jiexia; Pan, Sumin; Liang, Shuang; Zhong, Zhenyu; He, Ying; Lin, Hongyu; Li, Wenyan; Wang, Liyue; Li, Xiujin; Zhong, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) disease is an acute, highly infectious disease threatening the dog-raising industry. So far there are no effective therapeutic strategies to control this disease. Although the canine transferrin receptor (TfR) was identified as a receptor for CPV infection, whether extracellular domain of TfR (called soluble TfR (sTfR)) possesses anti-CPV activities remains elusive. Here, we used the recombinant sTfR prepared from HEK293T cells with codon-optimized gene structure to investigate its anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that codon optimization could significantly improve sTfR expression in HEK293T cells. The prepared recombinant sTfR possessed a binding activity to both CPV and CPV VP2 capsid proteins and significantly inhibited CPV infection of cultured feline F81 cells and decreased the mortality of CPV-infected dogs, which indicates that the sTfR has the anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24089666

  12. Soluble Form of Canine Transferrin Receptor Inhibits Canine Parvovirus Infection In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiexia Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV disease is an acute, highly infectious disease threatening the dog-raising industry. So far there are no effective therapeutic strategies to control this disease. Although the canine transferrin receptor (TfR was identified as a receptor for CPV infection, whether extracellular domain of TfR (called soluble TfR (sTfR possesses anti-CPV activities remains elusive. Here, we used the recombinant sTfR prepared from HEK293T cells with codon-optimized gene structure to investigate its anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that codon optimization could significantly improve sTfR expression in HEK293T cells. The prepared recombinant sTfR possessed a binding activity to both CPV and CPV VP2 capsid proteins and significantly inhibited CPV infection of cultured feline F81 cells and decreased the mortality of CPV-infected dogs, which indicates that the sTfR has the anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo.

  13. Surface complement C3 fragments and cellular binding of microparticles in patients with SLE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winberg, Line Kjær; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Jacobsen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To examine microparticles (MPs) from patients with SLE and healthy controls (HCs) by determining the cellular origin of the MPs, quantifying attached fragments of complement component 3 (C3) and assessing the ability of MPs to bind to circulating phagocytes and erythrocytes. These fea......Objectives: To examine microparticles (MPs) from patients with SLE and healthy controls (HCs) by determining the cellular origin of the MPs, quantifying attached fragments of complement component 3 (C3) and assessing the ability of MPs to bind to circulating phagocytes and erythrocytes...

  14. Copper tolerance in Frankia sp. strain EuI1c involves surface binding and copper transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan, Medhat; Furnholm, Teal; Finethy, Ryan H; Chu, Feixia; El-Fadly, Gomaah; Tisa, Louis S

    2014-09-01

    Several Frankia strains have been shown to be copper-tolerant. The mechanism of their copper tolerance was investigated for Frankia sp. strain EuI1c. Copper binding was shown by binding studies. Unusual globular structures were observed on the surface of the bacterium. These globular structures were composed of aggregates containing many relatively smaller "leaf-like" structures. Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDAX) analysis of these structures indicated elevated copper and phosphate levels compared to the control cells. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated an increase in extracellular phosphate on the cell surface of copper-stressed cells. Bioinformatics' analysis of the Frankia sp. strain EuI1c genome revealed five potential cop genes: copA, copZ, copC, copCD, and copD. Experiments with Frankia sp. strain EuI1c using qRT-PCR indicated an increase in messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of the five cop genes upon Cu(2+) stress. After 5 days of Cu(2+) stress, the copA, copZ, copC, copCD, and copD mRNA levels increased 25-, 8-, 18-, 18-, and 25-fold, respectively. The protein profile of Cu(2+)-stressed Frankia sp. strain EuI1c cells revealed the upregulation of a 36.7 kDa protein that was identified as FraEuI1c_1092 (sulfate-binding periplasmic transport protein). Homologues of this gene were only present in the genomes of the Cu(2+)-resistant Frankia strains (EuI1c, DC12, and CN3). These data indicate that copper tolerance by Frankia sp. strain EuI1c involved the binding of copper to the cell surface and transport proteins.

  15. Andrographolide regulates epidermal growth factor receptor and transferrin receptor trafficking in epidermoid carcinoma (A-431) cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Y; Chiow, KH; Huang, D; Wong, SH

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Andrographolide is the active component of Andrographis paniculata, a plant used in both Indian and Chinese traditional medicine, and it has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in different cancer cell lines. However, not much is known about how it may affect the key receptors implicated in cancer. Knowledge of how andrographolide affects receptor trafficking will allow us to better understand new mechanisms by which andrographolide may cause death in cancer cells. Experimental approach: We utilized the well-characterized epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and transferrin receptor (TfR) expressed in epidermoid carcinoma (A-431) cells as a model to study the effect of andrographolide on receptor trafficking. Receptor distribution, the total number of receptors and surface receptors were analysed by immunofluorescence, Western blot as well as flow-cytometry respectively. Key results: Andrographolide treatment inhibited cell growth, down-regulated EGFRs on the cell surface and affected the degradation of EGFRs and TfRs. The EGFR was internalized into the cell at an increased rate, and accumulated in a compartment that co-localizes with the lysosomal-associated membrane protein in the late endosomes. Conclusion and implications: This study sheds light on how andrographolide may affect receptor trafficking by inhibiting receptor movement from the late endosomes to lysosomes. The down-regulation of EGFR from the cell surface also indicates a new mechanism by which andrographolide may induce cancer cell death. PMID:20233216

  16. Degradation of the starch components amylopectin and amylose by barley α-amylase 1: Role of surface binding site 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas Willum; Kramhøft, Birte; Bozonnet, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Barley α-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1, EC 3.2.1.1) contains two surface binding sites, SBS1 and SBS2, involved in the degradation of starch granules. The distinct role of SBS1 and SBS2 remains to be fully understood. Mutational analysis of Tyr-380 situated at SBS2 previously revealed that Tyr-380...... is required for binding of the amylose helix mimic, β-cyclodextrin. Also, mutant enzymes altered at position 380 displayed reduced binding to starch granules. Similarly, binding of wild type AMY1 to starch granules was suppressed in the presence of β-cyclodextrin. We investigated the role of SBS2 by comparing...... kinetic properties of the wild type AMY1 and the Y380A mutant enzyme in hydrolysis of amylopectin, amylose and β-limit dextrin, and the inhibition by β-cyclodextrin. Progress curves of the release of reducing ends revealed a bi-exponential hydrolysis of amylopectin and β-limit dextrin, whereas hydrolysis...

  17. Surface binding sites in amylase have distinct roles in recognition of starch structure motifs and degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Darrell; Nielsen, Morten M.; Christiansen, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    degrading enzymes and critically important for their function. The affinity towards a variety of starch granules as well as soluble poly- and oligosaccharides of barley alpha-amylase 1 (AMY1) wild-type and mutants of two SBSs (SBS1 and SBS2) was investigated using Langmuir binding analysis, confocal laser...

  18. The ligand-binding domain of the cell surface receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Ploug, M; Patthy, L

    1991-01-01

    with the internal repeats of u-PAR constitute the extracellular part of Ly-6 antigens and of the squid glycoprotein Sgp-2. Like u-PAR, these proteins are attached to the membrane by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor. The hydrophilic, ligand-binding u-PAR domain identified in the present study has potential...

  19. Human milk containing specific secretory IgA inhibits binding of Giardia lamblia to nylon and glass surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, H K; Ganguly, N K; Mahajan, R C

    1991-06-01

    The effects of human milk, containing specific secretory IgA, on the adherence of Giardia lamblia trophozoites in the presence and in the absence of intestinal mucus in vitro were studied. It was found that the trophozoites treated with breast milk, containing specific secretory IgA to G. lamblia, showed a significant decrease (p less than 0.01) in adherence to nylon fibre columns and glass surfaces than did trophozoites treated with milk containing no SIgA antibodies. The adherence to glass surfaces was significantly more (p less than 0.01) in the presence of intestinal mucus than when the mucus was absent. Milk that did not contain specific secretory SIgA to G. lamblia did not decrease the adherence to glass surfaces either in the presence or in the absence of mucus. The fluorescence study revealed the binding of specific secretory IgA on the trophozoite surface. The results suggest that binding of SIgA antibodies in milk to G. lamblia trophozoites inhibits parasite adherence, thus protecting against this infection in breast-fed babies.

  20. Physical adsorption vs. chemical binding of undecylenic acid on porous silicon surface: a comparative study of differently functionalized materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salonen, J.; Lehto, V.P. [University of Turku (Finland). Department of Physics; Chirvony, V.; Matveeva, E. [Nanophotonics Technology Center, Technical University of Valencia (Spain); Pastor, E.

    2009-07-15

    To imply miscibility to porous silicon (PSi) used for biomedical purposes a number of functionalization methods are employed. In order to distinguish between a non-specific surfactant-like interaction (physical sorption) and chemical binding of unsaturated chemicals (undecylenic acid, UD) to H-terminated PSi surface we studied the two differently treated materials. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGA), BET and FTIR measurements were performed with the PSi powder samples (n+ doped). Changes in surface area, weight loss, calorific effect and chemical composition that accompanied the thermal treatment have shown that the physisorbed UD molecules undergo a chemical process (binding) with the Si-H{sub x} surface groups at about 150 C in both, N{sub 2} inert atmosphere and in a synthetic air, oxidative atmosphere. Controlled conversion of physically sorbed molecules to the chemically attached ones is discussed with respect to methods of surface modification of PSi materials for increasing their biocompatibility. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Plasminogen Binding Proteins and Plasmin Generation on the Surface of Leptospira spp.: The Contribution to the Bacteria-Host Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica L. Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is considered a neglected infectious disease of human and veterinary concern. Although extensive investigations on host-pathogen interactions have been pursued by several research groups, mechanisms of infection, invasion and persistence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. remain to be elucidated. We have reported the ability of leptospires to bind human plasminogen (PLG and to generate enzimatically active plasmin (PLA on the bacteria surface. PLA-coated Leptospira can degrade immobilized ECM molecules, an activity with implications in host tissue penetration. Moreover, we have identified and characterized several proteins that may act as PLG-binding receptors, each of them competent to generate active plasmin. The PLA activity associated to the outer surface of Leptospira could hamper the host immune attack by conferring the bacteria some benefit during infection. The PLA-coated leptospires obstruct complement C3b and IgG depositions on the bacterial surface, most probably through degradation. The decrease of leptospiral opsonization might be an important aspect of the immune evasion strategy. We believe that the presence of PLA on the leptospiral surface may (i facilitate host tissue penetration, (ii help the bacteria to evade the immune system and, as a consequence, (iii permit Leptospira to reach secondary sites of infection.

  2. Modifications of nano-titania surface for in vitro evaluations of hemolysis, cytotoxicity, and nonspecific protein binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Aparna, E-mail: adatta.research@gmail.com [Jadavpur University, School of Materials Science and Nanotechnology (India); Dasgupta, Sayantan [NRS Medical College and Hospital, Department of Biochemistry (India); Mukherjee, Siddhartha [Jadavpur University, Department of Metallurgical and Material Engineering (India)

    2017-04-15

    In the past decade, a variety of drug carriers based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles has been extensively reported. However, their biocompatibility still remains debatable, which motivated us to explore the porous nanostructures of other metal oxides, for example titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), as potential drug delivery vehicles. Herein, we report the in vitro hemolysis, cytotoxicity, and protein binding of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, synthesized by a sol–gel method. The surface of the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was modified with hydroxyl, amine, or thiol containing moieties to examine the influence of surface functional groups on the toxicity and protein binding aspects of the nanoparticles. Our study revealed the superior hemocompatibility of pristine, as well as functionalized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, compared to that of mesoporous silica, the present gold standard. Among the functional groups studied, aminosilane moieties on the TiO{sub 2} surface substantially reduced the degree of hemolysis (down to 5%). Further, cytotoxicity studies by MTT assay suggested that surface functional moieties play a crucial role in determining the biocompatibility of the nanoparticles. The presence of NH{sub 2}– functional groups on the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle surface enhanced the cell viability by almost 28% as compared to its native counterpart (at 100 μg/ml), which was in agreement with the hemolysis assay. Finally, nonspecific protein adsorption on functionalized TiO{sub 2} surfaces was examined using human serum albumin and it was found that negatively charged surface moieties, like –OH and –SH, could mitigate protein adsorption to a significant extent.

  3. Modifications of nano-titania surface for in vitro evaluations of hemolysis, cytotoxicity, and nonspecific protein binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Aparna; Dasgupta, Sayantan; Mukherjee, Siddhartha

    2017-04-01

    In the past decade, a variety of drug carriers based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles has been extensively reported. However, their biocompatibility still remains debatable, which motivated us to explore the porous nanostructures of other metal oxides, for example titanium dioxide (TiO2), as potential drug delivery vehicles. Herein, we report the in vitro hemolysis, cytotoxicity, and protein binding of TiO2 nanoparticles, synthesized by a sol-gel method. The surface of the TiO2 nanoparticles was modified with hydroxyl, amine, or thiol containing moieties to examine the influence of surface functional groups on the toxicity and protein binding aspects of the nanoparticles. Our study revealed the superior hemocompatibility of pristine, as well as functionalized TiO2 nanoparticles, compared to that of mesoporous silica, the present gold standard. Among the functional groups studied, aminosilane moieties on the TiO2 surface substantially reduced the degree of hemolysis (down to 5%). Further, cytotoxicity studies by MTT assay suggested that surface functional moieties play a crucial role in determining the biocompatibility of the nanoparticles. The presence of NH2- functional groups on the TiO2 nanoparticle surface enhanced the cell viability by almost 28% as compared to its native counterpart (at 100 μg/ml), which was in agreement with the hemolysis assay. Finally, nonspecific protein adsorption on functionalized TiO2 surfaces was examined using human serum albumin and it was found that negatively charged surface moieties, like -OH and -SH, could mitigate protein adsorption to a significant extent.

  4. A Density Functional Tight Binding Study of Acetic Acid Adsorption on Crystalline and Amorphous Surfaces of Titania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Manzhos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative density functional tight binding study of an organic molecule attachment to TiO2 via a carboxylic group, with the example of acetic acid. For the first time, binding to low-energy surfaces of crystalline anatase (101, rutile (110 and (B-TiO2 (001, as well as to the surface of amorphous (a- TiO2 is compared with the same computational setup. On all surfaces, bidentate configurations are identified as providing the strongest adsorption energy, Eads = −1.93, −2.49 and −1.09 eV for anatase, rutile and (B-TiO2, respectively. For monodentate configurations, the strongest Eads = −1.06, −1.11 and −0.86 eV for anatase, rutile and (B-TiO2, respectively. Multiple monodentate and bidentate configurations are identified on a-TiO2 with a distribution of adsorption energies and with the lowest energy configuration having stronger bonding than that of the crystalline counterparts, with Eads up to −4.92 eV for bidentate and −1.83 eV for monodentate adsorption. Amorphous TiO2 can therefore be used to achieve strong anchoring of organic molecules, such as dyes, that bind via a -COOH group. While the presence of the surface leads to a contraction of the band gap vs. the bulk, molecular adsorption caused no appreciable effect on the band structure around the gap in any of the systems.

  5. Distribution of Glycan Motifs at the Surface of Midgut Cells in the Cotton Leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis Demonstrated by Lectin Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Walski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycans are involved in many biological phenomena, including signal transduction, cell adhesion, immune response or differentiation. Although a few papers have reported on the role of glycans in the development and proper functioning of the insect midgut, no data are available regarding the localization of the glycan structures on the surface of the cells in the gut of insects. In this paper, we analyzed the spatial distribution of glycans present on the surface of the midgut cells in larvae of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, an important agricultural pest insect worldwide. For this purpose, we established primary midgut cell cultures, probed these individual cells that are freely suspended in liquid medium with a selection of seven fluorescently labeled lectins covering a range of different carbohydrate binding specificities [mannose oligomers (GNA and HHA, GalNAc/Gal (RSA and SSA, GlcNAc (WGA and Nictaba and Neu5Ac(α-2,6Gal/GalNAc (SNA-I], and visualized the interaction of these lectins with the different zones of the midgut cells using confocal microscopy. Our analysis focused on the typical differentiated columnar cells with a microvillar brush border at their apical side, which are dominantly present in the Lepidopteran midgut and function in food digestion and absorption, and as well as on the undifferentiated stem cells that are important for midgut development and repair. Confocal microscopy analyses showed that the GalNAc/Gal-binding lectins SSA and RSA and the terminal GlcNAc-recognizing WGA bound preferentially to the apical microvillar zone of the differentiated columnar cells as compared to the basolateral pole. The reverse result was observed for the mannose-binding lectins GNA and HHA, as well as Nictaba that binds preferentially to GlcNAc oligomers. Furthermore, differences in lectin binding to the basal and lateral zones of the cell membranes of the columnar cells were apparent. In the midgut stem cells, GNA and

  6. TRANSFERRIN POLYMORPHISM IN FOUR LOCAL BREEDS OF GOAT IN CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kurnianto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the gene frequency and individual heterozygosity of transferrin in four local breeds of goat in Central Java-Indonesia. The number of blood samples were taken from 96 heads of goat, in which each of breeds were 24 samples, those were Kejobong (Purbalingga regency, Ettawa Grade (Purworejo regency, Kacang (Grobogan regency and Jawarandu (Pemalang regency. Polyacrilamide Gel Electrophoresis was performed to detect the bands of blood plasm protein. Gen frequency was calculated using general formula of population genetics. Estimated heterozygosity and individual heterosizygosity were calculated to analysis the equilibrium condition of transferrin. Result showed there was two allele of transferrin, namely TfA and TfB. Gene frequency of TfA was higher than that of TfB. Transferrin gene and genotypes were in disequilibrium of Hardy-Weinberg Law.

  7. Transferrin saturation ratio and risk of total and cardiovascular mortality in the general population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stack, A G

    2014-08-01

    The transferrin saturation (TSAT) ratio is a commonly used indicator of iron deficiency and iron overload in clinical practice but precise relationships with total and cardiovascular mortality are unclear.

  8. Exposed and hidden lectin-binding epitopes at the surface of Borrelia burgdorferi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stoitsova, S. R.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Nebesářová, Jana

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 5 (2003), s. 654-658 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022001 Grant - others:National Research Council at the Ministry of Education and Science(BG) K-709/97 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * lectin-binding epitopes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.857, year: 2003

  9. Characterization of a viral phosphoprotein binding site on the surface of the respiratory syncytial nucleoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloux, Marie; Tarus, Bogdan; Blazevic, Ilfad; Fix, Jenna; Duquerroy, Stéphane; Eléouët, Jean-François

    2012-08-01

    The human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) genome is composed of a negative-sense single-stranded RNA that is tightly associated with the nucleoprotein (N). This ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex is the template for replication and transcription by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. RNP recognition by the viral polymerase involves a specific interaction between the C-terminal domain of the phosphoprotein (P) (P(CTD)) and N. However, the P binding region on N remains to be identified. In this study, glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown assays were used to identify the N-terminal core domain of HRSV N (N(NTD)) as a P binding domain. A biochemical characterization of the P(CTD) and molecular modeling of the N(NTD) allowed us to define four potential candidate pockets on N (pocket I [PI] to PIV) as hydrophobic sites surrounded by positively charged regions, which could constitute sites complementary to the P(CTD) interaction domain. The role of selected amino acids in the recognition of the N-RNA complex by P was first screened for by site-directed mutagenesis using a polymerase activity assay, based on an HRSV minigenome containing a luciferase reporter gene. When changed to Ala, most of the residues of PI were found to be critical for viral RNA synthesis, with the R132A mutant having the strongest effect. These mutations also reduced or abolished in vitro and in vivo P-N interactions, as determined by GST pulldown and immunoprecipitation experiments. The pocket formed by these residues is critical for P binding to the N-RNA complex, is specific for pneumovirus N proteins, and is clearly distinct from the P binding sites identified so far for other nonsegmented negative-strand viruses.

  10. Octasaccharide is the minimal length unit required for efficient binding of cyclophilin B to heparin and cell surface heparan sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanpouille, Christophe; Denys, Agnès; Carpentier, Mathieu; Pakula, Rachel; Mazurier, Joël; Allain, Fabrice

    2004-09-01

    Cyclophilin B (CyPB) is a heparin-binding protein first identified as a receptor for cyclosporin A. In previous studies, we reported that CyPB triggers chemotaxis and integrin-mediated adhesion of T-lymphocytes by way of interaction with two types of binding sites. The first site corresponds to a signalling receptor; the second site has been identified as heparan sulphate (HS) and appears crucial to induce cell adhesion. Characterization of the HS-binding unit is critical to understand the requirement of HS in pro-adhesive activity of CyPB. By using a strategy based on gel mobility shift assays with fluorophore-labelled oligosaccharides, we demonstrated that the minimal heparin unit required for efficient binding of CyPB is an octasaccharide. The mutants CyPB(KKK-) [where KKK- refers to the substitutions K3A(Lys3-->Ala)/K4A/K5A] and CyPB(DeltaYFD) (where Tyr14-Phe-Asp16 has been deleted) failed to interact with octasaccharides, confirming that the Y14FD16 and K3KK5 clusters are required for CyPB binding. Molecular modelling revealed that both clusters are spatially arranged so that they may act synergistically to form a binding site for the octasaccharide. We then demonstrated that heparin-derived octasaccharides and higher degree of polymerization oligosaccharides inhibited the interaction between CyPB and fluorophore-labelled HS chains purified from T-lymphocytes, and strongly reduced the HS-dependent pro-adhesive activity of CyPB. However, oligosaccharides or heparin were unable to restore adhesion of heparinase-treated T-lymphocytes, indicating that HS has to be present on the cell membrane to support the pro-adhesive activity of CyPB. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the octasaccharide is likely to be the minimal length unit required for efficient binding of CyPB to cell surface HS and consequent HS-dependent cell responses.

  11. Transferrin coated nanoparticles: study of the bionano interface in human plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej S Pitek

    Full Text Available It is now well established that the surface of nanoparticles (NPs in a biological environment is immediately modified by the adsorption of biomolecules with the formation of a protein corona and it is also accepted that the protein corona, rather than the original nanoparticle surface, defines a new biological identity. Consequently, a methodology to effectively study the interaction between nanomaterials and the biological corona encountered within an organism is a key objective in nanoscience for understanding the impact of the nanoparticle-protein interactions on the biological response in vitro and in vivo. Here, we outline an integrated methodology to address the different aspects governing the formation and the function of the protein corona of polystyrene nanoparticles coated with Transferrin by different strategies. Protein-NP complexes are studied both in situ (in human plasma, full corona FC and after washing (hard corona, HC in terms of structural properties, composition and second-order interactions with protein microarrays. Human protein microarrays are used to effectively study NP-corona/proteins interactions addressing the growing demand to advance investigations of the extrinsic function of corona complexes. Our data highlight the importance of this methodology as an analysis to be used in advance of the application of engineered NPs in biological environments.

  12. Total mortality by transferrin saturation levels: two general population studies and a metaanalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence for increased mortality in patients with clinically overt hereditary hemochromatosis. Whether increased transferrin saturation (TS), as a proxy for iron overload is associated with increased mortality in the general population is largely unknown.......There is evidence for increased mortality in patients with clinically overt hereditary hemochromatosis. Whether increased transferrin saturation (TS), as a proxy for iron overload is associated with increased mortality in the general population is largely unknown....

  13. Effects of transferrin conjugated multi-walled carbon nanotubes in lung cancer delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rahul Pratap [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Sharma, Gunjan [Genotoxicology and Cancer Biology Lab, Department of Zoology, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Sonali [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Singh, Sanjay [Department of Pharmaceutics, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi 221005 (India); Patne, Shashikant C.U. [Department of Pathology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Pandey, Bajarangprasad L. [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Koch, Biplob, E-mail: kochbiplob@gmail.com [Genotoxicology and Cancer Biology Lab, Department of Zoology, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Muthu, Madaswamy S., E-mail: muthubits@rediffmail.com [Department of Pharmaceutics, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi 221005 (India); Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) which were covalently conjugated with transferrin by carbodiimide chemistry and loaded with docetaxel as a model drug for effective treatment of lung cancer in comparison with the commercial docetaxel injection (Docel™). D-Alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was used as amphiphilic surfactant to improve the aqueous dispersity and biocompatibility of MWCNT. Human lung cancer cells (A549 cells) were employed as an in-vitro model to access cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, cellular apoptosis, cell cycle analysis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) of the docetaxel/coumarin-6 loaded MWCNT. The cellular uptake results of transferrin conjugated MWCNT showed higher efficiency in comparison with free C6. The IC{sub 50} values demonstrated that the transferrin conjugated MWCNT could be 136-fold more efficient than Docel™ after 24 h treatment with the A549 cells. Flow cytometry analysis confirmed that cancerous cells appeared significantly (P < 0.05) in the sub-G1 phase for transferrin conjugated MWCNT in comparison with Docel™. Results of transferrin conjugated MWCNT have showed better efficacy with safety than Docel™. - Highlights: • It shows the development of transferrin conjugated MWCNT formulation of DTX for the effective treatment of lung cancer. • Evaluated the cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, cellular apoptosis, cell cycle, and ROS level of the DTX/C6 loaded MWCNT. • The IC{sub 50} values demonstrated that the transferrin conjugated MWCNT could be 136-fold more effective than Docel™. • Safety of the DTX formulations were studied by the measurements of ALP, LDH and total protein count levels in BAL fluid. • Results of transferrin conjugated MWCNT have showed better efficacy with safety than Docel™ in lung cancer delivery.

  14. Effects of transferrin conjugated multi-walled carbon nanotubes in lung cancer delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rahul Pratap; Sharma, Gunjan; Sonali; Singh, Sanjay; Patne, Shashikant C.U.; Pandey, Bajarangprasad L.; Koch, Biplob; Muthu, Madaswamy S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) which were covalently conjugated with transferrin by carbodiimide chemistry and loaded with docetaxel as a model drug for effective treatment of lung cancer in comparison with the commercial docetaxel injection (Docel™). D-Alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was used as amphiphilic surfactant to improve the aqueous dispersity and biocompatibility of MWCNT. Human lung cancer cells (A549 cells) were employed as an in-vitro model to access cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, cellular apoptosis, cell cycle analysis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) of the docetaxel/coumarin-6 loaded MWCNT. The cellular uptake results of transferrin conjugated MWCNT showed higher efficiency in comparison with free C6. The IC_5_0 values demonstrated that the transferrin conjugated MWCNT could be 136-fold more efficient than Docel™ after 24 h treatment with the A549 cells. Flow cytometry analysis confirmed that cancerous cells appeared significantly (P < 0.05) in the sub-G1 phase for transferrin conjugated MWCNT in comparison with Docel™. Results of transferrin conjugated MWCNT have showed better efficacy with safety than Docel™. - Highlights: • It shows the development of transferrin conjugated MWCNT formulation of DTX for the effective treatment of lung cancer. • Evaluated the cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, cellular apoptosis, cell cycle, and ROS level of the DTX/C6 loaded MWCNT. • The IC_5_0 values demonstrated that the transferrin conjugated MWCNT could be 136-fold more effective than Docel™. • Safety of the DTX formulations were studied by the measurements of ALP, LDH and total protein count levels in BAL fluid. • Results of transferrin conjugated MWCNT have showed better efficacy with safety than Docel™ in lung cancer delivery.

  15. Gaussian-Based Smooth Dielectric Function: A Surface-Free Approach for Modeling Macromolecular Binding in Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghya Chakravorty

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional modeling techniques to model macromolecular solvation and its effect on binding in the framework of Poisson-Boltzmann based implicit solvent models make use of a geometrically defined surface to depict the separation of macromolecular interior (low dielectric constant from the solvent phase (high dielectric constant. Though this simplification saves time and computational resources without significantly compromising the accuracy of free energy calculations, it bypasses some of the key physio-chemical properties of the solute-solvent interface, e.g., the altered flexibility of water molecules and that of side chains at the interface, which results in dielectric properties different from both bulk water and macromolecular interior, respectively. Here we present a Gaussian-based smooth dielectric model, an inhomogeneous dielectric distribution model that mimics the effect of macromolecular flexibility and captures the altered properties of surface bound water molecules. Thus, the model delivers a smooth transition of dielectric properties from the macromolecular interior to the solvent phase, eliminating any unphysical surface separating the two phases. Using various examples of macromolecular binding, we demonstrate its utility and illustrate the comparison with the conventional 2-dielectric model. We also showcase some additional abilities of this model, viz. to account for the effect of electrolytes in the solution and to render the distribution profile of water across a lipid membrane.

  16. Transferrin-loaded nido-carborane liposomes. Synthesis and intracellular targeting to solid tumors for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Miyajima, Yusuke; Kuwata, Yasuhiro; Maruyama, Kazuo; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Ono, Koji

    2006-01-01

    The boron ion cluster lipids, as a double-tailed boron lipid synthesized from heptadecanol, formed stable liposomes at 25% molar ratio toward DSPC with cholesterol. Transferrin was able to be introduced on the surface of boron liposomes (Tf-PEG-CL liposomes) by the coupling of transferrin to the PEG-CO 2 H moieties of PEG-CL liposomes. The biodistribution of Tf-PEG-CL liposomes showed that Tf-PEG-CL liposomes accumulated in tumor tissues and stayed there for a sufficiently long time to increase tumor:blood concentration ratio. A 10 B concentration of 22 ppm in tumor tissues was achieved by the injection of Tf-PEG-CL liposome at 7.2 mg/kg body weight 10 B in tumor-bearing mice. After neutron irradiation, the average survival rate of mice not treated with Tf-PEG-CL liposomes was 21 days, whereas that of the treated mice was 31 days. Longer survival rates were observed in the mice treated with Tf-PEG-CL liposomes; one of them even survived for 52 days after BNCT. (author)

  17. Rapid screening of transferrin-binders in the flowers of Bauhinia blakeana Dunn by on-line high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector-electrospray ionization-ion-trap-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry-transferrin-fluorescence detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meixian; Dong, Jing; Lin, Zongtao; Niu, Yanyan; Zhang, Xiaotian; Jiang, Haixiu; Guo, Ning; Li, Wei; Wang, Hong; Chen, Shizhong

    2016-06-10

    Transferrin (Transferrin, TRF, TF) has drawn increasing attention in cancer therapy due to its potential applications in drug delivery. TF receptor, highly expressed in tumor cells, recognizes and transports Fe(3+)-TF into cells to release iron into cytoplasm. Thus, discovering TF-binding compounds has become an active research area and is of great importance for target therapy. In this study, an on-line analysis method was established for screening TF-binding compounds from the flowers of Bauhinia blakeana Dunn using a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector-multi-stage mass spectrometry-transferrin-fluorescence detector (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)-TF-FLD) method. As a result, 33 of 80 identified or tentatively characterized compounds in the sample were TF-binding active. Twenty-five flavonol glycosides and eight phenolic acids were identified as TF-binders. Twelve of these active compounds together with six standard compounds were used to study the dose-response effects and structure-activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids. The method was validated by vitexin with a good linearity in the range of concentrations used in the study. The limit of detection for vitexin was 0.1596 nmol. Our study indicated that the established method is simple, rapid and sensitive for screening TF-binding active compounds in the extract of Bauhinia blakeana Dunn, and therefore is important for discovering potential anti-cancer ingredients from complex samples for TF related drug delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A surface plasmon resonance immunosensor for detecting a dioxin precursor using a gold binding polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soh, N; Tokuda, T.; Watanabe, T.

    2003-01-01

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based biosensor was developed for monitoring 2,4-dichlorophenol, a known dioxin precursor, using an indirect competitive immunoassay. The SPR sensor was fabricated by immobilizing a gold-thin layer on the surface of an SPR sensor chip with an anti-(2,4-dichloroph......A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based biosensor was developed for monitoring 2,4-dichlorophenol, a known dioxin precursor, using an indirect competitive immunoassay. The SPR sensor was fabricated by immobilizing a gold-thin layer on the surface of an SPR sensor chip with an anti-(2...

  19. Polyethylene imine/graphene oxide layer-by-layer surface functionalization for significantly improved limit of detection and binding kinetics of immunoassays on acrylate surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Celina M; Mishra, Rohit; Kinahan, David J; Ferreira, Marystela; Ducrée, Jens

    2017-10-01

    Antibody immobilization on polymeric substrates is a key manufacturing step for microfluidic devices that implement sample-to-answer automation of immunoassays. In this work, a simple and versatile method to bio-functionalize poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), a common material of such "Lab-on-a-Chip" systems, is proposed; using the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technique, we assemble nanostructured thin films of poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) and graphene oxide (GO). The wettability of PMMA surfaces was significantly augmented by the surface treatment with (PEI/GO) 5 film, with an 81% reduction of the contact angle, while the surface roughness increased by 600%, thus clearly enhancing wettability and antibody binding capacity. When applied to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), the limit of detection of PMMA surface was notably improved from 340pgmL -1 on commercial grade polystyrene (PS) and 230pgmL -1 on plain PMMA surfaces to 130pgmL -1 on (PEI/GO) 5 treated PMMA. Furthermore, the accelerated antibody adsorption kinetics on the LbL films of GO allowed to substantially shorten incubation times, e.g. for anti-rat IgG adsorption from 2h down to 15min on conventional and treated surfaces, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential transferrin expression in placentae from normal and abnormal pregnancies: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukovsky Antonin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The placenta is an important site for iron metabolism in humans. It transfers iron from the mother to the fetus. One of the major iron transport proteins is transferrin, which is a blood plasma protein crucial for iron uptake. Its localization and expression may be one of the markers to distinguish placental dysfunction. Methods In the experimental study we used antibody preparation, mass spectrometric analysis, biochemical and immunocytochemical methods for characterization of transferrin expression on the human choriocarcinoma cell line JAR (JAR cells, placental lysates, and cryostat sections. Newly designed monoclonal antibody TRO-tf-01 to human transferrin was applied on human placentae from normal (n = 3 and abnormal (n = 9 pregnancies. Results Variations of transferrin expression were detected in villous syncytiotrophoblast, which is in direct contact with maternal blood. In placentae from normal pregnancies, the expression of transferrin in the syncytium was significantly lower (p Conclusion These observations suggest that in the case of abnormal pregnancies, the fetus may require higher levels of transferrin in order to prevent iron depletion due to the stress from the placental dysfunction.

  1. Transferrin-bearing polypropylenimine dendrimer for targeted gene delivery to the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somani, Sukrut; Blatchford, David R; Millington, Owain; Stevenson, M Lynn; Dufès, Christine

    2014-08-28

    The possibility of using genes as medicines to treat brain diseases is currently limited by the lack of safe and efficacious delivery systems able to cross the blood-brain barrier, thus resulting in a failure to reach the brain after intravenous administration. On the basis that iron can effectively reach the brain by using transferrin receptors for crossing the blood-brain barrier, we propose to investigate if a transferrin-bearing generation 3-polypropylenimine dendrimer would allow the transport of plasmid DNA to the brain after intravenous administration. In vitro, the conjugation of transferrin to the polypropylenimine dendrimer increased the DNA uptake by bEnd.3 murine brain endothelioma cells overexpressing transferrin receptors, by about 1.4-fold and 2.3-fold compared to that observed with the non-targeted dendriplex and naked DNA. This DNA uptake appeared to be optimal following 2h incubation with the treatment. In vivo, the intravenous injection of transferrin-bearing dendriplex more than doubled the gene expression in the brain compared to the unmodified dendriplex, while decreasing the non-specific gene expression in the lung. Gene expression was at least 3-fold higher in the brain than in any tested peripheral organs and was at its highest 24h following the injection of the treatments. These results suggest that transferrin-bearing polypropylenimine dendrimer is a highly promising gene delivery system to the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Targeted Delivery of Amoxicillin to C. trachomatis by the Transferrin Iron Acquisition Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hai

    Full Text Available Weak intracellular penetration of antibiotics makes some infections difficult to treat. The Trojan horse strategy for targeted drug delivery is among the interesting routes being explored to overcome this therapeutic difficulty. Chlamydia trachomatis, as an obligate intracellular human pathogen, is responsible for both trachoma and sexually transmitted diseases. Chlamydia develops in a vacuole and is therefore protected by four membranes (plasma membrane, bacterial inclusion membrane, and bacterial membranes. In this work, the iron-transport protein, human serum-transferrin, was used as a Trojan horse for antibiotic delivery into the bacterial vacuole. Amoxicillin was grafted onto transferrin. The transferrin-amoxicillin construct was characterized by mass spectrometry and absorption spectroscopy. Its affinity for transferrin receptor 1, determined by fluorescence emission titration [KaffTf-amox = (1.3 ± 1.0 x 108], is very close to that of transferrin [4.3 x 108]. Transmission electron and confocal microscopies showed a co-localization of transferrin with the bacteria in the vacuole and were also used to evaluate the antibiotic capability of the construct. It is significantly more effective than amoxicillin alone. These promising results demonstrate targeted delivery of amoxicillin to suppress Chlamydia and are of interest for Chlamydiaceae and maybe other intracellular bacteria therapies.

  3. TfR Binding Peptide Screened by Phage Display Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To screen an hTfR affinity peptide and investigate its activity in vitro. Methods: hTfR ... Keywords: Peptide, hTfR, Transferrin receptor, Phage display technology, Enhanced green ..... mediated uptake of peptides that bind the human.

  4. Immunoglobulin classes, metal binding proteins, and trace metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , IgA and IgM), metal binding proteins (Transferrin, Caeruloplasmin, Alpha-2- Macroglobulin and Haptoglobin) and nutritionally essential trace metals/heavy metals (Zn, Fe, Se, Cu, Mg, Cd and Pb) in Nigerian cassava processors using single ...

  5. Glycosaminoglycans mediate retention of the poxvirus type I interferon binding protein at the cell surface to locally block interferon antiviral responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanuy, Imma; Alejo, Ali; Alcami, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Eradication of smallpox was accomplished 30 yr ago, but poxviral infections still represent a public health concern due to the potential release of variola virus or the emergence of zoonotic poxviruses, such as monkeypox virus. A critical determinant of poxvirus virulence is the inhibition of interferons (IFNs) by the virus-encoded type I IFN-binding protein (IFNα/βBP). This immunomodulatory protein is secreted and has the unique property of interacting with the cell surface in order to prevent IFN-mediated antiviral responses. However, the mechanism of its attachment to the cell surface remains unknown. Using surface plasmon resonance and cell-binding assays, we report that the IFNα/βBP from vaccinia virus, the smallpox vaccine, interacts with cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Analysis of the contribution of different regions of the protein to cell surface binding demonstrated that clusters of basic residues in the first immunoglobulin domain mediate GAG interactions. Furthermore, mutation of the GAG-interaction motifs does not affect its IFN-binding and -blocking capacity. Functional conservation of GAG-binding sites is demonstrated for the IFNα/βBP from variola and monkeypox viruses, extending our understanding of immune modulation by the most virulent human poxviruses. These results are relevant for the design of improved vaccines and intervention strategies.—Montanuy, I., Alejo, A., Alcami, A. Glycosaminoglycans mediate retention of the poxvirus type I interferon binding protein at the cell surface to locally block interferon antiviral responses. PMID:21372110

  6. Cell Surface Binding and Internalization of Aβ Modulated by Degree of Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Bateman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The amyloid peptides, Aβ40 and Aβ42, are generated through endoproteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. Here we have developed a model to investigate the interaction of living cells with various forms of aggregated Aβ40/42. After incubation at endosomal pH 6, we observed a variety of Aβ conformations after 3 (Aβ3, 24 (Aβ24, and 90 hours (Aβ90. Both Aβ4224 and Aβ4024 were observed to rapidly bind and internalize into differentiated PC12 cells, leading to accumulation in the lysosome. In contrast, Aβ40/4290 were both found to only weakly associate with cells, but were observed as the most aggregated using dynamic light scattering and thioflavin-T. Internalization of Aβ40/4224 was inhibited with treatment of monodansylcadaverine, an endocytosis inhibitor. These studies indicate that the ability of Aβ40/42 to bind and internalize into living cells increases with degree of aggregation until it reaches a maximum beyond which its ability to interact with cells diminishes drastically.

  7. Screening Effect of PEG on Avidin Binding to Liposome Surface Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasgaard, Thomas; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Jørgensen, Kent

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the screening effect of poly(ethylene glycol)-phospholipids (PE-PEG) on the interaction of avidin with PEGylated liposomes containing surface-bound biotin ligands. The influence of grafting density and lipopolymer chain length is examined. A simple fluorescence assay....... Furthermore. it is found that none of the lipopolymers completely prevents avidin from reaching the surface-bound biotin ligands....

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of water molecules at the surface of proteins and applications to binding site prediction and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuming, Thijs; Che, Ye; Abel, Robert; Kim, Byungchan; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu; Sherman, Woody

    2012-03-01

    Water plays an essential role in determining the structure and function of all biological systems. Recent methodological advances allow for an accurate and efficient estimation of the thermodynamic properties of water molecules at the surface of proteins. In this work, we characterize these thermodynamic properties and relate them to various structural and functional characteristics of the protein. We find that high-energy hydration sites often exist near protein motifs typically characterized as hydrophilic, such as backbone amide groups. We also find that waters around alpha helices and beta sheets tend to be less stable than waters around loops. Furthermore, we find no significant correlation between the hydration site-free energy and the solvent accessible surface area of the site. In addition, we find that the distribution of high-energy hydration sites on the protein surface can be used to identify the location of binding sites and that binding sites of druggable targets tend to have a greater density of thermodynamically unstable hydration sites. Using this information, we characterize the FKBP12 protein and show good agreement between fragment screening hit rates from NMR spectroscopy and hydration site energetics. Finally, we show that water molecules observed in crystal structures are less stable on average than bulk water as a consequence of the high degree of spatial localization, thereby resulting in a significant loss in entropy. These findings should help to better understand the characteristics of waters at the surface of proteins and are expected to lead to insights that can guide structure-based drug design efforts. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Improving density functional tight binding predictions of free energy surfaces for peptide condensation reactions in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroonblawd, Matthew; Goldman, Nir

    First principles molecular dynamics using highly accurate density functional theory (DFT) is a common tool for predicting chemistry, but the accessible time and space scales are often orders of magnitude beyond the resolution of experiments. Semi-empirical methods such as density functional tight binding (DFTB) offer up to a thousand-fold reduction in required CPU hours and can approach experimental scales. However, standard DFTB parameter sets lack good transferability and calibration for a particular system is usually necessary. Force matching the pairwise repulsive energy term in DFTB to short DFT trajectories can improve the former's accuracy for chemistry that is fast relative to DFT simulation times (Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. Improving Density Functional Tight Binding Predictions of Free Energy Surfaces for Slow Chemical Reactions in Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroonblawd, Matthew; Goldman, Nir

    2017-06-01

    First principles molecular dynamics using highly accurate density functional theory (DFT) is a common tool for predicting chemistry, but the accessible time and space scales are often orders of magnitude beyond the resolution of experiments. Semi-empirical methods such as density functional tight binding (DFTB) offer up to a thousand-fold reduction in required CPU hours and can approach experimental scales. However, standard DFTB parameter sets lack good transferability and calibration for a particular system is usually necessary. Force matching the pairwise repulsive energy term in DFTB to short DFT trajectories can improve the former's accuracy for reactions that are fast relative to DFT simulation times (Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. Co-expression of TIMP-1 and its cell surface binding partner CD63 in glioblastomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte; Sørensen, Mia D.; Matos, Ana L.S.A.

    2018-01-01

    scoring. CD63 expression in tumor-associated microglia/macrophages was examined by double-immunofluorescence with ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1). The association between CD63 and TIMP-1 was investigated using previously obtained TIMP-1 data from our astrocytoma cohort. Cellular co-expression...... of CD63 was widely distributed in astrocytomas with a significantly increased level in glioblastomas. CD63 levels did not significantly correlate with patient survival at a protein level, and CD63 did not augment the prognostic significance of TIMP-1. Up to 38% of the CD63+ cells expressed Iba1; however......, Iba1 did not appear to impact the prognostic value of CD63. A significant correlation was found between TIMP-1 and CD63, and the TIMP-1 and CD63 proteins were co-expressed at the cellular level and located in close molecular proximity, suggesting that TIMP-1 and CD63 could be co...

  12. Surface binding sites (SBSs), mechanism and regulation of enzymes degrading amylopectin and α-limit dextrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Sofie; Cockburn, Darrell; Nielsen, Jonas W.

    2013-01-01

    into barley seed α-amylase 1 (AMY1) and limit dextrinase (LD) includes i. kinetics of bi-exponential amylopectin hydrolysis by AMY1, one reaction having low Km (8 μg/mL) and high kcat (57 s-1) and the other high Km (97 μg/mL) and low kcat (23 s-1). β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) inhibits the first reaction by binding...... to an SBS (SBS2) on domain C with Kd = 70 μM, which for the SBS2 Y380A mutant increases to 1.4 mM. SBS2 thus has a role in the fast, high-affinity component of amylopectin degradation. ii. The N-terminal domain of LD, the debranching enzyme in germinating seeds, shows distant structural similarity...

  13. Developing a Novel Hydrogen Sponge with Ideal Binding Energy and High Surface Area for Practical Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, T. C. Mike

    2018-04-19

    This Phase I (5 quarters) research project was to examine the validity of a new class of boron-containing polymer (B-polymer) frameworks, serving as the adsorbents for the practical onboard H2 storage applications. Three B-polymer frameworks were synthesized and investigated, which include B-poly(butyenylstyrene) (B-PBS) framework (A), B-poly(phenyldiacetyene) (B-PPDA) framework (B), and B-poly(phenyltriacetylene) (B-PPTA) framework (C). They are 2-D polymer structures with the repeating cyclic units that spontaneously form open morphology and the B-doped (p-type) π-electrons delocalized surfaces. The ideal B-polymer framework shall exhibit open micropores (pore size in the range of 1-1.5nm) with high surface area (>3000 m2/g), and the B-dopants in the conjugated framework shall provide high surface energy for interacting with H2 molecules (an ideal H2 binding energy in the range of 15-25 kJ/mol). The pore size distribution and H2 binding energy were investigated at both Penn State and NREL laboratories. So far, the experimental results show the successful synthesis of B-polymer frameworks with the relatively well-defined planar (2-D) structures. The intrinsically formed porous morphology exhibits a broad pore size distribution (in the range of 0.5-10 nm) with specific surface area (~1000 m2/g). The miss-alignment between 2-D layers may block some micropore channels and limit gas diffusion throughout the entire matrix. In addition, the 2-D planar conjugated structure may also allow free π-electrons delocalization throughout the framework, which significantly reduces the acidity of B-moieties (electron-deficiency).The resulting 2-D B-polymer frameworks only exhibit a small increase of H2 binding energy in the range of 8-9 KJ/mole (quite constant over the whole sorption range).

  14. Metal retention in human transferrin: consequences of solvent composition in analytical sample preparation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarles, C Derrick; Randunu, K Manoj; Brumaghim, Julia L; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2011-10-01

    The analysis of metal-binding proteins requires careful sample manipulation to ensure that the metal-protein complex remains in its native state and the metal retention is preserved during sample preparation or analysis. Chemical analysis for the metal content in proteins typically involves some type of liquid chromatography/electrophoresis separation step coupled with an atomic (i.e., inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy or -mass spectrometry) or molecular (i.e., electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) analysis step that requires altered-solvent introduction techniques. UV-VIS absorbance is employed here to monitor the iron content in human holo-transferrin (Tf) under various solvent conditions, changing polarity, pH, ionic strength, and the ionic and hydrophobic environment of the protein. Iron loading percentages (i.e. 100% loading equates to 2 Fe(3+):1 Tf) were quantitatively determined to evaluate the effect of solvent composition on the retention of Fe(3+) in Tf. Maximum retention of Fe(3+) was found in buffered (20 mM Tris) solutions (96 ± 1%). Exposure to organic solvents and deionized H(2)O caused release of ~23-36% of the Fe(3+) from the binding pocket(s) at physiological pH (7.4). Salt concentrations similar to separation conditions used for ion exchange had little to no effect on Fe(3+) retention in holo-Tf. Unsurprisingly, changes in ionic strength caused by additions of guanidine HCl (0-10 M) to holo-Tf resulted in unfolding of the protein and loss of Fe(3+) from Tf; however, denaturing and metal loss was found not to be an instantaneous process for additions of 1-5 M guanidinium to Tf. In contrast, complete denaturing and loss of Fe(3+) was instantaneous with ≥6 M additions of guanidinium, and denaturing and loss of iron from Tf occurred in parallel proportions. Changes to the hydrophobicity of Tf (via addition of 0-14 M urea) had less effect on denaturing and release of Fe(3+) from the Tf binding pocket compared to changes

  15. Comparison of colorimetry and electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy for the quantification of non-transferrin bound iron in human sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittangprasert, Piyada; Wilairat, Prapin; Pootrakul, Pensri

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes a comparison of two analytical techniques, one employing bathophenanthrolinedisulfonate (BPT), a most commonly-used reagent for Fe (II) determination, as chromogen and an electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETAAS) for the quantification of non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) in sera from thalassemic patients. Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) was employed as the ligand for binding iron from low molecular weight iron complexes present in the serum but without removing iron from the transferrin protein. After ultrafiltration the Fe (III)-NTA complex was then quantified by both methods. Kinetic study of the rate of the Fe (II)-BPT complex formation for various excess amounts of NTA ligand was also carried out. The kinetic data show that a minimum time duration (> 60 minutes) is necessary for complete complex formation when large excess of NTA is used. Calibration curves given by colorimetric and ETAAS methods were linear over the range of 0.15-20 microM iron (III). The colorimetric and ETAAS methods exhibited detection limit (3sigma) of 0.13 and 0.14 microM, respectively. The NTBI concentrations from 55 thalassemic serum samples measured employing BPT as chromogen were statistically compared with the results determined by ETAAS. No significant disagreement at 95% confidence level was observed. It is, therefore, possible to select any one of these two techniques for determination of NTBI in serum samples of thalassemic patients. However, the colorimetric procedure requires a longer analysis time because of a slow rate of exchange of NTA ligand with BPT, leading to the slow rate of formation of the colored complex.

  16. The Covalent Binding of Photosensitive Dyes to Monocrystalline Silicon Surface and Their Spectral Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志新; 郝纪祥; 张祖训; 曹子祥

    1993-01-01

    A chemical method is proposed to bond photo-sensitive dyes directly to the surface of polished monocrystalline silicon. A methincyanine dye and a trimethincyanine dye have been bonded covalently onto silicon surface through Si—N bond, which are characterized by XPS technique and laser Raman spectra. Photovoltaic effect has been observed with the In/dye/n-Si sandwich devices composed of the dye-bonded n-Si wafers. Significant spectral response shows the characteristic absorptance maxima of the bonded dyes.

  17. Seminal transferrin in the seminal quality evaluation of hemodialytic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Pereira Silva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to verify the association between seminal quality and seminal transferrin (ST level and fertility index in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis (CH. Material and methods: This is a cross-sectional study in a group of 60 men (case undergoing CH for more than 6 months, and a group of 30 healthy men (control, aged 18-60 years, without clinical or laboratory signs of infection/inflammation. Spermiogram was performed, fertility index (FI was calculated and ST and sex hormones (SH levels were measured, including follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, total testosterone, and prolactin. Results: All individuals were eugonadal. No differences for age (49.47 ± 5.56, 47.90 ± 6.2, p = 0.22 were observed between cases and controls, whereas there were significant differences between the individuals in the case and control groups with respect to the mean FI (p = 0.000, seminal parameters (SP (p = 0.000, and ST levels (40.12 ± 08.25 vs 73.32 ± 06.8, p = 0.000. ST levels were correlated with FI (r = 0.787, p = 0.00 and SP (motility: r = 0.857, p = 0.000; vitality: r = 0.551, p = 0.000; density: r = 0.850, p = 0.000; normal morphology: r = 0.386, p = 0.000. Linear regression model showed relationship of ST levels with total sperm motility (R2 = 0.701; p = 0.000 and and FI (R2 = 0.569; p = 0.000. Conclusions: Our results suggest that seminal quality is associated with ST levels and FI and that it can be used the initial investigation of subfertility/infertility of patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis..

  18. Soluble transferrin receptor as a marker of erythropoiesis in patients undergoing high-flux hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Yin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is a common complication in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients receiving hemodialysis. The effect of high-flux dialysis (HFD on anemia remains unclear. This prospective study aimed to evaluate the effect of HFD on anemia, and the potential of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR as a marker of iron status and erythropoiesis in CKD patients on hemodialysis. Forty patients, who switched from conventional low-flux dialysis to HFD for 12 months, were enrolled in this study. The levels of sTfR, hemoglobin (Hb, iron, and nutritional markers, as well as the dose of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO and use of chalybeate were determined at 0, 2, 6, and 12 months after starting HFD. HFD significantly increased the hemoglobin level and reduced sTfR level in CKD patients (p < 0.05. In addition, significant decreasing linear trends were observed for rhEPO dosage and chalybeate use (p < 0.05. The level of sTfR was positively correlated with the percentage of reticulocytes (RET%, rhEPO dose, and chalybeate use, while it was negatively correlated with Hb levels and total iron-binding capacity results (all p < 0.05. A univariate generalized estimating equation (GEE model showed that the Hb level, RET%, rhEPO dose, and chalybeate use were the variables associated with sTfR levels. A multivariate GEE model showed that the time points when hemodialysis was performed were the variables associated significantly with sTfR levels. Overall, our findings suggest that HFD can effectively improve renal anemia in hemodialysis patients, and sTfR could be used as a marker of erythropoiesis in HFD patients.

  19. An Extended Surface Loop on Toxoplasma gondii Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1 Governs Ligand Binding Selectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Parker

    Full Text Available Apicomplexan parasites are the causative agents of globally prevalent diseases including malaria and toxoplasmosis. These obligate intracellular pathogens have evolved a sophisticated host cell invasion strategy that relies on a parasite-host cell junction anchored by interactions between apical membrane antigens (AMAs on the parasite surface and rhoptry neck 2 (RON2 proteins discharged from the parasite and embedded in the host cell membrane. Key to formation of the AMA1-RON2 complex is displacement of an extended surface loop on AMA1 called the DII loop. While conformational flexibility of the DII loop is required to expose the mature RON2 binding groove, a definitive role of this substructure has not been elucidated. To establish a role of the DII loop in Toxoplasma gondii AMA1, we engineered a form of the protein where the mobile portion of the loop was replaced with a short Gly-Ser linker (TgAMA1ΔDIIloop. Isothermal titration calorimetry measurements with a panel of RON2 peptides revealed an influential role for the DII loop in governing selectivity. Most notably, an Eimeria tenella RON2 (EtRON2 peptide that showed only weak binding to TgAMA1 bound with high affinity to TgAMA1ΔDIIloop. To define the molecular basis for the differential binding, we determined the crystal structure of TgAMA1ΔDIIloop in complex with the EtRON2 peptide. When analyzed in the context of existing AMA1-RON2 structures, spatially distinct anchor points in the AMA1 groove were identified that, when engaged, appear to provide the necessary traction to outcompete the DII loop. Collectively, these data support a model where the AMA1 DII loop serves as a structural gatekeeper to selectively filter out ligands otherwise capable of binding with high affinity in the AMA1 apical groove. These data also highlight the importance of considering the functional implications of the DII loop in the ongoing development of therapeutic intervention strategies targeting the AMA1-RON

  20. Selective albumin-binding surfaces modified with a thrombin-inhibiting peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Sidónio C; Maia, Sílvia; Figueiredo, Ana C; Gomes, Paula; Pereira, Pedro J B; Barbosa, Mário A; Martins, M Cristina L

    2014-03-01

    Blood-contacting medical devices have been associated with severe clinical complications, such as thrombus formation, triggered by the activation of the coagulation cascade due to the adsorption of certain plasma proteins on the surface of biomaterials. Hence, the coating of such surfaces with antithrombotic agents has been used to increase biomaterial haemocompatibility. Biomaterial-induced clotting may also be decreased by albumin adsorption from blood plasma in a selective and reversible way, since this protein is not involved in the coagulation cascade. In this context, this paper reports that the immobilization of the thrombin inhibitor D-Phe-Pro-D-Arg-D-Thr-CONH2 (fPrt) onto nanostructured surfaces induces selective and reversible adsorption of albumin, delaying the clotting time when compared to peptide-free surfaces. fPrt, synthesized with two glycine residues attached to the N-terminus (GGfPrt), was covalently immobilized onto self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) having different ratios of carboxylate-hexa(ethylene glycol)- and tri(ethylene glycol)-terminated thiols (EG6-COOH/EG3) that were specifically designed to control GGfPrt orientation, exposure and density at the molecular level. In solution, GGfPrt was able to inactivate the enzymatic activity of thrombin and to delay plasma clotting time in a concentration-dependent way. After surface immobilization, and independently of its concentration, GGfPrt lost its selectivity to thrombin and its capacity to inhibit thrombin enzymatic activity against the chromogenic substrate n-p-tosyl-Gly-Pro-Arg-p-nitroanilide. Nevertheless, surfaces with low concentrations of GGfPrt could delay the capacity of adsorbed thrombin to cleave fibrinogen. In contrast, GGfPrt immobilized in high concentrations was found to induce the procoagulant activity of the adsorbed thrombin. However, all surfaces containing GGfPrt have a plasma clotting time similar to the negative control (empty polystyrene wells), showing resistance to

  1. Effects of DDT and Triclosan on Tumor-cell Binding Capacity and Cell-Surface Protein Expression of Human Natural Killer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd-Brown, Tasia; Udoji, Felicia; Martin, Tamara; Whalen, Margaret M.

    2012-01-01

    1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) and triclosan (TCS) are organochlorine (OC) compounds that contaminate the environment, are found in human blood, and have been shown to decrease the tumor-cell killing (lytic) function of human natural killer (NK) cells. NK cells defend against tumor cells and virally infected cells. They bind to these targets, utilizing a variety of cell surface proteins. This study examined concentrations of DDT and TCS that decrease lytic function for alteration of NK binding to tumor targets. Levels of either compound that caused loss of binding function were then examined for effects on expression of cell-surface proteins needed for binding. NK cells exposed to 2.5 μM DDT for 24 h (which caused a greater than 55% loss of lytic function) showed a decrease in NK binding function of about 22%, and a decrease in CD16 cell-surface protein of 20%. NK cells exposed to 5 μM TCS for 24 h showed a decrease in ability to bind tumor cells of 37% and a decrease in expression of CD56 of about 34%. This same treatment caused a decrease in lytic function of greater than 87%. These results indicated that only a portion of the loss of NK lytic function seen with exposures to these compounds could be accounted for by loss of binding function. They also showed that loss of binding function is accompanied by a loss cell-surface proteins important in binding function. PMID:22729613

  2. Modelling of microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate surface binding protein PhaP for rational mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyu; Yao, Zhenyu; Chen, Xiangbin; Wang, Xinquan; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2017-11-01

    Phasins are unusual amphiphilic proteins that bind to microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granules in nature and show great potential for various applications in biotechnology and medicine. Despite their remarkable diversity, only the crystal structure of PhaP A h from Aeromonas hydrophila has been solved to date. Based on the structure of PhaP A h , homology models of PhaP A z from Azotobacter sp. FA-8 and PhaP TD from Halomonas bluephagenesis TD were successfully established, allowing rational mutagenesis to be conducted to enhance the stability and surfactant properties of these proteins. PhaP A z mutants, including PhaP A z Q38L and PhaP A z Q78L, as well as PhaP TD mutants, including PhaP TD Q38M and PhaP TD Q72M, showed better emulsification properties and improved thermostability (6-10°C higher melting temperatures) compared with their wild-type homologues under the same conditions. Importantly, the established PhaP homology-modelling approach, based on the high-resolution structure of PhaP A h , can be generalized to facilitate the study of other PhaP members. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Surface modification by cold-plasma technique for dental implants—Bio-functionalization with binding pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Yoshinari

    2011-08-01

    At the bone tissue/implant interface, a thin calcium phosphate coating and rapid heating with infrared radiation were effective in controlling the dissolution without cracking the coating. These thin calcium phosphate coatings may directly promote osteogenisis, but also enable immobilization and subsequent drug delivery system (DDS of bisphosphonates. Simvastatin is also an effective candidate that is reported to increase the expression of BMP-2. The thin-film of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO was plasma-polymerized onto titanium, and then HMDSO surface was activated by O2-plasma treatment. A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D technique demonstrated that simvastatin was immobilized on the plasma-treated surfaces due to introduction of O2-functional groups. At the soft tissue/implant interface, multi-grooved surface topographies and utilizing the adhesive proteins such as fibronectin or laminin-5 may help in providing a biological seal around the implant. At the oral fluid/implant interface, an alumina coating, F+-implantation and immobilization of anti-microbial peptides were responsible for inhibiting the biofilm accumulation.

  4. Fragment library screening identifies hits that bind to the non-catalytic surface of Pseudomonas aeruginosa DsbA1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headey, Stephen J.; Vazirani, Mansha; Shouldice, Stephen R.; Coinçon, Mathieu; Tay, Stephanie; Morton, Craig J.; Simpson, Jamie S.; Martin, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    At a time when the antibiotic drug discovery pipeline has stalled, antibiotic resistance is accelerating with catastrophic implications for our ability to treat bacterial infections. Globally we face the prospect of a future when common infections can once again kill. Anti-virulence approaches that target the capacity of the bacterium to cause disease rather than the growth or survival of the bacterium itself offer a tantalizing prospect of novel antimicrobials. They may also reduce the propensity to induce resistance by removing the strong selection pressure imparted by bactericidal or bacteriostatic agents. In the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, disulfide bond protein A (PaDsbA1) plays a central role in the oxidative folding of virulence factors and is therefore an attractive target for the development of new anti-virulence antimicrobials. Using a fragment-based approach we have identified small molecules that bind to PaDsbA1. The fragment hits show selective binding to PaDsbA1 over the DsbA protein from Escherichia coli, suggesting that developing species-specific narrow-spectrum inhibitors of DsbA enzymes may be feasible. Structures of a co-complex of PaDsbA1 with the highest affinity fragment identified in the screen reveal that the fragment binds on the non-catalytic surface of the protein at a domain interface. This biophysical and structural data represent a starting point in the development of higher affinity compounds, which will be assessed for their potential as selective PaDsbA1 inhibitors. PMID:28346540

  5. Transferrin-derived synthetic peptide induces highly conserved pro-inflammatory responses of macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, George; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2009-02-01

    We examined the induction of macrophage pro-inflammatory responses by transferrin-derived synthetic peptide originally identified following digestion of transferrin from different species (murine, bovine, human N-lobe and goldfish) using elastase. The mass spectrometry analysis of elastase-digested murine transferrin identified a 31 amino acid peptide located in the N2 sub-domain of the transferrin N-lobe, that we named TMAP. TMAP was synthetically produced and shown to induce a number of pro-inflammatory genes by quantitative PCR. TMAP induced chemotaxis, a potent nitric oxide response, and TNF-alpha secretion in different macrophage populations; P338D1 macrophage-like cells, mouse peritoneal macrophages, mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and goldfish macrophages. The treatment of BMDM cultures with TMAP stimulated the production of nine cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, MCP-5, MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 gamma, MIP-2, GCSF, KC, VEGF, and RANTES) that was measured using cytokine antibody array and confirmed by Western blot. Our results indicate that transferrin-derived peptide, TMAP, is an immunomodulating molecule capable of inducing pro-inflammatory responses in lower and higher vertebrates.

  6. The E1 beta-subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase is surface-expressed in Lactobacillus plantarum and binds fibronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vastano, Valeria; Salzillo, Marzia; Siciliano, Rosa A; Muscariello, Lidia; Sacco, Margherita; Marasco, Rosangela

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is among the species with a probiotic activity. Adhesion of probiotic bacteria to host tissues is an important principle for strain selection, because it represents a crucial step in the colonization process of either pathogens or commensals. Most bacterial adhesins are proteins, and a major target for them is fibronectin, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein. In this study we demonstrate that PDHB, a component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, is a factor contributing to fibronectin-binding in L. plantarum LM3. By means of fibronectin overlay immunoblotting assay, we identified a L. plantarum LM3 surface protein with apparent molecular mass of 35 kDa. Mass spectrometric analysis shows that this protein is the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 beta-subunit (PDHB). The corresponding pdhB gene is located in a 4-gene cluster encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase. In LM3-B1, carrying a null mutation in pdhB, the 35 kDa adhesin was not anymore detectable by immunoblotting assay. Nevertheless, the pdhB null mutation did not abolish pdhA, pdhC, and pdhD transcription in LM3-B1. By adhesion assays, we show that LM3-B1 cells bind to immobilized fibronectin less efficiently than wild type cells. Moreover, we show that pdhB expression is negatively regulated by the CcpA protein and is induced by bile. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. Layer-by-Layer Heparinization of the Cell Surface by Using Heparin-Binding Peptide Functionalized Human Serum Albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guowei; Hu, Yaning; Liu, Yusheng; Jiang, Rui

    2018-05-20

    Layer-by-layer heparinization of therapeutic cells prior to transplantation is an effective way to inhibit the instant blood-mediated inflammatory reactions (IBMIRs), which are the major cause of early cell graft loss during post-transplantation. Here, a conjugate of heparin-binding peptide (HBP) and human serum albumin (HSA), HBP-HSA, was synthesized by using heterobifunctional crosslinker. After the first heparin layer was coated on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by means of the HBP-polyethylene glycol-phospholipid conjugate, HBP-HSA and heparin were then applied to the cell surface sequentially to form multiple layers. The immobilization and retention of heparin were analyzed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively, and the cytotoxity of HBP-HSA was further evaluated by cell viability assay. Results indicated that heparin was successfully introduced to the cell surface in a layer-by-layer way and retained for at least 24 h, while the cytotoxity of HBP-HSA was negligible at the working concentration. Accordingly, this conjugate provides a promising method for co-immobilization of heparin and HSA to the cell surface under physiological conditions with improved biocompatibility.

  8. Observation of core-level binding energy shifts between (100) surface and bulk atoms of epitaxial CuInSe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A.J. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Berry, G.; Rockett, A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Core-level and valence band photoemission from semiconductors has been shown to exhibit binding energy differences between surface atoms and bulk atoms, thus allowing one to unambiguously distinguish between the two atomic positions. Quite clearly, surface atoms experience a potential different from the bulk due to the lower coordination number - a characteristic feature of any surface is the incomplete atomic coordination. Theoretical accounts of this phenomena are well documented in the literature for III-V and II-VI semiconductors. However, surface state energies corresponding to the equilibrium geometry of (100) and (111) surfaces of Cu-based ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors have not been calculated or experimental determined. These compounds are generating great interest for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications, and are an isoelectronic analog of the II-VI binary compound semiconductors. Surface core-level binding energy shifts depend on the surface cohesive energies, and surface cohesive energies are related to surface structure. For ternary compound semiconductor surfaces, such as CuInSe{sub 2}, one has the possibility of variations in surface stoichiometry. Applying standard thermodynamical calculations which consider the number of individual surface atoms and their respective chemical potentials should allow one to qualitatively determine the magnitude of surface core-level shifts and, consequently, surface state energies.

  9. Observation of core-level binding energy shifts between (100) surface and bulk atoms of epitaxial CuInSe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, A.J.; Berry, G.; Rockett, A.

    1997-01-01

    Core-level and valence band photoemission from semiconductors has been shown to exhibit binding energy differences between surface atoms and bulk atoms, thus allowing one to unambiguously distinguish between the two atomic positions. Quite clearly, surface atoms experience a potential different from the bulk due to the lower coordination number - a characteristic feature of any surface is the incomplete atomic coordination. Theoretical accounts of this phenomena are well documented in the literature for III-V and II-VI semiconductors. However, surface state energies corresponding to the equilibrium geometry of (100) and (111) surfaces of Cu-based ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors have not been calculated or experimental determined. These compounds are generating great interest for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications, and are an isoelectronic analog of the II-VI binary compound semiconductors. Surface core-level binding energy shifts depend on the surface cohesive energies, and surface cohesive energies are related to surface structure. For ternary compound semiconductor surfaces, such as CuInSe 2 , one has the possibility of variations in surface stoichiometry. Applying standard thermodynamical calculations which consider the number of individual surface atoms and their respective chemical potentials should allow one to qualitatively determine the magnitude of surface core-level shifts and, consequently, surface state energies

  10. Plasmonic Heterodimers with Binding Site-Dependent Hot Spot for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuanyuan; Shuai, Zhenhua; Shen, Jingjing; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Shufen; Song, Chunyuan; Zhao, Baomin; Fan, Quli; Wang, Lianhui

    2018-05-07

    A novel plasmonic heterodimer nanostructure with a controllable self-assembled hot spot is fabricated by the conjugation of individual Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes (Au@Ag NCs) and varisized gold nanospheres (GNSs) via the biotin-streptavidin interaction from the ensemble to the single-assembly level. Due to their featured configurations, three types of heterogeneous nanostructures referred to as Vertice, Vicinity, and Middle are proposed and a single hot spot forms between the nanocube and nanosphere, which exhibits distinct diversity in surface plasmon resonance effect. Herein, the calculated surface-enhanced Raman scattering enhancement factors of the three types of heterodimers show a narrow distribution and can be tuned in orders of magnitude by controlling the size of GNSs onto individual Au@Ag NCs. Particularly, the Vertice heterodimer with unique configuration can provide extraordinary enhancement of the electric field for the single hot spot region due to the collaborative interaction of lightning rod effect and interparticle plasmon coupling effect. This established relationship between the architecture and the corresponding optical properties of the heterodimers provides the basis for creating controllable platforms which can be exploited in the applications of plasmonic devices, electronics, and biodetection. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Micrometer-sized TPM emulsion droplets with surface-mobile binding groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wel, Casper; van de Stolpe, Guido L.; Verweij, Ruben W.; Kraft, Daniela J.

    2018-03-01

    Colloids coated with lipid membranes have been widely employed for fundamental studies of lipid membrane processes, biotechnological applications such as drug delivery and biosensing, and more recently, for self-assembly. The latter has been made possible by inserting DNA oligomers with covalently linked hydrophobic anchors into the membrane. The lateral mobility of the DNA linkers on micrometer-sized droplets and solid particles has opened the door to creating structures with unprecedented structural flexibility. Here, we investigate micro-emulsions of TPM (3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate) as a platform for lipid monolayers and further functionalization with proteins and DNA oligonucleotides. TPM droplets can be produced with a narrow size distribution and are polymerizable, thus providing supports for model lipid membranes with controlled size and curvature. With fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we observed that droplet-attached lipids, NeutrAvidin proteins, as well as DNA oligonucleotides all show mobility on the surface. We explored the assembly of micron-sized particles on TPM-droplets by exploiting either avidin-biotin interactions or double-stranded DNA with complementary single-stranded end groups. While the single molecules are mobile, the particles that are attached to them are not. We propose that this is caused by the heterogeneous nature of emulsified TPM, which forms an oligomer network that limits the collective motion of linkers, but allows the surface mobility of individual molecules.

  12. An unusual case of iron deficiency anemia is associated with extremely low level of transferrin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shuangying; Li, Huihui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Li, Juan; Li, Kuanyu

    2015-01-01

    A case study of a female patient, diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia, was unresponsive to oral iron treatment and only partially responsive to parenteral iron therapy, a clinical profile resembling the iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA) disorder. However, the patient failed to exhibit microcytic phenotype, one of the IRIDA hallmarks. Biochemical assays revealed that serum iron, hepcidin, interluekin 6, and transferrin saturation were within the normal range of references or were comparable to her non-anemic offspring. Iron contents in serum and red blood cells and hemoglobin levels were measured, which confirmed the partial improvement of anemia after parenteral iron therapy. Strikingly, serum transferrin receptor in patient was almost undetectable, reflecting the very low activity of bone-marrow erythropoiesis. Our data demonstrate that this is not a case of systemic iron deficiency, but rather cellular iron deficit due to the low level of transferrin receptor, particularly in erythroid tissue.

  13. Assessment of a Radioimmunological Method to Measure Transferrin in Seminal Plasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallea Sanchez, L.; Estevez Gandara, A.; Navaroli Fernandez, F.; Machado Curbelo, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    A specific antiserum against human transferrin was obtained. It was titrated and used to develop a radioimmunological method to measure transferrin in seminal plasm, since the concentration of that protein could be a useful marker of testicular function in the clinical management of male infertility. The method showed good precision, accurateness and sensitivity, when it was assessed by standard statistical methods and accordingly it seems to be adequate for the intended purposes. The assessment of its value in the diagnosis and therapy of male infertility, will be the subject of future work. (author). 14 refs

  14. The meningococcal vaccine candidate neisserial surface protein A (NspA binds to factor H and enhances meningococcal resistance to complement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Lewis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Complement forms an important arm of innate immunity against invasive meningococcal infections. Binding of the alternative complement pathway inhibitor factor H (fH to fH-binding protein (fHbp is one mechanism meningococci employ to limit complement activation on the bacterial surface. fHbp is a leading vaccine candidate against group B Neisseria meningitidis. Novel mechanisms that meningococci employ to bind fH could undermine the efficacy of fHbp-based vaccines. We observed that fHbp deletion mutants of some meningococcal strains showed residual fH binding suggesting the presence of a second receptor for fH. Ligand overlay immunoblotting using membrane fractions from one such strain showed that fH bound to a approximately 17 kD protein, identified by MALDI-TOF analysis as Neisserial surface protein A (NspA, a meningococcal vaccine candidate whose function has not been defined. Deleting nspA, in the background of fHbp deletion mutants, abrogated fH binding and mAbs against NspA blocked fH binding, confirming NspA as a fH binding molecule on intact bacteria. NspA expression levels vary among strains and expression correlated with the level of fH binding; over-expressing NspA enhanced fH binding to bacteria. Progressive truncation of the heptose (Hep I chain of lipooligosaccharide (LOS, or sialylation of lacto-N-neotetraose LOS both increased fH binding to NspA-expressing meningococci, while expression of capsule reduced fH binding to the strains tested. Similar to fHbp, binding of NspA to fH was human-specific and occurred through fH domains 6-7. Consistent with its ability to bind fH, deleting NspA increased C3 deposition and resulted in increased complement-dependent killing. Collectively, these data identify a key complement evasion mechanism with important implications for ongoing efforts to develop meningococcal vaccines that employ fHbp as one of its components.

  15. Effect of structural modulation and thickness of a graphene overlayer on the binding energy of the Rashba-type surface state of Ir(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Barriga, J; Marchenko, D; Rader, O; Varykhalov, A; Bihlmayer, G; Wortmann, D

    2013-01-01

    The Ir(111) surface is known to host a surface state with a giant spin–orbit splitting due to the Rashba effect. This surface state is stable even in air when Ir is protected with an epitaxial graphene overlayer. In the present paper, we reveal an effect allowing one to tune the binding energy of this spin-split surface state up and down and demonstrate the practical application of this effect by two different approaches. The first approach is related to a decoration of the moiré pattern of single-layer graphene on Ir(111) by self-assembled nanoclusters of different compositions. The clusters locally pin graphene to the Ir substrate and enhance the amplitude of its structural corrugation, which, in turn, leads to an increase in the surface state binding energy. The second approach is related to the synthesis of few-layer graphene on Ir(111) by segregation of carbon. Additional graphene layers induce a shift of the Ir surface state towards lower binding energies and bring it almost to the Fermi level. Based on density functional calculations performed for the graphene/Ir(111) system, we show that in both cases the effect causing the binding energy shifts is intimately related to the distance between graphene and the Ir surface, which is subject to change due to deposition of clusters or by increasing the amount of graphene overlayers. In contrast, the observed spin–orbit splitting of the Ir(111) surface state remains remarkably robust and constant in all cases. Our theoretical analysis reveals that such stability can be explained by the localization properties of the Ir surface state that is a deep surface resonance. (paper)

  16. Vitamin A transport and the transmembrane pore in the cell-surface receptor for plasma retinol binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhong

    Full Text Available Vitamin A and its derivatives (retinoids play diverse and crucial functions from embryogenesis to adulthood and are used as therapeutic agents in human medicine for eye and skin diseases, infections and cancer. Plasma retinol binding protein (RBP is the principal and specific vitamin A carrier in the blood and binds vitamin A at 1:1 ratio. STRA6 is the high-affinity membrane receptor for RBP and mediates cellular vitamin A uptake. STRA6 null mice have severely depleted vitamin A reserves for vision and consequently have vision loss, even under vitamin A sufficient conditions. STRA6 null humans have a wide range of severe pathological phenotypes in many organs including the eye, brain, heart and lung. Known membrane transport mechanisms involve transmembrane pores that regulate the transport of the substrate (e.g., the gating of ion channels. STRA6 represents a new type of membrane receptor. How this receptor interacts with its transport substrate vitamin A and the functions of its nine transmembrane domains are still completely unknown. These questions are critical to understanding the molecular basis of STRA6's activities and its regulation. We employ acute chemical modification to introduce chemical side chains to STRA6 in a site-specific manner. We found that modifications with specific chemicals at specific positions in or near the transmembrane domains of this receptor can almost completely suppress its vitamin A transport activity. These experiments provide the first evidence for the existence of a transmembrane pore, analogous to the pore of ion channels, for this new type of cell-surface receptor.

  17. Novel antibody binding determinants on the capsid surface of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfor, Amin S.; Upadhyaya, Sasmita; Knowles, Nick J.; King, Donald P.; Paton, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Five neutralizing antigenic sites have been described for serotype O foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) based on monoclonal antibody (mAb) escape mutant studies. However, a mutant virus selected to escape neutralization of mAb binding at all five sites was previously shown to confer complete cross-protection with the parental virus in guinea pig challenge studies, suggesting that amino acid residues outside the mAb binding sites contribute to antibody-mediated in vivo neutralization of FMDV. Comparison of the ability of bovine antisera to neutralize a panel of serotype O FMDV identified three novel putative sites at VP2-74, VP2-191 and VP3-85, where amino acid substitutions correlated with changes in sero-reactivity. The impact of these positions was tested using site-directed mutagenesis to effect substitutions at critical amino acid residues within an infectious copy of FMDV O1 Kaufbeuren (O1K). Recovered viruses containing additional mutations at VP2-74 and VP2-191 exhibited greater resistance to neutralization with both O1K guinea pig and O BFS bovine antisera than a virus that was engineered to include only mutations at the five known antigenic sites. The changes at VP2-74 and VP3-85 are adjacent to critical amino acids that define antigenic sites 2 and 4, respectively. However VP2-191 (17 Å away from VP2-72), located at the threefold axis and more distant from previously identified antigenic sites, exhibited the most profound effect. These findings extend our knowledge of the surface features of the FMDV capsid known to elicit neutralizing antibodies, and will improve our strategies for vaccine strain selection and rational vaccine design. PMID:24584474

  18. Surface binding and uptake of cadmium (Cd2+) by LLC-PK1 cells on permeable membrane supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozialeck, W.C.; Lamar, P.C.

    1993-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Cd 2+ has relatively specific damaging effects on cell-cell junctions in the renal epithelial cell line, LLC-PK 1 . The objective of the present studies was to examine the surface binding and uptake of Cd 2+ by LLC-PK 1 cells in relation to the disruption of cell-cell junctions. LLC-PK 1 cells on Falcon Cell Culture Inserts were exposed to CdCl 2 containing trace amounts of 109 Cd 2+ from either the apical or the basolateral compartments, and the accumulation of 109 Cd 2+ was monitored for up to 8 h. The integrity of cell-cell junctions was assessed by monitoring the transepithelial electrical resistance. The results showed that the cells accumulated 3-4 times more Cd 2+ from the basolateral compartment than from the apical compartment. The accumulation of Cd 2+ from the basolateral compartment occurred in two phases: a rapid, exponential phase that occurred in 1-2 h and coincided with a decrease in transepithelial resistance, and a slower, linear phase that continued for 6-8 h. The Cd 2+ that accumulated during the rapid phase was easily removed by washing the cells in EGTA, indicating that most of it was bound to sites on the cell surface. By contrast, most of the Cd 2+ that accumulated during the slower phase could not be removed by EGTA, indicating that it had been taken up by the cells. Additional studies showed that the rapid phase of Cd 2+ accumulation was enhanced when Ca 2+ was present at low concentrations (0.1 mM), and was greatly reduced when Ca 2+ was present at high concentrations (10 mM). These results suggest that ld 2+ damages the junctions between LLC-PK 1 cells by interacting with Ca 2+ -sensitive sites on the basolateral cell surface. (orig.)

  19. An investigation of drug binding ability of a surface active ionic liquid: micellization, electrochemical, and spectroscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Suruchi; Sharma, Rabia; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar

    2012-12-18

    Keeping in view the use of surfactants in drug delivery, the interactions of surface active ionic liquids, such as 1-tetradecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (C(14)mimBr), with drugs, viz., dopamine hydrochloride (DH) and acetylcholine chloride (AC), have been studied, and the results are further compared with that of the structurally similar conventional cationic surfactant tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB). The micellization and interfacial behavior of C(14)mimBr and TTAB, in the presence of DH and AC, has been investigated from conductivity and surface tension measurements. Various micellar and adsorption characteristics for these drug-surfactant systems (DH/AC + C(14)mimBr/TTAB) have been investigated, indicating favorable interactions between them. The more detailed information regarding the nature of interactions between C(14)mimBr/TTAB and DH/AC is obtained from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and (1)H NMR measurements. CV measurements have been employed to evaluate the binding constant (K) and the Gibbs free energy change (ΔG) for these drug-surfactant complexes. These measurements indicate the existence of cation-π as well as π-π interactions between drugs and surfactants. A detailed analysis of chemical shifts of protons of drug molecules (DH and AC) in the presence of C(14)mimBr and TTAB has been done by (1)H NMR. The results obtained from (1)H NMR are in agreement with those of CV measurements. (1)H NMR studies along with the conductivity and surface tension measurements help in predicting the possible location of adsorption of these drug molecules in C(14)mimBr and TTAB micelles.

  20. Positively-charged semi-tunnel is a structural and surface characteristic of polyphosphate-binding proteins: an in-silico study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zachory Wei

    Full Text Available Phosphate is essential for all major life processes, especially energy metabolism and signal transduction. A linear phosphate polymer, polyphosphate (polyP, linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds, can interact with various proteins, playing important roles as an energy source and regulatory factor. However, polyP-binding structures are largely unknown. Here we proposed a putative polyP binding site, a positively-charged semi-tunnel (PCST, identified by surface electrostatics analyses in polyP kinases (PPKs and many other polyP-related proteins. We found that the PCSTs in varied proteins were folded in different secondary structure compositions. Molecular docking calculations revealed a significant value for binding affinity to polyP in PCST-containing proteins. Utilizing the PCST identified in the β subunit of PPK3, we predicted the potential polyP-binding domain of PPK3. The discovery of this feature facilitates future searches for polyP-binding proteins and discovery of the mechanisms for polyP-binding activities. This should greatly enhance the understanding of the many physiological functions of protein-bound polyP and the involvement of polyP and polyP-binding proteins in various human diseases.

  1. Pregnancy and variations of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin levels measured by the candidate reference HPLC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Vincenza; Ivaldi, Alessandra; Raspagni, Alessia; Arfini, Carlo; Vidali, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    Contrasting data are available on the diagnostic accuracy of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) during pregnancy. These differences may depend in part on how CDT was evaluated and expressed. Here, we report on variations of CDT levels in pregnant women using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) candidate reference method. Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, mean corpuscular volume, serum transferrin, urine and serum ethyl glucuronide and CDT were measured in 64 women, self-reporting as non-alcohol abusers (age: median 34, IQR: 28-38), at different stages of normal pregnancy (gestational weeks: median 28, IQR: 8-33). CDT was expressed as percentage of disialotransferrin to total transferrin (%CDT). Transferrin was associated with both %CDT (r = 0.66; P pregnancy trimester (first trimester: mean 1.01% (SD 0.19); second trimester: 1.30% (SD 0.14); third trimester: 1.53% (SD 0.22); ANOVA P pregnancy trimesters (P pregnancy and CDT could be more complex. The diagnostic accuracy of CDT for detecting alcohol abuse in a legal context may be limited in pregnant women and the effect of gestational age should be considered.

  2. Differential transferrin expression in placentae from normal and abnormal pregnancies: a pilot study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Králová, Alena; Světlíková, M.; Madar, J.; Ulčová-Gallová, Z.; Bukovský, A.; Pěknicová, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 27 (2008), s. 1-16 ISSN 1477-7827 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OE 211 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : transferrin * monoclonal antibody * human placentae Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.634, year: 2008

  3. Transferrin Family Genes in the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Response to Three Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shun-Fan; Li, Jian; Zhang, Yong; Gao, Cong-Fen

    2018-02-09

    Transferrins are involved in iron metabolism, immunity, xenobiotics tolerance, and development in eukaryotic organisms including insects. However, little is known about the relationship between transferrins and insecticide toxicology and resistance. Three transferrin family genes, NlTsf1, NlTsf2, and NlTsf3, of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)a major insect pest of rice field in Asia, had been identified and characterized in this study. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated that NlTsf1 was significantly higher than the other two genes in different tissues. All of them were expressed at higher levels in abdomen and head than in antenna, leg, stylet, and thorax. Compared with the control, the expression of three N. lugens transferrin family genes decreased dramatically 24 h after treatment with buprofezin, pymetrozine and imidacloprid. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Transferrin receptor-1 and ferritin heavy and light chains in astrocytic brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosager, Ann Mari; Sørensen, Mia D; Dahlrot, Rikke H

    2017-01-01

    Astrocytic brain tumors are the most frequent primary brain tumors. Treatment with radio- and chemotherapy has increased survival making prognostic biomarkers increasingly important. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and prognostic value of transferrin receptor-1 (TfR...

  5. The influence of maternal smoking on transferrin sialylation and fetal biometric parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrześniak, Marta; Królik, Małgorzata; Kepinska, Marta; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2016-10-01

    Transferrin is a glycosylated protein responsible for transporting iron, an essential metal responsible for proper fetal development. Tobacco is a heavily used xenobiotic having a negative impact on the human body and pregnancy outcomes. Aims of this study was to examine the influence of tobacco smoking on transferrin sialic acid residues and their connection with fetal biometric parameters in women with iron-deficiency. The study involved 173 samples from pregnant women, smokers and non-smokers, iron deficient and not. Transferrin sialylation was determined by capillary electrophoresis. The cadmium (Cd) level was measured by atomic absorption and the sialic acid concentration by the resorcinol method. Women with iron deficiencies who smoked gave birth earlier than non-smoking, non-iron-deficient women. The Cd level, but not the cotinine level, was positively correlated with transferrin sialylation in the blood of iron-deficient women who smoked; 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-sialoTf correlated negatively with fetal biometric parameters in the same group. It has been shown the relationship between Cd from tobacco smoking and fetal biometric parameters observed only in the iron deficient group suggests an additive effect of these two factors, and indicate that mothers with anemia may be more susceptible to Cd toxicity and disturbed fetal development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Two Secondary Carbohydrate Binding Sites on the Surface of Barley alpha-Amylase 1 Have Distinct Functions and Display Synergy in Hydrolysis of Starch Granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Munch; Bozonnet, Sophie; Seo, Eun-Seong

    2009-01-01

    Some polysaccharide processing enzymes possess secondary carbohydrate binding sites situated on the surface far from the active site. In barley alpha-amylase 1 (AMY1), two such sites, SBS1 and SBS2, are found on the catalytic (beta/alpha)8-barrel and the noncatalytic C-terminal domain, respective...

  7. Comparison of the binding properties of the mushroom Marasmius oreades lectin and Griffonia simplicifolia I-B isolectin to alphagalactosyl carbohydrate antigens in the surface phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Svend; Winter, Harry C; Goldstein, Irwin J

    2004-01-01

    The binding of two alpha-galactophilic lectins, Marasmius oreades agglutinin (MOA), and Griffonia simplicifolia I isolectin B(4) (GS I-B(4)) to neoglycoproteins and natural glycoproteins were compared in a surface phase assay. Neoglycoproteins carrying various alpha-galactosylated glycans and lam...

  8. A new generation of starch products as excipient in pharmaceutical tablets .1. Preparation and binding properties of high surface area potato starch products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierik, GHPT; ArendsScholte, AW; Eissens, AC; Lerk, CF

    1996-01-01

    A new pharmaceutical excipient with a high binding capacity was prepared from potato starch by enzymatic degradation, followed by suitable dehydration of the precipitated and filtered retrograded starch to produce high specific surface area products. Thermal dehydration methods like drying at room

  9. A new liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based method to quantitate exogenous recombinant transferrin in cerebrospinal fluid: a potential approach for pharmacokinetic studies of transferrin-based therapeutics in the central nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shunhai; Bobst, Cedric E; Kaltashov, Igor A

    2015-01-01

    Transferrin (Tf) is an 80 kDa iron-binding protein that is viewed as a promising drug carrier to target the central nervous system as a result of its ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Among the many challenges during the development of Tf-based therapeutics, the sensitive and accurate quantitation of the administered Tf in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) remains particularly difficult because of the presence of abundant endogenous Tf. Herein, we describe the development of a new liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based method for the sensitive and accurate quantitation of exogenous recombinant human Tf in rat CSF. By taking advantage of a His-tag present in recombinant Tf and applying Ni affinity purification, the exogenous human serum Tf can be greatly enriched from rat CSF, despite the presence of the abundant endogenous protein. Additionally, we applied a newly developed (18)O-labeling technique that can generate internal standards at the protein level, which greatly improved the accuracy and robustness of quantitation. The developed method was investigated for linearity, accuracy, precision, and lower limit of quantitation, all of which met the commonly accepted criteria for bioanalytical method validation.

  10. Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein C (OspC) binds complement component C4b and confers bloodstream survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Jennifer A; Lin, Yi-Pin; Kessler, Julie R; Sato, Hiromi; Leong, John M; Coburn, Jenifer

    2017-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) is the causative agent of Lyme disease in the United States, a disease that can result in carditis, and chronic and debilitating arthritis and/or neurologic symptoms if left untreated. Bb survives in the midgut of the Ixodes scapularis tick, or within tissues of immunocompetent hosts. In the early stages of infection, the bacteria are present in the bloodstream where they must resist clearance by the innate immune system of the host. We have found a novel role for outer surface protein C (OspC) from B. burgdorferi and B. garinii in interactions with the complement component C4b and bloodstream survival in vivo. Our data show that OspC inhibits the classical and lectin complement pathways and competes with complement protein C2 for C4b binding. Resistance to complement is important for maintenance of the lifecycle of Bb, enabling survival of the pathogen within the host as well as in the midgut of a feeding tick when ospC expression is induced. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Further structural insights into the binding of complement factor H by complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 1 (CspA) of Borrelia burgdorferi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caesar, Joseph J. E.; Wallich, Reinhard; Kraiczy, Peter; Zipfel, Peter F.; Lea, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    B. burgdorferi binds complement factor H using a dimeric surface protein, CspA (BbCRASP-1). Presented here is a new structure of CspA that suggests that there is a degree of flexibility between subunits which may have implications for complement regulator binding. Borrelia burgdorferi has evolved many mechanisms of evading the different immune systems across its range of reservoir hosts, including the capture and presentation of host complement regulators factor H and factor H-like protein-1 (FHL-1). Acquisition is mediated by a family of complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins (CRASPs), of which the atomic structure of CspA (BbCRASP-1) is known and shows the formation of a homodimeric species which is required for binding. Mutagenesis studies have mapped a putative factor H binding site to a cleft between the two subunits. Presented here is a new atomic structure of CspA which shows a degree of flexibility between the subunits which may be critical for factor H scavenging by increasing access to the binding interface and allows the possibility that the assembly can clamp around the bound complement regulators

  12. Residues essential for Panton-Valentine leukocidin S component binding to its cell receptor suggest both plasticity and adaptability in its interaction surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit-Joseph Laventie

    Full Text Available Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, a bicomponent staphylococcal leukotoxin, is involved in the poor prognosis of necrotizing pneumonia. The present study aimed to elucidate the binding mechanism of PVL and in particular its cell-binding domain. The class S component of PVL, LukS-PV, is known to ensure cell targeting and exhibits the highest affinity for the neutrophil membrane (Kd∼10(-10 M compared to the class F component of PVL, LukF-PV (Kd∼10(-9 M. Alanine scanning mutagenesis was used to identify the residues involved in LukS-PV binding to the neutrophil surface. Nineteen single alanine mutations were performed in the rim domain previously described as implicated in cell membrane interactions. Positions were chosen in order to replace polar or exposed charged residues and according to conservation between leukotoxin class S components. Characterization studies enabled to identify a cluster of residues essential for LukS-PV binding, localized on two loops of the rim domain. The mutations R73A, Y184A, T244A, H245A and Y250A led to dramatically reduced binding affinities for both human leukocytes and undifferentiated U937 cells expressing the C5a receptor. The three-dimensional structure of five of the mutants was determined using X-ray crystallography. Structure analysis identified residues Y184 and Y250 as crucial in providing structural flexibility in the receptor-binding domain of LukS-PV.

  13. Identification of an estrogen receptor α non covalent ubiquitin-binding surface: role in 17β-estradiol-induced transcriptional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesiri, Valeria; La Rosa, Piergiorgio; Stano, Pasquale; Acconcia, Filippo

    2013-06-15

    Ubiquitin (Ub)-binding domains (UBDs) located in Ub receptors decode the ubiquitination signal by non-covalently engaging the Ub modification on their binding partners and transduce the Ub signalling through Ub-based molecular interactions. In this way, inducible protein ubiquitination regulates diverse biological processes. The estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates the pleiotropic effects of the sex hormone 17β-estradiol (E2). Fine regulation of E2 pleiotropic actions depends on E2-dependent ERα association with a plethora of binding partners and/or on the E2 modulation of receptor ubiquitination. Indeed, E2-induced ERα polyubiquitination triggers receptor degradation and transcriptional activity, and E2-dependent reduction in ERα monoubiquitination is crucial for E2 signalling. Monoubiquitinated proteins often contain UBDs, but whether non-covalent Ub-ERα binding could occur and play a role in E2-ERα signalling is unknown. Here, we report an Ub-binding surface within the ERα ligand binding domain that directs in vitro the receptor interaction with both ubiquitinated proteins and recombinant Ub chains. Mutational analysis reveals that ERα residues leucine 429 and alanine 430 are involved in Ub binding. Moreover, impairment of ERα association to ubiquitinated species strongly affects E2-induced ERα transcriptional activity. Considering the importance of UBDs in the Ub-based signalling network and the central role of different ERα binding partners in the modulation of E2-dependent effects, our discoveries provide novel insights into ERα activity that could also be relevant for ERα-dependent diseases.

  14. Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering Study of the Binding Modes of a Dibenzotetraaza[14]annulene Derivative with DNA/RNA Polynucleotides

    OpenAIRE

    Miljanić, Snežana; Dijanošić, Adriana; Kalac, Matea; Radić Stojković, Marijana; Piantanida, Ivo; Pawlica, Dariusz; Eilmes, Julita

    2012-01-01

    Binding modes of a dibenzotetraaza14annulene (DBTAA) derivative with synthetic nucleic acids were studied using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Changes in SERS intensity and appearance of new bands in spectra were attributed to different complexes formed between the DBTAA molecules and DNA/RNA polynucleotides. A decrease in intensity pointed to intercalation as the dominant binding mode of the annulene derivative with poly dGdC-poly dGdC and poly rA-poly rU, whereas new bands in...

  15. Cyclophilin B mediates cyclosporin A incorporation in human blood T-lymphocytes through the specific binding of complexed drug to the cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, F; Denys, A; Spik, G

    1996-07-15

    Cyclophilin B (CyPB) is a cyclosporin A (CsA)-binding protein located within intracellular vesicles and released in biological fluids. We recently reported the specific binding of this protein to T-cell surface receptor which is internalized even in the presence of CsA. These results suggest that CyPB might target the drug to lymphocytes and consequently modify its activity. To verify this hypothesis, we have first investigated the binding capacity and internalization of the CsA-CyPB complex in human peripheral blood T-lymphocytes and secondly compared the inhibitory effect of both free and CyPB-complexed CsA on the CD3-induced activation and proliferation of T-cells. Here, we present evidence that both the CsA-CyPB complex and free CyPB bind to the T-lymphocyte surface, with similar values of Kd and number of sites. At 37 degrees C, the complex is internalized but, in contrast to the protein, the drug is accumulated within the cell. Moreover, CyPB receptors are internalized together with the ligand and rapidly recycled to the cell surface. Finally, we demonstrate that CyPB-complexed CsA remains as efficient as uncomplexed CsA and that CyPB enhances the immunosuppressive activity of the drug. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that surface CyPB receptors may be related to the selective and variable action of CsA, through specific binding and targeting of the CyPB-CsA complex to peripheral blood T-lymphocytes.

  16. Importance of length and sequence order on magnesium binding to surface-bound oligonucleotides studied by second harmonic generation and atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Joseph G; Geiger, Franz M

    2012-06-07

    The binding of magnesium ions to surface-bound single-stranded oligonucleotides was studied under aqueous conditions using second harmonic generation (SHG) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effect of strand length on the number of Mg(II) ions bound and their free binding energy was examined for 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-mers of adenine and guanine at pH 7, 298 K, and 10 mM NaCl. The binding free energies for adenine and guanine sequences were calculated to be -32.1(4) and -35.6(2) kJ/mol, respectively, and invariant with strand length. Furthermore, the ion density for adenine oligonucleotides did not change as strand length increased, with an average value of 2(1) ions/strand. In sharp contrast, guanine oligonucleotides displayed a linear relationship between strand length and ion density, suggesting that cooperativity is important. This data gives predictive capabilities for mixed strands of various lengths, which we exploit for 20-mers of adenines and guanines. In addition, the role sequence order plays in strands of hetero-oligonucleotides was examined for 5'-A(10)G(10)-3', 5'-(AG)(10)-3', and 5'-G(10)A(10)-3' (here the -3' end is chemically modified to bind to the surface). Although the free energy of binding is the same for these three strands (averaged to be -33.3(4) kJ/mol), the total ion density increases when several guanine residues are close to the 3' end (and thus close to the solid support substrate). To further understand these results, we analyzed the height profiles of the functionalized surfaces with tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). When comparing the average surface height profiles of the oligonucleotide surfaces pre- and post- Mg(II) binding, a positive correlation was found between ion density and the subsequent height decrease following Mg(II) binding, which we attribute to reductions in Coulomb repulsion and strand collapse once a critical number of Mg(II) ions are bound to the strand.

  17. Real-time and label-free analysis of binding thermodynamics of carbohydrate-protein interactions on unfixed cancer cell surfaces using a QCM biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueming; Song, Siyu; Shuai, Qi; Pei, Yihan; Aastrup, Teodor; Pei, Yuxin; Pei, Zhichao

    2015-01-01

    A novel approach to the study of binding thermodynamics and kinetics of carbohydrate-protein interactions on unfixed cancer cell surfaces using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor was developed, in which binding events take place at the cell surface, more closely mimicking a biologically relevant environment. In this study, colon adenocarcinoma cells (KM-12) and ovary adenocarcinoma cells (SKOV-3) grew on the optimized polystyrene-coated biosensor chip without fixation. The association and dissociation between the cell surface carbohydrates and a range of lectins, including WGA, Con A, UEA-I, GS-II, PNA and SBA, were monitored in real time and without label for evaluation of cell surface glycosylation. Furthermore, the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of the interaction between lectins and cell surface glycan were studied, providing detailed information about the interactions, such as the association rate constant, dissociation rate constant, affinity constant, as well as the changes of entropy, enthalpy and Gibbs free energy. This application provides an insight into the cell surface glycosylation and the complex molecular recognition on the intact cell surface, which may have impacts on disease diagnosis and drug discovery. PMID:26369583

  18. Effects of synthetic cohesin-containing scaffold protein architecture on binding dockerin-enzyme fusions on the surface of Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieczorek Andrew S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The microbial synthesis of fuels, commodity chemicals, and bioactive compounds necessitates the assemblage of multiple enzyme activities to carry out sequential chemical reactions, often via substrate channeling by means of multi-domain or multi-enzyme complexes. Engineering the controlled incorporation of enzymes in recombinant protein complexes is therefore of interest. The cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum is an extracellular enzyme complex that efficiently hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose. Enzymes interact with protein scaffolds via type 1 dockerin/cohesin interactions, while scaffolds in turn bind surface anchor proteins by means of type 2 dockerin/cohesin interactions, which demonstrate a different binding specificity than their type 1 counterparts. Recombinant chimeric scaffold proteins containing cohesins of different specificity allow binding of multiple enzymes to specific sites within an engineered complex. Results We report the successful display of engineered chimeric scaffold proteins containing both type 1 and type 2 cohesins on the surface of Lactococcus lactis cells. The chimeric scaffold proteins were able to form complexes with the Escherichia coli β-glucuronidase fused to either type 1 or type 2 dockerin, and differences in binding efficiencies were correlated with scaffold architecture. We used E. coli β-galactosidase, also fused to type 1 or type 2 dockerins, to demonstrate the targeted incorporation of two enzymes into the complexes. The simultaneous binding of enzyme pairs each containing a different dockerin resulted in bi-enzymatic complexes tethered to the cell surface. The sequential binding of the two enzymes yielded insights into parameters affecting assembly of the complex such as protein size and position within the scaffold. Conclusions The spatial organization of enzymes into complexes is an important strategy for increasing the efficiency of biochemical pathways. In this study

  19. Mhp182 (P102) binds fibronectin and contributes to the recruitment of plasmin(ogen) to the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Lisa M; Jenkins, Cheryl; Deutscher, Ania T; Raymond, Benjamin B A; Padula, Matthew P; Tacchi, Jessica L; Bogema, Daniel R; Eamens, Graeme J; Woolley, Lauren K; Dixon, Nicholas E; Walker, Mark J; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a major, economically damaging respiratory pathogen. Although M. hyopneumoniae cells bind plasminogen, the identification of plasminogen-binding surface proteins and the biological ramifications of acquiring plasminogen requires further investigation. mhp182 encodes a highly expressed 102 kDa protein (P102) that undergoes proteolytic processing to generate surface-located N-terminal 60 kDa (P60) and C-terminal 42 kDa (P42) proteins of unknown function. We show that recombinant P102 (rP102) binds plasminogen at physiologically relevant concentrations (K(D) ~ 76 nM) increasing the susceptibility of plasmin(ogen) to activation by tissue-specific plasminogen activator (tPA). Recombinant proteins constructed to mimic P60 (rP60) and P42 (rP42) also bound plasminogen at physiologically significant levels. M. hyopneumoniae surface-bound plasminogen was activated by tPA and is able to degrade fibrinogen, demonstrating the biological functionality of M. hyopneumoniae-bound plasmin(ogen) upon activation. Plasmin(ogen) was readily detected in porcine ciliated airways and plasmin levels were consistently higher in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from M. hyopneumoniae-infected animals. Additionally, rP102 and rP42 bind fibronectin with K(D) s of 26 and 33 nM respectively and recombinant P102 proteins promote adherence to porcine kidney epithelial-like cells. The multifunctional binding ability of P102 and activation of M. hyopneumoniae-sequestered plasmin(ogen) by an exogenous activator suggests P102 plays an important role in virulence. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Structure of a Glomulin-RBX1-CUL1 complex: inhibition of a RING E3 ligase through masking of its E2-binding surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, David M.; Olszewski, Jennifer L.; Tron, Adriana E.; Hammel, Michal; Lambert, Lester J.; Waddell, M. Brett; Mittag, Tanja; DeCaprio, James A.; Schulman, Brenda A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The ~300 human Cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) are multisubunit E3s in which a RING protein, either RBX1 or RBX2, recruits an E2 to catalyze ubiquitination. RBX1-containing CRLs also can bind Glomulin (GLMN), which binds RBX1’s RING domain, regulates the RBX1-CUL1-containing SCFFBW7 complex, and is disrupted in the disease Glomuvenous Malformation. Here we report the crystal structure of a complex between GLMN, RBX1, and a fragment of CUL1. Structural and biochemical analyses reveal that GLMN adopts a HEAT-like repeat fold that tightly binds the E2-interacting surface of RBX1, inhibiting CRL-mediated chain formation by the E2 CDC34. The structure explains the basis for GLMN’s selectivity toward RBX1 over RBX2, and how disease-associated mutations disrupt GLMN-RBX1 interactions. Our study reveals a mechanism for RING E3 ligase regulation whereby an inhibitor blocks E2 access, and raises the possibility that other E3s are likewise controlled by cellular proteins that mask E2-binding surfaces to mediate inhibition. PMID:22748924

  1. A novel RNA binding surface of the TAM domain of TIP5/BAZ2A mediates epigenetic regulation of rRNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anosova, Irina; Melnik, Svitlana; Tripsianes, Konstantinos; Kateb, Fatiha; Grummt, Ingrid; Sattler, Michael

    2015-05-26

    The chromatin remodeling complex NoRC, comprising the subunits SNF2h and TIP5/BAZ2A, mediates heterochromatin formation at major clusters of repetitive elements, including rRNA genes, centromeres and telomeres. Association with chromatin requires the interaction of the TAM (TIP5/ARBP/MBD) domain of TIP5 with noncoding RNA, which targets NoRC to specific genomic loci. Here, we show that the NMR structure of the TAM domain of TIP5 resembles the fold of the MBD domain, found in methyl-CpG binding proteins. However, the TAM domain exhibits an extended MBD fold with unique C-terminal extensions that constitute a novel surface for RNA binding. Mutation of critical amino acids within this surface abolishes RNA binding in vitro and in vivo. Our results explain the distinct binding specificities of TAM and MBD domains to RNA and methylated DNA, respectively, and reveal structural features for the interaction of NoRC with non-coding RNA. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Detection of ligand binding hot spots on protein surfaces via fragment-based methods: application to DJ-1 and glucocerebrosidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landon, Melissa R.; Lieberman, Raquel L.; Hoang, Quyen Q.; Ju, Shulin; Caaveiro, Jose M.M.; Orwig, Susan D.; Kozakov, Dima; Brenke, Ryan; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Beglov, Dmitry; Vajda, Sandor; Petsko, Gregory A.; Ringe, Dagmar; (BU-M); (Brandeis); (GIT)

    2010-08-04

    The identification of hot spots, i.e., binding regions that contribute substantially to the free energy of ligand binding, is a critical step for structure-based drug design. Here we present the application of two fragment-based methods to the detection of hot spots for DJ-1 and glucocerebrosidase (GCase), targets for the development of therapeutics for Parkinson's and Gaucher's diseases, respectively. While the structures of these two proteins are known, binding information is lacking. In this study we employ the experimental multiple solvent crystal structures (MSCS) method and computational fragment mapping (FTMap) to identify regions suitable for the development of pharmacological chaperones for DJ-1 and GCase. Comparison of data derived via MSCS and FTMap also shows that FTMap, a computational method for the identification of fragment binding hot spots, is an accurate and robust alternative to the performance of expensive and difficult crystallographic experiments.

  3. Serum iron, ferritin, transferrin and haptoglobin concentration variations during repeated show jumping competition in horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Assenza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modifications of the iron profile in athlete horses during two international three star (*** show jumping competitions performed in two consecutive weekends were evaluated. Serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, and haptoglobin were assessed in 12 well-trained Italian Saddle horses. Blood samplings were performed before the first day of competition (R1, within 10 min from the end of each competition (J1, J2 and on the day after competition (R2. The same plan was followed during the second weekend (J3, J4 and R3. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA was applied on obtained data, and a significant effect of exercise (P < 0.05 on all studied indices was found. These results suggest that serum iron, transferrin, ferritin and haptoglobin are responsive to intense exercise and could be considered important indicators that may give important information about the horse’s performance.

  4. (111)Indium-transferrin for localization and quantification of gastrointestinal protein loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jane Angel; Braad, Poul-Erik; Veje, Annegrete

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the indium-111 ((111)In)-transferrin method as a means of localization and quantification of gastrointestinal protein loss. Methods. Fourteen patients and 15 healthy subjects underwent an (111)In-transferrin study consisting of abdominal scintigraphy, whole-body counting...... measurement and determination of plasma activity of (111)In during the course of 5 days. Two of the patients went through a subsequent chromium-51-trichloride test with analysis of radioactivity in faeces in order to compare the results of the two methods. Results. The patients had a mean+/-SEM whole-body...... loss of (111)In of 10.9+/-2.9% for 96 h, while the healthy controls lost 1.8+/-1.3% (p=0.0045). The decay in plasma activity followed biexponential kinetics. The characteristic plasma transit time was 5.0+/-1.0 h in patients and 12.1+/-1.5 h in controls (p=0.0007). Scintigraphically, patients had...

  5. Effect of wortmannin and phorbol ester on Paramecium fluid-phase uptake in the presence of transferrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Wiejak

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of the uptake of the fluid phase marker Lucifer Yellow (LY, and its alteration by wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K, and the PKC modulators: GF 109203 X, an inhibitor, and phorbol ester, an activator was studied in eukaryotic model Paramecium aurelia. Spectrophotometric quantification of LY accumulation was performed in the presence or absence of transferrin, a marker of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Internalization of LY showed a curvilinear kinetics: the high initial rate of LYuptake (575 ng LY/ mg protein /hr decreased almost 5-fold within 15 min, reaching plateau at 126 ng/ mg protein /hr. Transferrin induced a small increase (7.5% in the fluid phase uptake rate (after 5 min followed by a small decrease at longer incubation times. Lucifer Yellow and transferrin (visualized by streptavidin– FITC were localized in Paramecium by 3-D reconstruction by confocal microscopy. LY showed a scattered, diffuse fluorescence typical of fluid phase uptake whereas transferrin accumulated in membrane-surrounded endosomes. Wortmannin did not affect LY accumulation but decreased it when transferrin was present in the incubation medium. This suggests an effect on the transferrin uptake pathway, presumably on the stage of internalization in “mixing” endosomes to which transferrin and LY were targeted. Phorbol ester diminished LY accumulation by 22% and this effect persisted up to 25 min of incubation. PKC inhibitor did not affect LY uptake. However, in the presence of transferrin, the LY uptake increased within the first 15 minutes followed by a rapid 20% decrease in comparison to the control. Such an effect of PKC modulators suggests that PMA action on fluid phase uptake is not directly mediated by PKC.

  6. Low serum transferrin correlates with acute-on-chronic organ failure and indicates short-term mortality in decompensated cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Tony; Nuraldeen, Renwar; Mai, Martina; Stengel, Sven; Zimmermann, Henning W; Yagmur, Eray; Trautwein, Christian; Stallmach, Andreas; Strnad, Pavel

    2017-02-01

    Iron represents an essential, but potentially harmful micronutrient, whose regulation has been associated with poor outcome in liver disease. Its homeostasis is tightly linked to oxidative stress, bacterial infections and systemic inflammation. To study the prognostic short-term significance of iron parameters in a cohort study of patients with decompensation of cirrhosis at risk of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Ferritin, transferrin, iron, transferrin saturation (TSAT) and hepcidin were determined in sera from 292 German patients hospitalized for decompensation of cirrhosis with ascites, of which 78 (27%) had ACLF. Short-term mortality was prospectively assessed 30 and 90 days after inclusion. Transferrin concentrations were significantly lower, whereas ferritin and TSAT were higher in patients with ACLF compared to patients without ACLF (P≤.006). Transferrin, TSAT and ferritin differentially correlated with the severity of organ failure, active alcoholism and surrogates of systemic inflammation and macrophage activation. As compared with survivors, 30-day non-survivors displayed lower serum transferrin (P=.0003) and higher TSAT (P=.003), whereas 90-day non-survivors presented with higher ferritin (P=.03) and lower transferrin (P=.02). Lower transferrin (continuous or dichotomized at 87 mg/dL) and consecutively higher TSAT (continuous or dichotomized >41%) indicated increased mortality within 30 days and remained significant after adjustment for organ failure and inflammation in multivariate regression models and across subgroups of patients. Among the investigated indicators of iron metabolism, serum transferrin concentration was the best indicator of organ failure and an independent predictor of short-term mortality at 30 days. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Implications of surface charge and curvature for the binding orientation of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase on negatively charged or zwitterionic phospholipid vesicles as studied by ESR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedin, E.M.K.; Høyrup, Lise Pernille Kristine; Patkar, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    fluorescence quenching efficiency between each spin-label positioned on TLL, and the lipid membrane. ESR exposure and fluorescence quenching data show that TILL associates closer to the negatively charged PG surface than the zwitterionic PC surface, and binds to both POPG LUV and POPC SUV predominantly through......The triglyceride lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL) binds with high affinity to unilamellar phospholipid vesicles that serve as a diluent interface for both lipase and substrate, but it displays interfacial activation on only small and negatively charged such vesicles [Cajal......) spectroscopy in combination with site-directed spin-labeling [Hedin, E. M. K., et al. (2002) Biochemistry 41, 1418514196]. In our investigation, we have studied the interfacial orientation of TLL when bound to large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) consisting of POPG, and bound to SUV consisting of 1-palmitoyl-2...

  8. Insights into the "pair of sugar tongs" surface binding site in barley alpha-amylase isozymes and crystallization of appropriate sugar tongs mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranier, S.; Deville, K.; Robert, X.

    2005-01-01

    of an additional surface binding site called a "pair of sugar tongs" due to the sugar capturing by Tyr380 which is situated in domain C of AMYL For the first time, a biological role for the domain C was suggested as well as a hypothetical explanation of enzymatic differences between the two barley a......-amylase isozymes. However, no sugar was bound at the "sugar tongs" site in the AMY2/acarbose complex. Comparative studies of this domain on the basis of sequence, secondary structure and spatial organization allow to propose factors needed for such a site. One of the most obvious is the replacement of Ser378(AMY1......, surface plasmon resonance sugar binding experiments have proven unambiguously that this residue cannot totally explain the lack of the "pair of sugar tongs" and other tracks must be studied as, for example, the differences in orientation of Asp381 and the critical role of His395, both good candidates...

  9. Soluble transferrin receptor: a differentiating marker between iron deficiency anaemia and anaemia of chronic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboor, M.; Moinuddin, A.; Naureen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Iron deficiency anaemia and anaemia of chronic disorders are the two major causes of microcytic and hypochromic anaemia. Many times the diagnosis of these conditions becomes difficult through conventional laboratory tests. Determination of soluble transferrin receptors is a helpful laboratory test for the differential diagnosis of these conditions. The study was conducted to evaluate the role of soluble transferrin receptors in the differential diagnosis between iron deficiency anaemia and anaemia of chronic disorders. Methods: A total of 80 blood samples were evaluated, i.e., 20 samples from normal adult male, 20 samples from normal adult female, 20 samples from iron deficiency anaemia group and 20 samples from patients with anaemia of chronic disorders. Soluble transferrin receptors were determined by ELISA technique using Quantikine IVD kit (R and D Systems). Results: There was significant difference in the levels of sTfR in iron deficiency anaemia and anaemia of chronic disorders. Statistically non-significant difference was observed between the levels of sTfR in patients with anaemia of chronic disorders as compared to normal control group. Conclusion: The sTfR determination can be used as a reliable differentiating marker in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia and anaemia of chronic disorders. (author)

  10. Detection of cerebrospinal fluid leakage by specific measurement of transferrin glycoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Seok-Joon; Zhang, Fuming; Dordick, Jonathan S; Sonstein, William J; Linhardt, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    A simple and rapid detection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage would benefit spine surgeons making critical postoperative decisions on patient care. We have assessed novel approaches to selectively determine CSF β2-transferrin (β2TF), an asialo-transferrin (aTF) biomarker, without interference from serum sialo-transferrin (sTF) in test samples. First, we performed mild periodate oxidation to selectively generate aldehyde groups in sTF for capture with magnetic hydrazide microparticles, and selective removal with a magnetic separator. Using this protocol sTF was selectively removed from mixtures of CSF and serum containing CSF aTF (β2TF) and serum sTF, respectively. Second, a two-step enzymatic method was developed with neuraminidase and galactose oxidase for generating aldehyde groups in sTF present in CSF and serum mixtures for magnetic hydrazide microparticle capture. After selectively removing sTF from mixtures of CSF and serum, ELISA could detect significant TF signal only in CSF, while the TF signal in serum was negligible. The new approach for selective removal of only sTF in test samples will be promising for the required intervention by a spine surgeon. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Transferrin targeted core-shell nanomedicine for combinatorial delivery of doxorubicin and sorafenib against hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarvizhi, Giridharan Loghanathan; Retnakumari, Archana Payickattu; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2014-11-01

    Combinatorial drug delivery is an attractive, but challenging requirement of next generation cancer nanomedicines. Here, we report a transferrin-targeted core-shell nanomedicine formed by encapsulating two clinically used single-agent drugs, doxorubicin and sorafenib against liver cancer. Doxorubicin was loaded in poly(vinyl alcohol) nano-core and sorafenib in albumin nano-shell, both formed by a sequential freeze-thaw/coacervation method. While sorafenib from the nano-shell inhibited aberrant oncogenic signaling involved in cell proliferation, doxorubicin from the nano-core evoked DNA intercalation thereby killing >75% of cancer cells. Upon targeting using transferrin ligands, the nanoparticles showed enhanced cellular uptake and synergistic cytotoxicity in ~92% of cells, particularly in iron-deficient microenvironment. Studies using 3D spheroids of liver tumor indicated efficient penetration of targeted core-shell nanoparticles throughout the tissue causing uniform cell killing. Thus, we show that rationally designed core-shell nanoparticles can effectively combine clinically relevant single-agent drugs for exerting synergistic activity against liver cancer. Transferrin-targeted core-shell nanomedicine encapsulating doxorubicin and sorafenib was studied as a drug delivery system against hepatocellular carcinoma, resulting in enhanced and synergistic therapeutic effects, paving the way towards potential future clinical applications of similar techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Measurements of pulmonary vascular permeability with PET and gallium-68 transferrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintun, M.A.; Dennis, D.R.; Welch, M.J.; Mathias, C.J.; Schuster, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    We quantified pulmonary vascular permeability with positron emission tomography (PET) and gallium-68-( 68 Ga) labeled transferrin. Six dogs with oleic acid-induced lung injury confined to the left lower lobe, two normal human volunteers, and two patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were evaluated. Lung tissue-activity measurements were obtained from sequential 1-5 min PET scans collected over 60 min, after in vivo labeling of transferrin through intravenous administration of [ 68 Ga]citrate. Blood-activity measurements were measured from simultaneously obtained peripheral blood samples. A forward rate constant describing the movement of transferrin from pulmonary vascular to extravascular compartments, the pulmonary transcapillary escape rate (PTCER), was then calculated from these data using a two-compartment model. In dogs, PTCER was 49 +/- 18 in normal lung tissue and 485 +/- 114 10(-4) min-1 in injured lung. A repeat study in these dogs 4 hr later showed no significant change. Values in the human subjects showed similarly marked differences between normal and abnormal lung tissue. We conclude that PET will be a useful method of evaluating vascular permeability changes after acute lung injury

  13. Structure and calcium binding activity of LipL32, the major surface antigen of pathogenic Leptospira sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauk, Pricila; Roman-Ramos, Henrique; Ho, Paulo Lee; Guzzo, Cristiane R.; Farah, Chuck S.

    2009-01-01

    Leptospirosis, caused by the spirochaete Leptospira is an important emerging infectious disease. LipL32 is the major exposed outer membrane protein found exclusively in pathogenic leptospira. It is highly immunogenic and has been shown to bind to host extracellular matrix components, including collagens, fibronectin and laminin. In this work we crystallized recombinant LipL32 protein and determined its structure to 2.25 A resolution. Initial phases were determined using the multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion technique with data collected from selenomethionine-containing crystals at the MX2 beamline at the LNLS. The LipL32 monomer is made of a jelly-roll fold core from which protrude several peripheral secondary structures. Some structural features suggested that LipL32 could bind Ca 2+ ions and indeed, spectroscopic data (circular (dichroism. intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and extrinsic 1-amino-2-anaphthol-4-sulfonic acid fluorescence) confirmed the calcium binding properties of LipL32. (author)

  14. Interaction between holo transferrin and HSA-PPIX complex in the presence of lomefloxacin: An evaluation of PPIX aggregation in protein-protein interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Zohreh; Iranfar, Hediye; Asoodeh, Ahmad; Saberi, Mohammad Reza; Mazhari, Mahboobeh; Chamani, Jamshidkhan

    2012-11-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) and holo transferrin (TF) are two serum carrier proteins that are able to interact with each other, thereby altering their binding behavior toward their ligands. During the course of this study, the interaction between HSA-PPIX and TF, in the presence and absence of lomefloxacin (LMF), was for the first time investigated using different spectroscopic and molecular modeling techniques. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments were performed in order to study conformational changes of proteins. The RLS technique was utilized to investigate the effect of LMF on J-aggregation of PPIX, which is the first report of its kind. Our findings present clear-cut evidence for the alteration of interactions between HSA and TF in the presence of PPIX and changes in drug-binding to HSA and HSA-PPIX complex upon interaction with TF. Moreover, molecular modeling studies suggested that the binding site for LMF became switched in the presence of PPIX, and that LMF bound to the site IIA of HSA. The obtained results should give new insight into research in this field and may cast some light on the dynamics of drugs in biological systems.

  15. Evolutionary reconstructions of the transferrin receptor of Caniforms supports canine parvovirus being a re-emerged and not a novel pathogen in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason T Kaelber

    Full Text Available Parvoviruses exploit transferrin receptor type-1 (TfR for cellular entry in carnivores, and specific interactions are key to control of host range. We show that several key mutations acquired by TfR during the evolution of Caniforms (dogs and related species modified the interactions with parvovirus capsids by reducing the level of binding. These data, along with signatures of positive selection in the TFRC gene, are consistent with an evolutionary arms race between the TfR of the Caniform clade and parvoviruses. As well as the modifications of amino acid sequence which modify binding, we found that a glycosylation site mutation in the TfR of dogs which provided resistance to the carnivore parvoviruses which were in circulation prior to about 1975 predates the speciation of coyotes and dogs. Because the closely-related black-backed jackal has a TfR similar to their common ancestor and lacks the glycosylation site, reconstructing this mutation into the jackal TfR shows the potency of that site in blocking binding and infection and explains the resistance of dogs until recent times. This alters our understanding of this well-known example of viral emergence by indicating that canine parvovirus emergence likely resulted from the re-adaptation of a parvovirus to the resistant receptor of a former host.

  16. Evolutionary reconstructions of the transferrin receptor of Caniforms supports canine parvovirus being a re-emerged and not a novel pathogen in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaelber, Jason T; Demogines, Ann; Harbison, Carole E; Allison, Andrew B; Goodman, Laura B; Ortega, Alicia N; Sawyer, Sara L; Parrish, Colin R

    2012-01-01

    Parvoviruses exploit transferrin receptor type-1 (TfR) for cellular entry in carnivores, and specific interactions are key to control of host range. We show that several key mutations acquired by TfR during the evolution of Caniforms (dogs and related species) modified the interactions with parvovirus capsids by reducing the level of binding. These data, along with signatures of positive selection in the TFRC gene, are consistent with an evolutionary arms race between the TfR of the Caniform clade and parvoviruses. As well as the modifications of amino acid sequence which modify binding, we found that a glycosylation site mutation in the TfR of dogs which provided resistance to the carnivore parvoviruses which were in circulation prior to about 1975 predates the speciation of coyotes and dogs. Because the closely-related black-backed jackal has a TfR similar to their common ancestor and lacks the glycosylation site, reconstructing this mutation into the jackal TfR shows the potency of that site in blocking binding and infection and explains the resistance of dogs until recent times. This alters our understanding of this well-known example of viral emergence by indicating that canine parvovirus emergence likely resulted from the re-adaptation of a parvovirus to the resistant receptor of a former host.

  17. Comparison of gas-solid chromatography and MM2 force field molecular binding energies for greenhouse gases on a carbonaceous surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybolt, Thomas R; Bivona, Kevin T; Thomas, Howard E; O'Dell, Casey M

    2009-10-01

    Gas-solid chromatography was used to determine B(2s) (gas-solid virial coefficient) values for eight molecular adsorbates interacting with a carbon powder (Carbopack B, Supelco). B(2s) values were determined by multiple size variant injections within the temperature range of 313-553 K. The molecular adsorbates included: carbon dioxide (CO(2)); tetrafluoromethane (CF(4)); hexafluoroethane (C(2)F(6)); 1,1-difluoroethane (C(2)H(4)F(2)); 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (C(2)H(3)ClF(2)); dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl(2)F(2)); trichlorofluoromethane (CCl(3)F); and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (C(2)H(3)Cl(3)). Two of these molecules are of special interest because they are "super greenhouse gases". The global warming potential, GWP, for CF(4) is 6500 and for C(2)F(6) is 9200 relative to the reference value of 1 for CO(2). The GWP index considers both radiative blocking and molecular lifetime. For these and other industrial greenhouse gases, adsorptive trapping on a carbonaceous solid, which depends on molecule-surface binding energy, could avoid atmospheric release. The temperature variations of the gas-solid virial coefficients in conjunction with van't Hoff plots were used to find the experimental adsorption energy or binding energy values (E(*)) for each adsorbate. A molecular mechanics based, rough-surface model was used to calculate the molecule-surface binding energy (Ecal(*)) using augmented MM2 parameters. The surface model consisted of parallel graphene layers with two separated nanostructures each containing 17 benzene rings arranged in linear strips. The separation of the parallel nanostructures had been optimized in a prior study to appropriately represent molecule-surface interactions for Carbopack B. Linear regressions of E(*) versus Ecal(*) for the current data set of eight molecules and the same surface model gave E(*)=0.926 Ecal(*) and r(2)=0.956. A combined set of the current and prior Carbopack B adsorbates studied (linear alkanes, branched alkanes, cyclic alkanes

  18. Two secondary carbohydrate binding sites on the surface of barley alpha-amylase 1 have distinct functions and display synergy in hydrolysis of starch granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten M; Bozonnet, Sophie; Seo, Eun-Seong; Mótyán, János A; Andersen, Joakim M; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Abou Hachem, Maher; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Naested, Henrik; Kandra, Lili; Sigurskjold, Bent W; Svensson, Birte

    2009-08-18

    Some polysaccharide processing enzymes possess secondary carbohydrate binding sites situated on the surface far from the active site. In barley alpha-amylase 1 (AMY1), two such sites, SBS1 and SBS2, are found on the catalytic (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel and the noncatalytic C-terminal domain, respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis of Trp(278) and Trp(279), stacking onto adjacent ligand glucosyl residues at SBS1, and of Tyr(380) and His(395), making numerous ligand contacts at SBS2, suggested that SBS1 and SBS2 act synergistically in degradation of starch granules. While SBS1 makes the major contribution to binding and hydrolysis of starch granules, SBS2 exhibits a higher affinity for the starch mimic beta-cyclodextrin. Compared to that of wild-type AMY1, the K(d) of starch granule binding by the SBS1 W278A, W279A, and W278A/W279A mutants thus increased 15-35 times; furthermore, the k(cat)/K(m) of W278A/W279A was 2%, whereas both affinity and activity for Y380A at SBS2 were 10% of the wild-type values. Dual site double and triple SBS1/SBS2 substitutions eliminated binding to starch granules, and the k(cat)/K(m) of W278A/W279A/Y380A AMY1 was only 0.4% of the wild-type value. Surface plasmon resonance analysis of mutants showed that beta-cyclodextrin binds to SBS2 and SBS1 with K(d,1) and K(d,2) values of 0.07 and 1.40 mM, respectively. A model that accounts for the observed synergy in starch hydrolysis, where SBS1 and SBS2 bind ordered and free alpha-glucan chains, respectively, thus targeting the enzyme to single alpha-glucan chains accessible for hydrolysis, is proposed. SBS1 and SBS2 also influence the kinetics of hydrolysis for amylose and maltooligosaccharides, the degree of multiple attack on amylose, and subsite binding energies.

  19. The OmpL37 surface-exposed protein is expressed by pathogenic Leptospira during infection and binds skin and vascular elastin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinne, Marija; Choy, Henry A; Haake, David A

    2010-09-07

    Pathogenic Leptospira spp. shed in the urine of reservoir hosts into freshwater can be transmitted to a susceptible host through skin abrasions or mucous membranes causing leptospirosis. The infection process involves the ability of leptospires to adhere to cell surface and extracellular matrix components, a crucial step for dissemination and colonization of host tissues. Therefore, the elucidation of novel mediators of host-pathogen interaction is important in the discovery of virulence factors involved in the pathogenesis of leptospirosis. In this study, we assess the functional roles of transmembrane outer membrane proteins OmpL36 (LIC13166), OmpL37 (LIC12263), and OmpL47 (LIC13050), which we recently identified on the leptospiral surface. We determine the capacity of these proteins to bind to host tissue components by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. OmpL37 binds elastin preferentially, exhibiting dose-dependent, saturating binding to human skin (K(d), 104±19 nM) and aortic elastin (K(d), 152±27 nM). It also binds fibrinogen (K(d), 244±15 nM), fibrinogen fragment D (K(d), 132±30 nM), plasma fibronectin (K(d), 359±68 nM), and murine laminin (K(d), 410±81 nM). The binding to human skin elastin by both recombinant OmpL37 and live Leptospira interrogans is specifically enhanced by rabbit antiserum for OmpL37, suggesting the involvement of OmpL37 in leptospiral binding to elastin and also the possibility that host-generated antibodies may promote rather than inhibit the adherence of leptospires to elastin-rich tissues. Further, we demonstrate that OmpL37 is recognized by acute and convalescent leptospirosis patient sera and also by Leptospira-infected hamster sera. Finally, OmpL37 protein is detected in pathogenic Leptospira serovars and not in saprophytic Leptospira. Thus, OmpL37 is a novel elastin-binding protein of pathogenic Leptospira that may be promoting attachment of Leptospira to host tissues.

  20. Rotavirus NSP4 is secreted from infected cells as an oligomeric lipoprotein and binds to glycosaminoglycans on the surface of non-infected cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didsbury Alicia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonstructural glycoprotein 4 (NSP4 encoded by rotavirus is the only viral protein currently believed to function as an enterotoxin. NSP4 is synthesized as an intracellular transmembrane glycoprotein and as such is essential for virus assembly. Infection of polarized Caco-2 cells with rotavirus also results in the secretion of glycosylated NSP4 apparently in a soluble form despite retention of its transmembrane domain. We have examined the structure, solubility and cell-binding properties of this secreted form of NSP4 to further understand the biochemical basis for its enterotoxic function. We show here that NSP4 is secreted as discrete detergent-sensitive oligomers in a complex with phospholipids and demonstrate that this secreted form of NSP4 can bind to glycosaminoglycans present on the surface of a range of different cell types. Methods NSP4 was purified from the medium of infected cells after ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration by successive lectin-affinity and ion exchange chromatography. Oligomerisation of NSP4 was examined by density gradient centrifugation and chemical crosslinking and the lipid content was assessed by analytical thin layer chromatography and flame ionization detection. Binding of NSP4 to various cell lines was measured using a flow cytometric-based assay. Results Secreted NSP4 formed oligomers that contained phospholipid but dissociated to a dimeric species in the presence of non-ionic detergent. The purified glycoprotein binds to the surface of various non-infected cells of distinct lineage. Binding of NSP4 to HT-29, a cell line of intestinal origin, is saturable and independent of divalent cations. Complementary biochemical approaches reveal that NSP4 binds to sulfated glycosaminoglycans on the plasma membrane. Conclusion Our study is the first to analyze an authentic (i.e. non-recombinant form of NSP4 that is secreted from virus-infected cells. Despite retention of the transmembrane domain

  1. Transferrin-tailored solid lipid nanoparticles as vectors for site-specific delivery of temozolomide to brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Aviral, E-mail: draviraljain@gmail.com; Singhai, Priyanka; Gurnany, Ekta; Updhayay, Satish; Mody, Nishi [Adina Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Pharmaceutics Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutics (India)

    2013-03-15

    Blood-brain barrier restricts the uptake of many important hydrophilic drugs and limits their efficacy in the treatment of brain diseases because of the presence of tight junctions, high metabolic capacity, low pinocytic vesicular traffic, and efficient efflux mechanisms. In the present project, transferrin (Tf)-conjugated solid lipid nanoparticles (Tf-SLNs) were investigated for their ability to deliver temozolomide (TMZ) to the brain. SLNs were prepared by an ethanol injection method using hydrogenated soya phosphatidylcholine, triolein, cholesterol and distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine. Conjugation of SLNs with Tf was achieved by incubation of Tf with TMZ-loaded SLNs in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) as a cross linker. SLNs preparation were characterized for particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, surface morphology, percent drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release, and hemolytic toxicity studies. In vitro cytotoxicity studies were performed on human cancer cell lines. The average size was found to be 221 {+-} 3.22 nm with entrapment efficiency of 69.83 {+-} 2.52 and 249 {+-} 2.61 nm with entrapment efficiency decreased to 64.21 {+-} 2.27 % for unconjugated SLNs and Tf-SLNs, respectively. Fluorescence studies revealed the enhanced uptake of Tf-SLNs in brain tissue compared with unconjugated SLNs.

  2. Transferrin-tailored solid lipid nanoparticles as vectors for site-specific delivery of temozolomide to brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Aviral; Singhai, Priyanka; Gurnany, Ekta; Updhayay, Satish; Mody, Nishi

    2013-03-01

    Blood-brain barrier restricts the uptake of many important hydrophilic drugs and limits their efficacy in the treatment of brain diseases because of the presence of tight junctions, high metabolic capacity, low pinocytic vesicular traffic, and efficient efflux mechanisms. In the present project, transferrin (Tf)-conjugated solid lipid nanoparticles (Tf-SLNs) were investigated for their ability to deliver temozolomide (TMZ) to the brain. SLNs were prepared by an ethanol injection method using hydrogenated soya phosphatidylcholine, triolein, cholesterol and distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine. Conjugation of SLNs with Tf was achieved by incubation of Tf with TMZ-loaded SLNs in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) as a cross linker. SLNs preparation were characterized for particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, surface morphology, percent drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release, and hemolytic toxicity studies. In vitro cytotoxicity studies were performed on human cancer cell lines. The average size was found to be 221 ± 3.22 nm with entrapment efficiency of 69.83 ± 2.52 and 249 ± 2.61 nm with entrapment efficiency decreased to 64.21 ± 2.27 % for unconjugated SLNs and Tf-SLNs, respectively. Fluorescence studies revealed the enhanced uptake of Tf-SLNs in brain tissue compared with unconjugated SLNs.

  3. Proton and aluminum binding properties of organic acids in surface waters of the northeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhraei, Habibollah; Driscoll, Charles T

    2015-03-03

    A variety of mathematical estimators have been used to quantify the degree of protonation of naturally occurring organic acids. These estimators range from monoprotic, diprotic, and triprotic analog models to the discrete and continuous (Gaussian) distributions of a single proton binding-dissociation. Natural water samples from two long-term monitoring programs in the northeastern U.S. were used to quantify proton- and aluminum-binding properties of naturally occurring organic matter. Water chemistry observations were clustered into 0.05 pH intervals (over 3.75-7.35 pH range) and fit to a triprotic analog model. The model optimization indicates that about 5% of dissolved organic carbon participates in ion binding, and organic acids are composed of both strong and weak acids (i.e., pKa1 = 2.54, pKa2 = 6.19, and pKa3 = 7.52 for Adirondack samples). Binding between organic acids and aluminum can substantially influence the acid behavior of dissolved organic matter and the availability of the toxic form of aluminum (i.e., inorganic monomeric aluminum).

  4. Population heterogeneity in the surface expression of Ulex europaeus I-lectin (UEA I)-binding sites in cultured malignant and transformed cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virtanen, I.; Lehtonen, E.; Naervaenen, O.; Leivo, I.; Lehto, V.P.

    1985-11-01

    We studied the binding of fluorochrome-coupled Ulex europaeus I-lectin (UEA-I) to cultured malignant cells: all human malignant and transformed cells and also mouse teratocarcinoma cells examined gave a homogeneous cell membrane-type of surface staining only in some of the cells. Such a population heterogeneity appeared to be independent of the cell cycle. Instead, other lectin conjugates used bound homogeneously to all cell. In permeabilized cells, a juxtanuclear reticular staining of the Golgi apparatus was seen in the UEA-I-positive cells. No staining of the pericellular matrix components, produced by malignant cells grown in serum-free culture medium, could be obtained with TRITC-UEA-I. UEA-I-lectin recognized most polypeptides from A8387 fibrosarcoma cells and HeLa cells, metabolically labelled with (/sup 3/H)fucose. Furthermore, surface labelling of these cells with the neuraminidase-galactose oxidase/sodium borohydride method disclosed that both UEA-I and Ricinus communis agglutinin I revealed the same major surface glycoproteins. Results with metabolically labelled cells showed, in addition, that UEA-I-lectin did not bind to secreted glycoproteins produced by A8387 cells and recognized by other lectins. The results indicate that transformed and malignant cells show a distinct population heterogeneity in their expression of some cell surface-associated fucosyl glycoconjugates. The results also suggest that malignant cells can glycosylate their membrane and secreted glycoproteins in a different manner.

  5. Surface Proteome Analysis of a Natural Isolate of Lactococcus lactis Reveals the Presence of Pili Able to Bind Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyrand, Mickael; Guillot, Alain; Goin, Mélodie; Furlan, Sylviane; Armalyte, Julija; Kulakauskas, Saulius; Cortes-Perez, Naima G.; Thomas, Ginette; Chat, Sophie; Péchoux, Christine; Dupres, Vincent; Hols, Pascal; Dufrêne, Yves F.; Trugnan, Germain; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Surface proteins of Gram-positive bacteria play crucial roles in bacterial adhesion to host tissues. Regarding commensal or probiotic bacteria, adhesion to intestinal mucosa may promote their persistence in the gastro-intestinal tract and their beneficial effects to the host. In this study, seven Lactococcus lactis strains exhibiting variable surface physico-chemical properties were compared for their adhesion to Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. In this test, only one vegetal isolate TIL448 expressed a high-adhesion phenotype. A nonadhesive derivative was obtained by plasmid curing from TIL448, indicating that the adhesion determinants were plasmid-encoded. Surface-exposed proteins in TIL448 were analyzed by a proteomic approach consisting in shaving of the bacterial surface with trypsin and analysis of the released peptides by LC-MS/MS. As the TIL448 complete genome sequence was not available, the tryptic peptides were identified by a mass matching approach against a database including all Lactococcus protein sequences and the sequences deduced from partial DNA sequences of the TIL448 plasmids. Two surface proteins, encoded by plasmids in TIL448, were identified as candidate adhesins, the first one displaying pilin characteristics and the second one containing two mucus-binding domains. Inactivation of the pilin gene abolished adhesion to Caco-2 cells whereas inactivation of the mucus-binding protein gene had no effect on adhesion. The pilin gene is located inside a cluster of four genes encoding two other pilin-like proteins and one class-C sortase. Synthesis of pili was confirmed by immunoblotting detection of high molecular weight forms of pilins associated to the cell wall as well as by electron and atomic force microscopy observations. As a conclusion, surface proteome analysis allowed us to detect pilins at the surface of L. lactis TIL448. Moreover we showed that pili appendages are formed and involved in adhesion to Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells

  6. Characterization, cell-surface expression and ligand-binding properties of different truncated N-terminal extracellular domains of the ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit GluR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlhinney, R A; Molnár, E

    1996-04-01

    To identify the location of the first transmembrane segment of the GluR1 glutamate receptor subunit artificial stop codons have been introduced into the N-terminal domain at amino acid positions 442, 510, and 563, namely just before and spanning the proposed first two transmembrane regions. The resultant truncated N-terminal fragments of GluR1, termed NT1, NT2, and NT3 respectively were expressed in Cos-7 cells and their cellular distribution and cell-surface expression analysed using an N-terminal antibody to GluR1. All of the fragments were fully glycosylated and were found to be associated with cell membranes but none was secreted. Differential extraction of the cell membranes indicated that both NT1 and NT2 behave as peripheral membrane proteins. In contrast NT3, like the full subunit, has integral membrane protein properties. Furthermore only NT3 is expressed at the cell surface as determined by immunofluorescence and cell-surface biotinylation. Protease protection assays indicated that only NT3 had a cytoplasmic tail. Binding studies using the selective ligand [(3)H]alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate ([(3)H]AMPA) demonstrated that NT3 does not bind ligand. Together these results indicate that the first transmembrane domain of the GluR1 subunit lies between residues 509 and 562, that the N-terminal domain alone cannot form a functional ligand-binding site and that this domain can be targeted to the cell surface provided that it has a transmembrane-spanning region.

  7. Identification of Tumor Antigen AF20 as Glycosylated Transferrin Receptor 1 in Complex with Heat Shock Protein 90 and/or Transporting ATPase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Shapiro

    Full Text Available We previously isolated AF20, a murine monoclonal antibody that recognizes a cell surface glycoprotein of approximately 90-110 kDa. The AF20 antigen is specifically expressed in human hepatoma and colon cancer cell lines, and thus could serve as a cancer biomarker. To uncover the molecular identity of the AF20 antigen, a combination of ion-exchange chromatography, immunoprecipitation, and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was employed to purify the AF20 antigen followed by trypsin digestion and mass spectrometry. Surprisingly, three host proteins were thus purified from human hepatoma and colon cancer cell lines: transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90, and Na+/K+ ATPase or Mg++ ATPase. Co-immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis confirmed interaction among the three proteins. However, only the cDNA encoding TFR1 conferred strong cell surface staining by the AF20 antibody following its transient transfection into a cell line lacking endogenous AF20. In support of the molecular identity of AF20 as TFR1, diferric but not iron-free transferrin could prevent AF20 antigen-antibody interaction during immunoprecipitation. Moreover, very similar patterns of AF20 and TFR1 overexpression was documented in colon cancer tissues. In conclusion, AF20 is glycosylated TFR1. This finding could explain the molecular structure of AF20, its cell surface localization, as well as overexpression in cancer cells. Glycosylated TFR1 should serve as a usefulness target for anti-cancer therapy, or a vehicle for delivery of anti-tumor drugs with high affinity and specificity. The biological significance of the complex formation between TFR1, HSP90, and/or transporting ATPase warrants further investigation.

  8. BB0347, from the lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is surface exposed and interacts with the CS1 heparin-binding domain of human fibronectin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Gaultney

    Full Text Available The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, codes for several known fibronectin-binding proteins. Fibronectin a common the target of diverse bacterial pathogens, and has been shown to be essential in allowing for the development of certain disease states. Another borrelial protein, BB0347, has sequence similarity with these other known fibronectin-binding proteins, and may be important in Lyme disease pathogenesis. Herein, we perform an initial characterization of BB0347 via the use of molecular and biochemical techniques. We found that BB0347 is expressed, produced, and presented on the outer surface of intact B. burgdorferi. We also demonstrate that BB0347 has the potential to be important in Lyme disease progression, and have begun to characterize the nature of the interaction between human fibronectin and this bacterial protein. Further work is needed to define the role of this protein in the borrelial infection process.

  9. Well-oriented ZZ–PS-tag with high Fc-binding onto polystyrene surface for controlled immobilization of capture antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Jin-Bao; Sun, Xi-Feng; Yang, Hong-Ming; Zhang, Bao-Gang; Li, Zhi-Jian; Lin, Zhi-Juan; Gao, Zhi-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A versatile platform for immobilizing functionally intact IgG is proposed. •The mechanism relies on properly oriented ZZ–PS-tag onto a hydrophilic PS surface. •The oriented ZZ–PS-tag presents ∼fivefold higher IgG-binding activity. •The platform shows tenfold higher sensitivity and a wider linear range in ELISA. -- Abstract: The site specificity and bioactivity retention of antibodies immobilized on a solid substrate are crucial requirements for solid phase immunoassays. A fusion protein between an immunoglobulin G (IgG)-binding protein (ZZ protein) and a polystyrene-binding peptide (PS-tag) was constructed, and then used to develop a simple method for the oriented immobilization of the ZZ protein onto a PS support by the specific attachment of the PS-tag onto a hydrophilic PS. The orientation of intact IgG was achieved via the interaction of the ZZ protein and the constant fragment (Fc), thereby displayed the Fab fragment for binding antigen. The interaction between rabbit IgG anti-horseradish peroxidase (anti-HRP) and its binding partner HRP was analyzed. Results showed that the oriented ZZ–PS-tag yielded an IgG-binding activity that is fivefold higher than that produced by the passive immobilization of the ZZ protein. The advantage of the proposed immunoassay strategy was demonstrated through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in which monoclonal mouse anti-goat IgG and HRP-conjugated rabbit F(ab′) 2 anti-goat IgG were used to detect goat IgG. The ZZ–PS-tag presented a tenfold higher sensitivity and a wider linear range than did the passively immobilized ZZ protein. The proposed approach may be an attractive strategy for a broad range of applications involving the oriented immobilization of intact IgGs onto PS supports, in which only one type of phi-PS (ZZ–PS-tag) surface is used

  10. Well-oriented ZZ–PS-tag with high Fc-binding onto polystyrene surface for controlled immobilization of capture antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jin-Bao, E-mail: tangjinbao@yahoo.com.cn [School of Pharmacy and Biology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 (China); Sun, Xi-Feng [Clinical Laboratory, Weifang People' s Hospital, Weifang 261041 (China); Yang, Hong-Ming [School of Pharmacy and Biology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 (China); Zhang, Bao-Gang [School of Basic Medicine, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 (China); Li, Zhi-Jian [School of Pharmacy and Biology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 (China); Lin, Zhi-Juan [School of Basic Medicine, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 (China); Gao, Zhi-Qin, E-mail: zhiqingao@yahoo.cn [School of Pharmacy and Biology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 (China)

    2013-05-07

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A versatile platform for immobilizing functionally intact IgG is proposed. •The mechanism relies on properly oriented ZZ–PS-tag onto a hydrophilic PS surface. •The oriented ZZ–PS-tag presents ∼fivefold higher IgG-binding activity. •The platform shows tenfold higher sensitivity and a wider linear range in ELISA. -- Abstract: The site specificity and bioactivity retention of antibodies immobilized on a solid substrate are crucial requirements for solid phase immunoassays. A fusion protein between an immunoglobulin G (IgG)-binding protein (ZZ protein) and a polystyrene-binding peptide (PS-tag) was constructed, and then used to develop a simple method for the oriented immobilization of the ZZ protein onto a PS support by the specific attachment of the PS-tag onto a hydrophilic PS. The orientation of intact IgG was achieved via the interaction of the ZZ protein and the constant fragment (Fc), thereby displayed the Fab fragment for binding antigen. The interaction between rabbit IgG anti-horseradish peroxidase (anti-HRP) and its binding partner HRP was analyzed. Results showed that the oriented ZZ–PS-tag yielded an IgG-binding activity that is fivefold higher than that produced by the passive immobilization of the ZZ protein. The advantage of the proposed immunoassay strategy was demonstrated through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in which monoclonal mouse anti-goat IgG and HRP-conjugated rabbit F(ab′){sub 2} anti-goat IgG were used to detect goat IgG. The ZZ–PS-tag presented a tenfold higher sensitivity and a wider linear range than did the passively immobilized ZZ protein. The proposed approach may be an attractive strategy for a broad range of applications involving the oriented immobilization of intact IgGs onto PS supports, in which only one type of phi-PS (ZZ–PS-tag) surface is used.

  11. Binding of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator to its cell surface receptor is inhibited by low doses of suramin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Rønne, E; Danø, K

    1993-01-01

    micrograms/ml when using U937 cells and a ligand concentration of 0.3 nM. This concentration of the drug is well below the serum levels found in suramin-treated patients. Inhibition of binding was also demonstrated at the molecular level, using chemical cross-linking or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...... to the anti-invasive properties of suramin by destroying the cellular potential for localized plasminogen activation and proteolytic matrix degradation....

  12. Structure and calcium binding activity of LipL32, the major surface antigen of pathogenic Leptospira sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauk, Pricila; Roman-Ramos, Henrique; Ho, Paulo Lee [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia; Guzzo, Cristiane R.; Farah, Chuck S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Bioquimica

    2009-07-01

    Leptospirosis, caused by the spirochaete Leptospira is an important emerging infectious disease. LipL32 is the major exposed outer membrane protein found exclusively in pathogenic leptospira. It is highly immunogenic and has been shown to bind to host extracellular matrix components, including collagens, fibronectin and laminin. In this work we crystallized recombinant LipL32 protein and determined its structure to 2.25 A resolution. Initial phases were determined using the multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion technique with data collected from selenomethionine-containing crystals at the MX2 beamline at the LNLS. The LipL32 monomer is made of a jelly-roll fold core from which protrude several peripheral secondary structures. Some structural features suggested that LipL32 could bind Ca{sup 2+} ions and indeed, spectroscopic data (circular (dichroism. intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and extrinsic 1-amino-2-anaphthol-4-sulfonic acid fluorescence) confirmed the calcium binding properties of LipL32. (author)

  13. Control of heme synthesis during Friend cell differentiation: role of iron and transferrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskey, J.D.; Ponka, P.; Schulman, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    In many types of cells the synthesis of σ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) limits the rate of heme formation. However, results from this laboratory with reticulocytes suggest that the rate of iron uptake from 125 I-transferrin (Tf), rather than ALA synthase activity, limits the rate of heme synthesis in erythroid cells. To determine whether changes occur in iron metabolism and the control of heme synthesis during erythroid cell development Friend erythroleukemia cells induced to erythroid differentiation by dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) were studied. While added ALA stimulated heme synthesis in uninduced Friend cells (suggesting ALA synthase is limiting) it did not do so in induced cells. Therefore the possibility was investigated that, in induced cells, iron uptake from Tf limits and controls heme synthesis. Several aspects of iron metabolism were investigated using the synthetic iron chelator salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (SIH). Both induced and uninduced Friend cells take up and utilize Fe for heme synthesis directly from Fe-SIH without the involvement of transferrin and transferrin receptors and to a much greater extent than from saturating levels or 59 Fe-Tf (20 μM). Furthermore, in induced Friend cells 100 μM Fe-SIH stimulated 2- 14 C-glycine incorporation into heme up to 3.6-fold as compared to the incorporation observed with saturating concentrations of Fe-Tf. These results indicate that some step(s) in the pathway of iron from extracellular Tf to protoporphyrin, rather than the activity of ALA synthase, limits and controls the overall rate of heme and possibly hemoglobin synthesis in differentiating Friend erythroleukemia cells

  14. Effects of Surface Charge and Functional Groups on the Adsorption and Binding Forms of Cu and Cd on Roots of indica and japonica Rice Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Dong Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This work was designed to understand the mechanisms of adsorption of copper (Cu and cadmium (Cd on roots of indica and japonica varieties of rice. Six varieties each of indica and japonica rice were grown in hydroponics and the chemical properties of the root surface were analyzed, including surface charges and functional groups (-COO- groups as measured by the streaming potential and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. Binding forms of heavy metals adsorbed on rice roots were identified using sequential extraction methods. In rice roots exposed to Cu and Cd solutions, Cu existed mainly in both exchangeable and complexed forms, whereas Cd existed mainly in the exchangeable form. The amounts of exchangeable Cu and Cd and total adsorbed metal cations on the roots of indica varieties were significantly greater than those on the roots of japonica varieties, and the higher negative charges and the larger number of functional groups on the roots of indica varieties were responsible for their higher adsorption capacity and greater binding strength for Cu and Cd. Surface charge and functional groups on roots play an important role in the adsorption of Cu and Cd on the rice roots.

  15. Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies promote apoptosis of mature human Saos-2 osteoblasts via cell-surface binding to citrullinated heat shock protein 60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Chi; Yu, Chia-Li; Yu, Hui-Chun; Huang, Hsien-Bin; Koo, Malcolm; Lai, Ning-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) react with osteoblast surface citrullinated proteins and affect cell function, leading to joint damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). First, we purified ACPAs by cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP)-conjugated affinity column chromatography. The cognate antigens of ACPAs on Saos-2 cells, a sarcoma osteogenic cell line generated from human osteoblasts, were probed by ACPAs, and the reactive bands were analyzed using proteomic analyses. We found that ACPAs bind to Saos-2 cell membrane, and several protein candidates, including HSP60, were identified. We then cloned and purified recombinant heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) and citrullinated HSP60 (citHSP60) and investigated the effect of ACPAs on Saos-2 cell. We confirmed that HSP60 obtained from Saos-2 cell membrane were citrullinated and reacted with ACPAs, which induces Saos-2 cells apoptosis via binding to surface-expressed citHSP60 through Toll-like receptor 4 signaling. ACPAs promoted interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 expression in Saos-2 cells. Finally, sera from patients with RA and healthy controls were examined for their titers of anti-HSP60 and anti-citHSP60 antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The radiographic change in patients with RA was evaluated using the Genant-modified Sharp scoring system. Patients with RA showed higher sera titers of anti-citHSP60, but not anti-HSP60, antibodies when compared with controls. In addition, the anti-citHSP60 level was positively associated with increased joint damage in patients with RA. In conclusion, Saos-2 cell apoptosis was mediated by ACPAs via binding to cell surface-expressed citHSP60 and the titer of anti-citHSP60 in patients with RA positively associated with joint damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Modified cytokeratins expressed on the surface of carcinoma cells undergo endocytosis upon binding of human monoclonal antibody and its recombinant Fab fragment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditzel, H J; Garrigues, U; Andersen, C B

    1997-01-01

    display selection and the human Fab fragment was expressed in bacteria. Analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that COU-1 bound in a uniform punctate pattern to the surface of viable carcinoma cells stained at 4 degrees C, and binding increased significantly when cells were cultured...... was significantly reduced. Similar results were obtained using intact IgM COU-1 and the recombinant Fab fragment. Immunohistological studies indicated that COU-1, in contrast to murine monoclonal antibodies against normal cytokeratin 8 and 18, could differentiate between malignant and normal colon epithelia...

  17. Correction to: Evaluation of cell binding to collagen and gelatin: a study of the effect of 2D and 3D architecture and surface chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidenko, Natalia; Schuster, Carlos F; Bax, Daniel V; Farndale, Richard W; Hamaia, Samir; Best, Serena M; Cameron, Ruth E

    2018-03-21

    The article "Evaluation of cell binding to collagen and gelatin: a study of the effect of 2D and 3D architecture and surface chemistry", written by Natalia Davidenko, Carlos F. Schuster, Daniel V. Bax, Richard W. Farndale, Samir Hamaia, Serena M. Best and Ruth E. Cameron, was originally published Online First without open access. After publication in volume 27, issue 10, page 148 it was noticed that the copyright was wrong in the PDF version of the article. The copyright of the article should read as "© The Author(s) 2016". The Open Access license terms were also missing.

  18. Binding of p-mercaptobenzoic acid and adenine to gold-coated electroless etched silicon nanowires studied by surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaček-Grošev, Vlasta; Gebavi, Hrvoje; Bonifacio, Alois; Sergo, Valter; Daković, Marko; Bajuk-Bogdanović, Danica

    2018-04-10

    Modern diagnostic tools ever aim to reduce the amount of analyte and the time needed for obtaining the result. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is a method that could satisfy both of these requirements, provided that for each analyte an adequate substrate is found. Here we demonstrate the ability of gold-sputtered silicon nanowires (SiNW) to bind p-mercaptobenzoic acid in 10 -3 , 10 -4 and 10 -5 M and adenine in 30 and 100μM concentrations. Based on the normal mode analysis, presented here for the first time, the binding of p-mercaptobenzoic acid is deduced. The intensity enhancement of the 1106cm -1 band is explained by involvement of the CS stretching deformation, and the appearance of the broad 300cm -1 band attributed to SAu stretching mode. Adenine SERS spectra demonstrate the existence of the 7H tautomer since the strongest band observed is at 736cm -1 . The adenine binding is likely to occur in several ways, because the number of observed bands in the 1200-1600cm -1 interval exceeds the number of observed bands in the normal Raman spectrum of the free molecule. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Binding of Thrombin-Activated Platelets to a Fibrin Scaffold through αIIbβ3 Evokes Phosphatidylserine Exposure on Their Cell Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzoska, Tomasz; Suzuki, Yuko; Mogami, Hideo; Sano, Hideto; Urano, Tetsumei

    2013-01-01

    Recently, by employing intra-vital confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that platelets expose phosphatidylserine (PS) and fibrin accumulate only in the center of the thrombus but not in its periphery. To address the question how exposure of platelet anionic phospholipids is regulated within the thrombus, an in-vitro experiment using diluted platelet-rich plasma was employed, in which the fibrin network was formed in the presence of platelets, and PS exposure on the platelet surface was analyzed using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy. Almost all platelets exposed PS after treatment with tissue factor, thrombin or ionomycin. Argatroban abrogated fibrin network formation in all samples, however, platelet PS exposure was inhibited only in tissue factor- and thrombin-treated samples but not in ionomycin-treated samples. FK633, an αIIbβ3 antagonist, and cytochalasin B impaired platelet binding to the fibrin scaffold and significantly reduced PS exposure evoked by thrombin. Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro amide abrogated not only fibrin network formation, but also PS exposure on platelets without suppressing platelet binding to fibrin/fibrinogen. These results suggest that outside-in signals in platelets generated by their binding to the rigid fibrin network are essential for PS exposure after thrombin treatment. PMID:23383331

  20. Binding of thrombin-activated platelets to a fibrin scaffold through α(IIb)β₃ evokes phosphatidylserine exposure on their cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzoska, Tomasz; Suzuki, Yuko; Mogami, Hideo; Sano, Hideto; Urano, Tetsumei

    2013-01-01

    Recently, by employing intra-vital confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that platelets expose phosphatidylserine (PS) and fibrin accumulate only in the center of the thrombus but not in its periphery. To address the question how exposure of platelet anionic phospholipids is regulated within the thrombus, an in-vitro experiment using diluted platelet-rich plasma was employed, in which the fibrin network was formed in the presence of platelets, and PS exposure on the platelet surface was analyzed using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy. Almost all platelets exposed PS after treatment with tissue factor, thrombin or ionomycin. Argatroban abrogated fibrin network formation in all samples, however, platelet PS exposure was inhibited only in tissue factor- and thrombin-treated samples but not in ionomycin-treated samples. FK633, an α(IIb)β₃ antagonist, and cytochalasin B impaired platelet binding to the fibrin scaffold and significantly reduced PS exposure evoked by thrombin. Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro amide abrogated not only fibrin network formation, but also PS exposure on platelets without suppressing platelet binding to fibrin/fibrinogen. These results suggest that outside-in signals in platelets generated by their binding to the rigid fibrin network are essential for PS exposure after thrombin treatment.

  1. Binding of thrombin-activated platelets to a fibrin scaffold through α(IIbβ₃ evokes phosphatidylserine exposure on their cell surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Brzoska

    Full Text Available Recently, by employing intra-vital confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that platelets expose phosphatidylserine (PS and fibrin accumulate only in the center of the thrombus but not in its periphery. To address the question how exposure of platelet anionic phospholipids is regulated within the thrombus, an in-vitro experiment using diluted platelet-rich plasma was employed, in which the fibrin network was formed in the presence of platelets, and PS exposure on the platelet surface was analyzed using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy. Almost all platelets exposed PS after treatment with tissue factor, thrombin or ionomycin. Argatroban abrogated fibrin network formation in all samples, however, platelet PS exposure was inhibited only in tissue factor- and thrombin-treated samples but not in ionomycin-treated samples. FK633, an α(IIbβ₃ antagonist, and cytochalasin B impaired platelet binding to the fibrin scaffold and significantly reduced PS exposure evoked by thrombin. Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro amide abrogated not only fibrin network formation, but also PS exposure on platelets without suppressing platelet binding to fibrin/fibrinogen. These results suggest that outside-in signals in platelets generated by their binding to the rigid fibrin network are essential for PS exposure after thrombin treatment.

  2. The Importance of Surface-Binding Site towards Starch-Adsorptivity Level in α-Amylase: A Review on Structural Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Baroroh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch is a polymeric carbohydrate composed of glucose. As a source of energy, starch can be degraded by various amylolytic enzymes, including α-amylase. In a large-scale industry, starch processing cost is still expensive due to the requirement of high temperature during the gelatinization step. Therefore, α-amylase with raw starch digesting ability could decrease the energy cost by avoiding the high gelatinization temperature. It is known that the carbohydrate-binding module (CBM and the surface-binding site (SBS of α-amylase could facilitate the substrate binding to the enzyme’s active site to enhance the starch digestion. These sites are a noncatalytic module, which could interact with a lengthy substrate such as insoluble starch. The major interaction between these sites and the substrate is the CH/pi-stacking interaction with the glucose ring. Several mutation studies on the Halothermothrix orenii, SusG Bacteroides thetaiotamicron, Barley, Aspergillus niger, and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera α-amylases have revealed that the stacking interaction through the aromatic residues at the SBS is essential to the starch adsorption. In this review, the SBS in various α-amylases is also presented. Therefore, based on the structural point of view, SBS is suggested as an essential site in α-amylase to increase its catalytic activity, especially towards the insoluble starch.

  3. Ribosomal protein L5 has a highly twisted concave surface and flexible arms responsible for rRNA binding.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakashima, T; Yao, M; Kawamura, S; Iwasaki, K; Kimura, M; Tanaka, I

    2001-01-01

    Ribosomal protein L5 is a 5S rRNA binding protein in the large subunit and plays an essential role in the promotion of a particular conformation of 5S rRNA. The crystal structure of the ribosomal protein L5 from Bacillus stearothermophilus has been determined at 1.8 A resolution. The molecule consists of a five-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet and four alpha-helices, which fold in a way that is topologically similar to the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) domain. The molecular shape and electrostatic ...

  4. GLUT4 in cultured skeletal myotubes is segregated from the transferrin receptor and stored in vesicles associated with TGN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ralston, E; Ploug, Thorkil

    1996-01-01

    of the constitutive endosomal-lysosomal pathway. To address this question, we have investigated the localization of the endogenous GLUT4 in non-stimulated skeletal myotubes from the cell line C2, by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. We have used a panel of antibodies to markers of the Golgi complex...... and in vesicles just beyond, i.e. in the structures that constitute the trans-Golgi network (TGN). In myotubes treated with brefeldin A, the immunofluorescence pattern of GLUT4 is modified, but it differs from both Golgi complex markers and TGN38. Instead, it resembles the pattern of the transferrin receptor...... to the GLUT4-containing tubulo-vesicular elements. In brefeldin A-treated cells, a network of tubules of approximately 70 nm diameter, studded with varicosities, stains for both GLUT4 and transferrin receptor, suggesting that brefeldin A has caused fusion of the transferrin receptor and GLUT4-containing...

  5. Hypertension increases urinary excretion of immunoglobulin G, ceruloplasmin and transferrin in normoalbuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Nobumasa; Hanyu, Osamu; Hirayama, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Osamu; Aizawa, Yoshifusa; Ito, Seiki; Sone, Hirohito

    2014-02-01

    Increased urinary excretion of certain plasma proteins, such as immunoglobulin G (IgG), ceruloplasmin and transferrin, with different molecular radii of 55 Å or less and different isoelectric points have been reported to precede development of microalbuminuria in patients who have diabetes mellitus with hypertension. We examined how hypertension affects these urinary proteins in a diabetic state. Excretion of IgG, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, albumin, α2-macroglobulin with a large molecular radius of 88 Å and N-acetylglucosaminidase in first-morning urine samples were measured in normoalbuminuric patients (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio hypertension and nondiabetes mellitus (group hypertension, n = 32), type 2 diabetes mellitus and normotension (group diabetes mellitus, n = 52) and type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension (group Both, n =45), and in age-matched controls (n = 72). Urinary IgG, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, albumin and N-acetylglucosaminidase and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were significantly elevated in groups diabetes mellitus and Both compared with controls. Furthermore, urinary IgG, ceruloplasmin and transferrin in group Both were significantly higher than those in group diabetes mellitus. These exhibited a positive and relatively strong association with eGFR compared with controls. No significant difference in urinary albumin or N-acetylglucosaminidase was found between the two diabetic groups. In contrast, group hypertension had elevated urinary transferrin without any changes in the other compounds. Urinary α2-macroglobulin did not differ among the four groups. These findings suggest that normoalbuminuric diabetic patients without hypertension have both glomerular hemodynamic changes such as increased intraglomerular hydraulic pressure and altered proximal tubules, and that hypertension increases intraglomerular hydraulic pressure. Increased urinary IgG, ceruloplasmin and transferrin may reflect an increase in

  6. Helper T cell epitope-mapping reveals MHC-peptide binding affinities that correlate with T helper cell responses to pneumococcal surface protein A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Singh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the requirements for protection against pneumococcal carriage and pneumonia will greatly benefit efforts in controlling these diseases. Several proteins and polysaccharide capsule have recently been implicated in the virulence of and protective immunity against Streptococcus pneumonia. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA is highly conserved among S. pneumonia strains, inhibits complement activation, binds lactoferrin, elicits protective systemic immunity against pneumococcal infection, and is necessary for full pneumococcal virulence. Identification of PspA peptides that optimally bind human leukocyte antigen (HLA would greatly contribute to global vaccine efforts, but this is hindered by the multitude of HLA polymorphisms. Here, we have used an experimental data set of 54 PspA peptides and in silico methods to predict peptide binding to HLA and murine major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II. We also characterized spleen- and cervical lymph node (CLN-derived helper T lymphocyte (HTL cytokine responses to these peptides after S. pneumonia strain EF3030-challenge in mice. Individual, yet overlapping peptides, 15 amino acids in length revealed residues 199 to 246 of PspA (PspA(199-246 consistently caused the greatest IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-5 and proliferation as well as moderate IL-10 and IL-4 responses by ex vivo stimulated splenic and CLN CD4(+ T cells isolated from S. pneumonia strain EF3030-challeged F(1 (B6xBALB/c mice. IEDB, RANKPEP, SVMHC, MHCPred, and SYFPEITHI in silico analysis tools revealed peptides in PspA(199-246 also interact with a broad range of HLA-DR, -DQ, and -DP allelles. These data suggest that predicted MHC class II-peptide binding affinities do not always correlate with T helper (Th cytokine or proliferative responses to PspA peptides, but when used together with in vivo validation can be a useful tool to choose candidate pneumococcal HTL epitopes.

  7. Deposition of mannose-binding lectin and ficolins and activation of the lectin pathway of complement on the surface of polyurethane tubing used for cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppa, Łukasz; Pągowska-Klimek, Izabela; Świerzko, Anna S; Moll, Maciej; Krajewski, Wojciech R; Cedzyński, Maciej

    2018-04-01

    The artificial surface used for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a crucial factor activating the complement system and thus contributing to the generation of a systemic inflammatory response. The activation of classical and alternative pathways on this artificial surface is well known. In contrast, lectin pathway (LP) activation has not been fully investigated, although noted during CPB in several studies. Moreover, we have recently proved the contribution of the LP to the generation of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome after pediatric cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to assess LP-mediated complement activation on the surface of polyurethane CPB circuit tubing (noncoated Chalice ® ), used for CPB procedures in children with congenital heart disease. We found deposition of mannose-binding lectin, ficolin-1, -2, and -3 on the surface of unused tubing and on tubing used for CPB from a small minority of patients. Furthermore, we observed deposition of complement C4 activation products on tubing used for CPB and previously unused tubing after incubation with normal serum. The latter finding indicates LP activation in vitro on the polyurethane surface. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 1202-1208, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Use of Spectroscopic, Zeta Potential and Molecular Dynamic Techniques to Study the Interaction between Human Holo-Transferrin and Two Antagonist Drugs: Comparison of Binary and Ternary Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Saberi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, the binding of ropinirole hydrochloride (ROP and aspirin (ASA to human holo-transferrin (hTf has been investigated by spectroscopic approaches (fluorescence quenching, synchronous fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism, resonance light scattering, as well as zeta potential and molecular modeling techniques, under simulated physiological conditions. Fluorescence analysis was used to estimate the effect of the ROP and ASA drugs on the fluorescence of hTf as well as to define the binding and quenching properties of binary and ternary complexes. The synchronized fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra demonstrated some micro-environmental and conformational changes around the Trp and Tyr residues with a faint red shift. Thermodynamic analysis displayed the van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds interactions are the major acting forces in stabilizing the complexes. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence data revealed that the fluorescence quenching of complexes are static mechanism. The effect of the drugs aggregating on the hTf resulted in an enhancement of the resonance light scattering (RLS intensity. The average binding distance between were computed according to the forster non-radiation energy transfer theory. The circular dichroism (CD spectral examinations indicated that the binding of the drugs induced a conformational change of hTf. Measurements of the zeta potential indicated that the combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between ROP, ASA and hTf formed micelle-like clusters. The molecular modeling confirmed the experimental results. This study is expected to provide important insight into the interaction of hTf with ROP and ASA to use in various toxicological and therapeutic processes.

  9. Cell surface binding and uptake of arginine- and lysine-rich penetratin peptides in absence and presence of proteoglycans

    KAUST Repository

    Å mand, Helene L.; Rydberg, Hanna A.; Fornander, Louise H.; Lincoln, Per; Nordé n, Bengt; Esbjö rner, Elin K.

    2012-01-01

    Cell surface proteoglycans (PGs) appear to promote uptake of arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), but their exact functions are unclear. To address if there is specificity in the interactions of arginines and PGs leading to improved

  10. Transferrin coupled azanthraquinone enhances the killing effect on trypanosomes. The role of lysosomal mannosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nok A.J.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Partially purified azanthraquinone (AQ extract from Mitracarpus scaber was coupled to bovine transferrin (Tf using azidophenyl glyoxal (APG. The AQ-APG-Tf conjugate was found to possess an enhanced in vitro trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma congolense and T. brucei brucei. At low concentrations of 0.39-90 mg/ml, the conjugate diminished the growth of T. congolense and T. b. brucei dose dependently at the logarithmic phase. Both parasites were more sensitive to AQ-APG-Tf than to the free (AQ extract. Growth inhibition on the parasites by the free extract was observed at 20-200 mg/ml. The total activity of the lysosomal enzyme a-mannosidase was reduced in the T. congolense cells treated with AQ-APG-Tf in a dose related pattern. However, the activity of the mannosidase in the T. b. brucei treated cells is less affected. The AQ-APG-Tf is more effective on a mannosidase than free AQ, eight and four fold for T. congolense and T. b. brucei respectively. The results are discussed as regards the potency of using transferrin as suitable drug carrier in the chemotherapy of Human sleeping sickness.

  11. Transferrin-modified liposome promotes α-mangostin to penetrate the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Lan; Huang, Man; Wang, Xia-Rong; Fu, Jun; Han, Min; Shen, You-Qing; Xia, Zheng; Gao, Jian-Qing

    2016-02-01

    α-Mangostin (α-M) is a polyphenolic xanthone that protects and improves the survival of cerebral cortical neurons against Aβ oligomer-induced toxicity in rats. α-M is a potential candidate as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the efficacy was limited by the poor penetration of the drug through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study, we modified the α-M liposome with transferrin (Tf) and investigated the intracellular distribution of liposomes in bEnd3 cells. In addition, the transport of α-M across the BBB in the Tf(α-M) liposome group was examined. In vitro studies demonstrated that the Tf(α-M) liposome could cross the BBB in the form of an integrated liposome. Results of the in vivo studies on the α-M distribution in the brain demonstrated that the Tf(α-M) liposome improved the brain delivery of α-M. These results indicated that the Tf liposome is a potential carrier of α-M against AD. The use of α-Mangostin (α-M) as a potential agent to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been reported. However, its use is limited by the poor penetration through the blood brain barrier. The delivery of this agent by transferrin-modified liposomes was investigated by the authors in this study. The positive results could point to a better drug delivery system for brain targeting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Transferrin receptor regulates pancreatic cancer growth by modulating mitochondrial respiration and ROS generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Seung Min, E-mail: smjeong@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Aging and Metabolic Diseases, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sunsook; Seong, Rho Hyun [School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-11

    The transferrin receptor (TfR1) is upregulated in malignant cells and its expression is associated with cancer progression. Because of its pre-eminent role in cell proliferation, TfR1 has been an important target for the development of cancer therapy. Although TfR1 is highly expressed in pancreatic cancers, what it carries out in these refractory cancers remains poorly understood. Here we report that TfR1 supports mitochondrial respiration and ROS production in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells, which is required for their tumorigenic growth. Elevated TfR1 expression in PDAC cells contributes to oxidative phosphorylation, which allows for the generation of ROS. Importantly, mitochondrial-derived ROS are essential for PDAC growth. However, exogenous iron supplement cannot rescue the defects caused by TfR1 knockdown. Moreover, we found that TfR1 expression determines PDAC cells sensitivity to oxidative stress. Together, our findings reveal that TfR1 can contribute to the mitochondrial respiration and ROS production, which have essential roles in growth and survival of pancreatic cancer. - Highlights: • Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) exhibits an elevated transferrin receptor (TfR1) expression in comparison with non-transformed pancreatic cells. • TfR1 is required for PDAC growth by regulating mitochondrial respiration and ROS production. • TfR1 functions as a determinant of cell viability to oxidative stress in PDAC cells.

  13. Transferrin receptor regulates pancreatic cancer growth by modulating mitochondrial respiration and ROS generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Seung Min; Hwang, Sunsook; Seong, Rho Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The transferrin receptor (TfR1) is upregulated in malignant cells and its expression is associated with cancer progression. Because of its pre-eminent role in cell proliferation, TfR1 has been an important target for the development of cancer therapy. Although TfR1 is highly expressed in pancreatic cancers, what it carries out in these refractory cancers remains poorly understood. Here we report that TfR1 supports mitochondrial respiration and ROS production in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells, which is required for their tumorigenic growth. Elevated TfR1 expression in PDAC cells contributes to oxidative phosphorylation, which allows for the generation of ROS. Importantly, mitochondrial-derived ROS are essential for PDAC growth. However, exogenous iron supplement cannot rescue the defects caused by TfR1 knockdown. Moreover, we found that TfR1 expression determines PDAC cells sensitivity to oxidative stress. Together, our findings reveal that TfR1 can contribute to the mitochondrial respiration and ROS production, which have essential roles in growth and survival of pancreatic cancer. - Highlights: • Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) exhibits an elevated transferrin receptor (TfR1) expression in comparison with non-transformed pancreatic cells. • TfR1 is required for PDAC growth by regulating mitochondrial respiration and ROS production. • TfR1 functions as a determinant of cell viability to oxidative stress in PDAC cells.

  14. The Glycolytic Enzyme Triosephosphate Isomerase of Trichomonas vaginalis Is a Surface-Associated Protein Induced by Glucose That Functions as a Laminin- and Fibronectin-Binding Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Ozuna, Jesús F T; Hernández-García, Mar S; Brieba, Luis G; Benítez-Cardoza, Claudia G; Ortega-López, Jaime; González-Robles, Arturo; Arroyo, Rossana

    2016-10-01

    Triosephosphate isomerase of Trichomonas vaginalis (TvTIM) is a 27-kDa cytoplasmic protein encoded by two genes, tvtim1 and tvtim2, that participates in glucose metabolism. TvTIM is also localized to the parasite surface. Thus, the goal of this study was to identify the novel functions of the surface-associated TvTIM in T. vaginalis and to assess the effect of glucose as an environmental factor that regulates its expression and localization. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) showed that the tvtim genes were differentially expressed in response to glucose concentration. tvtim1 was overexpressed under glucose-restricted (GR) conditions, whereas tvtim2 was overexpressed under glucose-rich, or high-glucose (HG), conditions. Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence assays also showed that glucose positively affected the amount and surface localization of TvTIM in T. vaginalis Affinity ligand assays demonstrated that the recombinant TvTIM1 and TvTIM2 proteins bound to laminin (Lm) and fibronectin (Fn) but not to plasminogen. Moreover, higher levels of adherence to Lm and Fn were detected in parasites grown under HG conditions than in those grown under GR conditions. Furthermore, pretreatment of trichomonads with an anti-TvTIMr polyclonal antibody or pretreatment of Lm- or Fn-coated wells with both recombinant proteins (TvTIM1r and TvTIM2r) specifically reduced the binding of live parasites to Lm and Fn in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, T. vaginalis was exposed to different glucose concentrations during vaginal infection of women with trichomoniasis. Our data indicate that TvTIM is a surface-associated protein under HG conditions that mediates specific binding to Lm and Fn as a novel virulence factor of T. vaginalis. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Surface-bound capsular polysaccharide of type Ia group B Streptococcus mediates C1 binding and activation of the classic complement pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, N.J.; Kasper, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The role of surface-bound type Ia group B Streptococcus (GBS) capsular polysaccharide in anti-body-independent binding of C1 and activation of the classic component pathway was investigated. In a radiolabeled bacterial-polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) association assay, a measure of bacterial opsonization, preincubation of 3 H-type Ia GBS with purified F(ab') 2 to the organism blocked the association of the bacteria with PMN', and the inhibitory effect was dose dependent. The specificity of F(ab') 2 blocking was shown after adsorption of F(ab') 2 with type Ia polysaccharide-sensitized erythrocytes. Polysaccharide-adsorbed F(ab') 2 had a 70% decrease in ability to block the association of bacteria with PMN. Neuraminidase digestion removed 80% of the terminal sialic acid residues from the native polysaccharide. These neuraminidase-digested organisms had a 72% decrease in binding and transfer of purified C1 compared with non-enzyme-treated organisms. Type Ia capsular polysaccharide bound to sheep erythrocytes promoted classic complement pathway-mediated hemolysis of the cells. The role of C1 inhibitor (INH) in modulation of C1 activation by the organisms was investigated. The possibility existed that the C1 INH could be bound by the bacteria, allowing C1 activation to occur in the fluid phase. The inhibitor was purified from human serum, and its activity was measured before and after incubation with type Ia GBS. The organisms had no effect on C1 INH activity. Thus surface-bound capsular polysacchardie of type Ia GBS mediates C1 binding and classic pathway activation, and this does not involve the C1 INH

  16. Binding, folding and insertion of a β-hairpin peptide at a lipid bilayer surface: Influence of electrostatics and lipid tail packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Keon A; Davis, Caitlin M; Dyer, R Brian; Kindt, James T

    2018-03-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) act as host defenses against microbial pathogens. Here we investigate the interactions of SVS-1 (KVKVKVKV d P l PTKVKVKVK), an engineered AMP and anti-cancer β-hairpin peptide, with lipid bilayers using spectroscopic studies and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. In agreement with literature reports, simulation and experiment show preferential binding of SVS-1 peptides to anionic over neutral bilayers. Fluorescence and circular dichroism studies of a Trp-substituted SVS-1 analogue indicate, however, that it will bind to a zwitterionic DPPC bilayer under high-curvature conditions and folds into a hairpin. In bilayers formed from a 1:1 mixture of DPPC and anionic DPPG lipids, curvature and lipid fluidity are also observed to promote deeper insertion of the fluorescent peptide. Simulations using the CHARMM C36m force field offer complementary insight into timescales and mechanisms of folding and insertion. SVS-1 simulated at an anionic mixed POPC/POPG bilayer folded into a hairpin over a microsecond, the final stage in folding coinciding with the establishment of contact between the peptide's valine sidechains and the lipid tails through a "flip and dip" mechanism. Partial, transient folding and superficial bilayer contact are seen in simulation of the peptide at a zwitterionic POPC bilayer. Only when external surface tension is applied does the peptide establish lasting contact with the POPC bilayer. Our findings reveal the influence of disruption to lipid headgroup packing (via curvature or surface tension) on the pathway of binding and insertion, highlighting the collaborative effort of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions on interaction of SVS-1 with lipid bilayers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantum mechanics capacitance molecular mechanics modeling of core-electron binding energies of methanol and methyl nitrite on Ag(111) surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löytynoja, T; Li, X; Jänkälä, K; Rinkevicius, Z; Ågren, H

    2016-07-14

    We study a newly devised quantum mechanics capacitance molecular mechanics (QMCMM) method for the calculation of core-electron binding energies in the case of molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces. This yet untested methodology is applied to systems with monolayer of methanol/methyl nitrite on an Ag(111) surface at 100 K temperature. It was found out that the studied C, N, and O 1s core-hole energies converge very slowly as a function of the radius of the metallic cluster, which was ascribed to build up of positive charge on the edge of the Ag slab. Further analysis revealed that an extrapolation process can be used to obtain binding energies that deviated less than 0.5 eV against experiments, except in the case of methanol O 1s where the difference was as large as 1.8 eV. Additional QM-cluster calculations suggest that the latter error can be connected to the lack of charge transfer over the QM-CMM boundary. Thus, the results indicate that the QMCMM and QM-cluster methods can complement each other in a holistic picture of molecule-adsorbate core-ionization studies, where all types of intermolecular interactions are considered.

  18. α-Helical element at the hormone-binding surface of the insulin receptor functions as a signaling element to activate its tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Jonathan; Whittaker, Linda J; Roberts, Charles T; Phillips, Nelson B; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Lawrence, Michael C; Weiss, Michael A

    2012-07-10

    The primary hormone-binding surface of the insulin receptor spans one face of the N-terminal β-helix of the α-subunit (the L1 domain) and an α-helix in its C-terminal segment (αCT). Crystallographic analysis of the free ectodomain has defined a contiguous dimer-related motif in which the αCT α-helix packs against L1 β-strands 2 and 3. To relate structure to function, we exploited expanded genetic-code technology to insert photo-activatable probes at key sites in L1 and αCT. The pattern of αCT-mediated photo-cross-linking within the free and bound receptor is in accord with the crystal structure and prior mutagenesis. Surprisingly, L1 photo-probes in β-strands 2 and 3, predicted to be shielded by αCT, efficiently cross-link to insulin. Furthermore, anomalous mutations were identified on neighboring surfaces of αCT and insulin that impair hormone-dependent activation of the intracellular receptor tyrosine kinase (contained within the transmembrane β-subunit) disproportionately to their effects on insulin binding. Taken together, these results suggest that αCT, in addition to its hormone-recognition role, provides a signaling element in the mechanism of receptor activation.

  19. Specific binding of a naturally occurring amyloidogenic fragment of Streptococcus mutans adhesin P1 to intact P1 on the cell surface characterized by solid state NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Wenxing; Bhatt, Avni [University of Florida, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine (United States); Smith, Adam N. [University of Florida, Department of Chemistry, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences (United States); Crowley, Paula J.; Brady, L. Jeannine, E-mail: jbrady@dental.ufl.edu [University of Florida, Department of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry (United States); Long, Joanna R., E-mail: jrlong@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The P1 adhesin (aka Antigen I/II or PAc) of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans is a cell surface-localized protein involved in sucrose-independent adhesion and colonization of the tooth surface. The immunoreactive and adhesive properties of S. mutans suggest an unusual functional quaternary ultrastructure comprised of intact P1 covalently attached to the cell wall and interacting with non-covalently associated proteolytic fragments thereof, particularly the ∼57-kDa C-terminal fragment C123 previously identified as Antigen II. S. mutans is capable of amyloid formation when grown in a biofilm and P1 is among its amyloidogenic proteins. The C123 fragment of P1 readily forms amyloid fibers in vitro suggesting it may play a role in the formation of functional amyloid during biofilm development. Using wild-type and P1-deficient strains of S. mutans, we demonstrate that solid state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy can be used to (1) globally characterize cell walls isolated from a Gram-positive bacterium and (2) characterize the specific binding of heterologously expressed, isotopically-enriched C123 to cell wall-anchored P1. Our results lay the groundwork for future high-resolution characterization of the C123/P1 ultrastructure and subsequent steps in biofilm formation via ssNMR spectroscopy, and they support an emerging model of S. mutans colonization whereby quaternary P1-C123 interactions confer adhesive properties important to binding to immobilized human salivary agglutinin.

  20. Specific binding of a naturally occurring amyloidogenic fragment of Streptococcus mutans adhesin P1 to intact P1 on the cell surface characterized by solid state NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Wenxing; Bhatt, Avni; Smith, Adam N.; Crowley, Paula J.; Brady, L. Jeannine; Long, Joanna R.

    2016-01-01

    The P1 adhesin (aka Antigen I/II or PAc) of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans is a cell surface-localized protein involved in sucrose-independent adhesion and colonization of the tooth surface. The immunoreactive and adhesive properties of S. mutans suggest an unusual functional quaternary ultrastructure comprised of intact P1 covalently attached to the cell wall and interacting with non-covalently associated proteolytic fragments thereof, particularly the ∼57-kDa C-terminal fragment C123 previously identified as Antigen II. S. mutans is capable of amyloid formation when grown in a biofilm and P1 is among its amyloidogenic proteins. The C123 fragment of P1 readily forms amyloid fibers in vitro suggesting it may play a role in the formation of functional amyloid during biofilm development. Using wild-type and P1-deficient strains of S. mutans, we demonstrate that solid state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy can be used to (1) globally characterize cell walls isolated from a Gram-positive bacterium and (2) characterize the specific binding of heterologously expressed, isotopically-enriched C123 to cell wall-anchored P1. Our results lay the groundwork for future high-resolution characterization of the C123/P1 ultrastructure and subsequent steps in biofilm formation via ssNMR spectroscopy, and they support an emerging model of S. mutans colonization whereby quaternary P1-C123 interactions confer adhesive properties important to binding to immobilized human salivary agglutinin

  1. Tamm-Horsfall Glycoprotein Enhances PMN Phagocytosis by Binding to Cell Surface-Expressed Lactoferrin and Cathepsin G That Activates MAP Kinase Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Li Yu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular basis of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN phagocytosis-enhancing activity (PEA by human purified urinary Tamm-Horsfall glyco- protein (THP has not been elucidated. In this study, we found human THP bound to lactoferrin (LF and cathepsin G (CG expressed on the surface of PMN, identified by a proteomic study with MALDI-TOF- LC/LC/mass spectrometric analysis. Pre-incubation of 10% SDS-PAGE electrophoresed PMN lysates with monoclonal anti-LF or anti-CG antibody reduced the binding with THP. To elucidate the signaling pathway of THP on PMN activation, we found THP enhanced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, reduced p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation, but had no effect on DNA binding of the five NF-kB family members in PMN. To further clarify whether the carbohydrate-side chains or protein-core structure in THP molecule is responsible for THP-PEA, THP was cleaved by different degrading enzymes with carbohydrate specificity (neuraminidase and β-galactosidase, protein specificity (V8 protease and proteinase K or glycoconjugate specificity (carboxylpeptidase Y and O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase. We clearly demonstrated that the intact protein-core structure in THP molecule was more important for THP-PEA than carbohydrate-side chains. Putting these results together, we conclude that THP adheres to surface-expressed LF and CG on PMN and transduces signaling via the MAP kinase pathway to enhance PMN phagocytosis.

  2. Specific binding of a naturally occurring amyloidogenic fragment of Streptococcus mutans adhesin P1 to intact P1 on the cell surface characterized by solid state NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenxing; Bhatt, Avni; Smith, Adam N; Crowley, Paula J; Brady, L Jeannine; Long, Joanna R

    2016-02-01

    The P1 adhesin (aka Antigen I/II or PAc) of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans is a cell surface-localized protein involved in sucrose-independent adhesion and colonization of the tooth surface. The immunoreactive and adhesive properties of S. mutans suggest an unusual functional quaternary ultrastructure comprised of intact P1 covalently attached to the cell wall and interacting with non-covalently associated proteolytic fragments thereof, particularly the ~57-kDa C-terminal fragment C123 previously identified as Antigen II. S. mutans is capable of amyloid formation when grown in a biofilm and P1 is among its amyloidogenic proteins. The C123 fragment of P1 readily forms amyloid fibers in vitro suggesting it may play a role in the formation of functional amyloid during biofilm development. Using wild-type and P1-deficient strains of S. mutans, we demonstrate that solid state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy can be used to (1) globally characterize cell walls isolated from a Gram-positive bacterium and (2) characterize the specific binding of heterologously expressed, isotopically-enriched C123 to cell wall-anchored P1. Our results lay the groundwork for future high-resolution characterization of the C123/P1 ultrastructure and subsequent steps in biofilm formation via ssNMR spectroscopy, and they support an emerging model of S. mutans colonization whereby quaternary P1-C123 interactions confer adhesive properties important to binding to immobilized human salivary agglutinin.

  3. Targeting immunoliposomes to transferrin receptors on brain capillary endothelial cells as a mean for cargo transport across the blood-brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kasper Bendix; Larsen, Annette Burkhart; Bruun, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) express transferrin receptors as opposed to endothelial cells of any organ in the remaining body, suggesting that targeting to the transferrin receptors as a reasonable strategy for delivering drugs to the CNS. However, as the intracellular trafficking...

  4. Second international round robin for the quantification of serum non-transferrin-bound iron and labile plasma iron in patients with iron-overload disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Swart, Louise; Hendriks, Jan C. M.; van der Vorm, Lisa N.; Cabantchik, Z. Ioav; Evans, Patricia J.; Hod, Eldad A.; Brittenham, Gary M.; Furman, Yael; Wojczyk, Boguslaw; Janssen, Mirian C. H.; Porter, John B.; Mattijssen, Vera E. J. M.; Biemond, Bart J.; MacKenzie, Marius A.; Origa, Raffaella; Galanello, Renzo; Hider, Robert C.; Swinkels, Dorine W.

    2016-01-01

    Non-transferrin-bound iron and its labile (redox active) plasma iron component are thought to be potentially toxic forms of iron originally identified in the serum of patients with iron overload. We compared ten worldwide leading assays (6 for non-transferrin-bound iron and 4 for labile plasma iron)

  5. Predicting C282Y Homozygote Genotype for Hemochromatosis Using Serum Ferritin and Transferrin Saturation Values from 44,809 Participants of the HEIRS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The simultaneous interpretation of serum ferritin level and transferrin saturation has been used as a clinical guide to diagnose genetic hemochromatosis. The Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS Study screened 101,168 North American participants for serum ferritin level and transferrin saturation, and C282Y genotyping for the HFE gene.

  6. Characterization of Laminin Binding Integrin Internalization in Prostate Cancer Cells†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Lipsa; Anderson, Todd A.; Gard, Jaime M.C.; Sroka, Isis C.; Strautman, Stephanie R.; Nagle, Raymond B.; Morrissey, Colm; Knudsen, Beatrice S.; Cress, Anne E.

    2017-01-01

    Laminin binding integrins α6 (CD49f) and α3 (CD49c) are persistently but differentially expressed in prostate cancer (PCa). Integrin internalization is an important determinant of their cell surface expression and function. Using flow cytometry, and first order kinetic modelling, we quantitated the intrinsic internalization rates of integrin subunits in a single cycle of internalization. In PCa cell line DU145, α6 integrin internalized with a rate constant (kactual) of 3.25min−1, 3-fold faster than α3 integrin (1.0 min−1), 1.5-fold faster than the vitronectin binding αv integrin (CD51) (2.2 min−1), and significantly slower than the unrelated transferrin receptor (CD71) (15 min−1). Silencing of α3 integrin protein expression in DU145, PC3 and PC3B1 cells resulted in up to a 1.71-fold increase in kactual for α6 integrin. The internalized α6 integrin was targeted to early endosomes but not to lamp1 vesicles. Depletion of α3 integrin expression resulted in redistribution of α6β4 integrin to an observed cell-cell staining pattern that is consistent with a suprabasal distribution observed in epidermis and early PIN lesions in PCa. Depletion of α3 integrin increased cell migration by 1.8 fold, which was dependent on α6β1 integrin. Silencing of α6 integrin expression however, had no significant effect on the kactual of α3 integrin or its distribution in early endosomes. These results indicate that α3 and α6 integrins have significantly different internalization kinetics and that coordination exists between them for internalization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved PMID:27509031

  7. Characterization of Laminin Binding Integrin Internalization in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Lipsa; Anderson, Todd A; Gard, Jaime M C; Sroka, Isis C; Strautman, Stephanie R; Nagle, Raymond B; Morrissey, Colm; Knudsen, Beatrice S; Cress, Anne E

    2017-05-01

    Laminin binding integrins α6 (CD49f) and α3 (CD49c) are persistently but differentially expressed in prostate cancer (PCa). Integrin internalization is an important determinant of their cell surface expression and function. Using flow cytometry, and first order kinetic modeling, we quantitated the intrinsic internalization rates of integrin subunits in a single cycle of internalization. In PCa cell line DU145, α6 integrin internalized with a rate constant (k actual ) of 3.25 min -1 , threefold faster than α3 integrin (1.0 min -1 ), 1.5-fold faster than the vitronectin binding αv integrin (CD51) (2.2 min -1 ), and significantly slower than the unrelated transferrin receptor (CD71) (15 min -1 ). Silencing of α3 integrin protein expression in DU145, PC3, and PC3B1 cells resulted in up to a 1.71-fold increase in k actual for α6 integrin. The internalized α6 integrin was targeted to early endosomes but not to lamp1 vesicles. Depletion of α3 integrin expression resulted in redistribution of α6β4 integrin to an observed cell-cell staining pattern that is consistent with a suprabasal distribution observed in epidermis and early PIN lesions in PCa. Depletion of α3 integrin increased cell migration by 1.8-fold, which was dependent on α6β1 integrin. Silencing of α6 integrin expression however, had no significant effect on the k actual of α3 integrin or its distribution in early endosomes. These results indicate that α3 and α6 integrins have significantly different internalization kinetics and that coordination exists between them for internalization. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1038-1049, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Evanescent-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy for enhanced detection of surface binding under flow injection analysis conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Sneppen, L.; Ariese, F.; Gooijer, C.; Ubachs, W.

    2008-01-01

    In evanescent-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy, one (or more) of the re°ections inside the cavity is a total internal re°ection (TIR) event. Only the evanescent wave associated with this TIR is being used for prob-ing the sample. This technique is therefore highly surface-speci-c and attractive

  9. Binding Interactions Between α-glucans from Lactobacillus reuteri and Milk Proteins Characterised by Surface Plasmon Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diemer, Silja Kej; Svensson, Birte; Babol, Linnéa N.

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between milk proteins and α-glucans at pH 4.0–5.5 were investigated by use of surface plasmon resonance. The α-glucans were synthesised with glucansucrase enzymes from Lactobacillus reuteri strains ATCC-55730, 180, ML1 and 121. Variations in the molecular characteristics of the α...

  10. Binding Interactions Between alpha-glucans from Lactobacillus reuteri and Milk Proteins Characterised by Surface Plasmon Resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diemer, Silja K.; Svensson, Birte; Babol, Linnea N.; Cockburn, Darrell; Grijpstra, Pieter; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Folkenberg, Ditte M.; Garrigues, Christel; Ipsen, Richard H.

    Interactions between milk proteins and alpha-glucans at pH 4.0-5.5 were investigated by use of surface plasmon resonance. The alpha-glucans were synthesised with glucansucrase enzymes from Lactobacillus reuteri strains ATCC-55730, 180, ML1 and 121. Variations in the molecular characteristics of the

  11. Using Soluble Transferrin Receptor and Taking Inflammation into Account When Defining Serum Ferritin Cutoffs Improved the Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency in a Group of Canadian Preschool Inuit Children from Nunavik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huguette Turgeon O’Brien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of iron depletion, iron deficient erythropoiesis (IDE, and iron deficiency anemia (IDA was assessed in preschool Inuit children using soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR and traditional indicators of iron status while disregarding or taking inflammation into account when defining SF cutoffs. Iron depletion was defined as follows: (1 SF 5 mg/L, respectively. IDE corresponded to iron depletion combined with total iron binding capacity > 72 μmol/L and/or transferrin saturation < 16%. Iron depletion and IDE affected almost half of the children when accounting for inflammation, compared to one-third when the SF cutoff was defined regardless of CRP level (P<0.0001. The prevalence of IDE adjusted for inflammation (45.1% was very similar to the prevalence observed when sTfR was used as a sole marker of IDE (47.4%. The prevalence of anemia was 15%. The prevalence of IDA (IDE + hemoglobin < 110 g/L was higher when accounting for than when disregarding inflammation (8.0% versus 6.2%, P=0.083. Using sTfR and different SF cutoffs for children with versus without inflammation improved the diagnosis of iron depletion and IDE. Our results confirm that Inuit children are at particularly high risk for iron deficiency.

  12. Lactoferrin binding protein B - a bi-functional bacterial receptor protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas K H Ostan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin binding protein B (LbpB is a bi-lobed outer membrane-bound lipoprotein that comprises part of the lactoferrin (Lf receptor complex in Neisseria meningitidis and other Gram-negative pathogens. Recent studies have demonstrated that LbpB plays a role in protecting the bacteria from cationic antimicrobial peptides due to large regions rich in anionic residues in the C-terminal lobe. Relative to its homolog, transferrin-binding protein B (TbpB, there currently is little evidence for its role in iron acquisition and relatively little structural and biophysical information on its interaction with Lf. In this study, a combination of crosslinking and deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry, information-driven computational docking, bio-layer interferometry, and site-directed mutagenesis was used to probe LbpB:hLf complexes. The formation of a 1:1 complex of iron-loaded Lf and LbpB involves an interaction between the Lf C-lobe and LbpB N-lobe, comparable to TbpB, consistent with a potential role in iron acquisition. The Lf N-lobe is also capable of binding to negatively charged regions of the LbpB C-lobe and possibly other sites such that a variety of higher order complexes are formed. Our results are consistent with LbpB serving dual roles focused primarily on iron acquisition when exposed to limited levels of iron-loaded Lf on the mucosal surface and effectively binding apo Lf when exposed to high levels at sites of inflammation.

  13. Characterization of SynCAM surface trafficking using a SynCAM derived ligand with high homophilic binding affinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breillat, Christelle; Thoumine, Olivier; Choquet, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    In order to better probe SynCAM function in neurons, we produced a fusion protein between the extracellular domain of SynCAM1 and the constant fragment of human IgG (SynCAM-Fc). Whether in soluble form or immobilized on latex microspheres, the chimera bound specifically to the surface of hippocampal neurons and recruited endogenous SynCAM molecules. SynCAM-Fc was also used in combination with Quantum Dots to follow the mobility of transfected SynCAM receptors at the neuronal surface. Both immobile and highly mobile SynCAM were found. Thus, SynCAM-Fc behaves as a high affinity ligand that can be used to study the function of SynCAM at the neuronal membrane

  14. 67Ga in transferrin-unbound form is taken up by inflamed liver of mouse treated with CCl4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Yasuhito; Sasayama, Akio; Takegahara, Ikumi; Katoh, Shinsuke; Abe, Kenichi; Kohno, Hiroyuki; Kubodera, Akiko.

    1990-01-01

    In order to investigate whether or not transferrin is involved in the uptake of 67 Ga by inflamed liver (acute inflammatory tissues) the uptake of 67 Ga by the liver of mice treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) was studied. The serum GPT value reached its maximum on the 1st day after the CCl 4 treatment. The uptake of 67 Ga by the liver also reached its maximum on the 1st day after the CCl-4 treatment and the amount uptake into inflamed liver was about 6 times that uptaken into normal liver. On the other hand, the uptake of 125 I-transferrin into inflamed liver on the 1st day after CCl 4 treatment was only about 1.6 times that into normal liver. Moreover, cold Fe 3+ decreased the uptake of 67 Ga by normal liver but increased the uptake of 67 Ga by inflamed liver. These results show that transferrin plays an important role in the uptake of 67 Ga by normal liver but not by inflamed liver, i.e. 67 Ga in the transferrin-unbound form is preferentially taken up by inflamed liver. (author)

  15. Infrared Spectra and Binding Energies of Chemical Warfare Nerve Agent Simulants on the Surface of Amorphous Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    surface that was nearly free from adsorbed water, had only trace hydrocarbon contamination, and contained a significant number of isolated SiO−H groups...are indicative of C−H stretches from a trace amount of hydrocarbon contamination within the silica sample. The three broad peaks at 1980, 1872, and...452. (13) Gay, I. D.; McFarlan, A. J.; Morrow, B. A. Trimethyl Phosphite Adsorbed on Silica - An NMR and Infrared Study. J. Phys. Chem. 1991, 95 (3

  16. Binding of Thrombin-Activated Platelets to a Fibrin Scaffold through ?IIb?3 Evokes Phosphatidylserine Exposure on Their Cell Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Brzoska, Tomasz; Suzuki, Yuko; Mogami, Hideo; Sano, Hideto; Urano, Tetsumei

    2013-01-01

    Recently, by employing intra-vital confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that platelets expose phosphatidylserine (PS) and fibrin accumulate only in the center of the thrombus but not in its periphery. To address the question how exposure of platelet anionic phospholipids is regulated within the thrombus, an in-vitro experiment using diluted platelet-rich plasma was employed, in which the fibrin network was formed in the presence of platelets, and PS exposure on the platelet surface was analyz...

  17. The neuronal Ca(2+) -binding protein 2 (NECAB2) interacts with the adenosine A(2A) receptor and modulates the cell surface expression and function of the receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Laia; Luján, Rafael; Lluís, Carme; Burgueño, Javier; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Franco, Rafael; Ciruela, Francisco

    2007-09-01

    Heptaspanning membrane also known as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) do interact with a variety of intracellular proteins whose function is regulate receptor traffic and/or signaling. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, NECAB2, a neuronal calcium binding protein, was identified as a binding partner for the adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) interacting with its C-terminal domain. Co-localization, co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down experiments showed a close and specific interaction between A(2A)R and NECAB2 in both transfected HEK-293 cells and also in rat striatum. Immunoelectron microscopy detection of NECAB2 and A(2A)R in the rat striatopallidal structures indicated that both proteins are co-distributed in the same glutamatergic nerve terminals. The interaction of NECAB2 with A(2A)R modulated the cell surface expression, the ligand-dependent internalization and the receptor-mediated activation of the MAPK pathway. Overall, these results show that A(2A)R interacts with NECAB2 in striatal neurones co-expressing the two proteins and that the interaction is relevant for A(2A)R function.

  18. Production of Fibronectin Binding Protein A at the surface of Lactococcus lactis increases plasmid transfer in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pontes

    Full Text Available Lactococci are noninvasive lactic acid bacteria frequently used as protein delivery vectors and, more recently, as DNA delivery vehicles. We previously showed that Lactococcus lactis (LL expressing the Fibronectin-Binding Protein A of Staphylococcus aureus (LL-FnBPA+ showed higher internalization rates in vitro in Caco-2 cells than the native (wt lactococci and were able to deliver a eukaryotic Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP expression plasmid in 1% of human Caco-2 cells. Here, using the bovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG, one of the major cow's milk allergen, and GFP we characterized the potential of LL-FnBPA+ as an in vivo DNA vaccine delivery vehicle. We first showed that the invasive strain LL-FnBPA+ carrying the plasmid pValac:BLG (LL-FnBPA+ BLG was more invasive than LL-BLG and showed the same invasivity as LL-FnBPA+. Then we demonstrated that the Caco-2 cells, co-incubated with LL-FnBPA+ BLG produced up to 30 times more BLG than the Caco-2 cells co-incubated with the non invasive LL-BLG. Using two different gene reporters, BLG and GFP, and two different methods of detection, EIA and fluorescence microscopy, we showed in vivo that: i in order to be effective, LL-FnBPA+ required a pre-coating with Fetal Calf Serum before oral administration; ii plasmid transfer occurred in enterocytes without regard to the strains used (invasive or not; iii the use of LL-FnBPA+ increased the number of mice producing BLG, but not the level of BLG produced. We thus confirmed the good potential of invasive recombinant lactic acid bacteria as DNA delivery vector in vivo.

  19. A recyclable Au(I) catalyst for selective homocoupling of arylboronic acids: significant enhancement of nano-surface binding for stability and catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Haitao; Wang, Jianhui

    2010-08-01

    Au nanoparticles stabilized by polystyrene-co-polymethacrylic acid microspheres (PS-co-PMAA) were prepared and characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The Au nanoparticles supported on the microspheres showed highly selective catalytic activity for homo-coupling reactions of arylboronic acids in a system of aryl-halides and arylboronic acids. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra of the catalyst shows large amounts of Au(I) complexes band to the surface of the Au nanoparticles, which contributes to the selective homocoupling of the arylboronic acids. More importantly, this supported Au complex is a highly recyclable catalyst. The supported Au catalyst can be recycled and reused at least 6 times for a phenylboronic acid reactant, whereas the parent complex shows very low catalytic activity for this compound. The high catalytic activity of this material is attributed to: (1) the high surface to volume ratio which leads to more active sites being exposed to reactants; (2) the strong surface binding of the Au nanoparticle to the Au(I) complexes, which enhances both the stability and the catalytic activity of these complexes.

  20. Transferrin Receptor 2 Dependent Alterations of Brain Iron Metabolism Affect Anxiety Circuits in the Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Rosa Maria; Boda, Enrica; Montarolo, Francesca; Boero, Martina; Mezzanotte, Mariarosa; Saglio, Giuseppe; Buffo, Annalisa; Roetto, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The Transferrin Receptor 2 (Tfr2) modulates systemic iron metabolism through the regulation of iron regulator Hepcidin (Hepc) and Tfr2 inactivation causes systemic iron overload. Based on data demonstrating Tfr2 expression in brain, we analysed Tfr2-KO mice in order to examine the molecular, histological and behavioural consequences of Tfr2 silencing in this tissue. Tfr2 abrogation caused an accumulation of iron in specific districts in the nervous tissue that was not accompanied by a brain Hepc response. Moreover, Tfr2-KO mice presented a selective overactivation of neurons in the limbic circuit and the emergence of an anxious-like behaviour. Furthermore, microglial cells showed a particular sensitivity to iron perturbation. We conclude that Tfr2 is a key regulator of brain iron homeostasis and propose a role for Tfr2 alpha in the regulation of anxiety circuits. PMID:27477597

  1. Arf6, Rab11 and transferrin receptor define distinct populations of recycling endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hotaka; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2013-09-01

    Recycling endosomes are key platforms for endocytic recycling that return internalized molecules back to the plasma membrane. To determine how recycling endosomes perform their functions, searching for proteins and lipids that specifically localized at recycling endosomes has often been performed by colocalization analyses between candidate molecules and conventional recycling endosome markers. However, it remains unclear whether all the conventional markers have identical localizations. Here we report finding that three well-known recycling endosome markers, i.e., Arf6, Rab11 and transferrin receptor (TfR), have different intracellular localizations in PC12 cells. The results of immunofluorescence analyses showed that the signals of endogenous Arf6, Rab11 and TfR in nerve growth factor-stimulated PC12 cells generally differed, although there was some overlapping. Our findings provide new information about recycling endosome markers, and they highlight the heterogeneity of recycling endosomes.

  2. Transferrin Sialylation in Smoking and Non-Smoking Pregnant Women with Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrześniak, Marta; Kepinska, Marta; Bizoń, Anna; Milnerowicz-Nabzdyk, Ewa; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Transferrin (Tf) is a glycosylated protein responsible for transporting iron. Various sialylation levels of Tf are observed during physiological and pathological processes. We studied if the changes in iron stores as well as tobacco smoke may have an impact on foetal development and in consequence lead to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In the third trimester of pregnancy, lower levels of 4-sialoTf isoform and higher levels of 5-sialoTf were observed in the serum of non-smoking women with IUGR in comparison to the control group. On the day of labour, level of 2-sialoTf was significantly lower and level of 3-sialo was Tf higher in the serum of non-smoking women. Level of 4-sialo was found lower in the serum of smoking women with IUGR than in the control group. The observed changes may suggest a connection between iron stores, transport of iron to the foetus and foetal development.

  3. Electroactive chain-like compounds constructed from trimetallic clusters and 4,4'-bipyridine spacers: one-pot synthesis, characterization and surface binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Masaaki; Inatomi, Atsushi; Hisaeda, Yoshio

    2011-03-14

    This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of a novel series of chain-like compounds where oxo-centered triruthenium cluster moieties are bridged by 4,4'-bipyridine (4,4'-bpy) spacers. A reaction of solvent-coordinated triruthenium "monomer" precursor [Ru(3)O(CH(3)CO(2))(6)(CO)(CH(3)OH)(2)] with a 0.1 equimolar amount of 4,4'-bpy in CH(3)OH gave mixture of chain-like compounds containing "dimers" to "tetramers" which were cleanly separated by column chromatography and characterized by spectroscopic and electrochemical methods. Cyclic voltammetry revealed that all chain-like compounds exhibit reversible and stepwise redox processes in solution with very weak intramolecular coupling between the triruthenium components across the 4,4'-bpy bridge. Photo-induced dissociation of CO from the compounds and electrode surface binding were also investigated.

  4. Endocytosis of a functionally enhanced GFP-tagged transferrin receptor in CHO cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi He

    Full Text Available The endocytosis of transferrin receptor (TfR has served as a model to study the receptor-targeted cargo delivery system for cancer therapy for many years. To accurately evaluate and optically measure this TfR targeting delivery in vitro, a CHO cell line with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-tagged human TfR was established. A chimera of the hTfR and EGFP was engineered by fusing EGFP to the amino terminus of hTfR. Data were provided to demonstrate that hTfR-EGFP chimera was predominantly localized on the plasma membrane with some intracellular fluorescent structures on CHO cells and the EGFP moiety did not affect the endocytosis property of hTfR. Receptor internalization occurred similarly to that of HepG2 cells expressing wild-type hTfR. The internalization percentage of this chimeric receptor was about 81 ± 3% of wild type. Time-dependent co-localization of hTfR-EGFP and PE-conjugated anti-hTfR mAb in living cells demonstrated the trafficking of mAb-receptor complexes through the endosomes followed by segregation of part of the mAb and receptor at the late stages of endocytosis. The CHO-hTfR cells preferentially took up anti-hTfR mAb conjugated nanoparticles. This CHO-hTfR cell line makes it feasible for accurate evaluation and visualization of intracellular trafficking of therapeutic agents conjugated with transferrin or Abs targeting the hTfRs.

  5. Advanced gestational age increases serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin levels in abstinent pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N; Cano, Sandra; Rayburn, William F; Savich, Renate D; Leeman, Lawrence; Anton, Raymond F; Savage, Daniel D

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT) is a well-established and highly specific biomarker for sustained heavy consumption of alcohol. However, in pregnant women, the specificity of this biomarker might be affected by advanced gestational age, even after accounting for increased transferrin concentrations in pregnancy. The goal of this prospective study was to assess the variability in %CDT during pregnancy among alcohol-abstaining patients. Patients were recruited during one of the first prenatal care visits and followed-up to term. Abstinence was confirmed by maternal self-report and by alcohol biomarkers. Biomarkers assessed in the mother included serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, urine ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate, and whole blood phosphatidylethanol (PEth). In addition, PEth was measured in a dry blood spot card obtained from a newborn. For %CDT analysis, serum samples were collected at baseline and at term and analyzed by an internationally validated high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric detection method. At recruitment (mean gestational age 22.6 ± 7.3 weeks), the mean %CDT concentration was 1.49 ± 0.30%, while at term, it increased to 1.67 ± 0.28% (P = 0.001). Using a conventional cutoff concentration %CDT >1.7%, 22.9 and 45.7% of the sample would be classified as 'positive' for this biomarker at recruitment and at term, respectively (P = 0.011 ). These results suggest that a conventional cutoff of 1.7% might be too low for pregnant women and would generate false-positive results. We propose that %CDT >2.0% be used as a cutoff concentration indicative of alcohol exposure in pregnant women. The sensitivity of %CDT at this cutoff for heavy drinking during pregnancy needs to be assessed further.

  6. The Extracellular Protein Factor Epf from Streptococcus pyogenes Is a Cell Surface Adhesin That Binds to Cells through an N-terminal Domain Containing a Carbohydrate-binding Module*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Christian; Siemens, Nikolai; Oehmcke, Sonja; Radjainia, Mazdak; Law, Ruby H. P.; Whisstock, James C.; Baker, Edward N.; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is an exclusively human pathogen. Streptococcal attachment to and entry into epithelial cells is a prerequisite for a successful infection of the human host and requires adhesins. Here, we demonstrate that the multidomain protein Epf from S. pyogenes serotype M49 is a streptococcal adhesin. An epf-deficient mutant showed significantly decreased adhesion to and internalization into human keratinocytes. Cell adhesion is mediated by the N-terminal domain of Epf (EpfN) and increased by the human plasma protein plasminogen. The crystal structure of EpfN, solved at 1.6 Å resolution, shows that it consists of two subdomains: a carbohydrate-binding module and a fibronectin type III domain. Both fold types commonly participate in ligand receptor and protein-protein interactions. EpfN is followed by 18 repeats of a domain classified as DUF1542 (domain of unknown function 1542) and a C-terminal cell wall sorting signal. The DUF1542 repeats are not involved in adhesion, but biophysical studies show they are predominantly α-helical and form a fiber-like stalk of tandem DUF1542 domains. Epf thus conforms with the widespread family of adhesins known as MSCRAMMs (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules), in which a cell wall-attached stalk enables long range interactions via its adhesive N-terminal domain. PMID:22977243

  7. The extracellular protein factor Epf from Streptococcus pyogenes is a cell surface adhesin that binds to cells through an N-terminal domain containing a carbohydrate-binding module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Christian; Siemens, Nikolai; Oehmcke, Sonja; Radjainia, Mazdak; Law, Ruby H P; Whisstock, James C; Baker, Edward N; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2012-11-02

    Streptococcus pyogenes is an exclusively human pathogen. Streptococcal attachment to and entry into epithelial cells is a prerequisite for a successful infection of the human host and requires adhesins. Here, we demonstrate that the multidomain protein Epf from S. pyogenes serotype M49 is a streptococcal adhesin. An epf-deficient mutant showed significantly decreased adhesion to and internalization into human keratinocytes. Cell adhesion is mediated by the N-terminal domain of Epf (EpfN) and increased by the human plasma protein plasminogen. The crystal structure of EpfN, solved at 1.6 Å resolution, shows that it consists of two subdomains: a carbohydrate-binding module and a fibronectin type III domain. Both fold types commonly participate in ligand receptor and protein-protein interactions. EpfN is followed by 18 repeats of a domain classified as DUF1542 (domain of unknown function 1542) and a C-terminal cell wall sorting signal. The DUF1542 repeats are not involved in adhesion, but biophysical studies show they are predominantly α-helical and form a fiber-like stalk of tandem DUF1542 domains. Epf thus conforms with the widespread family of adhesins known as MSCRAMMs (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules), in which a cell wall-attached stalk enables long range interactions via its adhesive N-terminal domain.

  8. New strategy for enhancement of microbial viability in simulated gastric conditions based on display of starch-binding domain on cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarahomjoo, Shirin; Katakura, Yoshio; Shioya, Suteaki

    2008-05-01

    The C-terminal region of the peptidoglycan hydrolase (CPH) of Lactococcus lactis IL1403 fused to the linker region and the starch-binding domain (SBD) of the *-amylase of Streptococcus bovis 148 was produced intracellularly in Escherichia coli. The fusion protein (CPH-SBD) was able to bind to the cell surface of Lactobacillus casei NRRL B-441 and to corn starch. Therefore, adhesion of cells to corn starch was mediated by the fusion protein. At a cell density of 10(9) cfu/ml and a starch concentration of 5 mg/ml, CPH-SBD-displaying L. casei cells aggregated with corn starch, whereas the free cells of L. casei did not form any aggregates with corn starch. After incubation in simulated gastric juice (pH 3.0, 1 h), the survival percentages of free cells, amylose-coated free cells, and free cells mixed with corn starch were 0.074%, 7.2%, and 3.1% respectively. When CPH-SBD-displaying bacteria aggregated with corn starch, their survival percentage was 8% higher than that of free cells mixed with corn starch. The survival of the amylose-coated CPH-SBD-displaying L. casei cells was comparable to that of amylose-coated free cells, whereas the survival percentage of amylose-coated aggregates of CPH-SBD-displaying bacteria with corn starch was 28% higher than that of amylose-coated mixture of free cells with corn starch. These results demonstrate the potential usefulness of the cell-surface display technique for enhancement of the delivery of viable microorganisms to the intestinal tract.

  9. In vivo stem cell tracking with imageable nanoparticles that bind bioorthogonal chemical receptors on the stem cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangmin; Yoon, Hwa In; Na, Jin Hee; Jeon, Sangmin; Lim, Seungho; Koo, Heebeom; Han, Sang-Soo; Kang, Sun-Woong; Park, Soon-Jung; Moon, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jae Hyung; Cho, Yong Woo; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Sang Kyoon; Lee, Taekwan; Kim, Dongkyu; Lee, Seulki; Pomper, Martin G; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, Kwangmeyung

    2017-09-01

    It is urgently necessary to develop reliable non-invasive stem cell imaging technology for tracking the in vivo fate of transplanted stem cells in living subjects. Herein, we developed a simple and well controlled stem cell imaging method through a combination of metabolic glycoengineering and bioorthogonal copper-free click chemistry. Firstly, the exogenous chemical receptors containing azide (-N 3 ) groups were generated on the surfaces of stem cells through metabolic glycoengineering using metabolic precursor, tetra-acetylated N-azidoacetyl-d-mannosamine(Ac 4 ManNAz). Next, bicyclo[6.1.0]nonyne-modified glycol chitosan nanoparticles (BCN-CNPs) were prepared as imageable nanoparticles to deliver different imaging agents. Cy5.5, iron oxide nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles were conjugated or encapsulated to BCN-CNPs for optical, MR and CT imaging, respectively. These imageable nanoparticles bound chemical receptors on the Ac 4 ManNAz-treated stem cell surface specifically via bioorthogonal copper-free click chemistry. Then they were rapidly taken up by the cell membrane turn-over mechanism resulting in higher endocytic capacity compared non-specific uptake of nanoparticles. During in vivo animal test, BCN-CNP-Cy5.5-labeled stem cells could be continuously tracked by non-invasive optical imaging over 15 days. Furthermore, BCN-CNP-IRON- and BCN-CNP-GOLD-labeled stem cells could be efficiently visualized using in vivo MR and CT imaging demonstrating utility of our stem cell labeling method using chemical receptors. These results conclude that our method based on metabolic glycoengineering and bioorthogonal copper-free click chemistry can stably label stem cells with diverse imageable nanoparticles representing great potential as new stem cell imaging technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of surface layer collagen binding protein from indigenous Lactobacillus plantarum 91 in adhesion and its anti-adhesion potential against gut pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Tyagi, Ashish; Kaushik, Jai Kumar; Saklani, Asha Chandola; Grover, Sunita; Batish, Virender Kumar

    2013-12-14

    Human feacal isolates were ascertain as genus Lactobacillus using specific primer LbLMA1/R16-1 and further identified as Lactobacillus plantarum with species specific primers Lpl-3/Lpl-2. 25 L. plantarum strains were further assessed for hydrophobicity following the microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) method and colonization potentials based on their adherence to immobilized human collagen type-1. Surface proteins were isolated from selected L. plantarum 91(Lp91) strain. The purified collagen binding protein (Cbp) protein was assessed for its anti-adhesion activity against enteric Escherichia coli 0157:H7 pathogen on immobilized collagen. Four L. plantarum strains displayed high degree of hydrophobicity and significant adhesion to collagen. A 72 kDa protein was purified which reduced 59.71% adhesion of E. coli 0157:H7 on immobilized collagen as compared to control well during adhesion assay. Cbp protein is the major influencing factor in inhibition of E. coli 0157:H7 adhesion with extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Hydrophobicity and adhesion potential are closely linked attributes precipitating in better colonization potential of the lactobacillus strains. Cbp is substantiated as a crucial surface protein contributing in adhesion of lactobacillus strains. The study can very well be the platform for commercialization of indigenous probiotic strain once their functional attributes are clinically explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. The 1.7 Å X-ray crystal structure of the porcine factor VIII C2 domain and binding analysis to anti-human C2 domain antibodies and phospholipid surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caileen M Brison

    Full Text Available The factor VIII C2 domain is essential for binding to activated platelet surfaces as well as the cofactor activity of factor VIII in blood coagulation. Inhibitory antibodies against the C2 domain commonly develop following factor VIII replacement therapy for hemophilia A patients, or they may spontaneously arise in cases of acquired hemophilia. Porcine factor VIII is an effective therapeutic for hemophilia patients with inhibitor due to its low cross-reactivity; however, the molecular basis for this behavior is poorly understood. In this study, the X-ray crystal structure of the porcine factor VIII C2 domain was determined, and superposition of the human and porcine C2 domains demonstrates that most surface-exposed differences cluster on the face harboring the "non-classical" antibody epitopes. Furthermore, antibody-binding results illustrate that the "classical" 3E6 antibody can bind both the human and porcine C2 domains, although the inhibitory titer to human factor VIII is 41 Bethesda Units (BU/mg IgG versus 0.8 BU/mg IgG to porcine factor VIII, while the non-classical G99 antibody does not bind to the porcine C2 domain nor inhibit porcine factor VIII activity. Further structural analysis of differences between the electrostatic surface potentials suggest that the C2 domain binds to the negatively charged phospholipid surfaces of activated platelets primarily through the 3E6 epitope region. In contrast, the G99 face, which contains residue 2227, should be distal to the membrane surface. Phospholipid binding assays indicate that both porcine and human factor VIII C2 domains bind with comparable affinities, and the human K2227A and K2227E mutants bind to phospholipid surfaces with similar affinities as well. Lastly, the G99 IgG bound to PS-immobilized factor VIII C2 domain with an apparent dissociation constant of 15.5 nM, whereas 3E6 antibody binding to PS-bound C2 domain was not observed.

  12. The binding parameters of radiolabelled monoclonal F (ab')2 and Fab' fragments relative to immunoglobulin G in reactions with surface-bound antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjeld, J.G.; Nustad, K.; Michaelsen, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    The binding parameters of iodine-125-labelled intact monoclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG), F(ab') 2 and Fab' fragments were compared. The study was carried out with the two monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) K13 and K16 specific for human Ig light chains κ and λ, respectively. When testing the 125 I-MoAbs against monodisperse polymer particles coated with the specific antigens, the K a for the F(ab') 2 fragments were similar to that for IgG, while the K a for the Fab' fragments were reduced to 10%-20% of that for IgG. The number N of effective target sites revealed with Fab' was higher than with F(ab') and IgG, presumably because less surface area is occupied by the small Fab' molecules. The immunoreactive fraction F ranged according to IgG>F(ab') 2 >Fab'. The explanation of the moderate difference between the K a of the monoclonal Fab' and the divalent IgG and F(ab') 2 was that the divalent molecules were not divalently attached to the particles. When testing the same antibody preparations against humanlymphoma cells producing Ig with light chains κ or λ, the binding results were less reliable than when particles were utilised, presumably due to antigen shedding. Different MoAbs vary in their loss of immunoreactivity due to enzymatic degradation and the radiolabelling procedure. The preparation of the radiolabelled fragments should therefore be optimized for each MoAb, and evaluation is necessary before injection. Artificial targets with a low leakage of antigen, like the monodisperse polymer particles here applied, are recommended for the in vitro evaluation of the immunoreactivity of labelled MoAb preparations. (orig.)

  13. Targeting transferrin receptors at the blood-brain barrier improves the uptake of immunoliposomes and subsequent cargo transport into the brain parenchyma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kasper B.; Burkhart, Annette; Melander, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    Drug delivery to the brain is hampered by the presence of the blood-brain barrier, which excludes most molecules from freely diffusing into the brain, and tightly regulates the active transport mechanisms that ensure sufficient delivery of nutrients to the brain parenchyma. Harnessing the possibi...... cargo uptake in the brain endothelium and subsequent cargo transport into the brain. These findings suggest that transferrin receptor-targeting is a relevant strategy of increasing drug exposure to the brain....... investigate the possibility of delivering immunoliposomes and their encapsulated cargo to the brain via targeting of the transferrin receptor. We find that transferrin receptor-targeting increases the association between the immunoliposomes and primary endothelial cells in vitro, but that this does...... not correlate with increased cargo transcytosis. Furthermore, we show that the transferrin receptor-targeted immunoliposomes accumulate along the microvessels of the brains of rats, but find no evidence for transcytosis of the immunoliposome. Conversely, the increased accumulation correlated both with increased...

  14. Mathematical modeling of mutant transferrin-CRM107 molecular conjugates for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Dennis J; Chen, Kevin Y; Lopes, André M; Pan, April A; Shiloach, Joseph; Mason, Anne B; Kamei, Daniel T

    2017-03-07

    The transferrin (Tf) trafficking pathway is a promising mechanism for use in targeted cancer therapy due to the overexpression of transferrin receptors (TfRs) on cancerous cells. We have previously developed a mathematical model of the Tf/TfR trafficking pathway to improve the efficiency of Tf as a drug carrier. By using diphtheria toxin (DT) as a model toxin, we found that mutating the Tf protein to change its iron release rate improves cellular association and efficacy of the drug. Though this is an improvement upon using wild-type Tf as the targeting ligand, conjugated toxins like DT are unfortunately still highly cytotoxic at off-target sites. In this work, we address this hurdle in cancer research by developing a mathematical model to predict the efficacy and selectivity of Tf conjugates that use an alternative toxin. For this purpose, we have chosen to study a mutant of DT, cross-reacting material 107 (CRM107). First, we developed a mathematical model of the Tf-DT trafficking pathway by extending our Tf/TfR model to include intracellular trafficking via DT and DT receptors. Using this mathematical model, we subsequently investigated the efficacy of several conjugates in cancer cells: DT and CRM107 conjugated to wild-type Tf, as well as to our engineered mutant Tf proteins (K206E/R632A Tf and K206E/R534A Tf). We also investigated the selectivity of mutant Tf-CRM107 against non-neoplastic cells. Through the use of our mathematical model, we predicted that (i) mutant Tf-CRM107 exhibits a greater cytotoxicity than wild-type Tf-CRM107 against cancerous cells, (ii) this improvement was more drastic with CRM107 conjugates than with DT conjugates, and (iii) mutant Tf-CRM107 conjugates were selective against non-neoplastic cells. These predictions were validated with in vitro cytotoxicity experiments, demonstrating that mutant Tf-CRM107 conjugates is indeed a more suitable therapeutic agent. Validation from in vitro experiments also confirmed that such whole

  15. Development and optimization of transferrin-conjugated nanostructured lipid carriers for brain delivery of paclitaxel using Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Jaber; Rezazadeh, Mahboubeh; Sadeghi, Hojjat; Khadivar, Khashayar

    2017-05-01

    The treatment of brain cancer remains one of the most difficult challenges in oncology. The purpose of this study was to develop transferrin-conjugated nanostructured lipid carriers (Tf-NLCs) for brain delivery of paclitaxel (PTX). PTX-loaded NLCs (PTX-NLCs) were prepared using solvent evaporation method and the impact of various formulation variables were assessed using Box-Behnken design. Optimized PTX-NLC was coupled with transferrin as targeting ligand and in vitro cytotoxicity of it was investigated against U-87 brain cancer cell line. As a result, 14.1 mg of cholesterol, 18.5 mg of triolein, and 0.5% poloxamer were used to prepare the optimal formulation. Mean particle size (PS), zeta potential (ZP), entrapment efficiency (EE), drug loading (DL), mean release time (MRT) of adopted formulation were confirmed to be 205.4 ± 11 nm, 25.7 ± 6.22 mV, 91.8 ± 0.5%, 5.38 ± 0.03% and 29.3 h, respectively. Following conjugation of optimized PTX-NLCs with transferrin, coupling efficiency was 21.3 mg transferrin per mmol of stearylamine; PS and MRT were increased while ZP, EE and DL decreased non-significantly. Tf-PTX-NLCs showed higher cytotoxic activity compared to non-targeted NLCs and free drug. These results indicated that the Tf-PTX-NLCs could potentially be exploited as a delivery system in brain cancer cells.

  16. Primary care requests for anaemia chemistry tests in Spain: potential iron, transferrin and folate over-requesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Maria; López-Garrigós, Maite; Flores, Emilio; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos

    2017-09-01

    To study the regional variability of requests for anaemia chemistry tests in primary care in Spain and the associated economic costs of potential over-requesting. Requests for anaemia tests were examined in a cross-sectional study. Clinical laboratories from different autonomous communities (AACCs) were invited to report on primary care anaemia chemistry tests requested during 2014. Demand for iron, ferritin, vitamin B12 and folate tests per 1000 inhabitants and the ratios of the folate/vitamin B12 and transferrin/ferritin requests were compared between AACCs. We also calculated reagent costs and the number of iron, transferrin and folate tests and the economic saving if every AACC had obtained the results achieved by the AACC with best practice. 110 laboratories participated (59.8% of the Spanish population). More than 12 million tests were requested, resulting in reagent costs exceeding €16.5 million. The serum iron test was the most often requested, and the ferritin test was the most costly (over €7 million). Close to €4.5 million could potentially have been saved if iron, transferrin and folate had been appropriately requested (€6 million when extrapolated to the whole Spanish population). The demand for and expenditure on anaemia chemistry tests in primary care in Spain is high, with significant regional differences between different AACCs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Studies on the mechanism of pyrophosphate-mediated uptake of iron from transferrin by isolated rat-liver mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopka, K.; Romslo, I.; Bergen Univ.

    1981-01-01

    1. Respiring rat liver mitochondria accumulate iron released from transferrin by pyrophosphate. The amount of iron accumulated is 1-1.5 nmol mg protein -1 h -1 , or approximately 60% of the amount of iron mobilized from transferrin. 2. The uptake declines if respiration is inhibited, substrate is depleted, or the experiments are run under anaerobic conditions. Substrate, depletion and respiratory inhibitors are less inhibitory under anaerobic conditions. 3. More than 80% of the amount of iron accumulated by aerobic, actively respiring mitochondria can be chelated by bathophenanthroline sulphonate, and with deuteroporphyrin included, up to 30% of the amount of iron accumulated is recovered as deuteroheme. Iron accumulated by respiration-inhibited mitochondria under aerobic conditions is not available for heme synthesis. 4. With time the uptake of iron increases eightfold relative to the uptake of pyrophosphate. 5. The results are compatible with a model in which ferric iron is mobilized from transferrin by pyrophosphate, ferric iron pyrophosphate is bound to the mitochondria, iron is reduced, dissociates from pyrophosphate and is taken up by the mitochondria. Ferrous irons thus formed is available for heme synthesis. (orig.) [de

  18. Background electrolytes and pH effects on selenate adsorption using iron-impregnated granular activated carbon and surface binding mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Gang, Daniel Dianchen; McDonald, Louis; Lin, Lian-Shin

    2018-03-01

    Iron-impregnated granular activated carbon (Fe-GAC) has been shown effective for selenite adsorptive removal from aqueous solutions, but similar effectiveness was not observed with selenate. This study examined the effects of background electrolytes and pH on selenate adsorption on to Fe-GAC, and surface bindings to elucidate the selenate adsorption mechanisms. The decrease magnitude of selenate adsorption capacity under three background electrolytes followed the order: LiCl > NaCl > KCl, as ionic strength increased from 0.01 to 0.1 M. Larger adsorption capacity differences among the three electrolytes were observed under the higher ionic strengths (0.05 and 0.1 M) than those under 0.01 M. Multiplet peak fittings of high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectra for O1s and Fe2p 3/2 indicated the presence of iron (III) on adsorbent surface. pH variations during the adsorbent preparation within 3-8 in NaCl solutions did not cause appreciable changes in the iron redox state and composition. Raman spectra showed the formation of both monodentate and bidentate inner sphere complexes under pHs adsorption under alkaline conditions. Mechanisms for monodentate and bidentate formations and a stable six-member ring structure were proposed. Two strategies were recommended for modifying Fe-GAC preparation procedure to enhance the selenate adsorption: (1) mixed-metal oxide coatings to increase the point of zero charge (pH zpc ); and (2) ferrous iron coating to initially reduce selenate followed by selenite adsorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of epidermal growth factor, transferrin, and insulin on lipofection efficiency in human lung carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, K; Cheng, H; Cheng, P W

    2000-01-01

    Poor transfection efficiency is the major drawback of lipofection. We showed previously that addition of transferrin (TF) to Lipofectin enhanced the expression of a reporter gene in HeLa cells by 120-fold and achieved close to 100% transfection efficiency. The purpose of this study was to determine whether TF and other ligands could improve the efficiency of lipofection in lung carcinoma cells. Confluent A549, Calu3, and H292 cells were transfected for 18 hours with a plasmid DNA (pCMVlacZ) using Lipofectin plus TF, insulin, or epidermal growth factor as the vector. The transfected cells were assessed for transfection efficiency by beta-galactosidase activity (light units/microg protein) and the percentage of blue cells following 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl beta-D-galactopyranoside staining. Lipofectin supplemented with epidermal growth factor yielded the largest enhancement of lipofection efficiency (lipofection efficiency in A549 and Calu3 cells but not in H292 cells, whereas TF showed significant lipofection efficiency-enhancing effect in Calu3 and H292 cells but not in A549 cells. The transfection efficiency correlated well with the amounts of DNA delivered to the nucleus as well as the amounts of the receptor. These results indicate that the gene delivery strategy employing ligand-facilitated lipofection can achieve high transfection efficiency in human lung carcinoma cells. In addition, enhancement of the expression of the receptor may be a possible strategy for increasing the efficiency of gene targeting.

  20. Reference values for serum ferritin and percentage of transferrin saturation in Korean children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hea Lin; Lee, Jun Ah; Kim, Dong Ho; Lim, Jung Sub

    2018-03-01

    Ferritin reference values vary by age, gender, and ethnicity. We aimed to determine reference values of serum ferritin (SF) and the percentage of transferrin saturation (TSAT) for Korean children and adolescents. We analyzed data from 2,487 participants (1,311 males and 1,176 females) aged 10-20 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012). We calculated age- and gender-stratified means and percentile values for SF and TSAT. We first plotted mean SF and TSAT by gender and according to age. In males, mean SF tended to be relatively constant among participants aged 10 to 14 years, with an upward trend thereafter. Mean SF trended downward among female participants until the age of 15 years and remained constant thereafter. Thus, significant gender differences in ferritin exist from the age of 14 years. High levels of SF were associated with obesity, and lower SF levels were associated with anemia and menarche status. We established reference values of SF and TSAT according to age and gender. The reference values for SF calculated in this study can be used to test the association between SF values and other defined diseases in Korean children and adolescents.

  1. Ultrasensitive Sensing Material Based on Opal Photonic Crystal for Label-Free Monitoring of Transferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Enqi; Peng, Yuan; Zhang, Xihao; Bai, Jialei; Song, Yanqiu; He, Houluo; Fan, Longxing; Qu, Xiaochen; Gao, Zhixian; Liu, Ying; Ning, Baoan

    2017-02-22

    A new opal photonic crystal (PC) sensing material, allowing label-free detection of transferrin (TRF), is proposed in the current study. This photonic crystal was prepared via a vertical convective self-assembly method with monodisperse microspheres polymerized by methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid (AAPBA). FTIR, TG, and DLS were used to characterize the components and particle size of the monodisperse microspheres. SEM was used to observe the morphology of the PC. The diffraction peak intensity decreases as the TRF concentration increase. This was due to the combination of TRF to the boronic acid group of the photonic crystal. After condition optimization, a standard curve was obtained and the linear range of TRF concentration was from 2 × 10 -3 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL. Measurement of TRF concentration in simulated urine sample was also investigated using the sensing material. The results indicated that the PC provided a cheap, label-free, and easy-to-use alternative for TRF determination in clinical diagnostics.

  2. Chromatographic Monoliths for High-Throughput Immunoaffinity Isolation of Transferrin from Human Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Trbojević-Akmačić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in protein glycosylation are related to different diseases and have a potential as diagnostic and prognostic disease biomarkers. Transferrin (Tf glycosylation changes are common marker for congenital disorders of glycosylation. However, biological interindividual variability of Tf N-glycosylation and genes involved in glycosylation regulation are not known. Therefore, high-throughput Tf isolation method and large scale glycosylation studies are needed in order to address these questions. Due to their unique chromatographic properties, the use of chromatographic monoliths enables very fast analysis cycle, thus significantly increasing sample preparation throughput. Here, we are describing characterization of novel immunoaffinity-based monolithic columns in a 96-well plate format for specific high-throughput purification of human Tf from blood plasma. We optimized the isolation and glycan preparation procedure for subsequent ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC analysis of Tf N-glycosylation and managed to increase the sensitivity for approximately three times compared to initial experimental conditions, with very good reproducibility. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  3. Iron status of Filipino infants and preschoolers using plasma ferritin and transferrin receptor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuizon, M D; Madriaga, J R; Desnacido, J A; Cheong, R L; Perlas, L A

    1996-06-01

    Iron status of 1,861 Filipino infants and preschoolers was evaluated by measurements of plasma ferritin (PF), transferrin receptor (TR) and hemoglobin (Hb). One group of subjects (Group I) consisted of all anemic subjects together with a systematic subsample from the Fourth National Nutrition Survey-Biochemical Phase. Results showed that depleted iron stores based on PF ( 8.5 mg/l) was present in higher proportion (80.0% and 73.7% for infants and preschoolers) which was comparable to the proportion of anemia (80.3%). In a subgroup of subjects from the Country Program for Children IV (Group 2) elevated TR was present in 61.4% of infants and 46.5% of preschoolers. A lower proportion of depleted iron stores of 22.7% in infants and 15.2% in preschoolers was observed. Correlation test showed that there was a closer relationship between Hb and TR (r = -0.42) than Hb and PF (r = 0.20) even if PF was expected to give a higher proportion of values below normal. The occurrence of anemia in the presence of elevated TR without any decrease in PF values suggest that the diagnostic ability of PF could be limited in the presence of infection. Therefore, future studies should include biochemical tests such as C-reactive proteins (CRP) to determine the extent of association between anemia and infection.

  4. Transgenic HFE-dependent induction of hepcidin in mice does not require transferrin receptor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Paul J; Fleming, Mark D

    2012-06-01

    Hereditary hemochomatosis (HH) is caused by mutations in several genes, including HFE and transferrin receptor-2 (TFR2). Loss of either protein decreases expression of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin by the liver, leading to inappropriately high iron uptake from the diet, and resulting in systemic iron overload. In tissue culture, overexpressed HFE and TFR2 physically interact. Hepatocellular overexpression of Hfe in vivo increases hepcidin expression, despite an associated decrease in Tfr2. On this basis, we hypothesized that Tfr2 would not be required for Hfe-dependent up-regulation of hepcidin. We show that hepatocellular overexpression of Hfe in Tfr2(Y245X/Y245X) mice leads to hepcidin induction eventuating in iron deficiency and a hypochromic, microcytic anemia. Furthermore, coimmunoprecipitation studies using liver lysates did not provide evidence for physical interaction between Hfe and Tfr2 in vivo. In conclusion, we demonstrate that Tfr2 is not essential for Hfe-mediated induction of hepcidin expression, supporting the possibility that TFR2 may regulate iron metabolism in an HFE-independent manner. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Aluminum access to the brain: A role for transferrin and its receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roskams, A.J.; Connor, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The toxicity of aluminum in plant and animal cell biology is well established, although poorly understood. Several recent studies have identified aluminum as a potential, although highly controversial, contributory factor in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and dialysis dementia. For example, aluminum has been found in high concentrations in senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, which occur in the brains of subjects with Alzheimer's disease. However, a mechanism for the entry of aluminum (Al 3+ ) into the cells of the central nervous system (CNS) has yet to be found. Here the authors describe a possible route of entry for aluminum into the cells of the CNS via the same high-affinity receptor-ligand system that has been postulated for iron (Fe 3 ) aluminum is able to gain access to the central nervous system under normal physiological conditions. Furthermore, these data suggest that the interaction between transferrin and its receptor may function as a general metal ion regulatory system in the CNS, extending beyond its postulated role in iron regulation

  6. Transferrin-Modified Nanoparticles for Photodynamic Therapy Enhance the Antitumor Efficacy of Hypocrellin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Lin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT has emerged as a potent novel therapeutic modality that induces cell death through light-induced activation of photosensitizer. But some photosensitizers have characteristics of poor water-solubility and non-specific tissue distribution. These characteristics become main obstacles of PDT. In this paper, we synthesized a targeting drug delivery system (TDDS to improve the water-solubility of photosensitizer and enhance the ability of targeted TFR positive tumor cells. TDDS is a transferrin-modified Poly(D,L-Lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC nanoparticle loaded with a photosensitizer hypocrellin A (HA, named TF-HA-CMC-PLGA NPs. Morphology, size distribution, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectra, encapsulation efficiency, and loading capacity of TF-HA-CMC-PLGA NPs were characterized. In vitro TF-HA-CMC-PLGA NPs presented weak dark cytotoxicity and significant photo-cytotoxicity with strong reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and apoptotic cancer cell death. In vivo photodynamic antitumor efficacy of TF-HA-CMC-PLGA NPs was investigated with an A549 (TFR positive tumor-bearing model in male athymic nude mice. TF-HA-CMC-PLGA NPs caused tumor delay with a remarkable tumor inhibition rate of 63% for 15 days. Extensive cell apoptosis in tumor tissue and slight side effects in normal organs were observed. The results indicated that TDDS has great potential to enhance PDT therapeutic efficacy.

  7. Reference limits and behaviour of serum transferrin receptor in children 6-10 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danise, P; Maconi, M; Morelli, G; Di Palma, A; Rescigno, G; Esposito, C; Avino, D; Talento, B

    2008-08-01

    Serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) originates mostly from erythroblasts and lesser from reticulocytes. The usefulness of sTfR has been implicated in several clinical situations, mainly as a marker of accelerated erythropoiesis or iron deficiency. The assessment of sTfR may be useful in the period of rapid growth during infancy, childhood and adolescence. We evaluated sTfR and the other quantitative and qualitative parameters of the erythropoiesis (Hb, MCV, CHr, Ret-He) and of the iron storage (serum ferritin, sTfR/ferritin index) in a total of 916 children aged 6-10 years. Children were divided into three groups: (A) healthy children, (B) with storage iron deficiency (serum ferritin 3.3). We determined reference intervals by sex and by age in healthy children. sTfR showed a slight but statistically significant age related increase but did not show significant sex differences. We compared sTfR and the other parameters investigated in the three groups of children. sTfR is not a decisive parameter that can be utilized alone in discriminating the border-line situations between normal and pathologic ones but can help in completing the panel of tests in iron deficiency and in thalassaemia Beta trait carriers.

  8. The human VGF-derived bioactive peptide TLQP-21 binds heat shock 71 kDa protein 8 (HSPA8on the surface of SH-SY5Y cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim Akhter

    Full Text Available VGF (non-acronymicis a secreted chromogranin/secretogranin that gives rise to a number of bioactive peptides by a complex proteolysis mechanism. VGF-derived peptides exert an extensive array of biological effects in energy metabolism, mood regulation, pain, gastric secretion function, reproduction and, perhaps, cancer. It is therefore surprising that very little is known about receptors and binding partners of VGF-derived peptides and their downstream molecular mechanisms of action. Here, using affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry-based protein identification, we have identified the heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein A8 (HSPA8as a binding partner of human TLQP-21 on the surface of human neuroblastomaSH-SY5Y cells. Binding of TLQP-21 to membrane associated HSPA8 in live SH-SY5Y cells was further supported by cross-linking to live cells. Interaction between HSPA8 and TLQP-21 was confirmed in vitro by label-free Dynamic Mass Redistribution (DMR studies. Furthermore, molecular modeling studies show that TLQP-21 can be docked into the HSPA8 peptide binding pocket. Identification of HSPA8 as a cell surface binding partner of TLQP-21 opens new avenues to explore the molecular mechanisms of its physiological actions, and of pharmacological modulation thereof.

  9. Fluorescence imaging of bombesin and transferrin receptor expression is comparable to 18F-FDG PET in early detection of sorafenib-induced changes in tumor metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Chieh Tseng

    noticeable changes in tumor size. For comparison, two FLI probes, BombesinRSense™ 680 (BRS-680 and Transferrin-Vivo™ 750 (TfV-750, were assessed for their potential in metabolic imaging. Metabolically active cancer cells are known to have elevated bombesin and transferrin receptor levels on the surface. In excellent agreement with PET imaging, the BRS-680 imaging showed 40% and 79% inhibition on days 2 and 3, respectively, and the TfV-750 imaging showed 65% inhibition on day 3. In both cases, no significant reduction in tumor volume or BLI signal was observed during the first 3 days of treatment. These results suggest that metabolic FLI has potential preclinical application as an additional method for detecting drug-induced metabolic changes in tumors.

  10. Iron-Binding Protein Degradation by Cysteine Proteases of Naegleria fowleri

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    Moisés Martínez-Castillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Naegleria fowleri causes acute and fulminant primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. This microorganism invades its host by penetrating the olfactory mucosa and then traveling up the mesaxonal spaces and crossing the cribriform plate; finally, the trophozoites invade the olfactory bulbs. During its invasion, the protozoan obtains nutrients such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and cationic ions (e.g., iron, calcium, and sodium from the host. However, the mechanism by which these ions are obtained, particularly iron, is poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of N. fowleri to degrade iron-binding proteins, including hololactoferrin, transferrin, ferritin, and hemoglobin. Zymography assays were performed for each substrate under physiological conditions (pH 7 at 37°C employing conditioned medium (CM and total crude extracts (TCEs of N. fowleri. Different degradation patterns with CM were observed for hololactoferrin, transferrin, and hemoglobin; however, CM did not cause ferritin degradation. In contrast, the TCEs degraded only hololactoferrin and transferrin. Inhibition assays revealed that cysteine proteases were involved in this process. Based on these results, we suggest that CM and TCEs of N. fowleri degrade iron-binding proteins by employing cysteine proteases, which enables the parasite to obtain iron to survive while invading the central nervous system.

  11. Protein A-containing staphylococcus aureus as an immunoglobulin-binding reagent: 1) in radioimmunoassays - 'staf-RIA' - recently also for antibiotics and microbial antigens/antibodies, and 2) in a non-radioactive surface immunoassay - 'Staph-ace ay' read by the naked eye - primarily for antibodies to antigens adsorbed to transparent surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, S.

    1977-01-01

    This paper is intended to summarize recent developments for the use of protein A-containing staphylococci as an immunoglobulin-binding reagent in various types of radioimmunoassay and some related areas, particularly the staphylococcal surface immunoassay. The paper also presents a new process for the large scale preparation of a freeze-dried preparation of the immunoglobulin-binding, killed staphylococci, which thereby gain a much improved suspension stability. (orig.) [de

  12. Binding of antibodies to the extractable nuclear antigens SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La is induced on the surface of human keratinocytes by ultraviolet light (UVL): Implications for the pathogenesis of photosensitive cutaneous lupus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, F.; Kashihara-Sawami, M.; Lyons, M.B.; Norris, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Autoantibodies to the non-histone nucleoprotein antigens SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, and RNP are highly associated with photosensitive cutaneous lupus erythematosus (LE). In order to better understand the potential mechanisms of ultraviolet (UV) light on photosensitivity in patients with cutaneous LE, we designed immunopathologic in vitro and in vivo experiments to evaluate the effects of UV on the binding of such autoantibodies to the surface of human keratinocytes, one major target of immunologic damage in photosensitive LE. Short-term 2% paraformaldehyde fixation of suspensions of cultured human keratinocytes previously incubated with monospecific antiserum probes enabled the detection of ENA expression on the cell surface by flow-cytometry analysis. UVB light (280-320 nm) induced the binding of monospecific antibody probes for SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La on keratinocytes in a dose-dependent pattern with maximal induction observed at the dose of 200 mJ/cm2 UVB. Binding of SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, and RNP antibody was augmented strongly, but binding of anti-Sm was very weak. In contrast, UVA (320-400 nm) light had no effect on the induction of binding of these antibody probes. Identical results were seen by standard immunofluorescence techniques. Hydroxyurea-treated keratinocytes showed similar induction of those antigens by UVB irradiation, which suggested that ENA expression on cultured keratinocytes by UVB were cell-cycle independent. Tunicamycin, an inhibitor of glycosylation of proteins, reduced UVB light effect on the SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La antigen's expression. These in vitro FACS analyses revealed that ENA augmentation on the keratinocyte cell surface was dose dependent, UVB dependent, glycosylation dependent, and cell-cycle independent. In vivo ENA augmentation on the keratinocyte surface was examined in suction blister epidermal roofs

  13. Construction of a novel selection system for endoglucanases exhibiting carbohydrate-binding modules optimized for biomass using yeast cell-surface engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Akihito; Bae, Jungu; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2012-10-23

    To permit direct cellulose degradation and ethanol fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 (Δsed1) codisplaying 3 cellulases (Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase II [EG], T. reesei cellobiohydrolase II [CBH], and Aspergillus aculeatus β-glucosidase I [BG]) was constructed by yeast cell-surface engineering. The EG used in this study consists of a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) and a catalytic module. A comparison with family 1 CBMs revealed conserved amino acid residues and flexible amino acid residues. The flexible amino acid residues were at positions 18, 23, 26, and 27, through which the degrading activity for various cellulose structures in each biomass may have been optimized. To select the optimal combination of CBMs of EGs, a yeast mixture with comprehensively mutated CBM was constructed. The mixture consisted of yeasts codisplaying EG with mutated CBMs, in which 4 flexible residues were comprehensively mutated, CBH, and BG. The yeast mixture was inoculated in selection medium with newspaper as the sole carbon source. The surviving yeast consisted of RTSH yeast (the mutant sequence of CBM: N18R, S23T, S26S, and T27H) and wild-type yeast (CBM was the original) in a ratio of 1:46. The mixture (1 RTSH yeast and 46 wild-type yeasts) had a fermentation activity that was 1.5-fold higher than that of wild-type yeast alone in the early phase of saccharification and fermentation, which indicates that the yeast mixture with comprehensively mutated CBM could be used to select the optimal combination of CBMs suitable for the cellulose of each biomass.

  14. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) are inactivated by binding to glass and cellulosic surfaces, and released in active form by a heat-stable polymer from cauliflower florets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharples, Sandra C; Nguyen-Phan, Tu C; Fry, Stephen C

    2017-11-01

    Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity, which cuts and re-joins hemicellulose chains in the plant cell wall, contributing to wall assembly and growth regulation, is the major activity of XTH proteins. During purification, XTHs often lose XET activity which, however, is restored by treatment with certain cold-water-extractable, heat-stable polymers (CHPs), e.g. from cauliflower florets. It was not known whether the XTH-activating factor (XAF) present in CHPs works by promoting (e.g. allosterically) XET activity or by re-solubilising sequestered XTH proteins. We now show that XTHs in dilute solution bind to diverse surfaces (e.g. glass and cellulose), and that CHPs can re-solubilise the bound enzyme, re-activating it. Cell walls prepared from cauliflower florets, mung bean shoots and Arabidopsis cell-suspension cultures each contained endogenous, tightly bound, inactive XTHs, which were likewise rapidly solubilised (within 0.5h) and thus activated by cauliflower XAF. We present a convenient quantitative assay for XAF acting on the native sequestered XTHs of Arabidopsis cell walls; using this assay, we show that CHPs from all plants tested possess XAF activity. The XAF activity of diverse CHPs does not correlate with their conductivity, showing that this activity is not a simple ionic effect. The XAF action of cauliflower CHPs was augmented by NaCl, although NaCl alone was much less effective than a CHP solution of similar conductivity, confirming that the cauliflower polymers did not simply exert a salt effect. We suggest that XAF is an endogenous regulator of XET action, modulating cell-wall loosening and/or assembly in vivo. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of serum transferrin receptor in the diagnosis of iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remacha, A F; Sarda, M P; Parellada, M; Ubeda, J; Manteiga, R

    1998-11-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is often associated with inflammatory disorders. The most conventional parameters of iron metabolism are therefore affected, making the evaluation of iron status difficult. Serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) levels are raised in iron deficiency but are not influenced by inflammatory changes. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of sTfR in differentiating IDA with inflammatory features. A diagnostic study of sTfR measured by immunoassay was carried out in IDA and anemia of chronic disorders (ACD). The cut-off points of sTfR and the ratio of sTfR/serum ferritin, which were obtained after comparing IDA and ACD, were applied to a group of 64 patients with mixed iron patterns (MIX) (16 with ACD and 48 with IDA). The best cut-off point of sTfR between IDA and ACD was 4.7 mg/L. Applying this cut-off to the MIX group, an efficiency of 87% was obtained (sensitivity 92% and specificity 81%). This level of sTfR correctly classified 53 out of 64 cases of the MIX group (83%). Using the ratio of sTfRx 100/serum ferritin, the best cut-off point was 8 (efficiency 100%), which correctly classified 62 out of 64 cases of the MIX group (97%). This study demonstrates that sTfR in conjunction with other iron parameters is very useful in iron deficiency evaluation, especially in hospital practice. Iron treatment should be considered in patients with mixed patterns of iron status, in which the diagnosis of IDA versus ACD is difficult, when the levels of sTfR exceed the cut-off point.

  16. Role of Insulin-Transferrin-Selenium in Auricular Chondrocyte Proliferation and Engineered Cartilage Formation in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to determine the effects of Insulin-Transferrin-Selenium (ITS on proliferation of auricular chondrocytes and formation of engineered cartilage in vitro. Pig auricular monolayer chondrocytes and chondrocyte pellets were cultured in media containing 1% ITS at different concentrations of fetal bovine serum (FBS, 10%, 6%, 2%, 0%, or 10% FBS alone as a control for four weeks. Parameters including cell proliferation in monolayer, wet weight, collagen type I/II/X (Col I, II, X and glycosaminoglycan (GAG expression, GAG content of pellets and gene expression associated with cartilage formation/dedifferentiation (lost cartilage phenotype/hypertrophy within the chondrocyte pellets were assessed. The results showed that chondrocytes proliferation rates increased when FBS concentrations increased (2%, 6%, 10% FBS in ITS supplemented groups. In addition, 1% ITS plus 10% FBS significantly promoted cell proliferation than 10% FBS alone. No chondrocytes grew in ITS alone medium. 1% ITS plus 10% FBS enhanced cartilage formation in terms of size, wet weight, cartilage specific matrices, and homogeneity, compared to 10% FBS alone group. Furthermore, ITS prevented engineered cartilage from dedifferentiation (i.e., higher index of Col II/Col I mRNA expression and expression of aggrecan and hypertrophy (i.e., lower mRNA expression of Col X and MMP13. In conclusion, our results indicated that ITS efficiently enhanced auricular chondrocytes proliferation, retained chondrogenic phenotypes, and promoted engineered cartilage formation when combined with FBS, which is potentially used as key supplementation in auricular chondrocytes and engineered cartilage culture.

  17. Characterization and Oral Delivery of Proinsulin-Transferrin Fusion Protein Expressed Using ExpressTec

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    Yu-Sheng Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Proinsulin-transferrin fusion protein (ProINS-Tf has been designed and successfully expressed from the mammalian HEK293 cells (HEK-ProINS-Tf. It was found that HEK-ProINS-Tf could be converted into an activated form in the liver. Furthermore, HEK-ProINS-Tf was demonstrated as an extra-long acting insulin analogue with liver-specific insulin action in streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 1 diabetic mice. However, due to the low production yield from transfected HEK293 cells, there are other interesting features, including the oral bioavailability, which have not been fully explored and characterized. To improve the protein production yield, an alternative protein expression system, ExpressTec using transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L., was used. The intact and active rice-derived ProINS-Tf (ExpressTec-ProINS-Tf was successfully expressed from the transgenic rice expression system. Our results suggested that, although the insulin-like bioactivity of ExpressTec-ProINS-Tf was slightly lower in vitro, its potency of in vivo blood glucose control was considerably stronger than that of HEK-ProINS-Tf. The oral delivery studies in type 1 diabetic mice demonstrated a prolonged control of blood glucose to near-normal levels after oral administration of ExpressTec-ProINS-Tf. Results in this report suggest that ExpressTec-ProINS-Tf is a promising insulin analog with advantages including low cost, prolonged and liver targeting effects, and most importantly, oral bioactivity.

  18. The herpes virus Fc receptor gE-gI mediates antibody bipolar bridging to clear viral antigens from the cell surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaise Ndjamen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1 glycoprotein gE-gI is a transmembrane Fc receptor found on the surface of infected cells and virions that binds human immunoglobulin G (hIgG. gE-gI can also participate in antibody bipolar bridging (ABB, a process by which the antigen-binding fragments (Fabs of the IgG bind a viral antigen while the Fc binds to gE-gI. IgG Fc binds gE-gI at basic, but not acidic, pH, suggesting that IgG bound at extracellular pH by cell surface gE-gI would dissociate and be degraded in acidic endosomes/lysosomes if endocytosed. The fate of viral antigens associated with gE-gI-bound IgG had been unknown: they could remain at the cell surface or be endocytosed with IgG. Here, we developed an in vitro model system for ABB and investigated the trafficking of ABB complexes using 4-D confocal fluorescence imaging of ABB complexes with transferrin or epidermal growth factor, well-characterized intracellular trafficking markers. Our data showed that cells expressing gE-gI and the viral antigen HSV-1 gD endocytosed anti-gD IgG and gD in a gE-gI-dependent process, resulting in lysosomal localization. These results suggest that gE-gI can mediate clearance of infected cell surfaces of anti-viral host IgG and viral antigens to evade IgG-mediated responses, representing a general mechanism for viral Fc receptors in immune evasion and viral pathogenesis.

  19. Targeting transferrin receptors at the blood-brain barrier improves the uptake of immunoliposomes and subsequent cargo transport into the brain parenchyma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Kasper Bendix; Burkhart, Annette; Melander, Fredrik; Kempen, Paul Joseph; Vejlebo, Jonas Bruun; Siupka, Piotr; Nielsen, Morten Schallburg; Andresen, Thomas Lars; Moos, Torben

    2017-09-04

    Drug delivery to the brain is hampered by the presence of the blood-brain barrier, which excludes most molecules from freely diffusing into the brain, and tightly regulates the active transport mechanisms that ensure sufficient delivery of nutrients to the brain parenchyma. Harnessing the possibility of delivering neuroactive drugs by way of receptors already present on the brain endothelium has been of interest for many years. The transferrin receptor is of special interest since its expression is limited to the endothelium of the brain as opposed to peripheral endothelium. Here, we investigate the possibility of delivering immunoliposomes and their encapsulated cargo to the brain via targeting of the transferrin receptor. We find that transferrin receptor-targeting increases the association between the immunoliposomes and primary endothelial cells in vitro, but that this does not correlate with increased cargo transcytosis. Furthermore, we show that the transferrin receptor-targeted immunoliposomes accumulate along the microvessels of the brains of rats, but find no evidence for transcytosis of the immunoliposome. Conversely, the increased accumulation correlated both with increased cargo uptake in the brain endothelium and subsequent cargo transport into the brain. These findings suggest that transferrin receptor-targeting is a relevant strategy of increasing drug exposure to the brain.

  20. Using Biomolecules to Separate Plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolski, Jarrod

    Used nuclear fuel has traditionally been treated through chemical separations of the radionuclides for recycle or disposal. This research considers a biological approach to such separations based on a series of complex and interdependent interactions that occur naturally in the human body with plutonium. These biological interactions are mediated by the proteins serum transferrin and the transferrin receptor. Transferrin to plutonium in vivo and can deposit plutonium into cells after interacting with the transferrin receptor protein at the cell surface. Using cerium as a non-radioactive surrogate for plutonium, it was found that cerium(IV) required multiple synergistic anions to bind in the N-lobe of the bilobal transferrin protein, creating a conformation of the cerium-loaded protein that would be unable to interact with the transferrin receptor protein to achieve a separation. The behavior of cerium binding to transferrin has contributed to understanding how plutonium(IV)-transferrin interacts in vivo and in biological separations.

  1. Determination of Non-Transferrin Bound Iron, Transferrin Bound Iron, Drug Bound Iron and Total Iron in Serum in a Rats after IV Administration of Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex by Simple Ultrafiltration Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometric Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali K. Matta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, sensitive and specific ultrafiltration inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI, transferrin bound iron (TBI, drug bound iron (DI and total iron (TI in the same rat serum sample after intravenous (IV administration of iron gluconate nanoparticles in sucrose solution (Ferrlecit®. Ultrafiltration with a 30 kDa molecular cut-off filter was used for sample cleanup. Different elution solvents were used to separate each form of iron from sample serum. Isolated fractions were subjected to inductively-coupled mass spectrometric analysis after microwave digestion in 4% nitric acid. The reproducibility of the method was evaluated by precision and accuracy. The calibration curve demonstrated linearity from 5–500 ng/mL with a regression (r2 of more than 0.998. This method was effectively implemented to quantify rat pharmacokinetic study samples after intravenous administration of Ferrlecit®. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic (PK study of Ferrlecit in rats. The colloidal iron followed first order kinetics with half-life of 2.2 h and reached background or pre-dose levels after 12 h post-dosing. The drug shown a clearance of 0.31 mL/min/kg and volume of distribution of 0.05 L/kg. 19.4 ± 2.4 mL/h/kg.

  2. Diagnosis of protein-losing gastroenteropathy by 111In-transferrin scanning and fecal excretion test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urita, Yoshihisa

    1991-01-01

    A total of 12 patients with gastroenteropathy were studied for possible protein loss. The underlying diseases were intestinal lymphangiectasia, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in 2 patients each; and Menetrier's disease, Cronkhite-Canada syndrome, postgastrectomy syndrome, severe atrophic gastritis, gastric cancer and gastroenteropathy of unknown origin in one patient each. The controls were four healthy volunteers and 9 patients with benign disease not accompanied by lesions in the digestive tract and protein loss, 111 In-transferrin (Tf) was prepared by incubating 2-3 mCi of 111 In-chloride with 15-20 ml of each patient's plasma in a sterilized vial at room temperature for 1 hour. After i.v. injection of 111 In-Tf, the patients were scanned at given intervals of time for 72 hours to localize protein loss. Seventy-two hour fecal 111 In-Tf excretion was also measured. 111 In-Tf was detected in the feces of all patients. The recovery rate in the patient group was 7.95±3.65%, being significantly higher than 0.48±0.26% in the control group. However, 111 In-Tf scanning showed the site of protein loss only in 6 patients. Negative scan in six other patients was thought to be associated with extensive inflammation and severe diarrhea. Five of the 12 patients were observed before and after treatment. A decrease in fecal 111 In-Tf excretion with clinical improvement was noted in the 5 patients after treatment. The site of protein loss could be demonstrated in 3 of the 5 patients before treatment. Its site in 1 of the 3 patients was the small intestine. However, accumulation of 111 In-Tf was found there in the 3 patients after treatment. The site of protein loss in one of three patients was the small intestine. 111 In-Tf scanning is particularly useful when the small intestine is involved, because surgery is contraindicated in this case. Fecal 111 In-Tf excretion test is mandatory when the site of protein loss cannot be imaged. (author)

  3. Plasmid pORF-hTRAIL targeting to glioma using transferrin-modified polyamidoamine dendrimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Song Gao,1,* Jianfeng Li,2 Chen Jiang,2 Bo Hong,3 Bing Hao4,* 1Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 2Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, 3Department of Pathology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, 4Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-Organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A gene drug delivery system for glioma therapy based on transferrin (Tf-modified polyamidoamine dendrimer (PAMAM was prepared. Gene drug, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (hTRAIL-encoding plasmid open reading frame (pORF-hTRAIL, Trail, was condensed by Tf-modified PAMAM to form nanoparticles (NPs. PAMAM-PEG-Tf/DNA NPs showed higher cellular uptake, in vitro gene expression, and cytotoxicity than PAMAM-PEG/DNA NPs in C6 cells. The in vivo targeting efficacy of NPs was visualized by ex vivo fluorescence imaging. Tf-modified NPs showed obvious glioma-targeting trend. Plasmid encoding green fluorescence protein (GFP was also condensed by modified or unmodified PAMAM to evaluate the in vivo gene expression level. The PAMAM-PEG-Tf/plasmid encoding enhanced green fluorescence protein (pEGFP NPs exhibited higher GFP expression level than PAMAM-PEG/pEGFP NPs. TUNEL assay revealed that Tf-modified NPs could induce much more tumor apoptosis. The median survival time of PAMAM-PEG-Tf/Trail-treated rats (28.5 days was longer than that of rats treated with PAMAM-PEG/Trail (25.5 days, temozolomide (24.5 days, PAMAM-PEG-Tf/pEGFP (19 days, or saline (17 days. The therapeutic effect was further confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. This study demonstrated that targeting gene delivery system had potential application for the

  4. The importance of the stem cell marker prominin-1/CD133 in the uptake of transferrin and in iron metabolism in human colon cancer Caco-2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Bourseau-Guilmain

    Full Text Available As the pentaspan stem cell marker CD133 was shown to bind cholesterol and to localize in plasma membrane protrusions, we investigated a possible function for CD133 in endocytosis. Using the CD133 siRNA knockdown strategy and non-differentiated human colon cancer Caco-2 cells that constitutively over-expressed CD133, we provide for the first time direct evidence for a role of CD133 in the intracellular accumulation of fluorescently labeled extracellular compounds. Assessed using AC133 monoclonal antibody, CD133 knockdown was shown to improve Alexa488-transferrin (Tf uptake in Caco-2 cells but had no impact on FITC-dextran or FITC-cholera-toxin. Absence of effect of the CD133 knockdown on Tf recycling established a role for CD133 in inhibiting Tf endocytosis rather than in stimulating Tf exocytosis. Use of previously identified inhibitors of known endocytic pathways and the positive impact of CD133 knockdown on cellular uptake of clathrin-endocytosed synthetic lipid nanocapsules supported that CD133 impact on endocytosis was primarily ascribed to the clathrin pathway. Also, cholesterol extraction with methyl-β-cyclodextrine up regulated Tf uptake at greater intensity in the CD133(high situation than in the CD133(low situation, thus suggesting a role for cholesterol in the inhibitory effect of CD133 on endocytosis. Interestingly, cell treatment with the AC133 antibody down regulated Tf uptake, thus demonstrating that direct extracellular binding to CD133 could affect endocytosis. Moreover, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy established that down regulation of CD133 improved the accessibility to the TfR from the extracellular space, providing a mechanism by which CD133 inhibited Tf uptake. As Tf is involved in supplying iron to the cell, effects of iron supplementation and deprivation on CD133/AC133 expression were investigated. Both demonstrated a dose-dependent down regulation here discussed to the light of transcriptional and post

  5. Targeting transferrin receptors at the blood-brain barrier improves the uptake of immunoliposomes and subsequent cargo transport into the brain parenchyma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kasper B.; Burkhart, Annette; Melander, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    Drug delivery to the brain is hampered by the presence of the blood-brain barrier, which excludes most molecules from freely diffusing into the brain, and tightly regulates the active transport mechanisms that ensure sufficient delivery of nutrients to the brain parenchyma. Harnessing...... the possibility of delivering neuroactive drugs by way of receptors already present on the brain endothelium has been of interest for many years. The transferrin receptor is of special interest since its expression is limited to the endothelium of the brain as opposed to peripheral endothelium. Here, we...... investigate the possibility of delivering immunoliposomes and their encapsulated cargo to the brain via targeting of the transferrin receptor. We find that transferrin receptor-targeting increases the association between the immunoliposomes and primary endothelial cells in vitro, but that this does...

  6. Loss of circulating 67Ga-transferrin due to its accumulation in malignant tumors of the rat and its relation to the synthesis of hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratzer, J.

    1981-01-01

    Taking into account earlier findings of other study groups, the author draws the following conclusions: 1. The elimination of 67 Ga-labelled transferrin from the blood of tumor carrier rats is accelerated as compared to normal. The acceleration is the more marked the greater the tumor mass and the higher its proliferation speed are. 2. The eliminated 67 Ga transferrin is detectable in the tumor by scintiscanning, and its retention increases concurrently with the tumor proliferation rate. 3. These tumor-dependent losses of transferrin entail a perturbation of reticulocytal Fe utilization and cause anemia, which is again aggravated as the tumor mass and its malignant nature increase. 4. If the tumor can be eliminated by therapy, the anemia disappears completely. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Four variants in transferrin and HFE genes as potential markers of iron deficiency anaemia risk: an association study in menstruating women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo-Pardo Eduardo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency anaemia is a worldwide health problem in which environmental, physiologic and genetic factors play important roles. The associations between iron status biomarkers and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs known to be related to iron metabolism were studied in menstruating women. Methods A group of 270 Caucasian menstruating women, a population group at risk of iron deficiency anaemia, participated in the study. Haematological and biochemical parameters were analysed and 10 selected SNPs were genotyped by minisequencing assay. The associations between genetic and biochemical data were analysed by Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA test and decision trees. Dietary intake of a representative subgroup of these volunteers (n = 141 was assessed, and the relationship between nutrients and iron biomarkers was also determined by linear regression. Results Four variants, two in the transferrin gene (rs3811647, rs1799852 and two in the HFE gene (C282Y, H63D, explain 35% of the genetic variation or heritability of serum transferrin in menstruating women. The minor allele of rs3811647 was associated with higher serum transferrin levels and lower transferrin saturation, while the minor alleles of rs1799852 and the C282Y and H63D mutations of HFE were associated with lower serum transferrin levels. No association between nutrient intake and iron biomarkers was found. Conclusions In contrast to dietary intake, these four SNPs are strongly associated with serum transferrin. Carriers of the minor allele of rs3811647 present a reduction in iron transport to tissues, which might indicate higher iron deficiency anaemia risk, although the simultaneous presence of the minor allele of rs1799852 and HFE mutations appear to have compensatory effects. Therefore, it is suggested that these genetic variants might potentially be used as markers of iron deficiency anaemia risk.

  8. Serum Hepcidin and Soluble Transferrin Receptor in the Assessment of Iron Metabolism in Children on a Vegetarian Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Mazur, Joanna; Gajewska, Joanna; Rowicka, Grażyna; Strucińska, Małgorzata; Chełchowska, Magdalena

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of vegetarian diet on iron metabolism parameters paying special attention to serum hepcidin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations in 43 prepubertal children (age range 4.5-9.0 years) on vegetarian and in 46 children on omnivorous diets. There were no significant differences according to age, weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) between vegetarian and omnivorous children. Vegetarians had similar intake of iron and vitamin B 12 and a significantly higher intake of vitamin C (p vegetarians. Hematologic parameters and serum iron concentrations were within the reference range in both groups of children. Serum transferrin levels were similar in all subjects; however, ferritin concentrations were significantly (p vegetarians than in omnivores. In children on a vegetarian diet, median hepcidin levels were lower (p vegetarians. We did not find significant associations with concentration of sTfR and selected biochemical, anthropometric, and dietary parameters in any of the studied groups of children. As hematologic parameters and iron concentrations in vegetarians and omnivores were comparable and ferritin level was lower in vegetarians, we suggest that inclusion of novel markers, in particular sTfR (not cofounded by inflammation) and hepcidin, can better detect subclinical iron deficiency in children following vegetarian diets.

  9. Binding Properties of Streptococcus gordonii SspA and SspB (Antigen I/II Family) Polypeptides Expressed on the Cell Surface of Lactococcus lactis MG1363

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Ann R.; Gilbert, Christophe; Wells, Jeremy M.; Jenkinson, Howard F.

    1998-01-01

    The oral bacterium Streptococcus gordonii expresses two cell wall-associated polypeptides, designated SspA (1,542 amino acid residues) and SspB (1,462 amino acid residues), that have 70% sequence identity. These polypeptides are members of the antigen I/II family of oral streptococcal adhesins and mediate the binding of streptococci to salivary glycoproteins, collagen, and other oral microorganisms such as Actinomyces naeslundii. To determine if SspA and SspB have differential binding propert...

  10. Enhanced binding capacity of boronate affinity adsorbent via surface modification of silica by combination of atom transfer radical polymerization and chain-end functionalization for high-efficiency enrichment of cis-diol molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; He, Maofang; Wang, Chaozhan; Wei, Yinmao, E-mail: ymwei@nwu.edu.cn

    2015-07-30

    Boronate affinity materials have been widely used for specific separation and preconcentration of cis-diol molecules, but most do not have sufficient capacity due to limited binding sites on the material surface. In this work, we prepared a phenylboronic acid-functionalized adsorbent with a high binding capacity via the combination of surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) and chain-end functionalization. With this method, the terminal chlorides of the polymer chains were used fully, and the proposed adsorbent contains dense boronic acid polymers chain with boronic acid on the chain end. Consequently, the proposed adsorbent possesses excellent selectivity and a high binding capacity of 513.6 μmol g{sup −1} for catechol and 736.8 μmol g{sup −1} for fructose, which are much higher than those of other reported adsorbents. The dispersed solid-phase extraction (dSPE) based on the prepared adsorbent was used for extraction of three cis-diol drugs (i.e., epinephrine, isoprenaline and caffeic acid isopropyl ester) from plasma; the eluates were analyzed by HPLC-UV. The reduced amount of adsorbent (i.e., 2.0 mg) could still eliminate interferences efficiently and yielded a recovery range of 85.6–101.1% with relative standard deviations ranging from 2.5 to 9.7% (n = 5). The results indicated that the proposed strategy could serve as a promising alternative to increase the density of surface functional groups on the adsorbent; thus, the prepared adsorbent has the potential to effectively enrich cis-diol substances in real samples. - Highlights: • Boronate adsorbent is prepared via ATRP and chain-end functionalization. • The adsorbent has quite high binding capacity for cis-diols. • Binding capacity is easily manipulated by ATRP condition. • Chain-end functionalization can improve binding capacity significantly. • Reduced adsorbent is consumed in dispersed solid-phase extraction of cis-diols.

  11. An insulin receptor mutant (Asp707 → Ala), involved in leprechaunism, is processed and transported to the cell surface but unable to bind insulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. 't Hart (Leen); D. Lindhout (Dick); G.C.M. van der Zon (Gerard); H. Kayserilli (Hülya); M.Y. Apak (Memnune); W.J. Kleijer (Wim); E.R. van der Vorm (Eric); J.A. Maassen (Johannes)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractWe have identified a homozygous mutation near the carboxyl terminus of the insulin receptor (IR) α subunit from a leprechaun patient, changing Asp707 into Ala. Fibroblasts from this patient had no high affinity insulin binding sites. To examine the effect of the mutation on IR

  12. Involvement of three meningococcal surface-exposed proteins, the heparin-binding protein NhbA, the α-peptide of IgA protease and the autotransporter protease NalP, in initiation of biofilm formation

    KAUST Repository

    Arenas, Jesú s; Nijland, Reindert; Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Bosma, Tom N. P.; Tommassen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a common and usually harmless inhabitant of the mucosa of the human nasopharynx, which, in rare cases, can cross the epithelial barrier and cause meningitis and sepsis. Biofilm formation favours the colonization of the host and the subsequent carrier state. Two different strategies of biofilm formation, either dependent or independent on extracellular DNA (eDNA), have been described for meningococcal strains. Here, we demonstrate that the autotransporter protease NalP, the expression of which is phase variable, affects eDNA-dependent biofilm formation in N.meningitidis. The effect of NalP was found in biofilm formation under static and flow conditions and was dependent on its protease activity. Cleavage of the heparin-binding antigen NhbA and the α-peptide of IgA protease, resulting in the release of positively charged polypeptides from the cell surface, was responsible for the reduction in biofilm formation when NalP is expressed. Both NhbA and the α-peptide of IgA protease were shown to bind DNA. We conclude that NhbA and the α-peptide of IgA protease are implicated in biofilm formation by binding eDNA and that NalP is an important regulator of this process through the proteolysis of these surface-exposed proteins. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Involvement of three meningococcal surface-exposed proteins, the heparin-binding protein NhbA, the α-peptide of IgA protease and the autotransporter protease NalP, in initiation of biofilm formation

    KAUST Repository

    Arenas, Jesús

    2012-12-04

    Neisseria meningitidis is a common and usually harmless inhabitant of the mucosa of the human nasopharynx, which, in rare cases, can cross the epithelial barrier and cause meningitis and sepsis. Biofilm formation favours the colonization of the host and the subsequent carrier state. Two different strategies of biofilm formation, either dependent or independent on extracellular DNA (eDNA), have been described for meningococcal strains. Here, we demonstrate that the autotransporter protease NalP, the expression of which is phase variable, affects eDNA-dependent biofilm formation in N.meningitidis. The effect of NalP was found in biofilm formation under static and flow conditions and was dependent on its protease activity. Cleavage of the heparin-binding antigen NhbA and the α-peptide of IgA protease, resulting in the release of positively charged polypeptides from the cell surface, was responsible for the reduction in biofilm formation when NalP is expressed. Both NhbA and the α-peptide of IgA protease were shown to bind DNA. We conclude that NhbA and the α-peptide of IgA protease are implicated in biofilm formation by binding eDNA and that NalP is an important regulator of this process through the proteolysis of these surface-exposed proteins. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Host iron binding proteins acting as niche indicators for Neisseria meningitidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip W Jordan

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis requires iron, and in the absence of iron alters its gene expression to increase iron acquisition and to make the best use of the iron it has. During different stages of colonization and infection available iron sources differ, particularly the host iron-binding proteins haemoglobin, transferrin, and lactoferrin. This study compared the transcriptional responses of N. meningitidis, when grown in the presence of these iron donors and ferric iron, using microarrays.Specific transcriptional responses to the different iron sources were observed, including genes that are not part of the response to iron restriction. Comparisons between growth on haemoglobin and either transferrin or lactoferrin identified changes in 124 and 114 genes, respectively, and 33 genes differed between growth on transferrin or lactoferrin. Comparison of gene expression from growth on haemoglobin or ferric iron showed that transcription is also affected by the entry of either haem or ferric iron into the cytoplasm. This is consistent with a model in which N. meningitidis uses the relative availability of host iron donor proteins as niche indicators.Growth in the presence of haemoglobin is associated with a response likely to be adaptive to survival within the bloodstream, which is supported by serum killing assays that indicate growth on haemoglobin significantly increases survival, and the response to lactoferrin is associated with increased expression of epithelial cell adhesins and oxidative stress response molecules. The transferrin receptor is the most highly transcribed receptor and has the fewest genes specifically induced in its presence, suggesting this is the favoured iron source for the bacterium. Most strikingly, the responses to haemoglobin, which is associated with unrestricted growth, indicates a low iron transcriptional profile, associated with an aggressive phenotype that may be adaptive to access host iron sources but which may also

  15. Transferrin-mediated PEGylated nanoparticles for delivery of DNA/PLL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Wangwen; Xu Zhenghong; Gao Yu; Chen Lingli; Li Yaping

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the stability of pDNA/poly(L-lysine) complex (DNA/PLL) during microencapsulation, prepare transferrin (TF) conjugated PEGylated nanoparticles (TF-PEG-NP) loading DNA/PLL, and assess its physicochemical characteristics and in vitro transfection efficiency. The DNA/PLL was prepared by mixing plasmid DNA (pDNA) in deionized water with various amounts of PLL. PEGylated nanoparticles (PEG-NP) loading DNA/PLL were prepared by a water-oil-water double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. TF-PEG-NP was prepared by coupling TF with PEG-NP. The physicochemical characteristics of TF-PEG-NP and in vitro transfection efficiency on K562 cells were measured. The results showed that free pDNA reserved its double supercoiled form (dsDNA) for only on average 25.7% after sonification, but over 70% of dsDNA was reserved after pDNA was contracted with PLL. The particle size range of TF-PEG-NP loading DNA/PLL was 150-450 nm with entrapment efficiency over 70%. TF-PEG-NP exhibited the low burst effect (<10%) within 1 day. After the first phase, DNA/PLL displayed a sustained release. The amount of cumulated DNA/PLL release from TF-PEG-NP with 2% polymer over 7 days was 85.4% for DNA/PLL (1:0.3 mass ratio), 59.8% and 43.1% for DNA/PLL (1:0.6) and DNA/PLL (1:1.0), respectively. To TF-PEG-NP loading DNA/PLL without chloroquine, the percentage of EGFP expressing cells was 28.9% for complexes consisting of DNA/PLL (1:0.3), 38.5% and 39.7% for DNA/PLL (1:0.6) and DNA/PLL (1:1.0), respectively. In TF-PEG-NP loading DNA/PLL with chloroquine, more cells were transfected, the percentage of positive cells was 37.6% (DNA/PLL, 1:0.3), 47.1% (DNA/PLL, 1:0.6) and 45.8% (DNA/PLL, 1:1.0), which meant that the transfection efficiency of pDNA was increased by over 50 times when PLL and TF-PEG-NP were jointly used as a plasmid DNA carrier, in particular, the maximal percentage of positive cells (47.1%) from TF-PEG-NP loading DNA/PLL (1:0.6) was about 70 times the

  16. Identification of an hexapeptide that binds to a surface pocket in cyclin A and inhibits the catalytic activity of the complex cyclin-dependent kinase 2-cyclin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Núria; Orzáez, Mar; Fucho, Raquel; Mateo, Francesca; Gutierrez, Ricardo; Pineda-Lucena, Antonio; Bachs, Oriol; Pérez-Payá, Enrique

    2006-11-24

    The protein-protein complexes formed between different cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are central to cell cycle regulation. These complexes represent interesting points of chemical intervention for the development of antineoplastic molecules. Here we describe the identification of an all d-amino acid hexapeptide, termed NBI1, that inhibits the kinase activity of the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (cdk2)-cyclin A complex through selective binding to cyclin A. The mechanism of inhibition is non-competitive for ATP and non-competitive for protein substrates. In contrast to the existing CDKs peptide inhibitors, the hexapeptide NBI1 interferes with the formation of the cdk2-cyclin A complex. Furthermore, a cell-permeable derivative of NBI1 induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of tumor cell lines. Thus, the NBI1-binding site on cyclin A may represent a new target site for the selective inhibition of activity cdk2-cyclin A complex.

  17. In Vitro and In Vivo Effect of HPMA Copolymer-bound Doxorubicin Targeted to Transferrin Receptor of B-cell Lymphoma 38C13

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovář, Marek; Strohalm, Jiří; Ulbrich, Karel; Říhová, Blanka

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2002), s. 23-30 ISSN 1061-186X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : targeting * transferrin * hpma copolymer Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.045, year: 2002

  18. N-glycan structures of human transferrin produced by Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)cells using the LdMNPV expression system

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Choi; Noboru Tomiya; Jung H. Kim; James M. Slavicek; Michael J. Betenbaugh; Yuan C. Lee

    2003-01-01

    N-glycan structures of recombinant human serum transferrin (hTf) expressed by Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) 652Y cells were determined. The gene encoding hTf was incorporated into a Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. This virus was then...

  19. Mapping of monoclonal antibody- and receptor-binding domains on human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) using a surface plasmon resonance-based biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laricchia-Robbio, L; Liedberg, B; Platou-Vikinge, T; Rovero, P; Beffy, P; Revoltella, R P

    1996-10-01

    An automated surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor system has been used for mapping antibody and receptor-binding regions on the recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) molecule. A rabbit antimouse IgG1-Fc antibody (RAM.Fc) was coupled to an extended carboxymethylated-hydrogel matrix attached to a gold surface in order to capture an anti-rhGM-CSF monoclonal antibody (MAb) injected over the sensing layer. rhGM-CSF was subsequently injected and allowed to bind to this antibody. Multisite binding assays were then performed, by flowing sequentially other antibodies and peptides over the surface, and the capacity of the latter to interact with the entrapped rhGM-CSF in a multimolecular complex was monitored in real time with SPR. Eleven MAb (all IgG1K), were analyzed: respectively, four antipeptide MAb raised against three distinct epitopes of the cytokine (two clones against residues 14-24, that includes part of the first alpha-helix toward the N-terminal region; one clone against peptide 30-41, an intrahelical loop; and one clone against residues 79-91, including part of the third alpha-helix) and seven antiprotein MAbs raised against the entire rhGM-CSF, whose target native epitopes are still undetermined. In addition, the binding capacity to rhGM-CSF of a synthetic peptide, corresponding to residues 238-254 of the extracellular human GM-CSF receptor alpha-chain, endowed with rhGM-CSF binding activity, was tested. The results from experiments performed with the biosensor were compared with those obtained by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using the same reagents. The features of the biosensor technology (fully automated, measure in real time, sharpened yes/no response, less background disturbances, no need for washing step or labeling of the reagent) offered several advantages in these studies of MAb immunoreactivity and epitope mapping, giving a much better resolution and enabling more distinct

  20. Surface display of the receptor-binding region of the Lactobacillus brevis S-layer protein in Lactococcus lactis provides nonadhesive lactococci with the ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avall-Jääskeläinen, Silja; Lindholm, Agneta; Palva, Airi

    2003-04-01

    Lactobacillus brevis is a promising lactic acid bacterium for use as a probiotic dietary adjunct and a vaccine vector. The N-terminal region of the S-layer protein (SlpA) of L. brevis ATCC 8287 was recently shown to mediate adhesion to various human cell lines in vitro. In this study, a surface display cassette was constructed on the basis of this SlpA receptor-binding domain, a proteinase spacer, and an autolysin anchor. The cassette was expressed under control of the nisA promoter in Lactococcus lactis NZ9000. Western blot assay of lactococcal cell wall extracts with anti-SlpA antibodies confirmed that the SlpA adhesion domain of the fusion protein was expressed and located within the cell wall layer. Whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence microscopy verified that the SlpA adhesion-mediating region was accessible on the lactococcal cell surface. In vitro adhesion assays with the human intestinal epithelial cell line Intestine 407 indicated that the recombinant lactococcal cells had gained an ability to adhere to Intestine 407 cells significantly greater than that of wild-type L. lactis NZ9000. Serum inhibition assay further confirmed that adhesion of recombinant lactococci to Intestine 407 cells was indeed mediated by the N terminus-encoding part of the slpA gene. The ability of the receptor-binding region of SlpA to adhere to fibronectin was also confirmed with this lactococcal surface display system. These results show that, with the aid of the receptor-binding region of the L. brevis SlpA protein, the ability to adhere to gut epithelial cells can indeed be transferred to another, nonadhesive, lactic acid bacterium.

  1. A novel quantification strategy of transferrin and albumin in human serum by species-unspecific isotope dilution laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Liuxing, E-mail: fenglx@nim.ac.cn; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Jun; Shen, Dairui; Li, Hongmei

    2015-07-16

    Highlights: • Species-unspecific ID-PAGE-LA-ICP-MS was used to quantify Alb and Tf in human serum. • Addition methods of species-unspecific {sup 34}S spike were evaluated. • Isotope change conditions were investigated to reach satisfactory “isotope equilibration”. • Human serum CRM (ERM-DA470k/IFCC) was used to validate the new arrangements. • The developed method offers potential for accurate quantification of protein by ID-PAGE-LA-ICP-MS. - Abstract: Species-specific (SS) isotope dilution analysis with gel electrophoresis (GE)-laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS is a promising technique for the quantification of particular metal-binding proteins in biological samples. However, unavailable isotopically enriched spike and metal losses in GE separation are main limitations for SS-isotope dilution PAGE-LA-ICP-MS. In this study, we report for the first time the absolute quantification of transferrin (Tf) and albumin (Alb) in human serum by non-denaturing (native) GE combined with species-unspecific isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). In order to achieve a homogeneous distribution of both protein and isotope-enriched spike (simulated isotope equilibration), immersing the protein strips with {sup 34}S spike solution after gel electrophoresis was demonstrated to be an effective way of spike addition. Furthermore, effects of immersion time and {sup 34}S spike concentration were investigated to obtain optimal conditions of the post-electrophoresis isotope dilution method. The relative mass of spike and ablated sample (m{sub sp}/m{sub sam}) in IDMS equation was calculated by standard Tf and Alb proteins, which could be applied to the quantification of Tf and Alb in ERM-DA470k/IFCC for method confirmation. The results were in agreement with the certified value with good precision and small uncertainty (1.5–3%). In this method, species-specific spike protein is not necessary and the integrity of the heteroatom-protein could be maintained in sample preparation

  2. A novel quantification strategy of transferrin and albumin in human serum by species-unspecific isotope dilution laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Liuxing; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Jun; Shen, Dairui; Li, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Species-unspecific ID-PAGE-LA-ICP-MS was used to quantify Alb and Tf in human serum. • Addition methods of species-unspecific 34 S spike were evaluated. • Isotope change conditions were investigated to reach satisfactory “isotope equilibration”. • Human serum CRM (ERM-DA470k/IFCC) was used to validate the new arrangements. • The developed method offers potential for accurate quantification of protein by ID-PAGE-LA-ICP-MS. - Abstract: Species-specific (SS) isotope dilution analysis with gel electrophoresis (GE)-laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS is a promising technique for the quantification of particular metal-binding proteins in biological samples. However, unavailable isotopically enriched spike and metal losses in GE separation are main limitations for SS-isotope dilution PAGE-LA-ICP-MS. In this study, we report for the first time the absolute quantification of transferrin (Tf) and albumin (Alb) in human serum by non-denaturing (native) GE combined with species-unspecific isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). In order to achieve a homogeneous distribution of both protein and isotope-enriched spike (simulated isotope equilibration), immersing the protein strips with 34 S spike solution after gel electrophoresis was demonstrated to be an effective way of spike addition. Furthermore, effects of immersion time and 34 S spike concentration were investigated to obtain optimal conditions of the post-electrophoresis isotope dilution method. The relative mass of spike and ablated sample (m sp /m sam ) in IDMS equation was calculated by standard Tf and Alb proteins, which could be applied to the quantification of Tf and Alb in ERM-DA470k/IFCC for method confirmation. The results were in agreement with the certified value with good precision and small uncertainty (1.5–3%). In this method, species-specific spike protein is not necessary and the integrity of the heteroatom-protein could be maintained in sample preparation process. Moreover, the

  3. Molecular studies of Callithrix pygmaea (Primates, Platyrrhini based on transferrin intronic and ND1 regions: implications for taxonomy and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagliaro Claudia Helena

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional classifications of Platyrrhini monkeys, based mainly on morphological features, are being contested by recent molecular data. The subfamily Callitrichinae (Platyrrhini, Primates consists of a diverse group of species, many of them considered endangered. Our analysis of two DNA regions, a mtDNA gene (ND1 and a nuclear gene (intronic regions of the transferrin gene, suggests that Callithrix pygmaea may have sufficient variability to justify the existence of subspecies or even separate species. Phylogenetic dendrograms based on the ND1 region show that this species is more closely related to Amazonian than to Atlantic forest marmosets. These results reopen the discussion about diversity and conservation programs based exclusively on traditional classifications.

  4. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin--a valid marker of alcoholism in population studies? Results from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, M; Becker, U; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1995-01-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) was analyzed by a modified radioimmunoassay test in a random population sample of 400 individuals, and results were compared with reported alcohol intake derived from a structured questionnaire. Among the 180 men, the test was found to be acceptable...... with respect to detecting harmful alcohol intake (> 35 beverages/week) and alcohol intake above the recommended level (21 beverages/week), although the positive predictive values were low. Among the 220 women, the test was invalid with low predictive values. CDT was compared with other known markers of high...... alcohol intake, and it was observed that CDT had higher sensitivity and specificity than AST and short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (sMAST) in men, whereas the positive and negative predictive values were low in all tests. A combination of CDT and AST proved to be a better marker of both harmful...

  5. Therapy-resistant anaemia in congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type--implication of EPO, transferrin and transcobalamin losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubiana, Julie; Schlageter, Marie-Hélène; Aoun, Bilal; Dunand, Olivier; Vitkevic, Renata; Bensman, Albert; Ulinski, Tim

    2009-04-01

    Congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type (CNF) is due to NPHS1 mutation and is responsible for a variety of urinary protein losses. We report the case of a 4-month-old girl with a particularly severe form (proteinuria approximately 150 g/l) of CNF. She developed severe non-regenerative anaemia requiring bi-monthly blood transfusions despite daily EPO (600 UI/kg) and iron supplementation. Epoetin pharmacokinetics revealed a urinary loss of 27% of the given dose within the first 24 h after IV injection. However, plasma levels remained increased after 24 h (228 UI/l). Plasma transferrin and transcobalamin levels were undetectable. Atransferrinaemia and atranscobalaminaemia seem to be responsible for disturbed erythropoiesis.

  6. Surface Display of the Receptor-Binding Region of the Lactobacillus brevis S-Layer Protein in Lactococcus lactis Provides Nonadhesive Lactococci with the Ability To Adhere to Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Åvall-Jääskeläinen, Silja; Lindholm, Agneta; Palva, Airi

    2003-01-01

    Lactobacillus brevis is a promising lactic acid bacterium for use as a probiotic dietary adjunct and a vaccine vector. The N-terminal region of the S-layer protein (SlpA) of L. brevis ATCC 8287 was recently shown to mediate adhesion to various human cell lines in vitro. In this study, a surface display cassette was constructed on the basis of this SlpA receptor-binding domain, a proteinase spacer, and an autolysin anchor. The cassette was expressed under control of the nisA promoter in Lactoc...

  7. Low transferrin saturation is associated with impaired fasting glucose and insulin resistance in the South Korean adults: the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, R J; Moon, J D

    2015-05-01

    The associations of transferrin saturation with diabetes have not been well evaluated and conflicting results have been reported. The purpose of this study is to examine the association of iron indices (serum ferritin and transferrin saturation) with risk of impaired fasting glucose and insulin resistance. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 2413 individuals (1150 men and 1263 women) aged 20-50 years who participated in the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were free of diabetes, malignancy, liver cirrhosis, chronic renal failure, anaemia, pregnancy and menopause. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured as the outcomes. Impaired fasting glucose was more prevalent in the highest compared with the lowest serum ferritin quartile among men (odds ratio [OR], 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-3.24) after adjustment for multiple covariates. Following the same adjustment, impaired fasting glucose was less prevalent in the highest compared with the lowest transferrin saturation quartile among men (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.25-0.80) and women (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.14-0.77). Moreover, a higher ferritin level was significantly associated with higher HOMA-IR after adjusting for confounders in men. Lower transferrin saturation was also significantly associated with higher insulin levels and HOMA-IR in both sexes. Lower transferrin saturations were associated with an increased risk of impaired fasting glucose and insulin resistance among general South Korean population. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  8. Wide-field lifetime-based FRET imaging for the assessment of early functional distribution of transferrin-based delivery in breast tumor-bearing small animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsuebphon, Nattawut; Rudkouskaya, Alena; Barroso, Margarida; Intes, Xavier

    2016-02-01

    Targeted drug delivery is a critical aspect of successful cancer therapy. Assessment of dynamic distribution of the drug provides relative concentration and bioavailability at the target tissue. The most common approach of the assessment is intensity-based imaging, which only provides information about anatomical distribution. Observation of biomolecular interactions can be performed using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Thus, FRET-based imaging can assess functional distribution and provide potential therapeutic outcomes. In this study, we used wide-field lifetime-based FRET imaging for the study of early functional distribution of transferrin delivery in breast cancer tumor models in small animals. Transferrin is a carrier for cancer drug delivery. Its interaction with its receptor is within a few nanometers, which is suitable for FRET. Alexa Fluor® 700 and Alexa Fluor® 750 were conjugated to holo-transferrin which were then administered via tail vein injection to the mice implanted with T47D breast cancer xenografts. Images were continuously acquired for 60 minutes post-injection. The results showed that transferrin was primarily distributed to the liver, the urinary bladder, and the tumor. The cellular uptake of transferrin, which was indicated by the level of FRET, was high in the liver but very low in the urinary bladder. The results also suggested that the fluorescence intensity and FRET signals were independent. The liver showed increasing intensity and increasing FRET during the observation period, while the urinary bladder showed increasing intensity but minimal FRET. Tumors gave varied results corresponding to their FRET progression. These results were relevant to the biomolecular events that occurred in the animals.

  9. Blood-brain barrier drug delivery of IgG fusion proteins with a transferrin receptor monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardridge, William M

    2015-02-01

    Biologic drugs are large molecules that do not cross the blood- brain barrier (BBB). Brain penetration is possible following the re-engineering of the biologic drug as an IgG fusion protein. The IgG domain is a MAb against an endogenous BBB receptor such as the transferrin receptor (TfR). The TfRMAb acts as a molecular Trojan horse to ferry the fused biologic drug into the brain via receptor-mediated transport on the endogenous BBB TfR. This review discusses TfR isoforms, models of BBB transport of transferrin and TfRMAbs, and the genetic engineering of TfRMAb fusion proteins, including BBB penetrating IgG-neurotrophins, IgG-decoy receptors, IgG-lysosomal enzyme therapeutics and IgG-avidin fusion proteins, as well as BBB transport of bispecific antibodies formed by fusion of a therapeutic antibody to a TfRMAb targeting antibody. Also discussed are quantitative aspects of the plasma pharmacokinetics and brain uptake of TfRMAb fusion proteins, as compared to the brain uptake of small molecules, and therapeutic applications of TfRMAb fusion proteins in mouse models of neural disease, including Parkinson's disease, stroke, Alzheimer's disease and lysosomal storage disorders. The review covers the engineering of TfRMAb-avidin fusion proteins for BBB targeted delivery of biotinylated peptide radiopharmaceuticals, low-affinity TfRMAb Trojan horses and the safety pharmacology of chronic administration of TfRMAb fusion proteins. The BBB delivery of biologic drugs is possible following re-engineering as a fusion protein with a molecular Trojan horse such as a TfRMAb. The efficacy of this technology will be determined by the outcome of future clinical trials.

  10. Potential use of 68Ga-apo-transferrin as a PET imaging agent for detecting Staphylococcus aureus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vijay; Boddeti, Dilip K.; Evans, Scott G.; Roesch, Frank; Howman-Giles, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: 67 Ga citrate has been extensively used to detect infection and inflammation since 1971. However, its clinical utility is compromised due to several limitations. The present project explored whether 68 Ga-apo-transferrin ( 68 Ga-TF), when prepared in vitro, is a useful agent for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of bacterial infection. Methods: An infection was induced in male Wistar rats by injecting 5x10 5 CFU units of Staphyococcus aureus in the right thigh muscle. 68 Ga-TF was synthesized by mixing 68 GaCl 3 with apo-transferrin (TF, 2 mg) in sodium carbonate (0.1 M, pH 7.0) and incubating at 40 o C for 1 h. Animals were injected with 10-15 MBq of 68 Ga-TF containing approximately 0.2 mg TF and imaged at different time intervals using Siemens Biograph PET-CT. Results: When 68 Ga-TF were injected in the infected rats, the infection lesion was detectable within 20 min post injection. The biodistribution showed the uptake at the lesion increased with time as shown by significantly increased standard uptake values for up to 4 h post injection. There was a considerable decrease in the background activity during the same period of study, giving higher target-to-muscle ratios. Blood pool activity at 3 h post injection was insignificant. 68 GaCl 3 (when not conjugated to TF) did not localize at the infection lesion up to 120 min post injection. Conclusion: The preliminary results suggest that 68 Ga-TF is capable of detecting S. aureus infection in the rat model, within an hour after intravenous injection.

  11. Development of bisphenol A-removing recombinant Escherichia coli by monomeric and dimeric surface display of bisphenol A-binding peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthamuthu, Murali Kannan; Hong, Jiyeon; Arulsamy, Kulandaisamy; Somasundaram, Sivachandiran; Hong, SoonHo; Choe, Woo-Seok; Yoo, Ik-Keun

    2018-04-01

    Peptide-displaying Escherichia coli cells were investigated for use in adsorptive removal of bisphenol A (BPA) both in Luria-Bertani medium including BPA or ATM thermal paper eluted wastewater. Two recombinant strains were constructed with monomeric and dimeric repeats of the 7-mer BPA-binding peptide (KSLENSY), respectively. Greater than threefold increased adsorption of BPA [230.4 µmol BPA per g dry cell weight (DCW)] was found in dimeric peptide-displaying cells compared to monomeric strains (63.4 µmol per g DCW) in 15 ppm BPA solution. The selective removal of BPA from a mixture of BPA analogs (bisphenol F and bisphenol S) was verified in both monomeric and dimeric peptide-displaying cells. The binding chemistry of BPA with the peptide was assumed, based on molecular docking analysis, to be the interaction of BPA with serine and asparagine residues within the 7-mer peptide sequence. The peptide-displaying cells also functioned efficiently in thermal paper eluted wastewater containing 14.5 ppm BPA.

  12. Chemical Force Spectroscopy Evidence Supporting the Layer-by-Layer Model of Organic Matter Binding to Iron (oxy)Hydroxide Mineral Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Chassé , Alexander W.; Ohno, Tsutomu; Higgins, Steven R.; Amirbahman, Aria; Yildirim, Nadir; Parr, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. The adsorption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to metal (oxy)hydroxide mineral surfaces is a critical step for C sequestration in soils. Although equilibrium studies have described some of the factors controlling this process, the molecular-scale description of the adsorption process has been more limited. Chemical force spectroscopy revealed differing adhesion strengths of DOM extracted from three soils and a reference peat soil material to an iron (oxy)hydroxide mineral surface. The DOM was characterized using ultrahigh-resolution negative ion mode electrospray ionization Fourier Transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The results indicate that carboxyl-rich aromatic and N-containing aliphatic molecules of DOM are correlated with high adhesion forces. Increasing molecular mass was shown to decrease the adhesion force between the mineral surface and the DOM. Kendrick mass defect analysis suggests that mechanisms involving two carboxyl groups result in the most stable bond to the mineral surface. We conceptualize these results using a layer-by-layer "onion" model of organic matter stabilization on soil mineral surfaces.

  13. Chemical Force Spectroscopy Evidence Supporting the Layer-by-Layer Model of Organic Matter Binding to Iron (oxy)Hydroxide Mineral Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Chassé, Alexander W.

    2015-08-18

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. The adsorption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to metal (oxy)hydroxide mineral surfaces is a critical step for C sequestration in soils. Although equilibrium studies have described some of the factors controlling this process, the molecular-scale description of the adsorption process has been more limited. Chemical force spectroscopy revealed differing adhesion strengths of DOM extracted from three soils and a reference peat soil material to an iron (oxy)hydroxide mineral surface. The DOM was characterized using ultrahigh-resolution negative ion mode electrospray ionization Fourier Transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The results indicate that carboxyl-rich aromatic and N-containing aliphatic molecules of DOM are correlated with high adhesion forces. Increasing molecular mass was shown to decrease the adhesion force between the mineral surface and the DOM. Kendrick mass defect analysis suggests that mechanisms involving two carboxyl groups result in the most stable bond to the mineral surface. We conceptualize these results using a layer-by-layer "onion" model of organic matter stabilization on soil mineral surfaces.

  14. Replacement of the V3 domain in the surface subunit of the feline immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein with the equivalent region of a T cell-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 results in a chimeric surface protein that efficiently binds to CXCR4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Silvia A; Falcón, Juan I; Affranchino, José L

    2014-03-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and the T cell-tropic strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) share the use of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 for cell entry. To study this process further we developed a cell surface binding assay based on the expression of a soluble version of the FIV SU C-terminally tagged with the influenza virus hemagglutinin epitope (HA). The specificity of the assay was demonstrated by the following evidence: (1) the SU-HA protein bound to HeLa cells that express CXCR4 but not to MDCK cells that lack this chemokine receptor; and (2) binding of the SU-HA to HeLa cells was blocked by incubation with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 as well as with the anti-CXCR4 monoclonal antibody (MAb) 12G5. Deletion of the V3 region from the FIV SU glycoprotein abolished its ability to bind CXCR4-expressing cells. Remarkably, substitution of the V3 domain of the FIV SU by the equivalent region of the HIV-1 NL4-3 isolate resulted in efficient cell surface binding of the chimeric SU protein to CXCR4. Moreover, transfection of MDCK cells with a plasmid encoding human CXCR4 allowed the association of the chimeric SU-HA glycoprotein to the transfected cells. Interestingly, while cell binding of the chimeric FIV-HIV SU was inhibited by an anti-HIV-1 V3 MAb, its association with CXCR4 was found to be resistant to AMD3100. Of note, the chimeric FIV-HIV Env glycoprotein was capable of promoting CXCR4-dependent cell-to-cell fusion.

  15. Distinct DNA-binding surfaces in the ATPase and linker domains of MutLγ determine its substrate specificities and exert separable functions in meiotic recombination and mismatch repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corentin Claeys Bouuaert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mlh1-Mlh3 (MutLγ is a mismatch repair factor with a central role in formation of meiotic crossovers, presumably through resolution of double Holliday junctions. MutLγ has DNA-binding, nuclease, and ATPase activities, but how these relate to one another and to in vivo functions are unclear. Here, we combine biochemical and genetic analyses to characterize Saccharomyces cerevisiae MutLγ. Limited proteolysis and atomic force microscopy showed that purified recombinant MutLγ undergoes ATP-driven conformational changes. In vitro, MutLγ displayed separable DNA-binding activities toward Holliday junctions (HJ and, surprisingly, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA, which was not predicted from current models. MutLγ bound DNA cooperatively, could bind multiple substrates simultaneously, and formed higher-order complexes. FeBABE hydroxyl radical footprinting indicated that the DNA-binding interfaces of MutLγ for ssDNA and HJ substrates only partially overlap. Most contacts with HJ substrates were located in the linker regions of MutLγ, whereas ssDNA contacts mapped within linker regions as well as the N-terminal ATPase domains. Using yeast genetic assays for mismatch repair and meiotic recombination, we found that mutations within different DNA-binding surfaces exert separable effects in vivo. For example, mutations within the Mlh1 linker conferred little or no meiotic phenotype but led to mismatch repair deficiency. Interestingly, mutations in the N-terminal domain of Mlh1 caused a stronger meiotic defect than mlh1Δ, suggesting that the mutant proteins retain an activity that interferes with alternative recombination pathways. Furthermore, mlh3Δ caused more chromosome missegregation than mlh1Δ, whereas mlh1Δ but not mlh3Δ partially alleviated meiotic defects of msh5Δ mutants. These findings illustrate functional differences between Mlh1 and Mlh3 during meiosis and suggest that their absence impinges on chromosome segregation not only via reduced

  16. The neck region of the C-type lectin DC-SIGN regulates its surface spatiotemporal organization and virus-binding capacity on antigen presenting cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzo, C.; Torreno-Pina, J.A.; Joosten, B.; Reinieren-Beeren, I.; Gualda, E.J.; Loza-Alvarez, P.; Figdor, Carl; Garcia Parajo, M.F.; Cambi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The C-type lectin DC-SIGN expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) facilitates capture and internalization of a plethora of different pathogens. Although it is known that DC-SIGN organizes in nanoclusters at the surface of DCs, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this well defined nanopatterning and

  17. The Neck Region of the C-type Lectin DC-SIGN Regulates Its Surface Spatiotemporal Organization and Virus-binding Capacity on Antigen-presenting Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzo, C.; Torreno-Pina, J.A.; Joosten, B.; Reinieren-Beeren, I.; Gualda, E.J.; Loza-Alvarez, P.; Figdor, C.G.; Garcia-Parajo, M.F.; Cambi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The C-type lectin DC-SIGN expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) facilitates capture and internalization of a plethora of different pathogens. Although it is known that DC-SIGN organizes in nanoclusters at the surface of DCs, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this well defined nanopatterning and

  18. Origin of the Substitution Mechanism for the Binding of Organic Ligands on the Surface of CsPbBr3 Perovskite Nanocubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Vikash Kumar; Santra, Pralay K; Joshi, Niharika; Chugh, Jeetender; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Rensmo, Håkan; Ghosh, Prasenjit; Nag, Angshuman

    2017-10-19

    Optoelectronic properties of CsPbBr 3 perovskite nanocubes (NCs) depend strongly on the interaction of the organic passivating molecules with the inorganic crystal. To understand this interaction, we employed a combination of synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and first-principles density functional theory (DFT)-based calculations. Variable energy XPS elucidated the internal structure of the inorganic part in a layer-by-layer fashion, whereas NMR characterized the organic ligands. Our experimental results confirm that oleylammonium ions act as capping ligands by substituting Cs + ions from the surface of CsPbBr 3 NCs. DFT calculations shows that the substitution mechanism does not require much energy for surface reconstruction and, in contrast, stabilizes the nanocrystal by the formation of three hydrogen bonds between the -NH 3 + moiety of oleylammonium and surrounding Br - on the surface of NCs. This substitution mechanism and its origin are in stark contrast to the usual adsorption of organic ligands on the surface of typical NCs.

  19. Dual Function of Novel Pollen Coat (Surface) Proteins: IgE-binding Capacity and Proteolytic Activity Disrupting the Airway Epithelial Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Mohamed Elfatih H.; Ward, Jason M.; Cummings, Matthew; Karrar, Eltayeb E.; Root, Michael; Mohamed, Abu Bekr A.; Naclerio, Robert M.; Preuss, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Background The pollen coat is the first structure of the pollen to encounter the mucosal immune system upon inhalation. Prior characterizations of pollen allergens have focused on water-soluble, cytoplasmic proteins, but have overlooked much of the extracellular pollen coat. Due to washing with organic solvents when prepared, these pollen coat proteins are typically absent from commercial standardized allergenic extracts (i.e., “de-fatted”), and, as a result, their involvement in allergy has not been explored. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a unique approach to search for pollen allergenic proteins residing in the pollen coat, we employed transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to assess the impact of organic solvents on the structural integrity of the pollen coat. TEM results indicated that de-fatting of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) pollen (BGP) by use of organic solvents altered the structural integrity of the pollen coat. The novel IgE-binding proteins of the BGP coat include a cysteine protease (CP) and endoxylanase (EXY). The full-length cDNA that encodes the novel IgE-reactive CP was cloned from floral RNA. The EXY and CP were purified to homogeneity and tested for IgE reactivity. The CP from the BGP coat increased the permeability of human airway epithelial cells, caused a clear concentration-dependent detachment of cells, and damaged their barrier integrity. Conclusions/Significance Using an immunoproteomics approach, novel allergenic proteins of the BGP coat were identified. These proteins represent a class of novel dual-function proteins residing on the coat of the pollen grain that have IgE-binding capacity and proteolytic activity, which disrupts the integrity of the airway epithelial barrier. The identification of pollen coat allergens might explain the IgE-negative response to available skin-prick-testing proteins in patients who have positive symptoms. Further study of the role of these pollen coat proteins in allergic responses is

  20. Dual function of novel pollen coat (surface proteins: IgE-binding capacity and proteolytic activity disrupting the airway epithelial barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elfatih H Bashir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pollen coat is the first structure of the pollen to encounter the mucosal immune system upon inhalation. Prior characterizations of pollen allergens have focused on water-soluble, cytoplasmic proteins, but have overlooked much of the extracellular pollen coat. Due to washing with organic solvents when prepared, these pollen coat proteins are typically absent from commercial standardized allergenic extracts (i.e., "de-fatted", and, as a result, their involvement in allergy has not been explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a unique approach to search for pollen allergenic proteins residing in the pollen coat, we employed transmission electron microscopy (TEM to assess the impact of organic solvents on the structural integrity of the pollen coat. TEM results indicated that de-fatting of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass pollen (BGP by use of organic solvents altered the structural integrity of the pollen coat. The novel IgE-binding proteins of the BGP coat include a cysteine protease (CP and endoxylanase (EXY. The full-length cDNA that encodes the novel IgE-reactive CP was cloned from floral RNA. The EXY and CP were purified to homogeneity and tested for IgE reactivity. The CP from the BGP coat increased the permeability of human airway epithelial cells, caused a clear concentration-dependent detachment of cells, and damaged their barrier integrity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using an immunoproteomics approach, novel allergenic proteins of the BGP coat were identified. These proteins represent a class of novel dual-function proteins residing on the coat of the pollen grain that have IgE-binding capacity and proteolytic activity, which disrupts the integrity of the airway epithelial barrier. The identification of pollen coat allergens might explain the IgE-negative response to available skin-prick-testing proteins in patients who have positive symptoms. Further study of the role of these pollen coat proteins in allergic

  1. The impact of maternal obesity on iron status, placental transferrin receptor expression and hepcidin expression in human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Valdes, L; Campoy, C; Hayes, H; Florido, J; Rusanova, I; Miranda, M T; McArdle, H J

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is associated with decreased iron status, possibly due to a rise in hepcidin, an inflammatory protein known to reduce iron absorption. In animals, we have shown that maternal iron deficiency is minimised in the foetus by increased expression of placental transferrin receptor (pTFR1), resulting in increased iron transfer at the expense of maternal iron stores. This study examines the effect of obesity during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal iron status in human cohorts and whether the placenta can compensate for decreased maternal iron stores by increasing pTFR1 expression. A total of 240 women were included in this study. One hundred and fifty-eight placentas (Normal: 90; Overweight: 37; Obese: 31) were collected at delivery. Maternal iron status was measured by determining serum transferrin receptor (sTFR) and ferritin levels at 24 and 34 weeks and at delivery. Hepcidin in maternal and cord blood was measured by ELISA and pTFR1 in placentas by western blotting and real-time RT-PCR. Low iron stores were more common in obese women. Hepcidin levels (ng ml(-1)) at the end of the pregnancy were higher in obese than normal women (26.03±12.95 vs 18.00±10.77, PMaternal hepcidin levels were correlated with maternal iron status (sTFR r=0.2 P=0.025), but not with neonatal values. mRNA and protein levels of pTFR1 were both inversely related to maternal iron status. For mRNA and all women, sTFR r=0.2 P=0.044. Ferritin mRNA levels correlated only in overweight women r=-0.5 P=0.039 with hepcidin (r=0.1 P=0.349), irrespective of maternal body mass index (BMI). The data support the hypothesis that obese pregnant women have a greater risk of iron deficiency and that hepcidin may be a regulatory factor. Further, we show that the placenta responds to decreased maternal iron status by increasing pTFR1 expression.

  2. Detection of Serum Lysophosphatidic Acids Using Affinity Binding and Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization (SELDI) Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    sensitivity to cisplatin (the most effective drug in ovarian cancer), and increases production and activity of multiple growth factors, proteases and...clinical grade assay. The detection approach of cocrystalizing LPA and Zn is an improvement of the approach proposed here and will be implemented in our...surface receptors for lysophospholipids belong to the G protein coupled receptor family. As over 40% of all drugs in current use target this family of

  3. Adsorption and covalent binding of fibrinogen as a method for probing the chemical composition of poly(styrene/α-tert-butoxy-ω-vinylbenzyl-polyglycidol) microsphere surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosecka, Monika; Chehimi, Mohamed M; Basinska, Teresa; Slomkowski, Stanislaw; Makowski, Tomasz

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the distribution of polyglycidol and polystyrene on the surface of poly(styrene/α-tert-butoxy-ω-vinylbenzyl-polyglycidol) microspheres (random distribution or segregated into hydrophilic and hydrophobic patches), using fibrinogen (Fb) as a macromolecular probe. The fibrinogen was adsorbed or covalently attached to the surface of the poly(styrene-co-α-tert-butoxy-ω-vinylbenzyl-polyglycidol) (P(S/PGLy)) microspheres. The P(S/PGLy) particles were prepared by emulsion copolymerization of styrene and α-tert-butoxy-ω-vinylbenzyl-polyglycidol (PGLy) macromonomer initiated with potassium persulfate. The polymerizations yielded P(S/PGLy) particles with various surface fractions of polyglycidol, depending on the amount of added macromonomer and the addition process. In some syntheses, the entire macromonomer amount was added once at the beginning of the polymerization, while in others, the macromonomer was added gradually after the formation of particle seeds from pure polystyrene. XPS studies revealed that the fraction of polyglycidol in the interfacial layer of the microspheres was larger when the entire amount of macromonomer was added at the beginning of the polymerization than when it was added after formation of the polystyrene seeds. Studies of fibrinogen adsorption provided the first evidence of segregation of the hydrophobic (polystyrene) and hydrophilic (polyglycidol) components at the surface of the composite P(S/PGLy) microspheres into patches. The hydrophobic patches are composed mainly of polystyrene. However, they also contain a small amount of polyglycidol chains, making the adsorption of fibrinogen weaker than the adsorption onto the pure polystyrene. Studies of covalent immobilization of fibrinogen on the microspheres via 1,3,5-trichlorotriazine confirmed these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Iron status with particular consideration of soluble transferrin receptors in children and youth with gastritis, with or without Helicobacter pylori infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzwa, Grazyna; Augustyńska, Beata; Czerwionka-Szaflarska, Mieczysława; Tyrakowski, Tomasz

    2006-09-01

    Role of Helicobacter pylori infection in chronic gastritis and gastric and/or duodenal ulcers is well known. Simultaneously there are some articles in literature considering H. pylori as a cause of extra-gastrointestinal illnesses such as atopic dermatitis, chronic urticaria or acne rosacea, hypotrophy, Schoenlein-Henoch disease, atherosclerosis or hypochromic anaemia. The aim of the study. was to asses iron status in aspect of plasmatic transferrin receptors concentration among children and youth with chronic gastritis with or without Helicobacter pylori infection. Forty one patients were included as a study group. Range of age was 9-18 years. All patients were diagnosed due to chronic abdominal pains. There were 13 males and 28 females. Blood was collected from every patient for blood cell count, iron, transferrin and transferrin receptors concentration (sTfR) assessment before endoscopy of upper gastrointestinal tract. Concentration of sTfR was higher than age norm among 29 (71%) of patients. Among patients with higher level of sTfR 20 (69%) had normal haemoglobin concentration and in this group 10 patients had H. pylori infection. During analysis of 12 patients with nornal level of sTfR normal haemoglobin concentration was found and among five of them H. pylori infection was stated. Among 21 patients without H. pylori infection 14 had normal level of sTfR and 7 had higher level of sTfR which means that 33% had hidden iron deficiency (involuntary of normal Hb concentrations). Among 15 of 20 patients with H. pylori infection level of sTfR was higher which means that 75% patients with infection had hidden iron deficiency (involuntary of normal Hb concentrations). Level of plasmatic transferrin receptors can be good and sensitive indicator of iron deficiency and can be helpful in differential diagnosis of hypochromic anaemia and anaemia caused by chronic illness including chronic gastritis with Helicobacter pylori infection.

  5. Time- and cell-type specific changes in iron, ferritin, and transferrin in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after transient forebrain ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Young Yoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis to examine changes in the levels and cellular localization of iron, heavy chain ferritin (ferritin-H, and transferrin in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region from 30 minutes to 7 days following transient forebrain ischemia. Relative to sham controls, iron reactivity increased significantly in the stratum pyramidale and stratum oriens at 12 hours following ischemic insult, transiently decreased at 1-2 days and then increased once again within the CA1 region at 4-7 days after ischemia. One day after ischemia, ferritin-H immunoreactivity increased significantly in the stratum pyramidale and decreased at 2 days. At 4-7 days after ischemia, ferritin-H immunoreactivity in the glial components in the CA1 region was significantly increased. Transferrin immunoreactivity was increased significantly in the stratum pyramidale at 12 hours, peaked at 1 day, and then decreased significantly at 2 days after ischemia. Seven days after ischemia, Transferrin immunoreactivity in the glial cells of the stratum oriens and radiatum was significantly increased. Western blot analyses supported these results, demonstrating that compared to sham controls, ferritin H and transferrin protein levels in hippocampal homogenates significantly increased at 1 day after ischemia, peaked at 4 days and then decreased. These results suggest that iron overload-induced oxidative stress is most prominent at 12 hours after ischemia in the stratum pyramidale, suggesting that this time window may be the optimal period for therapeutic intervention to protect neurons from ischemia-induced death.

  6. Can soluble transferrin receptor be used in diagnosing iron deficiency anemia and assessing iron response in infants with moderate acute malnutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükkaragöz, Bahar; Akgun, Necat A; Bulus, Ayse D; Durmus Aydogdu, Sultan; Bal, Cengiz

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) in diagnosing iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and evaluating iron response in infants with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). Infants with hemoglobin (Hb) levels lower than threshold values for anemia for their ages and hypochromic/ microcytic anemia on peripheral smear were recruited. MAM was defined as weight/height z score iron parameters and sTfR were compared among 41 infants with MAM and anemia (MA group), 32 infants with anemia without MAM (group A), and healthy controls (n= 30). Following anemia and malnutrition treatment, tests were repeated. Besides hematological indices compatible with IDA, serum iron (Fe) and transferrin saturation (TS) were significantly lower, while transferrin was significantly higher in MA and A groups compared to controls (p 0.05) and significantly higher than controls (p iron treatment, sTfR decreased in both MA and A groups (p iron treatment, we believe that this parameter was not influenced by MAM or inflammation; and it alone can be used to detect IDA and monitor treatment response in infants with MAM.

  7. Regular square planer bis-(4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(thiophen-2-yl)butane-1,3-dione)/copper(II) complex: Trans/cis-DFT isomerization, crystal structure, thermal, solvatochromism, hirshfeld surface and DNA-binding analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hema, M. K.; Karthik, C. S.; Warad, Ismail; Lokanath, N. K.; Zarrouk, Abdelkader; Kumara, Karthik; Pampa, K. J.; Mallu, P.

    2018-04-01

    Trans-[Cu(O∩O)2] complex, O∩O = 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(thiophen-2-yl)butane-1,3-dione was reported with high potential toward CT-DNA binder. The solved XRD-structure of complex indicated a perfect regular square-planer geometry around the Cu(II) center. The trans/cis-DFT-isomerization calculation supported the XRD seen in reflecting the trans-isomer as the kinetic-favor isomer. The desired complex structure was also characterized by conductivity measurement, CHN-elemental analyses, MS, EDX, SEM, UV-Vis., FT-IR, HAS and TG/DTG. The Solvatochromism behavior of the complex was evaluated using four different polar solvents. MPE and Hirshfeld surface analysis (HSA) come to an agreement that fluoride and thiophene protons atoms are with suitable electro-potential environment to form non-classical H-bonds of type CThsbnd H⋯F. The DNA-binding properties were investigated by viscosity tests and spectrometric titrations, the results revealed the complex as strong calf-thymus DNA binder. High intrinsic-binding constants value ∼1.8 × 105 was collected.

  8. Surface Transient Binding-Based Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (STB-FCS), a Simple and Easy-to-Implement Method to Extend the Upper Limit of the Time Window to Seconds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Siji