WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface towed ordnance

  1. Adaption of the Magnetometer Towed Array geophysical system to meet Department of Energy needs for hazardous waste site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, J.R.; McDonald, J.R.; Russell, R.J.; Robertson, R.; Hensel, E.

    1995-10-01

    This report documents US Department of Energy (DOE)-funded activities that have adapted the US Navy's Surface Towed Ordnance Locator System (STOLS) to meet DOE needs for a ''... better, faster, safer and cheaper ...'' system for characterizing inactive hazardous waste sites. These activities were undertaken by Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), the Naval Research Laboratory, Geo-Centers Inc., New Mexico State University and others under the title of the Magnetometer Towed Array (MTA)

  2. Unexploded Ordnances

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Unexploded ordnances are explosive weapons (bombs, bullets, shells, grenades, mines, etc.) that did not explode when they were employed and still pose a risk of...

  3. Robot Towed Shortwave Infrared Camera for Specific Surface Area Retrieval of Surface Snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J.; Lines, A.; Ray, L.; Albert, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Optical grain size and specific surface area are key parameters for measuring the atmospheric interactions of snow, as well as tracking metamorphosis and allowing for the ground truthing of remote sensing data. We describe a device using a shortwave infrared camera with changeable optical bandpass filters (centered at 1300 nm and 1550 nm) that can be used to quickly measure the average SSA over an area of 0.25 m^2. The device and method are compared with calculations made from measurements taken with a field spectral radiometer. The instrument is designed to be towed by a small autonomous ground vehicle, and therefore rides above the snow surface on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW) skis.

  4. Towed underwater PIV measurement for free-surface effects on turbulent wake of a surface-piercing body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Myung Seol

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a towed underwater particle image velocimetry (PIV system was validated in uniform flow and used to investigate the free-surface effects on the turbulent wake of a simple surface-piercing body. The selected test model was a cylindrical geometry formed by extruding the Wigley hull's waterplane shape in the vertical direction. Due to the constraints of the two-dimensional (2D PIV system used for the present study, the velocity field measurements were done separately for the vertical and horizontal planes. Using the measured data at several different locations, it was possible to identify the free-surface effects on the turbulent wake in terms of the mean velocity components and turbulence quantities. In order to provide an accuracy level of the data, uncertainty assessment was done following the International Towing Tank Conference standard procedure.

  5. Effect of the coefficient of friction of a running surface on sprint time in a sled-towing exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linthorne, Nicholas P; Cooper, James E

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of the coefficient of friction of a running surface on an athlete's sprint time in a sled-towing exercise. The coefficients of friction of four common sports surfaces (a synthetic athletics track, a natural grass rugby pitch, a 3G football pitch, and an artificial grass hockey pitch) were determined from the force required to tow a weighted sled across the surface. Timing gates were then used to measure the 30-m sprint time for six rugby players when towing a sled of varied weight across the surfaces. There were substantial differences between the coefficients of friction for the four surfaces (micro = 0.21-0.58), and in the sled-towing exercise the athlete's 30-m sprint time increased linearly with increasing sled weight. The hockey pitch (which had the lowest coefficient of friction) produced a substantially lower rate of increase in 30-m sprint time, but there were no significant differences between the other surfaces. The results indicate that although an athlete's sprint time in a sled-towing exercise is affected by the coefficient offriction of the surface, the relationship relationship between the athlete's rate of increase in 30-m sprint time and the coefficient of friction is more complex than expected.

  6. Neutron radiography of Apollo ordnance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golliher, K.G.

    1983-01-01

    Neutron radiography played an important role in the successful Apollo missions. Neutron radiography was used, for the first time, on a production basis to examine the internal details of ordnance devices employed in the Apollo Program. Ordnance devices ranged from charges which separated the massive booster stages to those which triggered the release of re-entry parachutes. Discussed are the early developments in neutron radiography and the conversion of this infant nondestructive technology into production capabilities. (Auth.)

  7. Explosives Dissolved from Unexploded Ordnance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The original document contains color...the Nalgene (red) and ordnance (black) tests. ................. 52  Figure 42. Measured calcium versus sulfate concentration for the six ordnance...soil profiles at locations of UXOs found in the field. Underlying weathered/unweathered bedrock and rock land not depicted. Source: USDA Web Soil Survey

  8. Navy explosive ordnance disposal project: Optical ordnance system development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merson, J.A.; Salas, F.J.; Helsel, F.M.

    1996-03-01

    An optical ordnance firing system consisting of a portable hand held solid state rod laser and an optically ignited detonator has been developed for use in explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) activities. Solid state rod laser systems designed to have an output of 150 mJ in a 500 microsecond pulse have been produced and evaluated. A laser ignited detonator containing no primary explosives has been designed and fabricated. The detonator has the same functional output as an electrically fired blasting cap. The optical ordnance firing system has demonstrated the ability to reliably detonate Comp C-4 through 1000 meters of optical fiber.

  9. Neutralising ordnance with non-extending elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander I. Golodyaev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The method of neutralising ordnance by rinsing explosive materials with a solution enables significant cost saving while reducing the risk pyrotechnic personnel is exposed to, especially during ammunition transport to recycling sites.  Costs for necessary special equipment are minimal. The technology is easy to be automated using an electronic and remotely controlled drilling process which reduces the risk of explosion to the minimum. This demining method will prove effective especially for operations against guerrilla mine warfare.

  10. China’s Ordnance Industry Under Modernization

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    China’s ordnance industry is undertaking industry-wide reform. The goal is to improve indigenous innovation capability so that the Chinese armed forces can obtain advanced weapon systems without reliance on foreign technology while at the same time making the industry responsible for its own financial performance. Restructuring has resulted in some gains, but indigenous innovation capability, as well as spin-on and spin-off, are still far in the future.

  11. Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

  12. Optimizing towing processes at airports

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Jia Yan

    2015-01-01

    This work addresses the optimization of push-back and towing processes at airports, as an important part of the turnaround process. A vehicle routing based scheduling model is introduced to find a cost optimal assignment of jobs to towing tractors in daily operations. A second model derives an investment strategy to optimize tractor fleet size and mix in the long-run. Column generation heuristics are proposed as solution procedures. The thesis concludes with a case study of a major European ...

  13. Air-Sea Interaction Measurements from the Controlled Towed Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelif, D.; Bluth, R. T.; Jonsson, H.; Barge, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Controlled Towed Vehicle (CTV) uses improved towed drone technology to actively maintain via a radar altimeter and controllable wing a user-set height that can be as low as the canonical reference height of 10 m above the sea surface. After take-off, the drone is released from the tow aircraft on a ~700-m stainless steel cable. We have instrumented the 0.23 m diameter and 2.13 m long drone with high fidelity instruments to measure the means and turbulent fluctuations of 3-D wind vector, temperature, humidity, pressure, CO2 and IR sea surface temperature. Data are recorded internally at 40 Hz and simultaneously transmitted to the tow aircraft via dedicated wireless Ethernet link. The CTV accommodates 40 kg of instrument payload and provides it with 250 W of continuous power through a ram air propeller-driven generator. Therefore its endurance is only limited by that of the tow aircraft.We will discuss the CTV development, the engineering challenges and solutions that have been successfully implemented to overcome them. We present results from recent flights as low as 9 m over the coastal ocean and comparisons of profiles and turbulent fluxes from the CTV and the tow aircraft. Manned aircraft operation at low-level boundary-layer flights is very limited. Dropsondes and UAS (Unmanned Aerial Systems) and UAS are alternates for measurements near the ocean surface. However, dropsondes have limited sensor capability and do not measure fluxes, and most present UAS vehicles do not have the payload and power capacity nor the low-flying ability in high winds over the oceans. The CTV therefore, fills a needed gap between the dropsondes, in situ aircraft, and UAS. The payload, capacity and power of the CTV makes it suitable for a variety of atmospheric research measurements. Other sensors to measure aerosol, chemistry, radiation, etc., could be readily accommodated in the CTV.

  14. 75 FR 2490 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School Training Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... Importing Marine Mammals; Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School Training Operations Activities at Eglin...) for authorization to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School (NEODS) training operations, military readiness activities, at Eglin AFB, FL from...

  15. Bistatic scattering from submerged unexploded ordnance lying on a sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucaro, J A; Simpson, H; Kraus, L; Dragonette, L R; Yoder, T; Houston, B H

    2009-11-01

    The broadband bistatic target strengths (TSs) of two submerged unexploded ordnance (UXO) targets have been measured in the NRL sediment pool facility. The targets-a 5 in. rocket and a 155 mm projectile-were among the targets whose monostatic TSs were measured and reported previously by the authors. Bistatic TS measurements were made for 0 degrees (target front) and 90 degrees (target side) incident source directions, and include both backscattered and forward scattered echo angles over a complete 360 degrees with the targets placed proud of the sediment surface. For the two source angles used, each target exhibits two strong highlights: a backscattered specular-like echo and a forward scattered response. The TS levels of the former are shown to agree reasonably well with predictions, based on scattering from rigid disks and cylinders, while the levels of the latter with predictions from radar cross section models, based on simple geometric optics appropriately modified. The bistatic TS levels observed for the proud case provide comparable or higher levels of broadband TS relative to free-field monostatic measurements. It is concluded that access to bistatic echo information in operations aimed at detecting submerged UXO targets could provide an important capability.

  16. Towed Instrument Cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    groove cemented Ito the drum surface. with the exception of the power train the majority of the winch is made of aluminum . 40 Bonded to the winch drum...been used for the temperature sensor. The series P85BI0 thermoprobe manufactured by Thermometrics Inc. consists of a small 14 0 - - "" . . i . i

  17. Tow mechanics: a contact mechanics approach of friction in fibrous tows during forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Bo; Rietman, Bert; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Akkerman, Remko

    2012-01-01

    Composites forming processes involve mechanical interactions on the ply, tow, and filament level. The deformations that occur during forming processes are governed by friction between tows and tooling material on the mesoscopic level and consequently between filaments within the tows on the

  18. Eclipse - tow flight closeup and release

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This clip, running 15 seconds in length, shows the QF-106 'Delta Dart' gear down, with the tow rope secured to the attachment point above the aircraft nose. First there is a view looking back from the C-141A, then looking forward from the nose of the QF-106, and finally a shot of the aircraft being released from the tow rope. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, supported a Kelly Space and Technology, Inc. (KST)/U.S. Air Force project known as Eclipse, which demonstrated a reusable tow launch vehicle concept. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate a reusable tow launch vehicle concept that had been conceived and patented by KST. Kelly Space obtained a contract with the USAF Research Laboratory for the tow launch demonstration project under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The USAF SBIR contract included the modifications to turn the QF-106 into the Experimental Demonstrator #1 (EXD-01), and the C141A aircraft to incorporate the tow provisions to link the two aircraft, as well as conducting flight tests. The demonstration consisted of ground and flight tests. These tests included a Combined Systems Test of both airplanes joined by a tow rope, a towed taxi test, and six towed flights. The primary goal of the project was demonstrating the tow phase of the Eclipse concept using a scaled-down tow aircraft (C-141A) and a representative aerodynamically-shaped aircraft (QF-106A) as a launch vehicle. This was successfully accomplished. On December 20, 1997, NASA research pilot Mark Stucky flew a QF-106 on the first towed flight behind an Air Force C-141 in the joint Eclipse project with KST to demonstrate a reusable tow launch vehicle concept developed by KST. Kelly Space and Technology hoped to use the data from the tow tests to validate a tow-to-launch procedure for reusable space launch vehicles. Stucky flew six successful tow tests between December 1997 and February 6, 1998. On February 6, 1998, the sixth and final towed

  19. A Probabilistic Cost Estimation Model for Unexploded Ordnance Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    clearance of the former Fort Ord costly and difficult [Meuser, and Szasz 1997]. Finally, soil type affects the maximum depth that ordnance...Correlated Random Variables from partially-specified Distributions." Management Science. 44(1998): 203- 218. Meuser, M, and A. Szasz . "Stakeholder

  20. Utilization and reliability of nondestructive testing in ordnance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maranhao, M.; Alves, L.E.G.

    1983-01-01

    Information about nondestructive testing used in ordnance are presented. For propellants and breaking load ultrasonic testing and X-ray are used. For skyrocket propellants the X-ray is used to test the continuity of the explosive mass and the burn inhibiting agent. For rupture explosive, the X-ray is used to test the continuity of explosive mass. (E.G.) [pt

  1. Frictional behaviour of high performance fibrous tows: Friction experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Bo; Rietman, Bert; Akkerman, Remko

    2013-01-01

    Tow friction is an important mechanism in the production and processing of high performance fibrous tows. The frictional behaviour of these tows is anisotropic due to the texture of the filaments as well as the tows. This work describes capstan experiments that were performed to measure the

  2. Air Launch from a Towed Glider

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research effort is exploring the concept of launching a rocket from a glider that is towed by an aircraft. The idea is to build a relatively inexpensive...

  3. Marine Attack on Towed Hydrophone Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalmijn, Ad

    2002-01-01

    The original objective of the SIO Marine Attack project was to identify the electric and magnetic fields causing sharks to inflict serious damage upon the towed hydrophone arrays of US Navy submarines...

  4. High density thermite mixture for shaped charge ordnance disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Elshenawy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermite mixture based on aluminum and ferric oxides for ammunition neutralization has been studied and tested. Thermochemical calculations have been carried out for different percentage of Al using Chemical Equilibrium Code to expect the highest performance thermite mixture used for shaped charge ordnance disposal. Densities and enthalpy of different formulations have been calculated and demonstrated. The optimized thermite formulation has been prepared experimentally using cold iso-static pressing technique, which exhibited relatively high density and high burning rate thermite mixture. The produced green product compacted powder mixture was tested against small caliber shaped charge bomblet for neutralization. Theoretical and experimental results showed that the prepared thermite mixture containing 33% of aluminum as a fuel with ferric oxide can be successfully used for shaped charge ordnance disposal.

  5. Seismic-Acoustic Active Range Monitoring for Characterizing Low-Order Ordnance Detonation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Thomas S; Weale, Jason C

    2006-01-01

    .... The Distributed Sources focus area strives to characterize the level of contamination in range environments attributed to ordnance residue for the purpose of range management and environmental remediation...

  6. High density thermite mixture for shaped charge ordnance disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Tamer Elshenawy; Salah Soliman; Ahmed Hawass

    2017-01-01

    The effect of thermite mixture based on aluminum and ferric oxides for ammunition neutralization has been studied and tested. Thermochemical calculations have been carried out for different percentage of Al using Chemical Equilibrium Code to expect the highest performance thermite mixture used for shaped charge ordnance disposal. Densities and enthalpy of different formulations have been calculated and demonstrated. The optimized thermite formulation has been prepared experimentally using col...

  7. Vehicle recovery and towing guideline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-01-15

    This guideline was developed to provide light and medium duty vehicles operators in the oil and gas industry with a set of best practices for avoiding injury and damage during the recovery of stuck vehicles. The aim of the guideline was to increase awareness of safety issues and promote the safe usage of the vehicles by personnel throughout the petroleum industry and to establish minimum standards of practice for vehicle recovery. The guideline included a step-by-step guide for pulling out a vehicle with a recovery strap as well as vehicle-mounted winch procedures. Pre-job checklists for both procedures were provided. Issues related to the strength rating of vehicle tow hooks and hitch receivers were discussed, as well as some of the hazards associated with steep terrains and heavy mud. The guideline also included recommendations for a vehicle recovery kit with instructions on vehicle recovery, a recovery strap, a recovery hitch and shackle, a collapsible shovel, traffic cones and reflector flares, and a heavy blanket and gloves. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs.

  8. Frictional behaviour of high performance fibrouws tows: A contact mechanics model of tow -metal friction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Bo; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Rietman, Bert; Akkerman, Remko

    2013-01-01

    Composites forming processes involve mechanical interactions on the ply, tow, and filament level. The deformations that occur during forming processes are governed by friction between tows and tooling material on the mesoscopic level and consequently between filaments and a counterface on the

  9. Frictional behavior of carbon fiber tows: a contact mechanics model of tow–tow friction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Bo; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Rietman, Bert; Akkerman, Remko

    2014-01-01

    Composite-forming processes involve mechanical interactions at the ply, tow, and filament level. The deformations that occur during forming processes are governed by friction between the contacting tows on the mesoscopic level and consequently between filaments on the microscopic level. A thorough

  10. 77 FR 25435 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School Training Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... B harassment, incidental to Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School (NEODS) training operations at... Importing Marine Mammals; Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School Training Operations at Eglin Air Force... and the Issuance of Letters of Authorization to Take Marine Mammals, by Level B Harassment, Incidental...

  11. 75 FR 60694 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School Training Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Marine Mammals, by Harassment, Incidental to Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School Training Operations... School Training Operations at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... authorization to take marine mammals, by Level B harassment, incidental to Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal...

  12. High speed TV-towing system for exploration manganese nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, P.

    1977-12-01

    For the oceanographic, special for the manganese nodules exploration in the deep sea a high speed-TV-towing system is to design on base of existing TV-towing systems to get better efficiency during the exploration phase. It is planned to increase to towing speed at the time of 2 knots up to 6-8 knots. The essential points of developments in this direction are 1) to decrease the hydrodynamical drag of the long towing cable with fairings. 2) To seperate to towing system into two units the passiv controlled towing cable end point 'SEP' with negativ buoyancy (weight) and the activ controlled TV-fish. With this separation it is possible to tow the TV-fish within a defined accuracy parallel to the sea floor without an influence to the overall system. 3) To adapt the TV- and photo stobe light unit for these towing conditions (high speed). 4) To design the control concept, the operating equipment, the energy and data transmission system, the towed body concept, the hydrodynamical calculation of towing phase and the other towed components. The results of this study is the definition of a two body towing system which is able towed by a research vessel to make continously TV-observation of the sea floor in depth down to 6,000 meters. (orig.) [de

  13. Subsea surveying: a guide for oilmen. Deep-tow and digital techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, F M

    1977-05-01

    Hydrodynamically stable tow fishes into which the acoustic energy source is mounted are examined. The advantages of deep-towed devices extends beyond the use of bottom and subbottom profiling systems. When used with side-scan sonar devices any small seabed relief or feature is enhanced by towing the sonar close to the seabed. The distortion of the records which is produced by observing slant ranges as opposed to the true range is also reduced. The use of marine magnetometers can greatly improve detection capabilities when searching for objects which produce some magnetic disturbance. The amplitude of this magnetic ''anomaly'' increases as the range between the magnetic sensor and the object is decreased. Areas where digital processing of data can be of significant value include navigational positioning (both of surface and sub-surface vessels); signal processing of seismic profiling data; and data presentation of all forms.

  14. Detection and identification of unexploded ordnance (UXO) by neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffrey, A.J.; Hartwell, J.K.; Krebs, K.M.; McLaughlin, G.D.

    1998-01-01

    This document reviews the principle of operation and unexploded ordnance (UXO) signatures of the PINS Chemical Assay System, a prompt-gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) for the identification of recovered UXO. Two related low cost methods for buried landmine detection are also suggested. Nuclear methods may compliment existing search techniques to improve the overall probability of detection and to reduce the false positive rate of other technologies. In addition, nuclear methods are a proven method for identification of UXO such as landmines

  15. Detection of unexploded ordnance by PGNAA based borehole-logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Kettler; RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen; Eric Mauerhofer; Marco Steinbusch

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a borehole-logging system, based on prompt-gamma-neutron-activation-analysis (PGNAA), for explosive detection was studied by Monte-Carlo simulations. The prompt gamma of nitrogen, which is a constituent of common explosive, was used to identify the unexploded ordnance (UXO). Our results show that the minimum counting time depends on the soil moisture, the cladding thickness and the explosive composition. In conjunction with the standard detection by magnetometry, the PGNAA is a promising analytical technique for definitive identification of deep buried UXOs. (author)

  16. Adaptive Beamforming Algorithms for Tow Ship Noise Canceling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robert, M.K.; Beerens, S.P.

    2002-01-01

    In towed array sonar, the directional noise originating from the tow ship, mainly machinery and hydrodynamic noise, often limits the sonar performance. When processed with classical beamforming techniques, loud tow ship noise induces high sidelobes that may hide detection of quiet targets in forward

  17. 49 CFR 392.63 - Towing or pushing loaded buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Towing or pushing loaded buses. 392.63 Section 392... COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices § 392.63 Towing or pushing loaded buses. No disabled bus with... passengers aboard for the purpose of towing or pushing any disabled motor vehicle, except in such...

  18. The role of friction in tow mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Friction plays and important role in the processing of fibrous materials: during production of tow materials, during textile manufacturing and during preforming operations for composite moulding processes. One of the poorly understood phenomena in these processes is the dynamic frictional behaviour

  19. Adaptive Virtual Tow Bar, research results 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, D.M.C.; Hueting, T.F.; Joosten, B.; Uittenbogaard, J.; Martens, M.H.

    2017-01-01

    This document reports the advances made in 2016 for the Early Research Program (ERP) Human Enhancement: Adaptive Automation, sub-project Adaptive Virtual Tow Bar. The ambition of the large scale TNO Early Research Program (ERP) Human Enhancement is to develop a transparent (human-in-the-loop)

  20. 78 FR 49543 - Towing Safety Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... 4 through 6, 2013, in Chicago, Illinois to discuss issues related to shallow draft inland, coastal..., Chicago, Illinois 60604. Though the building is a public facility, all attendees will be required to... Standards to Enhance Fire Prevention and Containment Aboard Towing Vessels.'' TASK 13-01, ``Recommendations...

  1. 77 FR 76299 - Towing Safety Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-27

    ... discuss potential new tasks related to development of manning policy for towing vessels operating on international and domestic waters, information transfer between vessels using the automatic identification... teleconference from U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, come to Room 2501, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters Building...

  2. SEADYN Analysis of a Tow Line for a High Altitude Towed Glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    1996-01-01

    The concept of using a system, consisting of a tow aircraft, glider and tow line, which would enable subsonic flight at altitudes above 24 km (78 kft) has previously been investigated. The preliminary results from these studies seem encouraging. Under certain conditions these studies indicate the concept is feasible. However, the previous studies did not accurately take into account the forces acting on the tow line. Therefore in order to investigate the concept further a more detailed analysis was needed. The code that was selected was the SEADYN cable dynamics computer program which was developed at the Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center. The program is a finite element based structural analysis code that was developed over a period of 10 years. The results have been validated by the Navy in both laboratory and at actual sea conditions. This code was used to simulate arbitrarily-configured cable structures subjected to excitations encountered in real-world operations. The Navy's interest was mainly for modeling underwater tow lines, however the code is also usable for tow lines in air when the change in fluid properties is taken into account. For underwater applications the fluid properties are basically constant over the length of the tow line. For the tow aircraft/glider application the change in fluid properties is considerable along the length of the tow line. Therefore the code had to be modified in order to take into account the variation in atmospheric properties that would be encountered in this application. This modification consisted of adding a variable density to the fluid based on the altitude of the node being calculated. This change in the way the code handled the fluid density had no effect on the method of calculation or any other factor related to the codes validation.

  3. Sled Towing Acutely Decreases Acceleration Sprint Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Megan A; Dobbs, Ian J; Watkins, Casey M; Barillas, Saldiam R; Lin, Anne; Archer, David C; Lockie, Robert G; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E

    2017-11-01

    Wong, MA, Dobbs, IJ, Watkins, C, Barillas, SR, Lin, A, Archer, DC, Lockie, RG, Coburn, JW, and Brown, LE. Sled towing acutely decreases acceleration sprint time. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3046-3051, 2017-Sled towing is a common form of overload training in sports to develop muscular strength for sprinting. This type of training leads to acute and chronic outcomes. Acute training potentially leads to postactivation potentiation (PAP), which is when subsequent muscle performance is enhanced after a preload stimulus. The purpose of this study was to determine differences between rest intervals after sled towing on acute sprint speed. Twenty healthy recreationally trained men (age = 22.3 ± 2.4 years, height = 176.95 ± 5.46 cm, mass = 83.19 ± 11.31 kg) who were currently active in a field sport twice a week for the last 6 months volunteered to participate. A maximal 30-meter (m) baseline (BL) body mass (BM) sprint was performed (with splits at 5, 10, 20, and 30 m) followed by 5 visits where participants sprinted 30 m towing a sled at 30% BM then rested for 2, 4, 6, 8, or 12 minutes. They were instructed to stand still during rest times. After the rest interval, they performed a maximal 30-m post-test BM sprint. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that post sled tow BM sprint times (4.47 ± 0.21 seconds) were less than BL times (4.55 ± 0.18 seconds) on an individualized rest interval basis. A follow-up 2 × 4 ANOVA showed that this decrease occurred only in the acceleration phase over the first 5 m (BL = 1.13 ± 0.08 seconds vs. Best = 1.08 ± 0.08 seconds), which may be the result of PAP and the complex relationship between fatigue and potentiation relative to the intensity of the sled tow and the rest interval. Therefore, coaches should test their athletes on an individual basis to determine optimal rest time after a 30-m 30% BM sled tow to enhance acute sprint speed.

  4. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties, the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, located adjacent to one another in St. Charles County, Missouri. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE and CE are evaluating conditions and potential responses at the chemical plant area and at the ordnance works area, respectively, to address groundwater and surface water contamination. This work plan provides a comprehensive evaluation of areas that are relevant to the (GWOUs) of both the chemical plant and the ordnance works area. Following areas or media are addressed in this work plan: groundwater beneath the chemical plant area (including designated vicinity properties described in Section 5 of the RI for the chemical plant area [DOE 1992d]) and beneath the ordnance works area; surface water and sediment at selected springs, including Burgermeister Spring. The organization of this work plan is as follows: Chapter 1 discusses the objectives for conducting the evaluation, including a summary of relevant site information and overall environmental compliance activities to be undertaken; Chapter 2 presents a history and a description of the site and areas addressed within the GWOUs, along with currently available data; Chapter 3 presents a preliminary evaluation of areas included in the GWOUs, which is based on information given in Section 2, and discusses data requirements; Chapter 4 presents rationale for data collection or characterization activities to be carried out in the remedial investigation (RI) phase, along with brief summaries of supporting documents ancillary to this work plan; Chapter 5 discusses the activities planned for GWOUs under each of the 14 tasks for an remedial (RI/FS); Chapter 6 presents proposed schedules for RI/FS for the GWOUS; and Chapter 7 explains the project management structure

  5. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties, the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, located adjacent to one another in St. Charles County, Missouri. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE and CE are evaluating conditions and potential responses at the chemical plant area and at the ordnance works area, respectively, to address groundwater and surface water contamination. This work plan provides a comprehensive evaluation of areas that are relevant to the (GWOUs) of both the chemical plant and the ordnance works area. Following areas or media are addressed in this work plan: groundwater beneath the chemical plant area (including designated vicinity properties described in Section 5 of the RI for the chemical plant area [DOE 1992d]) and beneath the ordnance works area; surface water and sediment at selected springs, including Burgermeister Spring. The organization of this work plan is as follows: Chapter 1 discusses the objectives for conducting the evaluation, including a summary of relevant site information and overall environmental compliance activities to be undertaken; Chapter 2 presents a history and a description of the site and areas addressed within the GWOUs, along with currently available data; Chapter 3 presents a preliminary evaluation of areas included in the GWOUs, which is based on information given in Section 2, and discusses data requirements; Chapter 4 presents rationale for data collection or characterization activities to be carried out in the remedial investigation (RI) phase, along with brief summaries of supporting documents ancillary to this work plan; Chapter 5 discusses the activities planned for GWOUs under each of the 14 tasks for an remedial (RI/FS); Chapter 6 presents proposed schedules for RI/FS for the GWOUS; and Chapter 7 explains the project management structure.

  6. From Four to Two: Transformation of the Army Ordnance Officer and Warrant Officer Corps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Napier, Joyce

    2003-01-01

    .... This study will examine how senior leaders within the Army and specifically the Ordnance Corps must change the officer and warrant officer force structure education system and leader development...

  7. Safety of Transport and Disposal for Explosive Ordnance in Ports, Roadsteads and at Open Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Cichocki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article principles, pertaining to the safety of transport for explosives and unexploded ordnance of military origin and procedures that guarantee maximal effectiveness of the process of their neutralization, are presented. Since the end of the 2nd World War operations of neutralizing unexploded ordnance (UXO of that era that still lie in ports, roadsteads and coastal areas are continuously conducted. During that war the Polish coast was one of the major battlegrounds and till now unexploded ordnance are found either on the sea bed or along the coast. Various analyses state that searching the sea and the coastline for unexploded ordnance is a task still to be carried out in the foreseeable future.

  8. Combined Logistics Officers Advanced Course (CLOAC): Leader Development for Future Ordnance Strategic Leaders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shipley, Claude

    1998-01-01

    Formal training is one of the methods for development of strategic leaders. The development of strategic Ordnance leaders is rooted initially with an officer first becoming competent as a leader and knowledgeable in their technical skills...

  9. Navy Ordnance Analysis of Business Area Efforts to Streamline Operations and Reduce Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... The Navy reorganized this business area in 1993 in order to reduce costs and address various deficiencies in ordnance logistics management that were identified during Desert Shield/Desert Storm...

  10. The Rachel-B/coastal towing incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawn, D.R. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    On June 23, 1989, the outbound tanker ship Rachel-B and the towboat Gayolyn Ann Griffin, towing barges owned by Coastal Towing, collided in the northern end of the Houston Sip Channel near its confluence with the Bayport Channel. The collision resulted in a spill of approximately 6,000 barrels of slurry oil into upper Galveston Bay. This paper reports that the U.S. Coast Guard assumed the role of on-scene coordinator. Several State agencies were involved in the various on-site activities. The Texas Water Commission (TWC), as the State's lead agency in spill response, closely monitored the spill and cleanup activities. Despite the efforts of all the aforementioned agencies, the weather ultimately directed spill response activities as it became readily apparent that the eye of Tropical Storm Allison would pass near the site of the spill

  11. Development of Deep-tow Autonomous Cable Seismic (ACS) for Seafloor Massive Sulfides (SMSs) Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Eiichi; Murakami, Fumitoshi; Tsukahara, Hitoshi; Saito, Shutaro; Lee, Sangkyun; Tara, Kenji; Kato, Masafumi; Jamali Hondori, Ehsan; Sumi, Tomonori; Kadoshima, Kazuyuki; Kose, Masami

    2017-04-01

    Within the EEZ of Japan, numerous surveys exploring ocean floor resources have been conducted. The exploration targets are gas hydrates, mineral resources (manganese, cobalt or rare earth) and especially seafloor massive sulphide (SMS) deposits. These resources exist in shallow subsurface areas in deep waters (>1500m). For seismic explorations very high resolution images are required. These cannot be effectively obtained with conventional marine seismic techniques. Therefore we have been developing autonomous seismic survey systems which record the data close to the seafloor to preserve high frequency seismic energy. Very high sampling rate (10kHz) and high accurate synchronization between recording systems and shot time are necessary. We adopted Cs-base atomic clock considering its power consumption. At first, we developed a Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) system that uses hydrophone arrays moored vertically from the ocean bottom to record close to the target area. This system has been successfully applied to SMS exploration. Specifically it fixed over known sites to assess the amount of reserves with the resultant 3D volume. Based on the success of VCS, we modified the VCS system to use as a more efficient deep-tow seismic survey system. Although there are other examples of deep-tow seismic systems, signal transmission cables present challenges in deep waters. We use our autonomous recording system to avoid these problems. Combining a high frequency piezoelectric source (Sub Bottom Profiler:SBP) that automatically shots with a constant interval, we achieve the high resolution deep-tow seismic without data transmission/power cable to the board. Although the data cannot be monitored in real-time, the towing system becomes very simple. We have carried out survey trial, which showed the systems utility as a high-resolution deep-tow seismic survey system. Furthermore, the frequency ranges of deep-towed source (SBP) and surface towed sparker are 700-2300Hz and 10-200Hz

  12. Automatic classification of unexploded ordnance applied to Spencer Range live site for 5x5 TEMTADS sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, John B.; Barrowes, Benjamin E.; O'Neill, Kevin; Shubitidze, Fridon

    2013-06-01

    This paper details methods for automatic classification of Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) as applied to sensor data from the Spencer Range live site. The Spencer Range is a former military weapons range in Spencer, Tennessee. Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) sensing is carried out using the 5x5 Time-domain Electromagnetic Multi-sensor Towed Array Detection System (5x5 TEMTADS), which has 25 receivers and 25 co-located transmitters. Every transmitter is activated sequentially, each followed by measuring the magnetic field in all 25 receivers, from 100 microseconds to 25 milliseconds. From these data target extrinsic and intrinsic parameters are extracted using the Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm and the Ortho-Normalized Volume Magnetic Source (ONVMS) algorithms, respectively. Namely, the inversion provides x, y, and z locations and a time series of the total ONVMS principal eigenvalues, which are intrinsic properties of the objects. The eigenvalues are fit to a power-decay empirical model, the Pasion-Oldenburg model, providing 3 coefficients (k, b, and g) for each object. The objects are grouped geometrically into variably-sized clusters, in the k-b-g space, using clustering algorithms. Clusters matching a priori characteristics are identified as Targets of Interest (TOI), and larger clusters are automatically subclustered. Ground Truths (GT) at the center of each class are requested, and probability density functions are created for clusters that have centroid TOI using a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). The probability functions are applied to all remaining anomalies. All objects of UXO probability higher than a chosen threshold are placed in a ranked dig list. This prioritized list is scored and the results are demonstrated and analyzed.

  13. An Acoustic Source Reactive to Tow Cable Strum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    sound wave radiates from the head mass. Dkt . No. 101720 Application No. ?? REPLACEMENT SHEET? /3 DRAFT 1 CABLE CURVATURE INDUCING LONGITUDINAL...MOTION IDEALIZED TOW CABLE (NO TRANSVERSE VIBRATION) REALISTIC TOW CABLE (INCLUDES TRANSVERSE VIBRATION) DIRECTION OF TOW FIG. 1 (PRIOR ART) Dkt . No...DISPLACEMENT DISPLACEMENT LONGITUDINAL (PRIOR ART) DISPLACEMENT LONGITUDINAL Dkt . No. 101720 Application No. ?? REPLACEMENT SHEET? /3 DRAFT 10 A B B A

  14. Carbon Fiber TOW Angle Determination Using Microwave Reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William C.; Moore, Jason P.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Composites Project is investigating technologies that increase automated remote inspection of aircraft composite structures. Therefore, microwave Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) is being investigated as a method of enabling rapid remote inspection of angular orientation of the tow using microwave radiation. This work will present preliminary data demonstrating that frequency shifts in the reflection spectrum of a carbon fiber tow sample are indicative of the angle of the tow with respect to an interrogating antenna's linear polarized output.

  15. Horizontal ichthyoplankton tow-net system with unobstructed net opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    The larval fish sampler described here consists of a modified bridle, frame, and net system with an obstruction-free net opening and is small enough for use on boats 10 m or less in length. The tow net features a square net frame attached to a 0.5-m-diameter cylinder-on-cone plankton net with a bridle designed to eliminate all obstructions forward of the net opening, significantly reducing currents and vibrations in the water directly preceding the net. This system was effective in collecting larvae representing more than 25 species of fish at sampling depths ranging from surface to 10 m and could easily be used at greater depths.

  16. A Method to Estimate Local Towed Array Angles Using Flush Mounted Hot Film Wall Shear Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keith, William L; Cipolla, Kimberly M

    2008-01-01

    A towed array is provided with hot-film sensors and anemometer circuitry to calculate the angle of inclination of the towed array in real time during deployment of the towed array in a sea water environment...

  17. Evaluation of the Viking-Cives tow plow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    In early February, 2009, the Maine Department of Transportation (MaineDOT) entered into an agreement : with Viking-Cives USA to evaluate the Viking-Cives Tow Plow. MaineDOT agreed to evaluate the Tow : Plow for the remainder of the 2008-2009 winter s...

  18. Running with horizontal pulling forces: the benefits of towing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Alena M; Kram, Rodger

    2008-10-01

    Towing, or running with a horizontal pulling force, is a common technique used by adventure racing teams. During an adventure race, the slowest person on a team determines the team's overall performance. To improve overall performance, a faster runner tows a slower runner with an elastic cord attached to their waists. Our purpose was to create and validate a model that predicts the optimal towing force needed by two runners to achieve their best overall performance. We modeled the effects of towing forces between two runners that differ in solo 10-km performance time and/or body mass. We calculated the overall time that could be saved with towing for running distances of 10, 20, and 42.2-km based on equations from previous research. Then, we empirically tested our 10-km model on 15 runners. Towing improved overall running performance considerably and our model accurately predicted this performance improvement. For example, if two runners (a 70 kg runner with a 35 min solo 10-km time and a 70-kg runner with a 50-min solo 10-km time) maintain an optimal towing force throughout a 10-km race, they can improve overall performance by 15%, saving almost 8 min. Ultimately, the race performance time and body mass of each runner determine the optimal towing force.

  19. 32 CFR 634.50 - Towing and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Towing and storage. 634.50 Section 634.50 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Impounding Privately Owned Vehicles § 634.50 Towing and storage. (a) Impounded POVs may be...

  20. 33 CFR 83.24 - Towing and pushing (Rule 24).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Towing and pushing (Rule 24). 83... NAVIGATION RULES RULES Lights and Shapes § 83.24 Towing and pushing (Rule 24). (a) A power-driven vessel when... it can best be seen. (b) Pushing vessel and pushed vessel rigidly connected in composite unit. When a...

  1. Conversion factor and uncertainty estimation for quantification of towed gamma-ray detector measurements in Tohoku coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, S.; Thornton, B.; Kamada, S.; Hirao, Y.; Ura, T.; Odano, N.

    2016-01-01

    Factors to convert the count rate of a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector to the concentration of radioactive cesium in marine sediments are estimated for a towed gamma-ray detector system. The response of the detector against a unit concentration of radioactive cesium is calculated by Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation considering the vertical profile of radioactive material measured in core samples. The conversion factors are acquired by integrating the contribution of each layer and are normalized by the concentration in the surface sediment layer. At the same time, the uncertainty of the conversion factors are formulated and estimated. The combined standard uncertainty of the radioactive cesium concentration by the towed gamma-ray detector is around 25 percent. The values of uncertainty, often referred to as relative root mean squat errors in other works, between sediment core sampling measurements and towed detector measurements were 16 percent in the investigation made near the Abukuma River mouth and 5.2 percent in Sendai Bay, respectively. Most of the uncertainty is due to interpolation of the conversion factors between core samples and uncertainty of the detector's burial depth. The results of the towed measurements agree well with laboratory analysed sediment samples. Also, the concentrations of radioactive cesium at the intersection of each survey line are consistent. The consistency with sampling results and between different lines' transects demonstrate the availability and reproducibility of towed gamma-ray detector system.

  2. Conversion factor and uncertainty estimation for quantification of towed gamma-ray detector measurements in Tohoku coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, S., E-mail: ohnishi@nmri.go.jp [National Maritime Research Institute, 6-38-1, Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0004 (Japan); Thornton, B. [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Kamada, S.; Hirao, Y.; Ura, T.; Odano, N. [National Maritime Research Institute, 6-38-1, Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0004 (Japan)

    2016-05-21

    Factors to convert the count rate of a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector to the concentration of radioactive cesium in marine sediments are estimated for a towed gamma-ray detector system. The response of the detector against a unit concentration of radioactive cesium is calculated by Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation considering the vertical profile of radioactive material measured in core samples. The conversion factors are acquired by integrating the contribution of each layer and are normalized by the concentration in the surface sediment layer. At the same time, the uncertainty of the conversion factors are formulated and estimated. The combined standard uncertainty of the radioactive cesium concentration by the towed gamma-ray detector is around 25 percent. The values of uncertainty, often referred to as relative root mean squat errors in other works, between sediment core sampling measurements and towed detector measurements were 16 percent in the investigation made near the Abukuma River mouth and 5.2 percent in Sendai Bay, respectively. Most of the uncertainty is due to interpolation of the conversion factors between core samples and uncertainty of the detector's burial depth. The results of the towed measurements agree well with laboratory analysed sediment samples. Also, the concentrations of radioactive cesium at the intersection of each survey line are consistent. The consistency with sampling results and between different lines' transects demonstrate the availability and reproducibility of towed gamma-ray detector system.

  3. Characterization of the fate and transport of nitroaromatic compounds at a former DoD ordnance depot site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klausmeier, M.E.; Yoon, J.

    1999-07-01

    The 975-acre Former Nansemond Ordnance Depot (FNOD) in Suffolk, Virginia was used by the Department of Defense (DoD) from 1917 until the mid-1950's for preparation, storage, transportation, inspection and demilitarization of many classes of ammunition and ordnance. Approximately 28 areas of Concern (AOC) have been identified by the EPA as areas that could pose potential risk to human health or the environment. The primary contaminants of concern are some trace metals and explosive compounds. During a summer 1987 field investigation, a slab of crystalline TNT was found which was estimated to weigh several tons. An enhanced MODFLOW model is being used to identify subsurface flow patterns. The calibrated model will be used to identify contaminant fate and transport behavior at the site. Enhancements to the MODFLOW model include an updated block-centered flow package (BCF4) and an updated recharge-seepage face boundary package (RSF4) to utilize for the FNOD site flow characterization. BCF4 package accurately delineates the water table without relying on an ad hoc rewetting procedure. This is accomplished by calculating the hydraulic head value required to transmit recharging water through the unsaturated zone without inactivating dry cells. The recharge-seepage face package eliminates the projection of heads above the ground surface by adjusting recharge to a cell when a user supplied ponding depth is reached. Using a regional model, a telescoping grid refinement technique was implemented to calculate the boundary conditions around the area of interest and to model quantity and quality interactions between surface and subsurface water regimes in a realistic manner.

  4. Atmospheric corrosion Monitoring with Time-of-Wetness (TOW) sensor and Thin Film Electric Resistance (TFER) sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sung Won; Kim, Young Geun; Song, Hong Seok; Lee, Seung Min; Kho, Young Tai

    2002-01-01

    In this study, TOW sensor was fabricated with the same P. J. Serada's in NRC and was evaluated according to pollutant amount and wet/dry cycle. Laboratorily fabricated thin film electric resistance (TFER) probes were applied in same environment for the measurement of corrosion rate for feasibility. TOW sensor could not differentiate the wet and dry time especially at polluted environment like 3.5% NaCl solution. This implies that wet/dry time monitoring by means of TOW sensor need careful application on various environment. TFER sensor could produce instant atmospheric corrosion rate regardless of environment condition. And corrosion rate obtained by TFER sensor could be differentiated according to wet/dry cycle, wet/dry cycle time variation and solution chemistry. Corrosion behaviors of TFER sensor showed that corrosion could proceed even after wet cycle because of remained electrolyte at the surface

  5. Electromagnetic packable technology (EMPACT) for detection and characterization of ordnance in post-conflict areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Gregory; Miller, Jonathan; Keranen, Joe

    2013-06-01

    Land reclamation efforts in post-conflict regions are often hampered by the presence of Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) or other Explosive Remnants of War (ERW). Surface geophysical methods, such as Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) and magnetometry, are typically applied to screen rehabilitation areas for UXO prior to excavation; however, the prevalence of innocuous magnetic clutter related to indigenous scrap, fragmentation, or geology can severely impede the progress and efficiency of these remediation efforts. Additionally, the variability in surface conditions and local topography necessitates the development of sensor technologies that can be applied to a range of sites including those that prohibit the use of vehicle-mounted or large array systems. We present a man-portable EMI sensor known as the Electromagnetic Packable Technology (EMPACT) system that features a multi-axis sensor configuration in a compact form factor. The system is designed for operation in challenging site conditions and can be used in low ground-standoff modes to detect small and low-metal content objects. The EMPACT acquires high spatial density, multi-axis data that enable high resolution of small objects. This high density data can also be used to provide characterization of target physical features, such as size, material content, and shape. We summarize the development of this system for humanitarian demining operations and present results from preliminary system evaluations against a range of target types. Specifically, we assess the general detection capabilities of the EMPACT system and we evaluate the potential for target classification based on analysis of data and target model features.

  6. Use of water towing tanks for aerodynamics and hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelhak, Mohamed

    1987-01-01

    Wind tunnels and flumes have become standard laboratory tools for modeling a variety of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic flow problems. Less available, although by no means less useful, are facilities in which a model can be towed (or propelled) through air or water. This article emphasizes the use of the water towing tank as an experimental tool for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic studies. Its advantages and disadvantages over other flow rigs are discussed, and its usefullness is illustrated through many examples of research results obtained over the past few years in a typical towing tank facility.

  7. A Hybrid Pressure and Vector Sensor Towed Array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Dehua

    2008-01-01

    The invention as disclosed is of a combined acoustic pressure and acoustic vector sensor array, where multiple acoustic pressure sensors are integrated with an acoustic vector sensor in a towed array...

  8. GLOBEC NEP Vertical Plankton Tow (VPT) Data, 1997-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GLOBEC (GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics) NEP (Northeast Pacific) California Current Program Vertical Plankton Tow (VPT) Data For more information, see...

  9. Shark Attack Project - Marine Attack at Towed Hydrophone Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalmijn, Adrianus J

    2005-01-01

    The original objective of the SIO Marine Attack project was to identify the electric and magnetic fields causing sharks to inflict serious damage upon the towed hydrophone arrays of US Navy submarines...

  10. Review and Identification of DOE Laboratory Technologies for Countermine/Unexploded Ordnance Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.M.

    2002-04-03

    Several Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories have worked and/or are working on technologies that are applicable to the detection of landmines and/or unexploded ordnance. This report is a compilation of technical summaries for many of these technologies. For additional information on any technology, appropriate points of contact are provided for each technology.

  11. 77 FR 16718 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School Training Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... bottlenose dolphins, by Level B harassment, incidental to Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School (NEODS... School Training Operations at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... Harassment Authorizations (IHAs) pursuant to section 101(a)(5)(D) of the MMPA for similar specified...

  12. Trace metal contamination of Beaufort's Dyke, North Channel, Irish Sea: A legacy of ordnance disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, Alexander; Quinn, Rory; Brown, Craig J.; Service, Matthew; Benetti, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Our samples are the first trace metal concentrations taken from the valley of Beaufort's Dyke. → There is no clear trend between concentrations of trace metals in Dyke and NMMP sediments. → Particle transport simulations show dispersal of trace metals from Beaufort's Dyke is possible. → Disposed ordnance may also contribute to contamination of surrounding areas. → These methods could help predict areas at risk of future trace metal contamination as a result of ordnance disposal. - Abstract: Beaufort's Dyke is a disused ordnance disposal ground within the North Channel of the Irish Sea. Over 1 million tonnes of ordnance were disposed of in the dyke over a 40 year period representing a substantial volume of trace metal pollutants introduced to the seabed. Utilising particle transport modelling software we simulated the potential transport of metal particles from Beaufort's Dyke over a 3 month period. This demonstrated that Beaufort's Dyke has the potential to act as a source for trace metal contamination to areas beyond the submarine valley. Trace metal analysis of sediments from the Dyke and surrounding National Marine Monitoring Programme areas demonstrate that the Dyke is not the most contaminated site in the region. Particle transport modelling enables the transport pathways of trace metal contaminants to be predicted. Implementation of the technique in other munitions disposal grounds will provide valuable information for the selection of monitoring stations.

  13. In situ burning via towed boom of oil spilled at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier, G.; Fendell, F.; Mitchell, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, operational guidance for the efficient use of combustion in the cleanup of a surface oil film, formed as a result of a spill at sea, is sought by approximate analysis. In remediation by burning, the spilled oil itself provides the energy for its cleanup. Attention is focused on situations holding relatively far from the source of the spill and/or relatively long after the spill: the oil is taken to have so dispersed that the thickness of the film is on the order of a few millimeters. Under such conditions, the oil film is unlikely to burn without the use of multiple towed booms, each boom spreading its already-ignited, localized fire to continuously collected, previously unignited portions of the oil film. A simple, quasisteady, two-dimensional analysis suggests efficient values for the tow speed and the tow--line length as functions of such parameters as the oil density, oil-film thickness, oil burn/evaporation rate, etc. The analysis leads to specific suggestions for apparently unreported laboratory experiments that may be informative prior to at-sea operation

  14. A new towed platform for the unobtrusive surveying of benthic habitats and organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawada, David G.; Thompson, P.R.; Butcher, J.

    2008-01-01

    Maps of coral ecosystems are needed to support many conservation and management objectives, as well as research activities. Examples include ground-truthing aerial and satellite imagery, characterizing essential habitat, assessing changes, and monitoring the progress of restoration efforts. To address some of these needs, the U.S. Geological Survey developed the Along-Track Reef-Imaging System (ATRIS), a boat-based sensor package for mapping shallow-water benthic environments. ATRIS consists of a digital still camera, a video camera, and an acoustic depth sounder affixed to a moveable pole. This design, however, restricts its deployment to clear waters less than 10 m deep. To overcome this limitation, a towed version has been developed, referred to as Deep ATRIS. The system is based on a light-weight, computer-controlled, towed vehicle that is capable of following a programmed diving profile. The vehicle is 1.3 m long with a 63-cm wing span and can carry a wide variety of research instruments, including CTDs, fluorometers, transmissometers, and cameras. Deep ATRIS is currently equipped with a high-speed (20 frames · s-1) digital camera, custom-built light-emitting-diode lights, a compass, a 3-axis orientation sensor, and a nadir-looking altimeter. The vehicle dynamically adjusts its altitude to maintain a fixed height above the seafloor. The camera has a 29° x 22° field-of-view and captures color images that are 1360 x 1024 pixels in size. GPS coordinates are recorded for each image. A gigabit ethernet connection enables the images to be displayed and archived in real time on the surface computer. Deep ATRIS has a maximum tow speed of 2.6 m · s-1and a theoretical operating tow-depth limit of 27 m. With an improved tow cable, the operating depth can be extended to 90 m. Here, we present results from the initial sea trials in the Gulf of Mexico and Biscayne National Park, Florida, USA, and discuss the utility of Deep ATRIS for map-ping coral reef habitats

  15. Radiological assessment of depleted uranium migration offsite from an ordnance range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rynders, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    The military utilizes ordnance loaded with depleted uranium in order to maximize armor penetrating capabilities. These weapons are tested on open ranges where the weapons are fired through a cloth target and impact into the soil. This paper examines the potential environmental impact from use of depleted uranium in an open setting. A preliminary pathway analysis was performed to examine potential routes of exposure to nonhuman species in the vicinity and ultimately to man. Generic data was used in the study to estimate the isotopic mix and weight of the ordnance. Key factors in the analysis included analyzing the physics of weapon impact on soil, chemical changes in material upon impact, and mechanisms of offsite transport (including atmospheric and overland transport). Non-standard exposure scenarios were investigated, including the possibility of offsite contaminant transport due to range grassfires. Two radiological assessment codes, MEPAS (Multi media Environmental Pollutant Assessment System) and RESRAD were used to help analyze the scenarios

  16. Bench-Scale Investigation of Composting for Remediation of Explosives-Contaminated Soils from Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane, Indiana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Preston, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    ...), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7- tetrazocine (HMX). The Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Crane, Indiana, provides material and logistic support to the Navy's weapon systems, including expendable and nonexpendable ordnance items...

  17. A Hybrid Approach to the Valuation of RFID/MEMS technology applied to ordnance inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Doerr, Kenneth H.; Gates, William R.; Mutty, John E.

    2006-01-01

    We report on an analysis of the costs and benefits of fielding Radio Frequency Identification / MicroElectroMechanical System (RFID /MEMS) technology for the management of ordnance inventory. A factorial model of these benefits is proposed. Our valuation approach combines a multi-criteria tool for the valuation of qualitative factors with a monte-carlo simulation of anticipated financial factors. In a sample survey, qualitative factors are shown to account of over half of the anticipated bene...

  18. A Covered Cod-End and Tow-Path Evaluation of Midwater Trawl Gear Efficiency for Catching Delta Smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Mitchell

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2017v15iss4art3For nearly 50 years, the California Department of Fish and Wildlife has used a midwater trawl to intensively monitor fish populations in the San Francisco Estuary during the fall, sampling over 100 locations each month. The data collected have been useful for calculating indices of fish abundance and for detecting and documenting the decline of the endangered fish species delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus. However, efforts to calculate estimates of absolute abundance have been hampered by the lack of information on gear efficiency, in particular questions about contact selectivity and the effect of tow method on catches. To answer these questions we conducted a study that used a covered cod end on a net towed either near the surface, referred to as a surface tow, or throughout the water column, referred to as an oblique tow. A contact selectivity model was fit to estimate the probability that a delta smelt that has come into contact with the net is retained in the cod end of the net conditional on its body length. Full retention of delta smelt was found to occur around 60 mm fork length. Delta smelt catch densities for the surface tows were an order of magnitude greater than densities in the oblique tows, suggesting a surface orientation at the sub-adult life stage. These results represent an important step in being able to calculate absolute abundance estimates of the delta smelt population size using decades’ worth of monitoring data.

  19. 33 CFR 164.76 - Towline and terminal gear for towing alongside and pushing ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... towing alongside and pushing ahead. 164.76 Section 164.76 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Towline and terminal gear for towing alongside and pushing ahead. The owner, master, or operator of each vessel towing alongside or pushing ahead shall ensure that the face wires, spring lines, and push gear...

  20. 77 FR 12863 - Towing Safety Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. USCG-2012-0098] Towing Safety Advisory Committee... Airport, 9100 Gulf Freeway; Houston TX 77017. Hotel Web site: http://www.marriott.com/hotels/travel/houhh... the issues to be considered by the committee. Written comments must be identified by Docket No. USCG...

  1. 78 FR 14314 - Towing Safety Advisory Committee; Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ...: The Towing Safety Advisory Committee will meet in New York City, New York, March 21 and 22, 2013, to... the agenda in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section below. The subcommittees will meet March 20, 2012, and work on seven assigned tasks listed in the referenced agenda. All meetings will be open to the...

  2. 77 FR 31631 - Towing Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... and oil supply vessel industry; [cir] One member representing holders of active licensed Masters or... the Barge and Towing industry; One representative from the offshore mineral and oil supply vessel...). Applicants can obtain this form by going to the Web site of the Office of Government Ethics ( www.oge.gov...

  3. Measuring Method for Fuzz Mass of Carbon Fiber Tow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Tan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to quantitatively test fuzz degree of carbon fiber (CF tow, a measuring method for fuzz mass of CF tow was developed, and the testing device was built. Fuzz mass of two kinds of domestic T800-grade CF were tested using the established method. The effects of spreading width of CF tow, tension and fuzz-adsorption material on the fuzz mass of the two fibers were investigated. Several kinds of imported, domestic T700-grade CF and T800-grade CF were tested using optimized testing conditions. The experimental results show that the testing method is easy to operate and has wide applicability. Under 1-2N tension, 0.1-0.6mm pore size of sponge and 1-4N load applied on sponge, the measured values of T800-grade CF with 12K yield are reasonable. For CF tow with high fuzz mass, certain spreading width makes fuzz inside fiber bundle expose, which is needed to ensure the accuracy of testing result.

  4. The lasting legacy of war: epidemiology of injuries from landmines and unexploded ordnance in Afghanistan, 2002-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilukha, Oleg O; Brennan, Muireann; Anderson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Due to several decades of armed conflict and civil unrest, Afghanistan is one of the countries most affected by landmines and unexploded ordnance worldwide. The study was performed to assess the magnitude of injuries due to landmines and unexploded ordnance in Afghanistan during 2002-2006 and to describe epidemiological patterns and potential risk factors for these events. Surveillance data including 5,471 injuries caused by landmines and unexploded ordnance in Afghanistan during 2002-2006 were analyzed. The International Committee of the Red Cross collects data on such injuries from 490 reporting health facilities and volunteers throughout the country. These surveillance data were used to describe injury trends, victim demographics, injury types, risk behaviors, and explosive types related to landmine and unexploded ordnance accidents. The largest number of injuries (1,706) occurred in 2002. The number declined sharply to 1,049 injuries in 2003, and remained relatively stable with slight decline thereafter. Overall, 92% of victims were civilians, 91% were males, and 47% were children <18 years of age. The case-fatality ratio was 17%. Approximately 50% of all injuries were caused by unexploded ordnance and 42% by landmines. Among children, 65% of injuries were caused by unexploded ordnance and only 27% by landmines, whereas in adults, most injuries (56%) were caused by landmines. The most common risk behaviors among children were tending animals, playing, and tampering with explosive devices. In adults, most common risk behaviors were traveling, performing activities of economic necessity, and tampering with explosives. Twenty-eight percent of the surviving victims who received mine awareness training and 2% of those who did not receive such training reported that the area where event occurred was marked. The large number of injuries and high proportion of child victims suggest that clearance and risk education activities fall short of achieving their goals, and

  5. Deep-tow magnetic survey above large exhumed mantle domains of the eastern Southwest Indian ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, A.; Munschy, M.; Carlut, J. H.; Searle, R. C.; Sauter, D.; Cannat, M.

    2011-12-01

    The recent discovery of a new type of seafloor, the "smooth seafloor", formed with no or very little volcanic activity along the ultra-slow spreading Southwest Indian ridge (SWIR) shows an unexpected complexity in processes of generation of the oceanic lithosphere. There, detachment faulting is thought to be a mechanism for efficient exhumation of deep-seated mantle rocks. We present here a deep-tow geological-geophysical survey over smooth seafloor at the eastern SWIR (62-64°N) combining magnetic data, geology mapping from side-scan sonar images and results from dredge sampling. We introduce a new type of calibration approach for deep-tow fluxgate magnetometer. We show that magnetic data can be corrected from the magnetic effect of the vehicle with no recourse to its attitude (pitch, roll and heading) but only using the 3 components recorded by the magnetometer and an approximation of the scalar intensity of the Earth magnetic field. The collected dredge samples as well as the side-scan images confirm the presence of large areas of exhumed mantle-derived peridodites surrounded by a few volcanic constructions. This allows us to hypothesis that magnetic anomalies are caused by serpentinized peridotites or magmatic intrusions. We show that the magnetic signature of the smooth seafloor is clearly weaker than the surrounding volcanic areas. Moreover, the calculated magnetization of a source layer as well as the comparison between deep-tow and sea-surface magnetic data argue for strong East-West variability in the distribution of the magnetized sources. This variability may results from fluid-rocks interaction along the detachment faults as well as from the repartition of the volcanic material and thus questions the seafloor spreading origin of the corresponding magnetic anomalies. Finally, we provide magnetic arguments, as calculation of block rotation or spreading asymmetry in order to better constrain tectonic mechanisms that occur during the formation of this

  6. Detection of Buried Mines and Unexploded Ordnance (UXO)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heberlein, David; Balko, Bohdan; Chappell, Isaac; Biddle, John

    2007-01-01

    ... [and/or their explosive-related compounds (ERCs)] concentrated in the top soil, and radiation techniques, which uses radiation to probe beneath the earth's surface to provide bulk detection of buried explosive devices...

  7. Flight demonstration of flight termination system and solid rocket motor ignition using semiconductor laser initiated ordnance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Norman R.; Maxfield, B.; Boucher, C.

    1995-01-01

    Solid State Laser Initiated Ordnance (LIO) offers new technology having potential for enhanced safety, reduced costs, and improved operational efficiency. Concerns over the absence of programmatic applications of the technology, which has prevented acceptance by flight programs, should be abated since LIO has now been operationally implemented by the Laser Initiated Ordnance Sounding Rocket Demonstration (LOSRD) Program. The first launch of solid state laser diode LIO at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) occurred on March 15, 1995 with all mission objectives accomplished. This project, Phase 3 of a series of three NASA Headquarters LIO demonstration initiatives, accomplished its objective by the flight of a dedicated, all-LIO sounding rocket mission using a two-stage Nike-Orion launch vehicle. LIO flight hardware, made by The Ensign-Bickford Company under NASA's first Cooperative Agreement with Profit Making Organizations, safely initiated three demanding pyrotechnic sequence events, namely, solid rocket motor ignition from the ground and in flight, and flight termination, i.e., as a Flight Termination System (FTS). A flight LIO system was designed, built, tested, and flown to support the objectives of quickly and inexpensively putting LIO through ground and flight operational paces. The hardware was fully qualified for this mission, including component testing as well as a full-scale system test. The launch accomplished all mission objectives in less than 11 months from proposal receipt. This paper concentrates on accomplishments of the ordnance aspects of the program and on the program's implementation and results. While this program does not generically qualify LIO for all applications, it demonstrated the safety, technical, and operational feasibility of those two most demanding applications, using an all solid state safe and arm system in critical flight applications.

  8. Joint Diagonalization Applied to the Detection and Discrimination of Unexploded Ordnance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    center (Das et al., 1990; Barrow and Nelson, 2001; Bell et al., 2001; Pasion and Oldenburg, 2001; Zhang et al., 2003; Smith and Mor- rison, 2004; Tarokh et...2011.01.007. Moyes, R., R. Lloyd, and R. McGrath, 2002, Explosive remnants of war: Unexploded ordnance and post-conflict communities: Landmine Action. Pasion ...detection and discrimination: Proceedings of SPIE, 7664, 766408, doi: 10.1117/12/850654. Shubitidze, F., J. P. Fernández, I. Shamatava, L. R. Pasion , B. E

  9. Seen but not heard: injuries and deaths from landmines and unexploded ordnance in Chechnya, 1994-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilukha, Oleg O; Brennan, Muireann; Anderson, Mark; Tsitsaev, Zaur; Murtazaeva, Eliza; Ibragimov, Ramzan

    2007-01-01

    Due to more than a decade of armed conflict and civil unrest, Chechnya is among the regions most affected by landmines and unexploded ordnance worldwide. The study was performed to assess the magnitude of injuries and deaths due to landmines and unexploded ordnance in Chechnya between 1994 and 2005 and to describe epidemiologic patterns and risk factors for these events. Surveillance data that included 3,021 civilian non-combatants injured by landmines and unexploded ordnance in Chechnya during 1994-2005 were analyzed. Local non-governmental organizations in collaboration with the United Nations Children's Fund conducted victim data collection using trained staff to interview victims or their families. Surveillance data were used to describe injury trends, victim demographics, injury types, risk behaviors, and types of explosives related to landmine and unexploded ordnance events. The largest number of injuries occurred in 2000 (716, injury rate 6.6 per 10,000) and 2001 (640, injury rate 5.9 per 10,000). One-quarter of all victims were younger than 18 years, and 19% were females. The case-fatality rate was 23%. Approximately 40% of victims were injured by landmines, 30% by unexploded ordnance, and 7% by booby traps. A large proportion of children and adults were injured while traveling or performing activities of economic necessity; 29% of children were injured while tampering with explosives or playing in a contaminated area. The proportion of victims with lower limb amputations was similar among children and adults (14% and 17%, respectively), whereas the proportion ofvictims with upper limb amputations was three times higher in children than in adults (12% and 4%, respectively). Most accidents that occurred while the victim was traveling or performing activities of economic necessity were caused by landmines, while most accidents that occurred while the victim was playing near an explosive device or tampering with it were caused by unexploded ordnance. Civilians

  10. Strategi Bisnis pada PT CTL Dengan Pendekatan Metode Tows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjia Fie Tjoe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is determining direction of the correct business strategy to be applied by PT CTL, a garment company producing cloth for men. Research method used by the author is descriptive analysis with a case study research method. Research is conducted by collecting data obtained through survey by interview and giving questionnaire to all staff and head and also observation by evaluating directly the research object and also through literature study. Data analysis is conducted through input phase by using IFAS and EFAS matrix, adaptation phase with TOWS diagram, TOWS matrix and Internal-External matrix, and also uses SPACE matrix and also BCG matrix to analyse company's finance situation. Based on the conducted analysist the recommended corporation level strategy to be used by the company is diversification strategy direct to growth and stability. 

  11. The contact drag of towed demersal fishing gear components

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, F. G.; Summerbell, K.; Ivanović, A.

    2018-01-01

    The contact demersal towed fishing gears make with the seabed can lead to penetration of the substrate, lateral displacement of the sediment and a pressure field transmitted through the sediment. It will also contribute to the overall drag of the fishing gear. Consequently, there can be environmental effects such as habitat alteration and benthic mortality, and impacts to the fuel efficiency of the fishing operation which will affect emissions of nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and greenhouse gases such as CO2. Here we present the results of experimental trials that measure the contact drag of a range of elements that represent some of the components of towed demersal gears that are in contact with the seabed. We show that the contact drag of the gear components depends on their weight, geometry, the type of sediment on which they are towed and whether they are rolling or not. As expected, the contact drag of each gear component increases as its weight increases and the drag of fixed elements is greater than that of the rolling ones. The dependence on aspect ratio is more complex and the drag (per unit area) of narrow cylinders is less than that of wider ones when they roll on the finer sediment or are fixed (not permitted to roll) on the coarser sediment. When they roll on the coarse sediment there is no dependence on aspect ratio. Our results also suggest that fixed components may penetrate the seabed to a lesser depth when they are towed at higher speeds but when they roll there is no such relationship.

  12. Material quality development during the automated tow placement process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, John Joseph

    Automated tow placement (ATP) of thermoplastic composites builds on the existing industrial base for equipment, robotics and kinematic placement of material with the aim of further cost reduction by eliminating the autoclave entirely. During ATP processing, thermoplastic composite tows are deposited on a preconsolidated substrate at rates ranging from 10--100mm/s and consolidated using the localized application of heat and pressure by a tow placement head mounted on a robot. The process is highly non-isothermal subjecting the material to multiple heating and cooling rates approaching 1000°C/sec. The requirement for the ATP process is to achieve the same quality in seconds (low void content, full translation of mechanical properties and degree of bonding and minimal warpage) as the autoclave process achieves in hours. The scientific challenge was to first understand and then model the relationships between processing, material response, microstructure and quality. The important phenomena affecting quality investigated in this study include a steady state heat transfer simulation, consolidation and deconsolidation (void dynamics), intimate contact and polymer interdiffusion (degree of bonding/mechanical properties) and residual stress and warpage (crystallization and viscoelastic response). A fundamental understanding of the role of materials related to these mechanisms and their relationship to final quality is developed and applied towards a method of process control and optimization.

  13. Emergency towing systems for the Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, L.A.; Brown, J.; Folley, G.; Robertson, T.; Bryant, B.

    2009-01-01

    Several incidents related to distressed or stricken vessels have occurred in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, where vessel groundings have caused environmental and economic impacts. A disabled vessel workgroup was formed to discuss local emergency response solutions in the region, particularly for larger tramper or cargo vessels carrying fuel in bottom tanks. The Aleutian emergency towing system (ETS) group developed emergency towing capabilities for disabled vessels in the Aleutian Island sub-area using tugboats in conjunction with ETS equipment stationed in the town of Unalaska. Emergency towing systems were also purchased to serve a wider range of vessels. The ETS consisted of a lightweight towline, a messenger line to assist in deploying the towline, a line-launcher, a lighted buoy, and chafing gear. The components can be configured to deploy a disabled ship from the stern of a tugboat, or air-dropped via helicopter to a ship's deck. A procedures manual and training DVD has been published, and mobilization and deployment exercises are conducted annually. 1 ref., 2 figs

  14. A nautical study of towed marine seismic streamer cable configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Egil

    1996-12-31

    This study concerns marine seismic surveying and especially the towed in-sea hardware which is dominated by recording cables (streamers) that are extremely long compared to their diameter, neutrally buoyant and depth controlled. The present work aims to examine the operations from a nautical viewpoint, and the final objective is to propose improvements to the overall efficiency of marine seismic operations. Full-scale data were gathered from seismic vessels in order to identify which physical parameters affect the dynamic motion of the towing vessel and its in-sea hardware. Experimental test programmes have been carried out, and data bases with the hydrodynamic characteristics of the test equipment have been established at speeds comparable to those used in seismic operations. A basic analysis tool to provide dynamic simulations of a seismic streamer cable has been developed by tailoring the computer program system Riflex, and the validation and accuracy of this modified Riflex system are evaluated by performing uncertainty analyses of measurements and computations. Unexpected, low-frequency depth motions in towed seismic streamer cables occasionally take place when seismic data are being acquired. The phenomenon is analysed and discussed. 99 refs., 116 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. A nautical study of towed marine seismic streamer cable configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Egil

    1997-12-31

    This study concerns marine seismic surveying and especially the towed in-sea hardware which is dominated by recording cables (streamers) that are extremely long compared to their diameter, neutrally buoyant and depth controlled. The present work aims to examine the operations from a nautical viewpoint, and the final objective is to propose improvements to the overall efficiency of marine seismic operations. Full-scale data were gathered from seismic vessels in order to identify which physical parameters affect the dynamic motion of the towing vessel and its in-sea hardware. Experimental test programmes have been carried out, and data bases with the hydrodynamic characteristics of the test equipment have been established at speeds comparable to those used in seismic operations. A basic analysis tool to provide dynamic simulations of a seismic streamer cable has been developed by tailoring the computer program system Riflex, and the validation and accuracy of this modified Riflex system are evaluated by performing uncertainty analyses of measurements and computations. Unexpected, low-frequency depth motions in towed seismic streamer cables occasionally take place when seismic data are being acquired. The phenomenon is analysed and discussed. 99 refs., 116 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. First results: Robot mapping of areas contaminated by landmines and unexploded ordnance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kjeld; Larsen, Leon Bonde; Olsen, Kent Stark

    Landmines and unexploded ordnance are a se- rious threat to the life and livelihood in post conflict areas in many parts of the world. In addition to the many casual- ties each year, the inaccessible roads and loss of cultivated areas have a significant impact on the local economy. Many organisat...... simultaneously. The FroboMind architecture based on Robot Operating System (ROS) is used for robot control. Software components will be released as open-source for others to build upon.......Landmines and unexploded ordnance are a se- rious threat to the life and livelihood in post conflict areas in many parts of the world. In addition to the many casual- ties each year, the inaccessible roads and loss of cultivated areas have a significant impact on the local economy. Many...... organisations are running humanitarian demining projects to clear the contaminated areas. But progress is slow since mine clearance is a very time-consuming process, and there is no room for error since most existing techniques involves an operator on site. A number of research projects have demonstrated...

  17. M2-F1 in flight being towed by a C-47

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    The M2-F1 Lifting Body is seen here being towed behind a C-47 at the Flight Research Center (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California. In this rear view, the M2-F1 is flying above and to one side of the C-47. This was done to avoid wake turbulence from the towplane. Lacking wings, the M2-F1 used an unusual configuration for its control surfaces. It had two rudders on the fins, two elevons (called 'elephant ears') mounted on the outsides of the fins, and two body flaps on the upper rear fuselage. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. These initial tests produced enough flight data about the M2-F1 to proceed with flights behind the C-47 tow plane at greater altitudes. The C-47 took the craft to an altitude of 12,000 where free flights back to Rogers Dry Lake began. Pilot for the first series of flights of the M2-F1 was NASA research pilot Milt Thompson. Typical glide flights with the M2-F1 lasted about two minutes and reached speeds of 110 to l20 mph. More than 400 ground tows and 77 aircraft tow flights were carried out with the M2-F1. The success of Dryden's M2-F1 program led to NASA's development and construction of two heavyweight lifting bodies based on studies at NASA's Ames and

  18. Influence of tow duration on catch performance of trawl survey in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Sala

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of tow duration on catch per unit of swept area (CPUE, trawl catch performance, and the proportion of the species caught in a trawl survey. Longer tows are expected to have a greater probability of catching species. An average of 26 species were caught in the first 30 minutes, whereas only about one additional species was caught in the next 30 minutes in longer tows. The shorter tows involved a decrement in catch weight for 11 of the 12 target species sampled, demonstrating that tow duration did affect catch per unit of swept area CPUE. The shorter tows were associated with a significant reduction of the overall CPUE in terms of weight of the main target species and of the total catch (circa 60%. The same strong reduction of around 70% was found in particular for European hake (Merluccius merluccius and surmullet (Mullus spp and 50% for Nephrops (Nephrops norvegicus. The shorter tows were less efficient in catching large-sized hake, surmullet, Nephrops, Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, and poor cod (Trisopterus minutus, even though the difference was significant only for Nephrops. Regardless of the p-value statistic, these findings suggest that the continuity of survey time series would be severely impaired by changing tow duration. Further work is required to explore a way to reduce tow duration without reducing CPUE.

  19. Engineered Polymer Composites Through Electrospun Nanofiber Coating of Fiber Tows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlman, Lee W.; Bakis, Charles; Williams, Tiffany S.; Johnston, James C.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Composite materials offer significant weight savings in many aerospace applications. The toughness of the interface of fibers crossing at different angles often determines failure of composite components. A method for toughening the interface in fabric and filament wound components using directly electrospun thermoplastic nanofiber on carbon fiber tow is presented. The method was first demonstrated with limited trials, and then was scaled up to a continuous lab scale process. Filament wound tubes were fabricated and tested using unmodified baseline towpreg material and nanofiber coated towpreg.

  20. Deep-tow geophysical survey above large exhumed mantle domains of the eastern Southwest Indian ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, A.; Munschy, M.; Sauter, D.; Carlut, J.; Searle, R.; Cannat, M.

    2012-04-01

    The recent discovery of a new type of seafloor, the "smooth seafloor", formed with no or very little volcanic activity along the easternmost part of the ultra-slow spreading Southwest Indian ridge (SWIR) shows an unexpected complexity in processes of generation of the oceanic lithosphere. There, detachment faulting is thought to be a mechanism for efficient exhumation of deep-seated mantle rocks. We present here a deep-tow geological-geophysical survey over smooth seafloor at the eastern SWIR (62-64°N) combining multibeam bathymetric data, magnetic data, geology mapping from sidescan sonar (TOBI) images and results from dredge sampling. We introduce a new type of calibration approach for deep-tow fluxgate magnetometer. We show that magnetic data can be corrected from the magnetic effect of the vehicle with no recourse to its attitude (pitch, roll and heading) but only using the 3 components recorded by the magnetometer and an approximation of the scalar intensity of the Earth magnetic field. The collected dredge samples as well as the sidescan sonar images confirm the presence of large areas of exhumed mantle-derived peridodites surrounded by a few volcanic constructions. We investigate the possibility that magnetic anomalies are either caused by serpentinized peridotites and/or magmatic intrusions. We show that the magnetic signature of the smooth seafloor is clearly weaker than the surrounding volcanic areas. Moreover, the calculated magnetization of a source layer as well as the comparison between deep-tow and sea-surface magnetic data argue for strong East-West variability in the distribution of the magnetized sources. This variability may result from fluid-rock interactions along the detachment faults as well as from the occurrence of small sized and thin volcanic patches and thus questions the seafloor spreading origin of the corresponding magnetic anomalies. Finally, we provide magnetic arguments, as calculation of block rotation or spreading asymmetry in

  1. 33 CFR 163.05 - Tows of seagoing barges within inland waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tows of seagoing barges within inland waters. 163.05 Section 163.05 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... inland waters. (a) The tows of seagoing barges when navigating the inland waters of the United States...

  2. 77 FR 52317 - Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active Sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active Sonar AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice of decision... to employ up to four Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) sonar...

  3. Evaluation of performance of Son Tek Argonaut acoustic doppler velocity log in tow tank and sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A; Madhan, R.; Mascarenhas, A.A; Desai, R.G.P.; VijayKumar, K.; Dias, M.; Tengali, S.; Methar, A

    Performance of a 500-kHz, 3-beam downward-looking Sontex Argonaut acoustic Doppler velocity log (DVL) based on measurements at tow-tank and sea is addressed. Its accuracy and linearity under tow-tank measurements were largely scattered...

  4. Evaluation of performance of Son Tek Argonaut acoustic doppler velocity log in tow tank and sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Madhan, R.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Desai, R.G.P.; VijayKumar, K.; Dias, M.; Tengali, S.; Methar, A.

    and inconsistent within the towing speed band of approx. or equal to plus or minus 50 cm/s. Outside of this band, its motion speed output exhibited unexpectedly large error (within the range of -52% and -72% of towing speed) as a result of a computational error...

  5. The Status of Infantry TOW, LAW, and Dragon Training in USAREUR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    TOW duties (guard, CQ runner , etc.); (b) Permanent assignment to other than TOW duties; (c) medical and dental appointments and drug and alcohol abuse...in training areas would be most helpful, and a third said American tanks and ve- hicles could be mocked-up to look like enemy targets and that kites

  6. 46 CFR 2.01-50 - Persons other than crew on towing, oyster, or fishing steam vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Persons other than crew on towing, oyster, or fishing steam vessels. 2.01-50 Section 2.01-50 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES... than crew on towing, oyster, or fishing steam vessels. (a) A steam vessel engaged in towing, oyster...

  7. Performance metrics for state-of-the-art airborne magnetic and electromagnetic systems for mapping and detection of unexploded ordnance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, William E.; Bell, David T.; Gamey, T. Jeffrey; Beard, Les P.; Sheehan, Jacob R.; Norton, Jeannemarie

    2010-04-01

    Over the past decade, notable progress has been made in the performance of airborne geophysical systems for mapping and detection of unexploded ordnance in terrestrial and shallow marine environments. For magnetometer systems, the most significant improvements include development of denser magnetometer arrays and vertical gradiometer configurations. In prototype analyses and recent Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) assessments using new production systems the greatest sensitivity has been achieved with a vertical gradiometer configuration, despite model-based survey design results which suggest that dense total-field arrays would be superior. As effective as magnetometer systems have proven to be at many sites, they are inadequate at sites where basalts and other ferrous geologic formations or soils produce anomalies that approach or exceed those of target ordnance items. Additionally, magnetometer systems are ineffective where detection of non-ferrous ordnance items is of primary concern. Recent completion of the Battelle TEM-8 airborne time-domain electromagnetic system represents the culmination of nearly nine years of assessment and development of airborne electromagnetic systems for UXO mapping and detection. A recent ESTCP demonstration of this system in New Mexico showed that it was able to detect 99% of blind-seeded ordnance items, 81mm and larger, and that it could be used to map in detail a bombing target on a basalt flow where previous airborne magnetometer surveys had failed. The probability of detection for the TEM-8 in the blind-seeded study area was better than that reported for a dense-array total-field magnetometer demonstration of the same blind-seeded site, and the TEM-8 system successfully detected these items with less than half as many anomaly picks as the dense-array total-field magnetometer system.

  8. Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Ensembles: Biophysical Characteristics and Predicted Work Times With and Without Chemical Protection and Active Cooling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-29

    Integrated groin protector (IGP), and Boot Protector); GORE lined leather combat boots; and NOMEX® gloves with Velcro ; and EOD9 full face helmet... effective heat removal or cooling capacity of the active cooling system could not be obtained on the manikin, reasonable estimates can be used to...Price MJ, & Oldroyd M. The effect of heat acclimation on thermal strain during explosives ordnance disposal (EOD) related activity in moderate and

  9. Design and Analysis of Tow-Steered Composite Shells Using Fiber Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K. Chauncey

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a sub-scale advanced composite shell design is evaluated to determine its potential for use on a future aircraft fuselage. Two composite shells with the same nominal 8-ply [+/-45/+/-Theta](sub s) layup are evaluated, where Theta indicates a tow-steered ply. To build this shell, a fiber placement machine would be used to steer unidirectional prepreg tows as they are placed around the circumference of a 17-inch diameter right circular cylinder. The fiber orientation angle varies continuously from 10 degrees (with respect to the shell axis of revolution) at the crown, to 45 degrees on the side, and back to 10 degrees on the keel. All 24 tows are placed at each point on every fiber path in one structure designated as the shell with overlaps. The resulting pattern of tow overlaps causes the laminate thickness to vary between 8 and 16 plies. The second shell without tow overlaps uses the capability of the fiber placement machine to cut and add tows at any point along the fiber paths to fabricate a shell with a nearly uniform 8-ply laminate thickness. Issues encountered during the design and analysis of these shells are presented and discussed. Static stiffness and buckling loads of shells with tow-steered layups are compared with the performance of a baseline quasi-isotropic shell using both finite element analyses and classical strength of materials theory.

  10. Fracture Analyses of Cracked Delta Eye Plates in Ship Towing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangbing; Huang, Xingling; Sun, Jizheng

    2018-01-01

    Based on fracture mechanics, a safety analysis approach is proposed for cracked delta eye plates in ship towing. The static analysis model is presented when the delta eye plate is in service, and the fracture criterion is introduced on basis of stress intensity factor, which is estimated with domain integral method. Subsequently, three-dimensional finite element analyses are carried out to obtain the effective stress intensity factors, and a case is studied to demonstrate the reasonability of the approach. The results show that the classical strength theory is not applicable to evaluate the cracked plate while fracture mechanics can solve the problem very well, and the load level, which a delta eye plate can carry on, decreases evidently when it is damaged.

  11. Study on dynamic behavior analysis of towed line array sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Kyoung Shin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A set of equations of motion is derived for vibratory motions of an underwater cable connected to a moving vehicle at one end and with drogues at the other end. From the static analysis, cable configurations are obtained for different vehicle speeds and towing pretensions are determined by fluid resistance of drogues. Also the dynamic analysis is required to predict its vibratory motion. Nonlinear fluid drag forces greatly influence the dynamic tension. In this study, a numerical analysis program was developed to find out the characteristic of cable behaviour. The motion is described in terms of space and time coordinates based on Chebyshev polynomial expansions. For the spatial integration the collocation method is employed and the Newmark method is applied for the time integration. Dynamic tensions, displacements, velocities, accelerations were predicted in the time domain while natural frequencies and transfer functions were obtained in the frequency domain.

  12. Design and development of a family of explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Karl; Simpson, Tim; Rogan, Chris; Merenich, John; Brennan, Sean; Crow, Ed

    2008-10-01

    Across many consumer product industries, the prevailing practice is to design families of product variants that exploit commonality to provide the ability to easily customize a base platform for particular uses and to take advantage of commonality for streamlining design, manufacturing, maintenance and logistic; examples include Black & Decker, Seagate, and Volkswagen. This paper describes the application of product family concepts to the design and development of a family of robots to satisfy requirements for explosive ordnance disposal. To facilitate this process, we have developed a market segmentation grid that plots the desired capabilities and cost versus the target use cases. The product family design trade space is presented using a multi-dimensional trade space visualization tool which helps identify dependencies between different design variables and identify Pareto frontiers along which optimal design choices will lie. The EOD robot product family designs share common components and subsystems yet are modularized and scalable to provide functionality to satisfy a range of user requirements. This approach has been shown to significantly reduce development time and costs, manufacturing costs, maintenance and spare parts inventory, and operator and maintainer training.

  13. Acceleration-based methodology to assess the blast mitigation performance of explosive ordnance disposal helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, J. P.; Levine, J.; Makris, A.

    2018-01-01

    To design the next generation of blast mitigation helmets that offer increasing levels of protection against explosive devices, manufacturers must be able to rely on appropriate test methodologies and human surrogates that will differentiate the performance level of various helmet solutions and ensure user safety. Ideally, such test methodologies and associated injury thresholds should be based on widely accepted injury criteria relevant within the context of blast. Unfortunately, even though significant research has taken place over the last decade in the area of blast neurotrauma, there currently exists no agreement in terms of injury mechanisms for blast-induced traumatic brain injury. In absence of such widely accepted test methods and injury criteria, the current study presents a specific blast test methodology focusing on explosive ordnance disposal protective equipment, involving the readily available Hybrid III mannequin, initially developed for the automotive industry. The unlikely applicability of the associated brain injury criteria (based on both linear and rotational head acceleration) is discussed in the context of blast. Test results encompassing a large number of blast configurations and personal protective equipment are presented, emphasizing the possibility to develop useful correlations between blast parameters, such as the scaled distance, and mannequin engineering measurements (head acceleration). Suggestions are put forward for a practical standardized blast testing methodology taking into account limitations in the applicability of acceleration-based injury criteria as well as the inherent variability in blast testing results.

  14. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Niihau Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  15. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Niihau, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  16. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  17. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  18. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Maro Reef, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  19. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  20. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Kauai Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  1. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Asuncion, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  2. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Nihoa Island, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  3. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Maui Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  4. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Lanai Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  5. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Kingman, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  6. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Rota, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  7. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Tau, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  8. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Sarigan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  9. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at South Bank, American Samoa in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  10. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  11. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Maui Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  12. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Santa Rosa Bank, Marianas Archipelago in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  13. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Baker, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  14. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Tinian Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  15. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Midway Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  16. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Farallon De Pajaros Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  17. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Tau Island, American Samoa in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  18. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Agrihan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  19. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Asuncion, Mariana Archipelago in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  20. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Alamagan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  1. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Baker, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  2. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Tinian Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  3. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Guam, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  4. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Baker, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  5. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Sarigan, Mariana Archipelago in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  6. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Maug Islands, Marianas Archipelago in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  7. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Agrihan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  8. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Wake Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  9. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Lisianski Island, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  10. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Swains Island, American Samoa in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  11. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Maug Islands, Marianas Archipelago in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  12. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  13. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Rose Atoll, American Samoa in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  14. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  15. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Saipan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  16. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Raita Bank, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  17. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Midway Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  18. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Wake Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  19. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Maro Reef, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  20. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Laysan Island, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  1. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Swains, American Samoa in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  2. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at French Frigate Shoals, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  3. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Lanai, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  4. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Guam Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  5. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Asuncion Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  6. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Swains, American Samoa in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  7. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Tau, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  8. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Ofu & Olosega, American Samoa in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  9. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Molokai Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  10. Tow plows could help Michigan save time and money on winter maintenance : research spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    As winter maintenance costs rise, MDOT is looking into innovative approaches to increase snow removal efficiency. As part of this effort, the department recently estimated the costs and benefits of incorporating tow plows into its equipment fleet. Re...

  11. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Asuncion, Mariana Archipelago in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  12. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  13. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Necker Island, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  14. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Kaula Rock, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  15. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Jarvis, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  16. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Arakane Bank, Marianas Archipelago in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  17. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Kure Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  18. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Farallon De Pajaros Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  19. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Wake, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  20. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  1. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Maug Islands, Marianas Archipelago in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  2. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  3. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Hawaii Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  4. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Howland, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  5. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Rose Atoll, American Samoa in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  6. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at French Frigate Shoals, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  7. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Stingray Shoals, Marianas Archipelago in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  8. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Aguijan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  9. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Necker Island, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  10. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Lehua Rock, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  11. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Arakane Bank, Marianas Archipelago in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  12. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Kaula Rock, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  13. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Saipan, Mariana Archipelago in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  14. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Aguijan, Mariana Archipelago in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  15. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Pagan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  16. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  17. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Lehua Rock, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  18. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Kure Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  19. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Wake, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  20. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Midway Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  1. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Saipan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  2. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Guam, Mariana Archipelago in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  3. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Wake, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  4. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Oahu Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  5. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Arakane Bank, Marianas Archipelago in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  6. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Sarigan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  7. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Sarigan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  8. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Farallon De Pajaros Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  9. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Tinian Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  10. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Tutuila Island, American Samoa in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  11. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Agrihan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  12. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Oahu, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  13. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Swains Island, American Samoa in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  14. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Howland, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  15. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Sarigan, Mariana Archipelago in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  16. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Laysan Island, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  17. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Oahu Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  18. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Asuncion Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  19. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Wake Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  20. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Maui, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  1. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at French Frigate Shoals, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  2. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Guam Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  3. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Maug, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  4. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Alamagan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  5. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Midway Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  6. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Rose, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  7. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Nihoa Island, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  8. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Rota Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  9. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Pagan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  10. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Tinian Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  11. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Gardner Pinnacles, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  12. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Jarvis, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  13. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  14. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Rota Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  15. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Tinian, Mariana Archipelago in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  16. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Tutuila Island, American Samoa in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  17. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Palmyra, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  18. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Kure Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  19. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  20. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Guguan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  1. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  2. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Palmyra, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  3. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Sarigan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  4. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Alamagan, Mariana Archipelago in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  5. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Necker Island, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  6. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Kauai Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  7. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Swains Island, American Samoa in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  8. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Laysan Island, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  9. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Alamagan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  10. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  11. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Tinian, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  12. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Rose, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  13. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Gardner Pinnacles, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  14. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Maug, Mariana Archipelago in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  15. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  16. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Farallon de Pajaros, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  17. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  18. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Maui Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  19. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at South Bank, American Samoa in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  20. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Rose, American Samoa in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  1. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Laysan Island, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  2. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Aguijan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  3. EX1103L1: Exploration and Mapping, Galapagos Spreading Center: Mapping, CTD and Tow-yo

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project will be a transit from San Diego, CA to the Galapagos Spreading Center, where multibeam mapping, CTD casts, and CTD tow-yo operations will be performed....

  4. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Agrihan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  5. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Ofu And Olosega Islands, American Samoa in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  6. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Ofu & Olosega, American Samoa in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  7. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Kure Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  8. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Kauai Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  9. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Hawaii Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  10. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Oahu Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  11. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Tinian, Mariana Archipelago in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  12. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Agrihan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  13. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Oahu Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  14. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Midway Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  15. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Johnston, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  16. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Kure Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  17. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  18. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Maro Reef, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  19. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Ofu And Olosega Islands, American Samoa in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  20. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Agrihan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  1. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Lisianski Island, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  2. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Sarigan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  3. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Laysan Island, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  4. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Molokini Crater, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  5. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Aguijan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  6. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Alamagan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  7. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Pathfinder Bank, Marianas Archipelago in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  8. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Asuncion Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  9. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Lehua, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  10. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Guguan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  11. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Tinian, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  12. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Maro Reef, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  13. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Farallon De Pajaros Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  14. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Ofu & Olosega, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  15. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Wake Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  16. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Tutuila, American Samoa in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  17. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Lisianski Island, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  18. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Maro Reef, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  19. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at French Frigate Shoals, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  20. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Aguijan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  1. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at French Frigate Shoals, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  2. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Ofu And Olosega Islands, American Samoa in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  3. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  4. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Kure, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  5. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Oahu Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  6. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Maro Reef, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  7. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Santa Rosa Bank, Marianas Archipelago in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  8. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Necker Island, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  9. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Molokai, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  10. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Lisianski Island, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  11. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Maro Reef, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  12. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at French Frigate, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  13. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Lisianski Island, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  14. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Maug, Mariana Archipelago in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  15. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Ofu And Olosega Islands, American Samoa in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  16. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Kauai Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  17. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Maui Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  18. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Guguan, Mariana Archipelago in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  19. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  20. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Hawaii Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  1. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Alamagan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  2. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Guguan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  3. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  4. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Oahu, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  5. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Rota, Mariana Archipelago in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  6. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Lehua Rock, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  7. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Pagan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  8. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Rota, Mariana Archipelago in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  9. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Rota Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  10. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Rota Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  11. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Midway Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  12. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Rota Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  13. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  14. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Aguijan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  15. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Kure Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  16. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  17. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Swains Island, American Samoa in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  18. A study of the tensile behaviour of flax tows and their potential for composite processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moothoo, J.; Allaoui, S.; Ouagne, P.; Soulat, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Flax tows are characterised by tensile testing under various conditions. • The tensile properties and their dispersion are dependent on the gauge length. • The distribution of the fibres length in specimens commands the tensile behaviour. • Packs of fibre bundle debonding failure mode are observed by image correlation. • Interesting tensile properties are obtained on epoxy impregnated and cured tows. - Abstract: To study the potential of flax tows in composite processing as an alternative to flax spun yarns, a flat flax tow consisting of aligned fibre bundles held together by a natural binder was used and characterised in tension under various conditions. The effect of the gauge length was studied on the dry reinforcement. The experimental results showed that the mechanical properties and failure mechanism varied significantly depending on the gauge length and are discussed in relation to the distribution of elementary fibres within the tow. A characteristic length as from which the mechanical properties are stable has been identified. At this length, the effect of the strain rate on the tensile properties was measured and their sensitivity to the strain rate suggests a viscous effect in the behaviour of the flax tow. To approach process conditions such as wet filament winding, a batch of specimens was impregnated with epoxy prior to tensile testing. The tensile properties under wet conditions were found to be close to the properties under dry conditions and shows that the tow can withstand typical processing tensions. Finally, tensile tests on cured-impregnated tows showed interesting mechanical properties for composite application

  19. Effects of towed-decoys against an anti-air missile with a monopulse seeker

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Jia-Hsin

    1995-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the protection provided by towed decoys deployed by an aircraft during an engagement against an anti-air missile equipped with a monopulse seeker. The research emphasizes the use of passive decoys. Many of the operational parameters required before the deployment of towed-decoy are investigated, including the strength of reflection, the tether length, the direction of release, under different missile incoming directions. This thesis evaluated two reflection cases. One is...

  20. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are evaluating conditions in groundwater and springs at the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium-processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and 1960s and explosives-production activities conducted by the U.S. Army (Army) in the 1940s. The 6,974-ha (17,232-acre) ordnance works area is primarily chemically contaminated as a result of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) manufacturing activities during World War II. This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is being conducted as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RUFS) required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended. The purpose of the BRA is to evaluate potential human health and ecological impacts from contamination associated with the groundwater operable units (GWOUs) of the chemical plant area and ordnance works area. An RI/FS work plan issued jointly in 1995 by the DOE and DA (DOE 1995) analyzed existing conditions at the GWOUs. The work plan included a conceptual hydrogeological model based on data available when the report was prepared; this model indicated that the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. Hence, to optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts, the DOE and DA have decided to conduct a joint RI/BRA. Characterization data obtained from the chemical plant area wells indicate that uranium is present at levels slightly higher than background, with a few concentrations exceeding the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20 {micro}g/L (EPA 1996c). Concentrations of other radionuclides (e

  1. Creep of Sylramic-iBN Fiber Tows at Elevated Temperature in Air and in Silicic Acid-Saturated Steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    CREEP OF SYLRAMIC-iBN FIBER TOWS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURE IN AIR AND IN SILICIC ACID-SATURATED STEAM ...protection in the United States. AFIT-ENY-15-J-46 CREEP OF SYLRAMIC-iBN FIBER TOWS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURE IN AIR AND IN SILICIC ACID-SATURATED STEAM ...DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENY-15-J-46 CREEP OF SYLRAMIC-iBN FIBER TOWS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURE IN AIR AND IN SILICIC ACID-SATURATED STEAM

  2. Does a tow-bar increase the risk of neck injury in rear-end collisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Anne Vingaard; Elvik, Rune; Andersen, Camilla Sloth; Lahrmann, Harry S

    2018-06-01

    Does a tow-bar increase the risk of neck injury in the struck car in a rear-end collision? The rear part of a modern car has collision zones that are rendered nonoperational when the car is equipped with a tow-bar. Past crash tests have shown that a car's acceleration was higher in a car equipped with a tow-bar and also that a dummy placed in a car with a tow-bar had higher peak acceleration in the lower neck area. This study aimed to investigate the association between the risk of neck injury in drivers and passengers, and the presence of a registered tow-bar on the struck car in a rear-end collision. We performed a merger of police reports, the National Hospital Discharge Registry, and the National Registry of Motor Vehicles in Denmark. We identified 9,370 drivers and passengers of whom 1,519 were diagnosed with neck injury within the first year after the collision. We found a statistically insignificant 5% decrease in the risk of neck injury in the occupants of the struck car when a tow-bar was fitted compared to when it was not fitted (hazard ratio=0.95; 95% confidence level=0.85-1.05; p=0.32). The result was controlled for gender, age, and the seat of the occupant. Several other collision and car characteristics and demographic information on the drivers and passengers were evaluated as confounders but were not statistically significant. The present study may serve as valuable input for a meta-analysis on the effect of a tow-bar because negative results are necessary in order to avoid publication bias. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Deep-towed CSEM survey of gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannberg, P.; Constable, S.

    2017-12-01

    Controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) surveys are increasingly being used to remotely detect hydrate deposits in seafloor sediments. CSEM methods are sensitive to sediment pore space resistivity, such as when electrically resistive hydrate displaces the electrically conductive pore fluid, increasing the bulk resistivity of the sediment. In July 2017, a two-week research cruise using an upgraded and expanded "Vulcan" towed receiver system collected over 250 line km of data at four sites in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) thought to have hydrate bearing sediments. Hydrate bearing horizons at the survey sites ranged from 400-700 m below seafloor. Modeling suggested an array with source receiver offsets of up to 1600 m would be needed to properly image the deep hydrate. A deep towed electromagnetic transmitter outputting 270 Amps was towed 100 m above seafloor. Six Vulcan receivers, each recording three-axis electric field data, were towed at 200 m intervals from 600-1600 m behind the transmitter. The four sites surveyed, Walker Ridge 313, Orca Basin, Mad Dog, and Green Canyon 955, are associated with the upcoming GOM^2 coring operation scheduled for 2020. Wells at WR313 and GC955 were logged as part of a joint industry drilling project in 2009 and will be used to ground truth our inversion results. In 2008, WR313 and GC955 were surveyed using traditional CSEM seafloor receivers, accompanied by a single prototype Vulcan towed receiver. This prior survey will allow comparison of results from a seafloor receiver survey with those from a towed receiver survey. Seismic data has been collected at all the sites, which will be used to constrain inversions. In addition to the four hydrate sites surveyed, two lines were towed over Green Knoll, a deep-water salt dome located between Mad Dog and GC955. Presented here are initial results from our recent cruise.

  4. ANALISA KEKUATAN KONSTRUKSI BRACKET TOWING HOOK PADA TB. BONTANG DENGAN METODE ELEMEN HINGGA DAN RULES BKI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Pujo Mulyatno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bracket towing hook construction planning is to make a construction that has the stress level of the allowable limit and can be accepted by the construction. Requirements for towing hook are structural strength if the stress levels that occur below the elastic region. By calculating the value of the maximum load, maximum stress, von mises stress and deflection (displasment that occur in the construction of bracket towing hook, so that known security level of construction that has been designed. Research on construction of the strength bracket towing hook need to be considered and carried out, where the stress caused by load about them should not exceed the maximum limit σyield materials and σallow based on the rules from the class. The reference to rules used in this research is based on the rules of Bureau Classification Indonesia. Analysis of the strength bracket towing hook construction is done by using finite element methode. The analysis used is a static load analysis to determine the characteristics and location of greatest stress on the construction bracket towing hook based on three variations of loading. Analysis results obtained using finite element methode based program of greatest stress maximum occurs in the condition of the bracket towing hook  with maximum horse power load that is equal to 44,2 N/mm2 where the most critical area occurs at node 457 which is located at frame number 23 lengthwise section and stiffener number 7 cross section. This stress is still in a safe condition because after compared with material σyield of 400 N/mm2 and σallow based BKI rules of 178,12 N/mm2 produce safety factor value of 9,05 and 4,03

  5. Advanced Geophysical Classification with the Marine Towed Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhurst, D.; Harbaugh, G.; Keiswetter, D.; Bell, T. W.; Massey, G.; Wright, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Marine Towed Array, or MTA, is an underwater dual-mode sensor array that has been successfully deployed at multiple marine venues in support of Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) and Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) demonstrations beginning in 2004. It provided both marine electromagnetic and marine magnetic sensors for detection and mapping of underwater UXO. The EMI sensor array was based on older technology, which in several ESTCP demonstrations has not been able to support advanced geophysical classification (AGC). Under ESTCP funding, the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory is in the process of upgrading the MTA with modern, advanced electromagnetic (EMI) electronics and replacing the sensor array with a modern, multistatic array design. A half-scale version of the proposed array has been built and tested on land. Six tri-axial receiver cubes were placed inside two- and three- transmit coil configurations in equivalent positions to design locations for the MTA wing. The responses of a variety of munitions items and test spheres were measured over a range of target-to-array geometries and in both static and simulated dynamic data collection modes. The multi-transmit coil configuration was shown to provide enhanced single-pass classification performance over the original single coil design, particularly as a function of target location relative to the centerline. The ability to go beyond anomaly detection and additionally classify detected anomalies from survey data would dramatically improve the state of the art for underwater UXO remediation by reducing costs and improving the efficiency of these efforts. The results of our efforts to return the MTA to service and validating the new EMI array's design for UXO detection and classification in the underwater environment will be the focus of this presentation.

  6. South China Sea Tectonics and Magnetics: Constraints from IODP Expedition 349 and Deep-tow Magnetic Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Li, C. F.; Kulhanek, D. K.; Zhao, X.; Liu, Q.; Xu, X.; Sun, Z.; Zhu, J.

    2014-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is the largest low-latitude marginal sea in the world. Its formation and evolution are linked to the complex continental-oceanic tectonic interaction of the Eurasian, Pacific, and Indo-Australian plates. Despite its relatively small size and short history, the SCS has undergone nearly a complete Wilson cycle from continental break-up to seafloor spreading to subduction. In January-March 2014, Expedition 349 of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) drilled five sites in the deep basin of the SCS. Three sites (U1431, U1433, and U1434) cored into oceanic basement near the fossil spreading center on the East and Southwest Subbasins, whereas Sites U1432 and U1435 are located near the northern continent/ocean boundary of the East Subbasin. Shipboard biostratigraphy based on microfossils preserved in sediment directly above or within basement suggests that the preliminary cessation age of spreading in both the East and Southwest Subbasins is around early Miocene (16-20 Ma); however, post-cruise radiometric dating is being conducted to directly date the basement basalt in these subbasins. Prior to the IODP drilling, high-resolution near-seafloor magnetic surveys were conducted in 2012 and 2013 in the SCS with survey lines passing near the five IODP drilling sites. The deep-tow surveys revealed detailed patterns of the SCS magnetic anomalies with amplitude and spatial resolutions several times better than that of traditional sea surface measurements. Preliminary results reveal several episodes of magnetic reversal events that were not recognized by sea surface measurements. Together the IODP drilling and deep-tow magnetic surveys provide critical constraints for investigating the processes of seafloor spreading in the SCS and evolution of a mid-ocean ridge from active spreading to termination.

  7. A High-Performance Portable Transient Electro-Magnetic Sensor for Unexploded Ordnance Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haofeng Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Portable transient electromagnetic (TEM systems can be well adapted to various terrains, including mountainous, woodland, and other complex terrains. They are widely used for the detection of unexploded ordnance (UXO. As the core component of the portable TEM system, the sensor is constructed with a transmitting coil and a receiving coil. Based on the primary field of the transmitting coil and internal noise of the receiving coil, the design and testing of such a sensor is described in detail. Results indicate that the primary field of the transmitting coil depends on the diameter, mass, and power of the coil. A higher mass–power product and a larger diameter causes a stronger primary field. Reducing the number of turns and increasing the clamp voltage reduces the switch-off time of the transmitting current effectively. Increasing the cross-section of the wire reduces the power consumption, but greatly increases the coil’s weight. The study of the receiving coil shows that the internal noise of the sensor is dominated by the thermal noise of the damping resistor. Reducing the bandwidth of the system and increasing the size of the coil reduces the internal noise effectively. The cross-sectional area and the distance between the sections of the coil have little effect on the internal noise. A less damped state can effectively reduce signal distortion. Finally, a portable TEM sensor with both a transmitting coil (constructed with a diameter, number of turns, and transmitting current of 0.5 m, 30, and 5 A, respectively and a receiving coil (constructed with a length and resonant frequency of 5.6 cm and 50 kHz, respectively was built. The agreement between experimental and calculated results confirms the theory used in the sensor design. The responses of an 82 mm mortar shell at different distances were measured and inverted by the differential evolution (DE algorithm to verify system performance. Results show that the sensor designed in this

  8. A High-Performance Portable Transient Electro-Magnetic Sensor for Unexploded Ordnance Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haofeng; Chen, Shudong; Zhang, Shuang; Yuan, Zhiwen; Zhang, Haiyang; Fang, Dong; Zhu, Jun

    2017-11-17

    Portable transient electromagnetic (TEM) systems can be well adapted to various terrains, including mountainous, woodland, and other complex terrains. They are widely used for the detection of unexploded ordnance (UXO). As the core component of the portable TEM system, the sensor is constructed with a transmitting coil and a receiving coil. Based on the primary field of the transmitting coil and internal noise of the receiving coil, the design and testing of such a sensor is described in detail. Results indicate that the primary field of the transmitting coil depends on the diameter, mass, and power of the coil. A higher mass-power product and a larger diameter causes a stronger primary field. Reducing the number of turns and increasing the clamp voltage reduces the switch-off time of the transmitting current effectively. Increasing the cross-section of the wire reduces the power consumption, but greatly increases the coil's weight. The study of the receiving coil shows that the internal noise of the sensor is dominated by the thermal noise of the damping resistor. Reducing the bandwidth of the system and increasing the size of the coil reduces the internal noise effectively. The cross-sectional area and the distance between the sections of the coil have little effect on the internal noise. A less damped state can effectively reduce signal distortion. Finally, a portable TEM sensor with both a transmitting coil (constructed with a diameter, number of turns, and transmitting current of 0.5 m, 30, and 5 A, respectively) and a receiving coil (constructed with a length and resonant frequency of 5.6 cm and 50 kHz, respectively) was built. The agreement between experimental and calculated results confirms the theory used in the sensor design. The responses of an 82 mm mortar shell at different distances were measured and inverted by the differential evolution (DE) algorithm to verify system performance. Results show that the sensor designed in this study can not only

  9. The Effect of Tow Shearing on Reinforcement Positional Fidelity in the Manufacture of a Continuous Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Matrix Composite via Pultrusion-Like Processing of Commingled Feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlick, Kent M.

    While the addition of short fiber to 3D printed articles has increased structural performance, ultimate gains will only be realized through the introduction of continuous reinforcement placed along pre-planned load paths. Most additive manufacturing research focusing on the addition of continuous reinforcement has revolved around utilization of a prefrabricated composite filament or a fiber and matrix mixed within a hot end prior to deposition on a printing surface such that conventional extrusion based FDM can be applied. Although stronger 3D printed parts can be made in this manner, high quality homogenous composites are not possible due to fiber dominated regions, matrix dominated regions, and voids present between adjacent filaments. Conventional composite manufacturing processes are much better at creating homogeneous composites; however, the layer by layer approach in which they are made is inhibiting the alignment of reinforcement with loads. Automated Fiber Placement techniques utilize in plane bending deformation of the tow to facilitate tow steering. Due to buckling fibers on the inner radius of curves, manufacturers recommend a minimum curvature for path placement with this technique. A method called continuous tow shearing has shown promise to enable the placement of tows in complex patterns without tow buckling, spreading, and separation inherent in conventional forms of automated reinforcement positioning. The current work employs fused deposition modeling hardware and the continuous tow shearing technique to manufacture high quality fiber reinforced composites with high positional fidelity, varying continuous reinforcement orientations within a layer, and plastic elements incorporated enabling the ultimate gains in structural performance possible. A mechanical system combining concepts of additive manufacturing with fiber placement via filament winding was developed. Paths with and without tension inherent in filament winding were analyzed through

  10. 49 CFR 214.525 - Towing with on-track roadway maintenance machines or hi-rail vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or hi-rail vehicles. 214.525 Section 214.525 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.525 Towing with on-track roadway maintenance machines or hi-rail vehicles. (a) When used to tow pushcars or other maintenance-of-way equipment...

  11. Development Of A Numerical Tow Tank With Wave Generation To Supplement Experimental Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    meters (24 inches), a maximum thrust of 1779.3 newtons ( 400 pounds), and a maximum linear speed of 0.4064 m/s (16.0 in/s). 17 3.3 Data Collection...has a small tow tank built in the 1970s. This 10.97 meter (36 foot) long facility is short by academic standards and has lacked wave generation...PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 14 CHAPTER 3: Experimental Setup 3.1 Description of Experimental Facility The experimental tow tank is 10.97 meters (36.0

  12. Surface temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen data collected from handheld instruments from multiple platforms in the northern Gulf of Mexico from June 14, 2010 to October 16, 2010 (NODC Accession 0070786)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains the date, time and location of surface plankton tow conducted between June-October, 2010, as well as the surface temperature (C), surface...

  13. Well-Integrity Survey (Phase II) of Abandoned Homestead Water Wells in the High Plains Aquifer, Former Pantex Ordnance Plant and Texas Tech Research Farm Near Amarillo, Texas, 1995

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rivers, Glenn A

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the methods used and the results obtained during a field search for abandoned homestead sites and water wells at the former Pantex Ordnance Plant and Texas Tech Research Farm (Pantex site...

  14. Ocean currents data as part of Ordinance Reef Transport Study collected by ADCP from Ordnance Reef area of Oahu, Hawaii from 17 January 2010 to 23 August 2010 (NODC Accession 0079514)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Four high-precision sensor arrays at a conventional munitions disposal site off Waianae known locally as "Ordnance Reef" and one sensor array at a deep-water...

  15. Shuttle Columbia Post-landing Tow - with Reflection in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    A rare rain allowed this reflection of the Space Shuttle Columbia as it was towed 16 Nov. 1982, to the Shuttle Processing Area at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (from 1976 to 1981 and after 1994, the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, following its fifth flight in space. Columbia was launched on mission STS-5 11 Nov. 1982, and landed at Edwards Air Force Base on concrete runway 22. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines withtwo solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials

  16. UXO Discrimination Using Vehicle Towed and Man Portable Sensor Data Collected at Camp Beale, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    UXO Discrimination Using Vehicle Towed and Man Portable Sensor Data Collected at Camp Beale, California Len Pasion , Laurens Beran, Stephen Billings...PORTABLE SENSOR DATA COLLECTED AT CAMP BEALE, CALIFORNIA LEN PASION Sky Research 112A 2386 East Mall Vancouver, BC V6T1Z3 CANADA (604) 221

  17. 33 CFR 164.74 - Towline and terminal gear for towing astern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of a record of the towline's initial minimum breaking strength as determined by the manufacturer, by... for any reason, keeping on board the towing vessel or in company files of a record of each retest of the towline's minimum breaking strength as determined by a class society authorized in § 157.04 of...

  18. 46 CFR 27.205 - What are the requirements for internal communication systems on towing vessels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... systems on towing vessels? 27.205 Section 27.205 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... fitted with a communication system between the engine room and the operating station that— (1) Consists... required to have internal communication systems. (c) When the operating-station's engine controls and the...

  19. STS-39 Discovery in the VAB and Columbia Tow From HB-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The orbiter Discovery sits inside the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) after its rollover from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF). In the VAB, Discovery will be mated with an external tank and solid rocket boosters for its launch. Shown also is Columbia orbiter being towed from the High Bay 2.

  20. 46 CFR 11.464 - Requirements for endorsements as master of towing vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) If you hold a license or MMC endorsement as a master of steam or motor vessels of greater than 200 gross register tons, you may operate towing vessels within any restrictions on your endorsement if you... demonstration of skills; or (ii) Complete an approved training course. (3) Your license or MMC does not need to...

  1. Heard Island and McDonald Islands Acoustic Plumes: Split-beam Echo sounder and Deep Tow Camera Observations of Gas Seeps on the Central Kerguelen Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, S. J.; Spain, E. A.; Coffin, M. F.; Whittaker, J. M.; Fox, J. M.; Bowie, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Heard and McDonald islands (HIMI) are two active volcanic edifices on the Central Kerguelen Plateau. Scientists aboard the Heard Earth-Ocean-Biosphere Interactions voyage in early 2016 explored how this volcanic activity manifests itself near HIMI. Using Simrad EK60 split-beam echo sounder and deep tow camera data from RV Investigator, we recorded the distribution of seafloor emissions, providing the first direct evidence of seabed discharge around HIMI, mapping >244 acoustic plume signals. Northeast of Heard, three distinct plume clusters are associated with bubbles (towed camera) and the largest directly overlies a sub-seafloor opaque zone (sub-bottom profiler) with >140 zones observed within 6.5 km. Large temperature anomalies did not characterize any of the acoustic plumes where temperature data were recorded. We therefore suggest that these plumes are cold methane seeps. Acoustic properties - mean volume backscattering and target strength - and morphology - height, width, depth to surface - of plumes around McDonald resembled those northeast of Heard, also suggesting gas bubbles. We observed no bubbles on extremely limited towed camera data around McDonald; however, visibility was poor. The acoustic response of the plumes at different frequencies (120 kHz vs. 18 kHz), a technique used to classify water column scatterers, differed between HIMI, suggestiing dissimilar target size (bubble radii) distributions. Environmental context and temporal characteristics of the plumes differed between HIMI. Heard plumes were concentrated on flat, sediment rich plains, whereas around McDonald plumes emanated from sea knolls and mounds with hard volcanic seafloor. The Heard plumes were consistent temporally, while the McDonald plumes varied temporally possibly related to tides or subsurface processes. Our data and analyses suggest that HIMI acoustic plumes were likely caused by gas bubbles; however, the bubbles may originate from two or more distinct processes.

  2. M2-F1 in flight over lakebed on tow line

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    After initial ground-tow flights of the M2-F1 using the Pontiac as a tow vehicle, the way was clear to make air tows behind a C-47. The first air tow took place on 16 August 1963. Pilot Milt Thompson found that the M2-F1 flew well, with good control. This first flight lasted less than two minutes from tow-line release to touchdown. The descent rate was 4,000 feet per minute. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got

  3. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Large-bodied Fishes of the Hawaiian Archipelago in 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct surveys of large-bodied (> 50 cm) fishes in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific...

  4. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Pearl And Hermes Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  5. Pilot evaluation of the use of contract towing and first responder strategies in the Virginia Department of Transportation's Staunton District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated the contract towing and first responder pilot projects in the Virginia Department of Transportations : Staunton District. The evaluation included before and after studies of incident duration and comparisons of clearance time....

  6. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Large-bodied Fishes of the Marianas since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct surveys of large-bodied (> 50 cm) fishes in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific...

  7. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Large-bodied Fishes of American Samoa in 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct surveys of large-bodied (> 50 cm) fishes in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific...

  8. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Pearl And Hermes Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  9. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Pearl And Hermes Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  10. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Pearl And Hermes Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  11. M2-F1 in flight during low-speed car tow

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    The M2-F1 shown in flight during a low-speed car tow runs across the lakebed. Such tests allowed about two minutes to test the vehicle's handling in flight. NASA Flight Research Center (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center) personnel conducted as many as 8 to 14 ground-tow flights in a single day either to test the vehicle in preparation for air tows or to train pilots to fly the vehicle before they undertook air tows. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30

  12. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Towing Resistance of the Innovative Pneumatic Life Raft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burciu Zbigniew

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the experimental and numerical investigations of a novel design of a pneumatic life raft in calm water conditions. Two main issues were considered: the life raft performance under tow and its resistance in calm water conditions. The experiment and CFD simulations were performed by using the full scale prototype to eliminate the scale effect. The towing tank tests confirmed the results of numerical computations. The compatibility of the results of numerical and experimental tests was high mainly because the new life raft does not deform under the hydrodynamic and aerodynamic loads. The characteristics similar to rigid body behaviour result mainly from a new construction and materials used for manufacturing the life raft.

  13. Business Case Analysis of the Towed Gilder Air Launched System (TGALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Darryl W.; Nguyen, McLinton B.; Seibold, Robert W.; Wong, Frank C.; Budd, Gerald D.

    2017-01-01

    The Aerospace Corporation developed an integrated Business Case Analysis (BCA) model on behalf of the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC). This model evaluated the potential profitability of the Towed Glider Air Launched System (TGALS) concept, under development at AFRC, identifying potential technical, programmatic, and business decisions that could improve its business viability. The model addressed system performance metrics; development, production and operation cost estimates; market size and product service positioning; pricing alternatives; and market share.

  14. Creep of Hi-Nicalon S Fiber Tows at Elevated Temperature in Air and in Steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    with steam port and alumina steam feeding tube with slot to divert steam away from directly impacting the fiber tow specimen . . . . 25 4.7 Hi-Nicalon...The activation energy for the creep of Hi-Nicalon fibers was determined to be 360 kJ/mol and the predominant creep mechanism was identified as...engines, gas turbines for electrical power/steam cogeneration , as well as nuclear power plant components. It is recognized that the structural

  15. 3D forward modeling and response analysis for marine CSEMs towed by two ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Yin, Chang-Chun; Liu, Yun-He; Ren, Xiu-Yan; Qi, Yan-Fu; Cai, Jing

    2018-03-01

    A dual-ship-towed marine electromagnetic (EM) system is a new marine exploration technology recently being developed in China. Compared with traditional marine EM systems, the new system tows the transmitters and receivers using two ships, rendering it unnecessary to position EM receivers at the seafloor in advance. This makes the system more flexible, allowing for different configurations (e.g., in-line, broadside, and azimuthal and concentric scanning) that can produce more detailed underwater structural information. We develop a three-dimensional goal-oriented adaptive forward modeling method for the new marine EM system and analyze the responses for four survey configurations. Oceanbottom topography has a strong effect on the marine EM responses; thus, we develop a forward modeling algorithm based on the finite-element method and unstructured grids. To satisfy the requirements for modeling the moving transmitters of a dual-ship-towed EM system, we use a single mesh for each of the transmitter locations. This mitigates the mesh complexity by refining the grids near the transmitters and minimizes the computational cost. To generate a rational mesh while maintaining the accuracy for single transmitter, we develop a goal-oriented adaptive method with separate mesh refinements for areas around the transmitting source and those far away. To test the modeling algorithm and accuracy, we compare the EM responses calculated by the proposed algorithm and semi-analytical results and from published sources. Furthermore, by analyzing the EM responses for four survey configurations, we are confirm that compared with traditional marine EM systems with only in-line array, a dual-ship-towed marine system can collect more data.

  16. Carded Tow Real-Time Color Assessment: A Spectral Camera-Based System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Furferi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important parameters to be controlled during the production of textile yarns obtained by mixing pre-colored fibers, is the color correspondence between the manufactured yarn and a given reference, usually provided by a designer or a customer. Obtaining yarns from raw pre-colored fibers is a complex manufacturing process entailing a number of steps such as laboratory sampling, color recipe corrections, blowing, carding and spinning. Carding process is the one devoted to transform a “fuzzy mass” of tufted fibers into a regular mass of untwisted fibers, named “tow”. During this process, unfortunately, the correspondence between the color of the tow and the target one cannot be assured, thus leading to yarns whose color differs from the one used for reference. To solve this issue, the main aim of this work is to provide a system able to perform a spectral camera-based real-time measurement of a carded tow, to assess its color correspondence with a reference carded fabric and, at the same time, to monitor the overall quality of the tow during the carding process. Tested against a number of differently colored carded fabrics, the proposed system proved its effectiveness in reliably assessing color correspondence in real-time.

  17. Applications of the associated-particle neutron-time-of-flight interrogation technique - From sheep to unexploded ordnance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, S. [Environmental Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 and Nuclear Forensics R and D, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0968 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    The associated-particle technique (APT) will be presented for some diverse applications that include on the one hand, analyzing the body composition of live sheep and on the other, identifying the fillers of unexploded ordnance (UXO). What began with proof-of-concept studies using a large laboratory based 14 MeV neutron generator of the 'associated-particle' type, soon became possible for the first time to measure total body protein, fat and water simultaneously in live sheep using a compact field deployable associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG). This non-invasive technique offered the animal physiologist a tool to monitor the growth of an animal in response to new genetic, nutritional and pharmacologic methods for livestock improvement. While measurement of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) determined protein, fat and water because of the fixed stoichiometric proportions of these elements in these body components, the unique C/N and C/O ratios of high explosives revealed their identity in UXO. The algorithm that was developed and implemented to extract C, N and O counts from an APT generated gamma-ray spectrum will be presented together with the UXO investigations that involved preliminary proofof-concept studies and modeling with Monte Carlo produced synthetic spectra of 57-155 mm projectiles.

  18. Passive acoustic monitoring using a towed hydrophone array results in identification of a previously unknown beaked whale habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yack, Tina M; Barlow, Jay; Calambokidis, John; Southall, Brandon; Coates, Shannon

    2013-09-01

    Beaked whales are diverse and species rich taxa. They spend the vast majority of their time submerged, regularly diving to depths of hundreds to thousands of meters, typically occur in small groups, and behave inconspicuously at the surface. These factors make them extremely difficult to detect using standard visual survey methods. However, recent advancements in acoustic detection capabilities have made passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) a viable alternative. Beaked whales can be discriminated from other odontocetes by the unique characteristics of their echolocation clicks. In 2009 and 2010, PAM methods using towed hydrophone arrays were tested. These methods proved highly effective for real-time detection of beaked whales in the Southern California Bight (SCB) and were subsequently implemented in 2011 to successfully detect and track beaked whales during the ongoing Southern California Behavioral Response Study. The three year field effort has resulted in (1) the successful classification and tracking of Cuvier's (Ziphius cavirostris), Baird's (Berardius bairdii), and unidentified Mesoplodon beaked whale species and (2) the identification of areas of previously unknown beaked whale habitat use. Identification of habitat use areas will contribute to a better understanding of the complex relationship between beaked whale distribution, occurrence, and preferred habitat characteristics on a relatively small spatial scale. These findings will also provide information that can be used to promote more effective management and conservation of beaked whales in the SCB, a heavily used Naval operation and training region.

  19. Delayed Failure of Hi-Nicalon and Hi-Nicalon S Multi-filament Tows and Single Filaments at Intermediate Temperatures (500 degrees-800 degrees C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, W.; Lamon, J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous results have shown that tows of SiC Nicalon fibers are sensitive to the phenomenon of delayed failure, at temperatures below 700 C. The present paper examines the static fatigue of Hi-Nicalon and Hi-Nicalon S when subjected to constant load, at temperatures between 500 and 800 C in air. Multi-filament tows and single filaments were tested. Experimental data show that the rupture times of tows depend on the applied stress according to the conventional power law tσ n =A. In contrast, the stress-rupture time data obtained on single filaments exhibit significant scatter. A model based on slow crack growth in single filaments shows that the stress-rupture of fiber tows follows the conventional time power law. The dependence on temperature was introduced. The model allowed sound calculations of tow lifetimes and characteristics of the slow crack growth phenomenon to be extracted from the tow stress-rupture time data. (authors)

  20. Inelastic accretion of inertial particles by a towed sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Robin; Henry, Christophe; Hachem, Elie; Bec, Jérémie

    2018-02-01

    The problem of accretion of small particles by a sphere embedded in a mean flow is studied in the case where the particles undergo inelastic collisions with the solid object. The collision efficiency, which gives the flux of particles experiencing at least one bounce on the sphere, is found to depend upon the sphere Reynolds number only through the value of the critical Stokes number below which no collision occurs. In the absence of molecular diffusion, it is demonstrated that multiple bounces do not provide enough energy dissipation for the particles to stick to the surface within a finite time. This excludes the possibility of any kind of inelastic collapse, so that determining an accretion efficiency requires modeling more precisely particle-surface microphysical interactions. A straightforward choice is to assume that the particles stick when their kinetic energy at impact is below a threshold. In this view, numerical simulations are performed to describe the statistics of impact velocities at various values of the Reynolds number. Successive bounces are shown to enhance accretion. These results are put together to provide a general qualitative picture on how the accretion efficiency depends upon the nondimensional parameters of the problem.

  1. The mechanism of selecting priority options and sequence of solutions to ensure the safety of towing caravan navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brazhnyy A. I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers navigational safety movement of the towed object and tugboat. Some methods of alternatives choice of decision-maker persons (DMP to manage the safety of towing a caravan have been presented. Examples of navigation safety conditions, their operational relationship, critical and emergency character with respect to the predetermined position of the band have been given; the sequence of forming actions of the algorithm based on an assessment of possible losses for the sustainability of the towing operation has been proposed. The aim is to research and develop a sequence of logical conclusions for forming some mechanism to take corrective action when navigating the composition of the output of the towing caravan of navigation stable security situation for its return to the original settings of sustainable movement. To assess the risks of navigation functions the risk analysis method has been used, with further selection of management synthesized for towing process, taking into account the possible reaction of the "human element". For estimations well-known in the probability theory and mathematical statistics methods have been used. An iterative mathematical model of the tow caravan considering the posterior distribution of parameters caravan phase coordinates for the given cases has been built. The possibility of resource losses when choosing the optimal alternative has been investigated. It has been established that while selecting and adopting a single decision under risk, including alternatives to the losses, one can always find such an alternative which is able to ensure the management of the caravan navigational safety decreasing the probability of large losses. When operating the navigation state of towing caravan one should choose the optimal alternative that minimizes the possibility of the maximum cost, and then based on it to choose (with incomplete awareness of decision-makers optimal sequence of controls which in turn

  2. Baseline risk assessment for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are evaluating conditions in groundwater and springs at the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium-processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and 1960s and explosives-production activities conducted by the U.S. Army (Army) in the 1940s. The 6,974-ha (17,232-acre) ordnance works area is primarily chemically contaminated as a result of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) manufacturing activities during World War II. This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is being conducted as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RUFS) required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended. The purpose of the BRA is to evaluate potential human health and ecological impacts from contamination associated with the groundwater operable units (GWOUs) of the chemical plant area and ordnance works area. An RI/FS work plan issued jointly in 1995 by the DOE and DA (DOE 1995) analyzed existing conditions at the GWOUs. The work plan included a conceptual hydrogeological model based on data available when the report was prepared; this model indicated that the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. Hence, to optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts, the DOE and DA have decided to conduct a joint RI/BRA. Characterization data obtained from the chemical plant area wells indicate that uranium is present at levels slightly higher than background, with a few concentrations exceeding the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20 microg/L (EPA 1996c). Concentrations of other radionuclides (e

  3. Transforming Pristine Carbon Fiber Tows into High Performance Solid-State Fiber Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dingshan; Zhai, Shengli; Jiang, Wenchao; Goh, Kunli; Wei, Li; Chen, Xudong; Jiang, Rongrong; Chen, Yuan

    2015-09-02

    A facile activation strategy can transform pristine carbon fiber tows into high-performance fiber electrodes with a specific capacitance of 14.2 F cm(-3) . The knottable fiber supercapacitor shows an energy density of 0.35 mW h cm(-3) , an ultrahigh power density of 3000 mW cm(-3) , and a remarkable capacitance retention of 68%, when the scan rate increases from 10 to 1000 mV s(-1) . © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. 46 CFR 11.304 - Substitution of training for required service, use of training-record books, and use of towing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... training-record books, and use of towing officer assessment records. 11.304 Section 11.304 Shipping COAST... of training-record books, and use of towing officer assessment records. (a) Satisfactory completion... training of a candidate must be documented in a Coast Guard-accepted training-record book. (f) Except as...

  5. 46 CFR 27.305 - What are the requirements for fire-extinguishing equipment on towing vessels in ocean or coastal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the requirements for fire-extinguishing equipment on towing vessels in ocean or coastal service whose construction was contracted for on or after... for fire-extinguishing equipment on towing vessels in ocean or coastal service whose construction was...

  6. Is it a bird? Is it a plane? No, it’s a tow truck!

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    CERN has equipped itself with a tow truck to fight back against dangerous parking habits. The Security service will use the truck to rid the site of abandoned cars, which take up so many parking spaces, as well as badly parked cars, which are often a danger to other road users.   Breaches of parking etiquette that endanger other vehicles and pedestrians include cars parked in such a way as to impede visibility, for example, at junctions and roundabouts, or cars parked in parking spaces for the disabled or in areas reserved for emergency vehicles. Various measures will be taken to tackle the problem: for less serious offences, a sticker will be put on the windshield of the vehicle and an e-mail sent asking the driver to park in an authorised space. For more serious offences, the vehicle will be immobilised with a wheel clamp, or even removed by the tow truck and taken to a dedicated car park on the Meyrin or the Prévessin site. “No fines will be issued," explains Did...

  7. Standard Test Methods for Properties of Continuous Filament Carbon and Graphite Fiber Tows

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the preparation and tensile testing of resin-impregnated and consolidated test specimens made from continuous filament carbon and graphite yarns, rovings, and tows to determine their tensile properties. 1.2 These test methods also cover the determination of the density and mass per unit length of the yarn, roving, or tow to provide supplementary data for tensile property calculation. 1.3 These test methods include a procedure for sizing removal to provide the preferred desized fiber samples for density measurement. This procedure may also be used to determine the weight percent sizing. 1.4 These test methods include a procedure for determining the weight percent moisture adsorption of carbon or graphite fiber. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of t...

  8. Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented.

  9. Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented

  10. The hydrodynamic drag and the mobilisation of sediment into the water column of towed fishing gear components

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, F. G.; Summerbell, Keith David

    2016-12-01

    The hydrodynamic drag of towed fishing gears leads to direct impacts on the benthic environment, and can play a major role in the overall economic efficiency of the fishing operation and emissions of nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and greenhouse gases such as CO2. Here we investigate some of the underpinning processes which govern these issues and make direct hydrodynamic drag measurements and calculate the hydrodynamic drag coefficients for a range of well-defined gear components that, when fished, are in contact with the seabed. We measure the concentration and particle size distribution of the sediment mobilised into the water column in the wake of these gear elements, at a range of towing speeds, and demonstrate that as the hydrodynamic drag increases the amount of sediment mobilised also increases. We also vary the weight of the elements and show that this does not influence the amount of sediment put into the water column. These results provide a better understanding of the physical and mechanical processes that take place when a towed fishing gear interacts with the seabed. They will permit the development of more fuel efficient gears and gears of reduced benthic impact and will improve the empirical modelling of the sediment mobilised into the turbulent wake behind towed fishing gears which will lead to better assessments of the environmental and ecological impact of fishing gears.

  11. Use of Single-Tow Ceramic Matrix Minicomposites to Determine Fundamental Room and Elevated Temperature Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansour, Amjad S.

    The room and high temperature mechanical properties of continuous ceramic fiber reinforced matrix composites makes them attractive for implementation in aerospace and nuclear applications. However, the effect of fiber content has not been addressed in previous work. Therefore, single tow composites with fiber content ranging from 3 to 47 % was studied. Single fiber tow minicomposite is the basic architectural feature of woven and laminate ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). An in depth understanding of the initiation and evolution of damage in various ceramic fiber reinforced minicomposites with different fiber volume fractions and interphases was investigated employing several non-destructive evaluation techniques. A new technique is used to determine matrix crack content based on a damage parameter derived from speed of sound measurements which is compared with the established method using cumulative energy of Acoustic Emission (AE) events. Also, a modified theoretical model was implemented to obtain matrix stress at the onset of matrix cracking. Room temperature tensile, high temperature creep rupture and high temperature oxidation degradation loading conditions were all considered and composites' constituents were characterized. Moreover, fibers/matrix load sharing was modeled in creep and fiber volume fraction effect on load transfer was investigated using derived theoretical models. Fibers and matrix creep parameters, load transfer model results and numerical model methodology were used to construct minicomposites' creep strain model to predict creep damage of the different fiber type and content minicomposites. Furthermore, different fiber volume fractions ceramic matrix minicomposites' electrical resistivity temperature dependence isn't well understood. Therefore, the influence of fiber content, heat treatment cycles and creep on electrical resistivity measurements of SiC/SiC minicomposites were also studied here. Next, minicomposites' testing and

  12. Results of ground level radiation measurements in support of the 1978 aerial survey of the Lake Ontario Ordnance Works, Lewiston, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berven, B.A.; Doane, R.W.; Haywood, F.F.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1979-09-01

    This report contains the results of a limited series of measurements at the Lake Ontario Ordnance Works site, three miles northeast of Lewiston, New York. The scope of this survey was not extensive, and the survey was conducted to support a concurrent aerial survey conducted by EG and G, Inc. Results of this survey indicate two souces of significant external gamma exposure on the site as well as several locations that retain low to intermediate levels of radioactivity in soil. Off-site soil radionuclide concentrations were well within background levels with one exception. Water radionuclide concentrations on the site in the Central Drainage Ditch are significantly above background levels but decrease with distance from the spoil pile, and are within restrictive concentration guides for off-site locations

  13. Quality Control for Ordnance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1957-01-01

    R. H. Morgan, "Screen Intensification Systems and Their Lirnita- tions," Amtvican J w n u l of Roenlgenology and Radizcm Therapy , Vol. LXII, No...443. (1 10) Kurt Matthaes, " Magneto -Inductive Testing of Stcel," Zeitschrgt filr Melnll- kunde, Vol. 39, September, 1948, p]). 257- 272. (1 11

  14. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Large-bodied Fishes of the U.S. Pacific Reefs from 2000 to 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct surveys of large-bodied (> 50 cm) fishes in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific...

  15. Zooplankton biomass data from net tows from the South Pacific Ocean from 27 January 1967 to 26 November 1967 (NODC Accession 9500090)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton biomass data were collected from net tows from the South Pacific Ocean. Data were collected by the Bedford Institute of Oceanography (BIO) from 27...

  16. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, and Marine Debris Sightings of the Marianas since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  17. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, and Marine Debris Sightings of American Samoa in 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  18. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Large-bodied Fishes of the Hawaiian Archipelago in 2016 (NCEI Accession 0157567)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct surveys of large-bodied (> 50 cm) fishes in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific...

  19. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Large-bodied Fishes of the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct surveys of large-bodied (> 50 cm) fishes in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific...

  20. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, and Marine Debris Sightings of the Hawaiian Archipelago in 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  1. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, and Marine Debris Sightings of the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  2. Traversing field of view and AR-PIV for mid-field wake vortex investigation in a towing tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarano, F.; van Wijk, C.; Veldhuis, L. L. M.

    2002-08-01

    Wake vortex flow experiments are performed in a water tank where a 1:48 scaled model of a large transport aircraft A340-300 is towed at the speed of 3 and 5 ms-1 with values of the angle of attack α={2°, 4°, 8°}. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are performed in a plane perpendicular to the towing direction describing the streamwise component of the wake vorticity. The instantaneous field of view (I-FOV) is traversed vertically with an underwater moving-camera device tracking the vortex core during the downward motion. An adaptive resolution (AR) image-processing technique is introduced that enhances the PIV interrogation in terms of spatial resolution and accuracy. The main objectives of the investigation are to demonstrate the applicability of PIV diagnostics in wake vortex research with towing-tank facilities. The specific implementation of the traversing field-of-view (T-FOV) technique and the AR image processing are driven by the need to characterize the vortex wake global properties as well as the vortex decay phenomenon in the mid- and far-field. Relevant aerodynamic information is obtained in the mid-field where the time evolution of the vortex structure (core radius and tangential velocity) and of the overall vortex wake (vortex trajectory, descent velocity, circulation) are discussed.

  3. Towing Tank and Flume Testing of Passively Adaptive Composite Tidal Turbine Blades: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Robynne [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ordonez-Sanchez, Stephanie [University of Strathclyde; Porter, Kate E. [University of Strathclyde; Johnstone, Cameron M. [University of Strathclyde; Doman, Darrel A. [Dalhousie University; Pegg, Michael J. [Dalhousie University

    2017-09-28

    Composite tidal turbine blades with bend-twist (BT) coupled layups allow the blade to self-adapt to local site conditions by passively twisting. Passive feathering has the potential to increase annual energy production and shed thrust loads and power under extreme tidal flows. Decreased hydrodynamic thrust and power during extreme conditions meann that the turbine support structure, generator, and other components can be sized more appropriately, resulting in a higher utilization factor and increased cost effectiveness. This paper presents new experimental data for a small-scale turbine with BT composite blades. The research team tested the turbine in the Kelvin Hydrodynamics Laboratory towing tank at the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow, United Kingdom, and in the recirculating current flume at the l Institut Francais de Recherche pour l Exploitation de la Mer Centre in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France. Tests were also performed on rigid aluminum blades with identical geometry, which yielded baseline test sets for comparison. The results from both facilities agreed closely, supporting the hypothesis that increased blade flexibility can induce load reductions. Under the most extreme conditions tested the turbine with BT blades had up to 11 percent lower peak thrust loads and a 15 percent reduction in peak power compared to the turbine with rigid blades. The load reductions varied as a function of turbine rotational velocity and ambient flow velocity.

  4. The deep-tow marine controlled-source electromagnetic transmitter system for gas hydrate exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Deng, Ming; Wu, Zhongliang; Luo, Xianhu; Jing, Jianen; Chen, Kai

    2017-02-01

    The Marine Controlled-Source Electromagnetic (MCSEM) method has been recognized as an important and effective tool to detect electrically resistive structures, such as oil, gas, and gas hydrate. The MCSEM performance is strongly influenced by the transmitter system design. We have developed a deep-tow MCSEM transmitter system. In this paper, some new technical details will be present. A 10,000 m optical-electrical composite cable is used to support high power transmission and fast data transfer; a new clock unit is designed to keep the synchronization between transmitter and receivers, and mark the time stamp into the transmission current full waveform; a data link is established to monitor the real-time altitude of the tail unit; an online insulation measuring instrument is adopted to monitor current leakage from high voltage transformer; a neutrally buoyant dipole antenna of copper cable and flexible electrodes are created to transmit the large power current into seawater; a new design method for the transmitter, which is called "real-time control technology of hardware parallelism", is described to achieve inverting and recording high-power current waveform, controlling functions, and collecting auxiliary information. We use a gas hydrate exploration test to verify the performance of the transmitter system, focusing on more technical details, rather than applications. The test shows that the transmitter can be used for gas hydrate exploration as an effective source.

  5. Unexploded Ordnance identification—A gamma-ray spectral analysis method for Carbon, Nitrogen and Oxygen signals following tagged neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, S.; Dioszegi, I.

    2012-01-01

    A novel gamma-ray spectral analysis method has been demonstrated to optimally extract the signals of the signature elements of explosives, carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) from 57–155 mm projectiles following tagged neutron interrogation with 14 MeV neutrons. The method was implemented on Monte Carlo simulated, synthetic spectra of Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) that contained high explosive fillers (Composition B, TNT or Explosive D) within steel casings of appropriate thicknesses. The analysis technique defined three broad regions-of-interest (ROI) between 4–7.5 MeV of a spectrum and from a system of three equations for the three unknowns namely C, N and O, the maximum counts from each of these elements were extracted. Unlike conventional spectral analysis techniques, the present method included the Compton continuum under a spectrum. For a neutron output of ∼2×10 7 ns −1 and using four 12.7 cm diameter×12.7 cm NaI(Tl) detectors, the C/N and C/O gamma-ray counts ratios of the explosive fillers were vastly different from that of an inert substance like sand. Conversion of the counts ratios to elemental ratios could further discriminate the different types of explosive fillers. The interrogation time was kept at ten minutes for each projectile.

  6. Use of Modal Acoustic Emission to Monitor Damage Progression in Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Tows and Implications for Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jess M.; Saulsberry, Regor L.; Lucero, Ralph; Nichols, Charles T.; Wentzel, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    ASTM-based ILH methods were found to give a reproducible, quantitative estimate of the stress threshold at which significant accumulated damage began to occur. a) FR events are low energy (300 kHz) d) FR events show a consistent hierarchy of cooperative damage for composite tow, and for the COPV tested, regardless of applied load. Application of ILH or related stress profiles could lead to robust pass/fail acceptance criteria based on the FR. Initial application of FR and FFT analysis of AE data acquired on COPVs is promising.

  7. Comparing selectivity of a standard and turned mesh T90 codend during towing and haul-back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Herrmann, Bent; Frandsen, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we compared the size selectivity of a T90 codend (netting turned by 90 degrees) with that of a standard codend made of similar netting. Sea trials were conducted in a Norway lobster directed fishery in the Kattegat- Skagerrak area, where there is a need for improved selectivity...... fewer Norway lobster both below and above the legal minimum landing size (40 mm, cephalothorax length), thereby causing a reduction of commercial catch. The difference was mainly due to a significantly higher escape rate during towing for the T90 codend. For plaice below minimum landing size (27 cm...

  8. Perseus A High Altitude Remotely Piloted Aircraft being Towed in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Perseus A, a remotely piloted, high-altitude research vehicle designed by Aurora Flight Sciences Corp., takes off from Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Perseus was towed into the air by a ground vehicle. At about 700 ft. the aircraft was released and the engine turned the propeller to take the plane to its desired altitude. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the

  9. Observations of Bathymetry-Induced Ocean Roughness Modulation in In-situ Surface Slope Measurements and Coincident Airborne SAR Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommenginger, C.P.; Robinson, I.S.; Willoughby, J.; Greidanus, H.S.F.; Taylor, V.

    1999-01-01

    Empirical results from a field experiment in the southern North Sea have demonstrated the possibility to detect bathymetry-induced sea surface roughness modulation in the coastal zone using high frequency in-situ slope measurements provided by the Towed Laser Slopemeter. A strong correlation between

  10. Study of the break reaction of Be11 on Ti48 target; the towing mode: a spectroscopic tool for the study of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, V.

    2004-10-01

    In a towing mode reaction the projectile picks up a nucleon from the target and then breaks up by emitting one nucleon. The velocity of the emitted nucleon is boosted by the projectile velocity, leading to the emission of the nucleon in a narrow cone around the direction of the scattered projectile. This work is dedicated to the towing mode in halo nuclei such as Be 11 . The experiment was performed at Ganil facility by bombarding a Ti 48 target with a 41 MeV per nucleon Be 11 beam, the reaction studied is: Ti 48 (Be 11 , Be 10 + n + γ). The first chapter reviews the various nuclear processes that take place when 2 nuclei collide with a particular attention for the towing mode. The second chapter is dedicated to solving the time dependant Schroedinger equation (TDSE) in order to assess the impact of various parameters such as incident energy, target charge or the linking energy of the nucleon, on the towing mode reaction. The third chapter deals with the experimental equipment and set-up including detectors and the data acquisition system. Computerized simulations have been performed in order to assess the efficiency of the detecting system, they are presented in the fourth chapter. A comparison between experimental data and the results from TDSE solving, concerning the energy spectra of the emitted particles, has enabled the author to deduce the spectroscopic factors for the different contributions of the fundamental state of Be 11 , they are presented in the last chapter. The cross-sections of the towing mode are of the magnitude of several tens of milli-barns in the case of weakly bound nuclei like Be 11 which make it an efficient tool to study intern structure of nuclei. (A.C.)

  11. Multi-dimensional water quality assessment of an urban drinking water source elucidated by high resolution underwater towed vehicle mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Alan; Spiers, Graeme; Hostetler, Blair; Ray, James; Wallschläger, Dirk

    2016-04-15

    Spatial surveys of Ramsey Lake, Sudbury, Ontario water quality were conducted using an innovative underwater towed vehicle (UTV) equipped with a multi-parameter probe providing real-time water quality data. The UTV revealed underwater vent sites through high resolution monitoring of different spatial chemical characteristics using common sensors (turbidity, chloride, dissolved oxygen, and oxidation/reduction sensors) that would not be feasible with traditional water sampling methods. Multi-parameter probe vent site identification is supported by elevated alkalinity and silica concentrations at these sites. The identified groundwater vent sites appear to be controlled by bedrock fractures that transport water from different sources with different contaminants of concern. Elevated contaminants, such as, arsenic and nickel and/or nutrient concentrations are evident at the vent sites, illustrating the potential of these sources to degrade water quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recovery of a temperate reef assemblage in a marine protected area following the exclusion of towed demersal fishing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma V Sheehan

    Full Text Available Marine Protected Areas MPA have been widely used over the last 2 decades to address human impacts on marine habitats within an ecosystem management context. Few studies have quantified recovery of temperate rocky reef communities following the cessation of scallop dredging or demersal trawling. This is critical information for the future management of these habitats to contribute towards conservation and fisheries targets. The Lyme Bay MPA, in south west UK, has excluded towed demersal fishing gear from 206 km(2 of sensitive reef habitat using a Statutory Instrument since July 2008. To assess benthic recovery in this MPA we used a flying video array to survey macro epi-benthos annually from 2008 to 2011. 4 treatments (the New Closure, previously voluntarily Closed Controls and Near or Far Open to fishing Controls were sampled to test a recovery hypothesis that was defined as 'the New Closure becoming more similar to the Closed Controls and less similar to the Open Controls'. Following the cessation of towed demersal fishing, within three years positive responses were observed for species richness, total abundance, assemblage composition and seven of 13 indicator taxa. Definitive evidence of recovery was noted for species richness and three of the indicator taxa (Pentapora fascialis, Phallusia mammillata and Pecten maximus. While it is hoped that MPAs, which exclude anthropogenic disturbance, will allow functional restoration of goods and services provided by benthic communities, it is an unknown for temperate reef systems. Establishing the likely timescales for restoration is key to future marine management. We demonstrate the early stages of successful recruitment and link these to the potential wider ecosystem benefits including those to commercial fisheries.

  13. Recovery of a temperate reef assemblage in a marine protected area following the exclusion of towed demersal fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Emma V; Stevens, Timothy F; Gall, Sarah C; Cousens, Sophie L; Attrill, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas MPA have been widely used over the last 2 decades to address human impacts on marine habitats within an ecosystem management context. Few studies have quantified recovery of temperate rocky reef communities following the cessation of scallop dredging or demersal trawling. This is critical information for the future management of these habitats to contribute towards conservation and fisheries targets. The Lyme Bay MPA, in south west UK, has excluded towed demersal fishing gear from 206 km(2) of sensitive reef habitat using a Statutory Instrument since July 2008. To assess benthic recovery in this MPA we used a flying video array to survey macro epi-benthos annually from 2008 to 2011. 4 treatments (the New Closure, previously voluntarily Closed Controls and Near or Far Open to fishing Controls) were sampled to test a recovery hypothesis that was defined as 'the New Closure becoming more similar to the Closed Controls and less similar to the Open Controls'. Following the cessation of towed demersal fishing, within three years positive responses were observed for species richness, total abundance, assemblage composition and seven of 13 indicator taxa. Definitive evidence of recovery was noted for species richness and three of the indicator taxa (Pentapora fascialis, Phallusia mammillata and Pecten maximus). While it is hoped that MPAs, which exclude anthropogenic disturbance, will allow functional restoration of goods and services provided by benthic communities, it is an unknown for temperate reef systems. Establishing the likely timescales for restoration is key to future marine management. We demonstrate the early stages of successful recruitment and link these to the potential wider ecosystem benefits including those to commercial fisheries.

  14. Matching Deep Tow Camera study and Sea Floor geochemical characterization of gas migration at the Tainan Ridge, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L. F.; Lien, K. L.; Hsieh, I. C.; Lin, S.

    2017-12-01

    Methane seep in deep sea environment could lead to build up of chemosynthesis communities, and a number of geological and biological anomalies as compare to the surrounding area. In order to examine the linkage between seep anomalies and those at the vicinity background area, and to detail mapping those spatial variations, we used a deep towed camera system (TowCam) to survey seafloor on the Tainan Ridge, Northeastern South China Sea (SCS). The underwater sea floor pictures could provide better spatial variations to demonstrate impact of methane seep on the sea floor. Water column variations of salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen were applied to delineate fine scale variations at the study area. In addition, sediment cores were collected for chemical analyses to confirm the existence of local spatial variations. Our results show large spatial variations existed as a result of differences in methane flux. In fact, methane is the driving force for the observed biogeochemical variations in the water column, on the sea floor, and in the sediment. Of the area we have surveyed, there are approximately 7% of total towcam survey data showing abnormal water properties. Corresponding to the water column anomalies, underwater sea floor pictures taken from those places showed that chemosynthetic clams and muscles could be identified, together with authigenic carbonate buildups, and bacterial mats. Moreover, sediment cores with chemical anomalies also matched those in the water column and on the sea floor. These anomalies, however, represent only a small portion of the area surveyed and could not be identified with typical (random) coring method. Methane seep, therefore, require tedious and multiple types of surveys to better understand the scale and magnitude of seep and biogeochemical anomalies those were driven by gas migrations.

  15. Integrated Methodologies (SWOT, TOWS, LCA for Improving Production Chains and Environmental Sustainability of Kiwifruit and Baby Kiwi in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Baudino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Italy’s kiwifruit growers are considered to be world-leading players of the past 20 years. However, with this success come its challenges. In the last five years, a bacterial canker of kiwifruit known as Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa has caused a dramatic reduction in the size of the areas cultivated, leading to several experienced Piedmontese Actinidia deliciosa growers beginning to cultivate the A. arguta. To better understand the potential for replacing the common kiwifruit in Italy’s Piedmont region with plantations of A. arguta and to attain a systematic approach and support for decision situations; we assessed the environmental impact of the two production chains (field and storage from a technical-operational perspective. The assessment was conducted through interviews with producers, field and warehouse technicians and sales managers in order to reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the two systems. The work presented below considers the application of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA method for the field system (two different phases of the plantation and the SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats analysis for the entire supply chain (field and warehouse management. Finally, a TOWS analysis (Threats, Opportunities, Weakness, Strengths integrated the results of both LCA and SWOT analyses and permitted to highlight the development strategies for A. arguta in Piedmont. The total orchard cycle for A. arguta presents an impact of 0.14 kg CO2 eq (GWP and for A. deliciosa an impact of 0.11 kg CO2 eq (GWP. Based on the synthesis of results from our TOWS analysis, we identified the following development strategies to help to shape the future A. arguta supply chain in Piedmont: Large-scale oriented; Berry fruits oriented; Export and organic oriented and Niche oriented.

  16. Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the

  17. Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the

  18. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, including Marine Debris Sightings, of the U.S. Pacific Reefs from 2000 to 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  19. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Large-bodied Fishes of the U.S. Pacific Reefs from 2000-09-09 to 2012-05-19 (NCEI Accession 0163744)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct surveys of large-bodied (> 50 cm) fishes in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific...

  20. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Large-bodied Fishes of the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2017-04-02 to 2017-04-20 (NCEI Accession 0164022)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct surveys of large-bodied (> 50 cm) fishes in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific...

  1. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitats, Key Benthic Species, and Marine Debris Sightings of the U.S. Pacific Reefs from 2000-09-09 to 2012-05-19 (NCEI Accession 0163745)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  2. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, including Marine Debris Sightings, of American Samoa from 2015-02-15 to 2015-03-23 (NCEI Accession 0157566)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  3. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, including Marine Debris Sightings, of the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2016-07-13 to 2016-09-26 (NCEI Accession 0157565)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  4. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, including Marine Debris Sightings, of the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2015-01-26 to 2015-04-26 (NCEI Accession 0157564)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  5. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitats, Key Benthic Species, and Marine Debris Sightings of the Mariana Archipelago from 2017-05-04 to 2017-06-20 (NCEI Accession 0166629)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  6. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitats, Key Benthic Species, and Marine Debris Sightings of the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2017-04-02 to 2017-04-20 (NCEI Accession 0164023)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  7. Robust automatic control system of vessel descent-rise device for plant with distributed parameters “cable – towed underwater vehicle”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupina, K. V.; Kataev, E. V.; Khannanov, A. M.; Korshunov, V. N.; Sennikov, I. A.

    2018-05-01

    The paper is devoted to a problem of synthesis of the robust control system for a distributed parameters plant. The vessel descent-rise device has a heave compensation function for stabilization of the towed underwater vehicle on a set depth. A sea state code, parameters of the underwater vehicle and cable vary during underwater operations, the vessel heave is a stochastic process. It means that the plant and external disturbances have uncertainty. That is why it is necessary to use the robust theory for synthesis of an automatic control system, but without use of traditional methods of optimization, because this cable has distributed parameters. The offered technique has allowed one to design an effective control system for stabilization of immersion depth of the towed underwater vehicle for various degrees of sea roughness and to provide its robustness to deviations of parameters of the vehicle and cable’s length.

  8. Assessment of Machine Learning Algorithms for Automatic Benthic Cover Monitoring and Mapping Using Towed Underwater Video Camera and High-Resolution Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mohamed

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Benthic habitat monitoring is essential for many applications involving biodiversity, marine resource management, and the estimation of variations over temporal and spatial scales. Nevertheless, both automatic and semi-automatic analytical methods for deriving ecologically significant information from towed camera images are still limited. This study proposes a methodology that enables a high-resolution towed camera with a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS to adaptively monitor and map benthic habitats. First, the towed camera finishes a pre-programmed initial survey to collect benthic habitat videos, which can then be converted to geo-located benthic habitat images. Second, an expert labels a number of benthic habitat images to class habitats manually. Third, attributes for categorizing these images are extracted automatically using the Bag of Features (BOF algorithm. Fourth, benthic cover categories are detected automatically using Weighted Majority Voting (WMV ensembles for Support Vector Machines (SVM, K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN, and Bagging (BAG classifiers. Fifth, WMV-trained ensembles can be used for categorizing more benthic cover images automatically. Finally, correctly categorized geo-located images can provide ground truth samples for benthic cover mapping using high-resolution satellite imagery. The proposed methodology was tested over Shiraho, Ishigaki Island, Japan, a heterogeneous coastal area. The WMV ensemble exhibited 89% overall accuracy for categorizing corals, sediments, seagrass, and algae species. Furthermore, the same WMV ensemble produced a benthic cover map using a Quickbird satellite image with 92.7% overall accuracy.

  9. Study of the break reaction of Be{sup 11} on Ti{sup 48} target; the towing mode: a spectroscopic tool for the study of nuclei; Etude de la reaction de cassure du {sup 11}Be sur cible de {sup 48}Ti; le towing mode, un outil spectroscopique pour l'etude des noyaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, V

    2004-10-01

    In a towing mode reaction the projectile picks up a nucleon from the target and then breaks up by emitting one nucleon. The velocity of the emitted nucleon is boosted by the projectile velocity, leading to the emission of the nucleon in a narrow cone around the direction of the scattered projectile. This work is dedicated to the towing mode in halo nuclei such as Be{sup 11}. The experiment was performed at Ganil facility by bombarding a Ti{sup 48} target with a 41 MeV per nucleon Be{sup 11} beam, the reaction studied is: Ti{sup 48}(Be{sup 11}, Be{sup 10} + n + {gamma}). The first chapter reviews the various nuclear processes that take place when 2 nuclei collide with a particular attention for the towing mode. The second chapter is dedicated to solving the time dependant Schroedinger equation (TDSE) in order to assess the impact of various parameters such as incident energy, target charge or the linking energy of the nucleon, on the towing mode reaction. The third chapter deals with the experimental equipment and set-up including detectors and the data acquisition system. Computerized simulations have been performed in order to assess the efficiency of the detecting system, they are presented in the fourth chapter. A comparison between experimental data and the results from TDSE solving, concerning the energy spectra of the emitted particles, has enabled the author to deduce the spectroscopic factors for the different contributions of the fundamental state of Be{sup 11}, they are presented in the last chapter. The cross-sections of the towing mode are of the magnitude of several tens of milli-barns in the case of weakly bound nuclei like Be{sup 11} which make it an efficient tool to study intern structure of nuclei. (A.C.)

  10. Study of the break reaction of Be{sup 11} on Ti{sup 48} target; the towing mode: a spectroscopic tool for the study of nuclei; Etude de la reaction de cassure du {sup 11}Be sur cible de {sup 48}Ti; le towing mode, un outil spectroscopique pour l'etude des noyaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, V

    2004-10-01

    In a towing mode reaction the projectile picks up a nucleon from the target and then breaks up by emitting one nucleon. The velocity of the emitted nucleon is boosted by the projectile velocity, leading to the emission of the nucleon in a narrow cone around the direction of the scattered projectile. This work is dedicated to the towing mode in halo nuclei such as Be{sup 11}. The experiment was performed at Ganil facility by bombarding a Ti{sup 48} target with a 41 MeV per nucleon Be{sup 11} beam, the reaction studied is: Ti{sup 48}(Be{sup 11}, Be{sup 10} + n + {gamma}). The first chapter reviews the various nuclear processes that take place when 2 nuclei collide with a particular attention for the towing mode. The second chapter is dedicated to solving the time dependant Schroedinger equation (TDSE) in order to assess the impact of various parameters such as incident energy, target charge or the linking energy of the nucleon, on the towing mode reaction. The third chapter deals with the experimental equipment and set-up including detectors and the data acquisition system. Computerized simulations have been performed in order to assess the efficiency of the detecting system, they are presented in the fourth chapter. A comparison between experimental data and the results from TDSE solving, concerning the energy spectra of the emitted particles, has enabled the author to deduce the spectroscopic factors for the different contributions of the fundamental state of Be{sup 11}, they are presented in the last chapter. The cross-sections of the towing mode are of the magnitude of several tens of milli-barns in the case of weakly bound nuclei like Be{sup 11} which make it an efficient tool to study intern structure of nuclei. (A.C.)

  11. Towing Asteroids with Gravity Tractors Enhanced by Tethers and Solar Sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Haijun; Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Material collected from an asteroid's surface can be used to increase gravitational attraction between the asteroid and a Gravity Tractor (GT); the spacecraft therefore operates more effectively and is referred to as an Enhanced Gravity Tractor (EGT). The use of tethers and solar sails to further improve effectiveness and simplify operations is investigated. By employing a tether, the asteroidal material can be placed close to the asteroid while the spacecraft is stationed farther away, resulting in a better safety margin and improved thruster efficiency. A solar sail on a spacecraft can naturally provide radial offset and inter-spacecraft separation required for multiple EGTs.

  12. Process for recovering, destroying or displacing a petroleum product on the surface of a liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godin, G H.F.; Bringer Quertier, G M.L.

    1969-01-06

    This process consists in first immobilizing the petroleum product on the surface of water by means of pieces or strips of polyethylene plastic. The petroleum product is then either collected and separated from water, or burned in place. After burning, the solid residue is towed to shore and burned a second time, after which neither ash nor residue is left. The proportion of polyethylene to be used is 1:20 if the product is collected, 1:35 if it is burned.

  13. Cold-water coral distributions in the drake passage area from towed camera observations--initial interpretations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhian G Waller

    Full Text Available Seamounts are unique deep-sea features that create habitats thought to have high levels of endemic fauna, productive fisheries and benthic communities vulnerable to anthropogenic impacts. Many seamounts are isolated features, occurring in the high seas, where access is limited and thus biological data scarce. There are numerous seamounts within the Drake Passage (Southern Ocean, yet high winds, frequent storms and strong currents make seafloor sampling particularly difficult. As a result, few attempts to collect biological data have been made, leading to a paucity of information on benthic habitats or fauna in this area, particularly those on primarily hard-bottom seamounts and ridges. During a research cruise in 2008 six locations were examined (two on the Antarctic margin, one on the Shackleton Fracture Zone, and three on seamounts within the Drake Passage, using a towed camera with onboard instruments to measure conductivity, temperature, depth and turbidity. Dominant fauna and bottom type were categorized from 200 randomized photos from each location. Cold-water corals were present in high numbers in habitats both on the Antarctic margin and on the current swept seamounts of the Drake Passage, though the diversity of orders varied. Though the Scleractinia (hard corals were abundant on the sedimented margin, they were poorly represented in the primarily hard-bottom areas of the central Drake Passage. The two seamount sites and the Shackleton Fracture Zone showed high numbers of stylasterid (lace and alcyonacean (soft corals, as well as large numbers of sponges. Though data are preliminary, the geological and environmental variability (particularly in temperature between sample sites may be influencing cold-water coral biogeography in this region. Each area observed also showed little similarity in faunal diversity with other sites examined for this study within all phyla counted. This manuscript highlights how little is understood of these

  14. Cold-Water Coral Distributions in the Drake Passage Area from Towed Camera Observations – Initial Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rhian G.; Scanlon, Kathryn M.; Robinson, Laura F.

    2011-01-01

    Seamounts are unique deep-sea features that create habitats thought to have high levels of endemic fauna, productive fisheries and benthic communities vulnerable to anthropogenic impacts. Many seamounts are isolated features, occurring in the high seas, where access is limited and thus biological data scarce. There are numerous seamounts within the Drake Passage (Southern Ocean), yet high winds, frequent storms and strong currents make seafloor sampling particularly difficult. As a result, few attempts to collect biological data have been made, leading to a paucity of information on benthic habitats or fauna in this area, particularly those on primarily hard-bottom seamounts and ridges. During a research cruise in 2008 six locations were examined (two on the Antarctic margin, one on the Shackleton Fracture Zone, and three on seamounts within the Drake Passage), using a towed camera with onboard instruments to measure conductivity, temperature, depth and turbidity. Dominant fauna and bottom type were categorized from 200 randomized photos from each location. Cold-water corals were present in high numbers in habitats both on the Antarctic margin and on the current swept seamounts of the Drake Passage, though the diversity of orders varied. Though the Scleractinia (hard corals) were abundant on the sedimented margin, they were poorly represented in the primarily hard-bottom areas of the central Drake Passage. The two seamount sites and the Shackleton Fracture Zone showed high numbers of stylasterid (lace) and alcyonacean (soft) corals, as well as large numbers of sponges. Though data are preliminary, the geological and environmental variability (particularly in temperature) between sample sites may be influencing cold-water coral biogeography in this region. Each area observed also showed little similarity in faunal diversity with other sites examined for this study within all phyla counted. This manuscript highlights how little is understood of these isolated

  15. Effects of Sled Towing on Peak Force, the Rate of Force Development and Sprint Performance During the Acceleration Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Valencia María Asunción

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resisted sprint training is believed to increase strength specific to sprinting. Therefore, the knowledge of force output in these tasks is essential. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of sled towing (10%, 15% and 20% of body mass (Bm on sprint performance and force production during the acceleration phase. Twenty-three young experienced sprinters (17 men and 6 women; men = 17.9 ± 3.3 years, 1.79 ± 0.06 m and 69.4 ± 6.1 kg; women = 17.2 ± 1.7 years, 1.65 ± 0.04 m and 56.6 ± 2.3 kg performed four 30 m sprints from a crouch start. Sprint times in 20 and 30 m sprint, peak force (Fpeak, a peak rate of force development (RFDpeak and time to RFD (TRFD in first step were recorded. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed significant increases (p ≤ 0.001 in sprint times (20 and 30 m sprint for each resisted condition as compared to the unloaded condition. The RFDpeak increased significantly when a load increased (3129.4 ± 894.6 N·s−1, p ≤ 0.05 and 3892.4 ± 1377.9 N·s−1, p ≤ 0.01. Otherwise, no significant increases were found in Fpeak and TRFD. The RFD determines the force that can be generated in the early phase of muscle contraction, and it has been considered a factor that influences performance of force-velocity tasks. The use of a load up to 20% Bm might provide a training stimulus in young sprinters to improve the RFDpeak during the sprint start, and thus, early acceleration.

  16. Terra Nova tow-out poised as next East Coast event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, W.

    2001-01-01

    This spring, Newfoundland will send off a floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) vessel to the offshore Terra Nova field. The Terra Nova will proceed southeast through Bull Arm, then northeast out of Trinity Bay, then heads southeast to the Jeanne d'Arc Basin on the Grand Banks. The Terra Nova is expected to produce 115,000 barrels of oil per day for six years, when it reaches full capacity. The consortium, headed by Petro-Canada as senior ownership partner and operator, built an environment protection program into every aspect of the project. Some of the features of the environment protection program include glory holes excavated on the ocean floor for the protection of production equipment from icebergs, to a flare stack on the platform, which has four legs to provide stability in rough seas. The FPSO was designed to withstand sea ice, icebergs, and severe winter storms. Flow lines are also protected, and in the event that a line is damaged, sea water will leak rather than oil or gas, since the hydrocarbons can be flushed out of the production lines. Safety was ever present during the design phase, where the engineers studied the designs of other platforms and included the best elements in the design of the Terra Nova. The rig possesses an ice-strengthened double hull, reinforced with 3,000 tonnes of steel. A series of tanks are attached to the inside surface of the outer shell for sea water ballasts, while the inner hull holds the crude oil. In addition, an environmental effects monitoring EEM system is in place to gather information for future reference, to assess and detect changes in the marine climate and the ecosystem. The analysis of the information will assist in the determination of the best course of action in the event that remedial action is required. Baseline information was gathered beginning in 1997. Additional sampling will be performed on an annual basis for the next three years. After this period, sampling will be periodical

  17. Experimental assessment of blade tip immersion depth from free surface on average power and thrust coefficients of marine current turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lust, Ethan; Flack, Karen; Luznik, Luksa

    2014-11-01

    Results from an experimental study on the effects of marine current turbine immersion depth from the free surface are presented. Measurements are performed with a 1/25 scale (diameter D = 0.8m) two bladed horizontal axis turbine towed in the large towing tank at the U.S. Naval Academy. Thrust and torque are measured using a dynamometer, mounted in line with the turbine shaft. Shaft rotation speed and blade position are measured using a shaft position indexing system. The tip speed ratio (TSR) is adjusted using a hysteresis brake which is attached to the output shaft. Two optical wave height sensors are used to measure the free surface elevation. The turbine is towed at 1.68 m/s, resulting in a 70% chord based Rec = 4 × 105. An Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) is installed one turbine diameter upstream of the turbine rotation plane to characterize the inflow turbulence. Measurements are obtained at four relative blade tip immersion depths of z/D = 0.5, 0.4, 0.3, and 0.2 at a TSR value of 7 to identify the depth where free surface effects impact overall turbine performance. The overall average power and thrust coefficient are presented and compared to previously conducted baseline tests. The influence of wake expansion blockage on the turbine performance due to presence of the free surface at these immersion depths will also be discussed.

  18. The Camera-Based Assessment Survey System (C-BASS): A towed camera platform for reef fish abundance surveys and benthic habitat characterization in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembke, Chad; Grasty, Sarah; Silverman, Alex; Broadbent, Heather; Butcher, Steven; Murawski, Steven

    2017-12-01

    An ongoing challenge for fisheries management is to provide cost-effective and timely estimates of habitat stratified fish densities. Traditional approaches use modified commercial fishing gear (such as trawls and baited hooks) that have biases in species selectivity and may also be inappropriate for deployment in some habitat types. Underwater visual and optical approaches offer the promise of more precise and less biased assessments of relative fish abundance, as well as direct estimates of absolute fish abundance. A number of video-based approaches have been developed and the technology for data acquisition, calibration, and synthesis has been developing rapidly. Beginning in 2012, our group of engineers and researchers at the University of South Florida has been working towards the goal of completing large scale, video-based surveys in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. This paper discusses design considerations and development of a towed camera system for collection of video-based data on commercially and recreationally important reef fishes and benthic habitat on the West Florida Shelf. Factors considered during development included potential habitat types to be assessed, sea-floor bathymetry, vessel support requirements, personnel requirements, and cost-effectiveness of system components. This regional-specific effort has resulted in a towed platform called the Camera-Based Assessment Survey System, or C-BASS, which has proven capable of surveying tens of kilometers of video transects per day and has the ability to cost-effective population estimates of reef fishes and coincident benthic habitat classification.

  19. Modelling towing and haul-back escape patterns during the fishing process: a case study for cod, plaice, and flounder in the demersal Baltic Sea cod fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent; Mieske, Bernd; Stepputtis, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    a specially designed experiment. Results demonstrate that the escape process during towing cannot be described sufficiently by a traditional logistic model or something similar. Instead, a model is required that explicitly considers that not all fish necessarily contact the codend netting to attempt escape...

  20. Standard practice for measurement of time-of-wetness on surfaces exposed to wetting conditions as in atmospheric corrosion testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1989-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a technique for monitoring time-of-wetness (TOW) on surfaces exposed to cyclic atmospheric conditions which produce depositions of moisture. 1.2 The practice is also applicable for detecting and monitoring condensation within a wall or roof assembly and in test apparatus. 1.3 Exposure site calibration or characterization can be significantly enhanced if TOW is measured for comparison with other sites, particularly if this data is used in conjunction with other site-specific instrumentation techniques. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  1. 1 D Additive correction strategy for solving tow dimensional problem of heat and mas transfer in porous media with non-rectangular domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Mers, A.; Mimet, A.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new procedure using 1 D additive correction strategy (AC), for resolution of tow dimensional problem of heat and mass transfer in field reactor of adsorption cooling machine. The reactor contains a porous medium constituted of activated carbon reacting by adsorption with ammonia. The present paper demonstrated how the new procedure of the (AC) propose here can be used, in the case of non-rectangular domain and strongly anisotropic coefficients, to improve the convergence rate of different iterative solvers currently used: Point Gauss-Seidel (GS), the line Gauss-Seidel (LGS), strongly implicit procedure (SIP) and the strongly implicit solver (SIS). Results shows that for different solvers, the performance of the additive correction strategy is efficiently improved by using the new procedure.(Author)

  2. Surface Water & Surface Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  3. Physical data collected from towed CTD from the R/V Lowell Weicker in the eastern Long Island Sound in support of the Collaborative Research: Investigating Tidal Influences on Subtidal Estuary-Coast Exchange Using Observations and Numerical Simulations from 21 July 2009 to 25 August 25, 2010 (NODC Accession 0115770)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset is an archive of CTD data obtained from a towed undulating platform (Acrobat) in the region near the mouth of Long Island Sound. The observations were...

  4. Zooplankton species identities and other data from net tows from NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV and other platforms from NE Atlantic (limit-40 W) as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1977-04-20 to 1986-12-10 (NODC Accession 9400006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton species identities and other data were collected from net tows from NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV and other platforms in the NE Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 20...

  5. Investigation of Submarine Groundwater Discharge and Preferential Groundwater Flow-paths in a Coastal Karst Area using towed Marine and Terrestrial Electrical Resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'connell, Y.; Daly, E.; Duffy, G.; Henry, T.

    2012-12-01

    Large volumes of groundwater, containing nutrients and contaminants enter the coastal waters of southern Galway Bay on the west coast of Ireland through submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). The SGD occurs through karstified Carboniferous limestone in a major karst region comprising the Burren and Gort Lowlands. The Carboniferous limestones have experienced extensive dissolution resulting in the development of an underground network of conduits and fissures that define a trimodal groundwater flow pattern across the region. Groundwater discharge to the sea in this area is exclusively intertidal and submarine. Storage in the karst is limited and typical winter rainfall conditions result in the karst system becoming saturated. Temporary lakes (turloughs) form in lowlying areas and act as large reservoirs which provide storage to enable the transmission of the large volumes of water in the system to the sea. Between 2010 and 2012, terrestrial and shallow marine geophysical surveying has been undertaken to investigate preferential groundwater flow-paths and SGD locations in order to quantify the groundwater-seawater interactions in this coastal karst system. A report into the groundwater system of this karst region following a major flood event proposed a conceptual conduit model defined by extensive water tracing, water level monitoring, hydrochemical sampling, geological mapping and drilling. Limited information about the dimensions of the conduits was known. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) profiling to depths of 100m below ground level, with multiple array configurations, has been carried out to investigate the modes of groundwater flow in to and out of both temporary and permanent freshwater lakes in the system. Towed dipole-dipole profiles have been recorded to investigate conduits beneath a permanent lake exhibiting a tidal influence despite its location 5.5 km from the seashore. The ERT data indicates significant variations in subsurface resistivities

  6. Low planktic foraminiferal diversity and abundance observed in a spring 2013 west-east Mediterranean Sea plankton tow transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallo, Miguel; Ziveri, Patrizia; Mortyn, P. Graham; Schiebel, Ralf; Grelaud, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Planktic foraminifera were collected with 150 µm BONGO nets from the upper 200 m water depth at 20 stations across the Mediterranean Sea between 2 May and 2 June 2013. The main aim is to characterize the species distribution and test the covariance between foraminiferal area density (ρA) and seawater carbonate chemistry in a biogeochemical gradient including ultraoligotrophic conditions. Average foraminifera abundances are 1.42 ± 1.43 ind. 10 m-3 (ranging from 0.11 to 5.20 ind. 10 m-3), including 12 morphospecies. Large differences in species assemblages and total abundances are observed between the different Mediterranean sub-basins, with an overall dominance of spinose, symbiont-bearing species indicating oligotrophic conditions. The highest values in absolute abundance are found in the Strait of Gibraltar and the Alboran Sea. The western basin is dominated by Globorotalia inflata and Globigerina bulloides at slightly lower standing stocks than in the eastern basin. In contrast, the planktic foraminiferal assemblage in the warmer, saltier, and more nutrient-limited eastern basin is dominated by Globigerinoides ruber (white). These new results, when combined with previous findings, suggest that temperature-induced surface water stratification and food availability are the main factors controlling foraminiferal distribution. In the oligotrophic and highly alkaline and supersaturated with respect to calcite and aragonite Mediterranean surface water, standing stocks and ρA of G. ruber (white) and G. bulloides are affected by both food availability and seawater carbonate chemistry. Rapid warming increased surface ocean stratification impacting food availability and changes in trophic conditions could be the causes of reduced foraminiferal abundance, diversity, and species-specific changes in planktic foraminiferal calcification.

  7. New PVD Technologies for New Ordnance Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    characteristics using a Tantalum and a Chrome target; 4) Deposition of Ta coatings and reactive deposition of CrN; 5) Deposition parameters affecting film...Vapor Deposition (PVD); High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS); Modulated Pulsed Power (MPP); Tantalum; Chrome ; Ta coatings; CrN; coating...The pre-production chemicals and acids are hazardous and hexavalent Cr is a known carcinogen. Significant annual expenditures are necessary to

  8. Modular Towed Acoustic Sonar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-04

    Dkt . No...d 11 5 11 0c 11 0d 11 5 14 0 16 0’ 1 60 ’’ 12 0 14 0 12 0 14 0 13 0 14 0 12 0 13 0 12 0 12 0 13 0 14 0 16 0 10 0 d 2 d 3 Dkt . No. 102060 Application...of Non-Acoustic Sensors in Second Sensor Array Dkt . No. 102060 Application No. ?? REPLACEMENT SHEET? /3 1st DRAFT 3 F IG . 3 11 5 16 4 16 8 16 2 16 6 11 5 1 50 11 0b 18 0 17 0 16 6a 16 4a 18 0 10 0 11 0a 15 0

  9. ERDC Ship/Tow Simulator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Performing Advanced Hydrodynamic ModelingEngineers and ship pilots can now overcome the challenges of evaluating navigation channel designs, modifications and safety...

  10. Apparatus and process for recovering petroleum spread on the surface of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sourdis, P

    1968-05-06

    A flexible suction tube is towed by means of 2 or more cables in a direction substantially perpendicular to the axis of the tube. The tube is made of light plastic and has a longitudinal slot over its entire length; the width of the slot can be made adjustable. The interior of the suction tube is connected through tubes with a discharge tube in which the liquid level can vary between certain limits. The discharge tube is equipped with floats and steering surfaces to maintain its position in the water; its ends are connected to the pumps on a ship. This assembly is used in conjunction with a flexible, ballasted barrier filled with air to insure its buoyancy. The barrier may consist of a flat plastic tube, or of sheet plastic wound on a core of foamed or expanded plastic. The barrier is stored aboard a tanker or aboard the pumping ship, and when in use, it is towed by one or several speedboats.

  11. Minimal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Sauvigny, Friedrich; Jakob, Ruben; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    Minimal Surfaces is the first volume of a three volume treatise on minimal surfaces (Grundlehren Nr. 339-341). Each volume can be read and studied independently of the others. The central theme is boundary value problems for minimal surfaces. The treatise is a substantially revised and extended version of the monograph Minimal Surfaces I, II (Grundlehren Nr. 295 & 296). The first volume begins with an exposition of basic ideas of the theory of surfaces in three-dimensional Euclidean space, followed by an introduction of minimal surfaces as stationary points of area, or equivalently

  12. Rumble surfaces

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    National Institute for Transport and Road

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumble surfaces are intermittent short lengths of coarse-textured road surfacings on which vehicle tyres produce a rumbling sound. used in conjunction with appropriate roadsigns and markings, they can reduce accidents on rural roads by alerting...

  13. Surface thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Moliner, F.

    1975-01-01

    Basic thermodynamics of a system consisting of two bulk phases with an interface. Solid surfaces: general. Discussion of experimental data on surface tension and related concepts. Adsorption thermodynamics in the Gibbsian scheme. Adsorption on inert solid adsorbents. Systems with electrical charges: chemistry and thermodynamics of imperfect crystals. Thermodynamics of charged surfaces. Simple models of charge transfer chemisorption. Adsorption heat and related concepts. Surface phase transitions

  14. Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Energy Conversion Research at UNH: From Fundamental Studies of Hydrofoil Sections, to Moderate Reynolds Number Turbine Tests in a Tow Tank, to Open Water Deployments at Tidal Energy Test Sites (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosnik, M.; Bachant, P.; Nedyalkov, I.; Rowell, M.; Dufresne, N.; Lyon, V.

    2013-12-01

    We report on research related to MHK turbines at the Center for Ocean Renewable Energy (CORE) at the University of New Hampshire (UNH). The research projects span varies scales, levels of complexity and environments - from fundamental studies of hydrofoil sections in a high speed water tunnel, to moderate Reynolds number turbine tests with inflow and wake studies in a large cross-section tow tank, to deployments of highly instrumented process models at tidal energy test sites in New England. A concerted effort over the past few years has brought significant new research infrastructure for marine hydrokinetic energy conversion online at UNH-CORE. It includes: a high-speed cavitation tunnel with independent control of velocity and pressure; a highly accurate tow mechanism, turbine test bed and wake traversing system for the 3.7m x 2.4m cross-section UNH tow tank; a 10.7m x 3.0m tidal energy test platform which can accommodate turbines up to 1.5m in diameter, for deployments at the UNH-CORE Tidal Energy Test Site in Great Bay Estuary, NH, a sheltered 'nursery site' suitable for intermediate scale tidal energy conversion device testing with peak currents typically above 2 m/s during each tidal cycle. Further, a large boundary layer wind tunnel, the new UNH Flow Physics Facility (W6.0m x H2.7m xL72m) is being used for detailed turbine wake studies, producing data and insight also applicable to MHK turbines in low Froude number deployments. Bi-directional hydrofoils, which perform equally well in either flow direction and could avoid the use of complex and maintenance-intensive yaw or blade pitch mechanisms, are being investigated theoretically, numerically and experimentally. For selected candidate shapes lift, drag, wake, and cavitation inception/desinence are measured. When combined with a cavitation inception model for MHK turbines, this information can be used to prescribe turbine design/operational parameters. Experiments were performed with a 1m diameter and 1m

  15. Development of Autonomous Magnetometer Rotorcraft For Wide Area Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark D. McKay; Matthew O. Anderson

    2011-08-01

    Large areas across the United States and internationally are potentially contaminated with unexploded ordinance (UXO), with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with (1) near 100% coverage and (2) near 100% detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area assessment is a multi-level one, in which medium - altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry. Subsequent to this wide area assessment targeted surface investigations are performed using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be an effective tool for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 to 3 meters. These altitude requirements mean that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys, resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre. In addition, due to the low altitude there are substantial risks to pilots and equipment. Surface towed arrays provide highresolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. Thus there is a need for other systems, which can be used for effective data collection. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it reduces risk to operators, is lower in initial and Operational and Maintenance (O&M) costs (and can thus potentially be applied to smaller sites) and has the potential of being more effective in terms of detection and possibly

  16. Shallow Water UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Record No. 5 (NAEVA/XTECH, EM61 MKII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    been fired or degaussed. Clutter items fit into one of three categories: ferrous, nonferrous , and mixed metals . The ferrous and nonferrous ...electromagnetic (EM) metal detectors . The system was relatively lightweight, requiring a small aluminum boat for towing. This configuration should...composed of ordnance components; however, industrial scrap metal and cultural items are present as well. The mixed- metals clutter is composed of

  17. Controlled Ascent From the Surface of an Asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Haijun; Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Cornelius, David M.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently investigating a conceptual robotic mission to collect a small boulder up to 4 m in diameter resting on the surface of a large Near Earth Asteroid (NEA). Because most NEAs are not well characterized, a great range of uncertainties in boulder mass properties and NEA surface characteristics must be considered in the design of this mission. These uncertainties are especially significant when the spacecraft ascends with the boulder in tow. The most important requirement during ascent is to keep the spacecraft in an upright posture to maintain healthy ground clearances for the two large solar arrays. This paper focuses on the initial stage (the first 50 m) of ascent from the surface. Specifically, it presents a sensitivity study of the solar array ground clearance, control authority, and accelerations at the array tips in the presence of a variety of uncertainties including various boulder sizes, densities, shapes and orientations, locations of the true center of mass, and push-off force distributions. Results are presented, and appropriate operations are recommended in the event some of the off-nominal cases occur.

  18. Surface mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Leopold; Bruce Rowland; Reed Stalder

    1979-01-01

    The surface mining process consists of four phases: (1) exploration; (2) development; (3) production; and (4) reclamation. A variety of surface mining methods has been developed, including strip mining, auger, area strip, open pit, dredging, and hydraulic. Sound planning and design techniques are essential to implement alternatives to meet the myriad of laws,...

  19. Superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Evelyn N; McCarthy, Matthew; Enright, Ryan; Culver, James N; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Ghodssi, Reza

    2015-03-24

    Surfaces having a hierarchical structure--having features of both microscale and nanoscale dimensions--can exhibit superhydrophobic properties and advantageous condensation and heat transfer properties. The hierarchical surfaces can be fabricated using biological nanostructures, such as viruses as a self-assembled nanoscale template.

  20. Surface characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandla A. Tshabalala

    2005-01-01

    Surface properties of wood play an important role when wood is used or processed into different commodities such as siding, joinery, textiles, paper, sorption media or wood composites. Thus, for example, the quality and durability of a wood coating are determined by the surface properties of the wood and the coating. The same is true for wood composites, as the...

  1. Air Entrainment and Surface Ripples in a Turbulent Ship Hull Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masnadi, Naeem; Erinin, Martin; Duncan, James H.

    2017-11-01

    The air entrainment and free-surface fluctuations caused by the interaction of a free surface and the turbulent boundary layer of a vertical surface-piercing plate is studied experimentally. In this experiment, a meter-wide stainless steel belt travels horizontally in a loop around two rollers with vertically oriented axes. This belt device is mounted inside a large water tank with the water level set just below the top edge of the belt. The belt, rollers, and supporting frame are contained within a sheet metal box to keep the device dry except for one 6-meter-long straight test section. The belt is accelerated suddenly from rest until reaching constant speed in order to create a temporally evolving boundary layer analogous to the spatially evolving boundary layer that would exist along a surface-piercing towed flat plate. Surface ripples are measured using a cinematic laser-induced fluorescence technique with the laser sheet oriented parallel or normal to the belt surface. Air entrainment events and bubble motions are recorded from underneath the water surface using a stereo imaging system. Measurements of small bubbles, that tend to stay submerged for a longer time, are planned via a high-speed digital in-line holographic system. The support of the Office of Naval Research is gratefully acknowledged.

  2. Development of gamma probe for radiation surveys of the bottoms of surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.R.; Welch, S.J.; St Aubin, M.J.; Dal Bianco, R.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed a practical method for mapping variations in gamma activity and electrical conductivity of submerged sediments. Prototype probes are being constructed and tested. The first prototype was essentially a background survey meter (Jones, 1979) packaged in a 53-cm-long by 5.4-cm-diameter waterproof vehicle. This tubular vehicle was towed by boat in contact with the bottom sediments of lakes and rivers. Originally, this vehicle was designed (and is still frequently used) for locating groundwater and contaminant entry areas in surface waters. By logging geographic position and sediment variables, it has been possible to produce contour maps in areas of interest. Thus it is possible to optimize environmental analysis and avoid the 'hit or miss' approach of traditional bottom-sediment surveys. (author)

  3. Virtual maneuvering test in CFD media in presence of free surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hajivand

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Maneuvering oblique towing test is simulated in a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD environment to obtain the linear and nonlinear velocity dependent damping coefficients for a DTMB 5512 model ship. The simulations are carried out in freely accessible OpenFOAM library with three different solvers, rasInterFoam, LTSInterFoam and interDyMFoam, and two turbulence models, k-ε and SST k-ω in presence of free surface. Turning and zig-zag maneuvers are simulated for the DTMB 5512 model ship using the calculated damping coefficients with CFD. The comparison of simulated results with the available experimental shows a very good agreement among them.

  4. Convex surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Busemann, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    This exploration of convex surfaces focuses on extrinsic geometry and applications of the Brunn-Minkowski theory. It also examines intrinsic geometry and the realization of intrinsic metrics. 1958 edition.

  5. Surface boxplots

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-22

    In this paper, we introduce a surface boxplot as a tool for visualization and exploratory analysis of samples of images. First, we use the notion of volume depth to order the images viewed as surfaces. In particular, we define the median image. We use an exact and fast algorithm for the ranking of the images. This allows us to detect potential outlying images that often contain interesting features not present in most of the images. Second, we build a graphical tool to visualize the surface boxplot and its various characteristics. A graph and histogram of the volume depth values allow us to identify images of interest. The code is available in the supporting information of this paper. We apply our surface boxplot to a sample of brain images and to a sample of climate model outputs.

  6. Surface boxplots

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.; Johnson, Christopher; Potter, Kristin; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Sun, Ying

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a surface boxplot as a tool for visualization and exploratory analysis of samples of images. First, we use the notion of volume depth to order the images viewed as surfaces. In particular, we define the median image. We use an exact and fast algorithm for the ranking of the images. This allows us to detect potential outlying images that often contain interesting features not present in most of the images. Second, we build a graphical tool to visualize the surface boxplot and its various characteristics. A graph and histogram of the volume depth values allow us to identify images of interest. The code is available in the supporting information of this paper. We apply our surface boxplot to a sample of brain images and to a sample of climate model outputs.

  7. Surface channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizmann, R.; Varelas, C.

    1976-01-01

    There is experimental evidence that swift light ions incident at small angles towards single crystalline surfaces can lose an appreciable fraction of their kinetic energy during reflection. It is shown that these projectiles penetrate into the bulk surface region of the crystal. They can travel as channeled particles along long paths through the solid (surface channeling). The angular distribution and the depth history of the re-emerged projectiles are investigated by computer simulations. A considerable fraction of the penetrating projectiles re-emerges from the crystal with constant transverse energy if the angle of incidence is smaller than the critical angle for axial channeling. Analytical formulae are derived based on a diffusion model for surface channeling. A comparison with experimental data exhibits the relevance of the analytical solutions. (Auth.)

  8. Martian surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    The surface of Mars is characterized on the basis of reformatted Viking remote-sensing data, summarizing results published during the period 1983-1986. Topics examined include impact craters, ridges and faults, volcanic studies (modeling of surface effects on volcanic activity, description and interpretation of volcanic features, and calculations on lava-ice interactions), the role of liquid water on Mars, evidence for abundant ground ice at high latitudes, water-cycle modeling, and the composition and dynamics of Martian dust

  9. Surface decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S. da; Teixeira, M.V.

    1986-06-01

    The general methods of surface decontamination used in laboratory and others nuclear installations areas, as well as the procedures for handling radioactive materials and surfaces of work are presented. Some methods for decontamination of body external parts are mentioned. The medical supervision and assistance are required for internal or external contamination involving or not lesion in persons. From this medical radiation protection decontamination procedures are determined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  10. Surface phonons

    CERN Document Server

    Wette, Frederik

    1991-01-01

    In recent years substantial progress has been made in the detection of surface phonons owing to considerable improvements in inelastic rare gas scattering tech­ niques and electron energy loss spectroscopy. With these methods it has become possible to measure surface vibrations in a wide energy range for all wave vectors in the two-dimensional Brillouin zone and thus to deduce the complete surface phonon dispersion curves. Inelastic atomic beam scattering and electron energy loss spectroscopy have started to play a role in the study of surface phonons similar to the one played by inelastic neutron scattering in the investigation of bulk phonons in the last thirty years. Detailed comparison between experimen­ tal results and theoretical studies of inelastic surface scattering and of surface phonons has now become feasible. It is therefore possible to test and to improve the details of interaction models which have been worked out theoretically in the last few decades. At this point we felt that a concise, co...

  11. Joint inversion of lake-floor electrical resistivity tomography and boat-towed radio-magnetotelluric data illustrated on synthetic data and an application from the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory site, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shunguo; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Bastani, Mehrdad; Malehmir, Alireza; Pedersen, Laust B.; Dahlin, Torleif; Meqbel, Naser

    2018-04-01

    The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method provides moderately good constraints for both conductive and resistive structures, while the radio-magnetotelluric (RMT) method is well suited to constrain conductive structures. Additionally, RMT and ERT data may have different target coverage and are differently affected by various types of noise. Hence, joint inversion of RMT and ERT data sets may provide a better constrained model as compared to individual inversions. In this study, joint inversion of boat-towed RMT and lake-floor ERT data has for the first time been formulated and implemented. The implementation was tested on both synthetic and field data sets incorporating RMT transverse electrical mode and ERT data. Results from synthetic data demonstrate that the joint inversion yields models with better resolution compared with individual inversions. A case study from an area adjacent to the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in southeastern Sweden was used to demonstrate the implementation of the method. A 790-m-long profile comprising lake-floor ERT and boat-towed RMT data combined with partial land data was used for this purpose. Joint inversions with and without weighting (applied to different data sets, vertical and horizontal model smoothness) as well as constrained joint inversions incorporating bathymetry data and water resistivity measurements were performed. The resulting models delineate subsurface structures such as a major northeasterly directed fracture system, which is observed in the HRL facility underground and confirmed by boreholes. A previously uncertain weakness zone, likely a fracture system in the northern part of the profile, is inferred in this study. The fractures are highly saturated with saline water, which make them good targets of resistivity-based geophysical methods. Nevertheless, conductive sediments overlain by the lake water add further difficulty to resolve these deep fracture zones. Therefore, the joint inversion of RMT

  12. Mostly surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Richard Evan

    2011-01-01

    This book presents a number of topics related to surfaces, such as Euclidean, spherical and hyperbolic geometry, the fundamental group, universal covering surfaces, Riemannian manifolds, the Gauss-Bonnet Theorem, and the Riemann mapping theorem. The main idea is to get to some interesting mathematics without too much formality. The book also includes some material only tangentially related to surfaces, such as the Cauchy Rigidity Theorem, the Dehn Dissection Theorem, and the Banach-Tarski Theorem. The goal of the book is to present a tapestry of ideas from various areas of mathematics in a clear and rigorous yet informal and friendly way. Prerequisites include undergraduate courses in real analysis and in linear algebra, and some knowledge of complex analysis.

  13. Surface rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia Corrêa Landim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In many cities of Brazil, social inequality is illustrated by violence, poverty, and unemployment located next to luxurious residential towers and armored passenger cars. In the face of this situation, the National Movement of Urban Reform encouraged the inclusion of the social function of property in Brazil's new constitution of 1988. Surface rights represent an urbanistic instrument in the city statute that is best aligned to the constitutional principles and urban policies. The current article compares two laws that govern the principle of surface rights and provides a brief history of the evolution of the state based on illuminism and the consequent change in paradigm affecting individual rights, including property and civil rights, and their interpretation under the Constitution. The article concludes by suggesting the use of land surface rights in a joint operation, matching the ownership of the property with urban planning policies and social interest.

  14. Attack surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruschka, Nils; Jensen, Meiko

    2010-01-01

    The new paradigm of cloud computing poses severe security risks to its adopters. In order to cope with these risks, appropriate taxonomies and classification criteria for attacks on cloud computing are required. In this work-in-progress paper we present one such taxonomy based on the notion...... of attack surfaces of the cloud computing scenario participants....

  15. Measuring surface salinity in the N. Atlantic subtropical gyre. The SPURS-MIDAS cruise, spring 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Jordi; Ward, Brian; Emelianov, Mikhail; Morisset, Simon; Salvador, Joaquin; Busecke, Julius

    2014-05-01

    SPURS-MIDAS (March-April 2013) on board the Spanish R/V Sarmiento de Gamboa was a contribution to SPURS (Salinity Processes in the Upper ocean Regional Study) focused on the processes responsible for the formation and maintenance of the salinity maximum associated to the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Scientists from Spain, Ireland, France and US sampled the mesoscale and submesoscale structures in the surface layer (fixed points and towed undulating CTD, underway near surface TSG) and deployed operational and experimental drifters and vertical profilers, plus additional ocean and atmospheric data collection. Validation of salinity maps obtained from the SMOS satellite was one of the objectives of the cruise. The cruise included a joint workplan and coordinated sampling with the US R/V Endeavor, with contribution from SPURS teams on land in real time data and analysis exchange. We present here an overview of the different kinds of measurements made during the cruise, as well as a first comparison between SMOS-derived sea surface salinity products and salinity maps obtained from near-surface sampling in the SPURS-MIDAS area and from surface drifters released during the cruise.

  16. Surface smoothness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tummala, Sudhakar; Dam, Erik B.

    2010-01-01

    accuracy, such novel markers must therefore be validated against clinically meaningful end-goals such as the ability to allow correct diagnosis. We present a method for automatic cartilage surface smoothness quantification in the knee joint. The quantification is based on a curvature flow method used....... We demonstrate that the fully automatic markers eliminate the time required for radiologist annotations, and in addition provide a diagnostic marker superior to the evaluated semi-manual markers....

  17. Experimental study on the effects of surface gravity waves of different wavelengths on the phase averaged performance characteristics of marine current turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luznik, L.; Lust, E.; Flack, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    There are few studies describing the interaction between marine current turbines and an overlying surface gravity wave field. In this work we present an experimental study on the effects of surface gravity waves of different wavelengths on the wave phase averaged performance characteristics of a marine current turbine model. Measurements are performed with a 1/25 scale (diameter D=0.8m) two bladed horizontal axis turbine towed in the large (116m long) towing tank at the U.S. Naval Academy equipped with a dual-flap, servo-controlled wave maker. Three regular waves with wavelengths of 15.8, 8.8 and 3.9m with wave heights adjusted such that all waveforms have the same energy input per unit width are produced by the wave maker and model turbine is towed into the waves at constant carriage speed of 1.68 m/s. This representing the case of waves travelling in the same direction as the mean current. Thrust and torque developed by the model turbine are measured using a dynamometer mounted in line with the turbine shaft. Shaft rotation speed and blade position are measured using in in-house designed shaft position indexing system. The tip speed ratio (TSR) is adjusted using a hysteresis brake which is attached to the output shaft. Free surface elevation and wave parameters are measured with two optical wave height sensors, one located in the turbine rotor plane and other one diameter upstream of the rotor. All instruments are synchronized in time and data is sampled at a rate of 700 Hz. All measured quantities are conditionally sampled as a function of the measured surface elevation and transformed to wave phase space using the Hilbert Transform. Phenomena observed in earlier experiments with the same turbine such as phase lag in the torque signal and an increase in thrust due to Stokes drift are examined and presented with the present data as well as spectral analysis of the torque and thrust data.

  18. Flying fish accelerate at 5 G to leap from the water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Patricia; Phonekeo, Sulisay; Xu, Ke; Chang, Shui-Kai; Hu, David

    2013-11-01

    Flying fish can both swim underwater and glide in air. Transitioning from swimming to gliding requires penetration of the air-water interface, or breaking the ``surface tension barrier,'' a formidable task for juvenile flying fish measuring 1 to 5 cm in length. In this experimental investigation, we use high-speed videography to characterize the kinematics of juvenile flying fish as they leap from the water surface. During this process, which lasts 0.05 seconds, flying fish achieve body accelerations of 5 times earth's gravity and gliding speeds of 1.3 m/s, an order of magnitude higher than their steady swimming speed. We rationalize this anomalously high speed on the basis of the hydrodynamic and surface tension forces and torques experienced by the fish. Specifically, leaping fish experience skin friction forces only on the submerged part of their body, permitting them to achieve much higher speeds than in steady underwater swimming. We also perform experiments using a towed flying fish mimc to determine optimality of various parameters in this process, including body angle and start position with respect to the water surface.

  19. Surfaces of Building Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Surynková, Petra

    2009-01-01

    My diploma thesis Surfaces of Building Practice deals with the basic properties of surfaces, their mathematical description, categorization, and application in technical practice. Each studied surface is defined and its process of construction and parametrical description is listed. The thesis studies selected types of surfaces in details - these surfaces include surfaces of revolution, ruled surfaces, screw surfaces, and translational surfaces. An application of each studied surfaces is show...

  20. Ventilation Inception and Washout, Scaling, and Effects on Hydrodynamic Performance of a Surface Piercing Strut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Casey; Young, Yin Lu; Ceccio, Steven

    2014-11-01

    High-lift devices that operate at or near a fluid free surface (such as surface-piercing or shallowly-submerged propellers and hydrofoils) are prone to a multiphase flow phenomenon called ventilation, wherein non-condensable gas is entrained in the low-pressure flow, forming a cavity around the body and dramatically altering the global hydrodynamic forces. Experiments are being conducted at the University of Michigan's towing tank using a canonical surface-piercing strut to investigate atmospheric ventilation. The goals of the work are (i) to gain an understanding of the dominant physics in fully wetted, partially ventilated, and fully ventilated flow regimes, (ii) to quantify the effects of governing dimensionless parameters on the transition between flow regimes, and (iii) to develop scaling relations for the transition between flow regimes. Using theoretical arguments and flow visualization techniques, new criteria are developed for classifying flow regimes and transition mechanisms. Unsteady transition mechanisms are described and mapped as functions of the governing non-dimensional parameters. A theoretical scaling relationship is developed for ventilation washout, which is shown to adequately capture the experimentally-observed washout boundary. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Student Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE 1256260. Support also comes from the Naval Engineering Education Center (Award No. N65540-10-C-003).

  1. Detection of Buried Mines and Unexploded Ordnance (UXO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-20

    terahertz spectroscopy can be used at standoff distances but require a direct line of sight (DLOS) to the explosive. DLOS would only be applicable to...produces Nitrogen-14, which is a positron emitter. Positron annihilates an electron emitting two oppositely emitted γ-rays of 511 keV each. Detection of...half life of 10 min and no gamma rays emitted. Positron annihilates an electron emitting two oppositely emitted γ-rays of 511 keV each. Detection of

  2. Unexploded Ordnance: A Critical Review of Risk Assessment Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MacDonald, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    .... While civilian fatalities from UXO explosions on U.S. soil have been rare, the risk of such accidents could increase substantially as more closed bases are transferred from military to civilian control...

  3. Study on the Feasibility of Mass Area Ordnance Decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-15

    and Armor Plate Protection 11-50 11-20 Bucket Modifications 11-53 Appendices Figure Page III-1 The Relationship Between Rippability and Seismic...FK S. .. . ... L, i ! ,, ,,i , , W~AM0RPHIC ROK MINERALS 9 ORESm n, imI I’𔄃 1.. I 1. 1 .t’ I.* [ FIGURE III-l: The Relationship Between Rippability

  4. Detection of Unexploded Ordnance Using Airborne LWIR Emissivity Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-25

    glass and wood, are spectrally distinct and would not appear as false alarms. Index Terms— Hyperspectral, Long Wave Infrared , Emissivity, Target...hyperspectral; radar). Because of previous successes using thermal infrared bands for UXO [3, 4] and landmine detection [5], this paper aims at...potential false alarms. They included materials made of rubber , cardboard, metal, wood, glass and plastic (Figure 1). 2.2. Laboratory LWIR signature

  5. Evaluation Selection of Encapsulating Plastics for Ordnance Electronic Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    ISP-100 Dow Two-component urethane (>70D) 10 B635/1- 4BD Uniroyal Two-component urethane (ɟD) 68 4. CIRCUIT ENCAPSULATION 4.1 Introduction This phase...HARRY DIAs ’ND LABORATORIES 3975 MCMM RD ATTN CO/ TD /TSO/DIVISION DIRFXTORS ATTN JERRY KRAMR ATTN RECORD COPY, 81200 CINCINNATI, ON 45245 ATTN HDL LIBRARY

  6. Electromagnetic Induction Sensing of UneXploded Ordnance with Pedemis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    Pasion , L. R., “A unified approach to uxo discrimination using the method of auxiliary sources,” tech. rep. (2006). [19] Barrowes, B. E., O’Neill, K...inversion and classification using advanced emi models,” (2010). SERDP-MR-1572. [27] Pasion , L., “Uxo discrimination using full coverage and cued

  7. Subsurface Electromagnetic Induction Imaging for Unexploded Ordnance Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Baum, 1999; Pasion and Oldenburg, 2001). The EMI- response problem has been solved analytically for spheroids (Ao et al., 2002; Barrowes et al., 2004...components. We also have made explicit the fact that the polarizabilities are always positive ( Pasion et al., 2008); we impose this constraint in the...Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, UK. Pasion , L.R., Oldenburg, D.W., 2001. A discrimination algorithm for UXO using time- domain electromagnetic induction

  8. Dredging Equipment Modifications for Detection and Removal of Ordnance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Electromagnet at a concrete recycler facility. ...........................................................71 viii TABLES Table 3-1. Hydraulic pipeline...discharge. The slurry only arched about 1.5 m (5 ft) from the spreader , and the solids rapidly settled from the fluid. When the original project was...dredge. 3.4.4 San Diego A concrete recycler was visited in two different sites in San Diego, California. The major interest for these visits was to

  9. Physics based Prediction of Unexploded Ordnance Penetration in Granular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    for the combined Finite-Discrete Element Method. The test data measured at the interrelated scales are used to benchmark corresponding grain...measured at the interrelated scales are used to benchmark corresponding grain-, continuum-, and system-scale discrete and finite element analysis...account for development of dynamic link libraries (DLLs), which can be functionally integrated (as modules) into the existing UXO PenDepth software

  10. A Probabilistic Cost Estimation Model for Unexploded Ordnance Removal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poppe, Peter

    1999-01-01

    ...) contaminated sites that the services must decontaminate. Existing models for estimating the cost of UXO removal often require a high level of expertise and provide only a point estimate for the costs...

  11. Geodetic survey as a means of improving fast MASW (Multichannel Analysis Of Surface Waves) profiling in difficult terrain/land conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuła, Rafał; Lewińska, Paulina

    2018-01-01

    This paper revolves around newly designed and constructed system that can make 2D seismic measurement in natural, subsoil conditions and role of land survey in obtaining accurate results and linking them to 3D surface maps. A new type of land streamer, designed for shallow subsurface exploration is described in this paper. In land seismic data acquisition methods a vehicle tows a line of seismic cable, lying on construction called streamer. The measurements of points and shots are taken while the line is stationary, arbitrary placed on seismic profile. Exposed land streamer consists of 24 innovatory gimballed 10 Hz geophones. It eliminates the need for hand `planting' of geophones, reducing time and costs. With the use of current survey techniques all data obtained with this instrument are being transferred in to 2D and 3D maps. This process is becoming more automatic.

  12. CalCOFI Egg Counts Positive Tows

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  13. CalCOFI Larvae Counts Positive Tows

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  14. Stress Evaluation for the TOW Accuracy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    possibi_2 effects on performance that ware because of test site factors could not be Assased . Implications of confounding order with test site were...with extended wear. There is no health risk in wearing these devices. The system is described in detail in Appendix B. The activity monitors were used... chemical protective clothing (MOPP IV). All runs were completed during daylight hoars. Each gunner completed the state questionnaire battery about 15

  15. Safety System for a Towed Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-25

    the cable snag is distributed over a larger time duration, so that an unreeling mechanism can start up and unreel more cable over the longer...Technology Transfer at (401) 832-1511. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT Approved for Public Release Distribution is unlimited Attorney Docket No...motor can then slow down and can stop the winch before the cable is lost. [0013] The system is mechanically over-damped to increase a time constant

  16. 76 FR 49975 - Inspection of Towing Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... Position Indicating Radio Beacon FAST Fatigue Avoidance Scheduling Tool FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety... human sleep and rest requirements. H.R. Conf. Rep. 108-617, 2004 U.S.C.C.A.N. 936, 951. B. Regulatory... owners and managing operators. The Coast Guard has proposed a traditional inspection scheme as one option...

  17. Surface excitation parameter for rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da, Bo; Salma, Khanam; Ji, Hui; Mao, Shifeng; Zhang, Guanghui; Wang, Xiaoping; Ding, Zejun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Instead of providing a general mathematical model of roughness, we directly use a finite element triangle mesh method to build a fully 3D rough surface from the practical sample. • The surface plasmon excitation can be introduced to the realistic sample surface by dielectric response theory and finite element method. • We found that SEP calculated based on ideal plane surface model are still reliable for real sample surface with common roughness. - Abstract: In order to assess quantitatively the importance of surface excitation effect in surface electron spectroscopy measurement, surface excitation parameter (SEP) has been introduced to describe the surface excitation probability as an average number of surface excitations that electrons can undergo when they move through solid surface either in incoming or outgoing directions. Meanwhile, surface roughness is an inevitable issue in experiments particularly when the sample surface is cleaned with ion beam bombardment. Surface roughness alters not only the electron elastic peak intensity but also the surface excitation intensity. However, almost all of the popular theoretical models for determining SEP are based on ideal plane surface approximation. In order to figure out whether this approximation is efficient or not for SEP calculation and the scope of this assumption, we proposed a new way to determine the SEP for a rough surface by a Monte Carlo simulation of electron scattering process near to a realistic rough surface, which is modeled by a finite element analysis method according to AFM image. The elastic peak intensity is calculated for different electron incident and emission angles. Assuming surface excitations obey the Poisson distribution the SEPs corrected for surface roughness are then obtained by analyzing the elastic peak intensity for several materials and for different incident and emission angles. It is found that the surface roughness only plays an

  18. Applications of electrical resistivity imaging for characterizing groundwater-surface water interactions from local to regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, M. B.; Befus, K. M.; Zamora, P. B.; Ong, J.; Zlotnik, V. A.; Cook, P. L.; Tait, D. R.; Erler, D.; Santos, I. R.; Siringan, F. P.

    2012-12-01

    Surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) interact across multiple spatial and temporal scales and their interaction is important for ecological and biogeochemical functions. The mixing of GW and SW has been challenging to simultaneously map with sufficient detail and coverage. Fortunately, ambient differences in salinity of waters occupying geologic formations and sediment are an ideal target for electrical resistivity imaging (ERI). We present examples of the application of ERI for mapping GW discharge and for understanding GW-SW interactions at: (1) a large regulated river, (2) neighboring lakes with differing salinity, (3) fringing coral reefs and lagoons, (4) beaches, and (5) estuaries. In all these cases, the ER tomograms were critical for improving conceptual understanding of GW-SW interactions. At the Lower Colorado River in Austin, Texas (USA), time-lapse ERI was conducted across a 12-hour dam-release cycle when the river stage varied by 0.7 m. Using temporal variability in electrical resistivity (ER) signatures, we identified a shallow well-flushed hyporheic zone, a transition zone where SW and GW mix, and a stable deep zone hosting only GW. In alkaline lakes in the Nebraska Sand Hills (Nebraska, USA), ER surveys using boat-towed cables allowed for mapping the 3D electrical structure underneath the lake. The tomograms were used to distinguish flow-through lakes, which have decreasing subsurface ER from GW inflow to outflow area, from pure GW discharge lakes, which have uniformly stratified increasing-with-depth ER profiles. Moreover, GW plumes in both discharge and recharge zones were clearly outlined underneath the lake. More than 30 km of ER profiles collected via boat-towed surveys over a fringing coral reef in the Philippines identified areas of high ER within the reef that coincide with resistive zones in the seawater. Analysis of 222Rn of bottom waters and vertical conductivity-temperature-depth measurements show the persistence of fresh GW input into

  19. Surface-seismic imaging for nehrp soil profile classifications and earthquake hazards in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.A.; Stephenson, W.J.; Odum, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    We acquired high-resolution seismic-refraction data on the ground surface in selected areas of the San Fernando Valley (SFV) to help explain the earthquake damage patterns and the variation in ground motion caused by the 17 January 1994 magnitude 6.7 Northridge earthquake. We used these data to determine the compressional- and shear-wave velocities (Vp and Vs) at 20 aftershock recording sites to 30-m depth ( V??s30, and V??p30). Two other sites, located next to boreholes with downhole Vp and Vs data, show that we imaged very similar seismic-vefocity structures in the upper 40 m. Overall, high site response appears to be associated with tow Vs in the near surface, but there can be a wide rangepf site amplifications for a given NEHRP soil type. The data suggest that for the SFV, if the V??s30 is known, we can determine whether the earthquake ground motion will be amplified above a factor of 2 relative to a local rock site.

  20. Near‐surface void detection using a seismic landstreamer and horizontal velocity and attenuation tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Sean F.; Lane, John W.

    2012-01-01

    The detection and characterization of subsurface voids plays an important role in the study of karst formations and clandestine tunnels. Horizontal velocity and attenuation tomography (HVAT) using offset‐fan shooting and a towed seismic land streamer is a simple, rapid, minimally invasive method that shows promise for detecting near‐surface voids and providing information on the orientation of linear voids. HVAT surveys were conducted over a known subsurface steam tunnel on the University of Connecticut Depot Campus, Storrs, Connecticut. First‐arrival travel‐time and amplitude data were used to produce two‐dimensional (2D) horizontal (map view) velocity and attenuation tomograms. In addition, attenuation tomograms were produced based on normalized total trace energy (TTE). Both the velocity and TTE attenuation tomograms depict an anomaly consistent with the location and orientation of the known tunnel; the TTE method, however, requires significantly less processing time, and therefore may provide a path forward to semi‐automated, near real‐time detection of near‐surface voids. Further study is needed to assess the utility of the HVAT method to detect deeper voids and the effects of a more complex geology on HVAT results.