Sample records for surface texture roughness

  1. Roughness analysis for textured surfaces over several orders of magnitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vepsäläinen, Laura, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Stenberg, Petri, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Pääkkönen, Pertti, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Kuittinen, Markku, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Suvanto, Mika, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Pakkanen, Tapani A., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland)


    Multiscale structured surfaces have roughness distributions at various spatial frequencies that affect surface properties of materials. A recently developed filtered power spectral density (FPSD) method for surface roughness characterization was generalized to comprise structures from micro- to nanoscale. Furthermore, a uniform analysis method for micro- and nanoscale characterization over five orders of magnitudes was found by combining optical profilometry data, at the microscale level and atomic force microscopy data, at the nanoscale level. The FPSD method was also combined with structure simulation for multiscales, thus the roughness distributions can be designed and studied without the fabrication of structures. Furthermore, the FPSD simulation offers a design tool for structure–property correlations.

  2. Mapping lava flow textures using three-dimensional measures of surface roughness (United States)

    Mallonee, H. C.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; McGregor, M.; Hughes, S. S.; Neish, C.; Downs, M.; Delparte, D.; Lim, D. S. S.; Heldmann, J. L.


    Lava flow emplacement conditions are reflected in the surface textures of a lava flow; unravelling these conditions is crucial to understanding the eruptive history and characteristics of basaltic volcanoes. Mapping lava flow textures using visual imagery alone is an inherently subjective process, as these images generally lack the resolution needed to make these determinations. Our team has begun mapping lava flow textures using visual spectrum imagery, which is an inherently subjective process involving the challenge of identifying transitional textures such as rubbly and slabby pāhoehoe, as these textures are similar in appearance and defined qualitatively. This is particularly problematic for interpreting planetary lava flow textures, where we have more limited data. We present a tool to objectively classify lava flow textures based on quantitative measures of roughness, including the 2D Hurst exponent, RMS height, and 2D:3D surface area ratio. We collected aerial images at Craters of the Moon National Monument (COTM) using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in 2015 and 2016 as part of the FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) and BASALT (Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains) research projects. The aerial images were stitched together to create Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) with resolutions on the order of centimeters. The DTMs were evaluated by the classification tool described above, with output compared against field assessment of the texture. Further, the DTMs were downsampled and reevaluated to assess the efficacy of the classification tool at data resolutions similar to current datasets from other planetary bodies. This tool allows objective classification of lava flow texture, which enables more accurate interpretations of flow characteristics. This work also gives context for interpretations of flows with comparatively low data resolutions, such as those on the Moon and Mars. Textural maps based on

  3. Experimental research of surface roughness and surface texture after laser cladding (United States)

    Przestacki, Damian; Majchrowski, Radomir; Marciniak-Podsadna, Lidia


    The objective of the investigation was to identify surface integrity of machined parts after laser cladding. Surface analysis was made by using novel metrology methods: auto correlation and gradient distributions. An Infinite Focus Measurement Machine (IFM) has been used for the surface texture analysis. The study has been performed within a production facility during the prototyping process of new products. There are many methods available for geometric and surface topography measurements: contact and non-contact, micro and nanoscale approaches. An optical method based on the measurement of light reflected or scattered from the surface of an examined object can be used for this purpose. We have tested the application of an advanced 3D scanner for this purpose - optical scanner ATOS II. The scanner ATOS II represents the optical method, i.e. the digital light projection (DLP) method. The system consists of a projector and two digital cameras capable of supplying 1.4 million of measuring points per second. This method enables to scan elements from a few millimeters to a several dozen of meters in size. The roughness analysis is based on 2D measurements, which gave two-dimensional characteristics of the surface. In last decades, the metrology of the surface layer notes dynamical development as a science. During the last decades, many scientists and constructors became convinced that the third dimension should be added to the surface analysis. At present, 3D analysis of the surface geometry is widely accepted. In order to complete the topography analysis of the surface texture after laser cladding, our team worked out original program for 2D and 3D surface analysis. It was called TAS (topography analysis and simulation) and was based on Matlab software. Four modules were developed: the initial data processing module, basic parameters calculating module, data visualization module, and digital filtration module.

  4. Impact of surface roughness and soil texture on mineral dust emission fluxes modeling (United States)

    Menut, Laurent; PéRez, Carlos; Haustein, Karsten; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Prigent, Catherine; Alfaro, StéPhane


    Dust production models (DPM) used to estimate vertical fluxes of mineral dust aerosols over arid regions need accurate data on soil and surface properties. The Laboratoire Inter-Universitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA) data set was developed for Northern Africa, the Middle East, and East Asia. This regional data set was built through dedicated field campaigns and include, among others, the aerodynamic roughness length, the smooth roughness length of the erodible fraction of the surface, and the dry (undisturbed) soil size distribution. Recently, satellite-derived roughness length and high-resolution soil texture data sets at the global scale have emerged and provide the opportunity for the use of advanced schemes in global models. This paper analyzes the behavior of the ERS satellite-derived global roughness length and the State Soil Geographic data base-Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (STATSGO-FAO) soil texture data set (based on wet techniques) using an advanced DPM in comparison to the LISA data set over Northern Africa and the Middle East. We explore the sensitivity of the drag partition scheme (a critical component of the DPM) and of the dust vertical fluxes (intensity and spatial patterns) to the roughness length and soil texture data sets. We also compare the use of the drag partition scheme to a widely used preferential source approach in global models. Idealized experiments with prescribed wind speeds show that the ERS and STATSGO-FAO data sets provide realistic spatial patterns of dust emission and friction velocity thresholds in the region. Finally, we evaluate a dust transport model for the period of March to July 2011 with observed aerosol optical depths from Aerosol Robotic Network sites. Results show that ERS and STATSGO-FAO provide realistic simulations in the region.

  5. Electrochemically grown rough-textured nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Pawan; Postetter, David; Saragnese, Daniel [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States); Papadakis, Stergios J. [Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory (United States); Gracias, David H., E-mail: dgracias@jhu.ed [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States)


    Nanowires with a rough surface texture show unusual electronic, optical, and chemical properties; however, there are only a few existing methods for producing these nanowires. Here, we describe two methods for growing both free standing and lithographically patterned gold (Au) nanowires with a rough surface texture. The first strategy is based on the deposition of nanowires from a silver (Ag)-Au plating solution mixture that precipitates an Ag-Au cyanide complex during electrodeposition at low current densities. This complex disperses in the plating solution, thereby altering the nanowire growth to yield a rough surface texture. These nanowires are mass produced in alumina membranes. The second strategy produces long and rough Au nanowires on lithographically patternable nickel edge templates with corrugations formed by partial etching. These rough nanowires can be easily arrayed and integrated with microscale devices.

  6. Role of roughness parameters on the tribology of randomly nano-textured silicon surface. (United States)

    Gualtieri, E; Pugno, N; Rota, A; Spagni, A; Lepore, E; Valeri, S


    This experimental work is oriented to give a contribution to the knowledge of the relationship among surface roughness parameters and tribological properties of lubricated surfaces; it is well known that these surface properties are strictly related, but a complete comprehension of such correlations is still far to be reached. For this purpose, a mechanical polishing procedure was optimized in order to induce different, but well controlled, morphologies on Si(100) surfaces. The use of different abrasive papers and slurries enabled the formation of a wide spectrum of topographical irregularities (from the submicro- to the nano-scale) and a broad range of surface profiles. An AFM-based morphological and topographical campaign was carried out to characterize each silicon rough surface through a set of parameters. Samples were subsequently water lubricated and tribologically characterized through ball-on-disk tribometer measurements. Indeed, the wettability of each surface was investigated by measuring the water droplet contact angle, that revealed a hydrophilic character for all the surfaces, even if no clear correlation with roughness emerged. Nevertheless, this observation brings input to the purpose, as it allows to exclude that the differences in surface profile affect lubrication. So it is possible to link the dynamic friction coefficient of rough Si samples exclusively to the opportune set of surface roughness parameters that can exhaustively describe both height amplitude variations (Ra, Rdq) and profile periodicity (Rsk, Rku, Ic) that influence asperity-asperity interactions and hydrodynamic lift in different ways. For this main reason they cannot be treated separately, but with dependent approach through which it was possible to explain even counter intuitive results: the unexpected decreasing of friction coefficient with increasing Ra is justifiable by a more consistent increasing of kurtosis Rku.

  7. Laser textured surface gradients (United States)

    Ta, Van Duong; Dunn, Andrew; Wasley, Thomas J.; Li, Ji; Kay, Robert W.; Stringer, Jonathan; Smith, Patrick J.; Esenturk, Emre; Connaughton, Colm; Shephard, Jonathan D.


    This work demonstrates a novel technique for fabricating surfaces with roughness and wettability gradients and their subsequent applications for chemical sensors. Surface roughness gradients on brass sheets are obtained directly by nanosecond laser texturing. When these structured surfaces are exposed to air, their wettability decreases with time (up to 20 days) achieving both spatial and temporal wettability gradients. The surfaces are responsive to organic solvents. Contact angles of a series of dilute isopropanol solutions decay exponentially with concentration. In particular, a fall of 132° in contact angle is observed on a surface gradient, one order of magnitude higher than the 14° observed for the unprocessed surface, when the isopropanol concentration increased from 0 to 15.6 wt%. As the wettability changes gradually over the surface, contact angle also changes correspondingly. This effect offers multi-sensitivity at different zones on the surface and is useful for accurate measurement of chemical concentration.

  8. Quantitative Characterisation of Surface Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Lonardo, P.M.; Trumpold, H.


    This paper reviews the different methods used to give a quantitative characterisation of surface texture. The paper contains a review of conventional 2D as well as 3D roughness parameters, with particular emphasis on recent international standards and developments. It presents new texture...



    İsmail Aydın; Gürsel Çolakoğlu


    Some visual characteristics of wood such as color, pattern and texture determine the quality of manufactured products. Surface properties of wood material are important both in production and marketing after production. Initial studies related to the roughness of wood surface were begun in early 1950’s. However, no general agreed standardization can not have been developed for wood surfaces. Surface roughness of wood is function of the production process, product type and the natural anatomic...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Aydın


    Full Text Available Some visual characteristics of wood such as color, pattern and texture determine the quality of manufactured products. Surface properties of wood material are important both in production and marketing after production. Initial studies related to the roughness of wood surface were begun in early 1950’s. However, no general agreed standardization can not have been developed for wood surfaces. Surface roughness of wood is function of the production process, product type and the natural anatomical properties of wood. Contact and non-contact tracing methods are used to measure of wood surface roughness. Surface roughness also affects the gluability and wettability of wood surfaces. The success in finishing also depends on the surface roughness of wood.

  11. Quantitative Characterisation of Surface Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Lonardo, P.M.; Trumpold, H.;


    This paper reviews the different methods used to give a quantitative characterisation of surface texture. The paper contains a review of conventional 2D as well as 3D roughness parameters, with particular emphasis on recent international standards and developments. It presents new texture...... characterisation methods, such as fractals, wavelets, change trees and others, including for each method a short review, the parameters that the new methods calculate, and applications of the methods to solve surface problems. The paper contains a discussion on the relevance of the different parameters...... and quantification methods in terms of functional correlations, and it addresses the need for reducing the large number of existing parameters. The review considers the present situation and gives suggestions for future activities....

  12. Rough Surface Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Nguyen


    Full Text Available This paper studies the contact of general rough curved surfaces having nearly identical geometries, assuming the contact at each differential area obeys the model proposed by Greenwood and Williamson. In order to account for the most general gross geometry, principles of differential geometry of surface are applied. This method while requires more rigorous mathematical manipulations, the fact that it preserves the original surface geometries thus makes the modeling procedure much more intuitive. For subsequent use, differential geometry of axis-symmetric surface is considered instead of general surface (although this “general case” can be done as well in Chapter 3.1. The final formulas for contact area, load, and frictional torque are derived in Chapter 3.2.

  13. 考虑粗糙度影响的表面织构最优参数设计模型%Optimal design model of surface texture with surface roughness considered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晨波; 朱华; 孙见君


    为考察表面粗糙度对织构表面摩擦学性能的影响,采用求解基于平均雷诺方程的表面织构润滑计算模型的方法,研究综合粗糙度和方向参数等对摩擦系数及最优织构参数的影响规律.结果表明:当织构表面具有横向粗糙条纹时具有较优的摩擦学性能表现;当综合粗糙度σ〈0.5μm时,摩擦系数和最优织构深度不随综合粗糙度的变化而变化,当σ≥0.5μm时,摩擦系数和最优织构深度随粗糙度的增大而增大;最优织构直径随综合粗糙度的增大而增大,最优织构面积比与综合粗糙度之间不相关,最优织构参数不随方向参数的变化而变化.在仿真结果的基础上,建立考虑粗糙度影响时表面织构的最优参数设计模型,试验验证所建立的模型是合理的和正确的.%In order to investigate the frictional performance of textured surfaces when its surface roughness was considered,the influences of composite root-mean-square(RMS) and the orientation parameter on the friction coefficient as well as the optimal parameters of textured surfaces were studied by solving the lubrication computation model of surface texture based on the average Reynolds equation.The results show that: the textured surfaces with the traverse surface roughness have the perfect frictional performance;the friction coefficient and the optimal depth of surface texture increase with the accretion of the composite RMS(σ) when σ0.5 μm,while the friction coefficient and the optimal depth of surface texture do not change with the composite RMS when σ≥0.5 μm;the larger the composite RMS,the larger the optimal diameter of surface texture,the optimal area ratio is not related to the composite RMS,the optimal parameters are not bound up with the orientation parameter.An optimal design model of surface texture is established based on the computational results,and the validation of the model is also verified.

  14. Measurement of surface roughness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with two 3 hours laboratory exercises that are part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The laboratories include a demonstration of the function of roughness measuring instruments plus a series of exercises illustrating roughness measurement...

  15. An Algorithm for Evaluating Fresnel-Zone Textural Roughness for Seismic Facies Interpretation (United States)

    Di, H.; Gao, D.


    In reflection seismic interpretation, a 1-D convolutional model is commonly used to interpret amplitude variations based on the geometric ray theory assuming seismic wave to reflect at a reflection point; however, the propagation of seismic waves actually occurs in a finite zone around the geometric ray path and gets reflected from a zone known as Fresnel zone. The collected signal at the surface turns out to be the superposition of reflections from within the Fresnel zone, which is a function of texture. Generally, for a rough texture such as sandstone, the dominant reflection is from the zone margin, while for a smooth texture such as marine shale, the dominant reflection is from the zone center. Based on this concept, Fresnel-zone texture directly affects amplitude variations with offset (AVO), azimuth (AVAZ), and frequency (AVF). Here we develop a computer algorithm for evaluating Fresnel-zone textural roughness. The algorithm starts with dividing the Fresnel zone into a set of micro-zones. It then builds an initial texture model to be convolved with an extracted wavelet. By comparing the synthetic signal from a Fresnel zone to the real seismic signal within an analysis window at a target location, the model is adjusted and updated until both synthetic and real signals match best. The roughness is evaluated as the correlation coefficient between the generated texture model within the Fresnel zone and the ideal model for a rough texture medium. Our new algorithm is applied to a deep-water 3D seismic volume over offshore Angola, west Africa. The results show that a rough texture is associated with channel sands, whereas a smooth texture with marine shale.

  16. Surface Roughness of Si3N4 Based on Texture Analysis%基于纹理分析的Si3N4陶瓷表面粗糙度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田欣利; 王健全; 张保国; 唐修检; 李富强


    The inherent relationships about surface texture features and roughness of ground Si3N4 were investigated through the gray level co-occurrence matrix(GLCM) , based on surface images captured by digital microscope. The sampling offset and total gray levels of GLCM were 4 and 64 respectively. And then 4 matrices concerning 0,45, 90° and 135° were built up to acquire the average of each texture feature. Six features such as contrast and entropy were set as main texture parameters according to the correlation analysis, and the relations between texture features and roughness parameters were discussed later. Furthermore, the multiple nonlinear regression technique was applied to establish the forecasting models of texture features and roughness. The result shows that the deviation of predicted roughness and measured result is less than 0. 25, which reveals a good predictive effect of these models.%通过数字显微镜获取Si3N4磨削表面图像,运用灰度共生矩阵(GLCM)分析表面纹理特征与粗糙度的内在关系.根据实验确定GLCM采样点间距、总灰度级,按4个方向建立GLCM并计算纹理特征参数均值.利用变量相关分析,确定对比度等6个参数为Si3N4磨削表面主要纹理特征,并探讨各纹理参数与Ra,Ry,S,Tp的变化规律,从而定性评估Si3N4磨削表面粗糙度.采用多元非线性回归方法研究纹理特征参数与粗糙度评定指标的联系,构建4个回归预测模型.结果表明:模型计算值与实测值偏差小于0.25,具有较好的预测效果.

  17. Robust surface roughness indices and morphological interpretation (United States)

    Trevisani, Sebastiano; Rocca, Michele


    Geostatistical-based image/surface texture indices based on variogram (Atkison and Lewis, 2000; Herzfeld and Higginson, 1996; Trevisani et al., 2012) and on its robust variant MAD (median absolute differences, Trevisani and Rocca, 2015) offer powerful tools for the analysis and interpretation of surface morphology (potentially not limited to solid earth). In particular, the proposed robust index (Trevisani and Rocca, 2015) with its implementation based on local kernels permits the derivation of a wide set of robust and customizable geomorphometric indices capable to outline specific aspects of surface texture. The stability of MAD in presence of signal noise and abrupt changes in spatial variability is well suited for the analysis of high-resolution digital terrain models. Moreover, the implementation of MAD by means of a pixel-centered perspective based on local kernels, with some analogies to the local binary pattern approach (Lucieer and Stein, 2005; Ojala et al., 2002), permits to create custom roughness indices capable to outline different aspects of surface roughness (Grohmann et al., 2011; Smith, 2015). In the proposed poster, some potentialities of the new indices in the context of geomorphometry and landscape analysis will be presented. At same time, challenges and future developments related to the proposed indices will be outlined. Atkinson, P.M., Lewis, P., 2000. Geostatistical classification for remote sensing: an introduction. Computers & Geosciences 26, 361-371. Grohmann, C.H., Smith, M.J., Riccomini, C., 2011. Multiscale Analysis of Topographic Surface Roughness in the Midland Valley, Scotland. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 49, 1220-1213. Herzfeld, U.C., Higginson, C.A., 1996. Automated geostatistical seafloor classification - Principles, parameters, feature vectors, and discrimination criteria. Computers and Geosciences, 22 (1), pp. 35-52. Lucieer, A., Stein, A., 2005. Texture-based landform segmentation of LiDAR imagery

  18. Spectrophotometric Examination of Rough Print Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erzsébet Novotny


    Full Text Available The objective was to assess the impact of the surface texture of individual creative paper types (coated or patternedon the quality of printing and to identify to what extent the various creative paper types require specific types ofspectrophotometers. We used stereomicroscopic images to illustrate unprinted and printed surfaces of creative papertypes. Surface roughness was measured to obtain data on the unevenness of surfaces. Spectrophotometric tests wereused to select the most suitable spectrophotometer from meters with different illumination setup for testing anygiven print. For the purpose of testing, we used spectrophotometers which are commonly available generally used totest print products for colour accuracy. With the improvement of measuring geometries, illumination setup, colourmeasurement becomes more and more capable of producing reliable results unaffected by surface textures. Our testshave proved this fact by showing that the GretagMacbeth Spectrolino with annular illumination is less sensitive tosurface texture than the X-Rite Spetrodensitometer and the Techkon SpetroDens with directional illumination. Furthertests have brought us to the conclusion that there is a difference even between the two devices with directionalillumination. While the X-Rite 530 Spectrodensitometer is more suitable for testing coated surfaces, the TechkonSpectroDens can come close to ΔE*ab values produced by the annular illuminated device for textured surfaces.

  19. Moving target segmentation based on flow field texture representation and surface roughness measurement%基于流场纹理表达与表面粗糙度测量的运动目标分割

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭光; 贺海明; 苏连成; 李小俚


    Aiming at the drawback of region impairment and inside holes detected by background subtraction and optical flow based method, a moving target segmentation method based on flow field representation and surface roughness measurement is proposed. The motions of targets are described by the flow of fluid by computing the optical flow between two consecutive frames. A Line integral convolution method is used to represent the textures to reveal more details of flow field. Therefore, the moving targets and background regions are expressed by different texture images. Finally, the textures of moving target and background regions are mapped as objects with different surface roughness by the strategy of surface roughness measurement with stylus probe method. Furthermore, the threshold for segmentation the surface roughness image is gained by analyzing the histogram. Experiment results show that the proposed method can select the threshold adaptively, and can overcome the problem of inside holes.%针对传统的光流法和背景差法所分割的运动目标存在区域丢失和内部孔洞的缺点,本文提出一种基于流场纹理表达及物体表面粗糙度测量的运动目标分割方法,即通过计算相邻帧间的光流将目标运动表达成流体的流动,并利用线积分卷积来表达流场纹理以展示更多的流场细节,从而将背景图像和运动目标分别表达成不同的纹理,最后通过针描法测量物体表面粗糙度的策略将运动目标和背景的纹理图像映射为表面粗糙度不同的物体,并通过分析直方图确定阈值分割运动目标。实验结果表明,本文提出的运动目标分割方法可自适应地选取阈值,并且可克服内部孔洞。

  20. Laser surface texturing: chosen problems (United States)

    Antoszewski, Bogdan; Sek, Piotr


    In modern machines for realization of goals like lubrication intesyfication, heat flow intensyfiacation, microflow simulation; more and more often surface texturing is used. It became possible due to develepment of technologies that use sources of concentrated energy stream like microlasers. The paper shows results of experimental investigation on seal rings made of silicon carbide. Experiments were conducted using seal rings without surface modifications and a seal rings with a geometrical surface textures made with Nd:Yag laser.

  1. Polarimetry of light scattered by surface roughness and textured films and periodic structures in nanotechnologies: a new challenge in instrumentation and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrieu. F.


    Full Text Available Exhaustive studies in the literature detail the Mueller matrices properties through decomposition, optical entropy and depolarization formalism. It has been applied for many years in rather different fields. In radar polarimetry, mathematical basis of depolarizing systems, have been first developed. In the visible range optics, standard diattenuation and retardance, decomposition is currently used in turbid organic media. The optical entropy concept, developed by S.R. Cloude, provides a very powerful analysis technique yielding important surface parameters such as depolarization, correlation and roughness. Complementary applications exist in scatterometry, for thin periodic grating films. With high capability polarimeters, such as the next generation of angle resolved polarimeters instruments, Polarimetry opens new fields of investigation for nanotechnologies materials as well as for gratings and photonics structures analysis: a program presently developed through a national consortium ANR08-NANO-020-03. With this instrumentation progress, simulation remains a key point to overpass as a challenge between future instruments. The theories for surfaces spectral power density (PSD and the random coupled wave approximation (RCWA in periodic structures are widely described in the literature. The implementation of some of these codes is described here for surface analysis and lithography scatterometry structures: grating overlay or double patterning.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koenders, L.; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    At the length meeting in Prague in Oct. 1999 a new comparison was suggested on surface texture. The last comparison on this field was finished in 1989. In the meantime the instrumentation, the standards and the written standards have been improved including some software filters. The pilot...... laboratories for this supplementary comparison on surface texture are the Centre for Geometrical Metrology at the Technical University of Denmark and the Micro- and Nanotopography laboratory at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany....

  3. Laser surface texturing of tool steel: textured surfaces quality evaluation (United States)

    Šugár, Peter; Šugárová, Jana; Frnčík, Martin


    In this experimental investigation the laser surface texturing of tool steel of type 90MnCrV8 has been conducted. The 5-axis highly dynamic laser precision machining centre Lasertec 80 Shape equipped with the nano-second pulsed ytterbium fibre laser and CNC system Siemens 840 D was used. The planar and spherical surfaces first prepared by turning have been textured. The regular array of spherical and ellipsoidal dimples with a different dimensions and different surface density has been created. Laser surface texturing has been realized under different combinations of process parameters: pulse frequency, pulse energy and laser beam scanning speed. The morphological characterization of ablated surfaces has been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. The results show limited possibility of ns pulse fibre laser application to generate different surface structures for tribological modification of metallic materials. These structures were obtained by varying the processing conditions between surface ablation, to surface remelting. In all cases the areas of molten material and re-cast layers were observed on the bottom and walls of the dimples. Beside the influence of laser beam parameters on the machined surface quality during laser machining of regular hemispherical and elipsoidal dimple texture on parabolic and hemispherical surfaces has been studied.

  4. Enhanced Backscattering from Rough Surfaces (United States)


    under Referee ..................... 12 3.4 Papers Presented at Professional Conferences ................... 12 4.0 LIST OF ALL PARTICIPATING SCIENTIFIC...60 -30 0 30 60 90 Scattering Angle (deg) Figure 2 (b). The DRC for the Perfectly Conducting Surface whose Profile is shown in Figure 2 (a) when the...Randomly Rough Surfaces", accepted for publication in Applied Optics (1993). I 3.3 Papers Submitted to Journal under Referee 19. E.R. Mendez, H.M


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Tosello, Guido

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 3 hours duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercises concern surface texture analysis for functionality control, in connection with three different case stories. This docume...... contains a short description of each case story, 3-D roughness parameters analysis and relation with the product’s functionality.......This document is used in connection with three exercises of 3 hours duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercises concern surface texture analysis for functionality control, in connection with three different case stories. This document...

  6. Current-induced surface roughness reduction in conducting thin films (United States)

    Du, Lin; Maroudas, Dimitrios


    Thin film surface roughness is responsible for various materials reliability problems in microelectronics and nanofabrication technologies, which requires the development of surface roughness reduction strategies. Toward this end, we report modeling results that establish the electrical surface treatment of conducting thin films as a physical processing strategy for surface roughness reduction. We develop a continuum model of surface morphological evolution that accounts for the residual stress in the film, surface diffusional anisotropy and film texture, film's wetting of the layer that is deposited on, and surface electromigration. Supported by linear stability theory, self-consistent dynamical simulations based on the model demonstrate that the action over several hours of a sufficiently strong and properly directed electric field on a conducting thin film can reduce its surface roughness and lead to a smooth planar film surface. The modeling predictions are in agreement with experimental measurements on copper thin films deposited on silicon nitride layers.

  7. Surface texture metrology for high precision surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gasparin, Stefania; Tosello, Guido


    This paper introduces some of the challenges related to surface texture measurement of high precision surfaces. The paper is presenting two case studies related to polished tool surfaces and micro part surfaces. In both cases measuring instrumentation, measurement procedure and the measurement...

  8. Surface texture metrology for high precision surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gasparin, Stefania; Tosello, Guido


    This paper introduces some of the challenges related to surface texture measurement of high precision surfaces. The paper is presenting two case studies related to polished tool surfaces and micro part surfaces. In both cases measuring instrumentation, measurement procedure and the measurement re...

  9. Lunar textural analysis based on WAC-derived kilometer-scale roughness and entropy maps (United States)

    Li, Bo; Wang, XueQiang; Zhang, Jiang; Chen, Jian; Ling, Zongcheng


    In general, textures are thought to be some complicated repeated patterns formed by elements, or primitives which are sorted in certain rules. Lunar surfaces record the interactions between its outside environment and itself, thus, based on high-resolution DEM model or image data, there are some topographic features which have different roughness and entropy values or signatures on lunar surfaces. Textures of lunar surfaces can help us to concentrate on typical topographic and photometric variations and reveal the relationships between obvious features (craters, impact basins, sinuous rilles (SRs) and ridges) with resurfacing processes on the Moon. In this paper, the term surface roughness is an expression of the variability of a topographic or photometric surface at kilometer scale, and the term entropy can characterize the variability inherent in a geological and topographic unit and evaluate the uncertainty of predictions made by a given geological process. We use the statistical moments of gray-level histograms in different-sized neighborhoods (e.g., 3, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 pixels) to compute the kilometer-scale roughness and entropy values, using the mosaic image from 70°N to 70°S obtained by Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Wide Angle Camera (WAC). Large roughness and entropy signatures were only found in the larger scale maps, while the smallest 3-pixel scale map had more disorderly and unsystematic textures. According to the entropy values in 10-pixel scale entropy map, we made a frequency curve and categorized lunar surfaces into three types, shadow effects, maria and highlands. A 2D scatter plot of entropy versus roughness values was produced and we found that there were two point clusters corresponding to the highlands and maria, respectively. In the last, we compared the topographic and photometric signatures derived from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) data and WAC mosaic image. On the lunar surfaces, the ridges have obvious multilevel

  10. The Application of Marker Based Segmentation for Surface Texture Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Pin Nuraini binti


    Full Text Available Structured surfaces have been increasingly used in industry for a variety of applications, including improving the tribological properties of the surfaces. Surface metrology plays an important role in this discipline since with the help of surface metrology technology, surface texture can be measured, visualize and quantified. Traditional surface texture parameters, such as roughness and waviness, cannot be related to the function for structured surfaces due to the less statistical description and little information. Therefore, a new approaches based on characterizing the structured surface is introduces where this paper focus on type of edges grain surface. To identify features, it is a must to detect the location of the edges and segmented the features based on the detected edges. Hence characterization of surface texture segmentation based on the edges detection is developing using Marker Based segmentation and it is prove that this method is possible to be used in order to characterize the structured surface.

  11. Effect of Initial Surface Quality on Final Roughness and Texture of Annealed Ni-5at.%W Tapes Coated with a Gd2Zr2O7 Buffer Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Anders Christian; Yue, Zhao; Mishin, Oleg;


    Surface roughness of Ni-5at.%W tapes in coldrolled and annealed conditions after subsequent deposition of a Gd2Zr2O7 buffer layer has been studied as a function of the polishing grade, taking grain boundary grooving into account. It is found that annealing decreases the initial mean surface rough...

  12. Wetting properties of molecularly rough surfaces (United States)

    Svoboda, Martin; Malijevský, Alexandr; Lísal, Martin


    We employ molecular dynamics simulations to study the wettability of nanoscale rough surfaces in systems governed by Lennard-Jones (LJ) interactions. We consider both smooth and molecularly rough planar surfaces. Solid substrates are modeled as a static collection of LJ particles arranged in a face-centered cubic lattice with the (100) surface exposed to the LJ fluid. Molecularly rough solid surfaces are prepared by removing several strips of LJ atoms from the external layers of the substrate, i.e., forming parallel nanogrooves on the surface. We vary the solid-fluid interactions to investigate strongly and weakly wettable surfaces. We determine the wetting properties by measuring the equilibrium droplet profiles that are in turn used to evaluate the contact angles. Macroscopic arguments, such as those leading to Wenzel's law, suggest that surface roughness always amplifies the wetting properties of a lyophilic surface. However, our results indicate the opposite effect from roughness for microscopically corrugated surfaces, i.e., surface roughness deteriorates the substrate wettability. Adding the roughness to a strongly wettable surface shrinks the surface area wet with the liquid, and it either increases or only marginally affects the contact angle, depending on the degree of liquid adsorption into the nanogrooves. For a weakly wettable surface, the roughness changes the surface character from lyophilic to lyophobic due to a weakening of the solid-fluid interactions by the presence of the nanogrooves and the weaker adsorption of the liquid into the nanogrooves.

  13. Prediction of Ductile Fracture Surface Roughness Scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Needleman, Alan; Tvergaard, Viggo; Bouchaud, Elisabeth


    Experimental observations have shown that the roughness of fracture surfaces exhibit certain characteristic scaling properties. Here, calculations are carried out to explore the extent to which a ductile damage/fracture constitutive relation can be used to model fracture surface roughness scaling....... The scaling properties of the predicted thickness average fracture surfaces are calculated and the results are discussed in light of experimental observations....

  14. hp-finite-elements for simulating electromagnetic fields in optical devices with rough textures

    CERN Document Server

    Burger, S; Hammerschmidt, M; Herrmann, S; Pomplun, J; Schmidt, F; Wohlfeil, B; Zschiedrich, L


    The finite-element method is a preferred numerical method when electromagnetic fields at high accuracy are to be computed in nano-optics design. Here, we demonstrate a finite-element method using hp-adaptivity on tetrahedral meshes for computation of electromagnetic fields in a device with rough textures. The method allows for efficient computations on meshes with strong variations in element sizes. This enables to use precise geometry resolution of the rough textures. Convergence to highly accurate results is observed.

  15. Computation of surface roughness using optical correlation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A M hamed; M Saudy


    The laser speckle photography is used to calculate the average surface roughness from the autocorrelation function of the aluminum diffuse objects. The computed results of surface roughness obtained from the profile shapes of the autocorrelation function of the diffuser show good agreement with the results obtained by the stylus profile meter.

  16. Modeling and simulation of surface roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrikar, Rajendra M


    With the technology advancement, electronic devices are miniaturized at every development node. Physical parameters such as microscopic roughness are affecting these devices because surface to volume ratio is increasing rapidly. On all the real surfaces microscopic roughness appears, which affects many electronic properties of the material, which in turn decides the yield and reliability of the devices. Different type of parameters and simulation methods are used to describe the surface roughness. Classically surface roughness was modeled by methods such as power series and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Limitations of this methods lead to use the concept of self-similar fractals to model the rough surface through Mandelbrot-Weierstrass function. It is difficult to express surface roughness as a function of process parameters in the form of analytical functions. Method based on neural networks has been used to model these surfaces to map the process parameters to roughness parameters. Finally, change in electrical parameters such as capacitance, resistance and noise due to surface roughness has been computed by numerical methods.

  17. Lizard-Skin Surface Texture (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 The south polar region of Mars is covered seasonally with translucent carbon dioxide ice. In the spring gas subliming (evaporating) from the underside of the seasonal layer of ice bursts through weak spots, carrying dust from below with it, to form numerous dust fans aligned in the direction of the prevailing wind. The dust gets trapped in the shallow grooves on the surface, helping to define the small-scale structure of the surface. The surface texture is reminiscent of lizard skin (figure 1). Observation Geometry Image PSP_003730_0945 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 14-May-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.2 degrees latitude, 181.5 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 248.5 km (155.3 miles). At this distance the image scale is 24.9 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 75 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 06:04 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 69 degrees, thus the sun was about 21 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 237.5 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  18. Rock discontinuity surface roughness variation with scale (United States)

    Bitenc, Maja; Kieffer, D. Scott; Khoshelham, Kourosh


    ABSTRACT: Rock discontinuity surface roughness refers to local departures of the discontinuity surface from planarity and is an important factor influencing the shear resistance. In practice, the Joint Roughness Coefficient (JRC) roughness parameter is commonly relied upon and input to a shear strength criterion such as developed by Barton and Choubey [1977]. The estimation of roughness by JRC is hindered firstly by the subjective nature of visually comparing the joint profile to the ten standard profiles. Secondly, when correlating the standard JRC values and other objective measures of roughness, the roughness idealization is limited to a 2D profile of 10 cm length. With the advance of measuring technologies that provide accurate and high resolution 3D data of surface topography on different scales, new 3D roughness parameters have been developed. A desirable parameter is one that describes rock surface geometry as well as the direction and scale dependency of roughness. In this research a 3D roughness parameter developed by Grasselli [2001] and adapted by Tatone and Grasselli [2009] is adopted. It characterizes surface topography as the cumulative distribution of local apparent inclination of asperities with respect to the shear strength (analysis) direction. Thus, the 3D roughness parameter describes the roughness amplitude and anisotropy (direction dependency), but does not capture the scale properties. In different studies the roughness scale-dependency has been attributed to data resolution or size of the surface joint (see a summary of researches in [Tatone and Grasselli, 2012]). Clearly, the lower resolution results in lower roughness. On the other hand, have the investigations of surface size effect produced conflicting results. While some studies have shown a decrease in roughness with increasing discontinuity size (negative scale effect), others have shown the existence of positive scale effects, or both positive and negative scale effects. We

  19. Calibration of surface roughness standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thalmann, R.; Nicolet, A.; Meli, F.


    The key comparison EURAMET.L-K8.2013 on roughness was carried out in the framework of a EURAMET project starting in 2013 and ending in 2015. It involved the participation of 17 National Metrology Institutes from Europe, Asia, South America and Africa representing four regional metrology organisat...

  20. Modeling surface roughness scattering in metallic nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moors, Kristof, E-mail: [KU Leuven, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Sorée, Bart [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Physics Department, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); KU Leuven, Electrical Engineering (ESAT) Department, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Magnus, Wim [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Physics Department, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)


    Ando's model provides a rigorous quantum-mechanical framework for electron-surface roughness scattering, based on the detailed roughness structure. We apply this method to metallic nanowires and improve the model introducing surface roughness distribution functions on a finite domain with analytical expressions for the average surface roughness matrix elements. This approach is valid for any roughness size and extends beyond the commonly used Prange-Nee approximation. The resistivity scaling is obtained from the self-consistent relaxation time solution of the Boltzmann transport equation and is compared to Prange-Nee's approach and other known methods. The results show that a substantial drop in resistivity can be obtained for certain diameters by achieving a large momentum gap between Fermi level states with positive and negative momentum in the transport direction.

  1. Influence of surface roughness on dispersion forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svetovoy, V. B.; Palasantzas, G.

    Surface roughness occurs in a wide variety of processes where it is both difficult to avoid and control. When two bodies are separated by a small distance the roughness starts to play an important role in the interaction between the bodies, their adhesion, and friction. Control of this

  2. Correlation between gloss reflectance and surface texture in photographic paper. (United States)

    Vessot, Kevin; Messier, Paul; Hyde, Joyce M; Brown, Christopher A


    Surface textures of a large collection of photographic papers dating from 1896 to the present were measured using a laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) with four different objective lenses. Roughness characterization parameters were calculated from the texture measurements and were compared with gloss measurements. Characterization by the area-scale fractal dimension (Das) and the area-scale fractal complexity (Asfc) provided the strongest correlations between gloss reflectance and surface texture. The measurements with the 5× and 10× objectives, which contained many large-scale, spiky measurement artifacts that distorted the measurement, resulted in the strongest correlations (R(2)  > 0.8) compared to the 20× and 50× (R(2)  < 0.5). The presence of spiky artifacts in the measurements, which increases when the magnification of the objective lens is decreased, appears to amplify surface features in such a way to improve the correlations.

  3. Simplified Approach to Predicting Rough Surface Transition (United States)

    Boyle, Robert J.; Stripf, Matthias


    Turbine vane heat transfer predictions are given for smooth and rough vanes where the experimental data show transition moving forward on the vane as the surface roughness physical height increases. Consiste nt with smooth vane heat transfer, the transition moves forward for a fixed roughness height as the Reynolds number increases. Comparison s are presented with published experimental data. Some of the data ar e for a regular roughness geometry with a range of roughness heights, Reynolds numbers, and inlet turbulence intensities. The approach ta ken in this analysis is to treat the roughness in a statistical sense , consistent with what would be obtained from blades measured after e xposure to actual engine environments. An approach is given to determ ine the equivalent sand grain roughness from the statistics of the re gular geometry. This approach is guided by the experimental data. A roughness transition criterion is developed, and comparisons are made with experimental data over the entire range of experimental test co nditions. Additional comparisons are made with experimental heat tran sfer data, where the roughness geometries are both regular as well a s statistical. Using the developed analysis, heat transfer calculatio ns are presented for the second stage vane of a high pressure turbine at hypothetical engine conditions.

  4. A rough guide to texture : oral physiology and texture perception of semi-solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Lina


    The aim of this research was to improve the understanding of oral texture perception. In particular to examine the role of oral physiological processes on oral texture perception of semi-solids and to investigate whether individual differences in perception could be attributed to differences in oral

  5. Thermal smoothing of rough surfaces in vacuo (United States)

    Wahl, G.


    The derivation of equations governing the smoothing of rough surfaces, based on Mullins' (1957, 1960, and 1963) theories of thermal grooving and of capillarity-governed solid surface morphology is presented. As an example, the smoothing of a one-dimensional sine-shaped surface is discussed.

  6. General Regularities of Wood Surface Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAGOSS, Endre


    Full Text Available The surface roughness of wood products is depending on many factors related both towood properties and wood working operational parameters. Probably this is the reason why there areno generally valid correlation determining surface roughness parameters as a function of influencingfactors. In particular, the account of wood structure in the surface roughness interpretation proved tobe difficult.In the last years an important progress was made in recognizing the role of the anatomicalstructure of wood species in the attainable surface roughness. The introduction of a structure numbermade it possible to express and characterize the different wood species numerically.The aim of these studies was the separation of roughness components due to the anatomicalstructure and the woodworking operation. Using a special finishing technique, the roughnesscomponent due to woodworking operations was not significant and could be separated. The samespecimens were also subjected to different woodworking operations using cutting velocities between10 and 50 m/s. The processing of experimental data resulted in a chart showing the minimumroughness component due to different woodworking operations. Special experimental investigationwas conducted to clear the influence of edge dullness on the surface roughness, especially on itsAbbott-parameters. The measurements showed that the Rk-parameter is a good indicator to predictedge dullness.

  7. Wetting theory for small droplets on textured solid surfaces (United States)

    Kim, Donggyu; Pugno, Nicola M.; Ryu, Seunghwa


    Conventional wetting theories on rough surfaces with Wenzel, Cassie-Baxter, and Penetrate modes suggest the possibility of tuning the contact angle by adjusting the surface texture. Despite decades of intensive study, there are still many experimental results that are not well understood because conventional wetting theory, which assumes an infinite droplet size, has been used to explain measurements of finite-sized droplets. Here, we suggest a wetting theory applicable to a wide range of droplet size for the three wetting modes by analyzing the free energy landscape with many local minima originated from the finite size. We find that the conventional theory predicts the contact angle at the global minimum if the droplet size is about 40 times or larger than the characteristic scale of the surface roughness, regardless of wetting modes. Furthermore, we obtain the energy barrier of pinning which can induce the contact angle hysteresis as a function of geometric factors. We validate our theory against experimental results on an anisotropic rough surface. In addition, we discuss the wetting on non-uniformly rough surfaces. Our findings clarify the extent to which the conventional wetting theory is valid and expand the physical understanding of wetting phenomena of small liquid drops on rough surfaces.

  8. Parametric Deduction Optimization for Surface Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Syung Lan


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Surface roughness is a major consideration in modern Computer Numerical Control (CNC turning industry. Most existing optimization researches for CNC finish turning were either accomplished within certain manufacturing circumstances, or achieved through numerous equipment operations. Therefore, a general deduction optimization scheme is deemed to be necessary for the industry. Approach: In this study, four parameters (cutting depth, feed rate, speed, tool nose runoff with three levels (low, medium, high were considered to optimize the surface roughness for Computer Numerical Control (CNC finish turning. Additionally, twenty-seven fuzzy control rules using trapezoid membership function with respective to seventeen linguistic grades for the surface roughness were constructed. Considering thirty input and eighty output intervals, the defuzzification using center of gravity was moreover completed. Through the Taguchi experiment, the optimum general deduction parameters can then be received. Results: The confirmation experiment for optimum deduction parameters was furthermore performed on an ECOCA-3807 CNC lathe. It was shown that the surface roughness from the fuzzy deduction optimization parameters are significantly advanced comparing to those from benchmark. Conclusion: This study not only proposed a parametric deduction optimization scheme using orthogonal array, but also contributed the satisfactory fuzzy approach to the surface roughness for CNC turning with profound insight.

  9. Surface roughness measurement with laser triangulation (United States)

    Bai, Fuzhong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Tian, Chaoping


    A surface roughness measurement method is introduced in the paper, which is based on laser triangulation and digital image processing technique. In the measuring system, we use the line-structured light as light source, microscope lens and high-accuracy CCD sensor as displacement sensor as well. In addition, the working angle corresponding to the optimal sensitivity is considered in the optical structure design to improve the measuring accuracy. Through necessary image processing operation for the light strip image, such as center-line extraction with the barycenter algorithm, Gaussian filtering, the value of roughness is calculated. A standard planing surface is measured experimentally with the proposed method and the stylus method (Mitutoyo SJ-410) respectively. The profilograms of surface appearance are greatly similar in the shape and the amplitude to two methods. Also, the roughness statistics values are close. The results indicate that the laser triangulation with the line-structured light can be applied to measure the surface roughness with the advantages of rapid measurement and visualized display of surface roughness profile.

  10. Friction tensor concept for textured surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K R Y Simha; Anirudhan Pottirayil; Pradeep L Menezes; Satish V Kailas


    Directionality of grinding marks influences the coefficient of friction during sliding. Depending on the sliding direction the coefficient of friction varies between maximum and minimum for textured surfaces. For random surfaces without any texture the friction coefficient becomes independent of the sliding direction. This paper proposes the concept of a friction tensor analogous to the heat conduction tensor in anisotropic media. This implies that there exists two principal friction coefficients $\\mu_{1,2}$ analogous to the principal conductivities $k_{1,2}$. For symmetrically textured surfaces the principal directions are orthogonal with atleast one plane of symmetry. However, in the case of polished single crystalline solids in relative sliding motion, crystallographic texture controls the friction tensor.

  11. Surface roughness characterization of cast components using 3D optical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    scanning probe image processor (SPIP) software and the results of the surface roughness parameters obtained were subjected to statistical analyses. The bearing area ratio was introduced and applied to the surface roughness analysis. From the results, the surface quality of the standard comparators...... made in green sand moulds and the surface roughness parameter (Sa) values were compared with those of the standards. Sa parameter suffices for the evaluation of casting surface texture. The S series comparators showed a better description of the surface of castings after shot blasting than the A series...

  12. Use of roughness maps in visualisation of surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Rantanen, Jukka; Yliruusi, Jouko


    In this study we will present a new method to describe surface roughness. This method builds a roughness map of the studied area. The roughness map can give information of localised roughness. The test surfaces used in the evaluation of the method were tablets, which were made of lactose monohydr...... of the heterogeneity of surface roughness of various materials....

  13. Spin Hall effect by surface roughness

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lingjun


    The spin Hall and its inverse effects, driven by the spin orbit interaction, provide an interconversion mechanism between spin and charge currents. Since the spin Hall effect generates and manipulates spin current electrically, to achieve a large effect is becoming an important topic in both academia and industries. So far, materials with heavy elements carrying a strong spin orbit interaction, provide the only option. We propose here a new mechanism, using the surface roughness in ultrathin films, to enhance the spin Hall effect without heavy elements. Our analysis based on Cu and Al thin films suggests that surface roughness is capable of driving a spin Hall angle that is comparable to that in bulk Au. We also demonstrate that the spin Hall effect induced by surface roughness subscribes only to the side-jump contribution but not the skew scattering. The paradigm proposed in this paper provides the second, not if only, alternative to generate a sizable spin Hall effect.

  14. Measuring grinding surface roughness based on the sharpness evaluation of colour images (United States)

    Huaian, Y. I.; Jian, L. I. U.; Enhui, L. U.; Peng, A. O.


    Current machine vision-based detection methods for metal surface roughness mainly use the grey values of images for statistical analysis but do not make full use of the colour information and ignore the subjective judgment of the human vision system. To address these problems, this paper proposes a method to measure surface roughness through the sharpness evaluation of colour images. Based on the difference in sharpness of virtual images of colour blocks that are formed on grinding surfaces with different roughness, an algorithm for evaluating the sharpness of colour images that is based on the difference of the RGB colour space was used to develop a correlation model between the sharpness and the surface roughness. The correlation model was analysed under two conditions: constant illumination and varying illumination. The effect of the surface textures of the grinding samples on the image sharpness was also considered, demonstrating the feasibility of the detection method. The results show that the sharpness is strongly correlated with the surface roughness; when the illumination and the surface texture have the same orientation, the sharpness clearly decreases with increasing surface roughness. Under varying illumination, this correlation between the sharpness and surface roughness was highly robust, and the sharpness of each virtual image increased linearly with the illumination. Relative to the detection method for surface roughness using gray level co-occurrence matrix or artificial neural network, the proposed method is convenient, highly accurate and has a wide measurement range.

  15. Surface forces: Surface roughness in theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, Drew F., E-mail:; Walsh, Rick B.; Craig, Vincent S. J. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)


    A method of incorporating surface roughness into theoretical calculations of surface forces is presented. The model contains two chief elements. First, surface roughness is represented as a probability distribution of surface heights around an average surface height. A roughness-averaged force is determined by taking an average of the classic flat-surface force, weighing all possible separation distances against the probability distributions of surface heights. Second the model adds a repulsive contact force due to the elastic contact of asperities. We derive a simple analytic expression for the contact force. The general impact of roughness is to amplify the long range behaviour of noncontact (DLVO) forces. The impact of the elastic contact force is to provide a repulsive wall which is felt at a separation between surfaces that scales with the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the surfaces. The model therefore provides a means of distinguishing between “true zero,” where the separation between the average centres of each surface is zero, and “apparent zero,” defined by the onset of the repulsive contact wall. A normal distribution may be assumed for the surface probability distribution, characterised by the RMS roughness measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Alternatively the probability distribution may be defined by the histogram of heights measured by AFM. Both methods of treating surface roughness are compared against the classic smooth surface calculation and experimental AFM measurement.

  16. Surface roughness characterization of cast components using 3D optical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    made in green sand moulds and the surface roughness parameter (Sa) values were compared with those of the standards. Sa parameter suffices for the evaluation of casting surface texture. The S series comparators showed a better description of the surface of castings after shot blasting than the A series...

  17. Plasticity under rough surface contact and friction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, F.


    The ultimate objective of this work is to gain a better understanding of the plastic behavior of rough metal surfaces under contact loading. Attention in this thesis focuses on the study of single and multiple asperities with micrometer scale dimensions, a scale at which plasticity is known to be si

  18. Optical measurement of surface roughness in manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodmann, R.


    The measuring system described here is based on the light-scattering method, and was developed by Optische Werke G. Rodenstock, Munich. It is especially useful for rapid non-contact monitoring of surface roughness in production-related areas. This paper outlines the differences between this system and the common stylus instrument, including descriptions of some applications in industry.

  19. Radiative Transfer Model for Contaminated Rough Surfaces (United States)


    plot of Figure 8 shows three sharp spectral features (in the LWIR region) that were used for calibration . 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 0 0.1 0.2...transfer, reflectance, rough surface, BRDF, Kramers-Kronig, penetration depth, fill factor, infrared, LWIR , MWIR, absorption coefficient, scattering...and the calibrated α are plotted in red, and green, respectively

  20. Surface roughness scattering in multisubband accumulation layers (United States)

    Fu, Han; Reich, K. V.; Shklovskii, B. I.


    Accumulation layers with very large concentrations of electrons where many subbands are filled became recently available due to ionic liquid and other new methods of gating. The low-temperature mobility in such layers is limited by the surface roughness scattering. However, theories of roughness scattering so far dealt only with the small-density single subband two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Here we develop a theory of roughness-scattering limited mobility for the multisubband large concentration case. We show that with growing 2D electron concentration n the surface dimensionless conductivity σ /(2 e2/h ) first decreases as ∝n-6 /5 and then saturates as ˜(d aB/Δ2)≫1 , where d and Δ are the characteristic length and height of the surface roughness and aB is the effective Bohr radius. This means that in spite of the shrinkage of the 2DEG thickness and the related increase of the scattering rate the 2DEG remains a good metal.

  1. Wenzel Wetting on Slippery Rough Surfaces (United States)

    Stogin, Birgitt; Dai, Xianming; Wong, Tak-Sing


    Liquid repellency is an important surface property used in a wide range of applications including self-cleaning, anti-icing, anti-biofouling, and condensation heat transfer, and is characterized by apparent contact angle (θ*) and contact angle hysteresis (Δθ*). The Wenzel equation (1936) predicts θ* of liquids in the Wenzel state, and is one of the most fundamental equations in the wetting field. However, droplets in the Wenzel state on conventional rough surfaces exhibit large Δθ* , making it difficult to experimentally verify the model with precision. As a result, precise verification of the Wenzel wetting model has remained an open scientific question for the past 79 years. Here we introduce a new class of liquid-infused surfaces called slippery rough surfaces -- surfaces with significantly reduced Δθ* compared to conventional rough surfaces--and use them to experimentally assess the Wenzel equation with the highest precision to date. We acknowledge the funding support by National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER Award #: 1351462 and Office of Navy Research MURI Award #: N00014-12-1-0875. Stogin acknowledges the support from the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship (Grant No. DGE1255832).

  2. Evaluation of the topographical surface changes and roughness of zirconia after different surface treatments. (United States)

    Subaşı, Meryem Gülce; İnan, Özgür


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the surface morphology and roughness of zirconia after different surface treatments. Eighty sintered zirconia specimens were divided into four groups (n = 20) according to the surface treatments received: no treatment, erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser irradiation (400 mJ, 10 Hz, 4 W, 100 MPS, distance: 1 mm), tribochemical silica coating with 30 μm aluminum oxide (Al(2)O(3)) modified by silica, and air abrasion with 110 μm Al(2)O(3) particles. After the surface treatments, the surface roughness (Ra in μm) of the specimens was evaluated using a surface texture measuring instrument. Surface morphology of a specimen from each group was evaluated with atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses. The surface roughness values were statistically analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (p = 0.05). All of the surface treatments produced rougher surfaces than the control group (p roughness of laser and silica groups (p > 0.05). SEM and AFM analyses revealed changes in surface topography after surface treatments, especially in the laser group with the formation of rare pits and in the silica and air abrasion groups with the formation of microretentive grooves. According to the results of the statistical and microscopic analyses, all of the surface treatments can be used for roughening zirconia prior to cementation; however, air abrasion is the most effective surface treatment to obtain micromechanical retention.

  3. Wetting failure of hydrophilic surfaces promoted by surface roughness (United States)

    Zhao, Meng-Hua; Chen, Xiao-Peng; Wang, Qing


    Wetting failure is of vital importance to many physical phenomena, such as industrial coating and drop emission. Here we show when and how the surface roughness promotes the destabilization of a moving contact line on a hydrophilic surface. Beyond the balance of the driving force and viscous resistance where a stable wetting interface is sustained, wetting failure occurs and is modified by the roughness of the surface. The promoting effect arises only when the wetting velocity is high enough to create a gas-liquid-solid composite interface in the vicinity of the moving contact line, and it is a function of the intrinsic contact angle and proportion of solid tops. We propose a model to explain splashes of rough solid spheres impacting into liquids. It reveals a novel concept that dynamic wetting on hydrophilic rough surfaces can be similar to that on hydrophobic surfaces, and brings a new way to design surfaces with specific wetting properties.

  4. Surface classification and detection of latent fingerprints based on 3D surface texture parameters (United States)

    Gruhn, Stefan; Fischer, Robert; Vielhauer, Claus


    In the field of latent fingerprint detection in crime scene forensics the classification of surfaces has importance. A new method for the scientific analysis of image based information for forensic science was investigated in the last years. Our image acquisition based on a sensor using Chromatic White Light (CWL) with a lateral resolution up to 2 μm. The used FRT-MicroProf 200 CWL 600 measurement device is able to capture high-resolution intensity and topography images in an optical and contact-less way. In prior work, we have suggested to use 2D surface texture parameters to classify various materials, which was a novel approach in the field of criminalistic forensic using knowledge from surface appearance and a chromatic white light sensor. A meaningful and useful classification of different crime scene specific surfaces is not existent. In this work, we want to extend such considerations by the usage of fourteen 3D surface parameters, called 'Birmingham 14'. In our experiment we define these surface texture parameters and use them to classify ten different materials in this test set-up and create specific material classes. Further it is shown in first experiments, that some surface texture parameters are sensitive to separate fingerprints from carrier surfaces. So far, the use of surface roughness is mainly known within the framework of material quality control. The analysis and classification of the captured 3D-topography images from crime scenes is important for the adaptive preprocessing depending on the surface texture. The adaptive preprocessing in dependency of surface classification is necessary for precise detection because of the wide variety of surface textures. We perform a preliminary study in usage of these 3D surface texture parameters as feature for the fingerprint detection. In combination with a reference sample we show that surface texture parameters can be an indication for a fingerprint and can be a feature in latent fingerprint detection.

  5. Wetting theory for small droplets on textured solid surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Donggyu; Ryu, Seunghwa


    Conventional wetting theories on rough surfaces with Wenzel, Cassie-Baxter, and Penetrate modes suggest the possibility of tuning the contact angle by adjusting the surface texture. Despite decades of intensive study, there are still many experimental results that are not well understood because conventional wetting theory, which assume an infinite droplet size, has been used to explain measurements of finite-sized droplets. In this study, we suggest a wetting theory that is applicable to any droplet size based on the free energy landscape analysis of various wetting modes of finite-sized droplets on a 2D textured surface. The key finding of our study is that there are many quantized wetting angles with local free energy minima; the implication of this is remarkable. We find that the conventional theories can predict the contact angle at the global free energy minimum if the droplet size is 40 times or larger than the characteristic scale of the surface roughness. Furthermore, we confirm that the pinning orig...

  6. Method of Direct Texture Synthesis on Arbitrary Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-Li Wu; Chun-Hui Mei; Jiao-Ying Shi


    A direct texture synthesis method on arbitrary surfaces is proposed in this paper. The idea is to recursively map triangles on surface to texture space until the surface is completely mapped. First, the surface is simplified and a tangential vector field is created over the simplified mesh. Then, mapping process searches for the most optimal texture coordinates in texture sample for each triangle, and the textures of neighboring triangles are blended on the mesh. All synthesized texture triangles are compressed to an atlas. Finally, the simplified mesh is subdivided to approach the initial surface. The algorithm has several advantages over former methods:it synthesizes texture on surface without local parameterization; it does not need partitioning surface to patches;and it does not need a particular texture sample. The results demonstrate that the new algorithm is applicable to a wide variety of texture samples and any triangulated surfaces.

  7. Inspecting wood surface roughness using computer vision (United States)

    Zhao, Xuezeng


    Wood surface roughness is one of the important indexes of manufactured wood products. This paper presents an attempt to develop a new method to evaluate manufactured wood surface roughness through the utilization of imaging processing and pattern recognition techniques. In this paper a collimated plane of light or a laser is directed onto the inspected wood surface at a sharp angle of incidence. An optics system that consists of lens focuses the image of the surface onto the objective of a CCD camera, the CCD camera captures the image of the surface and using a CA6300 board digitizes the image. The digitized image is transmitted into a microcomputer. Through the use of the methodology presented in this paper, the computer filters the noise and wood anatomical grain and gives an evaluation of the nature of the manufactured wood surface. The preliminary results indicated that the method has the advantages of non-contact, 3D, high-speed. This method can be used in classification and in- time measurement of manufactured wood products.

  8. Contact angle hysteresis on randomly rough surfaces: a computational study. (United States)

    David, Robert; Neumann, A Wilhelm


    Wetting is important in many applications, and the solid surfaces being wet invariably feature some amount of surface roughness. A free energy-based computational simulation is used to study the effect of roughness on wetting and especially contact angle hysteresis. On randomly rough, self-affine surfaces, it is found that hysteresis depends primarily on the value of the Wenzel roughness parameter r, increasing in proportion with r - 1. Micrometer-level roughness causes hysteresis of a few degrees.

  9. Surface roughness evolution on experimentally simulated faults (United States)

    Renard, François; Mair, Karen; Gundersen, Olav


    To investigate the physical processes operating in active fault zones, we conduct analogue laboratory experiments where we track the morphological and mechanical evolution of an interface during slip. Our laboratory friction experiments consist of a halite (NaCl) slider held under constant normal load that is dragged across a coarse sandpaper substrate. This set-up is a surrogate for a fault surface, where brittle and plastic deformation mechanisms operate simultaneously during sliding. Surface morphology evolution, frictional resistance and infra-red emission are recorded with cumulative slip. After experiments, we characterize the roughness developed on slid surfaces, to nanometer resolution, using white light interferometry. We directly observe the formation of deformation features, such as slip parallel linear striations, as well as deformation products or gouge. The striations are often associated with marginal ridges of positive relief suggesting sideways transport of gouge products in the plane of the slip surface in a snow-plough-like fashion. Deeper striations are commonly bounded by triangular brittle fractures that fragment the salt surface and efficiently generate a breccia or gouge. Experiments with an abundance of gouge at the sliding interface have reduced shear resistance compared to bare surfaces and we show that friction is reduced with cumulative slip as gouge accumulates from initially bare surfaces. The relative importance of these deformation mechanisms may influence gouge production rate, fault surface roughness evolution, as well as mechanical behavior. Finally, our experimental results are linked to Nature by comparing the experimental surfaces to an actual fault surface, whose striated morphology has been characterized to centimeter resolution using a laser scanner. It is observed that both the stress field and the energy dissipation are heterogeneous at all scales during the maturation of the interface with cumulative slip. Importantly

  10. Nanoparticle-textured surfaces from spin coating. (United States)

    Weiss, R A; Zhai, X; Dobrynin, A V


    Rough surfaces composed of discrete but relatively uniform nanoparticles were prepared from a lightly sulfonated polystyrene ionomer by spin coating from tetrahydrofuran (THF) or a THF/methanol mixture onto a silica surface. The particle morphology is consistent with the spinodal decomposition of the film surface occurring during spin coating. The particles are well wetted to the silica, and if heated for a long time above the ionomer's glass-transition temperature, the particles flow and coalesce into a smooth, homogeneous film.

  11. High friction and low wear properties of laser-textured ceramic surface under dry friction (United States)

    Xing, Youqiang; Deng, Jianxin; Wu, Ze; Wu, Fengfang


    Two kinds of grooved textures with different spacing were fabricated on Al2O3/TiC ceramic surface by an Nd:YAG laser. The dry tribological properties of the textured samples were investigated by carrying out unidirectional rotary sliding friction and wear tests using a ball-on-disk tribometer. Results show that the laser textured samples exhibit higher friction coefficient and excellent wear resistance compared with the smooth sample under dry friction conditions. Furthermore, the texture morphology and spacing have a significant influence on the tribological properties. The sample with small texture spacing may be beneficial to increasing the friction coefficient, and the wavy-grooved sample exhibits the highest friction coefficient and shallowest wear depth. The increasing friction coefficient and anti-wear properties are attributed to the combined effects of the increased surface roughness, reduced real contact area, micro-cutting effect by the texture edges and entrapment of wear debris.

  12. Functional biocompatibility testing of silicone breast implants and a novel classification system based on surface roughness. (United States)

    Barr, S; Hill, E W; Bayat, A


    Increasing numbers of women undergo breast implantation for cosmetic and reconstructive purposes. Contracture of the fibrous capsule, which encases the implant leads to significant pain and reoperation. Texture, wettability and the cellular reaction to implant surfaces are poorly understood determinants of implant biocompatibility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in-vitro characteristics of a range of commercial available implants using a macrophage based assay of implant biocompatibility and a quantitative assessment of wettability and texture. Thirteen commercially available surfaces were subjected to wettability and texture characterisation using scanning and laser confocal microscopy. THP-1 macrophages were cultured on their surfaces and assessed using Integrin αV immunocytochemistry, SEM and RT-PCR for the expression of TNF-Alpha, IL-6, IL-10 and a cytokine array for the production of TNF-alpha, IL-10, IL-1RA and IL1β; important indicators of inflammation and macrophage polarization. Textured surfaces can be accurately sub-categorized dependent upon roughness and re-entrant features into four main types (macro, micro, meso and nano-textured surfaces). Significant (P based on roughness and present a macrophage based assay of breast implant biocompatibility with a quantitative assessment of implant wettability and texture. The breast implant surface-cell interaction is variable and sufficient to alter healing response and capsular contracture fate in-vivo. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of THz Reflectometry for Roughness Estimations of Archeological Metal Surfaces (United States)

    Cacciari, Ilaria; Siano, Salvatore


    In this work, using a time domain spectrometer, we have investigated the reflection of terahertz (THz) pulses from surfaces that exhibit a variable degree of roughness. The study was mainly aimed at assessing the influence of the surface texture on the amplitude and the shape of the pulses reflected by stratified materials and at exploring the potential of this technique for achieving quantitative information on the roughness of the material interfaces hit by the THz beam. The behavior of the reflected THz pulses was investigated by considering angular measurements on a set of suitable mock-ups. Measurements were carried out on an authentic archeological Roman coin that exhibited different corrosion situations. An electromagnetic model was used for estimating the roughness of outer and inner surfaces. The comparison of the results with those provided by other techniques made it possible to parameterize the surface texture such as the traditional contact micro-profilometry and the more recently used 3D digital microscopy.

  14. Use of THz Reflectometry for Roughness Estimations of Archeological Metal Surfaces (United States)

    Cacciari, Ilaria; Siano, Salvatore


    In this work, using a time domain spectrometer, we have investigated the reflection of terahertz (THz) pulses from surfaces that exhibit a variable degree of roughness. The study was mainly aimed at assessing the influence of the surface texture on the amplitude and the shape of the pulses reflected by stratified materials and at exploring the potential of this technique for achieving quantitative information on the roughness of the material interfaces hit by the THz beam. The behavior of the reflected THz pulses was investigated by considering angular measurements on a set of suitable mock-ups. Measurements were carried out on an authentic archeological Roman coin that exhibited different corrosion situations. An electromagnetic model was used for estimating the roughness of outer and inner surfaces. The comparison of the results with those provided by other techniques made it possible to parameterize the surface texture such as the traditional contact micro-profilometry and the more recently used 3D digital microscopy.

  15. Surface Roughness Effects on Vortex Torque of Air Supported Gyroscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yingchun; LIU Jingshi; SUN Yazhou; LU Lihua


    In order to improve the drift precision of air supported gyroscope, effects of surface roughness magnitude and direction on vortex torque of air supported gyroscope are studied. Based on Christensen's rough surface stochastic model and consistency transformation method, Reynolds equation of air supported gyroscope containing surface roughness information is established.Also effects of mathematical models of main machining errors on vortex torque are established. By using finite element method,the Reynolds equation is solved numerically and the vortex torque in the presence of machining errors and surface roughness is calculated. The results show that surface roughness of slit has a significant effect on vortex torque. Transverse surface roughness makes vortex torque greater, while longitudinal surface roughness makes vortex torque smaller. The maximal difference approaches 11.4% during the range analyzed in this article. However surface roughness of journal influences vortex torque insignificantly. The research is of great significance for designing and manufacturing air supported gyroscope and predicting its performance.

  16. Dropwise condensation on inclined textured surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Khandekar, Sameer


    Dropwise Condensation on Textured Surfaces presents a holistic framework for understanding dropwise condensation through mathematical modeling and meaningful experiments. The book presents a review of the subject required to build up models as well as to design experiments. Emphasis is placed on the effect of physical and chemical texturing and their effect on the bulk transport phenomena. Application of the model to metal vapor condensation is of special interest. The unique behavior of liquid metals, with their low Prandtl number and high surface tension, is also discussed. The model predicts instantaneous drop size distribution for a given level of substrate subcooling and derives local as well as spatio-temporally averaged heat transfer rates and wall shear stress.

  17. Wave scattering from statistically rough surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bass, F G; ter Haar, D


    Wave Scattering from Statistically Rough Surfaces discusses the complications in radio physics and hydro-acoustics in relation to wave transmission under settings seen in nature. Some of the topics that are covered include radar and sonar, the effect of variations in topographic relief or ocean waves on the transmission of radio and sound waves, the reproduction of radio waves from the lower layers of the ionosphere, and the oscillations of signals within the earth-ionosphere waveguide. The book begins with some fundamental idea of wave transmission theory and the theory of random processes a


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeyda Erşahan


    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the effects of different methods of surface treatment on enamel roughness. Materials and Methods: Ninety human maxillary first premolars were randomly divided into three groups (n=30 according to type of enamel surface treatment: I, acid etching; II, Er:YAG laser; III, Nd:YAG laser. The surface roughness of enamel was measured with a noncontact optical profilometer. For each enamel sample, two readings were taken across the sample—before enamel surface treatment (T1 and after enamel surface treatment (T2. The roughness parameter analyzed was the average roughness (Ra. Statistical analysis was performed using a Paired sample t test and the post-hoc Mann- Whitney U test, with the significance level set at 0.05. Results: The highest Ra (average roughness values were observed for Group II, with a significant difference with Groups I and III (P<0.001. Ra values for the acid etching group (Group I were significantly lower than other groups (P<0.001. Conclusion: Surface treatment of enamel with Er:YAG laser and Nd:YAG laser results in significantly higher Ra than acid-etching. Both Er:YAG laser or Nd:YAG laser can be recommended as viable treatment alternatives to acid etching.

  19. Reproducibility of surface roughness in reaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    concentration of the oil in water-based cutting fluid (or when using a straight mineral oil) results in surface profiles that are more reproducible at higher cutting speed. Moreover, it can be seen that three cutting fluids (two water-based cutting fluids with different oil concentration and a straight mineral......An investigation on the reproducibility of surface roughness in reaming was performed to document the applicability of this approach for testing cutting fluids. Austenitic stainless steel was used as a workpiece material and HSS reamers as cutting tools. Reproducibility of the results was evaluated...... oil) used in connection with a low cutting speed result in "identical" surface profiles. Biggest uncertainty contributors were due to the process repeatability and repeatability around the hole circumference. This was however only in the case of high cutting speeds and low degree of oil concentration...

  20. Study on the fabrication of titanium surface texture by nanosecond laser and its wettability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengjuan YANG


    Full Text Available Laser processing technology can produce various types of surface textures on material. In order to investigate the effect of surface texture type processed by laser on the wettability, line, grid and spot patterns are fabricated on titanium surface based on nanosecond laser processing technology. Then surface morphology, water contact angle, roughness and chemical composition of the processed titanium surface are analyzed by scanning electron microscope, contact angle measuring device, surface analyzer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. It is found that the roughness of titanium surfaces processed by nanosecond laser increases significantly compared with that of the unprocessed titanium surface, while the surface contact angles of the processed titanium surfaces are all less than 90°. As time goes on, the chemical composition variation of ablated titanium surface results in the change of material surface free energy, which leads to a general increase of the surface contact angle. Finally, the surface contact angle is almost unchanged once the chemical composition of titanium surface reaches steady state. For each type of surface texture, surface contact angle increases as the roughness rises. The surface contact angles of processed titanium surfaces with line, grid and spot patterns can be 157.2°, 153.1° and 134.6°, which verifies the possibility of wettability change of titanium from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity.

  1. Wetting transitions on textured hydrophilic surfaces (United States)

    Ishino, C.; Okumura, K.


    We consider the quasi-static energy of a drop on a textured hydrophilic surface, with taking the contact angle hysteresis (CAH) into account. We demonstrate how energy varies as the contact state changes from the Cassie state (in which air is trapped at the drop bottom) to the Wenzel state (in which liquid fills the texture at the drop bottom) assuming that the latter state nucleates from the center of the drop bottom. When the textured substrate is hydrophilic enough to allow spontaneous penetration of liquid film of the texture thickness, the present theory asserts that the drop develops into an experimentally observed state in which a drop looks like an egg fried without flipped over (sunny-side up) with a well-defined radius of “the egg yolk.” Otherwise, the final contact state of the drop becomes like a Wenzel state, but with the contact circle smaller than the original Wenzel state due to the CAH. We provide simple analytical estimations for the yolk radius of the “sunny-side-up” state and for the final radius of the contact circle of the pseudo-Wenzel state.

  2. Understanding EUV mask blank surface roughness induced LWR and associated roughness requirement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Pei-Yang [Intel Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Zhang, Guojing [Intel Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Gullickson, Eric M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldberg, Kenneth A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Benk, Markus P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) mask multi-layer (ML) blank surface roughness specification historically comes from blank defect inspection tool requirement. Later, new concerns on ML surface roughness induced wafer pattern line width roughness (LWR) arise. In this paper, we have studied wafer level pattern LWR as a function of EUVL mask surface roughness via High-NA Actinic Reticle Review Tool. We found that the blank surface roughness induced LWR at current blank roughness level is in the order of 0.5nm 3σ for NA=0.42 at the best focus. At defocus of ±40nm, the corresponding LWR will be 0.2nm higher. Further reducing EUVL mask blank surface roughness will increase the blank cost with limited benefit in improving the pattern LWR, provided that the intrinsic resist LWR is in the order of 1nm and above.

  3. Surface texture measurement for additive manufacturing (United States)

    Triantaphyllou, Andrew; Giusca, Claudiu L.; Macaulay, Gavin D.; Roerig, Felix; Hoebel, Matthias; Leach, Richard K.; Tomita, Ben; Milne, Katherine A.


    The surface texture of additively manufactured metallic surfaces made by powder bed methods is affected by a number of factors, including the powder’s particle size distribution, the effect of the heat source, the thickness of the printed layers, the angle of the surface relative to the horizontal build bed and the effect of any post processing/finishing. The aim of the research reported here is to understand the way these surfaces should be measured in order to characterise them. In published research to date, the surface texture is generally reported as an Ra value, measured across the lay. The appropriateness of this method for such surfaces is investigated here. A preliminary investigation was carried out on two additive manufacturing processes—selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM)—focusing on the effect of build angle and post processing. The surfaces were measured using both tactile and optical methods and a range of profile and areal parameters were reported. Test coupons were manufactured at four angles relative to the horizontal plane of the powder bed using both SLM and EBM. The effect of lay—caused by the layered nature of the manufacturing process—was investigated, as was the required sample area for optical measurements. The surfaces were also measured before and after grit blasting.

  4. The effect of heterogeneity and surface roughness on soil hydrophobicity (United States)

    Hallin, I.; Bryant, R.; Doerr, S. H.; Douglas, P.


    Soil water repellency, or hydrophobicity, can develop under both natural and anthropogenic conditions. Forest fires, vegetation decomposition, microbial activity and oil spills can all promote hydrophobic behaviour in surrounding soils. Hydrophobicity can stabilize soil organic matter pools and decrease evapotranspiration, but there are many negative impacts of hydrophobicity as well: increased erosion of topsoil, an increasingly scarce resource; increased runoff, which can lead to flooding; and decreased infiltration, which directly affects plant health. The degree of hydrophobicity expressed by soil can vary greatly within a small area, depending partly on the type and severity of the disturbance as well as on temporal factors such as water content and microbial activity. To date, many laboratory investigations into soil hydrophobicity have focused on smooth particle surfaces. As a result, our understanding of how hydrophobicity develops on rough surfaces of macro, micro and nano-particulates is limited; we are unable to predict with certainty how these soil particles will behave on contact with water. Surface chemistry is the main consideration when predicting hydrophobic behaviour of smooth solids, but for particles with rough surfaces, hydrophobicity is believed to develop as a combination of surface chemistry and topography. Topography may reflect both the arrangement (aggregation) of soil particles and the distribution of materials adsorbed on particulate surfaces. Patch-wise or complete coverage of rough soil particles by hydrophobic material may result in solid/water contact angles ≥150° , at which point the soil may be classified as super-hydrophobic. Here we present a critical review of the research to date on the effects of heterogeneity and surface roughness on soil hydrophobicity in which we discuss recent advances, current trends, and future research areas. References: Callies, M., Y. Chen, F. Marty, A. Pépin and D. Quéré. 2005. Microfabricated

  5. Dynamic air layer on textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev


    We provide an experimental demonstration that a novel macroscopic, dynamic continuous air layer or plastron can be sustained indefinitely on textured superhydrophobic surfaces in air-supersaturated water by a natural gas influx mechanism. This type of plastron is an intermediate state between Leidenfrost vapor layers on superheated surfaces and the equilibrium Cassie-Baxter wetting state on textured superhydrophobic surfaces. We show that such a plastron can be sustained on the surface of a centimeter-sized superhydrophobic sphere immersed in heated water and variations of its dynamic behavior with air saturation of the water can be regulated by rapid changes of the water temperature. The simple experimental setup allows for quantification of the air flux into the plastron and identification of the air transport model of the plastron growth. Both the observed growth dynamics of such plastrons and millimeter-sized air bubbles seeded on the hydrophilic surface under identical air-supersaturated solution conditions are consistent with the predictions of a well-mixed gas transport model. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  6. Dynamic air layer on textured superhydrophobic surfaces. (United States)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Chan, Derek Y C; Marston, Jeremy O; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T


    We provide an experimental demonstration that a novel macroscopic, dynamic continuous air layer or plastron can be sustained indefinitely on textured superhydrophobic surfaces in air-supersaturated water by a natural gas influx mechanism. This type of plastron is an intermediate state between Leidenfrost vapor layers on superheated surfaces and the equilibrium Cassie-Baxter wetting state on textured superhydrophobic surfaces. We show that such a plastron can be sustained on the surface of a centimeter-sized superhydrophobic sphere immersed in heated water and variations of its dynamic behavior with air saturation of the water can be regulated by rapid changes of the water temperature. The simple experimental setup allows for quantification of the air flux into the plastron and identification of the air transport model of the plastron growth. Both the observed growth dynamics of such plastrons and millimeter-sized air bubbles seeded on the hydrophilic surface under identical air-supersaturated solution conditions are consistent with the predictions of a well-mixed gas transport model.

  7. Thermodynamics of capillary adhesion between rough surfaces. (United States)

    de Boer, M P; de Boer, P C T


    According to the Dupré equation, the work of adhesion is equal to the surface energy difference in the separated versus the joined materials minus an interfacial energy term. However, if a liquid is at the interface between two solid materials, evaporation or condensation takes place under equilibrium conditions. The resulting matter exchange is accompanied by heat flow, and can reduce or increase the work of adhesion. Accounting for the energies requires an open-system control volume analysis based on the first law of thermodynamics. Depending on whether evaporation or condensation occurs during separation, a work term that is negative or positive must be added to the surface energy term to calculate the work of adhesion. We develop and apply this energy balance to several different interface geometries and compare the work of adhesion to the surface energy created. The model geometries include a sphere on a flat with limiting approximations and also with an exact solution, a circular disc, and a combination of these representing a rough interface. For the sphere on a flat, the work of adhesion is one half the surface energy created if equilibrium is maintained during the pull-off process.

  8. Comparison among sea surface roughness schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on the measurements from the US National Data Buoy Center 3-m discus buoy site No.44004 (38.5°N, 70.47°W) from January 1 to March 31 of 2003, with the COARE algorithm (Version 3.0), the results from four parameterization schemes developed recently for sea surface aerodynamic roughness length were compared with each other. Calculations of frictional speed u*, drag coefficient Cd and wind stress τ indicate that the calculated frictional velocities from the four schemes (8.50%-16.20%, the normalized standard error estimate, or NSEE), the computed drag coefficients and wind stress (respectively 15.08%-28.67% and 17.26%-50.59% NSEE) are reasonable. Schemes YT96 and GW03 are consistent. The O02 scheme gives overestimated values for u* and Cd. Schemes TY01 and GW03 display discontinuous characteristics in handling young wave data.

  9. A non-contact 3D method to characterize the surface roughness of castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard


    A non-contact technique using a 3D optical system was used to measure the surface roughness of two selected standard surface roughness comparators used in the foundry industry. Profile and areal analyses were performed using scanning probe image processor (SPIP) software. The results show...... that the surface quality of the standard comparators was successfully evaluated and it was established that the areal parameters are the most informative for cast components. The results from the surface comparators were compared with the results from a stylus instrument. Sand cast components were also evaluated...... and the surface roughness parameter (Sa) values were compared with those of the standards. Sa parameter suffices for the evaluation of casting surface texture. The S series comparators showed a better description of the surface of castings after shot blasting than the A series....

  10. Incorporating Skew into RMS Surface Roughness Probability Distribution (United States)

    Stahl, Mark T.; Stahl, H. Philip.


    The standard treatment of RMS surface roughness data is the application of a Gaussian probability distribution. This handling of surface roughness ignores the skew present in the surface and overestimates the most probable RMS of the surface, the mode. Using experimental data we confirm the Gaussian distribution overestimates the mode and application of an asymmetric distribution provides a better fit. Implementing the proposed asymmetric distribution into the optical manufacturing process would reduce the polishing time required to meet surface roughness specifications.

  11. Detection of surfaces for projection of texture (United States)

    Molinier, Thierry; Fofi, David; Gorria, Patrick; Salvi, Joaquim


    Augmented reality is used to improve color segmentation on human's body or on precious no touch artefacts. We propose a technique based on structured light to project texture on a real object without any contact with it. Such techniques can be apply on medical application, archeology, industrial inspection and augmented prototyping. Coded structured light is an optical technique based on active stereovision which allows shape acquisition. By projecting a light pattern onto the surface of an object and capturing images with a camera, a large number of correspondences can be found and 3D points can be reconstructed by means of triangulation.

  12. Development of low friction snake-inspired deterministic textured surfaces (United States)

    Cuervo, P.; López, D. A.; Cano, J. P.; Sánchez, J. C.; Rudas, S.; Estupiñán, H.; Toro, A.; Abdel-Aal, H. A.


    The use of surface texturization to reduce friction in sliding interfaces has proved successful in some tribological applications. However, it is still difficult to achieve robust surface texturing with controlled designer-functionalities. This is because the current existing gap between enabling texturization technologies and surface design paradigms. Surface engineering, however, is advanced in natural surface constructs especially within legless reptiles. Many intriguing features facilitate the tribology of such animals so that it is feasible to discover the essence of their surface construction. In this work, we report on the tribological behavior of a novel class of surfaces of which the spatial dimensions of the textural patterns originate from micro-scale features present within the ventral scales of pre-selected snake species. Mask lithography was used to produce implement elliptical texturizing patterns on the surface of titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) pins. To study the tribological behavior of the texturized pins, pin-on-disc tests were carried out with the pins sliding against ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene discs with no lubrication. For comparison, two non-texturized samples were also tested under the same conditions. The results show the feasibility of the texturization technique based on the coefficient of friction of the textured surfaces to be consistently lower than that of the non-texturized samples.

  13. Comparative Study of Leaf Surface Texture and Ability to Expand of Cured Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohr R


    Full Text Available Tobacco leaf texture, appreciated by the difference of surface roughness of cured leaves, is studies with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The leaf texture is obviously determined by the presence or absence of conical cellular protuberances on the adaxial side of the leaf. Considering the anatomic point of view, the leaf thickness, always more important when the leaf texture is open, is the only objective criterion which could be associated to the texture. The ultra-structural study with SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM demonstrates that the expansion capacity of tobacco doesn't rely on cytological factors such as cellular reserves or debris. The expansion capacity could be inversely proportional with the relative importance of the mesophyll comparing to palisade parenchyma. On the studied material, no direct relation between the leaf texture and the expansion capacity has been noticed.

  14. Physical model for turbulent friction on rough surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhuoqun


    We present an analytical expression for turbulent friction on rough surfaces with regularly distributed roughness elements. Wall shear stresses are expressed as functions of physical quantities. Surfaces with varying roughness densities and roughness elements with different aspect ratios are considered. As the drag on each roughness element decreases as roughness density increases, we propose a straight forward method based on momentum conservation to deduce drag on elements by expressing it as a function of the maximum drag on elements and drag reductions ratios. We proposed a drag reduction effect of momentum redistribution and studied the mutual sheltering effect. Reduction ratios for redistribution effect and mutual sheltering effect are deduced, for different rough surfaces. These two drag reduction mechanisms are significant for sparse and dense surfaces, respectively. The shear stress on elements and the total shear stress are obtained as the result of the drag analysis. The estimated wall shear stress...

  15. Experimental Study on Momentum Transfer of Surface Texture in Taylor-Couette Flow (United States)

    Xue, Yabo; Yao, Zhenqiang; Cheng, De


    The behavior of Taylor-Couette (TC) flow has been extensively studied. However, no suitable torque prediction models exist for high-capacity fluid machinery. The Eckhardt-Grossmann-Lohse (EGL) theory, derived based on the Navier-Stokes equations, is proposed to model torque behavior. This theory suggests that surfaces are the significant energy transfer interfaces between cylinders and annular flow. This study mainly focuses on the effects of surface texture on momentum transfer behavior through global torque measurement. First, a power-law torque behavior model is built to reveal the relationship between dimensionless torque and the Taylor number based on the EGL theory. Second, TC flow apparatus is designed and built based on the CNC machine tool to verify the torque behavior model. Third, four surface texture films are tested to check the effects of surface texture on momentum transfer. A stereo microscope and three-dimensional topography instrument are employed to analyze surface morphology. Global torque behavior is measured by rotating a multi component dynamometer, and the effects of surface texture on the annular flow behavior are observed via images obtained using a high-speed camera. Finally, torque behaviors under four different surface conditions are fitted and compared. The experimental results indicate that surface textures have a remarkable influence on torque behavior, and that the peak roughness of surface texture enhances the momentum transfer by strengthening the fluctuation in the TC flow.

  16. A Study on the Surface Oxidation Behavior of Cube-textured Nickel Substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Ji Hyun; Kim, Byeong Joo; Kim, Jae Geun; Kim, Ho Jin; Hong, Gye Won; Lee, Hee Gyoun [Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jai Moo [Korea Instititue of Machinery and Matrials, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Pradeep, Halder [College of Namoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany, State University of NewYork, Albany (United States)


    We investigated the surface oxidation behavior of cube-textured polycrystalline nickel at various oxidation conditions. Cube-textured NiO film was formed on a cube-textured polycrystalline nickel regardless of oxidation conditions but different growth behavior of NiO crystals was observed depending on the oxidation conditions. The introduction of water vapor into O{sub 2} did not affect the texture evolution, but rough and porous microstructure was developed. Microstructure of NiO film tends to be denser as the oxygen partial pressure increases. It is interesting that peak of theta - two theta diffraction pattern started to get stronger in air atmosphere and plane became the major texture in the substrate oxidized in high purity argon gas. Small amount of high index crystallographic plane NiO peak crystal was observed when N{sub 2}Owas used as an oxidant while only plane crystal was formed in dry O{sub 2} atmosphere. Flat and smooth surface was changed into rough faceted one when ramping rate to oxidation temperature was faster. The grain size of NiO was decreased when the oxygen partial pressure was low. It was also observed that the modification of nickel surface suppressed the development of texture.

  17. Fabrication of Textured Rough SnO2:F Films on Glass Using TiO2 Film as a Buffer Layer (United States)

    Ren, Yang; Wang, Qiuhong; Zhou, Xiaoge; Gao, Yun; Zhao, Gaoyang


    This study proposes an alternative method for preparing SnO2:F films with a pyramid-like surface morphology that are suitable for the transparent electrodes used in amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells. By introducing a TiO2 film as a buffer layer, the crystallographic orientation of the SnO2:F films was changed from random to a (200) plane, and the surface topography of the SnO2:F film transformed from rod-like to pyramid-like; hence, textured, rough SnO2:F films were obtained. An appropriately textured rough surface improves light-trapping and enhances the photocurrent in amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells. The textured SnO2:F films were used as the front electrode in a 1-cm2 single-junction amorphous silicon solar cell yielding an initial efficiency of 9.3%. Light-trapping in the textured SnO2:F films led to a photo-generated current higher than that generated in smooth films.

  18. Surface roughness measurement using dichromatic speckle pattern: an experimental study. (United States)

    Fujii, H; Lit, J W


    Surface roughness is studied experimentally by making use of the statistical properties of dichromatic speckle patterns. The rms intensity difference between two speckle patterns produced by two argon laser lines are analyzed in the far field as functions of the object surface roughness and the difference in the two wavenumbers of the illuminating light. By applying previously derived formulas, the rms surface roughness is obtained from rms intensity differences. Glass and metal rough surfaces are used. Other than the scattering arrangement, the experimental setup has a simple spectrometric system and an electronic analyzing circuit.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.B; de Hosson, J.T.M.


    In this paper the influence of surface roughness on contact angles in the system of liquid Al wetting solid surfaces of Al2O3 has been studied. It was observed that contact angles of liquid Al vary significantly on different rough surfaces of Al2O3 A model is proposed to correlate contact angles wit

  20. Spectral Radiative Properties of Two-Dimensional Rough Surfaces (United States)

    Xuan, Yimin; Han, Yuge; Zhou, Yue


    Spectral radiative properties of two-dimensional rough surfaces are important for both academic research and practical applications. Besides material properties, surface structures have impact on the spectral radiative properties of rough surfaces. Based on the finite difference time domain algorithm, this paper studies the spectral energy propagation process on a two-dimensional rough surface and analyzes the effect of different factors such as the surface structure, angle, and polarization state of the incident wave on the spectral radiative properties of the two-dimensional rough surface. To quantitatively investigate the spatial distribution of energy reflected from the rough surface, the concept of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function is introduced. Correlation analysis between the reflectance and different impact factors is conducted to evaluate the influence degree. Comparison between the theoretical and experimental data is given to elucidate the accuracy of the computational code. This study is beneficial to optimizing the surface structures of optoelectronic devices such as solar cells.

  1. Transition from Cassie to impaled state during drop impact on groove-textured solid surfaces. (United States)

    Vaikuntanathan, V; Sivakumar, D


    Liquid drops impacted on textured surfaces undergo a transition from the Cassie state characterized by the presence of air pockets inside the roughness valleys below the drop to an impaled state with at least one of the roughness valleys filled with drop liquid. This occurs when the drop impact velocity exceeds a particular value referred to as the critical impact velocity. The present study investigates such a transition process during water drop impact on surfaces textured with unidirectional parallel grooves referred to as groove-textured surfaces. The process of liquid impalement into a groove in the vicinity of drop impact through de-pinning of the three-phase contact line (TPCL) beneath the drop as well as the critical impact velocity were identified experimentally from high speed video recordings of water drop impact on six different groove-textured surfaces made from intrinsically hydrophilic (stainless steel) as well as intrinsically hydrophobic (PDMS and rough aluminum) materials. The surface energy of various 2-D configurations of liquid-vapor interface beneath the drop near the drop impact point was theoretically investigated to identify the locally stable configurations and establish a pathway for the liquid impalement process. A force balance analysis performed on the liquid-vapor interface configuration just prior to TPCL de-pinning provided an expression for the critical drop impact velocity, Uo,cr, beyond which the drop state transitions from the Cassie to an impaled state. The theoretical model predicts that Uo,cr increases with the increase in pillar side angle, α, and intrinsic hydrophobicity whereas it decreases with the increase in groove top width, w, of the groove-textured surface. The quantitative predictions of the theoretical model were found to show good agreement with the experimental measurements of Uo,cr plotted against the surface texture geometry factor in our model, {tan(α/2)/w}(0.5).

  2. Drag force and surface roughness measurements on freshwater biofouled surfaces. (United States)

    Andrewartha, J; Perkins, K; Sargison, J; Osborn, J; Walker, G; Henderson, A; Hallegraeff, G


    The detrimental effect of biofilms on skin friction for near wall flows is well known. The diatom genera Gomphonema and Tabellaria dominated the biofilm mat in the freshwater open channels of the Tarraleah Hydropower Scheme in Tasmania, Australia. A multi-faceted approach was adopted to investigate the drag penalty for biofouled 1.0 m x 0.6 m test plates which incorporated species identification, drag measurement in a recirculating water tunnel and surface characterisation using close-range photogrammetry. Increases in total drag coefficient of up to 99% were measured over clean surface values for biofouled test plates incubated under flow conditions in a hydropower canal. The effective roughness of the biofouled surfaces was found to be larger than the physical roughness; the additional energy dissipation was caused in part by the vibration of the biofilms in three-dimensions under flow conditions. The data indicate that there was a roughly linear relationship between the maximum peak-to-valley height of a biofilm and the total drag coefficient.

  3. The effects of surface roughness on lunar Askaryan pulses

    CERN Document Server

    James, C W


    The effects of lunar surface roughness, on both small and large scales, on Askaryan radio pulses generated by particle cascades beneath the lunar surface has never been fully estimated. Surface roughness affects the chances of a pulse escaping the lunar surface, its coherency, and the characteristic detection geometry. It will affect the expected signal shape, the relative utility of different frequency bands, the telescope pointing positions on the lunar disk, and most fundamentally, the chances of detecting the known UHE cosmic ray and any prospective UHE neutrino flux. Near-future radio-telescopes such as FAST and the SKA promise to be able to detect the flux of cosmic rays, and it is critical that surface roughness be treated appropriately in simulations. of the lunar Askaryan technique. In this contribution, a facet model for lunar surface roughness is combined with a method to propagate coherent radio pulses through boundaries to estimate the full effects of lunar surface roughness on neutrino-detection...

  4. Physically-based Ice Thickness and Surface Roughness Retrievals over Rough Deformed Sea Ice (United States)

    Li, Li; Gaiser, Peter; Allard, Richard; Posey, Pamela; Hebert, David; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline; Polashenski, Christopher; Claffey, Keran


    The observations of sea ice thickness and ice surface roughness are critical for our understanding of the state of the changing Arctic. Currently, the Radar and/or LiDAR data of sea ice freeboard are used to infer sea ice thickness via isostasy. The underlying assumption is that the LiDAR signal returns at the air/snow interface and radar signal at the snow/ice interface. The elevations of these interfaces are determined based on LiDAR/Radar return waveforms. However, the commonly used threshold-based surface detection techniques are empirical in nature and work well only over level/smooth sea ice. Rough sea ice surfaces can modify the return waveforms, resulting in significant Electromagnetic (EM) bias in the estimated surface elevations, and thus large errors in the ice thickness retrievals. To understand and quantify such sea ice surface roughness effects, a combined EM rough surface and volume scattering model was developed to simulate radar returns from the rough sea ice 'layer cake' structure. A waveform matching technique was also developed to fit observed waveforms to a physically-based waveform model and subsequently correct the roughness induced EM bias in the estimated freeboard. This new EM Bias Corrected (EMBC) algorithm was able to better retrieve surface elevations and estimate the surface roughness parameter simultaneously. Both the ice thickness and surface roughness retrievals are validated using in-situ data. For the surface roughness retrievals, we applied this EMBC algorithm to co-incident LiDAR/Radar measurements collected during a Cryosat-2 under-flight by the NASA IceBridge missions. Results show that not only does the waveform model fit very well to the measured radar waveform, but also the roughness parameters derived independently from the LiDAR and radar data agree very well for both level and deformed sea ice. For sea ice thickness retrievals, validation based on in-situ data from the coordinated CRREL/NRL field campaign demonstrates

  5. Surface roughness effects on aluminium-based ultraviolet plasmonic nanolasers (United States)

    Chung, Yi-Cheng; Cheng, Pi-Ju; Chou, Yu-Hsun; Chou, Bo-Tsun; Hong, Kuo-Bin; Shih, Jheng-Hong; Lin, Sheng-Di; Lu, Tien-Chang; Lin, Tzy-Rong


    We systematically investigate the effects of surface roughness on the characteristics of ultraviolet zinc oxide plasmonic nanolasers fabricated on aluminium films with two different degrees of surface roughness. We demonstrate that the effective dielectric functions of aluminium interfaces with distinct roughness can be analysed from reflectivity measurements. By considering the scattering losses, including Rayleigh scattering, electron scattering, and grain boundary scattering, we adopt the modified Drude-Lorentz model to describe the scattering effect caused by surface roughness and obtain the effective dielectric functions of different Al samples. The sample with higher surface roughness induces more electron scattering and light scattering for SPP modes, leading to a higher threshold gain for the plasmonic nanolaser. By considering the pumping efficiency, our theoretical analysis shows that diminishing the detrimental optical losses caused by the roughness of the metallic interface could effectively lower (~33.1%) the pumping threshold of the plasmonic nanolasers, which is consistent with the experimental results.

  6. Influence of Nanoscale Surface Roughness on Colloidal Force Measurements. (United States)

    Zou, Yi; Jayasuriya, Sunil; Manke, Charles W; Mao, Guangzhao


    Forces between colloidal particles determine the performances of many industrial processes and products. Colloidal force measurements conducted between a colloidal particle AFM probe and particles immobilized on a flat substrate are valuable in selecting appropriate surfactants for colloidal stabilization. One of the features of inorganic fillers and extenders is the prevalence of rough surfaces-even the polymer latex particles, often used as model colloidal systems including the current study, have rough surfaces albeit at a much smaller scale. Surface roughness is frequently cited as the reason for disparity between experimental observations and theoretical treatment but seldom verified by direct evidence. This work reports the effect of nanoscale surface roughness on colloidal force measurements carried out in the presence of surfactants. We applied a heating method to reduce the mean surface roughness of commercial latex particles from 30 to 1 nm. We conducted force measurements using the two types of particles at various salt and surfactant concentrations. The surfactants used were pentaethylene glycol monododecyl ether, Pluronic F108, and a styrene/acrylic copolymer, Joncryl 60. In the absence of the surfactant, nanometer surface roughness affects colloidal forces only in high salt conditions when the Debye length becomes smaller than the surface roughness. The adhesion is stronger between colloids with higher surface roughness and requires a higher surfactant concentration to be eliminated. The effect of surface roughness on colloidal forces was also investigated as a function of the adsorbed surfactant layer structure characterized by AFM indentation and dynamic light scattering. We found that when the layer thickness exceeds the surface roughness, the colloidal adhesion is less influenced by surfactant concentration variation. This study demonstrates that surface roughness at the nanoscale can influence colloidal forces significantly and should be taken

  7. Deduction of static surface roughness from complex excess attenuation. (United States)

    Nichols, Andrew; Attenborough, Keith; Taherzadeh, Shahram


    Data for complex excess attenuation have been used to determine the effective surface admittance and hence characteristic roughness size of a surface comprising a random distribution of semi-cylindrical rods on an acoustically hard plane. The inversion for roughness size is based on a simplified boss model. The technique is shown to be effective to within 4%, up to a threshold roughness packing density of 32%, above which the interaction between scattering elements appears to exceed that allowed by the model.

  8. Investigation of surface roughness influence on hyperbolic metamaterial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kozik


    Full Text Available The main goal of this work was to introduce simple model of surface roughness which does not involve objects with complicated shapes and could help to reduce computational costs. We described and proved numerically that the influence of surface roughness at the interfaces in metal-dielectric composite materials could be described by proper selection of refractive index of dielectric layers. Our calculations show that this model works for roughness with RMS value about 1 nm and below.

  9. Separation Surfaces in the Spectral TV Domain for Texture Decomposition (United States)

    Horesh, Dikla; Gilboa, Guy


    In this paper we introduce a novel notion of separation surfaces for image decomposition. A surface is embedded in the spectral total-variation (TV) three dimensional domain and encodes a spatially-varying separation scale. The method allows good separation of textures with gradually varying pattern-size, pattern-contrast or illumination. The recently proposed total variation spectral framework is used to decompose the image into a continuum of textural scales. A desired texture, within a scale range, is found by fitting a surface to the local maximal responses in the spectral domain. A band above and below the surface, referred to as the \\textit{Texture Stratum}, defines for each pixel the adaptive scale-range of the texture. Based on the decomposition an application is proposed which can attenuate or enhance textures in the image in a very natural and visually convincing manner.

  10. Optical simulation of surface textured TCO using FDTD method (United States)

    Elviyanti, I. L.; Purwanto, H.; Kusumandari


    The purpose of this research is simulating the transmittance of surface textured transparent conducting oxide (TCO) for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) application. The simulation based on finite difference time domain (FDTD) was performed using the MatLab software for flat and pyramid surface textured TCO. Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and indium tin oxide (ITO) were used as TCO material. The transmittance simulation of flat TCO was compared to UV-Vis spectrophotometer measurement of real TCO to ensure the accuracy of the simulation. Then, the transmittance simulation of pyramid surface textures of TCO is higher than a flat one. It suggested that surface texturing enhance the path of light through dispersion and reflectance light by the pattern of the surface. This result indicates that surface textured increasing the transmittance of TCO through a complex light trapping mechanism which might be used to increase the light harvesting for DSSC application.

  11. Surface roughness evolution of nanocomposite thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkin, A; Pei, Y.T.; Shaha, K.P.; Chen, C.Q.; Vainchtein, David; Hosson, J.Th.M. De


    An analysis of dynamic roughening and smoothening mechanisms of thin films grown with pulsed-dc magnetron sputtering is presented. The roughness evolution has been described by a linear stochastic equation, which contains the second- and fourth-order gradient terms. Dynamic smoothening of the growin

  12. Surface roughness and chemical properties of porous inorganic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggen, Carrie L.; McAfee, Paul M. [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Jin, Yi [China Electric Power Research Institute, Beijing 100192 (China); Lin, Y.S., E-mail: [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)


    Porous inorganic films of different materials and pore architecture: mesoporous γ-alumina, mesoporous yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), macroporous YSZ and macroporous/microporous zeolite silicalite, were synthesized by the sol–gel spin-coating or dip-coating methods on silicon wafers of different surface roughness. Their surface chemical properties, pore and phase structure, and surface roughness were studied by various surface characterization methods. The pore sizes of these films are determined by their primary particle size. All the films studied are hydrophilic due to the presence of hydroxyl groups on the external crystallite surface, and their hydrophilicity increases in the order: macroporous YSZ < mesoporous YSZ < silicalite < γ-alumina. The γ-alumina films have highly smooth surfaces, while mesoporous YSZ, macroporous YSZ and silicalite films have similar surface roughness much rougher than γ-alumina films. The surface roughness of these coated films does not depend on the coating method, surface roughness of the substrate, surface chemistry or pore structure of the films. It is more controlled by the shape and size of the primary particles and aggregates in the sol or suspension from which the films are obtained. - Highlights: • Porous films of various pore structures are prepared by sol–gel methods. • γ-Alumina films have much smoother surface than thin films of other materials. • Film surface roughness is controlled by the shape and size of particles in the sols.

  13. Wall laws for viscous fluids near rough surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibard Anne-Laure


    Full Text Available In this paper, we review recent results on wall laws for viscous fluids near rough surfaces, of small amplitude and wavelength ε. When the surface is “genuinely rough”, the wall law at first order is the Dirichlet wall law: the fluid satisfies a “no-slip” boundary condition on the homogenized surface. We compare the various mathematical characterizations of genuine roughness, and the corresponding homogenization results. At the next order, under ergodicity properties of the roughness distribution, a Navier wall law with a slip length of order ε can be derived, that leads to better error estimates. We also discuss the relationship beween the slip length and the position of the homogenized surface. In particular, we prove that for adherent rough walls, the Navier wall law associated to the roughness does not correspond to any tangible slip.

  14. Controlling cell adhesion via replication of laser micro/nano-textured surfaces on polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koufaki, Niki; Ranella, Anthi; Barberoglou, Marios; Psycharakis, Stylianos; Fotakis, Costas; Stratakis, Emmanuel [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (FORTH), 711 10, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Aifantis, Katerina E, E-mail: [Lab of Mechanics and Materials, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece)


    The aim of this study is to investigate cell adhesion and viability on highly rough polymeric surfaces with gradient roughness ratios and wettabilities prepared by microreplication of laser micro/nano-textured Si surfaces. Negative replicas on polydimethylsiloxane as well as positive ones on a photocurable (organically modified ceramic) and a biodegradable (poly(lactide-co-glycolide)) polymer have been successfully reproduced. The final culture substrates comprised from forests of micron-sized conical spikes exhibiting a range of roughness ratios and wettabilities, was achieved by changing the laser fluence used to fabricate the original template surfaces. Cell culture experiments were performed with the fibroblast NIH/3T3 and PC12 neuronal cell lines in order to investigate how these surfaces are capable of modulating different types of cellular responses including, viability, adhesion and morphology. The results showed a preferential adhesion of both cell types on the microstructured surfaces compared to the unstructured ones. In particular, the fibroblast NIH/3T3 cells show optimal adhesion for small roughness ratios, independent of the surface wettability and polymer type, indicating a non-monotonic dependence of cell adhesion on surface energy. In contrast, the PC12 cells were observed to adhere well to the patterned surfaces independent of the roughness ratio and wettability. These experimental findings are correlated with micromechanical measurements performed on the unstructured and replicated surfaces and discussed on the basis of previous observations describing the relation of cell response to surface energy and rigidity.

  15. Bi-Spectrum Scattering Model for Dielectric Randomly Rough Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宁; 李宗谦


    The bistatic scattering model is offen used for remote microwave sensing. The bi-spectrum model (BSM) for conducting surfaces was used to develop a scattering model for dielectric randomly rough surfaces to estimate their bistatic scattering coefficients. The model for dielectric rough surfaces differs from the BSM for a conducting surface by including Fresnell reflection and transmission from dielectric rough surfaces. The bistatic scattering coefficients were defined to satisfy the reciprocal theorem. Values calculated using the BSM for dielectric randomly rough surfaces compare well with those of the integral equation model (IEM) and with experimental data, showing that the BSM accuracy is acceptable and its range of validity is similar to that of IEM while the BSM expression is simpler than that of IEM.

  16. Bi-Spectrum Scattering Model for Conducting Randomly Rough Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宁; 李宗谦


    A scattering model is developed to predict the scattering coefficient of a conducting randomly rough surface by analyzing the randomly rough surface in the spectral domain using the bi-spectrum method. For common randomly rough surfaces without obvious two-scale characteristics, a scale-compression filter can divide the auto-correlation spectrum into two parts with different correlation lengths. The Kirchhoff approximation and the small perturbation method are used to obtain the surface field, then a bistatic scattering model, the bi-spectrum model (BSM), is used to derive an explicit expression from the surface field. Examples using the integral equation model (IEM), finite difference of the time domain (FDTD) method, and BSM show that the BSM accuracy is acceptable and its range of validity is similar to IEM. BSM can also be extended to a scattering model for dielectric randomly rough surfaces.

  17. Scattering from Rough Surfaces with Extended Self-Similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张延冬; 吴振森


    An extended self-similarity (ESS) model is developed by extending the self-similarity condition in fractional Brownian motion (FBM), then the incremental Fourier synthesis algorithm is introduced to generate ESS rough surfaces, and an estimation algorithm is presented to extract the generalized multiscale Hurst parameter, which can also be modified to estimate the Hurst parameter for FBM more accurately. Finally, the scattering coefficient from ESS rough surfaces is calculated with the scalar Kirchhoff approximation, and its variation with the parameters in the ESS model is obtained. Compared with experimental measurements, it can be concluded that the ESS model provides a good tool to model natural rough surfaces.

  18. Mechanism of surface texture evolution in pure copper strips subjected to double rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyong Wang


    Full Text Available Developing ultra-thin copper foils with different surface roughness and microstructure has important significance for improving the service performance and reducing the production cost of high-end circuit boards. In this paper, pure copper strips with initial cube texture were subjected to a double rolling process (deformation amount ranges from 50% to 95%, and the surface textures evolution law and mechanism of double-rolled strips were studied by an X-ray diffraction technique. The results show that when a deformation amount increased from 50% to 70%, the grains of two surfaces rotate away from the cube orientation, and the formed textures of two surfaces mainly consisted of C, S and B orientation components. The orientation density values for these three components on bright surface only had slight difference; the orientation density values for C and S components were much larger than that for B components on a matt surface. When the deformation amount increased to 90%, the increase extents of orientation density values for C and S components were obviously larger than that for B components on a bright surface; the increase extents of orientation density values for these three components were almost the same on the matt surface. It has been found that when deformation amount reaches 95%, the grains orientation of bright surface were relatively concentrated, and the orientation density value for C texture obviously increased to 11.68 and that for B texture was only 3.15; the grains orientation of matt surface were relatively dispersed, and the orientation density value for C texture increased to 9.26 and that for B texture obviously increased to 6.35, and the density values of these two textures had less difference. For the condition of strong compressive and shear stress on the bright surface, grains were mainly rotating to C texture orientation; compared with the bright surface, “semi-free” deformation condition on the matt surface is

  19. Interferometric microscopy study of the surface roughness of Portland cement under the action of different irrigants. (United States)

    Ballester-Palacios, Maria L; Berástegui-Jimeno, Esther M; Parellada-Esquius, Neus; Canalda-Sahli, Carlos


    Some investigations suggested common Portland cement (PC) as a substitute material for MTA for endodontic use; both MTA and PC have a similar composition. The aim of this study was to determine the surface roughness of common PC before and after the exposition to different endodontic irrigating solutions: 10% and 20% citric acid, 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) and 5% sodium hypochlorite. Fifty PC samples in the form of cubes were prepared. PC was mixed with distilled water (powder/liquid ratio 3:1 by weight). The samples were immersed for one minute in 10% and 20% citric acid, 17% EDTA and 5% sodium hypochlorite. After gold coating, PC samples were examined using the New View 100 Zygo interferometric microscope. It was used to examine and register the surface roughness and the profile of two different areas of each sample. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out, and as the requirements were not met, use was made of the Kruskal-Wallis test for analysis of the results obtained, followed by contrasts using Tukey's contrast tests. Sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 5% significantly reduced the surface roughness of PC, while 20% citric acid significantly increased surface roughness. The other evaluated citric acid concentration (10%) slightly increased the surface roughness of PC, though statistical significance was not reached. EDTA at a concentration of 17% failed to modify PC surface roughness. Irrigation with 5% sodium hypochlorite and 20% citric acid lowered and raised the roughness values, respectively. The surface texture of PC is modified as the result of treatment with different irrigating solutions commonly used in endodontics, depending on their chemical composition and concentration.

  20. Roughness parameters and surface deformation measured by coherence radar (United States)

    Ettl, Peter; Schmidt, Berthold E.; Schenk, M.; Laszlo, Ildiko; Haeusler, Gerd


    The 'coherence radar' was introduced as a method to measure the topology of optically rough surfaces. The basic principle is white light interferometry in individual speckles. We will discuss the potentials and limitations of the coherence radar to measure the microtopology, the roughness parameters, and the out of plane deformation of smooth and rough object surfaces. We have to distinguish objects with optically smooth (polished) surfaces and with optically rough surfaces. Measurements at polished surfaces with simple shapes (flats, spheres) are the domain of classical interferometry. We demonstrate new methods to evaluate white light interferograms and compare them to the standard Fourier evaluation. We achieve standard deviations of the measured signals of a few nanometers. We further demonstrate that we can determine the roughness parameters of a surface by the coherence radar. We use principally two approaches: with very high aperture the surface topology is laterally resolved. From the data we determine the roughness parameters according to standardized evaluation procedures, and compare them with mechanically acquired data. The second approach is by low aperture observation (unresolved topology). Here the coherence radar supplies a statistical distance signal from which we can determine the standard deviation of the surface height variations. We will further discuss a new method to measure the deformation of optically rough surfaces, based on the coherence radar. Unless than with standard speckle interferometry, the new method displays absolute deformation. For small out-of-plane deformation (correlated speckle), the potential sensitivity is in the nanometer regime. Large deformations (uncorrelated speckle) can be measured with an uncertainty equal to the surface roughness.

  1. Surface Roughness Effects on Discharge Coefficient of Broad Crested Weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker A. Jalil


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of surface roughness sizes on the discharge coefficient for a broad crested weirs. For this purpose, three models having different lengths of broad crested weirs were tested in a horizontal flume. In each model, the surface was roughed four times. Experimental results of all models showed that the logical negative effect of roughness increased on the discharge (Q for different values of length. The performance of broad crested weir improved with decrease ratio of roughness to the weir height (Ks/P and with the increase of the total Head to the Length (H/L. An empirical equation was obtained to estimate the variation of discharge coefficient Cd in terms total head to length ratio, with total head to roughness ratio.

  2. Computer simulation of RBS spectra from samples with surface roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinský, P., E-mail: [Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, J. E. Purkinje University, Ceske mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Hnatowicz, V., E-mail: [Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Macková, A., E-mail: [Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, J. E. Purkinje University, Ceske mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic)


    A fast code for the simulation of common RBS spectra including surface roughness effects has been written and tested on virtual samples comprising either a rough layer deposited on a smooth substrate or smooth layer deposited on a rough substrate and simulated at different geometries. The sample surface or interface relief has been described by a polyline and the simulated RBS spectrum has been obtained as the sum of many particular spectra from randomly chosen particle trajectories. The code includes several procedures generating virtual samples with random and regular (periodical) roughness. The shape of the RBS spectra has been found to change strongly with increasing sample roughness and an increasing angle of the incoming ion beam.

  3. Surface roughness measurement on a wing aircraft by speckle correlation. (United States)

    Salazar, Félix; Barrientos, Alberto


    The study of the damage of aeronautical materials is important because it may change the microscopic surface structure profiles. The modification of geometrical surface properties can cause small instabilities and then a displacement of the boundary layer. One of the irregularities we can often find is surface roughness. Due to an increase of roughness and other effects, there may be extra momentum losses in the boundary layer and a modification in the parasite drag. In this paper we present a speckle method for measuring the surface roughness on an actual unmanned aircraft wing. The results show an inhomogeneous roughness distribution on the wing, as expected according to the anisotropic influence of the winds over the entire wing geometry. A calculation of the uncertainty of the technique is given.

  4. Tribological performance analysis of textured steel surfaces under lubricating conditions (United States)

    Singh, R. C.; Pandey, R. K.; Rooplal; Ranganath, M. S.; Maji, S.


    The tribological analysis of the lubricated conformal contacts formed between the smooth/textured surfaces of steel discs and smooth surface of steel pins under sliding conditions have been considered. Roles of dimples’ pitch of textured surfaces have been investigated experimentally to understand the variations of coefficient of friction and wear at the tribo-contacts under fully flooded lubricated conditions. Substantial reductions in coefficient of friction and wear at the tribo-interfaces have been observed in presence of textures on the rotating discs for both fully flooded and starved conditions in comparison to the corresponding lubricating conditions of the interfaces formed between the smooth surfaces of disc and pin. In presence of surface texture, the coefficient of friction reduces considerable at elevated sliding speeds (>2 m/s) and unit loads (>0.5 MPa) for the set of operating parameters considered in the analysis.

  5. Surface roughness estimation of a parabolic reflector

    CERN Document Server

    Casco, Nicolás A


    Random surface deviations in a reflector antenna reduce the aperture efficiency. This communication presents a method for estimating the mean surface deviation of a parabolic reflector from a set of measured points. The proposed method takes into account systematic measurement errors, such as the offset between the origin of reference frame and the vertex of the surface, and the misalignment between the surface rotation axis and the measurement axis. The results will be applied to perform corrections to the surface of one of the 30 m diameter radiotelescopes at the Instituto Argentino de Radioastronom\\'ia (IAR).

  6. Inversion problem for the dimension of fractal rough surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Donghua; CAI Zhijie; RUAN Jiong


    In the present paper, the fractal rough surface is described by a band-limited Weierstrass-Mandelbrot function. By using the Monte Carlo method and optimal method,a minimal target function method is applied to inverting the fractal dimension of the fractal rough surface. Numerical simulations show that the method can avoid the influence of the fractal characteristic scale, and that the method is of high precision.

  7. The influence of surface treatment on the implant roughness pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Borges Rosa


    Full Text Available An important parameter for the clinical success of dental implants is the formation of direct contact between the implant and surrounding bone, whose quality is directly influenced by the implant surface roughness. A screw-shaped design and a surface with an average roughness of Sa of 1-2 µm showed a better result. The combination of blasting and etching has been a commonly used surface treatment technique. The versatility of this type of treatment allows for a wide variation in the procedures in order to obtain the desired roughness. OBJECTIVES: To compare the roughness values and morphological characteristics of 04 brands of implants, using the same type of surface treatment. In addition, to compare the results among brands, in order to assess whether the type of treatment determines the values and the characteristics of implant surface roughness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three implants were purchased directly from each selected company in the market, i.e., 03 Brazilian companies (Biomet 3i of Brazil, Neodent and Titaniumfix and 01 Korean company (Oneplant. The quantitative or numerical characterization of the roughness was performed using an interferometer. The qualitative analysis of the surface topography obtained with the treatment was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy images. RESULTS: The evaluated implants showed a significant variation in roughness values: Sa for Oneplant was 1.01 µm; Titaniumfix reached 0.90 µm; implants from Neodent 0.67 µm, and Biomet 3i of Brazil 0.53 µm. Moreover, the SEM images showed very different patterns for the surfaces examined. CONCCLUSIONS: The surface treatment alone is not able to determine the roughness values and characteristics.


    Based on the compiled data of thirty independent observations, the report presents the wind - stress coefficient, the surface roughness and the...boundary layer flow regime at the air-sea interface under various wind conditions. Both the wind - stress coefficient and the surface roughness are found and Charnock’s proportionality constant is determined. Finally, two approximate formulae for the wind - stress coefficient, one for light wind and the other for strong wind are suggested.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Kelley, Michael J. [JLAB, W& amp; M College; Xu, Chen [JLAB, W& amp; M College


    Topographic structure on Superconductivity Radio Frequency (SRF) surfaces can contribute additional cavity RF losses describable in terms of surface RF reflectivity and absorption indices of wave scattering theory. At isotropic homogeneous extent, Power Spectrum Density (PSD) of roughness is introduced and quantifies the random surface topographic structure. PSD obtained from different surface treatments of niobium, such Buffered Chemical Polishing (BCP), Electropolishing (EP), Nano-Mechanical Polishing (NMP) and Barrel Centrifugal Polishing (CBP) are compared. A perturbation model is utilized to calculate the additional rough surface RF losses based on PSD statistical analysis. This model will not consider that superconductor becomes normal conducting at fields higher than transition field. One can calculate the RF power dissipation ratio between rough surface and ideal smooth surface within this field range from linear loss mechanisms.

  10. A new measurement method for ultrasonic surface roughness measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Rezanejad Gatabi, Javad; Rezanejad Gatabi, Iman


    This study proposes the application of Doppler-based ultrasonic method to surface roughness measurements. The fabricated prototype measures the slope of the under-test surface at small holes to evaluate the roughing parameters and this makes for more precise measurement. The device comprises...... at the reflecting point. The relationship between the Doppler shift and the roughing slope is mathematically analyzed. Compared to the transit-time based techniques, the dependency of the sensor on the sound speed in air is decreased by a factor of 2 and therefore a more precise measurement is achieved...

  11. Comparison of optical methods for surface roughness characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Hansen, Poul Erik; Pilny, Lukas;


    We report a study of the correlation between three optical methods for characterizing surface roughness: a laboratory scatterometer measuring the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF instrument), a simple commercial scatterometer (rBRDF instrument), and a confocal optical profiler....... For each instrument, the effective range of spatial surface wavelengths is determined, and the common bandwidth used when comparing the evaluated roughness parameters. The compared roughness parameters are: the root-mean-square (RMS) profile deviation (Rq), the RMS profile slope (Rdq), and the variance...

  12. Milled Die Steel Surface Roughness Correlation with Steel Sheet Friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, J.; Brown, C.A.; Rosén, B.-G.


    This work investigates correlations between the surface topography ofmilled steel dies and friction with steel sheet. Several die surfaces were prepared by milling. Friction was measured in bending under tension testing. Linear regression coefficients (R2) between the friction and texture...

  13. Nanopatterning on rough surfaces using optically trapped microspheres (United States)

    Tsai, Y.-C.; Fardel, R.; Arnold, C. B.


    While nanofabricated structures find an increasingly large number of applications, few techniques are able to pattern rough or uneven surfaces, or surfaces with pre-existing structure. In this letter we show that optical trap assisted nanopatterning (OTAN), a near-field laser based technique, is able to produce nanoscale features on surfaces with large roughness but without the need for focus adjustment. Patterning on model surfaces of polyimide with vertical steps greater than 0.5 μm shows a high degree of uniformity, demonstrating that OTAN is a suitable technique to pattern nontraditional surfaces for emerging technologies.

  14. The effect of toothbrush bristle stiffness on nanohybrid surface roughness (United States)

    Zairani, O.; Irawan, B.; Damiyanti, M.


    The surface of a restoration can be affected by toothpaste containing abrasive agents and the stiffness of toothbrush bristles. Objective: To identify the effect of toothbrush bristle stiffness on nanohybrid surface roughness. Methods: Sixteen nanohybrid specimens were separated into two groups. The first group was brushed using soft-bristle toothbrushes, and the second group was brushed using medium-bristle toothbrushes. Media such as aqua bides was used for brushing in both groups. Brushing was done 3 times for 5 minutes. Surface roughness was measured initially and at 5, 10, and 15 minutes using a surface roughness tester. Results: The results, tested with One-Way ANOVA and Independent Samples t Test, demonstrated that after brushing for 15 minutes, the soft-bristle toothbrush group showed a significantly different value (p < 0.05) of nanohybrid surface roughness. The group using medium-bristle toothbrushes showed the value of nano hybrid surface roughness significant difference after brushing for 10 minutes. Conclusion: Roughness occurs more rapidly when brushing with medium-bristle tooth brushes than when brushing with soft-bristle toothbrushes.

  15. Replicated mask surface roughness effects on EUV lithographic pattering and line edge roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Simi A.; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Mochi, Iacopo; Salmassi, Farhad; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Anderson, Erik H.


    To quantify the roughness contributions to speckle, a programmed roughness substrate was fabricated with a number of areas having different roughness magnitudes. The substrate was then multilayer coated. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) surface maps were collected before and after multilayer deposition. At-wavelength reflectance and total integrated scattering measurements were also completed. Angle resolved scattering based power spectral densities are directly compared to the AFM based power spectra. We show that AFM overpredicts the roughness in the picometer measurements range. The mask was then imaged at-wavelength for the direct characterization of the aerial image speckle using the SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT). Modeling was used to test the effectiveness of the different metrologies in predicting the measured aerial-image speckle. AIT measured contrast values are 25% or more than the calculated image contrast values obtained using the measured rms roughness input. The extent to which the various metrologies can be utilized for specifying tolerable roughness limits on EUV masks is still to be determined. Further modeling and measurements are being planned.

  16. Micro-, meso- and macro-texture and fatigue crack roughness in Al-Li 2090 T8E41

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, J.D.; Guvenilir, A.; Witt, J.R.; Stock, S.R. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States)


    The use of synchrotron polychromatic x-ray microbeams in the transmission geometry is described for mapping grain orientation as a function of position and for relating this microtexture to the formation of large asperities on fatigue crack surfaces in Al-Li 2090 T8E41. In common with the centers of rolled plates of many aluminum alloys, Al-Li 2090 T8E41 has a sharp average texture or macrotexture different from that in the outer portions of the plate. The geometry of large asperities in Al-Li 2090 has been related to this macrotexture, and the resulting roughness-induced crack closure is recognized to be responsible for the very low crack propagation rates in certain plate orientations. This report focuses on why asperities form at certain positions and why the crack remains relatively planar elsewhere. The microtexture (i.e., the grain-to-grain orientation variation) seems to be organized into a specific type of mesotexture: multiple adjacent grains have nearly identical orientations and form substantial volumes of near-single-crystal material. Transitions between differently oriented near-single-crystal volumes or between a near-single-crystal region and more randomly oriented grains appear to bound asperities.

  17. Optimization of roughness, reflectance and photoluminescence for acid textured mc-Si solar cells etched at different HF/HNO{sub 3} concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, B. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 38204 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Guerrero-Lemus, R. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 38204 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Fundacion de Estudios de Economia Aplicada. Catedra Focus-Abengoa. Jorge Juan, 46, 28001 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail:; Diaz-Herrera, B.; Marrero, N. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 38204 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Mendez-Ramos, J.; Borchert, Dietmar [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Experimental Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 38204 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Labour und Servicecentre, Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Fraunhofer Institut, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen (Germany)


    The surface structure of multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) etched in HF/HNO{sub 3} at different HF/HNO{sub 3} concentrations is optimized for being applied in solar cells. The resulting texture, which determines the efficiency of solar cells, was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical spectroscopy. The roughness of the surface increases and the reflectance decreases when the content of HNO{sub 3} in the etching solution is increased to a limit. The produced etched pits on the surface have been identified by SEM and the surface mean roughness has been characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Also, depending on the concentration of the electrolyte, the mc-Si samples exhibit photoluminescence in the VIS range under UV excitation. The PL reveals the presence of nanocrystals on the surface of the etched samples. The surface structure is also optimized for an adequate placement of the metallic contact on top. Finally the solar cells were performed in order to investigate the dependence of the roughness, reflectance and photoluminescence to the solar efficiency.

  18. Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion on hydrophobic and hydrophilic textured biomaterial surfaces. (United States)

    Xu, Li-Chong; Siedlecki, Christopher A


    It is of great interest to use nano- or micro-structured surfaces to inhibit microbial adhesion and biofilm formation and thereby to prevent biomaterial-associated infection, without modification of the surface chemistry or bulk properties of the materials and without use of the drugs. Our previous study showed that a submicron textured polyurethane surface can inhibit staphylococcal bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. To further understand the effect of the geometry of textures on bacterial adhesion as well as the underlying mechanism, in this study, submicron and micron textured polyurethane surfaces featuring ordered arrays of pillars were fabricated and modified to have different wettabilities. All the textured surfaces were originally hydrophobic and showed significant reductions in Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A adhesion in phosphate buffered saline or 25% platelet poor plasma solutions under shear, as compared to smooth surfaces. After being subjected to an air glow discharge plasma treatment, all polyurethane surfaces were modified to hydrophilic, and reductions in bacterial adhesion on surfaces were subsequently found to be dependent on the size of the patterns. The submicron patterned surfaces reduced bacterial adhesion, while the micron patterned surfaces led to increased bacterial adhesion. The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from the S. epidermidis cell surfaces were extracted and purified, and were coated on a glass colloidal surface so that the adhesion force and separation energy in interactions of the EPS and the surface could be measured by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy. These results were consistent with the bacterial adhesion observations. Overall, the data suggest that the increased surface hydrophobicity and the decreased availability of the contact area contributes to a reduction in bacterial adhesion to the hydrophobic textured surfaces, while the availability of the contact area is the primary determinant factor

  19. Roughness analysis of graphite surfaces of casting elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wieczorowski


    Full Text Available In the paper profilometric measurements of graphite casting elements were described. Basic topics necessary to assess roughness of their surfaces and influence of asperities on various properties related to manufacturing and use were discussed. Stylus profilometer technique of surface irregularities measurements including its limits resulting from pickup geometry and its contact with measured object were ana-lyzed. Working principle of tactile profilometer and phenomena taking place during movement of a probe on a measured surface were shown. One of the important aspects is a flight phenomenon, which means movement of a pickup without contact with a surface during inspection resulting from too high scanning speed. results of comparison research for graphite elements of new and used mould and pin composing a set were presented. Using some surface roughness, waviness and primary profile parameters (arithmetical mean of roughness profile heights Ra, biggest roughness profile height Rz, maximum primary profile height Pt as well as maximum waviness profile height Wt a possibility of using surface asperities parameters as a measure of wear of chill graphite elements was proved. The most often applied parameter is Ra, but with a help of parameters from W and P family it was shown, that big changes occur not only for roughness but also for other components of surface irregularities.

  20. Surface roughness and wear of resin cements after toothbrush abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Kiyoshi ISHIKIRIAMA


    Full Text Available Increased surface roughness and wear of resin cements may cause failure of indirect restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the surface roughness change and the vertical wear of four resin cements subjected to mechanical toothbrushing abrasion. Ten rectangular specimens (15 × 5 × 4 mm were fabricated according to manufacturer instructions for each group (n = 10: Nexus 3, Kerr (NX3; RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE (ARC; RelyX U100, 3M ESPE (U100; and Variolink II, Ivoclar/Vivadent (VL2. Initial roughness (Ra, µm was obtained through 5 readings with a roughness meter. Specimens were then subjected to toothbrushing abrasion (100,000 cycles, and further evaluation was conducted for final roughness. Vertical wear (µm was quantified by 3 readings of the real profile between control and brushed surfaces. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, followed by Tukey’s test (p < 0.05. The Pearson correlation test was performed between the surface roughness change and wear (p < 0.05. The mean values of initial/final roughness (Ra, µm/wear (µm were as follows: NX3 (0.078/0.127/23.175; ARC (0.086/0.246/20.263; U100 (0.296/0.589/16.952; and VL2 (0.313/0.512/22.876. Toothbrushing abrasion increased surface roughness and wear of all resin cements tested, although no correlation was found between those variables. Vertical wear was similar among groups; however, it was considered high and may lead to gap formation in indirect restorations.

  1. Drug release from slabs and the effects of surface roughness. (United States)

    Kalosakas, George; Martini, Dimitra


    We discuss diffusion-controlled drug release from slabs or thin films. Analytical and numerical results are presented for slabs with flat surfaces, having a uniform thickness. Then, considering slabs with rough surfaces, the influence of a non-uniform slab thickness on release kinetics is numerically investigated. The numerical release profiles are obtained using Monte Carlo simulations. Release kinetics is quantified through the stretched exponential (or Weibull) function and the resulting dependence of the two parameters of this function on the thickness of the slab, for flat surfaces, and the amplitude of surface fluctuations (or the degree of thickness variability) in case of roughness. We find that a higher surface roughness leads to a faster drug release. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Critical heat flux maxima during boiling crisis on textured surfaces (United States)

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Varanasi, Kripa K.


    Enhancing the critical heat flux (CHF) of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but fundamentally this phenomenon is not well understood. Prior studies on boiling crisis indicate that CHF monotonically increases with increasing texture density. Here we report on the existence of maxima in CHF enhancement at intermediate texture density using measurements on parametrically designed plain and nano-textured micropillar surfaces. Using high-speed optical and infrared imaging, we study the dynamics of dry spot heating and rewetting phenomena and reveal that the dry spot heating timescale is of the same order as that of the gravity and liquid imbibition-induced dry spot rewetting timescale. Based on these insights, we develop a coupled thermal-hydraulic model that relates CHF enhancement to rewetting of a hot dry spot on the boiling surface, thereby revealing the mechanism governing the hitherto unknown CHF enhancement maxima. PMID:26346098

  3. Drops bouncing off macro-textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Moqaddam, Ali Mazloomi; Karlin, Ilya


    Recent experiments with droplets impacting a macro-textured superhydrophobic surfaces revealed new regimes of bouncing with a remarkable reduction of the contact time. We present here a comprehensive numerical study that reveals the physics behind these new bouncing regimes and quantify the role played by various external and internal forces that effect the dynamics of a drop impacting a complex surface. For the first time, three-dimensional simulations involving macro-textured surfaces are performed. Aside from demonstrating that simulations reproduce experiments in a quantitative manner, the study is focused on analyzing the flow situations beyond current experiments. We show that the experimentally observed reduction of contact time extends to higher Weber numbers, and analyze the role played by the texture density. Moreover, we report a non-linear behavior of the contact time with the increase of the Weber number for application relevant imperfectly coated textures, and also study the impact on tilted sur...

  4. Optical Interactions at Randomly Rough Surfaces (United States)


    obtained by interpo- lation from the data of Palik .10 The propagation constant of a surface plasmon polariton at a planar vacuum-silver interface at this...9 A. A. Maradudin, T. R. Michel, A. R. McGurn, and E. R. Méndez, Ann. Phys. ~N.Y.! 203, 255 ~1990!. 10 E. D. Palik , Handbook of Optical Constants of

  5. Mechanical interlocking of cotton fibers on slightly textured surfaces of metallic cylinders (United States)

    Zhang, Youqiang; Tian, Yu; Meng, Yonggang


    Mechanical interlocking is widely applied in industry and general lives of human beings. In this work, we realized the control of locking or sliding states of cotton fibers on the metal surfaces with slightly different textures through traditional machining. Three types of sliding states, i.e., locking, one-way sliding, and two-way sliding have been achieved. It is found that the locking or sliding of the cotton fibers on the metallic cylinder depends on the friction coefficient and the ratio of cotton fiber diameter, 2r, to the height of the rough peaks, h, of metal surfaces. When the critical ratio h/r exceeds 1, the cotton fibers could tightly attach to the metallic surface through mechanical interlocking. This work provided a convenient and universal method for the control of interlocking or sliding of fiber-based materials on textured surfaces.

  6. Multipoint contact modeling of nanoparticle manipulation on rough surface (United States)

    Zakeri, M.; Faraji, J.; Kharazmi, M.


    In this paper, the atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based 2-D pushing of nano/microparticles investigated on rough substrate by assuming a multipoint contact model. First, a new contact model was extracted and presented based on the geometrical profiles of Rumpf, Rabinovich and George models and the contact mechanics theories of JKR and Schwartz, to model the adhesion forces and the deformations in the multipoint contact of rough surfaces. The geometry of a rough surface was defined by two main parameters of asperity height (size of roughness) and asperity wavelength (compactness of asperities distribution). Then, the dynamic behaviors of nano/microparticles with radiuses in range of 50-500 nm studied during their pushing on rough substrate with a hexagonal or square arrangement of asperities. Dynamic behavior of particles were simulated and compared by assuming multipoint and single-point contact schemes. The simulation results show that the assumption of multipoint contact has a considerable influence on determining the critical manipulation force. Additionally, the assumption of smooth surfaces or single-point contact leads to large error in the obtained results. According to the results of previous research, it anticipated that a particles with the radius less than about 550 nm start to slide on smooth substrate; but by using multipoint contact model, the predicted behavior changed, and particles with radii of smaller than 400 nm begin to slide on rough substrate for different height of asperities, at first.

  7. Thermal slip for liquids at rough solid surfaces (United States)

    Zhang, Chengbin; Chen, Yongping; Peterson, G. P.


    Molecular dynamics simulation is used to examine the thermal slip of liquids at rough solid surfaces as characterized by fractal Cantor structures. The temperature profiles, potential energy distributions, thermal slip, and interfacial thermal resistance are investigated and evaluated for a variety of surface topographies. In addition, the effects of liquid-solid interaction, surface stiffness, and boundary condition on thermal slip length are presented. Our results indicate that the presence of roughness expands the low potential energy regions in adjacent liquids, enhances the energy transfer at liquid-solid interface, and decreases the thermal slip. Interestingly, the thermal slip length and thermal resistance for liquids in contact with solid surfaces depends not only on the statistical roughness height, but also on the fractal dimension (i.e., topographical spectrum).

  8. Surface roughness effects with solid lubricants dispersed in mineral oils (United States)

    Cusano, C.; Goglia, P. R.; Sliney, H. E.


    The lubricating effectiveness of solid-lubricant dispersions are investigated in both point and line contacts using surfaces with both random and directional roughness characteristics. Friction and wear data obtained at relatively low speeds and at room temperature, indicate that the existence of solid lubricants such as graphite, MoS2, and PTFE in a plain mineral oil generally will not improve the effectiveness of the oil as a lubricant for such surfaces. Under boundary lubrication conditions, the friction force, as a function of time, initially depends upon the directional roughness properties of the contacting surfaces irrespective of whether the base oil or dispersions are used as lubricants.

  9. Modified Wenzel and Cassie equations for wetting on rough surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Xianmin


    We study a stationary wetting problem on rough and inhomogeneous solid surfaces. We derive a new formula for the apparent contact angle by asymptotic two-scale homogenization method. The formula reduces to a modified Wenzel equation for geometrically rough surfaces and a modified Cassie equation for chemically inhomogeneous surfaces. Unlike the classical Wenzel and Cassie equations, the modified equations correspond to local minimizers of the total interface energy in the solid-liquid-air system, so that they are consistent with experimental observations. The homogenization results are proved rigorously by a variational method.

  10. How to select the most relevant 3D roughness parameters of a surface. (United States)

    Deltombe, R; Kubiak, K J; Bigerelle, M


    In order to conduct a comprehensive roughness analysis, around sixty 3D roughness parameters are created to describe most of the surface morphology with regard to specific functions, properties or applications. In this paper, a multiscale surface topography decomposition method is proposed with application to stainless steel (AISI 304), which is processed by rolling at different fabrication stages and by electrical discharge tool machining. Fifty-six 3D-roughness parameters defined in ISO, EUR, and ASME standards are calculated for the measured surfaces. Then, expert software "MesRug" is employed to perform statistical analysis on acquired data in order to find the most relevant parameters characterizing the effect of both processes (rolling and machining), and to determine the most appropriate scale of analysis. For the rolling process: The parameter Vmc (the Core Material Volume--defined as volume of material comprising the texture between heights corresponding to the material ratio values of p = 10% and q = 80%) computed at the scale of 3 µm is the most relevant parameter to characterize the cold rolling process. For the EDM Process, the best roughness parameter is SPD that represents the number of peaks per unit area after segmentation of a surface into motifs computed at the scale of 8 µm.

  11. Surface roughness monitoring by singular spectrum analysis of vibration signals (United States)

    García Plaza, E.; Núñez López, P. J.


    This study assessed two methods for enhanced surface roughness (Ra) monitoring based on the application of singular spectrum analysis (SSA) to vibrations signals generated in workpiece-cutting tool interaction in CNC finish turning operations i.e., the individual analysis of principal components (I-SSA), and the grouping analysis of correlated principal components (G-SSA). Singular spectrum analysis is a non-parametric technique of time series analysis that decomposes a signal into a set of independent additive time series referred to as principal components. A number of experiments with different cutting conditions were performed to assess surface roughness monitoring using both of these methods. The results show that singular spectrum analysis of vibration signal processing discriminated the frequency ranges effective for predicting surface roughness. Grouping analysis of correlated principal components (G-SSA) proved to be the most efficient method for monitoring surface roughness, with optimum prediction and reliability results at a lower analytical-computational cost. Finally, the results show that singular spectrum analysis is an ideal method for analyzing vibration signals applied to the on-line monitoring of surface roughness.

  12. Influence of Surface Roughness of Stainless steel on Microbial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, D.; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Gram, L.


    Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation is of growing interest in the food processing industry where bacteria can survive on surfaces and resist cleaning and disinfection. The condition of the surfaces (eg lack of cracks) and their general roughness is assumed to be important for the hygienic st...

  13. Influence of roughness on capillary forces between hydrophilic surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwol, P. J.; Palasantzas, G.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.


    Capillary forces have been measured by atomic force microscopy in the plate-sphere setup between gold, borosilicate glass, GeSbTe, titanium, and UV-irradiated amorphous titanium-dioxide surfaces. The force measurements were performed as a function contact time and surface roughness in the range 0.2-

  14. RMS slope of exponentially correlated surface roughness for radar applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierking, Wolfgang


    In radar signature analysis, the root mean square (RMS) surface slope is utilized to assess the relative contribution of multiple scattering effects. For an exponentially correlated surface, an effective RMS slope can be determined by truncating the high frequency tail of the roughness spectrum...

  15. Emissivity as a Function of Surface Roughness: A Computer Model. (United States)


    dependance on surface roughness sheds some light on ship wake measurements (8] , and corrects some of the analysis of spatial sea surface temperature...variation recently reported in (6) . The wind wave spectral dependance of surface emissivity also indicates that shorter wavelengths, such as...definition, a power spectrum contains no phase dependance . Therefore, in order to create a reasonable model of the surface elevation, we assume that the

  16. Multi-scale microstructural characterization of micro-textured Ti-6Al-4V surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soboyejo, W.O.; Mercer, C.; Allameh, S.; Nemetski, B. [Princeton Materials Inst., NJ (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Marcantonio, N. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Div. of Engineering; Ricci, J.L. [Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Orthodontics


    This paper presents the results of a multi-scale microstructural characterization of micro-textured Ti-6Al-4V surfaces that are used in biomedical implants. The hierarchies of substructural and microstructural features associated with laser micro-texturing, mechanical polishing and surface blasting with alumina pellets are elucidated via atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM). The nano-scale roughness profiles for the different surface textures are characterized via AFM. Sub-micron precipitates and dislocation substructures associated with wrought processing and laser processing are revealed by TEM. OM and SEM micro- and mesoscale images of the groove structures and then described before discussing the implications of the result for the optimization of laser processing schemes. The implications of the results are examined for the fabrication of micro-textured surfaces that will facilitate the self organization of proteins, and the attachment of mammalian cells to the Ti-6Al-4V surfaces in biomedical implants. (orig.)

  17. Finishing systems on the final surface roughness of composites. (United States)

    Koh, Richard; Neiva, Gisele; Dennison, Joseph; Yaman, Peter


    This study evaluated differences in surface roughness of a microhybrid (Gradia Direct, GC America) and a nanofil (Filtek Supreme, 3M ESPE) composite using four polishing systems: PoGo/Enhance (DENTSPLY/Caulk), Sof-Lex (3M ESPE), Astropol (Ivoclar Vivadent), and Optidisc (KerrHawe). An aluminum mold was used to prepare 2 X 60 composite disks (10 mm X 2 mm). Composite was packed into the mold, placed between two glass slabs, and polymerized for 40 seconds from the top and bottom surfaces. Specimens were finished to a standard rough surface using Moore's disks with six brushing strokes. Specimens were rinsed and stored in artificial saliva in individual plastic bags at 36 degrees C for 24 hours prior to testing. Specimens were randomly assigned to one of the four polishing systems and were polished for 30 seconds (10 seconds per grit) with brushing strokes according to the manufacturer's instructions. Mean surface roughness (Ra) was recorded with a surface-analyzer 24 hours after storage in artificial saliva, both before and after polishing. Means were analyzed using two-way and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey multiple comparison tests at p composites for individual polishing systems (p=0.3991). Filtek specimens were smoother than Gradia specimens after baseline roughening. Sof-Lex provided the smoothest final surface when used with either composite. Astropol provided a rough surface for Gradia specimens.

  18. Surface roughness of composite resins after finishing and polishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagem Filho Halim


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of surface finishing methods on the average surface roughness of resin composites. Seven composites and two polishing systems were used. One hundred and twenty-six conical specimens of each material were prepared in stainless steel molds against a polyester strip. Forty-two of them remained intact and were used as controls. Each half of the remaining samples was polished with either diamond burs or diamond burs + aluminum oxide discs. The results showed no statistical difference in average surface roughness (Ra, mm between the polyester strip and aluminum oxide discs (p>0.05. However, finishing with diamond burs showed a statistically higher average roughness for all composites (p<0.05. Statistical differences were detected among materials (p<0.05 in the use of diamond burs.

  19. Mathematically Modeling Parameters Influencing Surface Roughness in CNC Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Nas


    Full Text Available In this study, steel AISI 1050 is subjected to process of face milling in CNC milling machine and such parameters as cutting speed, feed rate, cutting tip, depth of cut influencing the surface roughness are investigated experimentally. Four different experiments are conducted by creating different combinations for parameters. In conducted experiments, cutting tools, which are coated by PVD method used in forcing steel and spheroidal graphite cast iron are used. Surface roughness values, which are obtained by using specified parameters with cutting tools, are measured and correlation between measured surface roughness values and parameters is modeled mathematically by using curve fitting algorithm. Mathematical models are evaluated according to coefficients of determination (R2 and the most ideal one is suggested for theoretical works. Mathematical models, which are proposed for each experiment, are estipulated.

  20. Surface roughness reduction using spray-coated hydrogen silsesquioxane reflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cech, Jiri; Pranov, Henrik; Kofod, Guggi


    called “optically smooth” plastic surfaces is one example, where low roughness of a tool cavity is desirable. Such tool surfaces can be very expensive to fabricate using conventional means, such as abrasive diamond polishing or diamond turning. We present a novel process to coat machined metal parts...... profilometry before and after coating. We show that the HSQ coating is able to reduce peak-to-valley roughness more than 20 times on the sandpaper polished sample, from 2.44(±0.99)μm to 104(±22)nm and more than 10 times for the paste polished sample from 1.85(±0.63)μm to 162(±28)nm while roughness averages...... are reduced 10 and 3 times respectively. We completed more than 10,000 injection molding cycles without detectable degradation of the HSQ coating. This result opens new possibilities for molding of affordable plastic parts with perfect surface finish....

  1. Effect of surface roughness on amalgam repair using adhesive systems. (United States)

    Giannini, Marcelo; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi


    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of three surface treatments and two adhesive systems on the shear bond strength of old and freshly placed amalgam. The results suggested that the intact amalgam showed a significantly higher strength than repaired groups and the strongest repaired specimens were made when the amalgam surfaces were roughened with a diamond bur or microetcher. The adhesive systems showed no significant differences on bond strength with the same superficial texture.

  2. Development of superhydrophobic fabrics by surface fluorination and formation of CNT-induced roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung Hee Shim


    Full Text Available Superhydrophobictextile material having self-cleaning function was developed by employing carbon nanotubes (CNTs and water-repellent agents.Hydrophobic fabrics were prepared on 100% polyester woven fabrics withvarious yarn diameters and yarn types. The wetting behavior of fabrics withdifferent treatments was compared for: siloxanerepellent, fluorocarbon repellent, and CNT added fluorocarbon repellent. Drawn textured yarn (DTY fabrics exhibited higher contactangle (CA than filament yarn fabrics due to the larger surface roughness contributed by the textured yarn. Fabrics treated with fluorocarbon presentedlarger CA and lower shedding angle than those treated with siloxane,because of the lower surface energy of fluorocarbon repellent. Specimens madeof 50 denier DTY and treated with CNT-Teflon AF® showed the mostsuperhydrophobic characteristics in the study, producing the static contactangle>150° and the shedding angle<15°. CNT on fabric surface contributedto the nano-scale surface roughness to hold the air traps like papillae oflotus leaf, giving superhydrophobic characteristics.DOI:

  3. Development of superhydrophobic fabrics by surface fluorination and formation of CNT-induced roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung Hee Shim


    Full Text Available Superhydrophobictextile material having self-cleaning function was developed by employing carbon nanotubes (CNTs and water-repellent agents.Hydrophobic fabrics were prepared on 100% polyester woven fabrics withvarious yarn diameters and yarn types. The wetting behavior of fabrics withdifferent treatments was compared for: siloxanerepellent, fluorocarbon repellent, and CNT added fluorocarbon repellent. Drawn textured yarn (DTY fabrics exhibited higher contactangle (CA than filament yarn fabrics due to the larger surface roughness contributed by the textured yarn. Fabrics treated with fluorocarbon presentedlarger CA and lower shedding angle than those treated with siloxane,because of the lower surface energy of fluorocarbon repellent. Specimens madeof 50 denier DTY and treated with CNT-Teflon AF® showed the mostsuperhydrophobic characteristics in the study, producing the static contactangle>150° and the shedding angle<15°. CNT on fabric surface contributedto the nano-scale surface roughness to hold the air traps like papillae oflotus leaf, giving superhydrophobic characteristics.DOI:

  4. Biofilm retention on surfaces with variable roughness and hydrophobicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Lone; Pillai, Saju; Revsbech, Niels Peter


    (SS) was compared to two novel nanostructured sol-gel coatings with differing hydrophobicity. Surfaces were characterized with respect to roughness, hydrophobicity, protein adsorption, biofilm retention, and community composition of the retained bacteria. Fewer bacteria were retained on the sol-gel...... coated surfaces compared to the rougher SS. However, the two sol-gel coatings did not differ in either protein adsorption, biofilm retention, or microbial community composition. When polished to a roughness similar to sol-gel, the SS was colonized by the same amount of bacteria as the sol-gel...

  5. Roughness and fibre reinforcement effect onto wettability of composite surfaces (United States)

    Bénard, Quentin; Fois, Magali; Grisel, Michel


    Wettability of glass/epoxy and carbon/epoxy composites materials has been determined via sessile drop technique. Good-Van Oss approach has been used to evaluate surface free energy parameters of smooth and rough surfaces. Results obtained point out the influence of fibre reinforcement on surface free energy of composite materials. In addition, the interest of surface treatment to increase surface roughness has been discussed in terms of wettability. To sum up, results obtained clearly demonstrate the necessity of considering properties of a given composite surface not only as a polymer but a fibre/polymer couple. The drawn conclusions are of great interest as it may have numerous consequences in applications such as adhesion.

  6. Algorithms and software for areal surface texture function parameters (United States)

    Smith, I. M.; Harris, P. M.; Todhunter, L. D.; Giusca, C.; Jiang, X.; Scott, P.; Leach, R. K.


    Software for the evaluation of areal surface texture function parameters is described. Definitions of the parameters, expressed in terms of the inverse areal material ratio function, are provided along with details of the numerical algorithms employed in the software to implement calculations to evaluate approximations to the parameters according to those definitions. Results obtained using the software to process a number of data sets representing different surfaces are compared with those returned by proprietary software for surface texture measurement. Differences in the results, arising from different choices being made when implementing the steps in the parameter evaluation process, are discussed.

  7. Roughness of surface of vacuum castings prepared in plaster moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pawlak


    Full Text Available The results of researches on surface roughness of CuSn10 and CuSn5Zn5Pb5 bronzes and aluminum AlSi11 alloy vacuum castings prepared in plaster moulds are presented in this paper. Test samples were cut from stripe castings of dimensions 100x15x1 mm. Surfaces were carefully cleaned with use of soft brush than in ultrasonic washer and dried. Experimental castings were prepared in moulds made of two types of plaster. Cast temperatures were 1120 and 1200°C for bronzes and 700 and 800°C for silumin. Temperatures of the mould were 500 and 600°C for bronzes and 200 and 300°C for aluminum alloy. The roughness measurements were carried out with use of Hommelwerke Tester T1000. The average arithmetic deviation of roughness profile Ra, the ten-point height of irregularities Rz and maximum peak to valley height Rm, were measured.It can be stated, on the base of obtained results, that technology of casting in plaster moulds allows preparation of castings of very low roughness, average Ra=0,88÷1,74μm for bronzes and Ra=0,59÷0,83μm for aluminum alloys. Roughness of the surface depends in fact on the cast material. Type of plaster and casting parameters have negligible influence on it.

  8. Surface roughness of orthodontic band cements with different compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Hélène van de Sande


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluated comparatively the surface roughness of four orthodontic band cements after storage in various solutions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight standardized cylinders were made from 4 materials: zinc phosphate cement (ZP, compomer (C, resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC and resin cement (RC. Specimens were stored for 24 h in deionized water and immersed in saline (pH 7.0 or 0.1 M lactic acid solution (pH 4.0 for 15 days. Surface roughness readings were taken with a profilometer (Surfcorder SE1200 before and after the storage period. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (comparison among cements and storage solutions or paired t-test (comparison before and after the storage period at 5% significance level. RESULTS: The values for average surface roughness were statistically different (pRMGIC>C>R (p0.05. Compared to the current threshold (0.2 µm related to biofilm accumulation, both RC and C remained below the threshold, even after acidic challenge by immersion in lactic acid solution. CONCLUSIONS: Storage time and immersion in lactic acid solution increased the surface roughness of the majority of the tested cements. RC presented the smoothest surface and it was not influenced by storage conditions.

  9. A scattering model for surface-textured thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jäger, K.; Zeman, M.


    We present a mathematical model that relates the surface morphology of randomly surface-textured thin films with the intensity distribution of scattered light. The model is based on the first order Born approximation [see e.g., M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University

  10. A scattering model for surface-textured thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jäger, K.; Zeman, M.


    We present a mathematical model that relates the surface morphology of randomly surface-textured thin films with the intensity distribution of scattered light. The model is based on the first order Born approximation [see e.g., M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University

  11. Study the Relationship between Pavement Surface Distress and Roughness Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubaraki Muhammad


    Full Text Available In this paper, pavement sections from the highway connected Jeddah to Jazan were selected and analyzed to investigate the relationship between International Roughness Index (IRI and pavement damage including; cracking, rutting, and raveling. The Ministry of Transport (MOT of Saudi Arabia has been collecting pavement condition data using the Road Surface Tester (RST vehicle. The MOT measures Roughness, Rutting (RUT, Cracking (CRA, raveling (RAV. Roughness measurements are calculated in terms of the International Roughness Index (IRI. The IRI is calculated over equally spaced intervals along the road profile. Roughness measurements are performed at speed between at 80 kilometers per hour. Thus RST vehicle has been used to evaluate highways across the country. The paper shows three relationships including; cracking (CRA verses roughness (IRI, rutting (RUT verses IRI, and raveling (RAV verses IRI. Also, the paper developed two models namely; model relates IRI to the three distress under study, and model relates IRI to ride quality. The results of the analysis claim at 95% confidence that a significant relationship exist between IRI and cracking, and raveling. It’s also shown that rutting did not show significant relationship to IRI values. That’s leads to conclude that the distresses types: cracking and raveling may possibly be described as ride quality distresses at different level of significant. Rutting distress described as non-ride quality type’s distresses.

  12. Direct numerical simulation of the dynamics of sliding rough surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dang, Viet Hung; Scheibert, Julien; Bot, Alain Le


    The noise generated by the friction of two rough surfaces under weak contact pressure is usually called roughness noise. The underlying vibration which produces the noise stems from numerous instantaneous shocks (in the microsecond range) between surface micro-asperities. The numerical simulation of this problem using classical mechanics requires a fine discretization in both space and time. This is why the finite element method takes much CPU time. In this study, we propose an alternative numerical approach which is based on a truncated modal decomposition of the vibration, a central difference integration scheme and two algorithms for contact: The penalty algorithm and the Lagrange multiplier algorithm. Not only does it reproduce the empirical laws of vibration level versus roughness and sliding speed found experimentally but it also provides the statistical properties of local events which are not accessible by experiment. The CPU time reduction is typically a factor of 10.

  13. Experimental Study on Surface Roughness by Using Abrasive Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available New advancement of technology and never satisfying demands of the civilization are putting huge pressure on the natural fuel resources and these resources are at a constant threat to its sustainability. Surface finish has a vital influence on functional properties such as wear resistance and power loss due to friction on most of the engineering components. Voltage, mesh number, revolutions per minute (rpm of electromagnet, and percentage weight of abrasives has been identified as important process parameters affecting surface roughness. The experiments were planned using response surface methodology and percentage change in surface roughness (ΔRa was considered as response. Analysis of experimental data showed that percentage change in surface roughness (ΔRa was highly influenced by mesh number followed by percentage weight of abrasives, rpm of electromagnet, and voltage. The process has been investigated extensively in the finishing of cylindrical surfaces. The surface finish was found to improve significantly with an increase in the grain size, relative size of abrasive particles vis-à-vis the iron particles, feed rate and current. Super finishing is a micro-finishing process that produces a controlled and smooth surface condition on work pieces. It is not primarily a sizing operation, its major purpose is to produce a surface on a work piece capable of sustaining uneven distribution of a load by improving the geometrical accuracy. The wear life of the parts micro finished to maximum smoothness is extended considerably. According to the design of experimentation, mathematical model for Lapping operation on advance ceramic material is proposed. In order to get minimum values of the surface roughness, optimization of the mathematical model is done and optimal operation of the examined factors is going to be determined. The obtained results will be, according to the experiment plan, valid for the testing of ceramic material by Lapping

  14. Controlling Surface Roughness to Enhance Mass Flow Rates in Nanochannels (United States)

    Zimon, Malgorzata; Emerson, David; Reese, Jason


    A very active field of research in fluid mechanics and material science is predicting the behavior of Newtonian fluids flowing over porous media with different wettabilities. Opposite effects have been observed: some state that wall roughness always suppresses fluid-slip, whereas others show that for some cases roughness may reduce the surface friction. In this work, MD simulations were carried out to further investigate physical mechanisms for liquid slip, and factors affecting it. A rough wall was formed by either periodically spaced rectangular protrusions or was represented by a cosine wave. The MD simulations were conducted to study Poiseuille and Couette flow of liquid argon in a nanochannel with hydrophilic kryptonian walls. The effect of wall roughness and interface wettability on the streaming velocity, and the slip-length at the walls, is observed to be significant. Our results show a dependency of mass flow rate on the type of flow and topography of the channel walls. For a fixed magnitude of the driving force, an increase in the mass flow rate, compared to the smooth surface, was observed for the wavy roughness, whereas the opposite effect was observed for Couette flow where a higher slip was obtained for rectangular gaps. The study is funded in the UK by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

  15. Modeling And Analysis Of The Surface Roughness And Geometrical Error Using Taguchi And Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This experimental work presents a technique to determine the better surface quality by controlling the surface roughness and geometrical error. In machining operations, achieving desired surface quality features of the machined product is really a challenging job. Because, these quality features are highly correlated and areexpected to be influenced directly or indirectly by the direct effect of process parameters or their interactive effects. Thus The four input process parameters such as spindle speed, depth of cut, feed rate, and stepover have been selected to minimize the surface roughness and geometrical error simultaneously by using the robustdesign concept of Taguchi L9(34 method coupled with Response surface concept. Mathematical models for surface roughness and geometrical error were obtained from response surface analysis to predict values of surface roughness and geometrical error. S/N ratio and ANOVA analyses were also performed to obtain for significant parameters influencing surface roughness and geometrical error.

  16. Industrial characterization of nano-scale roughness on polished surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Hansen, Poul-Erik; Pilny, Lukas


    We report a correlation between the scattering value “Aq” and the ISO standardized roughness parameter Rq. The Aq value is a measure for surface smoothness, and can easily be determined from an optical scattering measurement. The correlation equation extrapolates the Aq value from a narrow...

  17. Ofstatistical and Fractal Properties of Semiconductor Surface Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Jurecka


    Full Text Available Surface morphology evolution is of primary significance for the thin-film growth and modification of surface andinterface states. Surface and interface states substantially influence the electrical and optical properties of the semiconductorstructure. Statistical and fractal properties of semiconductor rough surfaces were determined by analysis of the AFM images.In this paper statistical characteristics of the AFM height function distribution, fractal dimension, lacunarity and granulometric density values are used for the surface morphology of the SiC samples description. The results can be used for solution ofthe microstructural and optical properties of given semiconductor structure.

  18. Influence of surface roughness on nonlinear flow behaviors in 3D self-affine rough fractures: Lattice Boltzmann simulations (United States)

    Wang, Min; Chen, Yi-Feng; Ma, Guo-Wei; Zhou, Jia-Qing; Zhou, Chuang-Bing


    This study investigates the impacts of surface roughness on the nonlinear fluid flow through three-dimensional (3D) self-affine rock fractures, whose original surface roughness is decomposed into primary roughness (i.e. the large-scale waviness of the fracture morphology) and secondary roughness (i.e. the small-scale unevenness) with a wavelet analysis technique. A 3D Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is adopted to predict the flow physics in rock fractures numerically created with and without consideration of the secondary roughness, respectively. The simulation results show that the primary roughness mostly controls the pressure distribution and fracture flow paths at a large scale, whereas the secondary roughness determines the nonlinear properties of the fluid flow at a local scale. As the pressure gradient increases, the secondary roughness enhances the local complexity of velocity distribution by generating and expanding the eddy flow and back flow regions in the vicinity of asperities. It was found that the Forchheimer's law characterizes well the nonlinear flow behavior in fractures of varying roughness. The inertial effects induced by the primary roughness differ only marginally in fractures with the roughness exponent varying from 0.5 to 0.8, and it is the secondary roughness that significantly enhances the nonlinear flow and leads to earlier onset of nonlinearity. Further examined were the effects of surface roughness on the transmissivity, hydraulic aperture and the tortuosity of flow paths, demonstrating again the dominant role of the secondary roughness, especially for the apparent transmissivity and the equivalent hydraulic aperture at high pressure gradient or high Reynolds number. The results may enhance our understanding of the role of surface roughness in the nonlinear flow behaviors in natural rock fractures.

  19. Surface roughness length dynamic over several different surfaces and its effects on modeling fluxes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>Roughness length and zero-plane displacement over three typical surfaces were calculated iteratively by least-square method, which are Yucheng Experimental Station for agriculture surfaces, Qianyanzhou Experimental Station for complex and undulant surfaces, and Changbai Mountains Experimental Station for forest surfaces. On the basis of roughness length dynamic, the effects of roughness length dynamic on fluxes were analyzed with SEBS model. The results indicate that, aerodynamic roughness length changes with vegetation conditions (such as vegetation height, LAI), wind speed, friction velocity and some other factors. In Yucheng and Changbai Mountains Experimental Station, aerodynamic roughness length over the fetch of flux tower changes with vegetation height and LAI obviously, that is, with the increase of LAI, roughness length increases to the peak value firstly, and then decreases. In Qianyanzhou Experimental Station, LAI changes slightly, so the relationship between roughness length and LAI is not obvious. The aerodynamic roughness length of Yucheng and Changbai Mountains Experimental Station changes slightly with wind direction, while aerodynamic roughness length of Qianyanzhou Experimental Station changes obviously with wind direction. The reason for that is the terrain in Yucheng and Changbai Mountains Experimental Station is relatively flat, while in Qianyanzhou Experimental Station the terrain is very undulant and heterogeneous. With the increase of wind speed, aerodynamic roughness length of Yucheng Experimental Station changes slightly, while it decreases obviously in Qianyanzhou Experimental Station and Changbai Mountains Experimental Station. Roughness length dynamic takes great effects on fluxes calculation, and the effects are analyzed by SEBS model. By comparing 1 day averaged roughness length in Yucheng Experimental Station and 5 day averaged roughness length of Qianyanzhou and Changbai Mountains Experimental Station with roughness length

  20. Surface roughness of restorative materials after immersion in mouthwashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Oliveira Lima Bohner


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the surface roughness of resin composite and ceramic material after immersion in mouthwashes. Methodology: Thirty specimens of resin composite and ceramic material were prepared with a stainless steel matrix (6 mm × 2 mm. The samples of each material were divided into three groups (n = 10, according to the mouthwashes: Distilled water (DW, chlorhexidine (CL 0.12%, and cetylpyridinium chloride (CC. Specimens were individually submitted to the immersion cycle in 15 mL of mouthwash for 30 days, three times per day, for 1 min/cycle. Surface roughness measurements were performed at three different time intervals: Before the first cycle (T0, after 7 (T1, and 30 days (T2 of immersion. Data were analyzed by the two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (P ≤ 0.05. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in surface roughness of resin composite among mouthwashes (DW - 1.4 ± 0.13 μm; CL - 1.16 ± 0.13 μm; CC - 1.18 ± 0.13 μm. Surface roughness was statistically significantly lower after 30 days (T2-0.56 ± 0.60 μm compared with the initial period (T0-1.63 ± 0.60 μm and after 7 days (T1-1.57 ± 0.60 μm. For ceramic material, CC (3.75 ± 0.60 μm caused a higher level of surface roughness compared with DW (2.57 ± 0.60 μm and CL (3.39 ± 0.60 μm. There was no statistically significant difference among the different time intervals (T0-3.05 ± 0.18 μm; T1-3.41 ± 0.18 μm; T2-3.26 ± 0.18 μm. Conclusion: Mouthwashes did not promote a significant change in surface roughness of composite resin. Cetylpyridinium chloride promoted an increase in surface roughness of dental ceramic.

  1. The apparent state of droplets on a rough surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN XiaoLing; LU Tian


    The factors influencing the state and wetting transition of droplets on a rough surface are both complex and obscure. The change in wetting is directly reflected by changes under the contact condition of the droplets with the surface. The recent study about the wettability of the superhydrophobic surface under the condensing condition arouses the new understanding about the apparent state of droplets on a rough surface, in this work, to validate the existence of droplets in an intermediate state, a microscale pillar topological polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface was manufactured and its wettability under various conditions was studied. According to the experimental data, it is proposed that the wetting state of a rough surface may be embodied using the contact area ratio of a solid/liquid/gas droplet with the projective plane. A general calculation model for the apparent contact angle of droplets is given and expressed diagrammatically. It is found that the measured apparent contact angles of droplets at dif-ferent states on the surface falls within the range predicted by our proposed equation.

  2. The apparent state of droplets on a rough surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The factors influencing the state and wetting transition of droplets on a rough surface are both complex and obscure. The change in wetting is directly reflected by changes under the contact condition of the droplets with the surface. The recent study about the wettability of the superhydrophobic surface under the condensing condition arouses the new understanding about the apparent state of droplets on a rough surface. In this work, to validate the existence of droplets in an intermediate state, a microscale pillar topological polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface was manufactured and its wettability under various conditions was studied. According to the experimental data, it is proposed that the wetting state of a rough surface may be embodied using the contact area ratio of a solid/liquid/gas droplet with the projective plane. A general calculation model for the apparent contact angle of droplets is given and expressed diagrammatically. It is found that the measured apparent contact angles of droplets at dif- ferent states on the surface falls within the range predicted by our proposed equation.

  3. Surface texturing of superconductors by controlled oxygen pressure (United States)

    Chen, N.; Goretta, K.C.; Dorris, S.E.


    A method of manufacture of a textured layer of a high temperature superconductor on a substrate is disclosed. The method involves providing an untextured high temperature superconductor material having a characteristic ambient pressure peritectic melting point, heating the superconductor to a temperature below the peritectic temperature, establishing a reduced pO{sub 2} atmosphere below ambient pressure causing reduction of the peritectic melting point to a reduced temperature which causes melting from an exposed surface of the superconductor and raising pressure of the reduced pO{sub 2} atmosphere to cause solidification of the molten superconductor in a textured surface layer. 8 figs.

  4. Dropwise condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces with two-tier roughness (United States)

    Chen, Chuan-Hua; Cai, Qingjun; Tsai, Chialun; Chen, Chung-Lung; Xiong, Guangyong; Yu, Ying; Ren, Zhifeng


    Dropwise condensation can enhance heat transfer by an order of magnitude compared to film condensation. Superhydrophobicity appears ideal to promote continued dropwise condensation which requires rapid removal of condensate drops; however, such promotion has not been reported on engineered surfaces. This letter reports continuous dropwise condensation on a superhydrophobic surface with short carbon nanotubes deposited on micromachined posts, a two-tier texture mimicking lotus leaves. On such micro-/nanostructured surfaces, the condensate drops prefer the Cassie state which is thermodynamically more stable than the Wenzel state. With a hexadecanethiol coating, superhydrophobicity is retained during and after condensation and rapid drop removal is enabled.

  5. Friction reduction using discrete surface textures: principle and design (United States)

    Hsu, Stephen M.; Jing, Yang; Hua, Diann; Zhang, Huan


    There have been many reports on the use of dimples, grooves, and other surface textures to control friction in sliding interfaces. The effectiveness of surface textures in friction reduction has been demonstrated in conformal contacts under high speed low load applications such as mechanical seals and automotive water pump seals, etc., resulting in reduced friction and longer durability. For sliding components with higher contact pressures or lower speeds, conflicting results were reported. Reasons for the inconsistency may be due to the differences in texture fabrication techniques, lack of dimple size and shape uniformity, and different tester used. This paper examines the basic principles on which surface textural patterns influence friction under the three principle lubrication regimes: hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary lubrication regimes. Our findings suggest that each regime requires specific dimple size, shape, depth, and areal density to achieve friction reduction. Control experiments were also conducted to explore mechanisms of friction reduction. The dimple geometric shape and the dimple's orientation with respect to the sliding direction influence friction significantly. The underlying mechanisms for friction control via textures are discussed.

  6. Monitoring tablet surface roughness during the film coating process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Rantanen, Jukka


    the process of film coating tablets were studied by noncontact laser profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An EDX analysis was used to monitor the magnesium stearate and titanium dioxide of the tablets. The tablet cores were film coated with aqueous hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, and the film...... coating was performed using an instrumented pilot-scale side-vented drum coater. The SEM images of the film-coated tablets showed that within the first 30 minutes, the surface of the tablet cores was completely covered with a thin film. The magnesium signal that was monitored by SEM-EDX disappeared after...... ~15 to 30 minutes, indicating that the tablet surface was homogeneously covered with film coating. The surface roughness started to increase from the beginning of the coating process, and the increase in the roughness broke off after 30 minutes of spraying. The results clearly showed that the surface...

  7. Investigation on Surface Roughness of Inconel 718 in Photochemical Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin D. Misal


    Full Text Available The present work is focused on estimating the optimal machining parameters required for photochemical machining (PCM of an Inconel 718 and effects of these parameters on surface topology. An experimental analysis was carried out to identify optimal values of parameters using ferric chloride (FeCl3 as an etchant. The parameters considered in this analysis are concentration of etchant, etching time, and etchant temperature. The experimental analysis shows that etching performance as well as surface topology improved by appropriate selection of etching process parameters. Temperature of the etchant found to be dominant parameter in the PCM of Inconel 718 for surface roughness. At optimal etching conditions, surface roughness was found to be 0.201 μm.

  8. Influence of roughness on capillary forces between hydrophilic surfaces (United States)

    van Zwol, P. J.; Palasantzas, G.; de Hosson, J. Th. M.


    Capillary forces have been measured by atomic force microscopy in the plate-sphere setup between gold, borosilicate glass, GeSbTe, titanium, and UV-irradiated amorphous titanium-dioxide surfaces. The force measurements were performed as a function contact time and surface roughness in the range 0.2-15nm rms and relative humidity ranging between 2% and 40%. It is found that even for the lowest attainable relative humidity (˜2%±1%) very large capillary forces are still present. The latter suggests the persistence of a nanometers-thick adsorbed water layer that acts as a capillary bridge between contacting surfaces. Moreover, we found a significantly different scaling behavior of the force with rms roughness for materials with different hydrophilicity as compared to gold-gold surfaces.

  9. Abrasive wear and surface roughness of contemporary dental composite resin. (United States)

    Han, Jian-min; Zhang, Hongyu; Choe, Hyo-Sun; Lin, Hong; Zheng, Gang; Hong, Guang


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the abrasive wear and surface roughness of 20 currently available commercial dental composite resins, including nanofilled, supra-nanofilled, nanohybrid and microhybrid composite resins. The volume loss, maximum vertical loss, surface roughness (R(a)) and surface morphology [Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)] were determined after wear. The inorganic filler content was determined by thermogravimetric analysis. The result showed that the volume loss and vertical loss varied among the materials. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) of wear volume loss and filler content (wt%) was 0.283. SEM micrographs revealed nanofilled composites displayed a relatively uniform wear surfaces with nanoclusters protrusion, while the performance of nanohybrid composites varied. The abrasive wear resistance of contemporary dental composite resins is material-dependent and cannot be deduced from its category, filler loading and composite matrix; The abrasive wear resistance of some flowable composites is comparable to the universal/posterior composite resins.

  10. Measuring skew in average surface roughness as a function of surface preparation (United States)

    Stahl, Mark T.


    Characterizing surface roughness is important for predicting optical performance. Better measurement of surface roughness reduces polishing time, saves money and allows the science requirements to be better defined. This study characterized statistics of average surface roughness as a function of polishing time. Average surface roughness was measured at 81 locations using a Zygo® white light interferometer at regular intervals during the polishing process. Each data set was fit to a normal and Largest Extreme Value (LEV) distribution; then tested for goodness of fit. We show that the skew in the average data changes as a function of polishing time.

  11. Mapping sea-surface roughness using microwave radiometry. (United States)

    Strong, A. E.


    Microwave radiometry data (1.55 cm) taken by aircraft over the Salton Sea have been corrected for viewing angle and atmospheric effects, rectified, and mapped. No fetch-limited conditions are observed along the upwind shore despite a 15 m/sec wind, which indicates that the radiometer is sensitive to the short wavelength surface roughness but not to the longer wavelengths. The brightness temperature field can be represented as a nearly linear function of the surface wind speed.

  12. Surface roughness stabilizes the clustering of self-propelled triangles (United States)

    Ilse, Sven Erik; Holm, Christian; de Graaf, Joost


    Self-propelled particles can spontaneously form dense phases from a dilute suspension in a process referred to as motility-induced phase separation. The properties of the out-of-equilibrium structures that are formed are governed by the specifics of the particle interactions and the strength of the activity. Thus far, most studies into the formation of these structures have focused on spherical colloids, dumbbells, and rod-like particles endowed with various interaction potentials. Only a few studies have examined the collective behavior of more complex particle shapes. Here, we increase the geometric complexity and use molecular dynamics simulations to consider the structures formed by triangular self-propelled particles with surface roughness. These triangles either move towards their apex or towards their base, i.e., they possess a polarity. We find that apex-directed triangles cluster more readily, more stably, and have a smoother cluster interface than their base-directed counterparts. A difference between the two polarities is in line with the results of Wensink et al. [Phys. Rev. E 89, 010302 (2014)]; however, we obtain the reversed result when it comes to clustering, namely, that apex-directed triangles cluster more successfully. We further show that reducing the surface roughness negatively impacts the stability of the base-directed structures, suggesting that their formation is in large part due to surface roughness. Our results lay a solid foundation for future experimental and computational studies into the effect of roughness on the collective dynamics of swimmers.

  13. Determining the surface roughness coefficient by 3D Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Fifer Bizjak


    Full Text Available Currently, several test methods can be used in the laboratory to determine the roughness of rock joint surfaces.However, true roughness can be distorted and underestimated by the differences in the sampling interval of themeasurement methods. Thus, these measurement methods produce a dead zone and distorted roughness profiles.In this paper a new rock joint surface roughness measurement method is presented, with the use of a camera-typethree-dimensional (3D scanner as an alternative to current methods. For this study, the surfaces of ten samples oftuff were digitized by means of a 3D scanner, and the results were compared with the corresponding Rock JointCoefficient (JRC values. Up until now such 3D scanner have been mostly used in the automotive industry, whereastheir use for comparison with obtained JRC coefficient values in rock mechanics is presented here for the first time.The proposed new method is a faster, more precise and more accurate than other existing test methods, and is apromising technique for use in this area of study in the future.

  14. Drops bouncing off macro-textured superhydrophobic surfaces (United States)

    Mazloomi Moqaddam, Ali; Chikatamarla, Shyam S.; Karlin, Iliya V.


    Recent experiments with droplets impacting a macro-textured superhydrophobic surfaces revealed new regimes of bouncing with a remarkable reduction of the contact time. We present here a comprehensive numerical study that reveals the physics behind these new bouncing regimes and quantify the role played by various external and internal forces that effect the dynamics of a drop impacting a complex surface. For the first time, three-dimensional simulations involving macro-textured surfaces are performed. Aside from demonstrating that simulations reproduce experiments in a quantitative manner, the study is focused on analyzing the flow situations beyond current experiments. We show that the experimentally observed reduction of contact time extends to higher Weber numbers, and analyze the role played by the texture density. Moreover, we report a non-linear behavior of the contact time with the increase of the Weber number for application relevant imperfectly coated textures, and also study the impact on tilted surfaces in a wide range of Weber numbers. Finally, we present novel energy analysis techniques that elaborate and quantify the interplay between the kinetic and surface energy, and the role played by the dissipation for various Weber numbers.

  15. Neuronal Alignment On Asymmetric Textured Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Beighley, Ross; Sekeroglu, Koray; Atherton, Timothy; Demirel, Melik C; Staii, Cristian


    Axonal growth and the formation of synaptic connections are key steps in the development of the nervous system. Here we present experimental and theoretical results on axonal growth and interconnectivity in order to elucidate some of the basic rules that neuronal cells use for functional connections with one another. We demonstrate that a unidirectional nanotextured surface can bias axonal growth. We perform a systematic investigation of neuronal processes on asymmetric surfaces and quantify the role that biomechanical surface cues play in neuronal growth. These results represent an important step towards engineering directed axonal growth for neuro-regeneration studies.

  16. The influence of surface texture and wettability on initial bacterial adhesion on titanium and zirconium oxide dental implants. (United States)

    Wassmann, Torsten; Kreis, Stefan; Behr, Michael; Buergers, Ralf


    This study aims to investigate bacterial adhesion on different titanium and ceramic implant surfaces, to correlate these findings with surface roughness and surface hydrophobicity, and to define the predominant factor for bacterial adhesion for each material. Zirconia and titanium specimens with different surface textures and wettability (5.0 mm in diameter, 1.0 mm in height) were prepared. Surface roughness was measured by perthometer (R a ) and atomic force microscopy, and hydrophobicity according to contact angles by computerized image analysis. Bacterial suspensions of Streptococcus sanguinis and Staphylococcus epidermidis were incubated for 2 h at 37 °C with ten test specimens for each material group and quantified with fluorescence dye CytoX-Violet and an automated multi-detection reader. Variations in surface roughness (R a ) did not lead to any differences in adhering S. epidermidis, but higher R a resulted in increased S. sanguinis adhesion. In contrast, higher bacterial adhesion was observed on hydrophobic surfaces than on hydrophilic surfaces for S. epidermidis but not for S. sanguinis. The potential to adhere S. sanguinis was significantly higher on ceramic surfaces than on titanium surfaces; no such preference could be found for S. epidermidis. Both surface roughness and wettability may influence the adhesion properties of bacteria on biomaterials; in this context, the predominant factor is dependent on the bacterial species. Wettability was the predominant factor for S. epidermidis and surface texture for S. sanguinis. Zirconia did not show any lower bacterial colonization potential than titanium. Arithmetical mean roughness values R a (measured by stylus profilometer) are inadequate for describing surface roughness with regard to its potential influence on microbial adhesion.

  17. Control and characterization of textured, hydrophobic ionomer surfaces (United States)

    Wang, Xueyuan

    Polymer thin films are of increasing interest in many industrial and technological applications. Superhydrophobic, self-cleaning surfaces have attracted a lot of attention for their application in self-cleaning, anti-sticking coatings, stain resistance, or anti-contamination surfaces in diverse technologies, including medical, transportation, textiles, electronics and paints. This thesis focuses on the preparation of nanometer to micrometer-size particle textured surfaces which are desirable for super water repellency. Textured surfaces consisting of nanometer to micrometer-sized lightly sulfonated polystyrene ionomer (SPS) particles were prepared by rapid evaporation of the solvent from a dilute polymer solution cast onto silica. The effect of the solvent used to spin coat the film, the molecular weight of the ionomer, and the rate of solvent evaporation were investigated. The nano-particle or micron-particle textured ionomer surfaces were prepared by either spin coating or solution casting ionomer solutions at controlled evaporation rates. The surface morphologies were consistent with a spinodal decomposition mechanism where the surface first existed as a percolated-like structure and then ripened into droplets if molecular mobility was retained for sufficient time. The SPS particles or particle aggregates were robust and resisted deformation even after annealing at 120°C for one week. The water contact angles on as-prepared surfaces were relatively low, ~ 90° since the polar groups in ionomer reduce the surface hydrophobicity. After chemical vapor deposition of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane, the surface contact angles increased to ~ 109° on smooth surfaces and ~140° on the textured surfaces. Water droplets stuck to these surfaces even when tilted 90 degrees. Superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared by spraying coating ionomer solutions and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane onto textured surfaces. The

  18. Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Surface Roughness of Dental Restorations (United States)


    influence of surface structure and composition of  dental  restorative materials on bacterial  adhesion . ​  The overall conclusion from these 16 studies is...Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Surface Roughness of  Dental  Restorations                  Shani O. Thompson    B.S. The United States Military...Smokeless Tobacco on Surface Roughness of  Dental  Restorations    MAJ Shani O. Thompson, D.D.S., M.S., Gerald D. Griffin, PhD, Ms. Nicole Meyer, LTC

  19. Heat transfer between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces. (United States)

    Volokitin, A I; Lorenz, B; Persson, B N J


    We study the heat transfer between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces.We include both the heat transfer from the area of real contact, and the heat transfer between the surfaces in the non-contact regions.We apply a recently developed contact mechanics theory, which accounts for the hierarchical nature of the contact between solids with roughness on many different length scales. For elastic contact, at the highest (atomic) resolution the area of real contact typically consists of atomic (nanometer) sized regions, and we discuss the implications of this for the heat transfer. For solids with very smooth surfaces, as is typical in many modern engineering applications, the interfacial separation in the non-contact regions will be very small, and for this case we show the importance of the radiative heat transfer associated with the evanescent electromagnetic waves which exist outside of all bodies.

  20. Hot-rolling nanowire transparent electrodes for surface roughness minimization. (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh Khaligh, Hadi; Goldthorpe, Irene A


    Silver nanowire transparent electrodes are a promising alternative to transparent conductive oxides. However, their surface roughness presents a problem for their integration into devices with thin layers such as organic electronic devices. In this paper, hot rollers are used to soften plastic substrates with heat and mechanically press the nanowires into the substrate surface. By doing so, the root-mean-square surface roughness is reduced to 7 nm and the maximum peak-to-valley value is 30 nm, making the electrodes suitable for typical organic devices. This simple process requires no additional materials, which results in a higher transparency, and is compatible with roll-to-roll fabrication processes. In addition, the adhesion of the nanowires to the substrate significantly increases.

  1. Studies on argon collisions with smooth and rough tungsten surfaces. (United States)

    Ozhgibesov, M S; Leu, T S; Cheng, C H; Utkin, A V


    The aim of this work is to investigate argon scattering behaviors on the smooth and rough tungsten surfaces. Current work deals with numerical simulation of nanoscale heat transfer process accompanying with rarefied gas-solid substrate interactions using molecular dynamics (MD) method. Taking into account that this method is very time consuming, MD simulation using CUDA capable Graphic Cards is implemented. The results found that imperfection of the surface significantly influences on gas atom's momentum change upon collision. However, the energy exchange rate remains unchanged regardless to the surface roughness. This finding is in contrast with the results in extant literatures. We believed the results found in this paper are important for both numerical and theoretical analyses of rarefied gas flow in micro- and nano-systems where the choice of boundary conditions significantly influences flow.

  2. Data fusion for accurate microscopic rough surface metrology. (United States)

    Chen, Yuhang


    Data fusion for rough surface measurement and evaluation was analyzed on simulated datasets, one with higher density (HD) but lower accuracy and the other with lower density (LD) but higher accuracy. Experimental verifications were then performed on laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterizations of surface areal roughness artifacts. The results demonstrated that the fusion based on Gaussian process models is effective and robust under different measurement biases and noise strengths. All the amplitude, height distribution, and spatial characteristics of the original sample structure can be precisely recovered, with better metrological performance than any individual measurements. As for the influencing factors, the HD noise has a relatively weaker effect as compared with the LD noise. Furthermore, to enable an accurate fusion, the ratio of LD sampling interval to surface autocorrelation length should be smaller than a critical threshold. In general, data fusion is capable of enhancing the nanometrology of rough surfaces by combining efficient LSM measurement and down-sampled fast AFM scan. The accuracy, resolution, spatial coverage and efficiency can all be significantly improved. It is thus expected to have potential applications in development of hybrid microscopy and in surface metrology.

  3. Observation of water condensate on hydrophobic micro textured surfaces (United States)

    Kim, Ki Wook; Do, Sang Cheol; Ko, Jong Soo; Jeong, Ji Hwan


    We visually observed that a dropwise condensation occurred initially and later changed into a filmwise condensation on hydrophobic textured surface at atmosphere pressure condition. It was observed that the condensate nucleated on the pillar side walls of the micro structure and the bottom wall adhered to the walls and would not be lifted to form a spherical water droplet using environmental scanning electron microscope.

  4. Texture Gradient Effectiveness in the Perception of Surface Slant (United States)

    Rosinski, Richard R.; Levine, Nancy Parker


    To assess the development of monocular slant perception as well as the relative effectiveness of different sources of information, 90 children in first, third, and fifth grades and 30 college adults were asked to make judgments of surface slant on the basis of monocular texture gradient information. (Author/JH)

  5. Static Performance of Surface Textured Magnetorheological Fluid Journal Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Bompos


    Full Text Available Previous studies of journal bearings with artificial texturing on the bearing surface show potential benefits in certain cases. These benefits are usually focused on a specific operating area of the bearing, whereas under certain operating conditions the performance of the bearing is deteriorating due to the surface texturing. Gaining control over the viscosity of the lubricant may become a useful tool in order to take advantage of the surface texturing in a wider range of loads and journal velocities. One way to achieve this control is the use of magnetorheological fluid journal bearings. Magnetorheological fluids are solutions of iron based paramagnetic particles in conventional lubricant. Under the influence of an external magnetic field, these particles form chains, they hinder the flow of the lubricant and they ultimately alter its apparent viscosity. In this work the two techniques are combined in order to optimize the behaviour of the journal bearing in as much a variety of operating conditions as possible. Different shapes applied on the surface texturing will be examined.

  6. Light trapping in thin-film solar cells with randomly rough and hybrid textures. (United States)

    Kowalczewski, Piotr; Liscidini, Marco; Andreani, Lucio Claudio


    We study light-trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with rough interfaces. We consider solar cells made of different materials (c-Si and μc-Si) to investigate the role of size and nature (direct/indirect) of the energy band gap in light trapping. By means of rigorous calculations we demonstrate that the Lambertian Limit of absorption can be obtained in a structure with an optimized rough interface. We gain insight into the light trapping mechanisms by analysing the optical properties of rough interfaces in terms of Angular Intensity Distribution (AID) and haze. Finally, we show the benefits of merging ordered and disordered photonic structures for light trapping by studying a hybrid interface, which is a combination of a rough interface and a diffraction grating. This approach gives a significant absorption enhancement for a roughness with a modest size of spatial features, assuring good electrical properties of the interface. All the structures presented in this work are compatible with present-day technologies, giving recent progress in fabrication of thin monocrystalline silicon films and nanoimprint lithography.

  7. Optimum surface roughness prediction for titanium alloy by adopting response surface methodology (United States)

    Yang, Aimin; Han, Yang; Pan, Yuhang; Xing, Hongwei; Li, Jinze

    Titanium alloy has been widely applied in industrial engineering products due to its advantages of great corrosion resistance and high specific strength. This paper investigated the processing parameters for finish turning of titanium alloy TC11. Firstly, a three-factor central composite design of experiment, considering the cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, are conducted in titanium alloy TC11 and the corresponding surface roughness are obtained. Then a mathematic model is constructed by the response surface methodology to fit the relationship between the process parameters and the surface roughness. The prediction accuracy was verified by the one-way ANOVA. Finally, the contour line of the surface roughness under different combination of process parameters are obtained and used for the optimum surface roughness prediction. Verification experimental results demonstrated that material removal rate (MRR) at the obtained optimum can be significantly improved without sacrificing the surface roughness.

  8. Efficient Prediction of Surface Roughness Using Decision Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikant Kumar


    Full Text Available Surface roughness is a parameter which determines the quality of machined product. Now a days the general manufacturing problem can be described as the attainment of a predefined product quality with given equipment, cost and time constraints. So in recent years, a lot of extensive research work has been carried out for achieving predefined surface quality of machined product to eliminate wastage of over machining. Response surface methodology is used initially for prediction of surface roughness of machined part. After the introduction of artificial intelligent techniques many predictive model based on AI was developed by researchers because artificial intelligence technique is compatible with computer system and various microcontrollers. Researchers used fuzzy logic, artificial neural network, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, genetic algorithm to develop predictive model for predicting surface roughness of different materials. Many researchers have developed ANN based predictive model because ANN outperforms other data mining techniques in certain scenarios like robustness and high learning accuracy of neural network. In this research work a new predictive model is proposed which is based on Decision tree. ANN and ANFIS are known as black box model in which only outcome of these predictive models are comprehensible but the same doesn’t hold true for understanding the internal operations. Decision tree is known as white box model because it provides a clear view of what is happening inside the model in the view of tree like structure. As use of decision tree held in the prediction of cancer that means it is very efficient method for prediction. At the end of this research work comparison of results obtained by ANN based model and Decision tree model will be carried out and a prediction methodology for roughness is introduced using decision tree along with ANN

  9. Biofilm retention on surfaces with variable roughness and hydrophobicity. (United States)

    Tang, Lone; Pillai, Saju; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Schramm, Andreas; Bischoff, Claus; Meyer, Rikke Louise


    Biofilms on food processing equipment cause food spoilage and pose a hazard to consumers. The bacterial community on steel surfaces in a butcher's shop was characterized, and bacteria representative of this community enriched from minced pork were used to study biofilm retention. Stainless steel (SS) was compared to two novel nanostructured sol-gel coatings with differing hydrophobicity. Surfaces were characterized with respect to roughness, hydrophobicity, protein adsorption, biofilm retention, and community composition of the retained bacteria. Fewer bacteria were retained on the sol-gel coated surfaces compared to the rougher SS. However, the two sol-gel coatings did not differ in either protein adsorption, biofilm retention, or microbial community composition. When polished to a roughness similar to sol-gel, the SS was colonized by the same amount of bacteria as the sol-gel, but the bacterial community contained fewer Pseudomonas cells. In conclusion, biofilm retention was affected more by surface roughness than chemical composition under the condition described in this study.

  10. Experimental study of light output power for vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with various textured surface and thickness of GaN layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Sang Kwack


    Full Text Available The light output power (LOP of vertical-type GaN-based light emitting diodes (LED with surface roughness (texture can be changed by texture size, density, and thickness of GaN film or by the combined effects of texture formation and thickness of GaN film. We have investigated these changes experimentally and note that the enhancement of the LOP by a factor of 2.4 can be improved with optimum texturing parameters as compared to that without texturing. In addition, the LOP of GaN-based LEDs under the same texture density increase slightly as thickness of GaN film decreases. Base on these results, we have evidently demonstrated that the enhancement factors of LOP are related to the correlation between texture size (density and thickness of GaN film.

  11. Stabilization of Leidenfrost vapour layer by textured superhydrophobic surfaces. (United States)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Patankar, Neelesh A; Marston, Jeremy O; Chan, Derek Y C; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T


    In 1756, Leidenfrost observed that water drops skittered on a sufficiently hot skillet, owing to levitation by an evaporative vapour film. Such films are stable only when the hot surface is above a critical temperature, and are a central phenomenon in boiling. In this so-called Leidenfrost regime, the low thermal conductivity of the vapour layer inhibits heat transfer between the hot surface and the liquid. When the temperature of the cooling surface drops below the critical temperature, the vapour film collapses and the system enters a nucleate-boiling regime, which can result in vapour explosions that are particularly detrimental in certain contexts, such as in nuclear power plants. The presence of these vapour films can also reduce liquid-solid drag. Here we show how vapour film collapse can be completely suppressed at textured superhydrophobic surfaces. At a smooth hydrophobic surface, the vapour film still collapses on cooling, albeit at a reduced critical temperature, and the system switches explosively to nucleate boiling. In contrast, at textured, superhydrophobic surfaces, the vapour layer gradually relaxes until the surface is completely cooled, without exhibiting a nucleate-boiling phase. This result demonstrates that topological texture on superhydrophobic materials is critical in stabilizing the vapour layer and thus in controlling--by heat transfer--the liquid-gas phase transition at hot surfaces. This concept can potentially be applied to control other phase transitions, such as ice or frost formation, and to the design of low-drag surfaces at which the vapour phase is stabilized in the grooves of textures without heating.

  12. Stabilization of Leidenfrost vapour layer by textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev


    In 1756, Leidenfrost observed that water drops skittered on a sufficiently hot skillet, owing to levitation by an evaporative vapour film. Such films are stable only when the hot surface is above a critical temperature, and are a central phenomenon in boiling. In this so-called Leidenfrost regime, the low thermal conductivity of the vapour layer inhibits heat transfer between the hot surface and the liquid. When the temperature of the cooling surface drops below the critical temperature, the vapour film collapses and the system enters a nucleate-boiling regime, which can result in vapour explosions that are particularly detrimental in certain contexts, such as in nuclear power plants. The presence of these vapour films can also reduce liquid-solid drag. Here we show how vapour film collapse can be completely suppressed at textured superhydrophobic surfaces. At a smooth hydrophobic surface, the vapour film still collapses on cooling, albeit at a reduced critical temperature, and the system switches explosively to nucleate boiling. In contrast, at textured, superhydrophobic surfaces, the vapour layer gradually relaxes until the surface is completely cooled, without exhibiting a nucleate-boiling phase. This result demonstrates that topological texture on superhydrophobic materials is critical in stabilizing the vapour layer and thus in controlling-by heat transfer-the liquid-gas phase transition at hot surfaces. This concept can potentially be applied to control other phase transitions, such as ice or frost formation, and to the design of low-drag surfaces at which the vapour phase is stabilized in the grooves of textures without heating. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  13. A Physically Based Transmission Model of Rough Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinlong Sun


    Full Text Available Transparent and translucent objects involve both light reflection and transmission at surfaces. This paper presents a physically based transmission model of rough surface. The surface is assumed to be locally smooth, and statistical techniques is applied to calculate light transmission through a local illumination area. We have obtained an analytical expression for single scattering. The analytical model has been compared to our Monte Carlo simulations as well as to the previous simulations, and good agreements have been achieved. The presented model has potential applications for realistic rendering of transparent and translucent objects.

  14. Conveying the 3D Shape of Transparent Surfaces Via Texture (United States)

    Interrante, Victoria; Fuchs, Henry; Pizer, Stephen


    Transparency can be a useful device for depicting multiple overlapping surfaces in a single image. The challenge is to render the transparent surfaces in such a way that their three-dimensional shape can be readily understood and their depth distance from underlying structures clearly perceived. This paper describes our investigations into the use of sparsely-distributed discrete, opaque texture as an 'artistic device' for more explicitly indicating the relative depth of a transparent surface and for communicating the essential features of its 3D shape in an intuitively meaningful and minimally occluding way. The driving application for this work is the visualization of layered surfaces in radiation therapy treatment planning data, and the technique is illustrated on transparent isointensity surfaces of radiation dose. We describe the perceptual motivation and artistic inspiration for defining a stroke texture that is locally oriented in the direction of greatest normal curvature (and in which individual strokes are of a length proportional to the magnitude of the curvature in the direction they indicate), and discuss several alternative methods for applying this texture to isointensity surfaces defined in a volume. We propose an experimental paradigm for objectively measuring observers' ability to judge the shape and depth of a layered transparent surface, in the course of a task relevant to the needs of radiotherapy treatment planning, and use this paradigm to evaluate the practical effectiveness of our approach through a controlled observer experiment based on images generated from actual clinical data.

  15. Modeling Surface Roughness to Estimate Surface Moisture Using Radarsat-2 Quad Polarimetric SAR Data (United States)

    Nurtyawan, R.; Saepuloh, A.; Budiharto, A.; Wikantika, K.


    Microwave backscattering from the earth's surface depends on several parameters such as surface roughness and dielectric constant of surface materials. The two parameters related to water content and porosity are crucial for estimating soil moisture. The soil moisture is an important parameter for ecological study and also a factor to maintain energy balance of land surface and atmosphere. Direct roughness measurements to a large area require extra time and cost. Heterogeneity roughness scale for some applications such as hydrology, climate, and ecology is a problem which could lead to inaccuracies of modeling. In this study, we modeled surface roughness using Radasat-2 quad Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) data. The statistical approaches to field roughness measurements were used to generate an appropriate roughness model. This modeling uses a physical SAR approach to predicts radar backscattering coefficient in the parameter of radar configuration (wavelength, polarization, and incidence angle) and soil parameters (surface roughness and dielectric constant). Surface roughness value is calculated using a modified Campbell and Shepard model in 1996. The modification was applied by incorporating the backscattering coefficient (σ°) of quad polarization HH, HV and VV. To obtain empirical surface roughness model from SAR backscattering intensity, we used forty-five sample points from field roughness measurements. We selected paddy field in Indramayu district, West Java, Indonesia as the study area. This area was selected due to intensive decreasing of rice productivity in the Northern Coast region of West Java. Third degree polynomial is the most suitable data fitting with coefficient of determination R2 and RMSE are about 0.82 and 1.18 cm, respectively. Therefore, this model is used as basis to generate the map of surface roughness.

  16. Measuring the Reflection Matrix of a Rough Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Burgi


    Full Text Available Phase modulation methods for imaging around corners with reflectively scattered light required illumination of the occluded scene with a light source either in the scene or with direct line of sight to the scene. The RM (reflection matrix allows control and refocusing of light after reflection, which could provide a means of illuminating an occluded scene without access or line of sight. Two optical arrangements, one focal-plane, the other an imaging system, were used to measure the RM of five different rough-surface reflectors. Intensity enhancement values of up to 24 were achieved. Surface roughness, correlation length, and slope were examined for their effect on enhancement. Diffraction-based simulations were used to corroborate experimental results.

  17. Propagation of elastic waves in a plate with rough surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Shuwu; ZHANG Hailan


    The characteristics of Lamb wave propagating in a solid plate with rough surfacesare studied on the basis of small perturbation approximation. The Rayleigh-Lamb frequencyequation expressed with SA matrix is presented. The Rayleigh-Lamb frequency equation fora rough surface plate is different from that for a smooth surface plate, resulting in a smallperturbation Ak on Lamb wave vector k. The imaginary part of Ak gives the attenuationcaused by wave scattering. An experiment is designed to test our theoretical predications.By using wedge-shape pipes, different Lamb wave modes are excited. The signals at differentpositions are received and analyzed to get the dispersion curves and attenuations of differentmodes. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical predications.

  18. Picometer-scale surface roughness measurements inside hollow glass fibres



    International audience; A differential profilometry technique is adapted to the problem of measuring the roughness of hollow glass fibres by use of immersion objectives and index-matching liquid. The technique can achieve picometer level sensitivity. Cross validation with AFM measurements is obtained through use of vitreous silica step calibration samples. Measurements on the inner surfaces of fiber-sized glass capillaries drawn from high purity suprasil F300 tubes show a sub-nanometer roughn...

  19. Structure of turbulent wedges created by isolated surface roughness (United States)

    Kuester, Matthew S.; White, Edward B.


    Isolated surface roughness in a laminar boundary layer can create a wedge of turbulence that spreads laterally into the surrounding laminar flow. Some recent studies have identified high- and low-speed streaks along the exterior of turbulent wedges. In this experiment, developing turbulent wedges are measured to observe the creation of these streaks. Naphthalene shear stress surface visualization and hotwire measurements are utilized to investigate the details of turbulent wedges created by cylinders in a laminar flat-plate boundary layer. Both the surface visualization and the hotwire measurements show high- and low-speed streaks in the wake of the cylinder that devolve into a turbulent wedge. The turbulent wedge spreading is associated with the emergence of these high- and low-speed streaks along the outside of the wedge. As the wedge evolves in the streamwise direction, these streaks persist inside of the core of the wedge, while new, lower amplitude streaks form along the outside of the wedge. Adding asymmetry to the cylinder moved the virtual origin closer to the roughness and increased the vortex shedding frequency, while adding small-scale roughness features did not strongly affect turbulent wedge development. Intermittency calculations additionally show the origin of the turbulent core inside of the wedge. The structure and spacing of the high-speed streaks along the extremities of the turbulent wedge give insight into the spreading angle of the turbulent wedge.

  20. Multiresolution mesh segmentation based on surface roughness and wavelet analysis (United States)

    Roudet, Céline; Dupont, Florent; Baskurt, Atilla


    During the last decades, the three-dimensional objects have begun to compete with traditional multimedia (images, sounds and videos) and have been used by more and more applications. The common model used to represent them is a surfacic mesh due to its intrinsic simplicity and efficacity. In this paper, we present a new algorithm for the segmentation of semi-regular triangle meshes, via multiresolution analysis. Our method uses several measures which reflect the roughness of the surface for all meshes resulting from the decomposition of the initial model into different fine-to-coarse multiresolution meshes. The geometric data decomposition is based on the lifting scheme. Using that formulation, we have compared various interpolant prediction operators, associated or not with an update step. For each resolution level, the resulting approximation mesh is then partitioned into classes having almost constant roughness thanks to a clustering algorithm. Resulting classes gather regions having the same visual appearance in term of roughness. The last step consists in decomposing the mesh into connex groups of triangles using region growing ang merging algorithms. These connex surface patches are of particular interest for adaptive mesh compression, visualisation, indexation or watermarking.

  1. Improvement of PET surface hydrophilicity and roughness through blending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolahchi, Ahmad Rezaei; Ajji, Abdellah; Carreau, Pierre J. [CREPEC, Chemical Engineering Department, Polytechnique Montreal, 2500 chemin de Polytechnique, Quebec, Montreal (Canada)


    Controlling the adhesion of the polymer surface is a key issue in surface science, since polymers have been a commonly used material for many years. The surface modification in this study includes two different aspects. One is to enhance the hydrophilicity and the other is to create the roughness on the PET film surface. In this study we developed a novel and simple approach to modify polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film surface through polymer blending in twin-screw extruder. One example described in the study uses polyethylene glycol (PEG) in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) host to modify a PET film surface. Low content of polystyrene (PS) as a third component was used in the system to increase the rate of migration of PEG to the surface of the film. Surface enrichment of PEG was observed at the polymer/air interface of the polymer film containing PET-PEG-PS whereas for the PET-PEG binary blend more PEG was distributed within the bulk of the sample. Furthermore, a novel method to create roughness at the PET film surface was proposed. In order to roughen the surface of PET film, a small amount of PKHH phenoxy resin to change PS/PET interfacial tension was used. The compatibility effect of PKHH causes the formation of smaller PS droplets, which were able to migrate more easily through PET matrix. Consequently, resulting in a locally elevated concentration of PS near the surface of the film. The local concentration of PS eventually reached a level where a co-continuous morphology occurred, resulting in theinstabilities on the surface of the film.

  2. News on sputter theory: Molecular targets, nanoparticle desorption, rough surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbassek, Herbert M., E-mail: urbassek@rhrk.uni-kl.d [Fachbereich Physik und Forschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger-Strasse, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Anders, Christian [Fachbereich Physik und Forschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger-Strasse, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Rosandi, Yudi [Fachbereich Physik und Forschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger-Strasse, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Department of Physics, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor, Sumedang 45363 (Indonesia)


    Sputtering theory has existed as a mature and well-understood field of physics since the theory of collision-cascade sputtering has been developed in the late 1960s. In this presentation we outline several directions, in which the basic understanding of sputter phenomena has been challenged and new insight has been obtained recently. Sputtering of molecular solids: after ion impact on a molecular solid, not all of the impact energy is available for inducing sputtering. Part of the energy is converted into internal (rotational and vibrational) excitation of the target molecules, and part is used for molecule dissociation. Furthermore, exothermic or endothermic chemical reactions may further change the energy balance in the irradiated target. Nanoparticle desorption: usually, the flux of sputtered particles is dominated by monatomics; in the case of a pronounced spike contribution to sputtering, the contribution of clusters in the sputtered flux may become considerable. Here, we discuss the situation that nanoparticles were present on the surface, and outline mechanisms of how these may be desorbed (more or less intact) by ion or cluster impact. Rough surfaces: real surfaces are rough and contain surface defects (adatoms, surface steps, etc.). For grazing ion incidence, these influence the energy input into the surface dramatically. For such incidence angles sputtering vanishes for a flat terrace; however, ion impact close to a defect may lead to sputter yields comparable to those at normal incidence. In such cases sputtering also exhibits a pronounced azimuth and temperature dependence.

  3. Characterizing developing adverse pressure gradient flows subject to surface roughness (United States)

    Brzek, Brian; Chao, Donald; Turan, Özden; Castillo, Luciano


    An experimental study was conducted to examine the effects of surface roughness and adverse pressure gradient (APG) on the development of a turbulent boundary layer. Hot-wire anemometry measurements were carried out using single and X-wire probes in all regions of a developing APG flow in an open return wind tunnel test section. The same experimental conditions (i.e., T ∞, U ref, and C p) were maintained for smooth, k + = 0, and rough, k + = 41-60, surfaces with Reynolds number based on momentum thickness, 3,000 carefully designed such that the x-dependence in the flow field was known. Despite this fact, only a very small region of the boundary layer showed a balance of the various terms in the integrated boundary layer equation. The skin friction computed from this technique showed up to a 58% increase due to the surface roughness. Various equilibrium parameters were studied and the effect of roughness was investigated. The generated flow was not in equilibrium according to the Clauser (J Aero Sci 21:91-108, 1954) definition due to its developing nature. After a development region, the flow reached the equilibrium condition as defined by Castillo and George (2001), where Λ = const, is the pressure gradient parameter. Moreover, it was found that this equilibrium condition can be used to classify developing APG flows. Furthermore, the Zagarola and Smits (J Fluid Mech 373:33-79, 1998a) scaling of the mean velocity deficit, U ∞δ*/δ, can also be used as a criteria to classify developing APG flows which supports the equilibrium condition of Castillo and George (2001). With this information a ‘full APG region’ was defined.

  4. Sound scattering at fluid-fluid rough surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Extinction theorem was used to deduce the first order scattering cross-section including the double scattering effects for the fluid-fluid rough surface. If the double scattering effects are neglected in the present method, the scattering cross-section agrees with the result obtained by the perturbation method based on Rayleigh hypothesis. Calculations of scattering strength were carried out, and comparisons with the first-order perturbation method based on Rayleigh hypothesis were also done. The results show that double scattering effects are obvious with the increase of the root mean square of surface height and the grazing angle when the valid condition k1h < 1 is satisfied.

  5. Influence of surface roughness on streptococcal adhesion forces to composite resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, Li; Busscher, Henk J; van der Mei, Henny C; Ren, Yijin

    OBJECTIVE: To determine streptococcal adhesion forces with composite resins with different surface roughness. METHODS: Polishing and grinding were applied to obtain smooth (roughness 20 nm), moderately rough (150 nm) and rough (350 nm) surfaces of two orthodontic, light-cured composites. Adhesion

  6. Influence of surface roughness on streptococcal adhesion forces to composite resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, Li; Busscher, Henk J; van der Mei, Henny C; Ren, Yijin


    OBJECTIVE: To determine streptococcal adhesion forces with composite resins with different surface roughness. METHODS: Polishing and grinding were applied to obtain smooth (roughness 20 nm), moderately rough (150 nm) and rough (350 nm) surfaces of two orthodontic, light-cured composites. Adhesion fo

  7. Influence of Roughness Surface In Hydrological Response of Semiarid Catchments (United States)

    Candela, A.; Noto, L.; Aronica, G.

    Here, an investigation has been carried out in order to understand the influence of the variation of the surface roughness in the definition of the hydrological response of semiarid catchments. In the original version of TOPMODEL the convolution rout- ing procedure used takes in account the distribution of predicted inflow with distance along the channel network from the outflow, considering the distributed nature of the channel network, but does not allow for the routing on the hillslopes. This type of approach is appropriate for humid basins but not for semiarid catchments which are mainly characterised by steep and straight hillslopes. In previous studies, same au- thors proposed a modified version of TOPMODEL in which the convolution routing procedure has been extended to the hillslopes by specifying the routing velocity for each pixel of the watershed. These velocities have been linked to the watershed land use because the different surface roughness whose coefficients has been derived on the basis of Engman's table. In this new study, roughness coefficients distribution are expressed as function of a unique value treated as a calibration parameter. The original and modified versions of TOPMODEL have been applied for the simulation of flood events in a Sicilian catchment.

  8. Surface roughness effects on a blunt hypersonic cone (United States)

    Sharp, Nicole; Hofferth, Jerrod; White, Edward


    The mechanisms through which distributed surface roughness produces boundary-layer disturbances in hypersonic flow are poorly understood. Previous work by Reshotko (AIAA 2008-4294) suggests that transient growth, resulting from the superposition of decaying non-orthogonal modes, may be responsible. The present study examines transient growth experimentally using a smooth 5-degree half-angle conic frustum paired with blunted nosetips with and without quasi-random distributed roughness. Hotwire anemometry in the low-disturbance Texas A&M Mach 6 Quiet Tunnel shows a slight growth of fluctuations as well as vertical offset due to surface roughness at a range of unit Reynolds numbers. Spectral measurements indicate that the model is subcritical with respect to second mode growth, and azimuthal measurements are used to examine the high- and low-speed streaks characteristic of transient growth of stationary disturbances. Support from the AFOSR/NASA National Center for Hypersonic Research in Laminar-Turbulent Transition through Grant FA9550-09-1-0341 is gratefully acknowledged.

  9. Computer Modeling of the Surface Texture Treated by Mill with Curved Cutting Edge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Potapova


    Full Text Available Application of mills with a curvilinear profile of the cutting edge (often called rough end mills allows us to increase milling rate, but a roughness of the surface treated by such mills is higher, than after milling by the "ordinary" mills with the "smooth" cutting edge. Deterioration of a roughness is caused by a curvature of cutting edge. The shape and sizes of a profile are of crucial importance for forming roughness on a surface. A literary review revealed that depending on a profile of the cutting edge the roughness of the machined surface makes Ra2…12,5μm.There is a developed parametrical computer model to visualize roughness formed on a surface after milling by the fluting cutter and curved cutting edge mill. The computer model also allows a 3D chip type to be cut off from a work-piece by the mills with various cutting edge profiles. When developing the model it was assumed that the tilt angle of a cutting flute is equal 0 °, a trajectory of the tooth movement is a circle rather than a trochoidal curve.An experimental test of the model has shown that the radial beats of the mill teeth have a very significant effect on the extent of the roughness formed on the machined surface. After amendments - taking into consideration teeth beats - introduced into model the modeling error made less than 5% that can be explained by the fact that profile parameters of the cutting edge of mills embedded in the model are inaccurate because of the tilt angle the cutting flutes.The analysis of the surface model has shown that after milling the work piece has a cellular structure. Each tooth with curved cutting edge forms the cell repeating with the next turn of a mill. The adjacent teeth form identical cells displaced in the feed path with respect to the cell formed by the previous tooth by the chip load Sz. Unlike processing by the ordinary mills with the "smooth" cutting edge in this case on a surface there is a surface texture not only in the feed

  10. Surface roughness of flowable resin composites eroded by acidic and alcoholic drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Poggio


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the surface roughness of four flowable resin composites following exposure to acidic and alcoholic drinks. Materials and Methods: SureFil SDR flow, TetricEvoFlow, Esthet-X Flow and Amaris Flow HT samples were immersed in artificial saliva, Coca Cola and Chivas Regal Whisky. Each specimen was examined using a Leica DCM 3D microscope: Arithmetical mean height of the surface profiles was measured (Sa. Results: Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant differences among various groups (P<0,001. Mann Whitney test was applied and control groups showed significantly lower Sa values than other groups (P=0,008. Coca Cola groups showed highest Sa values (P<0,021. No significant differences (P=0,14 in surface texture were found among the specimens of the different materials. No significant differences were found among TetricEvoFlow, Esthet-X Flow and Amaris Flow under control conditions nor after Coca Cola application. Under control condition and after Coca Cola application SureFil SDR flow showed significantly higher Sa values. Moreover, after whisky application Amaris Flow showed significantly lower Sa values then the other three groups that showed no significant differences among them. Conclusions: Acidic and alcoholic drinks eroded the surface roughness of all evaluated flowable resin composites.

  11. Aerodynamic Properties of Rough Surfaces with High Aspect-Ratio Roughness Elements: Effect of Aspect Ratio and Arrangements (United States)

    Sadique, Jasim; Yang, Xiang I. A.; Meneveau, Charles; Mittal, Rajat


    We examine the effect of varying roughness-element aspect ratio on the mean velocity distributions of turbulent flow over arrays of rectangular-prism-shaped elements. Large-eddy simulations (LES) in conjunction with a sharp-interface immersed boundary method are used to simulate spatially-growing turbulent boundary layers over these rough surfaces. Arrays of aligned and staggered rectangular roughness elements with aspect ratio >1 are considered. First the temporally- and spatially-averaged velocity profiles are used to illustrate the aspect-ratio effects. For aligned prisms, the roughness length (z_o) and the friction velocity (u_*) increase initially with an increase in the roughness-element aspect ratio, until the values reach a plateau at a particular aspect ratio. The exact value of this aspect ratio depends on the coverage density. Further increase in the aspect ratio changes neither z_o, u_* nor the bulk flow above the roughness elements. For the staggered cases, z_o and u_* continue to increase for the surface coverage density and the aspect ratios investigated. To model the flow response to variations in roughness aspect ratio, we turn to a previously developed phenomenological volumetric sheltering model (Yang et al., in J Fluid Mech 789:127-165, 2016), which was intended for low to moderate aspect-ratio roughness elements. Here, we extend this model to account for high aspect-ratio roughness elements. We find that for aligned cases, the model predicts strong mutual sheltering among the roughness elements, while the effect is much weaker for staggered cases. The model-predicted z_o and u_* agree well with the LES results. Results show that the model, which takes explicit account of the mutual sheltering effects, provides a rapid and reliable prediction method of roughness effects in turbulent boundary-layer flows over arrays of rectangular-prism roughness elements.

  12. Anisotropic spreading of liquid metal on a rough intermetallic surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wen


    Full Text Available An anisotropic wicking of molten Sn-Pb solder over an intermetallic rough surface has been studied. The phenomenon features preferential spreading and forming of an elliptical spread domain. A theoretically formulated model was established to predict the ratio of the wicking distance along the long axis (rx to that along the short axis (ry of the final wicking pattern. The phenomenon was simultaneously experimentally observed and recorded with a hotstage microscopy technique. The anisotropic wicking is established to be caused by a non-uniform topography of surface micro structures as opposed to an isotropic wicking on an intermetallic surface with uniformly distributed surface micro features. The relative deviation between the theoretically predicted rx/ry ratio and the corresponding average experimental value is 5%. Hence, the small margin of error confirms the validity of the proposed theoretical model of anisotropic wicking.

  13. Surface Roughness and Porosity of Hydrated Cement Pastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ficker


    Full Text Available . Seventy-eight graphs were plotted to describe and analyze the dependences of the height and roughness irregularities on the water-to-cement ratio and on the porosity of the cement hydrates. The results showed unambiguously that the water-to-cement ratio or equivalently the porosity of the specimens has a decisive influence on the irregularities of the fracture surfaces of this material. The experimental results indicated the possibility that the porosity or the value of the water-to-cement ratio might be inferred from the height irregularities of the fracture surfaces. It was hypothesized that there may be a similarly strong correlation between porosity and surface irregularity, on the one hand, and some other highly porous solids, on the other, and thus the same possibility to infer porosity from the surfaces of their fracture remnants.

  14. Ion Beam Textured and Coated Surfaces Experiment (IBEX) (United States)

    Mirtich, Michael J.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Stevens, Nicholas; Olle, Raymond; Merrow, James


    Ion beam textured and commercial materials suitable for use in space power systems were flown in low Earth orbit on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) for 5.8 years. Because of their location on LDEF (98 deg from the ram direction), the 36 materials were primarily exposed to vacuum ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling, the vacuum of space, the micrometeoroid environment, and grazing incidence atomic oxygen. Measurements of solar absorptance and thermal emittance (pre- and post-flight) showed no changes for almost all of the materials, except for the S-13G and Kapton and coated Kapton samples. The optical property stability of ion beam textured surfaces and most other surfaces indicates that they are functionally durable to the synergistic rigors of the space environment.

  15. Scattering of Light and Surface Plasmon Polaritons from Rough Surfaces (United States)


    approximation for surface plasmon polaritons,” Proc. SPIE 7792, 779204 (1-9)(2010). [10] J. Polanco , R.M. Fitzgerald, T.A. Leskova, and A.A. Maradudin...condition,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 013801 (1-8) (2011). [12] J. Polanco , R.M. Fitzgerald, and A.A. Maradudin, “Propagation of s-polarized surface polaritons...surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043805(1-4)(2012). [15] R.M. Fitzgerald, A.A. Maradudin, J. Polanco , and A.B. Shvartsburg, “S-polarized

  16. Temperature dependent droplet impact dynamics on flat and textured surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azar Alizadeh; Vaibhav Bahadur; Sheng Zhong; Wen Shang; Ri Li; James Ruud; Masako Yamada; Liehi Ge; Ali Dhinojwala; Manohar S Sohal (047160)


    Droplet impact dynamics determines the performance of surfaces used in many applications such as anti-icing, condensation, boiling and heat transfer. We study impact dynamics of water droplets on surfaces with chemistry/texture ranging from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic and across a temperature range spanning below freezing to near boiling conditions. Droplet retraction shows very strong temperature dependence especially for hydrophilic surfaces; it is seen that lower substrate temperatures lead to lesser retraction. Physics-based analyses show that the increased viscosity associated with lower temperatures can explain the decreased retraction. The present findings serve to guide further studies of dynamic fluid-structure interaction at various temperatures.

  17. Shape of a large drop on a rough hydrophobic surface (United States)

    Park, Joonsik; Park, Jaebum; Lim, Hyuneui; Kim, Ho-Young


    Large drops on solid surfaces tend to flatten due to gravitational effect. Their shapes can be predicted by solving the Young-Laplace equation when their apparent contact angles are precisely given. However, for large drops sitting on rough surfaces, the apparent contact angles are often unavailable a priori and hard to define. Here we develop a model to predict the shape of a given volume of large drop placed on a rough hydrophobic surface using an overlapping geometry of double spheroids and the free energy minimization principle. The drop shape depends on the wetting state, thus our model can be used not only to predict the shape of a drop but also to infer the wetting state of a large drop through the comparison of theory and experiment. The experimental measurements of the shape of large water drops on various micropillar arrays agree well with the model predictions. Our theoretical model is particularly useful in predicting and controlling shapes of large drops on surfaces artificially patterned in microscopic scales, which are frequently used in microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip technology.

  18. The effect of controlled microrobotized blasting on implant surface texturing and early osseointegration. (United States)

    Gil, Luiz F; Marin, Charles; Teixeira, Hellen; Marão, Heloisa F; Tovar, Nick; Khan, Rehan; Bonfante, Estevam A; Janal, Malvin; Coelho, Paulo G


    Surface topography modifications have become a key strategy for hastening the host-to-implant response to implantable materials. The present study evaluated the effect of three different carefully controlled surface texture patterns achieved through microrobotized blasting (controlled to high, medium and low roughness) relative to a larger scale blasting procedure (control) in early osseointegration in a canine model. Four commercially pure grade 2 titanium alloy implants (one of each surface) were bilaterally placed in the radii of six beagle dogs and allowed end points of 1 and 6 weeks in vivo. Following sacrifice, implants in bone were non-decalcified processed for bone morphologic and histometric (bone-to-implant contact; bone area fraction occupancy) evaluation. Surface topography was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and optical interferometry. Results showed initial osteogenic tissue interaction at one week and new bone in intimate contact with all implant surfaces at 6 weeks. At 1 and 6 weeks in vivo, higher bone-to-implant and bone area fraction occupancy were observed for the high texture pattern microrobotized blasted surface relative to others.

  19. Evaporation of Droplets on Superhydrophobic Surfaces: Surface Roughness and Small Droplet Size Effects (United States)

    Chen, Xuemei; Ma, Ruiyuan; Li, Jintao; Hao, Chonglei; Guo, Wei; Luk, B. L.; Li, Shuai Cheng; Yao, Shuhuai; Wang, Zuankai


    Evaporation of a sessile droplet is a complex, nonequilibrium phenomenon. Although evaporating droplets upon superhydrophobic surfaces have been known to exhibit distinctive evaporation modes such as a constant contact line (CCL), a constant contact angle (CCA), or both, our fundamental understanding of the effects of surface roughness on the wetting transition remains elusive. We show that the onset time for the CCL-CCA transition and the critical base size at the Cassie-Wenzel transition exhibit remarkable dependence on the surface roughness. Through global interfacial energy analysis we reveal that, when the size of the evaporating droplet becomes comparable to the surface roughness, the line tension at the triple line becomes important in the prediction of the critical base size. Last, we show that both the CCL evaporation mode and the Cassie-Wenzel transition can be effectively inhibited by engineering a surface with hierarchical roughness.

  20. Excimer laser texturing of natural composite polymer surfaces for studying cell-to-substrate specific response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinca, V., E-mail: [NILPRP, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Alloncle, P.; Delaporte, P. [Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, LP3 Laboratory, Campus de Luminy, 13288 Marseille (France); Ion, V. [NILPRP, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Rusen, L.; Filipescu, M. [NILPRP, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Mustaciosu, C. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering – IFIN HH, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Luculescu, C.; Dinescu, M. [NILPRP, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania)


    Highlights: • Roughness gradients are obtained in one step by applying single laser pulses and sample tilting. • BSA protein and cell dependence behavior onto gradient characteristics was studied. • The degradation of the samples by lysozyme was correlated to its ability to access the textured area. - Abstract: Surface modifications of biocompatible materials are among the main factors used for enhancing and promoting specific cellular activities (e.g. spreading, adhesion, migration, and differentiation) for various types of medical applications such as implants, microfluidic devices, or tissue engineering scaffolds. In this work an excimer laser at 193 nm was used to fabricate chitosan–collagen roughness gradients. The roughness gradients were obtained in one step by applying single laser pulses and sample tilting. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and spectro-ellipsometry (SE) were used for sample characterization. The goal is to determine the optimal morpho-chemical characteristics of these structures for in vitro tailoring of protein adsorption and cell behavior. The response induced by the roughness gradient onto various cell lines (i.e. L 929 fibroblasts, HEP G2 hepatocytes, OLN 93 oligodendrocytes, M63 osteoblasts) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein absorption was investigated.

  1. Filling transitions on rough surfaces: inadequacy of Gaussian surface models

    CERN Document Server

    Dufour, Renaud; Herminghaus, Stephan


    We present numerical studies of wetting on various topographic substrates, including random topographies. We find good agreement with recent predictions based on an analytical interface-displacement-type theory \\cite{Herminghaus2012, Herminghaus2012a}. The phase diagrams are qualitatively as predicted, but differently in this study the critical points are found to lie within the physical parameter range (i.e., at positive contact angle) in all cases studied. Notably, it is corroborated that Gaussian random surfaces behave qualitatively different from all non-Gaussian topographies investigated, exhibiting a qualitatively different phase diagram. This shows that Gaussian random surfaces must be used with great care in the context of wetting phenomena.

  2. Evaluation of the surface roughness of a standard abraded dental porcelain following different polishing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Rashid


    Conclusions: Although the Sof-Lex discs significantly reduced the surface roughness, their use with the prophylaxis paste and polishing brushes did not cause a further reduction in the surface roughness.

  3. Conformal Al doped ZnO on rough silicon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, Martin; Miclea, Paul T. [Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of Physics, Heinrich Damerow Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Kroll, Matthias; Kaesebier, Thomas [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute for Applied Physics, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Salzer, Roland [Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials Halle IWM, Walter-Huelse-Str.1, 06120 Halle (Germany); Wehrspohn, Ralf B. [Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of Physics, Heinrich Damerow Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials Halle IWM, Walter-Huelse-Str.1, 06120 Halle (Germany)


    The feasibility of perfectly conformal deposition of transparent but highly conductive ZnO thin films on rough silicon surfaces for photovoltaic applications has been investigated. Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) deposited via thermal ALD was used as a conformal cover layer for plasma etched black silicon. The coated structures achieve reflectances as low as 2.5% throughout the whole visible spectrum whereas the films exhibit resistivities of only 1.1.10{sup -3} {omega}cm. An absorption enhancement of nearly a factor of 10 at a wavelength of 1150 nm compared to a simulated perfect ARC was observed.

  4. Radar, visual and thermal characteristics of Mars - Rough planar surfaces (United States)

    Schaber, G. G.


    High-resolution Viking Orbiter images contain significant information on Martian surface roughness at 25- to 100-m lateral scales, while earth-based radar observations of Mars are sensitive to roughness at lateral scales of 1 to 30 m or more. High-rms slopes predicted for the Tharsis-Memnonia-Amazonis volcanic plains from extremely weak radar returns are qualitatively confirmed by the Viking image data. Large-scale, curvilinear ridges on lava flows in the Memnonia Fossae region are interpreted as innate flow morphology caused by compressional foldover of moving lava sheets of possible rhyolite-dacite composition. The presence or absence of a recent mantle of fine-grained eolian material on the volcanic surfaces studied was determined by the visibility of fresh impact craters with diameters less than 50 m. Lava flows with surfaces modified by eolian erosion and deposition occur west-northwest of Apollinaris Patera at the border of the cratered equatorial uplands and southern Elysium Planitia. Nearby yardangs, for which radar observations indicate very high-rms slopes, are similar to terrestrial features of similar origin.

  5. Contact angle hysteresis on textured surfaces with nanowire clusters. (United States)

    Liao, Ying-Chih; Chiang, Cheng-Kun; Lu, Yen-Wen


    Nanowire arrays with various agglomeration patterns were synthesized by adjusting the solvent evaporation rates. Nanowires with 200 nm diameter and 2-25 microm in length were fabricated from an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) porous template. Various drying treatments were applied to develop nanostructured surfaces with topological differences. Due to surface tension forces, copper nanowires after thermal and evaporative drying treatments agglomerated into clusters, while supercritical drying technique provided excellent bundled-free and vertically-standing nanowire arrays. Although all dried surfaces exhibited hydrophobic nature, the contact angle hysteresis, or the difference between advancing and receding angles, was found to be larger on those surfaces with bundled nanowire clusters. To explain the difference, the wetted solid fraction on each surface was calculated using the Cassie-Baxter model to show that the hysteresis was contributed by liquid/solid contact area on the textured surfaces.

  6. Influence of citric acid on the surface texture of glass ionomer restorative materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dappili SwamiRanga Reddy


    Full Text Available Aim: This study determined the effectiveness of G-coat plus surface protective agent over petroleum jelly on the surface texture of conventional Glass ionomer restorative materials. Materials and Methods: Three chemically cured conventional glass ionomer restorative materials type II, type IX and ketac molar were evaluated in this study. Sixty specimens were made for each restorative material. They were divided into two groups of thirty specimens each. Of the sixty specimens, thirty were coated with G-coat plus (a nano-filler coating and the rest with petroleum jelly. Thirty samples of both protective coating agents were randomly divided into six groups of five specimens and conditioned in citric acid solutions of differing pH (pH 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 & 7. Each specimen was kept in citric acid for three hours a day, and the rest of time stored in salivary substitute. This procedure was repeated for 8 days. After conditioning, the surface roughness (Ra, ΅m of each specimen was measured using a surface profilometer (Taylor & Habson, UK. Data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey′s HSD test at a significance level of 0.05. Results: The surface textures of all the tested glass ionomer restorative materials protected with G-coat plus were not significantly affected by acids at low pH. The surface textures of all the tested glass ionomer restorative materials protected with petroleum jelly coating were significantly affected by acids at low pH. Conclusion: The effects of pH on the surface texture of glass ionomer restoratives are material dependent. Among all the materials tested the surface texture of Type II GIC (Group I revealed marked deterioration when conditioned in solutions of low pH and was statistically significant. Hence, a protective coating either with G-coat plus or with light polymerized low viscosity unfilled resin adhesives is mandatory for all the glass ionomer restorations to increase the wear resistance of

  7. Modeling of surface roughness: application to physical properties of paper (United States)

    Bloch, Jean-Francis; Butel, Marc


    Papermaking process consists in a succession of unit operations having for main objective the expression of water out of the wet paper pad. The three main stages are successively, the forming section, the press section and finally the drying section. Furthermore, another operation (calendering) may be used to improve the surface smoothness. Forming, pressing and drying are not on the scope of this paper, but the influence of formation and calendering on surface roughness is analyzed. The main objective is to characterize the materials and specially its superficial structure. The proposed model is described in order to analyze this topographical aspect. Some experimental results are presented in order to illustrate the interest of this method to better understand physical properties. This work is therefore dedicated to the description of the proposed model: the studied surface is measured at a microscopic scale using for example, a classical stylus profilometry method. Then the obtained surface is transformed using a conformal mapping that retains the surface orientations. Due to the anisotropy of the fiber distribution in the plane of the sheet, the resulting surface is often not isotropic. Hence, the micro facets that identify the interfaces between pores and solid (fibers in the studied case) at the micro level are transformed into a macroscopic equivalent structure. Furthermore, an ellipsoid may be fit to the experimental data in order to obtain a simple model. The ellipticities are proved to be linked for paper to both fiber orientation (through other optical methods) and roughness. These parameters (ellipticities) are shown to be very significant for different end-use properties. Indeed, they shown to be correlated to printing or optical properties, such as gloss for example. We present in a first part the method to obtain a macroscopic description from physical microscopic measurements. Then measurements carried on different paper samples, using a classical

  8. Study on tribological properties of multi-layer surface texture on Babbitt alloys surface (United States)

    Zhang, Dongya; Zhao, Feifei; Li, Yan; Li, Pengyang; Zeng, Qunfeng; Dong, Guangneng


    To improve tribological properties of Babbitt alloys, multi-layer surface texture consisted of the main grooves and secondary micro-dimples are fabricated on the Babbitt substrate through laser pulse ablation. The tribological behaviors of multi-layer surface texture are investigated using a rotating type pin-on-disc tribo-meter under variation sliding speeds, and the film pressure distributions on the textured surfaces are simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method for elucidating the possible mechanisms. The results suggest that: (i) the multi-layer surface texture can reduce friction coefficient of Babbitt alloy, which has lowest friction coefficient of 0.03, in case of the groove parameter of 300 μm width and 15% of area density; (ii) the improvement effect may be more sensitive to the groove area density and the siding speed, and the textured surface with lower area density has lower friction coefficient under high sliding speed. Based on the reasons of (i) the secondary micro-dimples on Babbitt alloy possesses a hydrophobicity surface and (ii) the CFD analysis indicates that main grooves enhancing hydrodynamic effect, thus the multi-layer surface texture is regarded as dramatically improve the lubricating properties of the Babbitt alloy.

  9. When the going gets rough – studying the effect of surface roughness on the adhesive abilities of tree frogs (United States)

    Crawford, Niall; Endlein, Thomas; Pham, Jonathan T; Riehle, Mathis


    Summary Tree frogs need to adhere to surfaces of various roughnesses in their natural habitats; these include bark, leaves and rocks. Rough surfaces can alter the effectiveness of their toe pads, due to factors such as a change of real contact area and abrasion of the pad epithelium. Here, we tested the effect of surface roughness on the attachment abilities of the tree frog Litoria caerulea. This was done by testing shear and adhesive forces on artificial surfaces with controlled roughness, both on single toe pads and whole animal scales. It was shown that frogs can stick 2–3 times better on small scale roughnesses (3–6 µm asperities), producing higher adhesive and frictional forces, but relatively poorly on the larger scale roughnesses tested (58.5–562.5 µm asperities). Our experiments suggested that, on such surfaces, the pads secrete insufficient fluid to fill the space under the pad, leaving air pockets that would significantly reduce the Laplace pressure component of capillarity. Therefore, we measured how well the adhesive toe pad would conform to spherical asperities of known sizes using interference reflection microscopy. Based on experiments where the conformation of the pad to individual asperities was examined microscopically, our calculations indicate that the pad epithelium has a low elastic modulus, making it highly deformable. PMID:28144558

  10. Study on the shadowing effect for optical wave scattering from randomly rough surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixin Guo(郭立新); Yunhua Wang(王运华); Zhensen Wu(吴振森)


    Based on the Kirchhoff approximation for rough surface scattering and by calculating the shadowing function of the rough surface, the formula of the scattering cross section of the dielectric rough surface is presented with consideration of the shadowing effect for the optical wave incidence. It is obtained that in comparison with the conventional Kirchhoff solution, the shadowing effect should not be neglected for the optical wave scattering from the rough surface. The influence of the shadowing effect for different incidence angle, surface root mean square slope, and surface roughness on the scattering cross section is discussed in detail.

  11. An efficient threshold dynamics method for wetting on rough surfaces (United States)

    Xu, Xianmin; Wang, Dong; Wang, Xiao-Ping


    The threshold dynamics method developed by Merriman, Bence and Osher (MBO) is an efficient method for simulating the motion by mean curvature flow when the interface is away from the solid boundary. Direct generalization of MBO-type methods to the wetting problem with interfaces intersecting the solid boundary is not easy because solving the heat equation in a general domain with a wetting boundary condition is not as efficient as it is with the original MBO method. The dynamics of the contact point also follows a different law compared with the dynamics of the interface away from the boundary. In this paper, we develop an efficient volume preserving threshold dynamics method for simulating wetting on rough surfaces. This method is based on minimization of the weighted surface area functional over an extended domain that includes the solid phase. The method is simple, stable with O (Nlog ⁡ N) complexity per time step and is not sensitive to the inhomogeneity or roughness of the solid boundary.

  12. Sound scattering at fluid-fluid rough surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Extinction theorem was used to deduce the first order scattering cross-section including the double scattering effects for the fluid-fluid rough surface.If the dou- ble scattering effects are neglected in the present method,the scattering cross-section agrees with the result obtained by the perturbation method based on Rayleigh hypothesis.Calculations of scattering strength were carried out,and comparisons with the first-order perturbation method based on Rayleigh hypothe- sis were also done.The results show that double scattering effects are obvious with the increase of the root mean square of surface height and the grazing angle when the valid condition k1h<1 is satisfied.

  13. Lubrication of textured surfaces: a general theory for flow and shear stress factors. (United States)

    Scaraggi, Michele


    We report on a mean field theory of textured surface lubrication. We study the fluid flow dynamics occurring at the interface as a function of the texture characteristics, e.g. texture area density, shape and distribution of microstructures, and local slip lengths. The present results may be very important for the investigation of tailored microtextured surfaces for low-friction hydrodynamic applications.

  14. Multiscale Finite Element Methods for Flows on Rough Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin


    In this paper, we present the Multiscale Finite Element Method (MsFEM) for problems on rough heterogeneous surfaces. We consider the diffusion equation on oscillatory surfaces. Our objective is to represent small-scale features of the solution via multiscale basis functions described on a coarse grid. This problem arises in many applications where processes occur on surfaces or thin layers. We present a unified multiscale finite element framework that entails the use of transformations that map the reference surface to the deformed surface. The main ingredients of MsFEM are (1) the construction of multiscale basis functions and (2) a global coupling of these basis functions. For the construction of multiscale basis functions, our approach uses the transformation of the reference surface to a deformed surface. On the deformed surface, multiscale basis functions are defined where reduced (1D) problems are solved along the edges of coarse-grid blocks to calculate nodalmultiscale basis functions. Furthermore, these basis functions are transformed back to the reference configuration. We discuss the use of appropriate transformation operators that improve the accuracy of the method. The method has an optimal convergence if the transformed surface is smooth and the image of the coarse partition in the reference configuration forms a quasiuniform partition. In this paper, we consider such transformations based on harmonic coordinates (following H. Owhadi and L. Zhang [Comm. Pure and Applied Math., LX(2007), pp. 675-723]) and discuss gridding issues in the reference configuration. Numerical results are presented where we compare the MsFEM when two types of deformations are used formultiscale basis construction. The first deformation employs local information and the second deformation employs a global information. Our numerical results showthat one can improve the accuracy of the simulations when a global information is used. © 2013 Global-Science Press.

  15. Modulated surface textures for enhanced scattering in thin-film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isabella, O.; Battaglia, C.; Ballif, C.; Zeman, M.


    Nano-scale randomly textured front transparent oxides are superposed on micro-scale etched glass substrates to form modulated surface textures. The resulting enhanced light scattering is implemented in single and double junction thin-film silicon solar cells.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A surface roughness model utilizing regression analysis method is developed for predicting roughness of ultraprecision machined surface with a single crystal diamond tool. The effects of the main variables,such as cutting speed,feed,and depth of cut on surface roughness are also analyzed in diamond turning aluminum alloy. In order to predict and control the surface roughness before ultraprecision machining,constrained variable metric method is used to select the optimum cutting conditions during process planning. A lot of experimental results show that the model can predict the surface roughness effectively under a certain cutting conditions .

  17. The effect of surface roughness and viscoelasticity on rubber adhesion. (United States)

    Tiwari, A; Dorogin, L; Bennett, A I; Schulze, K D; Sawyer, W G; Tahir, M; Heinrich, G; Persson, B N J


    Adhesion between silica glass or acrylic balls and silicone elastomers and various industrial rubbers is investigated. The work of adhesion during pull-off is found to strongly vary depending on the system, which we attribute to the two opposite effects: (1) viscoelastic energy dissipation close to an opening crack tip and (2) surface roughness. Introducing surface roughness on the glass ball is found to increase the work of adhesion for soft elastomers, while for the stiffer elastomers it results in a strong reduction in the work of adhesion. For the soft silicone elastomers a strong increase in the work of adhesion with increasing pull-off velocity is observed, which may result from the non-adiabatic processes associated with molecular chain pull-out. In general, the work of adhesion is decreased after repeated contacts due to the transfer of molecules from the elastomers to the glass ball. Thus, extracting the free chains (oligomers) from the silicone elastomers is shown to make the work of adhesion independent of the number of contacts. The viscoelastic properties (linear and nonlinear) of all of the rubber compounds are measured, and the velocity dependent crack opening propagation energy at the interface is calculated. Silicone elastomers show a good agreement between the measured work of adhesion and the predicted results, but carbon black filled hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber compounds reveal that strain softening at the crack tip may play an important role in determining the work of adhesion. Additionally, adhesion measurement under submerged conditions in distilled water and water + soap solutions are also performed: a strong reduction in the work of adhesion is measured for the silicone elastomers submerged in water, and a complete elimination of adhesion is found for the water + soap solution attributed to an osmotic repulsion between the negatively charged surface of the glass and the elastomer.

  18. Interpretation of Lunar Topography: Impact Cratering and Surface Roughness (United States)

    Rosenburg, Margaret A.

    This work seeks to understand past and present surface conditions on the Moon using two different but complementary approaches: topographic analysis using high-resolution elevation data from recent spacecraft missions and forward modeling of the dominant agent of lunar surface modification, impact cratering. The first investigation focuses on global surface roughness of the Moon, using a variety of statistical parameters to explore slopes at different scales and their relation to competing geological processes. We find that highlands topography behaves as a nearly self-similar fractal system on scales of order 100 meters, and there is a distinct change in this behavior above and below approximately 1 km. Chapter 2 focuses this analysis on two localized regions: the lunar south pole, including Shackleton crater, and the large mare-filled basins on the nearside of the Moon. In particular, we find that differential slope, a statistical measure of roughness related to the curvature of a topographic profile, is extremely useful in distinguishing between geologic units. Chapter 3 introduces a numerical model that simulates a cratered terrain by emplacing features of characteristic shape geometrically, allowing for tracking of both the topography and surviving rim fragments over time. The power spectral density of cratered terrains is estimated numerically from model results and benchmarked against a 1-dimensional analytic model. The power spectral slope is observed to vary predictably with the size-frequency distribution of craters, as well as the crater shape. The final chapter employs the rim-tracking feature of the cratered terrain model to analyze the evolving size-frequency distribution of craters under different criteria for identifying "visible" craters from surviving rim fragments. A geometric bias exists that systematically over counts large or small craters, depending on the rim fraction required to count a given feature as either visible or erased.

  19. Effects of confinement & surface roughness in electrorheological flows (United States)

    Helal, Ahmed; Telleria, Maria J.; Wang, Julie; Strauss, Marc; Murphy, Mike; McKinley, Gareth; Hosoi, A. E.


    Electrorheological (ER) fluids are dielectric suspensions that exhibit a fast, reversible change in rheological properties with the application of an external electric field. Upon the application of the electric field, the material develops a field-dependent yield stress that is typically modeled using a Bingham plastic model. ER fluids are promising for designing small, cheap and rapidly actuated hydraulic devices such as rapidly-switchable valves, where fluid flowing in a microchannel can be arrested by applying an external electric field. In the lubrication limit, for a Bingham plastic fluid, the maximum pressure the channel can hold, before yielding, is a function of the field-dependent yield stress, the length of the channel and the electrode gap. In practice, the finite width of the channel and the surface roughness of the electrodes could affect the maximum yield pressure but a quantitative understanding of these effects is currently lacking. In this study, we experimentally investigate the effects of the channel aspect ratio (width/height) and the effects of electrode roughness on the performance of ER valves. Based on this quantitative analysis, we formulate new performance metrics for ER valves as well as design rules for ER valves that will help guide and optimize future designs.

  20. Surface Modification of Textured Dielectrics and Their Wetting Behavior (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Dhillon, Ajaypal Singh; Sharma, Niti Nipun


    Controlling the wettability on dielectric materials is a classical topic in surface engineering. Surface texturing and deposition of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are major approaches to achieve lower or higher water contact angle ( θ c) and thereby making surface less or more wettable (more hydrophobic). Dielectric surfaces wetting has been engineered by surface modification and has been shown to achieve θ c to a maximum of 120° ± 5°. Further improvement in θ c to an extent greater than 150° ± 5° is desired to render the surface superhydrophobic. We report in this work an achievement of θ c > 150° ± 5° by combining the plasma-treated surface and octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) SAMs deposition on dielectrics, and this had been shown on dielectric ranging from low- k to high- k values. The improvement in wetting behavior and quality of dielectric surface with monolayer on plasma-treated surfaces are (is) investigated and characterized using atomic-force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), contact angle goniometer, and Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and are compared with untreated dielectric surface with OTS monolayers.

  1. Surface Modification of Textured Dielectrics and Their Wetting Behavior (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Dhillon, Ajaypal Singh; Sharma, Niti Nipun


    Controlling the wettability on dielectric materials is a classical topic in surface engineering. Surface texturing and deposition of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are major approaches to achieve lower or higher water contact angle (θ c) and thereby making surface less or more wettable (more hydrophobic). Dielectric surfaces wetting has been engineered by surface modification and has been shown to achieve θ c to a maximum of 120° ± 5°. Further improvement in θ c to an extent greater than 150° ± 5° is desired to render the surface superhydrophobic. We report in this work an achievement of θ c > 150° ± 5° by combining the plasma-treated surface and octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) SAMs deposition on dielectrics, and this had been shown on dielectric ranging from low-k to high-k values. The improvement in wetting behavior and quality of dielectric surface with monolayer on plasma-treated surfaces are (is) investigated and characterized using atomic-force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), contact angle goniometer, and Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and are compared with untreated dielectric surface with OTS monolayers.

  2. Fractal reconstruction of rough membrane surface related with membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor. (United States)

    Zhang, Meijia; Chen, Jianrong; Ma, Yuanjun; Shen, Liguo; He, Yiming; Lin, Hongjun


    In this paper, fractal reconstruction of rough membrane surface with a modified Weierstrass-Mandelbrot (WM) function was conducted. The topography of rough membrane surface was measured by an atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the results showed that the membrane surface was isotropous. Accordingly, the fractal dimension and roughness of membrane surface were calculated by the power spectrum method. The rough membrane surface was reconstructed on the MATLAB platform with the parameter values acquired from raw AFM data. The reconstructed membrane was much similar to the real membrane morphology measured by AFM. The parameters (including average roughness and root mean square (RMS) roughness) associated with membrane morphology for the model and real membrane were calculated, and a good match of roughness parameters between the reconstructed surface and real membrane was found, indicating the feasibility of the new developed method. The reconstructed membrane surface can be potentially used for interaction energy evaluation.

  3. Fast Characterization of Moving Samples with Nano-Textured Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Morten Hannibal; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Karamehmedović, Mirza; Garnæs, Jørgen


    We characterize nano-textured surfaces by optical diffraction techniques using an adapted commercial light microscope with two detectors, a CCD camera and a spectrometer. The acquisition and analyzing time for the topological parameters height, width, and sidewall angle is only a few milliseconds of a grating. We demonstrate that the microscope has a resolution in the nanometer range, also in an environment with many vibrations, such as a machine floor. Furthermore, we demonstrate an easy method to find the area of interest with the integrated CCD camera.

  4. Droplets impact on textured surfaces: Mesoscopic simulation of spreading dynamics (United States)

    Wang, Yuxiang; Chen, Shuo


    Superhydrophobic surfaces have attracted much attention due to their excellent water-repellent property. In the present study, droplets in the ideal Cassie state were focused on, and a particle-based numerical method, many-body dissipative particle dynamics, was employed to explore the mechanism of droplets impact on textured surfaces. A solid-fluid interaction with three linear weight functions was used to generate different wettability and a simple but efficient method was introduced to compute the contact angle. The simulated results show that the static contact angle is in good agreement with the Cassie-Baxter formula for smaller ∅S and Fa, but more deviation will be produced for larger ∅S and Fa, and it is related to the fact that the Cassie-Baxter theory does not consider the contact angle hysteresis effect in their formula. Furthermore, high impact velocity can induce large contact angle hysteresis on textured surfaces with larger ∅S and Fa. The typical time-based evolutions of the spreading diameter were simulated, and they were analyzed from an energy transformation viewpoint. These results also show that the dynamical properties of droplet, such as rebounding or pinning, contact time and maximum spreading diameters, largely depend on the comprehensive effects of the material wettability, fraction of the pillars and impact velocities of the droplets.

  5. Rough scattering made by laser on metal and semiconductor surfaces (United States)

    Shandybina, Galina D.


    Diffraction on metal and semiconductor surfaces during the process of laser irradiation is interesting for microelectronics, power optics and elements of measuring technology. We also present experimental data in changing dynamics of diffuse reflection of copper and bronze mirrors and silicon polished plates during laser irradiation. The impulse of laser radiation from neodymium glass lasts 4 ms. There could be seen the intense reversible increase of diffusion scattering and at the same time decrease of specular component of reflection during laser influence on metal and the appearance of precisely expressed unreturn scattering reflexes during irradiation of semiconductor plates long before the melting threshold. We conduct the quantitative measurements of target thermo-deformation, local deformation of heterogeneities and laser induced effects of the surface with the help of the impulse two-beam interferometry method by indirect measurements of temperature in laser radiation zone. We also established the connection between the dynamic change of scattering of metal and semiconductor with the nature of deformation, such as thermo-deformation of the whole irradiation zone, local deformation of heterogeneities of the surface and defects generated by laser. A physical model of laser induced surface roughness, confirmed by mathematical calculations in the thermoelastic approach, will be also discussed.

  6. Quality factor due to roughness scattering of shear horizontal surface acoustic waves in nanoresonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G.


    In this work we study the quality factor associated with dissipation due to scattering of shear horizontal surface acoustic waves by random self-affine roughness. It is shown that the quality factor is strongly influenced by both the surface roughness exponent H and the roughness amplitude w to late

  7. Experimental investigation of surface roughness in electrical discharge turning process (United States)

    Gohil, Vikas; Puri, Y. M.


    In the present study the effects of machining parameters on the average surface roughness (Ra) in electrical discharge turning (EDT) is investigated. EDT is a new machining process in which a rotary spindle is added to a conventional die-sinking EDM machine in order to produce cylindrical components. In this method a new process parameter (spindle rotation) along with pulse on time and current is introduced to study its effect on Ra. This has been done by means of full factorial design (21 × 32) of experiments. A mathematical model has been developed for Ra by regression analysis and factor effects were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Signal-to-noise ratio analysis is used to find the optimal condition.

  8. Optical stent inspection of surface texture and coating thickness (United States)

    Bermudez, Carlos; Laguarta, Ferran; Cadevall, Cristina; Matilla, Aitor; Ibañez, Sergi; Artigas, Roger


    Stent quality control is a critical process. Coronary stents have to be inspected 100% so no defective stent is implanted into a human body. We have developed a high numerical aperture optical stent inspection system able to acquire both 2D and 3D images. Combining a rotational stage, an area camera with line-scan capability and a triple illumination arrangement, unrolled sections of the outer, inner, and sidewalls surfaces are obtained with high resolution. During stent inspection, surface roughness and coating thickness uniformity is of high interest. Due to the non-planar shape of the surface of the stents, the thickness values of the coating need to be corrected with the 3D surface local slopes. A theoretical model and a simulation are proposed, and a measurement with white light interferometry is shown. Confocal and spectroscopic reflectometry showed to be limited in this application due to stent surface roughness. Due to the high numerical aperture of the optical system, only certain parts of the stent are in focus, which is a problem for defect detection, specifically on the sidewalls. In order to obtain fully focused 2D images, an extended depth of field algorithm has been implemented. A comparison between pixel variance and Laplacian filtering is shown. To recover the stack image, two different methods are proposed: maximum projection and weighted intensity. Finally, we also discuss the implementation of the processing algorithms in both the CPU and GPU, targeting real-time 2-Million pixel image acquisition at 50 frames per second.

  9. Influencing factors of surface roughness of MAO ceramic coating on AZ91D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DI Shi-chun; PAN Ming-qiang; CHI Guan-xin


    To investigate the treating parameters' influence on the surface roughness of the MAO ceramic coating on AZ91D, experiments were implemented in the alkaline electrolyte by using a pulse power source with positive and negative pulse, and the surface roughness was measured and analyzed by using a Times roughness-meter and an optical microscope. The machining parameters' influencing rule on the coating surface roughness was investigated. The result indicates that the influence of all parameters is interactive, while the positive voltage and the electrolyte concentration, or increasing the frequency and the positive and negative voltage ratio are appropriate, the coating surface roughness will be improved.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Yaqin; Li Zhongxin


    As a Gaussian beam is incident upon a rough surface at low grazing angle, the Helmholts scalar wave equation may be replaced by the parabolic approximate equation. As the incident field is known, the scattered field and surface current give the Volterra integral equation.Surface roughness profile can be formulated by the integral equation of the surface currents. These two coupled equations are applied to invert the roughness profile of heterogeneous fractal surface.Using Monte Carlo method, the fractal rough surfaces with a band-limited Weistrass-Manderbrot function are numerically simulated and the scattered fields along a line parallel to the mean surface are solved. The Gaussian beam incidence and scattered fields are used to progressively invert the surface roughness profile. Reconstructed profile and its inverted fractal dimension,roughness variance and correlation length are well matched with the simulated surfaces.

  11. Effect of blade surface roughness on performance of axial flow fans with different blade cambers (United States)

    Kaneko, K.; Setoguchi, T.; Nakano, T.; Inoue, M.


    Three kinds of axial fan rotor blades with different cambers were designed, and performance tests with various blade surface roughnesses were conducted. The total pressure coefficient, the fan efficiency, and the torque coefficient decrease with increasing surface roughness. The selection of the design camber has a significant influence on the deterioration of fan performance with surface roughness. For a smooth surface, a high-cambered blade indicates a more favorable performance than a low-cambered rotor blade, but such a blade is very sensitive to surface roughness and exhibits a remarkable deterioration in performance with increased roughness. For a low-cambered rotor blade, the torque coefficient changes little with increasing roughness. The empirical relation between turning angle variation of a two-dimensional cascade and surface roughness agrees well with these results only for a rotor blade designed for the optimum angle of attack.

  12. Influence of a prophylaxis paste on surface roughness of different composites, porcelain, enamel and dentin surfaces



    Objective: To investigate the effect of a prophylaxis paste on surface roughness of different composites, enamel, dentin and porcelain surfaces. Methods: Three different composites (FiltekZ250/Group1, Filtek Supreme XT/Group2, Premise/Group3), enamel/Group4, dentin/Group5 and porcelain/Group6 samples were used in this study. All specimens were prepared flat by SiC discs and polished with a diamond polishing paste. The surface roughness measurements were determined with a profilometer after po...

  13. The effect of surface texture on the kinetic friction of a nanowire on a substrate (United States)

    Xie, Hongtao; Mead, James; Wang, Shiliang; Huang, Han


    The friction between Al2O3 nanowires and silicon substrates of different surface textures was characterised by use of optical manipulation. It was found that surface textures had significant effect on both the friction and the effective contact area between a nanowire and a substrate. A genetic algorithm was developed to determine the effective contact area between the nanowire and the textured substrate. The frictional force was found to be nearly proportional to the effective contact area, regardless of width, depth, spacing and orientation of the surface textures. Interlocking caused by textured grooves was not observed in this study. PMID:28322351

  14. Analysis of Surface Texturization of Solar Cells by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Yen Chung


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a simple new model, based on the classic molecular dynamics simulation (MD, alternative to complex electron-photon interactions to analyze the surface texturization of solar cells. This methodology can easily propose the absorptance differences between texturing and nontexturing solar cells. To verify model feasibility, this study simulates square, pyramidal, and semicircular texturization surfaces. Simulations show that surface texturization effectively increases the absorptance of incident light for solar cells, and this paper presents optimal texturization shapes. The MD model can also be potentially used to predict the efficiency promotion in any optical reflection-absorption cases.

  15. A study on the surface roughness of a thin HSQ coating on a fine milled surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohaghegh, Kamran; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Pranov, Henrik


    The paper discusses a novel application of a thin layer coating on a metallic machined surface with particular attention to roughness of the coating compared to the original surface before coating. The coating is a nominally 1 μm film of Hydrogen Silsesquioxane (HSQ) which is commonly used...

  16. Numerical analysis of monocrystalline silicon solar cells with fine nanoimprinted textured surface (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Seiya; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Araki, Shinji; Honda, Tatsuki; Jiang, Yunjiang; Uraoka, Yukiharu


    We investigated the surface reflectance of nanoimprinted textures on silicon. Zirconium oxide, which is a wide-bandgap inorganic dielectric material, was used as the texturing material. We performed several calculations to optimize the textures for the production of high-efficiency bulk-type monocrystalline silicon solar cells. Our analysis revealed that nanoimprinted textured solar cells exhibit a lower reverse saturation current density than a solar cell with a conventional etched texture. It was also confirmed that the photocarrier generation rate for a solar cell with a submicron-scale nanoimprinted texture has little dependence on the texture shape. Furthermore, the weighted average reflectance of an optimized nanoimprinted textured solar cell was substantially reduced to 3.72%, suggesting that texture formation by nanoimprint lithography is an extremely effective technology for producing high-efficiency solar cells at a low cost.

  17. Influence of Surface Roughness on Morphology of Aluminum Alloy After Pulsed-Laser Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sung Ho; Kim, Chung Seok; Jhang, Kyung Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Wan Soon [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of surface roughness on the morphology of aluminum 6061- T6 alloy after irradiation with a Nd:YAG pulsed laser. The test specimen was prepared by a polishing process using a diamond paste (1 {mu}m) and emery polishing papers (100, 220, 600, 2400) to obtain different initial surface roughness. After irradiation with ten pulsed-laser shots, the surface morphology was examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy (OM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The diameter of the melted zone increased with the surface roughness because the multiple reflections and absorption of the laser beam occurred on the surface because of the surface roughness, so that the absorptance of the laser beam changed. This result was verified using the relative absorptance calculated from the diameter of the melted zone with the surface roughness and the diameter increased with the average surface roughness.

  18. Reliable Classification of Geologic Surfaces Using Texture Analysis (United States)

    Foil, G.; Howarth, D.; Abbey, W. J.; Bekker, D. L.; Castano, R.; Thompson, D. R.; Wagstaff, K.


    Communication delays and bandwidth constraints are major obstacles for remote exploration spacecraft. Due to such restrictions, spacecraft could make use of onboard science data analysis to maximize scientific gain, through capabilities such as the generation of bandwidth-efficient representative maps of scenes, autonomous instrument targeting to exploit targets of opportunity between communications, and downlink prioritization to ensure fast delivery of tactically-important data. Of particular importance to remote exploration is the precision of such methods and their ability to reliably reproduce consistent results in novel environments. Spacecraft resources are highly oversubscribed, so any onboard data analysis must provide a high degree of confidence in its assessment. The TextureCam project is constructing a "smart camera" that can analyze surface images to autonomously identify scientifically interesting targets and direct narrow field-of-view instruments. The TextureCam instrument incorporates onboard scene interpretation and mapping to assist these autonomous science activities. Computer vision algorithms map scenes such as those encountered during rover traverses. The approach, based on a machine learning strategy, trains a statistical model to recognize different geologic surface types and then classifies every pixel in a new scene according to these categories. We describe three methods for increasing the precision of the TextureCam instrument. The first uses ancillary data to segment challenging scenes into smaller regions having homogeneous properties. These subproblems are individually easier to solve, preventing uncertainty in one region from contaminating those that can be confidently classified. The second involves a Bayesian approach that maximizes the likelihood of correct classifications by abstaining from ambiguous ones. We evaluate these two techniques on a set of images acquired during field expeditions in the Mojave Desert. Finally, the

  19. Fabrication and qualification of roughness reference samples for industrial testing of surface roughness levels below 0.5 nm Sq (United States)

    Faehnle, O.; Langenbach, E.; Zygalsky, F.; Frost, F.; Fechner, R.; Schindler, A.; Cumme, M.; Biskup, H.; Wünsche, C.; Rascher, R.


    Applying reactive ion beam etching (RIBE) processes at the Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification (IOM), several reference samples to be used in industry for calibrating of roughness testing equipment have been generated with the smoothest sample featuring 0.1 nm rms Sq. Subsequently these reference samples have been measured cross-site applying atomic force microscopy (AFM), white light interferometry (WLI), Nomarski1 microscopy (NM) and scatterometry (iTIRM2) determining the appropriate range of measurable rms surface roughness for each industrial measuring device.

  20. Effect of shape of protrusions and roughness on the hydrophilicity of a surface (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sheelan Sengupta; Pandey, Prithvi Raj; Kumar, Rajnish; Roy, Sudip


    We have investigated wetting of model rough surfaces made up of hydrophilic triangular and hexagonal pillars (protrusions). The surface roughnesses are altered by varying the area of the rough surface, the height of the pillars, and the surface interactions to the water. We have established a correlation between structure i.e., the shape of a pillar, which actually depends on the number of edges (due to shape), and the wetting phenomena. We have found that surface with higher number of edges repels water at lower roughness value. We explain the correlation by analyzing the variation of interactions energy components and density profiles of water on the structured surfaces.

  1. The impact of temperature changing on surface roughness of FFF process (United States)

    Chaidas, D.; Kitsakis, K.; Kechagias, J.; Maropoulos, S.


    The current study investigates the surface roughness of models produced by a 3D printer. All models were produced by addition of solid material, a process called fused filament fabrication (FFF): initial extrusion into plastic filament, second extrusion and trace-binding during the 3D printing process. A low cost 3D printer Ultimaker was used to print these items. Polylactic acid (PLA) was used as main polymer material for printing. The temperature was parameter under direct variations in order to examine if there was an influence on roughness of 3d printed models. The surface roughness parameters were: the average mean surface roughness (Ra, μm), the surface roughness depth (Rz, μm), the total height of the roughness profile (Rt, μm) and the arithmetic mean width of profile elements (Rsm, μm). The examination showed conditionality: as temperature was increased the surface roughness parameters were further decreased.

  2. Effects of home bleaching on surface hardness and surface roughness of an experimental nanocomposite (United States)

    Zuryati, Ab-Ghani; Qian, Ooi Qian; Dasmawati, Mohamad


    Objective: Home bleaching agents may not be safe for composite resins. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 10 and 20% Opalescence® PF home bleaching agents on the surface roughness and hardness of universal nanocomposite (Filtek Z350), anterior nanocomposite (KeLFiL), and nanohybrid composite (TPH 3). Materials and Methods: Fifty-four composite resin samples with 18 samples for each type of composite resin were prepared using acrylic molds (4 × 2 mm). Each type of composite resin was further divided into three groups [n = 6 controls were placed in distilled water for 14 days and the other two groups of n = 6 were bleached with 10 and 20% carbamide peroxide (CP), respectively for 14 days]. Surface hardness of the composite resin was tested with a Vickers hardness tester, whereas surface roughness was tested with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results: There were significant changes in the surface hardness of KeLFiL and TPH 3. However, all the tested materials showed no significant changes in the surface roughness. Conclusion: After 14 days of home bleaching treatment, there was no adverse effect on the surface roughness of all three composite resins, although the surface hardness for KeLFiL and TPH 3 were significantly reduced. PMID:23956541

  3. Effects of home bleaching on surface hardness and surface roughness of an experimental nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab-Ghani Zuryati


    Full Text Available Objective: Home bleaching agents may not be safe for composite resins. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 10 and 20% Opalescence ® PF home bleaching agents on the surface roughness and hardness of universal nanocomposite (Filtek Z350, anterior nanocomposite (KeLFiL, and nanohybrid composite (TPH 3. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four composite resin samples with 18 samples for each type of composite resin were prepared using acrylic molds (4 × 2 mm. Each type of composite resin was further divided into three groups [n = 6 controls were placed in distilled water for 14 days and the other two groups of n = 6 were bleached with 10 and 20% carbamide peroxide (CP, respectively for 14 days]. Surface hardness of the composite resin was tested with a Vickers hardness tester, whereas surface roughness was tested with atomic force microscopy (AFM. Results: There were significant changes in the surface hardness of KeLFiL and TPH 3. However, all the tested materials showed no significant changes in the surface roughness. Conclusion: After 14 days of home bleaching treatment, there was no adverse effect on the surface roughness of all three composite resins, although the surface hardness for KeLFiL and TPH 3 were significantly reduced.

  4. Quantitative roughness characterization of geological surfaces and implications for radar signature analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierking, Wolfgang


    Stochastic surface models are useful for analyzing in situ roughness profiles and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of geological terrain. In this paper, two different surface models are discussed: surfaces with a stationary random roughness (conventional model) and surfaces with a power...

  5. Symmetric and asymmetric capillary bridges between a rough surface and a parallel surface. (United States)

    Wang, Yongxin; Michielsen, Stephen; Lee, Hoon Joo


    Although the formation of a capillary bridge between two parallel surfaces has been extensively studied, the majority of research has described only symmetric capillary bridges between two smooth surfaces. In this work, an instrument was built to form a capillary bridge by squeezing a liquid drop on one surface with another surface. An analytical solution that describes the shape of symmetric capillary bridges joining two smooth surfaces has been extended to bridges that are asymmetric about the midplane and to rough surfaces. The solution, given by elliptical integrals of the first and second kind, is consistent with a constant Laplace pressure over the entire surface and has been verified for water, Kaydol, and dodecane drops forming symmetric and asymmetric bridges between parallel smooth surfaces. This solution has been applied to asymmetric capillary bridges between a smooth surface and a rough fabric surface as well as symmetric bridges between two rough surfaces. These solutions have been experimentally verified, and good agreement has been found between predicted and experimental profiles for small drops where the effect of gravity is negligible. Finally, a protocol for determining the profile from the volume and height of the capillary bridge has been developed and experimentally verified.

  6. Effect of fracture surface roughness on shear crack growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, T.S.; Watt, D.W. (New Hampshire Univ., Durham, NH (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Mendelsohn, D.A. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Engineering Mechanics)


    A model of fracture surface interference for Mode I fatigue crack profiles was developed and evaluated. Force required to open the crack faces is estimated from point contact expressions for Mode I stress intensity factor. Force transfer across contacting asperities is estimated and used to calculate Mode II resistance stress intensity factor (applied factor is sum of effective and resistance factors). Electro-optic holographic interferometry was used to measure 3-D displacement field around a Mode I fatigue pre-crack in Al loaded in Mode II shear. Induced Mode I crack face displacements were greater than Mode II displacements. Plane stress shear lip caused displacement normal to surface as the crack faces are displaced. Algorithms are being developed to track the displacements associated with the original coordinate system in the camera. A 2-D boundary element method code for mixed mode I and II loading of a rough crack (sawtooth asperity model) has been completed. Addition of small-scale crack tip yielding and a wear model are completed and underway, respectively.

  7. Effect of surface roughness on grain growth and sintering of alumina

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Padmaja Parameswaran Nampi; Shoichi Kume; Yuji Hotta; Koji Watari


    The production of ceramic bodies with less surface roughness is industrially important when one considers the aspect of final machining processes. Hence an attempt have been made to study the variation in surface roughness parameters (a, y, z) of alumina having three different kinds of roughness features at different sintering temperatures. Variation in surface roughness properties are also correlated with grain size. z shows significant difference between fine and intermediate surfaces, hence predicts small difference in their microstructural features. As a general trend, average grain size increases with increase in sintering temperature, but wide distribution of grains with enhanced non-uniform grain growth is observed when the surface is coarse. Hence, creation of fine surface in the green body is necessary for homogeneously distributed grains with controlled uniform grain growth. The final roughness and grain size of the sintered alumina depend on the initial surface roughness of the green body.

  8. Estimation of scattering from a moist rough surface with spheroidal dust particles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mukesh Kumar


    The scattering from moisture rough surface with spheroidal dust particles having surface with spheroidal dust particles has recently received much attention. In part due to the recent prediction and observation of the spheroidal dust particles in rough surfaces under elastic wave by the Kirchhoff scattering model and scalar approximation with slope. Our analysis shows that the scattering depends on the moisture (2–4.5%) with spheroidal dust particles. At slightly moisture rough surface the dielectric properties increase with change in field amplitude in a rough surface with spheroidal dust particles.

  9. Self-adaptive surface texture design for friction reduction across the lubrication regimes (United States)

    Hsu, Stephen M.; Jing, Yang; Zhao, Fei


    Surface texturing has been shown to reduce friction and improve durability in mechanical face seals and metal forming operations, and lightly loaded thrust bearings. However, the success has been limited to conformal contacts and low load high speed operating conditions, i.e. hydrodynamic lubrication dominated regime. Both experiments and numerical simulations have shown that textural patterns, under higher loading and/or slower speeds may increase friction and even cause the lubrication film collapse. Specific designs of surface texture pattern, as its shape, depth and density, are required for different lubrication regimes. Our own study has shown (Hsu et al 2014 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47 335307) that large/shallow dimple reduces friction in hydrodynamic lubrication regime, whereas small/deep dimple shows benefit in mixed/boundary lubrication regimes (if the textural designs can provides hydrodynamic/hydrostatic lift forces to reduce the machine loading). In considering an engine component typically experiences duty cycles that may cross various lubrication regimes, a multiscale surface texture design appears attractive. This type of mixed shape texturing combines textures designed for low load, high speed operating conditions and the textures that are designed for high load, low speed operations. In this paper, two types of multiscale surface texture designs are presented. Ball-on-three-flats (BOTF) wear tester (under high loading conditions) is used to evaluate the performance of these multiscale texture designs along with the baselines of un-textured surfaces under the same surface preparation procedures. Two texture designs with only a single shape dimples are included in the study. Results suggest that multiscale surface texture design not only further reduces friction in comparison to the textures with single shape dimples, but also shows the effectiveness across hydrodynamic regimes to the mixed lubrication regimes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Purpose: This in vitro study compared the effect of five different techniques on the surface roughness of feldspathic porcelain. Materials and Methods: 100 feldspathic porcelain disk samples mounted in acrylic resin blocks were divided into five groups (n=20 according to type of surface treatment: I, hydrofluoric acid (HFA; II, Deglazed surface porcelain treated with Neodymium:yttrium- aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG laser; III, Deglazed porcelain surface treated with Erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG laser; IV, Glazed porcelain surface treated with Neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG laser, V; Glazed porcelain surface treated with Erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG laser. The surface roughness of porcelain was measured with a noncontact optical profilometer. For each porcelain sample, two readings were taken across the sample, before porcelain surface treatment (T1 and after porcelain surface treatment (T2. The roughness parameter analyzed was the average roughness (Ra. Statistical analysis was performed using Kolmogorov–Smirnov and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: Mean Ra values for each group were as follows: I, 12.64±073; II, 11.91±0.74; III, 11.76±0.59; IV, 3.82 ±0.65; V, 2.77±0.57. For all porcelain groups, the lowest Ra values were observed in Group V. The highest Ra values were observed for Group I, with a significant difference with the other groups. Kolmogorov–Smirnov showed significant differences among groups (p<0.001. Conclusion: Surface treatment of porcelain with HFA resulted in significantly higher Ra than laser groups. Both Er:YAG laser or Nd:YAG laser on the deglaze porcelain surface can be recommended as viable treatment alternatives to acid etching.

  11. Fabrication, surface properties, and origin of superoleophobicity for a model textured surface. (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Law, Kock-Yee; Sambhy, Varun


    Inspired by the superhydrophobic effect displayed in nature, we set out to mimic the interplay between the chemistry and physics in the lotus leaf to see if the same design principle can be applied to control wetting and adhesion between toners and inks on various printing surfaces. Since toners and inks are organic materials, superoleophobicity has become our design target. In this work, we report the design and fabrication of a model superoleophobic surface on silicon wafer. The model surface was created by photolithography, consisting of texture made of arrays of ∼3 μm diameter pillars, ∼7 μm in height with a center-to-center spacing of 6 μm. The surface was then made oleophobic with a fluorosilane coating, FOTS, synthesized by the molecular vapor deposition technique with tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrooctyltrichlorosilane. Contact angle measurement shows that the surface exhibits super repellency toward water and oil (hexadecane) with a water and hexadecane contact angles at 156° and 158°, respectively. Since the sliding angles for both liquids are also very small (∼10°), we conclude that the model surface is both superhydrophobic and superoleophobic. By comparing with the contact angle data of the bare silicon surfaces (both smooth and textured), we also conclude that the superoleophobicity is a result of both surface texturing and fluorination. Results from investigations of the effects of surface modification and pillar geometry indicate that both surface oleophobicity and pillar geometry are contributors to the superoleophobicity. More specifically, we found that superoleophobicity can only be attained on our model textured surface when the flat surface coating has a relatively high oleophobicity (i.e., with a hexadecane contact angle of >73°). SEM examination of the pillars with higher magnification reveals that the side wall in each pillar is not smooth; rather it consists of a ∼300 nm wavy structure (due to the Bosch etching process

  12. Experimental study on effect of surface vibration on micro textured surfaces with hydrophobic and hydrophilic materials (United States)

    Yao, Chun-Wei; Lai, Chen-Ling; Alvarado, Jorge L.; Zhou, Jiang; Aung, Kendrick T.; Mejia, Jose E.


    Artificial hydrophobic surfaces have been studied in the last ten years in an effort to understand the effects of structured micro- and nano-scale features on droplet motion and self-cleaning mechanisms. Among these structured surfaces, micro-textured surfaces consisting of a combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials have been designed, fabricated and characterized to understand how surface properties and morphology affect enhanced self-cleaning mechanisms. However, use of micro textured surfaces leads to a strong pinning effect that takes place between the droplets and the hydrophobic-hydrophilic edge, leading to a significant contact angle hysteresis effect. This research study focuses on the effects of surface vibrations on droplet shedding at different inclined angles on micro-textured surfaces. Surface vibration and shedding processes were experimentally characterized using a high speed imaging system. Experimental results show that droplets under the influence of surface vibration depict different contour morphologies when vibrating at different resonance frequencies. Moreover, droplet sliding angles can be reduced through surface vibration when the proper combination of droplet size and surface morphology is prescribed.

  13. Deposition of latex colloids at rough mineral surfaces: an analogue study using nanopatterned surfaces. (United States)

    Krishna Darbha, Gopala; Fischer, Cornelius; Michler, Alex; Luetzenkirchen, Johannes; Schäfer, Thorsten; Heberling, Frank; Schild, Dieter


    Deposition of latex colloids on a structured silicon surface was investigated. The surface with well-defined roughness and topography pattern served as an analogue for rough mineral surfaces with half-pores in the submicrometer size. The silicon topography consists of a regular pit pattern (pit diameter = 400 nm, pit spacing = 400 nm, pit depth = 100 nm). Effects of hydrodynamics and colloidal interactions in transport and deposition dynamics of a colloidal suspension were investigated in a parallel plate flow chamber. The experiments were conducted at pH ∼ 5.5 under both favorable and unfavorable adsorption conditions using carboxylate functionalized colloids to study the impact of surface topography on particle retention. Vertical scanning interferometry (VSI) was applied for both surface topography characterization and the quantification of colloidal retention over large fields of view. The influence of particle diameter variation (d = 0.3-2 μm) on retention of monodisperse as well as polydisperse suspensions was studied as a function of flow velocity. Despite electrostatically unfavorable conditions, at all flow velocities, an increased retention of colloids was observed at the rough surface compared to a smooth surface without surface pattern. The impact of surface roughness on retention was found to be more significant for smaller colloids (d = 0.3, 0.43 vs. 1, 2 μm). From smooth to rough surfaces, the deposition rate of 0.3 and 0.43 μm colloids increased by a factor of ∼2.7 compared to a factor of 1.2 or 1.8 for 1 and 2 μm colloids, respectively. For a substrate herein, with constant surface topography, the ratio between substrate roughness and radius of colloid, Rq/rc, determined the deposition efficiency. As Rq/rc increased, particle-substrate overall DLVO interaction energy decreased. Larger colloids (1 and 2 μm) beyond a critical velocity (7 × 10(-5) and 3 × 10(-6) m/s) (when drag force exceeds adhesion force) tend to detach from the surface

  14. Quantitative comparisons of radar image, scatterometer, and surface roughness data from Pisgah Crater, CA (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Engheta, N.


    The relationships between radar image brightness and backscatter coefficient, between the backscatter coefficient and surface roughness, and between surface roughness and geology, must be established in order to satisfy criteria for the quantitative use of radar images. Attention is presently given to the merits of calibrated radar images and scatterometers as sources of the backscatter coefficient, theories that yield the coefficient on the basis of known surface roughness (and vice versa), and the geologic interpretation of surface roughness and backscatter signatures. These considerations are discussed in the case of the Pisgah Crater and lava field in the Mojave Desert of California.

  15. Realization of quantifying interfacial interactions between a randomly rough membrane surface and a foulant particle. (United States)

    Chen, Jianrong; Lin, Hongjun; Shen, Liguo; He, Yiming; Zhang, Meijia; Liao, Bao-Qiang


    Quantification of interfacial interaction with randomly rough surface is the prerequisite to quantitatively understand and control the interface behaviors such as adhesion, flocculation and membrane fouling. In this study, it was found that membrane surface was randomly rough with obvious fractal characteristics. The randomly rough surface of membrane could be well reconstructed by the fractal geometry represented by a modified Weierstrass-Mandelbrot function. A novel method, which combined composite Simpson's approach, surface element integration method and approximation by computer programming, was developed. By using this method, this study provided the first realization of quantifying interfacial energy between randomly rough surface of membrane and a foulant particle. The calculated interactions with randomly rough surface of membrane were significantly different from those with smooth surface of membrane, indicating the significant effect of surface topography on interactions. This proposed method could be also potentially used to investigate various natural interface environmental phenomena.

  16. Combined Effect of Surface Roughness and Slip Velocity on Jenkins Model Based Magnetic Squeeze Film in Curved Rough Circular Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimit R. Patel


    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the effect of slip velocity and surface roughness on the performance of Jenkins model based magnetic squeeze film in curved rough circular plates. The upper plate’s curvature parameter is governed by an exponential expression while a hyperbolic form describes the curvature of lower plates. The stochastic model of Christensen and Tonder has been adopted to study the effect of transverse surface roughness of the bearing surfaces. Beavers and Joseph’s slip model has been employed here. The associated Reynolds type equation is solved to obtain the pressure distribution culminating in the calculation of load carrying capacity. The computed results show that the Jenkins model modifies the performance of the bearing system as compared to Neuringer-Rosensweig model, but this model provides little support to the negatively skewed roughness for overcoming the adverse effect of standard deviation and slip velocity even if curvature parameters are suitably chosen. This study establishes that for any type of improvement in the performance characteristics the slip parameter is required to be reduced even if variance (−ve occurs and suitable magnetic strength is in force.

  17. Touching Textured Surfaces: Cells in Somatosensory Cortex Respond Both to Finger Movement and to Surface Features (United States)

    Darian-Smith, Ian; Sugitani, Michio; Heywood, John; Karita, Keishiro; Goodwin, Antony


    Single neurons in Brodmann's areas 3b and 1 of the macaque postcentral gyrus discharge when the monkey rubs the contralateral finger pads across a textured surface. Both the finger movement and the spatial pattern of the surface determine this discharge in each cell. The spatial features of the surface are represented unambiguously only in the responses of populations of these neurons, and not in the responses of the constituent cells.

  18. Surface roughness enhances the osseointegration of titanium headposts in non-human primates. (United States)

    Hacking, S A; Boyraz, P; Powers, B M; Sen-Gupta, E; Kucharski, W; Brown, C A; Cook, E P


    It is well recognized that micrometer and nanometer sized surface features enhance the skeletal attachment of implants within bone. However, little is known regarding the integration of implants placed outside the bone but in contact with the surface. Loosening of chronic skull anchored headposts in non-human primate based experiments can be a factor. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a simple and easily applied surface texture on bone apposition to titanium implants fixed to the periosteal surface of the skull. Implants possessed either a polished surface or a textured surface created by grit-basting followed by acid etching. The percent of bone in contact with the implant surface (bone apposition) to three polished and three textured implants was evaluated in one adult female monkey after 14 weeks. Upon harvest, implants were processed for undecalcified histology and regions of bone apposition were quantified using backscatter electron microscopy and digital image analysis. The bone apposition to textured implants was 62±20% and to polished implants was 42±21%. The application of a peak-and-pit like texture to the surface of titanium implants significantly increased bone apposition to titanium implants placed on the periosteal surface of the skull. This study demonstrates that titanium headposts can easily be modified to improve osseointegration using equipment and supplies available to most neurophysiological laboratories. In addition, implant texturing may have utility in areas including skeletal trauma and reconstruction where devices are placed in contact with the bone surface.

  19. Composite fillings microleakage after TEM00 Er: YAG laser texturing of human tooth enamel surface (United States)

    Belikov, A. V.; Shatilova, K. V.; Skrypnik, A. V.; Fedotov, D. Y.


    The results of comparative investigation of methylene-blue microleakage between tooth enamel surface and light-cure composites various fluidity are presented. An enamel surface was treated by traditional methods or laser method (laser texturing). The role of adhesive systems is investigated at enamel texturing by the TEM00 Er: YAG radiation. It is shown, that microleakage was not observed when enamel was textured by the TEM00 Er: YAG laser radiation and covered with flowable composite "Revolution" (Kerr) without adhesive system. It is established, that for laser textured surfaces methylene-blue microleakage depends on distance between microcraters.

  20. Electromagnetic Scattering from Rough Sea Surface with PM Spectrum Covered by an Organic Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rui; GUO Li-Xin; WANG An-Qi; WU Zhen-Sen


    The rough sea surface covered by an organic film will cause attenuation of capillarity waves, which implies that the organic films play an important role in rough sea surface processes. We focus on a one-dimensional(1D)rough sea surface with the Pierson-Moskowitz(PM)spectrum distributed to the homogeneous insoluble organic slicks. First, the impact of the organic film on the PM surface spectrum is presented, as well as that of the correlation length, the rms height and slope of the rough sea surface. The damping effect of the organic film changes the physical parameters of the rough sea surface. For example, the organic film will reduce the rms height and slopee of the rough sea surface, which results in the attenuation of the high-frequency components of the PM spectrum leading to modification of the surface PM spectrum. Then, the influence of the organic film on the electromagnetic(EM) scattering coefficients from PM rough sea surface covered by the organic film is investigated and discussed in detail, compared with the clean PM rough sea surface through the method of moments.

  1. Improving the Surface Roughness of Pickled Steel Strip by Control of Rolling Temperature (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Nan; Lin, Szu-Ning; Liou, Horng-Yih; Chang, Chu-Wei; Wu, Chia-Chan; Wang, Ying-Chun


    This investigation is to analyze the surface roughness problem of low carbon pickled steel strips from the view points of prior hot rolling conditions and the hot-rolled scales. The results showed that, compared with other parameters, the most important factor in hot rolling to affect the surface roughness was the rolling temperature. As the temperature was increased, the amount of the outer brittle α-Fe2O3 increased, leading to rough scale/substrate interface and rough surface after pickling. However, the effect of coiling temperature was almost negligible because no further rolling existed after that stage. Quantitative estimation showed that decrease in rolling temperature in this investigation reduced the surface roughness, Ra, from 1.06-1.78 μm to 0.88-1.10 μm after pickling in laboratory. Similar degree of improvement in roughness was also observed after pickling in mill.

  2. Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures induced by surface plasmons coupled via roughness (United States)

    Gurevich, E. L.; Gurevich, S. V.


    In this paper the formation mechanisms of the femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) are discussed. One of the most frequently used theories explains the structures by interference between the incident laser beam and surface plasmon-polariton waves. The latter is most commonly attributed to the coupling of the incident laser light to the surface roughness. We demonstrate that this excitation of surface plasmons contradicts the results of laser-ablation experiments. As an alternative approach to the excitation of LIPSS we analyse development of hydrodynamic instabilities in the melt layer.

  3. Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures induced by surface plasmons coupled via roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurevich, E.L., E-mail: [Chair of Applied Laser Technology, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstraße 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany); Gurevich, S.V., E-mail: [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Straße 9, 48149 Münster (Germany)


    In this paper the formation mechanisms of the femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) are discussed. One of the most frequently used theories explains the structures by interference between the incident laser beam and surface plasmon-polariton waves. The latter is most commonly attributed to the coupling of the incident laser light to the surface roughness. We demonstrate that this excitation of surface plasmons contradicts the results of laser-ablation experiments. As an alternative approach to the excitation of LIPSS we analyse development of hydrodynamic instabilities in the melt layer.

  4. Holographic microscopy and microfluidics platform for measuring wall stress and 3D flow over surfaces textured by micro-pillars (United States)

    Bocanegra Evans, Humberto; Gorumlu, Serdar; Aksak, Burak; Castillo, Luciano; Sheng, Jian


    Understanding how fluid flow interacts with micro-textured surfaces is crucial for a broad range of key biological processes and engineering applications including particle dispersion, pathogenic infections, and drag manipulation by surface topology. We use high-speed digital holographic microscopy (DHM) in combination with a correlation based de-noising algorithm to overcome the optical interference generated by surface roughness and to capture a large number of 3D particle trajectories in a microfluidic channel with one surface patterned with micropillars. It allows us to obtain a 3D ensembled velocity field with an uncertainty of 0.06% and 2D wall shear stress distribution at the resolution of ~65 μPa. Contrary to laminar flow in most microfluidics, we find that the flow is three-dimensional and complex for the textured microchannel. While the micropillars affect the velocity flow field locally, their presence is felt globally in terms of wall shear stresses at the channel walls. These findings imply that micro-scale mixing and wall stress sensing/manipulation can be achieved through hydro-dynamically smooth but topologically rough micropillars.

  5. Effect of Density and Surface Roughness on Optical Properties of Silicon Carbide Optical Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gui-Ling; HUANG Zheng-Ren; LIU Xue-Jian; JIANG Dong-Liang


    @@ The effect of density and surface roughness on the optical properties of silicon carbide optical components is investigated.The density is the major factor of the total reflectance while the surface roughness is the major factor of the diffuse reflectance.The specular reflectance of silicon carbide optical components can be improved by increasing the density and decreasing the surface roughness,in the form of reducing bulk absorption and surface-related scattering,respectively.The contribution of the surface roughness to the specular reflectance is much greater than that of the density.When the rms surface roughness decreases to 2.228nm,the specular reflectance decreases to less than 0.7% accordingly.

  6. Effect of brushing and thermocycling on the shade and surface roughness of CAD-CAM ceramic restorations. (United States)

    Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Wee, Alvin G; Alfaro, Maria F; Afshari, Fatemeh S; Sukotjo, Cortino


    The effects of toothbrushing (B) and thermocycling (TC) on the surface texture of different materials with various fabrication processes have been investigated. However, studies of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) ceramic restorations are limited. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of B and TC on the color stability and surface roughness of extrinsically characterized and glazed CAD-CAM ceramic restorations. Lithium disilicate CAD ceramic (n=90) and zirconia ceramic (n=90) were studied. All specimens were crystallized/sintered, characterized, and glazed following the manufacturer's recommendation. The specimens were divided into 9 different groups: B, TC, and a combination of B plus TC (B+TC). Brushing was performed at 50 000, 100 000, and 150 000 cycles, simulating an oral environment of 5, 10, and 15 years. Thermocycling was performed at 6000, 12 000, and 18 000 cycles, simulating an oral environment of 5, 10, and 15 years. Brushing plus TC was performed with the combination of the 50 000 cycles of B, then 6000 cycles of TC, and 10 000 cycles of B, then 12 000 cycles of TC, and 15 000 cycles of B, then 18 000 cycles of TC. The color and surface roughness of each specimen were measured before and after all interventions with simulated cycles. Color differences (ΔE) and surface roughness (ΔRa) data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA, followed by the least significant difference test (α=.05). The correlation between ΔE and ΔRa was statistically analyzed using the Pearson correlation analysis. Within the lithium disilicate CAD groups, intervention did not result in any significant differences in color change (P>.05). Within the zirconia groups, a 15-year clinical simulation revealed significantly higher ΔE values than a simulated 5-year exposure (P=.017). Increased simulated cycles showed significantly higher Ra values for all groups. Within the zirconia groups, B revealed

  7. Mapping water surface roughness in a shallow, gravel-bed river using hyperspectral imagery (United States)

    Overstreet, B. T.; Legleiter, C. J.


    Rapid advances in remote sensing are narrowing the gap between the data available for characterizing physical and biological processes in rivers and the information needed to guide river management decisions. The availability and quality of hyperspectral imagery have increased drastically over the past 20 years and hyperspectral data is now used in a number of different capacities that range from classifying riverine environments to measuring river bathymetry. A fundamental challenge in relating the spectral data from images to biophysical processes is the difficulty of isolating individual contributions to the at-sensor radiance, each associated with a different component of the fluvial environment. In this presentation we describe a method for isolating the contribution of light reflected from the water surface, or sun glint, from a hyperspectral image of a shallow gravel-bed river. We show that isolation and removal of sun glint can improve the accuracy of spectrally-based depth retrieval in cases where sun glint dominates the at-sensor radiance. Observed-vs.-predicted R2 values for depth retrieval improved from 0.56 to 0.68 following sun glint removal. In addition to clarifying the signal associated with the water column and bed, isolating sun glint could unlock important hydraulic information contained within the topography of the water surface. We present data from flume and field experiments suggesting that the intensity of sun glint is a function of water surface roughness. In rivers, water surface roughness depends on local flow hydraulics: depth, velocity, and bed material grain size. To explore this relationship, we coupled maps of image-derived sun glint with hydraulic measurements collected with a kayak-borne acoustic Doppler current profiler along 2 km of the Snake River in Grand Teton National Park. Spatial patterns of sun glint are spatially correlated with field observations of near-surface velocity and depth, suggesting that reach scale hydraulics

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of shark skin texture surfaces for microchannel flow (United States)

    Yu, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Hao-Chun; Guo, Yang-Yu; Tan, He-Ping; Li, Yao; Xie, Gong-Nan


    The studies of shark skin textured surfaces in flow drag reduction provide inspiration to researchers overcoming technical challenges from actual production application. In this paper, three kinds of infinite parallel plate flow models with microstructure inspired by shark skin were established, namely blade model, wedge model and the smooth model, according to cross-sectional shape of microstructure. Simulation was carried out by using FLUENT, which simplified the computation process associated with direct numeric simulations. To get the best performance from simulation results, shear-stress transport k-omega turbulence model was chosen during the simulation. Since drag reduction mechanism is generally discussed from kinetics point of view, which cannot interpret the cause of these losses directly, a drag reduction rate was established based on the second law of thermodynamics. Considering abrasion and fabrication precision in practical applications, three kinds of abraded geometry models were constructed and tested, and the ideal microstructure was found to achieve best performance suited to manufacturing production on the basis of drag reduction rate. It was also believed that bionic shark skin surfaces with mechanical abrasion may draw more attention from industrial designers and gain wide applications with drag-reducing characteristics.

  9. Effects of surface roughness and electrokinetic heterogeneity on electroosmotic flow in microchannel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masilamani, Kannan; Ganguly, Suvankar; Feichtinger, Christian; Bartuschat, Dominik; Rüde, Ulrich, E-mail: [Department of Computer Science 10 University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr.11 91058 Erlangen (Germany)


    In this paper, a hybrid lattice-Boltzmann and finite-difference (LB-FD) model is applied to simulate the effects of three-dimensional surface roughness and electrokinetic heterogeneity on electroosmotic flow (EOF) in a microchannel. The lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method has been employed to obtain the flow field and a finite-difference (FD) method is used to solve the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation for the electrostatic potential distribution. Numerical simulation of flow through a square cross-section microchannel with designed roughness is conducted and the results are critically analysed. The effects of surface heterogeneity on the electroosmotic transport are investigated for different roughness height, width, roughness interval spacing, and roughness surface potential. Numerical simulations reveal that the presence of surface roughness changes the nature of electroosmotic transport through the microchannel. It is found that the electroosmotic velocity decreases with the increase in roughness height and the velocity profile becomes asymmetric. For the same height of the roughness elements, the EOF velocity rises with the increase in roughness width. For the heterogeneously charged rough channel, the velocity profile shows a distinct deviation from the conventional plug-like flow pattern. The simulation results also indicate locally induced flow vortices which can be utilized to enhance the flow and mixing within the microchannel. The present study has important implications towards electrokinetic flow control in the microchannel, and can provide an efficient way to design a microfluidic system of practical interest. (paper)

  10. Massively Parallel Computation of Soil Surface Roughness Parameters on A Fermi GPU (United States)

    Li, Xiaojie; Song, Changhe


    Surface roughness is description of the surface micro topography of randomness or irregular. The standard deviation of surface height and the surface correlation length describe the statistical variation for the random component of a surface height relative to a reference surface. When the number of data points is large, calculation of surface roughness parameters is time-consuming. With the advent of Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) architectures, inherently parallel problem can be effectively solved using GPUs. In this paper we propose a GPU-based massively parallel computing method for 2D bare soil surface roughness estimation. This method was applied to the data collected by the surface roughness tester based on the laser triangulation principle during the field experiment in April 2012. The total number of data points was 52,040. It took 47 seconds on a Fermi GTX 590 GPU whereas its serial CPU version took 5422 seconds, leading to a significant 115x speedup.

  11. Numerical simulation of bistatic scattering from fractal rough surface in the finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    By using the Monte Carlo method and numerical finite elementapproach, bistatic scattering from the fractal and Gaussian rough surfaces is studied. The difference between these two surfaces and their functional dependence on the surface parameters are discussed. Angular variation of bistatic scattering from the fractal surface is very significant, even for fairly smooth surface, whilst scattering from the Gaussian rough surface tends to the specular reflection. The slope of angular variation is linearly related with the fractal dimension. If an electrically_large target is placed over the rough surface, the fractal dimension inverted from bistatic scattering would be reduced. As the surfaces become very rough, scattering from different fractal and Gaussian surfaces would be not identified.

  12. On the relationship between wheel and rail surface roughness and rolling noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, D.J.


    Theoretical models linking rolling noise and surface roughness have been available for some 20 years. For even longer, the qualitative link has been acknowledged between the presence of visible corrugation on rail or wheel surfaces and increased noise generation. This roughness, or undulation in the

  13. Skid resistance and surface roughness testing of historic stone surfaces: advantages and limitations (United States)

    Török, Ákos


    Skid resistance tests are mostly applied for testing road surfaces and almost never applied for testing stones at cultural heritage sites. The present study focuses on the possibilities of using these techniques in assessing the surface roughness of paving stones at a historic site. Two different methods were used in a comparative way to evaluate the surface properties of various types of stones ranging from travertine to non-porous limestone and granite. The applied techniques included the use of SRT pendulum (Skid Resistance Tester) providing USRV values and a mobile equipment to analyze the surface properties (Floor Slide Control) by surface profiling and providing angle of friction. The main aims of tests were to understand the wearing of stone materials due to intense pedestrian use and to detect surface changes/surface roughness and slip resistance within few year periods. The measured loss in surface slip resistance (i.e. USRV values) was in the order of 20% for granites, while most limestones lost at least 40% in terms of USRV values. An opposite trend was detected for a porous travertine type, where the surface became rougher after years of use. The limitations of these techniques are also addressed in the paper. The tests have shown that the introduction of the use of these equipments in heritage studies provide useful information on the longevity of historic stone pavements that are open for public use.

  14. Surface roughness measurement and analysis of mechanical parts based on digital holography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Jing Zhou; Ke-Qin Peng; Ying-Jie Yu


    We measure the surface roughness of the mechanical parts based on digital holography.A digital offaxis hologram recording setup for reflective samples is built.Firstly,the height reconstruction error 2.3% of the setup is calibrated by using the quartz step height standard (VLSI-SHS-880QC).Then,the standard scribed-line model and the grinding roughness specimen are selected as the test samples and their surface roughness are 0.095 6 μm and 0.025 3 μm,with errors 6.3%,0.9%,respectively.The results are in good agreement with the given roughness parameters.At last,we also analyze the window effect of the filter on the roughness measurement value based on digital holography.In conclu sion,the paper demonstrated effectively that the digital holography could provide the surface feature for the roughness measurement with high accuracy.

  15. Measurement of Mode Interaction Due to Waveguide Surface Roughness. (United States)


    Speed of Mode 1 over Wedge Roughness at 7813 Hz Due to Cycle Error q. 104 q cprI (mis) Cr r 100M% -2 335.33 6.94 -1 346.16 3.93 0 357.73 0.72 1370.07...4.4 Mode 2 Energy Attenuation Freq (Hz) Smooth (dB/m) Rough (dB/m) 7750 2.0 4.8 15750 2.8 10.5 23500 3.5 12.2 31250 4.3 10.1 110 c -c q CprI (m/s) .pr... cprI x 100(%)C pr -1 377.30 1.86 0 398.58 -3.68 Table 35. Change in Phase Speed of Mode I over Random Roughness at 7750 Hz Due to Cycle Error q. 124

  16. Effects of soil surface roughness on interrill erosion processes and sediment particle size distribution (United States)

    Ding, Wenfeng; Huang, Chihua


    Soil surface roughness significantly impacts runoff and erosion under rainfall. Few previous studies on runoff generation focused on the effects of soil surface roughness on the sediment particle size distribution (PSD), which greatly affects interrill erosion and sedimentation processes. To address this issue, a rainfall-simulation experiment was conducted with treatments that included two different initial soil surface roughnesses and two rainfall intensities. Soil surface roughness was determined by using photogrammetric method. For each simulated event, runoff and sediment samples were collected at different experimental times. The effective (undispersed) PSD of each sediment sample and the ultimate (after dispersion) PSD were used to investigate the detachment and transport mechanisms involved in sediment movement. The results show that soil surface roughness significantly delayed runoff initiation, but had no significant effect on the steady runoff rate. However, a significant difference in the soil loss rate was observed between the smooth and rough soil surfaces. Sediments from smooth soil surfaces were more depleted in clay-size particles, but more enriched in sand-size particles than those from rough soil surfaces, suggesting that erosion was less selective on smooth than on rough soil surfaces. The ratio of different sizes of transported sediment to the soil matrix indicates that most of the clay was eroded in the form of aggregates, silt-size particles were transported mainly as primary particles, and sand-size particles were predominantly aggregates of finer particles. Soil surface roughness has a crucial effect on the sediment size distribution and erosion processes. Significant differences of the enrichment ratios for the effective PSD and the ultimate PSD were observed under the two soil surface roughness treatments. These findings demonstrate that we should consider each particle size separately rather than use only the total sediment discharge in

  17. Performance of a novel polishing rubber wheel in improving surface roughness of feldspathic porcelain. (United States)

    Han, Geum-Jun; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Mi-Ae; Chae, So-Yeon; Lee, Yun-Hee; Cho, Byeong-Hoon


    Replacing glazing with polishing is still controversial in terms of the surface roughness of dental porcelains. This study investigated the polishing performance of a ceramic-polishing rubber wheel (CP-RW), which contains large uniform and rounded silicon carbide particles and small diamond particles, in improving the surface roughness of two feldspathic porcelains for sintering and CAD/CAM milling. Using a confocal laser scanning microscopy, the changes in the surface roughness parameters were evaluated before and after polishing or glazing for three surface treatment groups: SofLex polishing, CP-RW polishing, and Glazing. Regardless of the parameters, all treatments reduced roughness values (repeated measures ANOVA, ppolishing were lower than those obtained after SofLex polishing and glazing (2-way ANOVA, pPolishing both ceramics with CP-RW made the surfaces smooth with the lowest roughness values in all parameters. The effect was dependent on the materials used.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In laser cutting, the cut quality is of great importance. Multiple non-linear effects of process parameters and their interactions make very difficult to predict cut quality. In this paper, artificial intelligence (AI approach was applied to predict the surface roughness in CO2 laser cutting. To this aim, artificial neural network (ANN model of surface roughness was developed in terms of cutting speed, laser power and assist gas pressure. The experimental results obtained from Taguchi’s L25 orthogonal array were used to develop ANN model. The ANN mathematical model of surface roughness was expressed as explicit nonlinear function of the selected input parameters. Statistical results indicate that the ANN model can predict the surface roughness with good accuracy. It was showed that ANNs may be used as a good alternative in analyzing the effects of cutting parameters on the surface roughness.

  19. A study of the efficiency of a gas screen on a rough surface (United States)

    Komarov, V. P.; Leontev, A. I.; Okolito, L. A.; Puzach, V. G.


    A study of the efficiency of a gas screen generated on a rough surface by injection through a passive porous section shows that the Kutateladze-Leontiev theory (1972) formulated for smooth surfaces can be extended to rough surfaces. The knowledge of the relative friction law and of the velocity profiles is required, however, for each specific rough surface. For the quadratic law of the rough surface resistance, experimental data on friction and velocity profiles are generalized, and a formula for the gas screen efficiency is derived. It is found that for the quadratic law of resistance, the efficiency of a gas screen is independent of the height and spacing of the roughness elements.

  20. Investigation of Surface Roughness Effect on Transition Edge Sensor Microcalorimeters Using Multilayer Readout Wiring (United States)

    Kuromaru, G.; Kuwabara, K.; Miyazaki, N.; Suzuki, S.; Hosoya, S.; Koizumi, Y.; Ohashi, T.; Ishisaki, Y.; Ezoe, Y.; Yamada, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Hidaka, M.; Satoh, T.


    We are developing a transition edge sensor (TES) using multilayer readout wiring for future X-ray astronomy satellites. Although we fabricated a first full 20 × 20 pixels TES array, we could not confirm transition of the TES. Considering possible causes, we focused on surface roughness of the TES film. We checked the fabrication process steps that can influence the surface roughness step by step, and changed wiring material (Al to Nb) and also a process condition of an ion milling. As a result, we succeeded to reduce the surface roughness from 4.5 to 2.5 nm rms at 1 \\upmu m scale. However, the transition was not observed probably because the TES films in our samples with surface roughness more than {˜ }1 nm rms tend not to show the transition. Therefore, to suppress the surface roughness even more, we discuss possible process effects and mitigations.

  1. Effect of surface roughness and adhesive system on repair potential of silorane-based resin composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas H. Mobarak


    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the influence of surface roughness and adhesive system on the repair strength of silorane-based resin composite. Twenty-four substrate discs from silorane-based FiltekP90 were made and stored for 24 h. Half of the discs were roughened against 320 grit SiC paper while the other half was polished against 4000 grit SiC paper. All discs were etched with phosphoric acid. Repair resin composite, FiltekP90 or FiltekZ250, was bonded to the treated surfaces using their corresponding adhesive; P90 System Adhesive (SA or Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose (SBMP ending up with four repair groups. The groups were as follows: G1: Smooth + SA + FiltekP90; G2: Roughened + SA + FiltekP90; G3: Smooth + SBMP + FiltekZ250; G4: Roughened + SBMP + FiltekZ250. Additional six unrepaired discs from each resin composite (G5 and G6 were prepared to test the cohesive strength. After 24 h, discs (n = 6/group were serially sectioned to obtain sticks (n = 30/group for microtensile bond strength (μTBS testing. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM evaluation of substrates that received different treatments as well as representative substrate-repair sticks from each group were performed. Modes of failure were also determined. Two-way ANOVA with Repeated-Measures revealed that surface treatment and repair material had no significant effect on repair bond strength of silorane-based composite material. Paired t-test showed that all repair strength values were significantly lower than the cohesive strength of FiltekP90. Adhesive failure was the predominant mode of failure which was confirmed by SEM. Surface treated FiltekP90 composite showed different textures under SEM whereas phosphoric acid did not produce clear changes. An interaction layer between SBMP adhesive and FiltekZ250 repairing composite was detected. Repair of the silorane composite was successful irrespective of the surface roughness and chemistry of the repair

  2. Impact of EUVL mask surface roughness on an actinic blank inspection image and a wafer image (United States)

    Yamane, Takeshi; Terasawa, Tsuneo


    An impact of EUVL mask surface roughness on actinic inspection was studied. The background level (BGL) of an actinic inspection image is caused by the light scattered from the mask blank surface roughness. The BGL is found to be proportional to the square of the mask surface roughness measured by AFM. By using this proportionality coefficient, a global distribution of the surface roughness can be obtained at the same time while inspection a mask. On the other hand, any local variation of BGL indicates variation of the mask surface roughness at each pixel. Assuming that the roughness at a center pixel is 0.15 nm rms (SEMI standard specification) and those at the surrounding pixels are 0.1 nm rms, the signal intensity at the center pixel is found to be approximately the same as that of a 1.2 nm-high and 40 nm-wide programmed defect. In that case, CD error on a wafer image due to the reflectivity loss by the roughness is found to be not critical. This means that the local roughness should be less than 0.15 nm rms, and that the inspection system can detect such a local variation of the roughness with 100 % probability.

  3. Effect of various tooth whitening modalities on microhardness, surface roughness and surface morphology of the enamel. (United States)

    Kwon, So Ran; Kurti, Steven R; Oyoyo, Udochukwu; Li, Yiming


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of four whitening modalities on surface enamel as assessed with microhardness tester, profilometer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Whitening was performed according to manufacturer's directions for over-the-counter (OTC), dentist dispensed for home use (HW) and in-office (OW) whitening. Do-it-yourself (DIY) whitening consisted of a strawberry and baking soda mix. Additionally, negative and positive controls were used. A total of 120 enamel specimens were used for microhardness testing at baseline and post-whitening. Following microhardness testing specimens were prepared for SEM observations. A total of 120 enamel specimens were used for surface roughness testing at baseline and post-whitening (n = 20 per group). Rank-based Analysis of Covariance was performed to compare microhardness and surface roughness changes. Tests of hypotheses were two-sided with α = 0.05. There was a significant difference in Knoop hardness changes (ΔKHN) among the groups (Kruskal-Wallis test, p test, p microhardness and an OTC product as it has the potential to increase surface roughness.

  4. Wetting of the (0001) α-Al2O3 Sapphire Surface by Molten Aluminum: Effect of Surface Roughness (United States)

    Aguilar-Santillan, Joaquin


    The wetting of molten aluminum on the “ c”-plane (0001) of single-crystal α-Al2O3 (sapphire) was studied by the sessile drop technique from 800 °C (1073 K) to 1200 °C (1473 K). Systematically increasing the (0001) surface roughness by SiC abrasion increased the wetting contact angle, resulting in reduced wetting. The surface roughness factor R originally defined by Wenzel, was determined as a function of the abrasion, temperature, and time. The wetting decreases as the surface roughness increases. Rough surfaces also create time and temperature effects on wetting, changing those for a smoothly polished surface. The existence of a high-temperature surface structural transition for (0001) of α-Al2O3, which has been previously suggested, was confirmed. Increased roughness R accents the effect of the surface structural transition, increasing the wetting contact angle changes during the transition.

  5. Surface Roughness Models and Their Experimental Validation in Micro Milling of 6061-T6 Al Alloy by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yi


    Full Text Available Due to the widespread use of high-accuracy miniature and micro features or components, it is required to predict the machined surface performance of the micro milling processes. In this paper, a new predictive model of the surface roughness is established by response surface method (RSM according to the micro milling experiment of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy which is carried out based on the central composite circumscribed (CCC design. Then the model is used to analyze the effects of parameters on the surface roughness, and it can be concluded that the surface roughness increases with the increasing of the feed rate and the decreasing of the spindle speed. At last, based on the model the contour map of the surface roughness and material removal rate is established for optimizing the process parameters to improve the cutting efficiency with good surface roughness. The prediction results from the model have good agreement with the experimental results.

  6. Some technical methods to study the roughness of some surfaces generated into metallic targets by laser micro piercing in determined conditions (United States)

    Bokor, Corina; Rau, Ileana B.; Isarie, Ilie V.; Isarie, Claudiu; Kappel, Wilhelm; Mortoiu, Doina; Ticusan, Stelian; Itu, Sorin


    Dimensional machining realized by laser beam and/or another concentrated energy sources in metallic targets, is based on melting, vaporisation and expulsion of some quantities of metal as a function of radiation parameters and material nature. In some cases as: drawing plates used for the synthetic wires, fine fuel filters or fuel injectors, for the internal surface of the hole, is prefered more roughness in comparison of the holes, realized by classic piercing. For instance, to realize some textures of simple synthetic fibres or in combination with natural fibres we want to have not a smooth surface, but a rough one because in this way, the texture will be more resistant in the places exposed at different efforts. Concerning the fuel injectors we prefere the same: a rough surface, in order to ensure a better pulverized jet of the fuel. In the same time, when the hole is machined with a concentrated energy: L.B.M., E.B.M. a.s.o. the injector has a longer life. It is not very easy to study the roughness resulted by L.B.M. in a less than 0.2 mm diameter hole. To avoid errors of investigation, authors have experienced on pieces of carbide and alloyed steel which were bored on separate adjacent plans, and in this way, the bored surfaces were not affected by a cutting operation after boring, for such small diameters.

  7. Evaluation of Tire/Surfacing/Base Contact Stresses and Texture Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J.vdM. Steyn


    Full Text Available Tire rolling resistance has a major impact on vehicle fuel consumption. Rolling resistance is the loss of energy due to the interaction between the tire and the pavement surface. This interaction is a complicated combination of stresses and strains which depend on both tire and pavement related factors. These include vehicle speed, vehicle weight, tire material and type, road camber, tire inflation pressure, pavement surfacing texture etc. In this paper the relationship between pavement surface texture depth and tire/surfacing contact stress and area is investigated. Texture depth and tire/surfacing contact stress were measured for a range of tire inflation pressures on five different pavement surfaces. In the analysis the relationship between texture and the generated contact stresses as well as the contact stress between the surfacing and base layer are presented and discussed, and the anticipated effect of these relationships on the rolling resistance of vehicles on the surfacings, and subsequent vehicle fuel economy discussed.

  8. Influence of ceramic surface texture on the wear of gold alloy and heat-pressed ceramics. (United States)

    Saiki, Osamu; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Nogawa, Hiroshi; Hiraba, Haruto; Akazawa, Nobutaka; Matsumura, Hideo


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of ceramic surface texture on the wear of rounded rod specimens. Plate specimens were fabricated from zirconia (ZrO2), feldspathic porcelain, and lithium disilicate glass ceramics (LDG ceramics). Plate surfaces were either ground or polished. Rounded rod specimens with a 2.0-mm-diameter were fabricated from type 4 gold alloy and heat-pressed ceramics (HP ceramics). Wear testing was performed by means of a wear testing apparatus under 5,000 reciprocal strokes of the rod specimen with 5.9 N vertical loading. The results were statistically analyzed with a non-parametric procedure. The gold alloy showed the maximal height loss (90.0 µm) when the rod specimen was abraded with ground porcelain, whereas the HP ceramics exhibited maximal height loss (49.8 µm) when the rod specimen was abraded with ground zirconia. There was a strong correlation between height loss of the rod and surface roughness of the underlying plates, for both the gold alloy and HP ceramics.

  9. Wear Characterization of Cemented Carbides (WC–CoNi Processed by Laser Surface Texturing under Abrasive Machining Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqi Fang


    Full Text Available Cemented carbides are outstanding engineering materials widely used in quite demanding material removal applications. In this study, laser surface texturing is implemented for enhancing, at the surface level, the intrinsic bulk-like tribological performance of these materials. In this regard, hexagonal pyramids patterned on the cutting surface of a tungsten cemented carbide grade (WC–CoNi have been successfully introduced by means of laser surface texturing. It simulates the surface topography of conventional honing stones for abrasive application. The laser-produced structure has been tested under abrasive machining conditions with full lubrication. Wear of the structure has been characterized and compared, before and after the abrasive machining test, in terms of changes in geometry aspect and surface integrity. It is found that surface roughness of the machined workpiece was improved by the laser-produced structure. Wear characterization shows that laser treatment did not induce any significant damage to the cemented carbide. During the abrasive machining test, the structure exhibited a high wear resistance. Damage features were only discerned at the contacting surface, whereas geometrical shape of pyramids remained unchanged.

  10. The effectiveness of polishing kits: influence on surface roughness of zirconia. (United States)

    Preis, Verena; Grumser, Katharina; Schneider-Feyrer, Sibylle; Behr, Michael; Rosentritt, Martin


    This study investigated the effectiveness of intraoral and technical polishing kits. Zirconia specimens were sintered, ground, and polished with 14 different two-step or three-step polishing kits. Surface roughness (Ra, Rz) after each treatment step was determined, and scanning electron micrographs were made. Except for one system, all polishing kits were effective in reducing the surface roughness of ground zirconia. Differences in surface roughness were high after the first polishing step but were reduced to Ra/Rz values similar to or lower than those of the sintered reference after the final polishing step. Achieving smooth surfaces depended on a sequential application of all polishing steps.

  11. Rough SERS substrate based on gold coated porous silicon layer prepared on the silicon backside surface (United States)

    Dridi, H.; Haji, L.; Moadhen, A.


    We report in this paper a novel method to elaborate rough Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) substrate. A single layer of porous silicon was formed on the silicon backside surface. Morphological characteristics of the porous silicon layer before and after gold deposition were influenced by the rough character (gold size). The reflectance measurements showed a dependence of the gold nano-grains size on the surface nature, through the Localized Surface Plasmon (LSP) band properties. SERS signal of Rhodamine 6G used as a model analyte, adsorbed on the rough porous silicon layer revealed a marked enhancement of its vibrational modes intensities.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Bławucki


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research on the effect of the surface roughness of aluminum alloy on its coefficient of restitution. It describes the current method of finishing the workpiece surface layer after cutting and innovative measuring device which was used in the research. The material used in the research was aluminium alloy EN AW 7075. The paper also presents a relationship between the coefficient of restitution and surface roughness of the milled samples as well as impressions left by bead in function of velocity and a sample surface roughness.

  13. A general correlation for deposition of suspended particles from turbulent gases to completely rough surfaces (United States)

    Schack, Carl J.; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.; Friedlander, S. K.

    A general correlation has been developed for particle deposition from turbulent gas flows to completely rough surfaces. The correlation is based on experimental data taken from the literature, and the theory of particle deposition by diffusion and interception from boundary layer flows. The surfaces include artificial grass, rye grass, water and gravel. Two empirical factors which depend on the structure of the roughness layer appear in the correlation. These factors have been evaluated for various rough surfaces based on a reference surface, the sticky artificial grass of Chamberlain (1966, 1967).

  14. Track sensitivity and the surface roughness measurements of CR-39 with atomic force microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Yasuda, N; Amemiya, K; Takahashi, H; Kyan, A; Ogura, K


    Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) has been applied to evaluate the surface roughness and the track sensitivity of CR-39 track detector. We experimentally confirmed the inverse correlation between the track sensitivity and the roughness of the detector surface after etching. The surface of CR-39 (CR-39 doped with antioxidant (HARZLAS (TD-1)) and copolymer of CR-39/NIPAAm (TNF-1)) with high sensitivity becomes rough by the etching, while the pure CR-39 (BARYOTRAK) with low sensitivity keeps its original surface clarity even for the long etching.

  15. Surface texturing for adaptive Ag/MoS_2 solid lubricant plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The objective of this research is to prepare specially designed surface texture on hard steel surface by electrochemical micromachining (EM) and to incorporate electroless plated Ag/MoS2 solid lubricant coating into the dimples of EM textured steel surface to effectively reduce friction and wear of steel-steel contacts. The friction and wear behavior of the Ag/MoS2 solid lubricant coating on EM textured steel surface was evaluated in relation to the size and spacing of the dimples thereon. The microstructur...

  16. An investigation on surface roughness of granite machined by abrasive waterjet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gokhan Aydin; Izzet Karakurt; Kerim Aydiner


    Abrasive waterjet (AWJ) cutting is an emerging technology which enables the shaping of practically all engineering materials. However, AWJ cutting may cause roughness and waviness on the cut surface. This significantly affects the dimensional accuracy of the machined part and the quality of surface finish. In this study, the surface roughness of three granites is experimentally investigated for varying process parameters in abrasive waterjet. The philosophy of the Taguchi design is followed in the experimental study. Effects of the control (process) factors on the surface roughness are presented in terms of the mean of means responses. Additionally, the data obtained are evaluated statistically using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine significant process parameters affecting the surface roughness. Furthermore, effects of the material properties on the surface roughness are assessed. It was statistically found that the water pressure and the abrasive flow rate are the most significant factors influencing the surface roughness of granites. Additionally, a consistent relationship between the material grain size and surface roughness of the granites was observed.

  17. Influence of ion beam bombardment on surface roughness of K9 glass substrate (United States)

    Pan, Yongqiang; Huang, Guojun; Hang, Lingxia


    Ion beam bombardment optical substrate surface has become an important part of process of optical thin films deposition. In this work, the K9 optical glass is bombarded by the broad beam cold cathode ion source. The dependence of the K9 glass surface roughness on the ion beam bombardment time, the ion energy, the distance and incident angle are all investigated, respectively. Surface roughness of K9 glass is measured using Talysurf CCI. The experimental results show that when the ion energy is 800ev, the bombardment distance of 20cm, with the ion beam bombardment time increased, the K9 substrate surface roughness first increase and then decrease. When the ion beam bombardment distance is 20cm, bombardment time is 10min, with the bombardment energy increases, substrate surface roughness increase first and then decrease, especially in the ion energy greater than 1200ev, the optical substrate surface roughness rapidly increases. When the ion energy is 800 eV, bombardment time is 10min, with the bombardment distance increase, substrate surface roughness decrease gradually. Furthermore, the incident angle of ion beam plays an important role in improving the K9 glass surface roughness.

  18. The boundary layer over turbine blade models with realistic rough surfaces (United States)

    McIlroy, Hugh M., Jr.

    The impact of turbine blade surface roughness on aerodynamic performance and heat loads is well known. Over time, as the turbine blades are exposed to heat loads, the external surfaces of the blades become rough. Also, for film-cooled blades, surface degradation can have a significant impact on film-cooling effectiveness. Many studies have been conducted on the effects of surface degradation/roughness on engine performance but most investigations have modeled the rough surfaces with uniform or two-dimensional roughness patterns. The objective of the present investigation is to conduct measurements that will reveal the influence of realistic surface roughness on the near-wall behavior of the boundary layer. Measurements have been conducted at the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory with a laser Doppler velocimeter. A flat plate model of a turbine blade has been developed that produces a transitional boundary layer, elevated freestream turbulence and an accelerating freestream in order to simulate conditions on the suction side of a high-pressure turbine blade. Boundary layer measurements have been completed over a smooth plate model and over a model with a strip of realistic rough surface. The realistic rough surface was developed by scaling actual turbine blade surface data that was provided by U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory. The results indicate that bypass transition occurred very early in the flow over the model and that the boundary layer remained unstable throughout the entire length of the test plate; the boundary layer thickness and momentum thickness Reynolds numbers increased over the rough patch; and the shape factor increased over the rough patch but then decreased downstream of the patch relative to the smooth plate case; in the rough patch case the flow experienced two transition reversals with laminar-like behavior achieved by the end of the test plate; streamwise turbulence


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper, the influence of surface roughness on flow structure was numerically studied.An adaptive numerical method, the fast vortex method was employed.A mathematical roughness, which comes from the no-slip condition of vortex method, was introduced.The numerical results indicate that the roughness has appreciable influence on the flow structure.The vortex shedding could be controlled if the forward multi-layer boundary condition is exerted.

  20. The effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation on the scanning electron microscopic structure and surface roughness of various implant surfaces: an in vitro study. (United States)

    Shin, Seung-Il; Min, Hyung-Ki; Park, Bo-Hyun; Kwon, Young-Hyuk; Park, Joon-Bong; Herr, Yeek; Heo, Seong-Joo; Chung, Jong-Hyuk


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness (R(a)) and microscopic change to irradiated dental implant surfaces in vitro and ultimately to determine the proper pulse energy power and application time for the clinical use of Er:YAG lasers. Anodic oxidized surface implants and sand-blasted, large-grit, and acid-etched (SLA) surface implants were used. Each experimental group of implant surfaces included ten implants. Nine implants were used for the laser irradiation test groups and one for the control group. Each test group was equally divided into three subgroups by irradiated pulse energy power. Using an Er:YAG laser, each subgroup of anodic oxidized surface implants was split into 60-, 100-, and 140-mJ/pulse groups, with each subgroup of SLA surface implants irradiated with a 100-, 140-, or 180-mJ/pulse. Three implants in every test subgroup were respectively irradiated for 1, 1.5, and 2 min. The R(a) values for each specimen were recorded and every specimen was observed by SEM. Irradiation by Er:YAG laser led to a decrease in implant surface roughness that was not statistically significant. In anodic oxidized surfaces, the oxidized layer peeled off of the surface, and cracks appeared on implant surfaces in the 100- and 140-mJ/pulse subgroups. However, with SLA surfaces, no significant change in surface texture could be found on any implant surface in the 100- and 140-mJ/pulse subgroups. The melting and fusion phenomena of implant surfaces were observed with all application times with 180 mJ/pulse irradiation. The SLA implant surfaces are stable with laser intensities of less than 140 mJ/pulse and an irradiation time of less than 2 min. The anodic oxidized surfaces were not stable with laser intensities of 100 mJ/pulse when an Er:YAG laser was used to detoxify implant surfaces.

  1. Increasing the hydrophobicity degree of stonework by means of laser surface texturing: An application on Zimbabwe black granites (United States)

    Chantada, A.; Penide, J.; Riveiro, A.; del Val, J.; Quintero, F.; Meixus, M.; Soto, R.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.


    Tailoring the wetting characteristics of materials has gained much interest in applications related to surface cleaning in both industry and home. Zimbabwe black granite is a middle-to-fine-grained natural stone commonly used as countertops in kitchens and bathrooms. In this study, the laser texturing of Zimbabwe black granite surfaces is investigated with the aim to enhance its hydrophobic character, thus reducing the attachment of contaminants on the surface. Two laser sources (λ = 1064 and 532 nm) were used for this purpose. The treatment is based on the irradiation of the stone by a laser focused on the surface of the targeting sample. The influence of different laser processing parameters on the surface characteristics of granite (wettability, roughness, and chemistry) was statistically assessed. Most suitable laser processing parameters required to obtain the highest hydrophobicity degree were identified. It has been possible to identify the 532 nm laser wavelength as the most effective one to increase the hydrophobic degree of Zimbabwe black granite surface. The phenomenon governing wettability changes was found to be the surface roughness patterns, given the unaltered chemical surface composition after laser processing.

  2. [Influence of surface roughness on oral streptococcal adhesion forces to dental filling materials]. (United States)

    Sainan, Zheng; Li, Jiang; Lei, Zhang; Liying, Hao; Lu, Ye; Wei, Li


    This study is to determine the common oral streptococcal adhesion forces by using composite resin and glass ionomer cement (GIC) with different degrees of surface roughness via atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. The influence of surface roughness on bacterial adhesion force is also discussed. Polishing and grinding were applied to obtain 300, 200, 100, and 10 nm surfaces of light-cured composite resin and GIC samples. Surface topography was assessed by AFM analysis. Initial colonizers (Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mitis) and cariogenic bacterial strains (Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus) were used to obtain bacteria-modified AFM probes. The force-distance curves were also measured by AFM analysis to determine the adhesion forces of bacteria on the surfaces of the composite resin and GIC. Material surface roughness was analyzed using ANOVA, and adhesion forces were subjected to nonparametric analysis (Kruskal-Wallis test). Comparison among groups was performed by Dunn's test. Material surface roughness and bacterial adhesion forces were subjected to correlation analysis. Bacterial adhesion forces increased with increasing material roughness. The adhesion forces of the four bacterial species reached the maximum on the material surface of 300 nm. The adhesion force of Streptococcus mutans increased from 0.578 nN to 2.876 nN on GIC surfaces with 10 and 300 nm roughness. The adhesion forces of the four species on the surface of the composite resin were stronger than that of GIC. The initial colonizers exhibited stronger adhesion forces to different materials than the cariogenic strains. Intergroup differences were evident on the 200 and 300 nm material surfaces. The surface roughness of the material significantly affected the bacterial adhesion forces, and a significant linear correlation existed between both factors. The bacterial adhesion forces of the GIC were lower than that of the composite resin. Furthermore, surface roughness

  3. Mathematical Modeling of Surface Roughness of Castings Produced Using ZCast Direct Metal Casting (United States)

    Chhabra, M.; Singh, R.


    Aim of this investigation is to develop a mathematical model for predicting surface roughness of castings produced using ZCast process by employing Buckingham's π-theorem. A relationship has been proposed between surface roughness of castings and shell wall thickness of the shell moulds fabricated using 3D printer. Based on model, experiments were performed to obtain the surface roughness of aluminium, brass and copper castings produced using ZCast process based on 3D printing technique. Based on experimental data, three best fitted third-degree polynomial equations have been established for predicting the surface roughness of castings. The predicted surface roughness values were then calculated using established best fitted equations. An error analysis was performed to compare the experimental and predicted data. The average prediction errors obtained for aluminium, brass and copper castings are 10.6, 2.43 and 3.12 % respectively. The obtained average surface roughness (experimental and predicted) values of castings produced are acceptable with the sand cast surface roughness values range (6.25-25 µm).

  4. Wear Resistance of 3Cr2W8V Rough Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Hong; Wang Wei; Ren Lu-quan; Li Yue; Li Chen


    Three types of rough surface were processed by laser irradiation on the 3Cr2W8V material hot-work die steel surface.The wear experiments with smooth surface and rough surface samples were repeated on the pin-tray wear machine. According to the wear results, we studied the regularity of wear resistance of different rough surface samples. The results indicated that bionic rough surface can improve the wear resistance of the material and the wear resistance can be increased 1 -2times, compared with the smooth surface. Also, the wear resistance of the rough surface was affected by laser current and duration of impulse. The bigger the laser current or the impulse duration, the better is the wear resistance. When the distance between the same kind of units which are distributed on the surfaces is changed, the wear resistance changes. The wear resistance of a bionic rough surface on which the grid units were distributed at spacing of 1 mm was the best. And we designed the wear models.

  5. A validated computational model for the design of surface textures in full-film lubricated sliding (United States)

    Schuh, Jonathon; Lee, Yong Hoon; Allison, James; Ewoldt, Randy


    Our recent experimental work showed that asymmetry is needed for surface textures to decrease friction in full-film lubricated sliding (thrust bearings) with Newtonian fluids; textures reduce the shear load and produce a separating normal force. The sign of the separating normal force is not predicted by previous 1-D theories. Here we model the flow with the Reynolds equation in cylindrical coordinates, numerically implemented with a pseudo-spectral method. The model predictions match experiments, rationalize the sign of the normal force, and allow for design of surface texture geometry. To minimize sliding friction with angled cylindrical textures, an optimal angle of asymmetry β exists. The optimal angle depends on the film thickness but not the sliding velocity within the applicable range of the model. The model has also been used to optimize generalized surface texture topography while satisfying manufacturability constraints.

  6. Tribological Analysis of Ventral Scale Structure in a Python Regius in Relation to Laser Textured Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-aal, Hisham A


    Laser Texturing is one of the leading technologies applied to modify surface topography. To date, however, a standardized procedure to generate deterministic textures is virtually non-existent. In nature, especially in squamata, there are many examples of deterministic structured textures that allow species to control friction and condition their tribological response for efficient function. In this work, we draw a comparison between industrial surfaces and reptilian surfaces. We chose the python regius species as a bio-analogue with a deterministic surface. We first study the structural make up of the ventral scales of the snake (both construction and metrology). We further compare the metrological features of the ventral scales to experimentally recommended performance indicators of industrial surfaces extracted from open literature. The results indicate the feasibility of engineering a Laser Textured Surface based on the reptilian ornamentation constructs. It is shown that the metrological features, key to...

  7. Effect of surface penetrating sealant on surface texture and microhardness of composite resins. (United States)

    Bertrand, M F; Leforestier, E; Muller, M; Lupi-Pégurier, L; Bolla, M


    The application of Fortify (Bisco, Lombard, IL), an unfilled resin, to the surface of composite resin restorations is intended to fill in defects in the surface that persist despite polishing, improve marginal integrity, and increase these materials' resistance to abrasion. The aim of this study was to observe the surface texture by scanning electron microscopy and measure the microhardness of the surface. For each sample of composite resin covered with glaze, 40 measurements were made of the thickness of the resin. Measurements of the Vickers microhardness included three samples of composite resin, three samples of glaze, and six samples of composite resin covered with glaze. A relationship was established between microhardness and thickness. Scanning electron microscopy showed a noticeable improvement in the surface texture. Nevertheless, areas were seen in which glaze seemed very thin or even completely absent. Measurements of the thickness ranged from 0-70 microm. The mean microhardness of composite resin was 65.8 +/- 0.7, while the mean hardness of glaze was 7.3 +/- 0.7. The microhardness of the double layer was reduced, depending on the thickness of the glazing resin. The capacity of glaze to mask surface defects of composite resin was shown, but it was difficult to obtain a regular surface with liquid resin. The application of this product caused a decrease of the microhardness of the composite resin's surface.

  8. Deposition at glancing angle, surface roughness, and protein adsorption: Monte Carlo simulations. (United States)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P; Rechendorff, Kristian; Hovgaard, Mads B; Besenbacher, Flemming


    To generate rough surfaces in Monte Carlo simulations, we use the 2 + 1 solid-on-solid model of deposition with rapid transient diffusion of newly arrived atoms supplied at glancing angle. The surfaces generated are employed to scrutinize the effect of surface roughness on adsorption of globular and anisotropic rodlike proteins. The obtained results are compared with the available experimental data for Ta deposition at glancing angle and for the bovine serum albumin and fibrinogen uptake on the corresponding Ta films.

  9. Ultra short pulse laser generated surface textures for anti-ice applications in aviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, G.W.; Del Cerro, D.A.; Sipkema, R.C.J.; Groenendijk, M.N.W.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.


    By laser ablation with ultra short laser pulses in the pico- and femto-second range, well controlled dual scaled micro- and nano-scaled surface textures can be obtained. The micro-scale of the texture is mainly determined by the dimensions of the laser spot, whereas the superimposed nano-structure

  10. Ultra short pulse laser generated surface textures for anti-ice applications in aviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, G.W.; Del Cerro, D.A.; Sipkema, R.C.J.; Groenendijk, M.N.W.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.


    By laser ablation with ultra short laser pulses in the pico- and femto-second range, well controlled dual scaled micro- and nano-scaled surface textures can be obtained. The micro-scale of the texture is mainly determined by the dimensions of the laser spot, whereas the superimposed nano-structure i

  11. Response surface and artificial neural network prediction model and optimization for surface roughness in machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Sahoo


    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the development of prediction model using response surface methodology and artificial neural network and optimizes the process parameter using 3D surface plot. The experiment has been conducted using coated carbide insert in machining AISI 1040 steel under dry environment. The coefficient of determination value for RSM model is found to be high (R2 = 0.99 close to unity. It indicates the goodness of fit for the model and high significance of the model. The percentage of error for RSM model is found to be only from -2.63 to 2.47. The maximum error between ANN model and experimental lies between -1.27 and 0.02 %, which is significantly less than the RSM model. Hence, both the proposed RSM and ANN prediction model sufficiently predict the surface roughness, accurately. However, ANN prediction model seems to be better compared with RSM model. From the 3D surface plots, the optimal parametric combination for the lowest surface roughness is d1-f1-v3 i.e. depth of cut of 0.1 mm, feed of 0.04 mm/rev and cutting speed of 260 m/min respectively.

  12. Quantification of the optical surface reflection and surface roughness of articular cartilage using optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarakkala, Simo; Wang Shuzhe; Huang Yanping; Zheng Yongping [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising new technique for characterizing the structural changes of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA). The calculation of quantitative parameters from the OCT signal is an important step to develop OCT as an effective diagnostic technique. In this study, two novel parameters for the quantification of optical surface reflection and surface roughness from OCT measurements are introduced: optical surface reflection coefficient (ORC), describing the amount of a ratio of the optical reflection from cartilage surface with respect to that from a reference material, and OCT roughness index (ORI) indicating the smoothness of the cartilage surface. The sensitivity of ORC and ORI to detect changes in bovine articular cartilage samples after enzymatic degradations of collagen and proteoglycans using collagenase and trypsin enzymes, respectively, was tested in vitro. A significant decrease (p < 0.001) in ORC as well as a significant increase (p < 0.001) in ORI was observed after collagenase digestion. After trypsin digestion, no significant changes in ORC or ORI were observed. To conclude, the new parameters introduced were demonstrated to be feasible and sensitive to detect typical OA-like degenerative changes in the collagen network. From the clinical point of view, the quantification of OCT measurements is of great interest since OCT probes have been already miniaturized and applied in patient studies during arthroscopy or open knee surgery in vivo. Further studies are still necessary to demonstrate the clinical capability of the introduced parameters for naturally occurring early OA changes in the cartilage.

  13. Quantification of the optical surface reflection and surface roughness of articular cartilage using optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Saarakkala, Simo; Wang, Shu-Zhe; Huang, Yan-Ping; Zheng, Yong-Ping


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising new technique for characterizing the structural changes of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA). The calculation of quantitative parameters from the OCT signal is an important step to develop OCT as an effective diagnostic technique. In this study, two novel parameters for the quantification of optical surface reflection and surface roughness from OCT measurements are introduced: optical surface reflection coefficient (ORC), describing the amount of a ratio of the optical reflection from cartilage surface with respect to that from a reference material, and OCT roughness index (ORI) indicating the smoothness of the cartilage surface. The sensitivity of ORC and ORI to detect changes in bovine articular cartilage samples after enzymatic degradations of collagen and proteoglycans using collagenase and trypsin enzymes, respectively, was tested in vitro. A significant decrease (p < 0.001) in ORC as well as a significant increase (p < 0.001) in ORI was observed after collagenase digestion. After trypsin digestion, no significant changes in ORC or ORI were observed. To conclude, the new parameters introduced were demonstrated to be feasible and sensitive to detect typical OA-like degenerative changes in the collagen network. From the clinical point of view, the quantification of OCT measurements is of great interest since OCT probes have been already miniaturized and applied in patient studies during arthroscopy or open knee surgery in vivo. Further studies are still necessary to demonstrate the clinical capability of the introduced parameters for naturally occurring early OA changes in the cartilage.

  14. Evaluation of long bone surface textures as ontogenetic indicators in centrosaurine ceratopsids. (United States)

    Tumarkin-Deratzian, Allison R


    The search for criteria for aging non-mammalian fossil vertebrates has preoccupied paleobiologists in recent years. Previous studies of the long bones of pterosaurs and modern and subfossil birds as well as of cranial material of centrosaurine ceratopsid dinosaurs have documented variations in surface textures that seem to be ontogenetically related. In this study, long bones from the centrosaurine ceratopsid genera Centrosaurus, Einiosaurus, and Pachyrhinosaurus are examined to test the hypothesis that changes in bone surface textures and reduction of surface porosity could be correlated with size (and presumably age) classes, as has been previously documented in pterosaurs and birds. The data set includes 141 bones representing all six long bone elements, collected from monodominant centrosaurine bone beds. Bone surface patterns are documented by macroscopic visual examination, and a sequence of five texture classes ordered by decreasing surface porosity is described based on the common distributions of these patterns. Calculations of Spearman's rank correlation coefficients reveal significant correlations between texture class and size. The smallest bones are invariably associated with porous midshaft textures that grade to fibrous and long-grained patterns proximally and distally [Texture Class (TC) 1]. Post-hoc analysis after Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA on ranks confirms that the mean size of TC1 bones is, in most cases, significantly different than the mean size of bones in other texture classes. Results of this study suggest the presence of an ontogenetic surface textural signal in centrosaurine long bones; however, comparison of texture classes with size-independent maturity criteria is needed to clarify further the potential ontogenetic significance of higher texture classes.

  15. Surface roughness influence on the quality factor of high frequency nanoresonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G.


    Surface roughness influences significantly the quality factor of high frequency nanoresonators for large frequency-relaxation times (omega tau > 1) within the non-Newtonian regime, where a purely elastic dynamics develops. It is shown that the influence of short wavelength roughness, which is

  16. Surface properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy part I: Surface roughness and apparent surface free energy. (United States)

    Yan, Yingdi; Chibowski, Emil; Szcześ, Aleksandra


    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are the most often used implants material in dental treatment and orthopedics. Topography and wettability of its surface play important role in film formation, protein adhesion, following osseointegration and even duration of inserted implant. In this paper, we prepared Ti-6Al-4V alloy samples using different smoothing and polishing materials as well the air plasma treatment, on which contact angles of water, formamide and diiodomethane were measured. Then the apparent surface free energy was calculated using four different approaches (CAH, LWAB, O-W and Neumann's Equation of State). From LWAB approach the components of surface free energy were obtained, which shed more light on the wetting properties of samples surface. The surface roughness of the prepared samples was investigated with the help of optical profilometer and AFM. It was interesting whether the surface roughness affects the apparent surface free energy. It was found that both polar interactions the electron donor parameter of the energy and the work of water adhesion increased with decreasing roughness of the surfaces. Moreover, short time plasma treatment (1min) caused decrease in the surface hydrophilic character, while longer time (10min) treatment caused significant increase in the polar interactions and the work of water adhesion. Although Ti-6Al-4V alloy has been investigated many times, to our knowledge, so far no paper has been published in which surface roughness and changes in the surface free energy of the alloy were compared in the quantitative way in such large extent. This novel approach deliver better knowledge about the surface properties of differently smoothed and polished samples which may be helpful to facilitate cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralization. Therefore the results obtained present also potentially practical meaning.

  17. Electromagnetic Scattering from Randomly Rough Surfaces with Hybrid FEM/BIE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; GUO Li-Xin; HE Qiong; WEI Bing


    The hybrid finite element method (FEM) together with the boundary integral equation (BIE) is firstly applied to scattering from a conducting rough surface.The BIE is used as the truncation boundary condition for the special unbounled half space,whereas the FEM is used to solve the governing equation in the region surrounded by a rough surface and artificial boundary.Tapered wave incidence is employed to cancel the so-called “edge effect”.A hybrid FEM/BIE form ulation for generalized one-dimensional conducting rough surface scattering is presented,as well as examples that evaluate its validity compared to the method of moments.The bistatic scattering coefficients of a Gaussian rough surface are calculated for transverse-magnetic wave incidence.Conclusions are reached after analyzing the scattering patterns of rough surfaces with different rms heights and correlation lengths Analysis of electromagnetic scattering from a rough surface[1-3] is a very important issue in various areas of electromagnetic wave theory.Methods used to study rough surface scattering can be categorized into two groups:(1) analytical and approximate methods[4,5] and (2) numerical methods.[6,7] including method of moment (MoM)[8-10] and the finite difference in time domain method (FDTD).%The hybrid finite element, method (FEM) together with the boundary integral equation (BIE) in firstly applied to scattering from a conducting rough surface. The BIE is used an the truncation boundary condition for the special unbounded half space, whereas the FEM is used to solve the governing equation in the region surrounded by a rough surface and artificial boundary. Tapered wave incidence is employed to cancel the so-called "edge effect". A hybrid FEM/BIE formulation for generalized one-dimensional conducting rough surface scattering is presented, as well as examples that evaluate its validity compared to the method of moments, The bistatic scattering coefficients of a Gaussian rough surface are

  18. Designing superhydrophobic disordered arrays of fibers with hierarchical roughness and low-surface-energy (United States)

    Rawal, Amit; Sharma, Sumit; Kumar, Vijay; Saraswat, Harshvardhan


    Hierarchical roughness and low surface energy are the main criteria for designing superhydrophobic surfaces with extreme water repellency. Herein, we present a step-wise approach to devise three-dimensional (3D) superhydrophobic disordered arrays of fibers in the form of nonwoven mats exhibiting hierarchical surface roughness and low surface energy. Key design parameters in the form of roughness factors at multiple length scales for 3D nonwoven mats have been quantified. The contact angles have been predicted for each of the wetting regimes that exists for nonwoven mats with predefined level of hierarchical surface roughness and surface energy. Experimental realization of superhydrophobic mats was attained by decorating the highly hydrophilic nonwoven viscose fibers with ZnO rods that effectively modulated the surface roughness at multiple length scales and subsequently, the surface energy was lowered using fluorocarbon treatment. Synergistic effects of hierarchical roughness and surface energy have systematically increased the static water contact angle of nonwoven mat (up to 164°) and simultaneously, lowered the roll-off angle (≈11°).

  19. The effect of surface roughness on rarefied gas flows by lattice Boltzmann method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chao-Feng; Ni Yu-Shan


    This paper studies the roughness effect combining with effects of rarefaction and compressibility by a lattice Boltzmann model for rarefied gas flows at high Knudsen numbers. By discussing the effect of the tangential momentum accommodation coefficient on the rough boundary condition, the lattice Boltzmann simulations of nitrogen and helium flows are performed in a two-dimensional microchannel with rough boundaries. The surface roughness effects in the microchannel on the velocity field, the mass flow rate and the friction coefficient are studied and analysed. Numerical results for the two gases in micro scale show different characteristics from macroscopic flows and demonstrate the feasibility of the lattice Boltzmann model in rarefied gas dynamics.

  20. Correlation between Surface Roughness Characteristics in CO2 Laser Cutting of Mild Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Radovanović


    Full Text Available CO2 laser oxygen cutting of mild steel is widely used industrial application. Cut surface quality is a very important characteristic of laser cutting that ensures an advantage over other contour cutting processes. In this paper mathematical models for estimating characteristics of surface quality such as average surface roughness and ten-point mean roughness in CO2 laser cutting of mild steel based on laser cutting parameters were developed. Empirical models were developed using artificial neural networks and experimental data collected. Taguchi’s orthogonal array was implemented for experimental plan. From the analysis of the developed mathematical models it was observed that functional dependence between laser cutting parameters, their interactions and surface roughness characteristics is complex and non-linear. It was also observed that there exist region of minimal average surface roughness to ten-point mean roughness ratio. The relationship between average surface roughness and ten-point mean roughness was found to be nonlinear and can be expressed with a second degree polynomial.

  1. Determination of the Wenzel roughness parameter by the Power Spectral Density of functional Alumina surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardim, P.L.G., E-mail: [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Microeletrônica, Instituto de Física da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, CEP. 91501-970 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Horowitz, F. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Microeletrônica, Instituto de Física da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, CEP. 91501-970 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Felde, N.; Schröder, S.; Coriand, L.; Duparré, A. [Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering, D 07745 Jena (Germany)


    The Wenzel roughness parameter of isotropic Gaussian surfaces is analytically described in terms of the Power Spectral Density function without the smooth surface approximation. This Wenzel roughness parameter — Power Spectral Density link was examined for distinct roughnesses of Aluminum-oxide thin films. The Power Spectral Density functions of the surfaces were determined in a wide spatial frequency range by combining different scan areas of Atomic Force Microscopy measurements. The calculated results presented a good agreement with the Wenzel roughness parameter values obtained directly from the topography measured by Atomic Force Microscopy. Finally, wetting behavior was ascertained through determination of water contact angles, including superhydrophobic behavior. This approach, together with an empirical procedure based on a structural parameter, can predict the wetting properties of a surface by taking all its relevant roughness components into account. - Highlights: • Wenzel roughness parameter and Power Spectral Density are theoretically linked. • The formula is tested for Alumina surfaces with distinct roughnesses. • The formula agrees with the experimental data from Atomic Force Microscopy. • The proper contribution of topography in surface wetting can be ascertained.

  2. Mathematical model for strip surface roughness of stainless steel in cold rolling process (United States)

    Chen, Jinshan; Li, Changsheng; Zhu, Tao; Han, Wenlong; Cao, Yong


    Surface roughness control is one of the most important subjects during producing stainless steel strips. In this paper, under the conditions of introducing to the concepts of transferring ratio and genetic factor and through the further theoretical analysis, a set of theoretical models about strip surface roughness were put forward in stainless steel cold tandem rolling. Meanwhile, the lubrication experiment in cold rolling process of SUS430 stainless steel strip was carried out in order to comprehensively study surface roughness. The effect of main factors on transferring ratio and genetic factor was analyzed quantitatively, such as reduction, initial thickness, deformation resistance, emulsion technological parameters and so on. Attenuation function equations used for describing roll surface roughness were set up, and also strip surface roughness at the entry of last mill was solved approximately. Ultimately, mathematical model on strip surface roughness for cold tandem rolling of stainless steel was built, and then it was used into the practical production. A great number of statistical results show that experimental data is in excellent agreement with the given regression equations, and exactly, the relative deviation on roughness between calculated and measured is less than 6.34%.

  3. Ice repellency behaviour of superhydrophobic surfaces: Effects of atmospheric icing conditions and surface roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momen, G., E-mail:; Jafari, R.; Farzaneh, M.


    Highlights: • A novel view on ice repellency of superhydrophobic surfaces in terms of contact angle hysteresis, roughness and icing condition has been discussed. • This study is the first to deal with the effect of icing parameters on the ice repellency behaviour of superhydrophobic surfaces. • Two fabricated superhydrophobic surfaces with similar wettability behaviour showed different icephobic behaviour. • Superhydrophobic surfaces are not always icephobic and ice repellency is governed by icing condition parameters like liquid water content and water droplet size. • Lower liquid water content and smaller water droplet size promote ice-repellency behaviour of superhydrophobic surfaces. - Abstract: This paper presents a novel view on ice repellency of superhydrophobic surfaces in terms of contact angle hysteresis, surface roughness and icing condition. Ice repellency performance of two superhydrophobic silicone rubber nanocomposite surfaces prepared via spin coating and spray coating methods were investigated. High contact angle (>150°), low contact angle hysteresis (<6°) and roll-off property were found for both spin and spray coated samples. The results showed a significant reduction of ice adhesion strength on the spin-coated sample while ice adhesion strength on the spray-coated sample was found to be unexpectedly similar to that of the uncoated sample. Indeed, this research study showed that the icephobic properties of a surface are not directly correlated to its superhydrphobicity and that further investigations, like taking icing condition effect into account, are required. It was found that icephobic behaviour of the spray coated sample improved at lower levels of liquid water content (LWC) and under icing conditions characterized by smaller water droplet size.

  4. The Characteristics and Parameterization of Aerodynamic Roughness Length over Heterogeneous Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Li; LIU Shaomin; XU Ziwei; YANG Kun; CAI Xuhui; JIA Li; WANG Jiemin


    Aerodynamic roughness length (zOm) is a key factor in surface flux estimations with remote sensing algorithms and/or land surface models. This paper calculates zOm over several land surfaces, with 3 years of experimental data from Xiaotangshan. The results show that zOm is direction-dependent, mainly due to the heterogeneity of the size and spatial distribution of the roughness elements inside the source area along different wind directions. Furthermore, a heuristic parameterization of the aerodynamic roughness length for heterogeneous surfaces is proposed. Individual zOm over each surface component (patch) is calculated firstly with the characteristic parameters of the roughness elements (vegetation height, leaf area index, etc.), then zOm over the whole experimental field is aggregated, using the footprint weighting method.

  5. Inner surface roughness of complete cast crowns made by centrifugal casting machines. (United States)

    Ogura, H; Raptis, C N; Asgar, K


    Six variables that could affect the surface roughness of a casting were investigated. The variables were (1) type of alloy, (2) mold temperature, (3) metal casting temperature, (4) casting machine, (5) sandblasting, and (6) location of each section. It was determined that the training portion of a complete cast crown had rougher surfaces than the leading portion. Higher mold and casting temperatures produced rougher castings, and this effect was more pronounced in the case of the base metal alloy. Sandblasting reduced the roughness, but produced scratched surfaces. Sandblasting had a more pronounced affect on the surface roughness of the base metal alloy cast either at a higher mold temperature or metal casting temperature. The morphology and the roughness profile of the original cast surface differed considerably with the type of alloy used.

  6. Measuring adhesion on rough surfaces using atomic force microscopy with a liquid probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan V. Escobar


    Full Text Available We present a procedure to perform and interpret pull-off force measurements during the jump-off-contact process between a liquid drop and rough surfaces using a conventional atomic force microscope. In this method, a micrometric liquid mercury drop is attached to an AFM tipless cantilever to measure the force required to pull this drop off a rough surface. We test the method with two surfaces: a square array of nanometer-sized peaks commonly used for the determination of AFM tip sharpness and a multi-scaled rough diamond surface containing sub-micrometer protrusions. Measurements are carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere to avoid water capillary interactions. We obtain information about the average force of adhesion between a single peak or protrusion and the liquid drop. This procedure could provide useful microscopic information to improve our understanding of wetting phenomena on rough surfaces.

  7. Relevance of roughness parameters of surface finish in precision hard turning. (United States)

    Jouini, Nabil; Revel, Philippe; Bigerelle, Maxence


    Precision hard turning is a process to improve the surface integrity of functional surfaces. Machining experiments are carried out on hardened AISI 52100 bearing steel under dry condition using c-BN cutting tools. A full factorial experimental design is used to characterize the effect of cutting parameters. As surface topography is characterized by numerous roughness parameters, their relative relevance is investigated by statistical indices of performance computed by combining the analysis of variance, discriminant analysis and the bootstrap method. The analysis shows that the profile Length ratio (Lr) and the Roughness average (Ra) are the relevant pair of roughness parameters which best discriminates the effect of cutting parameters and enable the classification of surfaces which cannot be distinguished by one parameter: low profile length ratio Lr (Lr = 100.23%) is clearly distinguished from an irregular surface corresponding to a profile length ratio Lr (Lr = 100.42%), whereas the roughness average Ra values are nearly identical.

  8. The effect of brushing with toothpaste containing nano calcium carbonate upon nanofill composite resin surface roughness (United States)

    Ramadhani, A. M.; Herda, E.; Triaminingsih, S.


    This study aims to determine the effect of brushing with toothpaste containing nanocalcium carbonate on the roughness of nanofill composite resin surface. Brushing was conducted with 3 types of materials for 3 consecutive brushing periods of 10 minutes each. Surface roughness was measured using a surface-roughness tester and the results were analyzed using the repeated ANOVA and the one-way ANOVA test. The surface morphology was observed using SEM after 3 months’ worth of brushing with the 3 materials. It was found that the nanofill composite resin surface-roughness value increased significantly (p<0.005) after brushing with toothpaste containing nano calcium carbonate for 3 months, but the value was not as high as that obtained when brushing with other types of toothpaste.

  9. Investigation of Surface Roughness in High-Speed Milling of Aeronautical Aluminum Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Yong-zhi; AI Xing; ZHAO Jun; WAN Yi


    An approach is presented to optimize the surface roughness in high-speed finish milling of 7050-T7451 aeronautical aluminum alloy. In view of this, the multi-linear regression model for surface roughness has been developed in terms of slenderness ratio, cutting speed, radial depth-of-cut and feed per tooth by means of orthogonal experimental design. Variance analyses were applied to check the adequacy of the predictive model and the significances of the independent input parameters. Response contours of surface roughness were generated by using response surface methodology (RSM). From these contours, it was possible to select an optimum combination of cutting parameters that improves machining efficiency without increasing the surface roughness.

  10. Effect of surface roughness on rarefied-gas heat transfer in microbearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wen-Ming, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Meng, Guang [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wei, Xue-Yong [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Peng, Zhi-Ke [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)


    In this Letter, the rarefaction and roughness effects on the heat transfer process in gas microbearings are investigated. A heat transfer model is developed by introducing two-variable Weierstrass–Mandelbrot (W–M) function with fractal geometry. The heat transfer problem in the multiscale self-affine rough microbearings at slip flow regime is analyzed and discussed. The results show that rarefaction has more significant effect on heat transfer in rough microbearings with lower fractal dimension. The negative influence of roughness on heat transfer found to be the Nusselt number reduction. The heat transfer performance can be optimized with increasing fractal dimension of the rough surface. -- Highlights: ► A heat transfer model is described with fractal geometry. ► The rarefaction affects the heat transfer under lower fractal dimension. ► The negative influence of roughness on heat transfer is Nusselt number reduction. ► The heat transfer can be optimized with increasing fractal dimension.

  11. Effect of wettability and surface roughness on ice-adhesion strength of hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathidasan, T. [Surface Engineering Division, CSIR- National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore 560017 (India); Kumar, S. Vijay; Bobji, M.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560003 (India); Chakradhar, R.P.S. [Surface Engineering Division, CSIR- National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore 560017 (India); Basu, Bharathibai J., E-mail: [Surface Engineering Division, CSIR- National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore 560017 (India)


    Highlights: • Anti-icing property is related to wettability and surface roughness. • Silicone based hydrophobic coating showed excellent ice-adhesion strength. • Superhydrophobic surfaces displayed poor anti-icing property. - Abstract: The anti-icing properties of hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces/coatings were evaluated using a custom-built apparatus based on zero-degree cone test method. The ice-adhesion reduction factor (ARF) of these coatings has been evaluated using bare aluminium alloy as a reference. The wettability of the surfaces was evaluated by measuring water contact angle (WCA) and sliding angle. It was found that the ice-adhesion strength (τ) on silicone based hydrophobic surfaces was ∼ 43 times lower than compared to bare polished aluminium alloy indicating excellent anti-icing property of these coatings. Superhydrophobic coatings displayed poor anti-icing property in spite of their high water repellence. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope reveal that Silicone based hydrophobic coatings exhibited smooth surface whereas the superhydrophobic coatings had a rough surface consisting of microscale bumps and protrusions superimposed with nanospheres. Both surface roughness and surface energy play a major role on the ice-adhesion strength of the coatings. The 3D surface roughness profiles of the coatings also indicated the same trend of roughness. An attempt is made to correlate the observed ice-adhesion strength of different surfaces with their wettability and surface roughness.

  12. From superamphiphobic to amphiphilic polymeric surfaces with ordered hierarchical roughness fabricated with colloidal lithography and plasma nanotexturing. (United States)

    Ellinas, K; Tserepi, A; Gogolides, E


    Ordered, hierarchical (triple-scale), superhydrophobic, oleophobic, superoleophobic, and amphiphilic surfaces on poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA polymer substrates are fabricated using polystyrene (PS) microparticle colloidal lithography, followed by oxygen plasma etching-nanotexturing (for amphiphilic surfaces) and optional subsequent fluorocarbon plasma deposition (for amphiphobic surfaces). The PS colloidal microparticles were assembled by spin-coating. After etching/nanotexturing, the PMMA plates are amphiphilic and exhibit hierarchical (triple-scale) roughness with microscale ordered columns, and dual-scale (hundred nano/ten nano meter) nanoscale texture on the particles (top of the column) and on the etched PMMA surface. The spacing, diameter, height, and reentrant profile of the microcolumns are controlled with the etching process. Following the design requirements for superamphiphobic surfaces, we demonstrate enhancement of both hydrophobicity and oleophobicity as a result of hierarchical (triple-scale) and re-entrant topography. After fluorocarbon film deposition, we demonstrate superhydrophobic surfaces (contact angle for water 168°, compared to 110° for a flat surface), as well as superoleophobic surfaces (153° for diiodomethane, compared to 80° for a flat surface).

  13. The Effect of Surface Roughness on Thermohydrodynamic Performance in Misaligned Journal Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Mohammed K.


    Full Text Available In this work an approach has been developed to investigate the influence of surface roughness on thermohydrodynamic performance in aligned and misaligned journal bearings by considering an average flow model and deriving the shear flow factor for various roughness configurations, similar to the pressure flow factor. An average Reynolds equation for rough surfaces is defined in term of pressure and shear flow factors, which can be obtained by numerical flow simulation, though the use of measured or numerically generated rough surfaces. Reynolds, heat conduction and energy equations are solved simultaneously by using a suitable numerical technique (Finite Difference Method to obtain the pressure and temperature distribution through the oil film thickness of the journal bearing. These equations are obtained for isotropic surfaces and for surfaces with directional patterns. The flow factors for these surfaces are expressed as empirical relations in term of normalized oil film thickness (h/σ and surface characteristic (γ defined as the ratio of x and z correlation lengths . The results of this approach showed increase in load carrying capacity and maximum pressure and decrease in maximum temperature in the case of stationary surface roughness (rough bearing and smooth journal with transverse pattern. The results obtained through this work have been compared with that published by other works and found to be in a good agreement.

  14. The Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide 35% on Surface Roughness of Silorane and Methacrylate Based Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rezaei Sofi


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Surface roughness affects beauty, hygiene, plaque retention and health of the gingival adjacent to the composite restoration. Many people use bleaching agents to beautify their teeth that may lead to changes in surface roughness. This study was designed to compare the silorane and methacrylate-based composites in bleached teeth. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study 48 composite resin disks were prepared and divided into 4 groups: P90, Z250, Z250XT and Z350XT (n=12. To determine the surface roughness, surface profile measurement of the samples was performed using profilometer. Samples of each diet group underwent 35% hydrogen peroxide in office whitening (Hpmax in three 45-minute sessions one week apart. The secondary instances of surface profile was then measured. The data collected by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, one-way ANOVA, Tukey test and paired t- test at a significance level of 0.05 were analyzed using spss16. Results: There was a significant difference (P<0.05 in the surface roughness after bleaching on composite Z350XT with P90 and Z350XT with Z250. The surface roughness of all groups before and after bleaching showed a significant difference (P<0.05. Conclusion: The use of hydrogen peroxide 35% causes a significant increase in the surface roughness of composite P90, Z250, Z250XT and Z350XT. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (1:23-29

  15. Effects of surface roughness on plastic strain localization in polycrystalline aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilhem Yoann


    Full Text Available The surface state of mechanical components differs according to applied loadings. Industrial processes may produce specific features at the surface, such as roughness, local hardening, residual stresses or recrystallization. Under fatigue loading, all these parameters will affect the component lifetime, but in different manner. A better understanding of each surface state parameter, separately first and then all combined, will provide a better prediction of fatigue life. The study focuses on the effect of surface roughness. Crystal plasticity finite element computations have been carried out on three-dimensional polycrystalline aggregates with different roughness levels. Local mechanical fields have been analyzed both at the surface and inside the bulk to highlight the competition between crystallography and roughness to impose localization patterns. As soon as surface roughness is strong enough, classical localization bands driven by grains orientation are replaced by localizations patterns driven by the local roughness topology. Nevertheless, this effect tends to decrease gradually under the surface, and it becomes usually negligible after the first layer of grains. The discussion allows us to characterize the influence of the surface state on the local mechanical fields.

  16. [Effect of infiltration technique and polishing on the roughness of artificial carious enamel surfaces]. (United States)

    Yuan, Chang-qing; Dou, Guo-wen; Deng, Jing; Geng, Guo-liang; Sun, Pei; Cao, Ying-xiu


    To study the surface roughness of early carious lesions which were treated with resin infiltration and polished with different materials, and to provide reference for selection of appropriate polishing system. Fifty-four labial surface specimens of mandibular incisors were created out of bovine teeth. They were randomly divided into 6 groups. One group was sound enamel group. Another group was early enamel carious group. Other specimens were treated with a partially saturated acidic buffer solution for preparation of initial artificial enamel caries. These initial artificial enamel caries were treated with resin infiltration. Then they were randomly divided into 4 groups according to polishing or not and type of polishing tool (rubber cups, polishing discs, HiLuster polishers). The surface roughness of specimens in all groups were measured with Form Talysurf PGI 800. Arithmetical mean deviation of the assessed profile (Ra) and the maximum height of the profile(Rz) were used as measurement parameter. SPSS 17.0 software package was used for data analysis. Comparison of sound enamel surfaces and early carious surfaces revealed no significant difference in surface roughness(P>0.05), but the mean value of the latter one was higher. After infiltration, the roughness of surfaces without polishing was significantly higher than that of early carious surfaces(P0.05). The roughness of polishing groups after infiltration was significantly smaller than that of group without polished after infiltration (Pcarious surfaces revealed no significant difference in surface roughness (P>0.05). After early caries being treated with infiltration technique, the roughness of teeth surfaces increases significantly. Those surfaces should be polished. Rubber cup and polishing discs with smaller granularity are more effective and reasonable as the surface polishing materials.

  17. Effect of whitening dentifrices on the surface roughness of a nanohybrid composite resin. (United States)

    da Rosa, Gabriela Migliorin; da Silva, Luciana Mendonça; de Menezes, Márcio; do Vale, Hugo Felipe; Regalado, Diego Ferreira; Pontes, Danielson Guedes


    The present study verified the influence of whitening dentifrices on the surface roughness of a nanohybrid composite resin. Thirty-two specimens were prepared with Filtek™ Z350 XT (3M/ESPE) and randomly divided into four groups (n = 08) that were subjected to brushing simulation equivalent to the period of 1 month. The groups assessed were a control group with distilled water (G1), Colgate Total 12 Professional Clean (G2), Sensodyne Extra Whitener Extra Fresh (G3), and Colgate Luminous White (G4). A sequence of 90 cycles was performed for all the samples. The initial roughness of each group was analyzed by the Surface Roughness Tester (TR 200-TIME Group Inc., CA, USA). After the brushing period, the final roughness was measured, and the results were statistically analyzed using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests for intergroup roughness comparison in the time factor. For intragroup and "Δ Final - Initial" comparisons, the Wilcoxon test and (one-way) ANOVA were, respectively, performed (α = 0.05). The roughness mean values before and after brushing showed no statistically significant difference when the different dentifrices were used. None of the dentifrices analyzed increased significantly the nanohybrid composite resin surface roughness in a 1 month of tooth brushing simulation. These results suggest that no hazardous effect on the roughness of nanohybrid composite resin can be expected when whitening dentifrices are used for a short period. Similar studies should be conducted to analyze other esthetic composite materials.

  18. Pyramidal texturing of silicon surface via inorganic-organic hybrid alkaline liquor for heterojunction solar cells (United States)

    Wang, Fengyou; Zhang, Xiaodan; Wang, Liguo; Jiang, Yuanjian; Wei, Changchun; Zhao, Ying


    We demonstrate a new class of silicon texturing approach based on inorganic (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) and organic (tetramethylammonium hydroxide, TMAH) alkaline liquor etching processes for photovoltaic applications. The first stage of inorganic alkaline etching textures the silicon surface rapidly with large pyramids and reduces the cost. The subsequent organic alkaline second-etching improves the coverage of small pyramids on the silicon surface and strip off the metallic contaminants produced by the first etching step. In addition, it could smoothen the surface of the pyramids to yield good morphology. In this study, the texturing duration of both etching steps was controlled to optimize the optical and electrical properties as well as the surface morphology and passivation characteristics of the silicon substrates. Compared with traditional inorganic NaOH texturing, this hybrid process yields smoother (111) facets of the pyramids, fewer residual Na+ ions on the silicon surface, and a shorter processing period. It also offers the advantage of lower cost compared with the organic texturing method based on the use of only TMAH. We applied this hybrid texturing process to fabricate silicon heterojunction solar cells, which showed a remarkable improvement compared with the cells based on traditional alkaline texturing processes.

  19. Ellipsoidal Colloids with a Controlled Surface Roughness via Bioinspired Surface Engineering: Building Blocks for Liquid Marbles and Superhydrophobic Surfaces. (United States)

    Zhang, Pengjiao; Yang, Lu; Li, Qiang; Wu, Songhai; Jia, Shaoyi; Li, Zhanyong; Zhang, Zhenkun; Shi, Linqi


    Understanding the important role of the surface roughness of nano/colloidal particles and harnessing them for practical applications need novel strategies to control the particles' surface topology. Although there are many examples of spherical particles with a specific surface roughness, nonspherical ones with similar surface features are rare. The current work reports a one-step, straightforward, and bioinspired surface engineering strategy to prepare ellipsoidal particles with a controlled surface roughness. By manipulating the unique chemistry inherent to the oxidation-induced self-polymerization of dopamine into polydopamine (PDA), PDA coating of polymeric ellipsoids leads to a library of hybrid ellipsoidal particles (PS@PDA) with a surface that decorates with nanoscale PDA protrusions of various densities and sizes. Together with the advantages originated from the anisotropy of ellipsoids and rich chemistry of PDA, such a surface feature endows these particles with some unique properties. Evaporative drying of fluorinated PS@PDA particles produces a homogeneous coating with superhydrophobicity that arises from the two-scale hierarchal structure of microscale interparticle packing and nanoscale roughness of the constituent ellipsoids. Instead of water repelling that occurs for most of the lotus leaf-like superhydrophobic surfaces, such coating exhibits strong water adhesion that is observed with certain species of rose pedals. In addition, the as-prepared hybrid ellipsoids are very efficient in preparing liquid marble-isolated droplets covered with solid particles. Such liquid marbles can be placed onto many surfaces and might be useful for the controllable transport and manipulation of small volumes of liquids.

  20. Crystallographic Texture Difference Between Center and Sub-Surface of Thin Cold-Drawn Pearlitic Steel Wires (United States)

    Zhao, Tian-Zhang; Zhang, Guang-Liang; Song, Hong-Wu; Cheng, Ming; Zhang, Shi-Hong


    The texture difference between the center and sub-surface of pearlitic steel wires, which were manufactured by continuous cold drawing, was investigated by orientation distribution function based on electron back-scattered diffraction at different drawing passes. A perfect fiber texture parallel to drawing direction develops gradually with drawing strain increasing at the wire center, while at the sub-surface, a quasi fiber texture with the orientation nearly parallel to the circumferential direction is found. This texture at the sub-surface is softer than the perfect fiber texture in tension. The reasons for this texture difference and influences on the wire's mechanical properties are discussed.

  1. New expressions for the surface roughness length and displacement height in the atmospheric boundary layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Jian-Zhong; Li Hui-Jun; Zhang Kai


    An alternative model for the prediction of surface roughness length is developed. In the model a new factor is introduced to compensate for the effects of wake diffusion and interactions between the wake and roughness obstacles.The experiments are carried out by the use of the hot wire anemometry in the simulated atmospheric boundary layer in a wind tunnel. Based on the experimental data, a new expression for the zero-plane displacement height is proposed for the square arrays of roughness elements, which highlights the influence of free-stream speed on the roughness length. It appears that the displacement height increases with the wind speed while the surface roughness length decreases with Reynolds number increasing. It is shown that the calculation results based on the new expressions are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Analysis of the Contact Area of Smooth and Rough Surfaces in Contact with Sphere Indenter Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the contact area of the contact between a deformable rough surface (smooth and rough and a hard smooth sphere indenter using finite element method. A method was introduced to generate a three dimensional rough surfaces using Computer Aided Design (CAD software. The rough surface model was developed based on the surface measurement data, while the smooth surface model was generated from the CAD software. Contact area and contact deformation were analyzed. Results showed that the contact area between rough surface versus sphere and smooth surface versus sphere is different.

  3. Effect of different surface treatments on roughness of IPS Empress 2 ceramic. (United States)

    Kara, Haluk Baris; Dilber, Erhan; Koc, Ozlem; Ozturk, A Nilgun; Bulbul, Mehmet


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different surface treatments (air abrasion, acid etching, laser irradiation) on the surface roughness of a lithium-disilicate-based core ceramic. A total of 40 discs of lithium disilicate-based core ceramic (IPS Empress 2; Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) were prepared (10 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Specimens were divided into four groups (n = 10), and the following treatments were applied: air abrasion with alumina particles (50 μm), acid etching with 5% hydrofluoric acid, Nd:YAG laser irradiation (1 mm distance, 100 mJ, 20 Hz, 2 W) and Er:YAG laser irradiation (1 mm distance, 500 mJ, 20 Hz, 10 W). Following determination of surface roughness (R(a)) by profilometry, specimens were examined with atomic force microscopy. The data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD test (α = 0.05). One-way ANOVA indicated that surface roughness following air abrasion was significantly different from the surface roughness following laser irradiation and acid etching (P roughness (P laser irradiation (both Er:YAG and Nd:YAG) groups (P > 0.05). Air abrasion increased surface roughness of lithium disilicate-based core ceramic surfaces more effectively than acid-etching and laser irradiation.

  4. Model for continuously scanning ultrasound vibrometer sensing displacements of randomly rough vibrating surfaces. (United States)

    Ratilal, Purnima; Andrews, Mark; Donabed, Ninos; Galinde, Ameya; Rappaport, Carey; Fenneman, Douglas


    An analytic model is developed for the time-dependent ultrasound field reflected off a randomly rough vibrating surface for a continuously scanning ultrasound vibrometer system in bistatic configuration. Kirchhoff's approximation to Green's theorem is applied to model the three-dimensional scattering interaction of the ultrasound wave field with the vibrating rough surface. The model incorporates the beam patterns of both the transmitting and receiving ultrasound transducers and the statistical properties of the rough surface. Two methods are applied to the ultrasound system for estimating displacement and velocity amplitudes of an oscillating surface: incoherent Doppler shift spectra and coherent interferometry. Motion of the vibrometer over the randomly rough surface leads to time-dependent scattering noise that causes a randomization of the received signal spectrum. Simulations with the model indicate that surface displacement and velocity estimation are highly dependent upon the scan velocity and projected wavelength of the ultrasound vibrometer relative to the roughness height standard deviation and correlation length scales of the rough surface. The model is applied to determine limiting scan speeds for ultrasound vibrometer measuring ground displacements arising from acoustic or seismic excitation to be used in acoustic landmine confirmation sensing.

  5. Effect of deformation on the thermal conductivity of granular porous media with rough grain surface (United States)

    Askari, Roohollah; Hejazi, S. Hossein; Sahimi, Muhammad


    Heat transfer in granular porous media is an important phenomenon that is relevant to a wide variety of problems, including geothermal reservoirs and enhanced oil recovery by thermal methods. Resistance to flow of heat in the contact area between the grains strongly influences the effective thermal conductivity of such porous media. Extensive experiments have indicated that the roughness of the grains' surface follows self-affine fractal stochastic functions, and thus, the contact resistance cannot be accounted for by models based on smooth surfaces. Despite the significance of rough contact area, the resistance has been accounted for by a fitting parameter in the models of heat transfer. In this Letter we report on a study of conduction in a packing of particles that contains a fluid of a given conductivity, with each grain having a rough self-affine surface, and is under an external compressive pressure. The deformation of the contact area depends on the fractal dimension that characterizes the grains' rough surface, as well as their Young's modulus. Excellent qualitative agreement is obtained with experimental data. Deformation of granular porous media with grains that have rough self-affine fractal surface is simulated. Thermal contact resistance between grains with rough surfaces is incorporated into the numerical simulation of heat conduction under compressive pressure. By increasing compressive pressure, thermal conductivity is enhanced more in the grains with smoother surfaces and lower Young's modulus. Excellent qualitative agreement is obtained with the experimental data.

  6. The effect of surface roughness on thermal-elasto-hydrodynamic model of contact mechanical seals (United States)

    Wen, QingFeng; Liu, Ying; Huang, WeiFeng; Suo, ShuangFu; Wang, YuMing


    In this paper, the effect of surface roughness on sealing clearance, pressure distribution, friction torque and leakage is studied by the thermal-elasto-hydrodynamic mixed lubrication model. A convergent nominal clearance is formed by the pressure deformation and thermal deformation of the seal faces. This causes more serious wear in the inner side than that of the outer side of the contact area. Mass leakage increases with the growing of the surface roughness. The temperature and thermal deformation on the seal surface increases substantially if the roughness is reduced. The contact mechanical seals have consistent performance when the standard deviation of surface roughness is approximately 0.2 μm. In order to validate the theoretical analysis model, a method combining the measurement of three-dimensioned profile and Raman spectrum is proposed.

  7. Surface roughness and cutting force estimation in the CNC turning using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ramezani


    Full Text Available Surface roughness and cutting forces are considered as important factors to determine machinability rate and the quality of product. A number of factors like cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cutting and tool noise radius influence the surface roughness and cutting forces in turning process. In this paper, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN model was used to forecast surface roughness and cutting forces with related inputs, including cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool noise radius. The machined surface roughness and cutting force parameters related to input parameters are the outputs of the ANN model. In this work, 24 samples of experimental data were used to train the network. Moreover, eight other experimental tests were implemented to test the network. The study concludes that ANN was a reliable and accurate method for predicting machining parameters in CNC turning operation.

  8. On the Correlation of Effective Terahertz Refractive Index and Average Surface Roughness of Pharmaceutical Tablets (United States)

    Chakraborty, Mousumi; Bawuah, Prince; Tan, Nicholas; Ervasti, Tuomas; Pääkkönen, Pertti; Zeitler, J. Axel; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Peiponen, Kai-Erik


    In this paper, we have studied terahertz (THz) pulse time delay of porous pharmaceutical microcrystalline compacts and also pharmaceutical tablets that contain indomethacin (painkiller) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and microcrystalline cellulose as the matrix of the tablet. The porosity of a pharmaceutical tablet is important because it affects the release of drug substance. In addition, surface roughness of the tablet has much importance regarding dissolution of the tablet and hence the rate of drug release. Here, we show, using a training set of tablets containing API and with a priori known tablet's quality parameters, that the effective refractive index (obtained from THz time delay data) of such porous tablets correlates with the average surface roughness of a tablet. Hence, THz pulse time delay measurement in the transmission mode provides information on both porosity and the average surface roughness of a compact. This is demonstrated for two different sets of pharmaceutical tablets having different porosity and average surface roughness values.

  9. Effect of Lubricant Viscosity and Surface Roughness on Coefficient of Friction in Rolling Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Ghalme


    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of surface roughness and lubricant viscosity on coefficient of friction in silicon nitride- steel rolling contact. Two samples of silicon nitride with two different values of surface roughness were tested against steel counter face. The test was performed on four ball tester in presence of lubricant with two different values of viscosity. Taguchi technique a methodology in design of experiment implemented to plan the experimentation and same is utilized to evaluate the interacting effect of surface roughness and lubricant viscosity. Analysis of experimental results presents a strong interaction between surface roughness and lubricant viscosity on coefficient of friction in rolling contact.

  10. Effects of home bleaching on surface hardness and surface roughness of an experimental nanocomposite


    Ab-Ghani Zuryati; Ooi Qian Qian; Mohamad Dasmawati


    Objective: Home bleaching agents may not be safe for composite resins. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 10 and 20% Opalescence ® PF home bleaching agents on the surface roughness and hardness of universal nanocomposite (Filtek Z350), anterior nanocomposite (KeLFiL), and nanohybrid composite (TPH 3). Materials and Methods: Fifty-four composite resin samples with 18 samples for each type of composite resin were prepared using acrylic molds (4 × 2 mm). Each type of co...

  11. A new procedure for characterizing textured surfaces with a deterministic pattern of valley features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Kühle, A; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    In recent years there has been the development of a high number of manufacturing methods for creating textured surfaces which often present deterministic patterns of valley features. Unfortunately, suitable methodologies for characterizing them are lacking. Existing standards cannot in fact...

  12. Effect of Q-switched Laser Surface Texturing of Titanium on Osteoblast Cell Response (United States)

    Voisey, K. T.; Scotchford, C. A.; Martin, L.; Gill, H. S.

    Titanium and its alloys are important biomedical materials. It is known that the surface texture of implanted medical devices affects cell response. Control of cell response has the potential to enhance fixation of implants into bone and, in other applications, to prevent undesired cell adhesion. The potential use of a 100W Q-switched YAG laser miller (DMG Lasertec 60 HSC) for texturing titanium is investigated. A series of regular features with dimensions of the order of tens of micrometers are generated in the surface of titanium samples and the cell response to these features is determined. Characterisation of the laser milled features reveals features with a lengthscale of a few microns superposed on the larger scale structures, this is attributed to resolidification of molten droplets generated and propelled over the surface by individual laser pulses. The laser textured samples are exposed to osteoblast cells and it is seen that cells do respond to the features in the laser textured surfaces.

  13. The effect of remin pro and MI paste plus on bleached enamel surface roughness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleh Heshmat


    Full Text Available The growing demand for enhanced esthetic appearance has led to great developments in bleaching products. The exposure of hard tissues of the tooth to bleaching agents can affect the roughness of the enamel surface. The freshly bleached enamel surface exposed to various surface treatments such as fluoride and other remineralizing agents have been assessed in this study. The aim of this experimental study was to compare the effect of Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate with Fluoride (MI Paste Plus and Remin Pro on the enamel surface roughness after bleaching.Thirty enamel samples of sound human permanent molars were prepared for this study. After initial roughness measurement with profilometer, the samples were exposed to 37% carbamide peroxide bleaching agent 20 minutes twice, and randomly divided into three groups of ten. In group 1, a CPP-ACPF containing paste (MI Paste Plus and in group 2, Remin Pro were applied to the teeth during a 15 day period for 5 minutes, twice a day. Samples of group 3 (control were immersed in artificial saliva for 15 days. The roughness of all samples were measured at the beginning, after bleaching and after the study intervention and statistically analyzed.The surface roughness significantly increased in all groups following bleaching, and then it showed a decrease after application of both Remin Pro and CPP-ACPF in comparison to using bleaching agent (P0.05.There was no difference between surface roughness of MI Paste Plus and Remin Pro groups. Also the surface roughness was decreased compared to the initial enamel surface roughness.

  14. The Simulation of Grinding Wheels and Ground Surface Roughness Based on Virtual Reality Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The paper describes the feasibility and method of the application of virtual reality technology to grinding process, and introduces the modeling method of object entity in the environment of virtual reality. The simulation process of grinding wheels and ground surface roughness is discussed, and the computation program system of numerical simulation is compiled with Visual C++ programming language. At the same time, the three-dimensional simulation models of grinding wheels and ground surface roughness are ...

  15. Surface Roughness Characterization of Niobium Subjected to Incremental BCP and EP Processing Steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui Tian; Guihem Ribeill; Charles Reece; Michael Kelley


    The surface of niobium samples polished under incremental Buffered Chemical Polish (BCP) and Electro-Polishing (EP) have been characterized through Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and stylus profilometry across a range of length of scales. The results were analyzed using Power Density Spectral (PSD) technique to determine roughness and characteristic dimensions. This study has shown that the PSD method is a valuable tool that provides quantitative information about surface roughness at different length scales.

  16. Surface roughness analysis after machining of direct laser deposited tungsten carbide (United States)

    Wojciechowski, S.; Twardowski, P.; Chwalczuk, T.


    In this paper, an experimental surface roughness analysis in machining of tungsten carbide is presented. The tungsten carbide was received using direct laser deposition technology (DLD). Experiments carried out included milling of tungsten carbide samples using monolithic torus cubic boron nitride (CBN) tool and grinding with the diamond cup wheel. The effect of machining method on the generated surface topography was analysed. The 3D surface topographies were measured using optical surface profiler. The research revealed, that surface roughness generated after the machining of tungsten carbide is affected by feed per tooth (fz) value related to kinematic-geometric projection only in a minor extent. The main factor affecting machined surface roughness is the occurrence of micro grooves and protuberances on the machined surface, as well as other phenomena connected, inter alia, with the mechanism for material removal.

  17. Study on the double transmission of ultrasonic waves through statistic rough surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ziqiang; CHEN Ligong; NI Chunzhen; WANG Yuwen


    A model evaluating the signal loss of the double transmitted acoustic beams through random rough surfaces was established based on the Fresnel approximation and phasescreen approximation. A simple analytical solution was achieved using the exponential substitution approach to remove the nonlinear integral terms. The factors that affect the signal of double transmissions from random rough surfaces were analyzed. The research results demonstrated that the signal loss is not only related to the root-mean-squire height of the roughness,but also to the distance of wave traveling in the materials. The model can be very helpful for improving the reliability of NDT (Non-Destructive Testing).

  18. Scatterometry—fast and robust measurements of nano-textured surfaces (United States)

    Hannibal Madsen, Morten; Hansen, Poul-Erik


    s factorization rules and the introduction of the normal vector method. The third step is the comparison, where the simulated diffraction efficiencies are compared to the experimental data using an inverse modeling approach. We discuss both a direct optimization scheme using a differential evolution algorithm and a library search strategy where diffraction efficiences of expected structures are collected in a database. For metrology measurements two methods are described for estimating the uncertainty of the fitting parameters. The first method is based on estimating the confidence limits using constant chi square boundaries, which can easily be computed when using the library search strategy. The other method is based on calculating the covariances of all the free parameters using a least square optimization. Scatterometry is already utilized in the semiconductor industry for in-line characterization. However, it also has a large potential for other industrial sectors, including sectors making use of injection molding or roll-2-roll fabrication. Using the library search strategy, the comparison can be performed in ms, making in-line characterization possible and we demonstrate that scatterometry can be used for quality control of injection molded nano-textured plastic samples. With the emerging methods of highly parallel manufacturing of nano-textured devices, scatterometry has great potential to deliver a characterization method for in-line quality control and metrology measurements, which is not possible with conventional characterization techniques. However, there are some open challenges for the scatterometry techniques. These include corrections for measuring on non-ideal samples with a large surface roughness or line-edge roughness and the path towards performing traceable scatterometry measurements.

  19. Effect of strontium tantalate surface texture on nickel nanoparticle dispersion by electroless deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compean-González, C.L. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Civil, Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energía, Av. Universidad s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Arredondo-Torres, V.M. [Facultad de Químico Farmacobiología, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Tzintzuntzan #173, Col. Matamoros, Morelia, Michoacán C.P. 58240 (Mexico); Zarazúa-Morin, M.E. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Civil, Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energía, Av. Universidad s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Figueroa-Torres, M.Z., E-mail: [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Civil, Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energía, Av. Universidad s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León C.P. 66451 (Mexico)


    Highlights: • Efficient short-time procedure for nickel nanoparticles dispersion by electroless. • Nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average size of 15 nm. • Influence of surface texture on deposition temperature and time was observed. • Nickel deposition can be done below 50 °C. - Abstract: The present work studies the effect of smooth and porous texture of Sr{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 7} on its surface modification with nickel nanoparticles through electroless deposition technique. The influence of temperature to control Ni nanoparticles loading amount and dispersion were analyzed. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms were used to examine surface texture characteristics. The morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy (MEB) equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometry system (EDS), which was used to determine the amount of deposited Ni. The material with smooth texture (SMT) consists of big agglomerates of semispherical shape particles of 400 nm. Whilst the porous texture (PRT) exhibit a pore-wall formed of needles shape particles of around 200 nm in size. Results indicated that texture characteristics strongly influence the deposition reaction rate; for PRT oxide, Ni deposition can be done from 20 °C while for SMT oxide deposition begins at 40 °C. Analysis of Sr{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 7} surface indicated that in both textures, Ni nanoparticles with spherical shape in the range of 10–20 nm were obtained.

  20. Optimization-based design of surface textures for thin-film Si solar cells. (United States)

    Sheng, Xing; Johnson, Steven G; Michel, Jurgen; Kimerling, Lionel C


    We numerically investigate the light-absorption behavior of thin-film silicon for normal-incident light, using surface textures to enhance absorption. We consider a variety of texture designs, such as simple periodic gratings and commercial random textures, and examine arbitrary irregular periodic textures designed by multi-parameter optimization. Deep and high-index-contrast textures exhibit strong anisotropic scattering that is outside the regime of validity of the Lambertian models commonly used to describe texture-induced absorption enhancement for normal incidence. Over a 900-1100 nm wavelength range, our optimized surface texture in two dimensions (2D) enhances absorption by a factor of 2.7 πn, considerably larger than the original πn Lambertian result and exceeding by almost 50% a recent generalization of Lambertian model for periodic structures in finite spectral range. However, the πn Lambertian limit still applies for isotropic incident light, and our structure obeys this limit when averaged over all the angles. Therefore, our design can be thought of optimizing the angle/enhancement tradeoff for periodic textures.

  1. Comparison and optimization of randomly textured surfaces in thin-film solar cells. (United States)

    Rockstuhl, C; Fahr, S; Bittkau, K; Beckers, T; Carius, R; Haug, F-J; Söderström, T; Ballif, C; Lederer, F


    Using rigorous diffraction theory we investigate the scattering properties of various random textures currently used for photon management in thin-film solar cells. We relate the haze and the angularly resolved scattering function of these cells to the enhancement of light absorption. A simple criterion is derived that provides an explanation why certain textures operate more beneficially than others. Using this criterion we propose a generic surface profile that outperforms the available substrates. This work facilitates the understanding of the effect of randomly textured surfaces and provides guidelines towards their optimization.

  2. Assessing the influence of surface roughness on the epilithic colonisation of limestones by non-contact techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller, A. Z.


    Full Text Available The importance of stone colonisation by microorganisms has led to an extensive literature on mechanisms and rates of physicochemical degradation of stone surface, both in laboratory and field contexts. Biological colonisation of a stone surface depends on intrinsic stone parameters like mineral composition, texture, porosity, and permeability, as well as on environmental parameters. In the present study, quantification of stone surface roughness and its relationship to epilithic colonisation was demonstrated for three types of limestones throughout non-destructive techniques, namely optical surface roughness instrument and digital image analysis. According to the roughness average (Ra and mean roughness depth (Rz determined for Ançã limestone, Lioz limestone and Lecce stone, it can be concluded that great surface roughness stones render them prone to microbial colonisation.La colonización de la piedra por microorganismos ha generado una extensa literatura sobre los mecanismos y tasas de degradación fisicoquímica de las superficies pétreas, tanto en laboratorio como en estudios de campo. La colonización biológica de piedra de construcción depende de parámetros intrínsecos como son su composición mineral, textura, porosidad y permeabilidad, así como de parámetros ambientales. Este estudio demuestra la relación entre la rugosidad superficial de la piedra y la colonización epilítica, cuantificada en tres tipos de caliza mediante técnicas no destructivas: medida de la rugosidad superficial usando un perfilómetro óptico y análisis digital de imágenes. De acuerdo con la rugosidad media aritmética (Ra y la amplitud media de rugosidad (Rz, determinadas para la caliza de Ançã, la caliza de Lioz y la piedra de Lecce, puede concluirse que las piedras con alta rugosidad superficial son más propensas a la colonización microbiana.

  3. Surface roughness and morphology of dental nanocomposites polished by four different procedures evaluated by a multifractal approach (United States)

    Ţălu, Ştefan; Stach, Sebastian; Lainović, Tijana; Vilotić, Marko; Blažić, Larisa; Alb, Sandu Florin; Kakaš, Damir


    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different dental polishing methods on surface texture parameters of dental nanocomposites. The 3-D surface morphology was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and multifractal analysis. Two representative dental resin-based nanocomposites were investigated: a nanofilled and a nanohybrid composite. The samples were polished by two dental polishing protocols using multi-step and one-step system. Both protocols were then followed by diamond paste polishing. The 3-D surface roughness of samples was studied by AFM on square areas of topography on the 80 × 80 μm2 scanning area. The multifractal spectrum theory based on computational algorithms was applied for AFM data and multifractal spectra were calculated. The generalized dimension Dq and the singularity spectrum f(α) provided quantitative values that characterize the local scale properties of dental nanocomposites polished by four different dental polishing protocols at nanometer scale. The results showed that the larger the spectrum width Δα (Δα = αmax - αmin) of the multifractal spectra f(α), the more non-uniform was the surface morphology. Also, the 3-D surface topography was described by statistical parameters, according to ISO 25178-2:2012. The 3-D surface of samples had a multifractal nature. Nanofilled composite had lower values of height parameters than nanohybrid composites, due to its composition. Multi-step polishing protocol created a better finished surface, for both tested materials, than one-step polishing protocol, even when it was followed by diamond paste polishing. Diamond paste polishing created smooth surface and reduced roughness of tested materials.

  4. Surface Roughness and Material Optical Properties Influence on Casimir/van der Waals and Capillary Surface Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwol, P.J. van; Palasantzas, G.


    Theory calculations using the Lifshitz theory and atomic force microscopy force measurements show that Casimir/van der Weals dispersive forces have a strong dependence on material optical properties and surface roughness. At separations below 100 nm the roughness effect is manifested through a

  5. Modeling and optimization of surface roughness in single point incremental forming process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kurra


    Full Text Available Single point incremental forming (SPIF is a novel and potential process for sheet metal prototyping and low volume production applications. This article is focuses on the development of predictive models for surface roughness estimation in SPIF process. Surface roughness in SPIF has been modeled using three different techniques namely, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN, Support Vector Regression (SVR and Genetic Programming (GP. In the development of these predictive models, tool diameter, step depth, wall angle, feed rate and lubricant type have been considered as model variables. Arithmetic mean surface roughness (Ra and maximum peak to valley height (Rz are used as response variables to assess the surface roughness of incrementally formed parts. The data required to generate, compare and evaluate the proposed models have been obtained from SPIF experiments performed on Computer Numerical Control (CNC milling machine using Box–Behnken design. The developed models are having satisfactory goodness of fit in predicting the surface roughness. Further, the GP model has been used for optimization of Ra and Rz using genetic algorithm. The optimum process parameters for minimum surface roughness in SPIF have been obtained and validated with the experiments and found highly satisfactory results within 10% error.

  6. Investigation on electromagnetic scattering from rough soil surface of layered medium using the small perturbation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Xin-Cheng; Guo Li-Xin


    Electromagnetic scattering from a rough surface of layered medium is investigated, and the formulae of the scattering coefficients for different polarizations are derived using the small perturbation method. A rough surface with exponential correlation function is presented for describing a rough soil surface of layered medium, the formula of its scattering coefficient is derived by considering the spectrum of the rough surface with exponential correlation function; the curves of the bistatic scattering coefficient of HH polarization with variation of the scattering angle are obtained by numerical calculation. The influence of the permittivity of layered medium, the mean layer thickness of intermediate medium, the roughness surface parameters and the frequency of the incident wave on the bistatic scattering coefficient is discussed. Numerical results show that the influence of the permittivity of layered medium, the mean layer thickness of intermediate medium, the rms and the correlation length of the rough surface, and the frequency of the incident wave on the bistatic scattering coefficient is very complex.

  7. Effect finishing and polishing procedures on the surface roughness of IPS Empress 2 ceramic. (United States)

    Boaventura, Juliana Maria Capelozza; Nishida, Rodrigo; Elossais, André Afif; Lima, Darlon Martins; Reis, José Mauricio Santos Nunes; Campos, Edson Alves; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi


    To evaluate the surface roughness of IPS Empress 2 ceramic when treated with different finishing/polishing protocols. Sixteen specimens of IPS Empress 2 ceramic were made from wax patterns obtained using a stainless steel split mold. The specimens were glazed (Stage 0-S0, control) and divided into two groups. The specimens in Group 1 (G1) were finished/polished with a KG Sorensen diamond point (S1), followed by KG Sorensen siliconized points (S2) and final polishing with diamond polish paste (S3). In Group 2 (G2), the specimens were finished/polished using a Shofu diamond point (S1), as well as Shofu siliconized points (S2) and final polishing was performed using Porcelize paste (S3). After glazing (S0) and following each polishing procedure (S1, S2 or S3), the surface roughness was measured using TALYSURF Series 2. The average surface roughness results were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Tukey post-hoc tests (α = 0.01) RESULTS: All of the polishing procedures yielded higher surface roughness values when compared to the control group (S0). S3 yielded lower surface roughness values when compared to S1 and S2. The proposed treatments negatively affected the surface roughness of the glazed IPS Empress 2 ceramic.

  8. Effect of the surface roughness on interfacial properties of carbon fibers reinforced epoxy resin composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Wei [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Gu Aijuan, E-mail: [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Liang Guozheng, E-mail: [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Yuan Li [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)


    The effect of the surface roughness on interfacial properties of carbon fibers (CFs) reinforced epoxy (EP) resin composite is studied. Aqueous ammonia was applied to modify the surfaces of CFs. The morphologies and chemical compositions of original CFs and treated CFs (a-CFs) were characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Compared with the smooth surface of original CF, the surface of a-CF has bigger roughness; moreover, the roughness increases with the increase of the treating time. On the other hand, no obvious change in chemical composition takes place, indicating that the treating mechanism of CFs by aqueous ammonia is to physically change the morphologies rather than chemical compositions. In order to investigate the effect of surface roughness on the interfacial properties of CF/EP composites, the wettability and Interfacial Shear Strength (IFSS) were measured. Results show that with the increase of the roughness, the wettabilities of CFs against both water and ethylene glycol improves; in addition, the IFSS value of composites also increases. These attractive phenomena prove that the surface roughness of CFs can effectively overcome the poor interfacial adhesions between CFs and organic matrix, and thus make it possible to fabricate advanced composites based on CFs.

  9. Factors Involved in Tactile Texture Perception through Probes (United States)

    Yoshioka, Takashi; Zhou, Julia


    An understanding of texture perception by robotic systems can be developed by examining human texture perception through a probe. Like texture perception through direct touch with the finger, texture perception by indirect means of a probe is multi-dimensional, comprising rough, hard, and sticky texture continua. In this study, we describe the individual subject variability in probe-mediated texture perception, and compare similarities and differences of texture perception between direct touch and indirect touch. The results show variability among subjects, as individual subjects may choose to rely on different degrees of three texture dimensions and do so at different scanning velocities. Despite this variability between scanning conditions within each subject, the subjects make consistently reliable discriminations of textures and subjective magnitude estimates along texture continua when indirectly exploring texture surfaces with a probe. These data contribute information that is valuable to the design of robotic sensory systems, and to the understanding of sensory feedback, which is essential in teleoperations. PMID:19617927

  10. Evaluating grain size in polycrystals with rough surfaces by corrected ultrasonic attenuation. (United States)

    Li, Xiongbing; Han, Xiaoqin; Arguelles, Andrea P; Song, Yongfeng; Hu, Hongwei


    Surface roughness of a sample has a great effect on the calculated grain size when measurements are based on ultrasonic attenuation. Combining modified transmission and reflection coefficients at the rough interface with a Multi-Gaussian beam model of the transducer, a comprehensive correction scheme for the attenuation coefficient is developed. An approximate inverse model of the calculated attenuation, based on Weaver's diffuse scattering theory, is established to evaluate grain size in polycrystals. The experimental results showed that for samples with varying surface roughness and matching microstructures, the fluctuation of evaluated average grain size was ±1.17μm. For polished samples with different microstructures, the relative errors to optical microscopy were no more than ±3.61%. The presented method provides an effective nondestructive tool for evaluating the grain size in metals with rough surfaces.

  11. Imaging of dielectric objects buried under a rough surface via distorted born iterative method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altuncu, Y [Nigde University, Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, Nigde (Turkey); Akleman, F; Semerci, O; Ozlem, C [Istanbul Technical University, Electrical and Electronic Faculty, Maslak-Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail:


    A method is given for the shape, permittivity and conductivity reconstruction of lossy dielectric objects buried under rough surfaces using the Distorted Born Iterative Method (DBIM). The method is based on the refreshing of the Green's function of the two-part space media with rough interface by updating the complex permittivity of the reconstruction domain at each iteration step. The scattered field data are measured at multiple locations for multiple transmitters operating at a single frequency where both transmitters and receivers are located above the rough surface interface. The Green's function of the problem is obtained by using the buried object approach (BOA) method where the fluctuations of the rough surface from the flat one are assumed to be buried objects in a two-part space with planar interface. The performance of the method is tested by some numerical applications and satisfactory results are obtained.

  12. Linear surface roughness growth and flow smoothening in a three-dimensional biofilm model

    CERN Document Server

    Head, D A


    The sessile microbial communities known as biofilms exhibit different surface structures as environmental factors are varied, including nutrient availability and flow-generated shear stresses. Here we modify an established agent-based biofilm model to include adhesive interactions, permitting it to mechanically react to an imposed stress. This model is employed to analyse the growth of surface roughness of single-species, three-dimensional biofilms. We find linear growth laws of surface geometry in both horizontal and vertical directions, and an active surface layer whose thickness anti-correlates with roughness. Flow is consistently shown to reduce surface roughness without affecting the active layer. We argue that the rapid roughening is due to non-local surface interactions mediated by the nutrient field which are curtailed by sufficiently rapid flows, and suggest simplified models will need to be developed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  13. Effect of radiotherapy on the hardness and surface roughness of two composite resins. (United States)

    Viero, Flavio Luiz; Boscolo, Frab Norberto; Demarco, Flavio Fernando; Faot, Fernanda


    The knowledge about the potential adverse effects of radiotherapy compared to dental composites is a useful information for the clinician's decision regarding adoption of repairs or replacement of dental restorations during oral cancer treatment. This study evaluated the effects of irradiation on microhardness and surface roughness of a microfilled and a packable composite resin. The microfilled composite resin demonstrated significantly lower microhardness and a smoother surface compared to the packable composite resin (p composite resins (P surface hardness (P > 0.05). Meanwhile, irradiation did not produce a significantly rougher surface (P > 0.05), but specimens submitted to abrasion exhibited a significant increase in surface roughness for both composite resins (P hardness of tested composite resins, it does not interfere with surface roughness.

  14. A new method for modeling rough membrane surface and calculation of interfacial interactions. (United States)

    Zhao, Leihong; Zhang, Meijia; He, Yiming; Chen, Jianrong; Hong, Huachang; Liao, Bao-Qiang; Lin, Hongjun


    Membrane fouling control necessitates the establishment of an effective method to assess interfacial interactions between foulants and rough surface membrane. This study proposed a new method which includes a rigorous mathematical equation for modeling membrane surface morphology, and combination of surface element integration (SEI) method and the composite Simpson's approach for assessment of interfacial interactions. The new method provides a complete solution to quantitatively calculate interfacial interactions between foulants and rough surface membrane. Application of this method in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) showed that, high calculation accuracy could be achieved by setting high segment number, and moreover, the strength of three energy components and energy barrier was remarkably impaired by the existence of roughness on the membrane surface, indicating that membrane surface morphology exerted profound effects on membrane fouling in the MBR. Good agreement between calculation prediction and fouling phenomena was found, suggesting the feasibility of this method.

  15. Surface roughness and morphologic changes of zirconia: Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    surfaces for Cercon (45.15 Ra) and Aadva Zr (51.67 Ra) ceramics. .... cement to dentin and to surface‑treated posts of titanium alloy, glass fiber, and zirconia. J Adhes ... Subasi MG, Inan O. Evaluation of the topographical surface changes and.

  16. Over rough and smooth : Amputee gait on an irregular surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtze, C.; Hof, A.L.; Postema, K.; Otten, B.


    When negotiating irregular surfaces, the control of dynamic stability is challenged. In this study, we compared the adjustments in stepping behaviour and arm-swing of 18 unilateral transtibial amputees and 17 able-bodied participants when walking on flat and irregular surfaces. Experimental findings

  17. Surface roughness and adaptation of different materials to secure implant attachment housings. (United States)

    Ozkir, Serhat Emre; Yilmaz, Burak; Kurkcuoglu, Isin; Culhaoglu, Ahmet; Unal, Server Mutluay


    Various materials are available to secure implant attachment housings in overdentures. Surface roughness and the adaptation of these materials to the denture base and the housings may increase the microcracks and bacterial adhesion at the interfaces in the long term. The surface characteristics of the interface between the denture base orientation material and the attachment housing have not been extensively studied. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the surface roughness and the adaptation of 5 different housing orientation materials to the housings and the denture base. Fifty-five poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) specimens (15 mm in diameter and 4 mm in height) were prepared with a clearance inside to allow the insertion of overdenture housings. Five different materials were used for housing orientation (Quick Up, Ufi Gel Hard, Tokuyama Rebase II Fast, Meliodent, and Paladent). The specimens were thermocycled 5000 times between 5°C and 55°C. The surface roughness (Ra values) of the specimens was measured with a noncontact profilometer. Scanning electron images were made in order to inspect the PMMA-orientation material-housing interfaces. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to investigate the differences between the surface roughness values of the orientation materials, and the Iman-Conover test was used for pairwise comparisons (α=.05). The surface roughness values significantly differed between Quick up and Ufi Gel orientation materials only, and Quick up had smaller surface roughness values than Ufi Gel (P=.009). Microcracks were observed among the groups only at the junction of the orientation material and the housing after thermocycling. Ufi Gel Hard showed the roughest surfaces around the overdenture attachment housings. The adaptation between the orientation material and the housing may deteriorate, and increased surface roughness and microcrack formation may be seen around the housings. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the

  18. Effect of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid and etidronic acid on the surface roughness of Biodentine: in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür İlke Atasoy Ulusoy


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 9% etidronic acid (HEBP and 17% ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA on the surface roughness of Biodentine. Materials and Method: Biodentine (Septodont was mixed according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Briefly, five drops of liquid were added into the capsule containing the powder. Then the capsule was placed in a triturator for 30 sec. The prepared mixture was placed into a mold (diameter: 5 mm, depth: 3 mm. The Biodentine surfaces were polished with silicon carbide abrasive papers. The surface roughness of 30 samples was measured at baseline using a portable surface roughness tester. For this purpose, a 5 mN force was applied onto three different locations of the samples with a speed of 0.8 mm/sec. The samples were divided into two groups according to the irrigation solution (n=15; first group was treated with 9% HEBP, and the second group was treated with 17% EDTA. The surface roughness of the samples was measured again after 1 and 2 min of irrigant application. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and independent sample t-test. Results: For HEBP, no significant difference was found between the surface roughness values at 0., 1., and 2 min (p=0.107; ANOVA. For EDTA, the surface roughness value at 1 min was significantly greater than the baseline value (p<0.001; t-test. The surface roughness changes at the two time periods were significantly different between the EDTA and HEBP groups (p=0.003 for 0-1 min passage, p=0.021 for 1-2 min passage. Conclusion: The use of 17% EDTA may result in deterioration of Biodentine’s surface during perforation repair and root canal treatment.

  19. Image-space texture-based output-coherent surface flow visualization. (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Pan, Zherong; Chen, Guoning; Chen, Wei; Bao, Hujun


    Image-space line integral convolution (LIC) is a popular scheme for visualizing surface vector fields due to its simplicity and high efficiency. To avoid inconsistencies or color blur during the user interactions, existing approaches employ surface parameterization or 3D volume texture schemes. However, they often require expensive computation or memory cost, and cannot achieve consistent results in terms of both the granularity and color distribution on different scales. This paper introduces a novel image-space surface flow visualization approach that preserves the coherence during user interactions. To make the noise texture under different viewpoints coherent, we propose to precompute a sequence of mipmap noise textures in a coarse-to-fine manner for consistent transition, and map the textures onto each triangle with randomly assigned and constant texture coordinates. Further, a standard image-space LIC is performed to generate the flow texture. The proposed approach is simple and GPU-friendly, and can be easily combined with various texture-based flow visualization techniques. By leveraging viewpoint-dependent backward tracing and mipmap noise phase, our method can be incorporated with the image-based flow visualization (IBFV) technique for coherent visualization of unsteady flows. We demonstrate consistent and highly efficient flow visualization on a variety of data sets.

  20. Experimental Analysis & Optimization of Cylindirical Grinding Process Parameters on Surface Roughness of En15AM Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar


    Full Text Available As per the modern Industrial requirements, higher surface finish mechanical components and mating parts with close limits and tolerances, is one of the most important requirement. Abrasive machining processes are generally the last operations performed on manufactured products for higher surface finishing and for fine or small scale material removal. Higher surface finish and high rate of removal can be obtained if a large number of grains act together. This is accomplished by using bonded abrasives as in grinding wheel or by modern machining processes. In the present study, Taguchi method or Design of experiments has been used to optimize the effect of cylindrical grinding parameters such as wheel speed (rpm, work speed, feed (mm/min., depth of cut and cutting fluid on the surface roughness of EN15AM steel. Ground surface roughness measurements were carried out by Talysurf surface roughness tester. EN15AM steel has several industrial applications in manufacturing of engine shafts, connecting rods, spindles, studs, bolt, screws etc. The results indicated that grinding wheel speed, work piece speed, table feed rate and depth of cut were the significant factors for the surface roughness and material removal rate. Surface roughness is minimum at 2000 r.p.m. of grinding wheel speed , work piece speed 80 rpm, feed rate 275 mm/min. and 0.06 mm depth of cut.

  1. Surface roughness prediction model in end milling of Al/SiCp MMC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pondicherry Engineering College, Puducherry, INDIA ... tolerance, material specification, optimal design efficiency and good surface finish. ... surfaces by coupling RSM with a developed genetic algorithm (GA). ..... The optimization plot for surface roughness has been shown in Fig.

  2. Backscattering of linearly polarized light from turbid tissue-like scattering medium with rough surface (United States)

    Doronin, Alexander; Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Markhvida, Igor; Lee, Tim K.; Meglinski, Igor


    In the framework of further development of a unified computational tool for the needs of biomedical optics, we introduce an electric field Monte Carlo (MC) model for simulation of backscattering of coherent linearly polarized light from a turbid tissue-like scattering medium with a rough surface. We consider the laser speckle patterns formation and the role of surface roughness in the depolarization of linearly polarized light backscattered from the medium. The mutual phase shifts due to the photons' pathlength difference within the medium and due to reflection/refraction on the rough surface of the medium are taken into account. The validation of the model includes the creation of the phantoms of various roughness and optical properties, measurements of co- and cross-polarized components of the backscattered/reflected light, its analysis and extensive computer modeling accelerated by parallel computing on the NVIDIA graphics processing units using compute unified device architecture (CUDA). The analysis of the spatial intensity distribution is based on second-order statistics that shows a strong correlation with the surface roughness, both with the results of modeling and experiment. The results of modeling show a good agreement with the results of experimental measurements on phantoms mimicking human skin. The developed MC approach can be used for the direct simulation of light scattered by the turbid scattering medium with various roughness of the surface.

  3. Research on synthetic aperture radar imaging technology of one-dimensional layered rough surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Wei-Jie; Tong Chuang-Ming


    A quick and exact imaging method for one-dimensional layered rough surfaces is proposed in this paper to study the scattering characteristics of a layered medium that exists widely in nature.The boundary integral equations of layered rough surfaces are solved by using the propagation-inside-layer expansion combined with the forward and backward spectral acceleration method (PILE+FB-SA),and the back scattering data are obtained.Then,a conventional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging procedure called back projection method is used to generate a two-dimensional (2D) image of the layered rough surfaces.Combined with the relative dielectric permittivity of realistic soil,the random rough surfaces with Gauss spectrum are used to simulate the layered medium with rough interfaces.Since the back scattering data are computed by using the fast numerical method,this method can be used to study layered rough surfaces with any parameter,which has a great application value in the detection and remote sensing areas.

  4. Surface characteristics of debris-covered glacier tongues in the Khumbu Himalaya derived from remote sensing texture analysis (United States)

    Racoviteanu, Adina; Arnaud, Yves; Nicholson, Lindsay


    The delineation of debris-covered glaciers remains a challenge in optical remote sensing, due to the similarity of the spectral signature of debris-covered ice to surrounding lateral moraines, making it difficult to apply standard semi-automated algorithms commonly used for clean ice delineation. Furthermore, supraglacial debris exhibits considerable spatial variability in its characteristics such as debris cover thickness, particle size, thermal resistance and thermal conductivity. These properties are needed in order to map the extent of debris cover and to estimate ice melt under the debris cover or at the surface. In this study we evaluate the potential of texture analysis for detecting surface characteristics of debris-cover glacier tongues in the Khumbu Himalaya, using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and high-resolution Ikonos data. We focus on mapping supra-glacier lakes and exposed ice walls using texture analysis algorithms such as grey-level co-occurrence measures (GLCM), filtering, image segmentation, and particle boundaries. We compare the performance of various existing commercial software suitable for texture analysis such as ERDAS Objective, Aphelion, as well as public domain image display and analysis software used originally for medical analysis, notably Image SXM and ImageJ. Preliminary results based on geostatistics and GLCM measures show differences in surface roughness of debris cover when compared to surrounding ice-free moraines. We expand on these results and aim at developing a quasi-automated algorithm for extracting surface features, which will be used as input in an energy balance model for estimating melting under debris cover as well as surface ice melt.

  5. Effect of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) on microhardness, surface roughness and wettability of AISI 316L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arifvianto, B.; Suyitno, [No Value; Mahardika, M.; Dewo, P.; Iswanto, P. T.; Salim, U. A.


    Surface roughness and wettability are among the surface properties which determine the service lifetime of materials. Mechanical treatments subjected to the surface layer of materials are often performed to obtain the desired surface properties and to enhance the mechanical strength of materials. In

  6. Effect of prophylactic polishing protocols on the surface roughness of esthetic restorative materials. (United States)

    Neme, A L; Frazier, K B; Roeder, L B; Debner, T L


    Many polishing protocols have been evaluated in vitro for their effect on the surface roughness of restorative materials. These results have been useful in establishing protocols for in vivo application. However, limited research has focused on the subsequent care and maintenance of esthetic restorations following their placement. This investigation evaluated the effect of five polishing protocols that could be implemented at recall on the surface roughness of five direct esthetic restorative materials. Specimens (n=25) measuring 8 mm diameter x 3 mm thick were fabricated in an acrylic mold using five light-cured resin-based materials (hybrid composite, microfilled composite, packable composite, compomer and resin-modified glass ionomer). After photopolymerization, all specimens were polished with Sof-Lex Disks to produce an initial (baseline) surface finish. All specimens were then polished with one of five prophylactic protocols (Butler medium paste, Butler coarse paste, OneGloss, SuperBuff or OneGloss & SuperBuff). The average surface roughness of each treated specimen was determined from three measurements with a profilometer (Surface 1). Next, all specimens were brushed 60,000 times at 1.5 Hz using a brush-head force of 2 N on a Manly V-8 cross-brushing machine in a 50:50 (w/w) slurry of toothpaste and water. The surface roughness of each specimen was measured after brushing (Surface 2) followed by re-polishing with one of five protocols, then final surface roughness values were determined (Surface 3). The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Significant differences (p=0.05) in surface roughness were observed among restorative materials and polishing protocols. The microfilled and hybrid resin composite yielded significantly rougher surfaces than the other three materials following tooth brushing. Prophylactic polishing protocols can be used to restore a smooth surface on resin-based esthetic restorative materials following simulated tooth

  7. Characterisation of group behaviour surface texturing with multi-layers fitting method (United States)

    Kang, Zhengyang; Fu, Yonghong; Ji, Jinghu; Wang, Hao


    Surface texturing was widely applied in improving the tribological properties of mechanical components, but study of measurement of this technology was still insufficient. This study proposed the multi-layers fitting (MLF) method to characterise the dimples array texture surface. Based on the synergistic effect among the dimples, the 3D morphology of texture surface was rebuilt by 2D stylus profiler in the MLF method. The feasible regions of texture patterns and sensitive parameters were confirmed by non-linear programming, and the processing software of MLF method was developed based on the Matlab®. The characterisation parameters system of dimples was defined mathematically, and the accuracy of MLF method was investigated by comparison experiment. The surface texture specimens were made by laser surface texturing technology, in which high consistency of dimples' size and distribution was achieved. Then, 2D profiles of different dimples were captured by employing Hommel-T1000 stylus profiler, and the data were further processed by MLF software to rebuild 3D morphology of single dimple. The experiment results indicated that the MLF characterisation results were similar to those of Wyko T1100, the white light interference microscope. It was also found that the stability of MLF characterisation results highly depended on the number of captured cross-sections.

  8. Surface forces between rough and topographically structured interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thormann, Esben


    Within colloidal science, direct or indirect measurements of surface forces represent an important tool for developing a fundamental understanding of colloidal systems, as well as for predictions of the stability of colloidal suspensions. While the general understanding of colloidal interactions ...

  9. Parallel optical trap assisted nanopatterning on rough surfaces (United States)

    Tsai, Y.-C.; Leitz, K.-H.; Fardel, R.; Otto, A.; Schmidt, M.; Arnold, C. B.


    There exist many optical lithography techniques for generating nanostructures on hard, flat surfaces over large areas. However, few techniques are able to create such patterns on soft materials or surfaces with pre-existing structure. To address this need, we demonstrate the use of parallel optical trap assisted nanopatterning (OTAN) to provide an efficient and robust direct-write method of producing nanoscale features without the need for focal plane adjustment. Parallel patterning on model surfaces of polyimide with vertical steps greater than 1.5 µm shows a feature size uncertainty better than 4% across the step and lateral positional accuracy of 25 nm. A Brownian motion model is used to describe the positional accuracy enabling one to predict how variation in system parameters will affect the nanopatterning results. These combined results suggest that OTAN is a viable technique for massively parallel direct-write nanolithography on non-traditional surfaces.

  10. Effect of acidic agents on surface roughness of dental ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonlert Kukiattrakoon


    Conclusion: Acidic agents used in this study negatively affected the surface of ceramic materials. This should be considered when restoring the eroded tooth with ceramic restorations in patients who have a high risk of erosive conditions.

  11. Effects of surface roughness on magnetic flux leakage testing of micro-cracks (United States)

    Deng, Zhiyang; Sun, Yanhua; Yang, Yun; Kang, Yihua


    Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) testing owns the advantages of high inspection sensitivity and stability, but its testing results are always affected by surface roughness. The relationship between the surface roughness ({{R}a} ) and detection signals for surface-breaking cracks is mainly discussed. The existence of roughness magnetic compression effect (RMCE) in present MFL testing is specially pointed out and its relevant theory is also analyzed, which manifest themselves in the compression of MFL signal in its peak value and the baseline drifts mixed with noise. An experimental investigation on surface comparators with different arithmetic average height ({{R}a} ) and artificial notch size, is performed to analyze the effects of surface roughness on detection signals of cracks. The detection limit (DL) of micro-crack is analyzed by comparing the {{B}y} noise-signal ratio ({{S}y} ) and peak-peak signals of the cracks. Meanwhile, {{S}y} increases with the {{R}a} and R{{S}m} , in this case, relatively shallow defects cannot be clearly distinguished at determined rough surface. Afterwards, a series of simulations are designed and performed to verify the effects of surface roughness on characteristic {{B}y} of the electromagnetic field, and a theoretical DL of micro-crack is presented as: DL=2.88{{R}a}+7.00 . Furthermore, the optimal lift-off value is selected for the micro-cracks’ detection to weaken the negative magnetic compression effect. MFL signals cannot reflect the accurate sizes of the cracks on rough surface due to the RMCE and its relevant phenomenon. The discovery and results will benefit the quantitative evaluation of the MFL testing.

  12. Contact mechanics for layered materials with randomly rough surfaces. (United States)

    Persson, B N J


    The contact mechanics model of Persson is applied to layered materials. We calculate the M function, which relates the surface stress to the surface displacement, for a layered material, where the top layer (thickness d) has different elastic properties than the semi-infinite solid below. Numerical results for the contact area as a function of the magnification are presented for several cases. As an application, we calculate the fluid leak rate for laminated rubber seals.

  13. Laser-treated stainless steel mini-screw implants: 3D surface roughness, bone-implant contact, and fracture resistance analysis. (United States)

    Kang, He-Kyong; Chu, Tien-Min; Dechow, Paul; Stewart, Kelton; Kyung, Hee-Moon; Liu, Sean Shih-Yao


    This study investigated the biomechanical properties and bone-implant intersurface response of machined and laser surface-treated stainless steel (SS) mini-screw implants (MSIs). Forty-eight 1.3mm in diameter and 6mm long SS MSIs were divided into two groups. The control (machined surface) group received no surface treatment; the laser-treated group received Nd-YAG laser surface treatment. Half in each group was used for examining surface roughness (Sa and Sq), surface texture, and facture resistance. The remaining MSIs were placed in the maxilla of six skeletally mature male beagle dogs in a randomized split-mouth design. A pair with the same surface treatment was placed on the same side and immediately loaded with 200 g nickel-titanium coil springs for 8 weeks. After killing, the bone-implant contact (BIC) for each MSI was calculated using micro computed tomography. Analysis of variance model and two-sample t test were used for statistical analysis with a significance level of P laser-treated group compared with the machined group (P Laser treatment increased surface roughness without compromising fracture resistance. Despite increasing surface roughness, laser treatment did not improve BIC. Overall, it appears that medical grade SS has the potential to be substituted for titanium alloy MSIs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. YAP


    Full Text Available The effect of cryogenic liquid nitrogen on surface roughness, cutting forces, and friction coefficient of the machined surface when machining of carbon steel S45C in wet, dry and cryogenic condition was studied through experiments. The experimental results show that machining with liquid nitrogen increases the cutting forces, reduces the friction coefficient, and improves the chips produced. Beside this, conventional machining with cutting fluid is still the most suitable method to produce good surface in high speed machining of carbon steel S45C whereas dry machining produced best surface roughness in low speed machining. Cryogenic machining is not able to replace conventional cutting fluid in turning carbon steel.

  15. Streptococcus sanguinis adhesion on titanium rough surfaces: effect of shot-blasting particles. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana G; Juárez, A; Engel, E; Gil, F J


    Dental implant failure is commonly associated to dental plaque formation. This problem starts with bacterial colonization on implant surface upon implantation. Early colonizers (such as Streptococcus sanguinis) play a key role on that process, because they attach directly to the surface and facilitate adhesion of later colonizers. Surface treatments have been focused to improve osseointegration, where shot-blasting is one of the most used. However the effects on bacterial adhesion on that sort of surfaces have not been elucidated at all. A methodological procedure to test bacterial adherence to titanium shot-blasted surfaces (alumina and silicon carbide) by quantifying bacterial detached cells per area unit, was performed. In parallel, the surface properties of samples (i.e., roughness and surface energy), were analyzed in order to assess the relationship between surface treatment and bacterial adhesion. Rather than roughness, surface energy correlated to physicochemical properties of shot-blasted particles appears as critical factors for S. sanguinis adherence to titanium surfaces.

  16. Effect of surface roughness on van der Waals and Casimir-Polder/Casimir attraction energies (United States)

    Makeev, Maxim A.


    A theoretical model is devised to assess effects of surface roughness on dispersion interactions between macroscopic bodies, bounded by self-affine fractal surfaces and separated by a vacuum gap. The rough-surface profiles are described statistically by the saturation values of surface width and the correlation lengths; i.e., in terms of experimentally measurable quantities. The model devised takes into account the separation distance-dependent nature of dispersive interactions. The case of non-retarded van der Waals interactions, known to operate at smaller separation distances between the bodies, and that of retarded attractions, operative at larger separation length-scales, are treated separately in this work. Analytical formulae for the roughness corrections are deduced for the two aforementioned types of attractions. The model is employed to compute roughness corrections to interactions between an extended body, bounded by a self-affine surface, and: a) a point-like adherent; and b) a planar half-space. Furthermore, the roughness-induced corrections to dispersive interaction energies between half-spaces, both bounded by self-affine surfaces, are obtained under assumption that the corresponding surface profiles are not correlated. The predictions of the model are compared with some previously reported theoretical studies and available experimental data on the theme of dispersive adhesion between macroscopic bodies.

  17. Effect of chemical degradation followed by toothbrushing on the surface roughness of restorative composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Regina Voltarelli


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of the exposure to food-simulating liquids prior to brushing simulation on the surface roughness of five composite materials (Quixfil, Filtek Supreme, Esthet-X, Filtek Z250, Tetric Ceram. Material and METHODS: Twenty cylinders (5 mm diameter and 4 mm height of each composite were randomly allocated to 4 groups (n=5, according to the food-simulating liquid in which they were immersed for 7 days at 37°C: artificial saliva, heptane, citric acid, and ethanol. After this period, the top surface of composite cylinders was submitted to 7,500 brushing cycles (200 g load. Measurements of the surface roughness (Ra, ¼m were carried out before and after the exposure to the chemicals/brushing simulation. Changes on the morphology of composite surfaces were observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM. RESULTS: The statistical analysis (ANOVA with cofactor / Tukey's test, α=5% detected a significant interaction between solutions and composite resins. Esthet-X, Filtek Z250 and Tetric Ceram were not affected by the food-simulating liquids/toothbrushing. Citric acid and ethanol increased the surface roughness of Quixfil and Filtek Supreme, respectively. SEM images corroborate the surface roughness findings, demonstrating the negative effect from chemical solutions and mechanical abrasion. CONCLUSIONS: The surface roughness of composite resin materials are differently affected by the food-simulating solutions, depending on the immersion media.

  18. Acoustic imaging in application to reconstruction of rough rigid surface with airborne ultrasound waves (United States)

    Krynkin, A.; Dolcetti, G.; Hunting, S.


    Accurate reconstruction of the surface roughness is of high importance to various areas of science and engineering. One important application of this technology is for remote monitoring of open channel flows through observing its dynamic surface roughness. In this paper a novel airborne acoustic method of roughness reconstruction is proposed and tested with a static rigid rough surface. This method is based on the acoustic holography principle and Kirchhoff approximation which make use of acoustic pressure data collected at multiple receiver points spread along an arch. The Tikhonov regularisation and generalised cross validation technique are used to solve the underdetermined system of equations for the acoustic pressures. The experimental data are collected above a roughness created with a 3D printer. For the given surface, it is shown that the proposed method works well with the various number of receiver positions. In this paper, the tested ratios between the number of surface points at which the surface elevation can be reconstructed and number of receiver positions are 2.5, 5, and 7.5. It is shown that, in a region comparable with the projected size of the main directivity lobe, the method is able to reconstruct the spatial spectrum density of the actual surface elevation with the accuracy of 20%.

  19. Molecular dynamics analysis of a equilibrium nanoscale droplet on a solid surface with periodic roughness (United States)

    Furuta, Yuma; Surblys, Donatas; Yamaguchi, Yastaka


    Molecular dynamics simulations of the equilibrium wetting behavior of hemi-cylindrical argon droplets on solid surfaces with a periodic roughness were carried out. The rough solid surface is located at the bottom of the calculation cell with periodic boundary conditions in surface lateral directions and mirror boundary condition at the top boundary. Similar to on a smooth surface, the change of the cosine of the droplet contact angle was linearly correlated to the potential well depth of the inter-atomic interaction between liquid and solid on a surface with a short roughness period while the correlation was deviated on one with a long roughness period. To further investigate this feature, solid-liquid, solid-vapor interfacial free energies per unit projected area of solid surface were evaluated by using the thermodynamic integration method in independent quasi-one-dimensional simulation systems with a liquid-solid interface or vapor-solid interface on various rough solid surfaces at a constant pressure. The cosine of the apparent contact angles estimated from the density profile of the droplet systems corresponded well with ones calculated from Young's equation using the interfacial energies evaluated in the quasi-one dimensional systems.

  20. The surface roughness difference between microhybrid and polycrystalline composites after polishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Priyo Prasetyo


    Full Text Available Background: One of the success criteria for a composite resin restorative material is the surface roughness that can be achieved through polishing. Considering that there are so many types of composite resin materials on the market, including polycrystalline composites, information on this type of composite’s surface roughness is needed. Purpose: The aim of this laboratory experiment was to compare the surface roughness difference between microhybrid and polycrystalline composite after polishing. Methods: In order to obtain this, a laboratory experiment was done. Four groups of composites were produced, the first two groups consist of microhybrid composite and the second two groups consist of polycrystalline composite. Two groups with the same material were treated with two different treatments as follows: the first group was not finished (the surface is under celluloid matrix, the second group was finished and polished. After these treatments, each sample’s surface was measured using surface roughness measuring instrument and then the Results: were analyzed statistically using independent t-test (α = 0.05. Conclusion: The result showed that after polishing, the surface roughness of polycrystalline composite is lower than that of microhybrid composite.

  1. Numerical simulations of sink-flow boundary layers over rough surfaces (United States)

    Yuan, J.; Piomelli, U.


    Turbulent sink flows over smooth or rough walls with sand-grain roughness are studied using large-eddy and direct numerical simulations. Mild and strong levels of acceleration are applied, yielding a wide range of Reynolds number (Reθ = 372 - 2748) and cases close to the reverse-transitional state. Flow acceleration and roughness are shown to exert opposite effects on boundary-layer integral parameters, on the Reynolds stresses, budgets of turbulent kinetic energy, and properties of turbulent structures in the vicinity of the rough surface; statistics exhibit similarity when plotted using inner scaling for cases with the same roughness Reynolds number, k+. Acceleration leads to a decrease of k+, while roughness increases it. For cases with higher k+, the low-speed streaks become destabilized, and turbulent structures near the wall are distributed more uniformly in the wall-parallel plane; they are less extended in the streamwise direction, but more densely packed. Higher k+ also causes decorrelation of the outer-layer hairpin packets with the near-wall structures, probably due to the direct impact of random roughness elements on the hairpin legs. Wall-similarity applies for the fully turbulent cases, in which the outer-layer turbulent statistics are affected by acceleration only. It is shown that being in the hydraulically smooth regime is a necessary condition for reverse-transition, supporting the idea that relaminarization starts from the inner region, where roughness effects dominate.

  2. Influence of polishing procedures on the surface roughness of dental ceramics made by different techniques. (United States)

    Oliveira-Junior, Osmir Batista; Buso, Leonardo; Fujiy, Fábio Hiroshi; Lombardo, Geraldo Henrique Leao; Campos, Fernanda; Sarmento, Hugo Ramalho; Souza, Rodrigo Othavio Assuncao


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 2 different surface polishing procedures-glazing and manual polishing-on the roughness of ceramics processed by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) and conventional systems (stratification technique). Eighty ceramic discs (diameter: 8 mm, thickness: 1 mm) were prepared and divided among 8 groups (n = 10) according to the type of ceramic disc and polishing method: 4 GZ and 4 MP. Specimens were glazed according to each manufacturer's recommendations. Two silicone polishing points were used on the ceramic surface for manual polishing. Roughness was measured using a surface roughness tester. The roughness measurements were made along a distance of 2 mm on the sample surface and the speed of reading was 0.1 mm/s. Three measurements were taken for each sample. The data (μm) were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Qualitative analysis was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mean (± SD) roughness values obtained for GZ were: 1.1 ± 0.40 μm; 1.0 ± 0.31 μm; 1.6 ± 0.31 μm; and 2.2 ± 0.73 μm. For MP, the mean values were: 0.66 ± 0.13 μm; 0.43 ± 0.14 μm; 1.6 ± 0.55 μm; and 2.0 ± 0.63 μm. The mean roughness values were significantly affected by the ceramic type (P = 0.0001) and polishing technique (P = 0.0047). The SEM images confirmed the roughness data. The manually polished glass CAD/CAM ceramics promoted lower surface roughness than did the glazed feldspathic dental ceramics.

  3. Rough surfaces of titanium and titanium alloys for implants and prostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conforto, E. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland)]. E-mail:; Aronsson, B.-O. [GAP Biomedical, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Salito, A. [Sulzer-Metco AG, CH-5610 Wohlen (Switzerland); Crestou, C. [CEMES/CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, F-31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Caillard, D. [CEMES/CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, F-31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)


    Titanium and titanium alloys for dental implants and hip prostheses were surface-treated and/or covered by metallic or ceramic rough layers after being submitted to sand blasting. The goal of these treatments is to improve the surface roughness and consequently the osteointegration, the fixation, and the stability of the implant. The microstructure of titanium and titanium alloys submitted to these treatments has been studied and correlated to their mechanical behavior. As-treated/covered and mechanically tested surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Structural analyses performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), mainly in cross-section, reveal the degree of adherence and cohesion between the surface layer and the substrate (implant). We observed that, although the same convenient surface roughness was obtained with the two types of process, many characteristics as structural properties and mechanical behavior are very different.

  4. Linear surface roughness growth and flow smoothening in a three-dimensional biofilm model (United States)

    Head, D. A.


    The sessile microbial communities known as biofilms exhibit varying architectures as environmental factors are varied, which for immersed biofilms includes the shear rate of the surrounding flow. Here we modify an established agent-based biofilm model to include affine flow and employ it to analyze the growth of surface roughness of single-species, three-dimensional biofilms. We find linear growth laws for surface geometry in both horizontal and vertical directions and measure the thickness of the active surface layer, which is shown to anticorrelate with roughness. Flow is shown to monotonically reduce surface roughness without affecting the thickness of the active layer. We argue that the rapid roughening is due to nonlocal surface interactions mediated by the nutrient field, which are curtailed when advection competes with diffusion. We further argue the need for simplified models to elucidate the underlying mechanisms coupling flow to growth.

  5. Role of surface roughness characterized by fractal geometry on laminar flow in microchannels (United States)

    Chen, Yongping; Zhang, Chengbin; Shi, Mingheng; Peterson, G. P.


    A three-dimensional model of laminar flow in microchannels is numerically analyzed incorporating surface roughness effects as characterized by fractal geometry. The Weierstrass-Mandelbrot function is proposed to characterize the multiscale self-affine roughness. The effects of Reynolds number, relative roughness, and fractal dimension on laminar flow are all investigated and discussed. The results indicate that unlike flow in smooth microchannels, the Poiseuille number in rough microchannels increases linearly with the Reynolds number, Re, and is larger than what is typically observed in smooth channels. For these situations, the flow over surfaces with high relative roughness induces recirculation and flow separation, which play an important role in single-phase pressure drop. More specifically, surfaces with the larger fractal dimensions yield more frequent variations in the surface profile, which result in a significantly larger incremental pressure loss, even though at the same relative roughness. The accuracy of the predicted Poiseuille number as calculated by the present model is verified using experimental data available in the literature.

  6. Surface Features Parameterization and Equivalent Roughness Height Estimation of a Real Subglacial Conduit in the Arctic (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Liu, X.; Manko ff, K. D.; Gulley, J. D.


    The surfaces of subglacial conduits are very complex, coupling multi-scale roughness, large sinuosity, and cross-sectional variations together. Those features significantly affect the friction law and drainage efficiency inside the conduit by altering velocity and pressure distributions, thus posing considerable influences on the dynamic development of the conduit. Parameterizing the above surface features is a first step towards understanding their hydraulic influences. A Matlab package is developed to extract the roughness field, the conduit centerline, and associated area and curvature data from the conduit surface, acquired from 3D scanning. By using those data, the characteristic vertical and horizontal roughness scales are then estimated based on the structure functions. The centerline sinuosities, defined through three concepts, i.e., the traditional definition of a fluvial river, entropy-based sinuosity, and curvature-based sinuosity, are also calculated and compared. The cross-sectional area and equivalent circular diameter along the centerline are also calculated. Among those features, the roughness is especially important due to its pivotal role in determining the wall friction, and thus an estimation of the equivalent roughness height is of great importance. To achieve such a goal, the original conduit is firstly simplified into a straight smooth pipe with the same volume and centerline length, and the roughness field obtained above is then reconstructed into the simplified pipe. An OpenFOAM-based Large-eddy-simulation (LES) is then performed based on the reconstructed pipe. Considering that the Reynolds number is of the order 106, and the relative roughness is larger than 5% for 60% of the conduit, we test the validity of the resistance law for completely rough pipe. The friction factor is calculated based on the pressure drop and mean velocity in the simulation. Working together, the equivalent roughness height can be calculated. However, whether the

  7. [Survival of the T28 femoral stem. Comparison of polished versus roughed-surface finish]. (United States)

    Chaidez Rosales, Pedro; Younger, Alastair; Renán León, Saúl; Poss, Robert


    Femoral stem loosening in total hip arthroplasty has a multifactorial etiology. T28 femoral stems have been made both roughed and polished-finish types, and differences in design are of interest in their effect on survival. One hundred and sixty-seven stems (84 polished and 83 roughed-finish) placed between 1975 and 1982 were evaluated. Gruen zones were used to determine loosening and survival was determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Revision was made in 24.8% of the cases. Twenty-year survival rates were of 85.2% for roughed-finish stems and of 64.2% for polished-finish stems. We were able to confirm our hypothesis concerning the longer survival rate of the roughed-finish implant which was of 87.95% at 17 years of follow-up. The survival-time of the implant was independent of diagnosis, cementation, age and positioning. The survival-time of the T28 cemented implant does not only depend on its texture but it has a multifactorial origin.

  8. Collisions of ideal gas molecules with a rough/fractal surface. A computational study. (United States)

    Panczyk, Tomasz


    The frequency of collisions of ideal gas molecules (argon) with a rough surface has been studied. The rough/fractal surface was created using random deposition technique. By applying various depositions, the roughness of the surface was controlled and, as a measure of the irregularity, the fractal dimensions of the surfaces were determined. The surfaces were next immersed in argon (under pressures 2 x 10(3) to 2 x 10(5) Pa) and the numbers of collisions with these surfaces were counted. The calculations were carried out using a simplified molecular dynamics simulation technique (only hard core repulsions were assumed). As a result, it was stated that the frequency of collisions is a linear function of pressure for all fractal dimensions studied (D = 2, ..., 2.5). The frequency per unit pressure is quite complex function of the fractal dimension; however, the changes of that frequency with the fractal dimension are not strong. It was found that the frequency of collisions is controlled by the number of weakly folded sites on the surfaces and there is some mapping between the shape of adsorption energy distribution functions and this number of weakly folded sites. The results for the rough/fractal surfaces were compared with the prediction given by the Langmuir-Hertz equation (valid for smooth surface), generally the departure from the Langmuir-Hertz equation is not higher than 48% for the studied systems (i.e. for the surfaces created using the random deposition technique).

  9. Surface Roughness and Morphology Customization of Additive Manufactured Open Porous Ti6Al4V Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Wevers


    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing (AM is a production method that enables the building of porous structures with a controlled geometry. However, there is a limited control over the final surface of the product. Hence, complementary surface engineering strategies are needed. In this work, design of experiments (DoE was used to customize post AM surface treatment for 3D selective laser melted Ti6Al4V open porous structures for bone tissue engineering. A two-level three-factor full factorial design was employed to assess the individual and interactive effects of the surface treatment duration and the concentration of the chemical etching solution on the final surface roughness and beam thickness of the treated porous structures. It was observed that the concentration of the surface treatment solution was the most important factor influencing roughness reduction. The designed beam thickness decreased the effectiveness of the surface treatment. In this case study, the optimized processing conditions for AM production and the post-AM surface treatment were defined based on the DoE output and were validated experimentally. This allowed the production of customized 3D porous structures with controlled surface roughness and overall morphological properties, which can assist in more controlled evaluation of the effect of surface roughness on various functional properties.

  10. A wind tunnel study of flows over idealised urban surfaces with roughness sublayer corrections (United States)

    Ho, Yat-Kiu; Liu, Chun-Ho


    Dynamics in the roughness (RSLs) and inertial (ISLs) sublayers in the turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) over idealised urban surfaces are investigated analytically and experimentally. In this paper, we derive an analytical solution to the mean velocity profile, which is a continuous function applicable to both RSL and ISL, over rough surfaces in isothermal conditions. Afterwards, a modified mixing-length model for RSL/ISL transport is developed that elucidates how surface roughness affects the turbulence motions. A series of wind tunnel experiments are conducted to measure the vertical profiles of mean and fluctuating velocities, together with momentum flux over various configurations of surface-mounted ribs in cross flows using hot-wire anemometry (HWA). The analytical solution agrees well with the wind tunnel result that improves the estimate to mean velocity profile over urban surfaces and TBL dynamics as well. The thicknesses of RSL and ISL are calculated by monitoring the convergence/divergence between the temporally averaged and spatio-temporally averaged profiles of momentum flux. It is found that the height of RSL/ISL interface is a function of surface roughness. Examining the direct, physical influence of roughness elements on near-surface RSL flows reveals that the TBL flows over rough surfaces exhibit turbulence motions of two different length scales which are functions of the RSL and ISL structure. Conclusively, given a TBL, the rougher the surface, the higher is the RSL intruding upward that would thinner the ISL up to 50 %. Therefore, the conventional ISL log-law approximation to TBL flows over urban surfaces should be applied with caution.

  11. Textured surface structures formed using new techniques on transparent conducting Al-doped zinc oxide films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Tadatsugu [Optoelectronic Device System R& D Center, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan); Miyata, Toshihiro, E-mail: [Optoelectronic Device System R& D Center, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan); Uozaki, Ryousuke [Optoelectronic Device System R& D Center, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan); Sai, Hitoshi; Koida, Takashi [Research Center for Photovoltaics, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)


    Surface-textured Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films formed using two new techniques based on magnetron sputtering deposition were developed by optimizing the light scattering properties to be suitable for transparent electrode applications in thin-film silicon solar cells. Scrambled egg-like surface-textured AZO films were prepared using a new texture formation technique that post-etched pyramidal surface-textured AZO films prepared under deposition conditions suppressing c-axis orientation. In addition, double surface-textured AZO films were prepared using another new texture formation technique that completely removed, by post-etching, the pyramidal surface-textured AZO films previously prepared onto the initially deposited low resistivity AZO films; simultaneously, the surface of the low resistivity films was slightly etched. However, the obtained very high haze value in the range from the near ultraviolet to visible light in the scrambled egg-like surface-textured AZO films did not contribute significantly to the obtainable photovoltaic properties in the solar cells fabricated using the films. Significant light scattering properties as well as a low sheet resistance could be achieved in the double surface-textured AZO films. In addition, a significant improvement of external quantum efficiency in the range from the near ultraviolet to visible light was achieved in superstrate-type n-i-p μc-Si:H solar cells fabricated using a double surface-textured AZO film prepared under optimized conditions as the transparent electrode. - Highlights: • Double surface-textured AZO films prepared using a new texture formation technique • Extensive light scattering properties with low sheet resistance achieved in the double surface-textured AZO films • Improved external quantum efficiency of μc-Si:H solar cells using a double surface-textured AZO film.

  12. Surface roughness due to residual ice in the use of low power deicing systems (United States)

    Shin, Jaiwon; Bond, Thomas H.


    Thicknesses of residual ice are presented to provide information on surface contamination and associated roughness during deicing events. Data was obtained from low power ice protection systems tests conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) with nine different deicing systems. Results show that roughness associated with residual ice is not characterized by uniformly distributed roughness. Results also show that deicing systems require a critical mass of ice to generate a sufficient expelling force to remove the ice.

  13. Numerical Investigation Of Surface Roughness Effects On The Flow Field In A Swirl Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali SAKİN


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate axial and tangential velocity profiles, turbulent dissipation rate, turbulent kinetic energy and pressure losses under the influence of surface roughness for the swirling flow in a cyclone separator. The governing equations for this flow were solved by using Fluent CFD code. First, numerical analyses were run to verify numerical solution and domain with experimental results. Velocity profiles, turbulent parameters and pressure drops were calculated by increasing inlet velocity from 10 to 20 m/s and roughness height from 0 to 4 mm. Analyses of results showed that pressure losses are decreased and velocity field is considerably affected by increasing roughness height.

  14. DNS of turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces: effect of texture randomness (United States)

    Seo, Jongmin; Mani, Ali


    Superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS) are non-wetting surfaces consisting of hydrophobic material and nano/micro-scale structures. When in contact with overlaying liquid flows, such structures can entrap gas and therefore suppress the direct contact between water and solid, reducing skin friction. SHS patterns can utilize a wide range of geometries including posts, ridges, and etched holes, either in a pre-specified arrangement or randomly distributed. In this work we investigate how the randomness of such patterns affect the drag reduction and interfacial robustness when these surfaces are under turbulent flows. We perform direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows over randomly patterned slip surface on a wide range of texture parameters. We present slip lengths of randomly distributed SHS for texture widths w+ = 4 - 26, and solid fractions from 11% to 25%. For fixed gas fraction and texture size, the slip lengths of randomly distributed textures are less than those of aligned textures. We show that the geometric randomness of texture distribution weakens the interfacial robustness of the gas pocket. Support from Office of Naval Research (ONR) under Grant #3002451214 is gratefully acknowledged.

  15. Tribological influence of tool surface roughness within microforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer; Weidel, S.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard


    A comparative friction study of tooling dies with a simple internal cylindrical geometry has been performed. The purpose of the experiment consist of studying the influence of the surface characteristics of tooling dies on the frictional behaviour in a micro bulk forming operation. This research ...

  16. On the dependence of sea surface roughness on wind waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, H.K.; Højstrup, J.; Vested, H.J.;


    The influence of wind waves on the momentum transfer (wind stress) between the atmosphere and sea surface was studied using new measured data from the RASEX experiment and other datasets compiled by Donelan et al. Results of the data analysis indicate that errors in wind friction velocity u...

  17. Antifungal susceptibility of Candida albicans biofilms on titanium discs with different surface roughness. (United States)

    Tsang, C S P; Ng, H; McMillan, A S


    Although it is well known that fungal biofilms have increased resistance to antimicrobial agents, limited information is available on the formation of candidal biofilms on implant surfaces with different surface roughness and their resistance to conventional antifungal therapy. In the current study, the effect of increasing the surface roughness of titanium discs on the susceptibility of Candida albicans biofilms to amphotericin B was determined. Grade I commercially pure titanium discs were sandblasted with 99.6% aluminium oxide of different grit sizes, producing surface roughness of 0.90, 1.88 and 3.82 microm (Groups A, B and C), respectively (P XTT assay. The 50% reduction in metabolic activity (50% RMA) of planktonic C. albicans (0.5 microg/mL) was much lower than those from Groups A, B and C (2, 16, 2 microg/mL, respectively), while the 50% RMA from Group B was three-fold higher than those from Groups A and C. In conclusion, difference in titanium surface roughness was associated with variations in the antifungal resistance of the candidal biofilm. Group C appeared to have an optimum surface roughness for biofilm resistance.

  18. Development of empirical correlation of peak friction angle with surface roughness of discontinuities using tilt test (United States)

    Serasa, Ailie Sofyiana; Lai, Goh Thian; Rafek, Abdul Ghani; Simon, Norbert; Hussein, Azimah; Ern, Lee Khai; Surip, Noraini; Mohamed, Tuan Rusli


    The significant influence of surface roughness of discontinuity surfaces is a quantity that is fundamental to the understanding of shear strength of geological discontinuities. This is due to reason that the shear strength of geological discontinuities greatly influenced the mechanical behavior of a rock mass especially in stability evaluation of tunnel, foundation, and natural slopes. In evaluating the stability of these structures, the study of peak friction angle (Φpeak) of rough discontinuity surfaces has become more prominent seeing that the shear strength is a pivotal factor causing failures. The measurement of peak friction angle however, requires an extensive series of laboratory tests which are both time and cost demanding. With that in mind, this publication presents an approach in the form of an experimentally determined polynomial equation to estimate peak friction angle of limestone discontinuity surfaces by measuring the Joint Roughness Coefficient (JRC) values from tilt tests, and applying the fore mentioned empirical correlation. A total of 1967 tilt tests and JRC measurements were conducted in the laboratory to determine the peak friction angles of rough limestone discontinuity surfaces. A polynomial equation of ɸpeak = -0.0635JRC2 + 3.95JRC + 25.2 that exhibited 0.99 coefficient of determination (R2) were obtained from the correlation of JRC and peak friction angles. The proposed correlation offers a practical method for estimation of peak friction angles of rough discontinuity surfaces of limestone from measurement of JRC in the field.

  19. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON - EUROMET.L-S11 comparison on surface texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koenders, L.; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    The measurement of roughness of technical surfaces is important in research and for industry. There are a lot of 2D roughness parameters that are defined and standardized by ISO. Calibration standards can be used to calibrate the instruments and ensure traceability to the SI unit of length. Most ...

  20. Systems and Methods of Laser Texturing of Material Surfaces and Their Applications (United States)

    Gupta, Mool C. (Inventor); Nayak, Barada K. (Inventor)


    The surface of a material is textured and by exposing the surface to pulses from an ultrafast laser. The laser treatment causes pillars to form on the treated surface. These pillars provide for greater light absorption. Texturing and crystallization can be carried out as a single step process. The crystallization of the material provides for higher electric conductivity and changes in optical and electronic properties of the material. The method may be performed in vacuum or a gaseous environment. The gaseous environment may aid in texturing and/or modifying physical and chemical properties of the surfaces. This method may be used on various material surfaces, such as semiconductors, metals and their alloys, ceramics, polymers, glasses, composites, as well as crystalline, nanocrystalline, polycrystalline, microcrystalline, and amorphous phases.

  1. Surface Roughness of Composite Resins after Simulated Toothbrushing with Different Dentifrices (United States)

    Monteiro, Bruna; Spohr, Ana Maria


    Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate, in vitro, the surface roughness of two composite resins submitted to simulated toothbrushing with three different dentifrices. Materials and Methods: Totally, 36 samples of Z350XT and 36 samples of Empress Direct were built and randomly divided into three groups (n = 12) according to the dentifrice used (Oral-B Pro-Health Whitening [OBW], Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief [CS], Colgate Total Clean Mint 12 [CT12]). The samples were submitted to 5,000, 10,000 or 20,000 cycles of simulated toothbrushing. After each simulated period, the surface roughness of the samples was measured using a roughness tester. Results: According to three-way analysis of variance, dentifrice (P = 0.044) and brushing time (P = 0.000) were significant. The composite resin was not significant (P = 0.381) and the interaction among the factors was not significant (P > 0.05). The mean values of the surface roughness (µm) followed by the same letter represent no statistical difference by Tukey's post-hoc test (P Dentifrice: CT12 = 0.269a; CS Pro- Relief = 0.300ab; OBW = 0.390b. Brushing time: Baseline = 0,046ª; 5,000 cycles = 0.297b; 10,000 cycles = 0.354b; 20,000 cycles = 0.584c. Conclusion: Z350 XT and Empress Direct presented similar surface roughness after all cycles of simulated toothbrushing. The higher the brushing time, the higher the surface roughness of composite resins. The dentifrice OBW caused a higher surface roughness in both composite resins. PMID:26229362


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elói Panachuki


    Full Text Available Surface roughness of the soil is formed by mechanical tillage and is also influenced by the kind and amount of plant residue, among other factors. Its persistence over time mainly depends on the fundamental characteristics of rain and soil type. However, few studies have been developed to evaluate these factors in Latossolos (Oxisols. In this study, we evaluated the effect of soil tillage and of amounts of plant residue on surface roughness of an Oxisol under simulated rain. Treatments consisted of the combination of the tillage systems of no-tillage (NT, conventional tillage (CT, and minimum tillage (MT with rates of plant residue of 0, 1, and 2 Mg ha-1 of oats (Avena strigosa Schreb and 0, 3, and 6 Mg ha-1 of maize (Zea mays L.. Seven simulated rains were applied on each experimental plot, with intensity of 60±2 mm h-1 and duration of 1 h at weekly intervals. The values of the random roughness index ranged from 2.94 to 17.71 mm in oats, and from 5.91 to 20.37 mm in maize, showing that CT and MT are effective in increasing soil surface roughness. It was seen that soil tillage operations carried out with the chisel plow and the leveling disk harrow are more effective in increasing soil roughness than those carried out with the heavy disk harrow and leveling disk harrow. The roughness index of the soil surface decreases exponentially with the increase in the rainfall volume applied under conditions of no tillage without soil cover, conventional tillage, and minimum tillage. The oat and maize crop residue present on the soil surface is effective in maintaining the roughness of the soil surface under no-tillage.

  3. Cell adhesion on Ti surface with controlled roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos-Asperilla, L.; Garcia-Alonso, M. C.; Escudero, M. L.; Alonso, C.


    In this report, the in situ interaction between Saos-2 osteoblast cells and a smooth Ti surface was examined over time. The adhesion kinetics and mechanisms of cellular proliferation were monitored by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The rate of Saos-2 attachment on Ti surfaces, obtained from the measurements performed with the QCM, is a first-order reaction, with k=2.10{sup -}3 min{sup -}1. The impedance measurements indicate that in the absence of cells, the Ti resistance diminishes over time (7 days), due to the presence of amino acids and proteins from the culture medium that have been adsorbed, while in the presence of osteoblasts, this decrease is much greater because of the compounds generated by the cells that accelerate the dissolution of Ti. (Author)

  4. Effects of Er: YAG laser irradiation on wettability, surface roughness, and biocompatibility of SLA titanium surfaces: an in vitro study. (United States)

    Ayobian-Markazi, Nader; Karimi, Mohammadreza; Safar-Hajhosseini, Ali


    The erbium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er: YAG) laser has been introduced as an effective method in the decontamination of implant surfaces. Data concerning the effects of the Er: YAG laser on the biological and surface properties of titanium are conflicting. Cellular behavior is greatly affected by surface properties, including composition, roughness, wettability, and morphology of the titanium surface. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the Er: YAG laser on the biocompatibility, surface roughness, and wettability of sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) titanium surfaces. Twenty-one SLA titanium disks were irradiated by the Er: YAG laser at a pulse energy of 100 mJ, with a pulse frequency of 10 Hz under water irrigation for 1 min. Cell viability, surface roughness, and wettability alterations were evaluated. Thirteen nonirradiated SLA disks were used as the control groups. Human osteoblast-like SaOs-2 cells were seeded onto the disks in culture media. Cell viability was evaluated using the methylthiazol tetrazolium assay. The surface roughness and wettability of the test and control groups were measured using profilometer and tensiometer devices, respectively. A significantly higher cell viability rate was observed in the test group (p = 0.032). The surface roughness was significantly reduced in the test group compared with the control group (p = 0.008). The surface wettability was significantly higher in the test group (p = 0.004). Within the limits of this study, the application of the Er: YAG laser with the previously described properties did not appear to have adverse effects on the biocompatibility of the SLA titanium surfaces. Application of this laser decreased the surface roughness and increased the wettability of the SLA titanium surfaces.

  5. The study of FTO surface texturing fabrication using Argon plasma etching technique for DSSC applications (United States)

    Jayanti, Lindha; Kusumandari; Sujitno, Tjipto; Suryana, Risa


    This paper is aimed to investigate the fabrication of the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) texturing by using Argon (Ar) plasma etching. The pressure and temperature of Ar gas during plasma etching were 1.6 mbar and 240-285oC, respectively. The plasma etching time was varied from 3 and 10 min. We also prepared without etching samples as reference. UV-Vis spectrophotometer showed that the transmittances of etching samples are higher than the without etching samples. The root mean square roughness (Rq) of etching samples are lower than the without etching samples. It is considered that the Ar ions bombardment can modify the FTO surfaces. However, the etching time does not significantly affect the FTO surfaces for 3 min and 10 min. The Rq of the without etching sample, the etching sample for 3 min, and the etching sample for 10 min are 11.697 nm, 9.859 nm, and 9.777 nm, respectively. These results are good agreement with the four point probe measurement that indicated that the sheet resistance (RS) for each the without sample, the etching sample for 3 min, and the etching sample for 10 min are 16.817 Ωsq, 16.067 Ω/sq, and 15.990 Ω/sq. In addition, the optical transmittance of the etching sample for 3 min and the etching sample for 10 min at wavelengths of 350 - 850 nm are almost similar. This is evidence that the etching time below 10 min cannot significantly change the morphology, optical and electrical properties.

  6. The study on the rough surface of KFC copper strip applied to lead frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In the paper, the rough surface of KFC copper strip applied to lead frame was studied and analyzed. Themethod of energy spectrum analysis, SEM and metallographic analysis are adopted to study and analyze. To compare the component of the rough surface of KFC copper strip with one of the normal copper strip, the component abnormity is not found. But to observe its microstructure of the rough surface, there are thinner and regular dimpling in the surface before the polishing, and bigger crystal grains are found after the polishing. The coarse structure vanished when the sample is heated higher than 700℃.It is shown that current annealing technique is not reasonable and should be improved and optimized.

  7. Influence of Rough Flow over Sea Surface on Dry Atmospheric Deposition Velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang


    Full Text Available A Meteorological model and a dry deposition module were used to estimate the effects of sea surface rough flow (SSRF over the sea surface on dry deposition velocities. The dry deposition turbulence resistance, Ra, and sub-layer resistance, Rb, decreased more than 10% and 5% due to SSRF, respectively. For example, for HNO3, the mean dry deposition velocities (Vd were 0.51 cm s-1 in January, 0.58 in April, 0.65 cm s-1 in July and 0.79 cm s-1 in October with only smooth flow over the sea surface. However, the SSRF increased the Vd of HNO3 by 5 - 20% in the east China seas. These results show that SSRF is an important factor in estimating surface roughness to further improve calculation of the dry deposition velocities over the ocean. Improvements in parameterization of sea roughness length will be a worthwhile effort in related future studies.

  8. Rough surface electrical contact resistance considering scale dependent properties and quantum effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Robert L., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States); Crandall, Erika R.; Bozack, Michael J. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)


    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of scale dependent mechanical and electrical properties on electrical contact resistance (ECR) between rough surfaces. This work attempts to build on existing ECR models that neglect potentially important quantum- and size-dependent contact and electrical conduction mechanisms present due to the asperity sizes on typical surfaces. The electrical conductance at small scales can quantize or show a stepping trend as the contact area is varied in the range of the free electron Fermi wavelength squared. This work then evaluates if these effects remain important for the interface between rough surfaces, which may include many small scale contacts of varying sizes. The results suggest that these effects may be significant in some cases, while insignificant for others. It depends on the load and the multiscale structure of the surface roughness.

  9. Prediction of Surface Roughness Based on Machining Condition and Tool Condition in Boring EN31 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mohanaraman


    Full Text Available Prediction of Surface roughness plays a vital role in manufacturing process. In manufacturing industries, productions of metallic materials require high surface finish in various components. In the present work, the effect of spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut and flank wear of the tool on the surface roughness has been studied. Carbide tipped insert was used for boring operation. Experiments were conducted in CNC lathe. The experimental setup was prepared with sixteen levels of cutting parameters and was conducted with two tool tip conditions in dry machining. A piezoelectric accelerometer was used to measure the vibrational signals while machining. The data acquisition card which connected between accelerometer and lab-view software to record the signals. Simple linear and least median regression models were used for prediction of surface roughness. The models were developed by weka analysis software. The best suitable regression model is implemented based on maximum correlation coefficient and the minimum error values.

  10. Effect of diameter and surface roughness on ultrasonic properties of GaAs nanowires (United States)

    Dhawan, Punit Kumar; Wan, Meher; Verma, S. K.; Pandey, D. K.; Yadav, R. R.


    Second and third order elastic constants of GaAs Nanowires (NWs) are calculated using the many-body interaction potential model. The velocities of ultrasonic waves at different orientations of propagation with unique axis are evaluated using the second order elastic constants. The ultrasonic attenuation and thermal relaxation times of the single crystalline GaAs-NW are determined as a function of diameter and surface roughness by means of Mason theoretical approach using the thermal conductivity and higher order elastic constants. The diameter variation of ultrasonic attenuation and thermal relaxation exhibit second order polynomial function of diameter. It is also found that ultrasonic attenuation and thermal relaxation follow the exponential decay with the surface roughness for GaAs-NW due to reduction in thermal conductivity caused by dominance of surface asperities. Finally, the correlations among ultrasonic parameters, thermal conductivity, surface roughness, and diameter for GaAs-NWs are established leading towards potential applications.

  11. Scaling behavior of the surface roughness of platinum films grown by oblique angle deposition (United States)

    Dolatshahi-Pirouz, A.; Hovgaard, M. B.; Rechendorff, K.; Chevallier, J.; Foss, M.; Besenbacher, F.


    Thin platinum films with well-controlled rough surface morphologies are grown by e-gun evaporation at an oblique angle of incidence between the deposition flux and the substrate normal. Atomic force microscopy is used to determine the root-mean-square value w of the surface roughness on the respective surfaces. From the scaling behavior of w , we find that while the roughness exponent α remains nearly unchanged at about 0.90, the growth exponent β changes from 0.49±0.04 to 0.26±0.01 as the deposition angle approaches grazing incidence. The values of the growth exponent β indicate that the film growth is influenced by both surface diffusion and shadowing effects, while the observed change from 0.49 to 0.26 can be attributed to differences in the relative importance of diffusion and shadowing with the deposition angle.

  12. 3D surface roughness measurement for scaliness scoring of psoriasis lesions. (United States)

    Ahmad Fadzil, M Hani; Prakasa, Esa; Asirvadam, Vijanth Sagayan; Nugroho, Hermawan; Affandi, Azura Mohd; Hussein, Suraiya Hani


    Psoriasis is an incurable skin disorder affecting 2-3% of the world population. The scaliness of psoriasis is a key assessment parameter of the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). Dermatologists typically use visual and tactile senses in PASI scaliness assessment. However, the assessment can be subjective resulting in inter- and intra-rater variability in the scores. This paper proposes an assessment method that incorporates 3D surface roughness with standard clustering techniques to objectively determine the PASI scaliness score for psoriasis lesions. A surface roughness algorithm using structured light projection has been applied to 1999 3D psoriasis lesion surfaces. The algorithm has been validated with an accuracy of 94.12%. Clustering algorithms were used to classify the surface roughness measured using the proposed assessment method for PASI scaliness scoring. The reliability of the developed PASI scaliness algorithm was high with kappa coefficients>0.84 (almost perfect agreement).

  13. Surface roughness and removal rate in magnetorheological finishing of a subsurface damage free surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Haobo; WANG Yingwei; FENG Zhijing; CHENG Kai


    Based on computer-controlled optical surfacing, a new technique called magnetorheological finishing (MRF), is presented. The new technique combines the features of conventional loose abrasive machining with a wheel shaped polishing tool. The tool incorporates a host of features and has unprecedented fabricating versatility. The pre-polishing and fine polishing processes can be performed only by adjusting different parameters. The material removal function is studied theoretically and the results of simulation present a Gaussian distribution feature. Based on the established theoretical model, material removal rate experiments involving a parabolic mirror are designed and carried out to determine the effect of controllable parameters on size of the gap between the workpiece and the polishing wheel,rotating speed of the polishing wheel, concentration of volume fraction of non-magnetic particles and polishing time. Further experiments are carried out on the surface microstructure of the workpiece, the final surface roughness with an initial value of 10.98 nm reaches 1.22 nm root mean square (RMS) after 20 min of polishing. The subsurface damage experiment and the atomic force microscopy (AFM)measurement on the polished surface can also verify the feasibility of the MRF technique.

  14. Coherence and polarization speckle generated by a rough-surfaced retardation plate depolarizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ning; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Takeda, Mitsuo


    The coherence and polarization of polarization speckle, arising from a stochastic electromagnetic field with random change of polarization, modulated by a depolarizer are examined on the basis of the coherence matrix. The depolarizer is a rough-surfaced retardation plate with a random function...... of position introducing random phase differences between the two orthogonal components of the electric vector. Under the assumption of Gaussian statistics with zero mean, the surface model for the depolarizer of the rough-surfaced retardation plate is obtained. The propagation of the modulated fields through...

  15. Dispersion Relation of a Surface Wave at a Rough Metal-Air Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Kotelnikov, Igor


    We derived a dispersion relation of a surface wave at a rough metal-air interface. In contrast to previous publications, we assumed that an intrinsic surface impedance due to a finite electric conductivity of the metal can be of the same order as the roughness-induced impedance. We then applied our results to the analysis of a long-standing problem of the discrepancy between the experimental data on the propagation of surface waves in the terahertz range of frequencies and the classical Drude theory.

  16. Statistical assessment of soil surface roughness for environmental applications using photogrammetric imaging techniques (United States)

    Marzahn, Philip; Rieke-Zapp, Dirk; Ludwig, Ralf


    Micro scale soil surface roughness is a crucial parameter in many environmental applications. Recent soil erosion studies have shown the impact of micro topography on soil erosion rates as well as overland flow generation due to soil crusting effects. Besides the above mentioned, it is widely recognized that the backscattered signal in SAR remote sensing is strongly influenced by soil surface roughness and by regular higher order tillage patterns. However, there is an ambiguity in the appropriate measurement technique and scale for roughness studies and SAR backscatter model parametrization. While different roughness indices depend on their measurement length, no satisfying roughness parametrization and measurement technique has been found yet, introducing large uncertainty in the interpretation of the radar backscatter. In the presented study, we computed high resolution digital elevation models (DEM) using a consumer grade digital camera in the frame of photogrammetric imaging techniques to represent soil micro topography from different soil surfaces (ploughed, harrowed, seedbed and crusted) . The retrieved DEMs showed sufficient accuracy, with an RMSE of a 1.64 mm compared to high accurate reference points,. For roughness characterization, we calculated different roughness indices (RMS height (s), autocorrelation length (l), tortuosity index (TB)). In an extensive statistical investigation we show the behaviour of the roughness indices for different acquisition sizes. Compared to results from profile measurements taken from literature and profiles generated out of the dataset, results indicate,that by using a three dimensional measuring device, the calculated roughness indices are more robust against outliers and even saturate faster with increasing acquisition size. Dependent on the roughness condition, the calculated values for the RMS-height saturate for ploughed fields at 2.3 m, for harrowed fields at 2.0 m and for crusted fields at 1.2 m. Results also

  17. Light trapping and optical losses in microcrystalline silicon pin solar cells deposited on surface-textured glass/ZnO substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, J. [Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Julich (Germany). Institute of Photovoltaics; Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic). Institute of Physics; Rech, B.; Reetz, W.; Muller, J. [Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Julich (Germany). Institute of Photovoltaics; Vanecek, M. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic). Institute of Physics


    Influence of front TCO thickness, surface texture and different back reflectors on short-circuit current density and fill factor of thin film silicon solar cells were investigated. For the front TCO studies, we used ZnO layers of different thickness and applied wet chemical etching in diluted HCl. This approach allowed us to adjust ZnO texture and thickness almost independently. Additionally, we used optical modeling to calculate optical absorption losses in every layer. Results show that texture and thickness reduction of front ZnO increase quantum efficiency over the whole spectral range. The major gain is in the red/IR region. However, the higher sheet resistance of the thin ZnO causes a reduction in fill factor. In the back reflector studies, we compared four different back reflectors: ZnO/Ag, Ag, ZnO/Al and Al. ZnO/Ag yielded the best, Al the worst light trapping properties. Furthermore, the Ag back contact turned out to be superior to ZnO/Al for microcrystalline cells. Finally, the smooth ZnO/Ag back contact showed a higher reflectivity than the rough one. We prepared pin cells with rough and smooth ZnO/Ag interface, leaving the roughness of all other interfaces unchanged. (author)

  18. Effects of electrode surface roughness on motional heating of trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Kuan-Yu; Chuang, Issac L


    Electric field noise is a major source of motional heating in trapped ion quantum computation. While the influence of trap electrode geometries on electric field noise has been studied in patch potential and surface adsorbate models, only smooth surfaces are accounted for by current theory. The effects of roughness, a ubiquitous feature of surface electrodes, are poorly understood. We investigate its impact on electric field noise by deriving a rough-surface Green's function and evaluating its effects on adsorbate-surface binding energies. At cryogenic temperatures, heating rate contributions from adsorbates are predicted to exhibit an exponential sensitivity to local surface curvature, leading to either a large net enhancement or suppression over smooth surfaces. For typical experimental parameters, orders-of-magnitude variations in total heating rates can occur depending on the spatial distribution of absorbates. Through careful engineering of electrode surface profiles, our results suggests that heating ra...

  19. Linear systems formulation of scattering theory for rough surfaces with arbitrary incident and scattering angles. (United States)

    Krywonos, Andrey; Harvey, James E; Choi, Narak


    Scattering effects from microtopographic surface roughness are merely nonparaxial diffraction phenomena resulting from random phase variations in the reflected or transmitted wavefront. Rayleigh-Rice, Beckmann-Kirchhoff. or Harvey-Shack surface scatter theories are commonly used to predict surface scatter effects. Smooth-surface and/or paraxial approximations have severely limited the range of applicability of each of the above theoretical treatments. A recent linear systems formulation of nonparaxial scalar diffraction theory applied to surface scatter phenomena resulted first in an empirically modified Beckmann-Kirchhoff surface scatter model, then a generalized Harvey-Shack theory that produces accurate results for rougher surfaces than the Rayleigh-Rice theory and for larger incident and scattered angles than the classical Beckmann-Kirchhoff and the original Harvey-Shack theories. These new developments simplify the analysis and understanding of nonintuitive scattering behavior from rough surfaces illuminated at arbitrary incident angles.

  20. Experimental Study on Tribological Properties of Laser Textured 45 Steel Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhi Peng


    Full Text Available In order to study the influence of pits’ size parameters on the tribological properties of textured friction pairs, using the Nd:YAG laser micro machining system and the “single pulse at the same point, interval more times” processing technics to process the pits on the surface of 45 steel. The dimension parameters of pits texture were obtained by orthogonal experimental design. The tribological experiment of GCr15 pin/45 steel disc was carried out by UMT-2 test machine. The surface morphology of the specimens was analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results show that the pits texture on the surface of 45 steel can effectively reduce the friction coefficient and the wear on the condition of oil-rich lubrication. The textured specimen with diameter 60μm, depth 6μm and surface density 10% has the lowest friction coefficient, and the friction coefficient is reduced by 21% compared with the smooth specimen. By analyzing the wear morphology on the surface of 45 steel, it is found that the surface of pits texture can obviously reduce the wear.

  1. Femtosecond pulsed laser textured titanium surfaces with stable superhydrophilicity and superhydrophobicity (United States)

    Li, Bao-jia; Li, Huang; Huang, Li-jing; Ren, Nai-fei; Kong, Xia


    A facile and highly-efficient laser scanning process coupled with a simple silanization modification was used to prepare textured titanium (Ti) surfaces with stable superhydrophilicity and superhydrophobicity. Femtosecond pulsed laser scanning along two mutually perpendicular directions led to the formation of binary structures featuring micrometer-scale spikes covered with nanometer-scale ripples. The period of the spikes significantly increased and the period of the ripples irregularly changed in the narrow range of 550-600 nm with the increase of laser fluence. The obtained laser-textured Ti surfaces were hydrophilic or even superhydrophilic, and the superhydrophilic laser-textured Ti surface using a laser fluence of 1.5 J/cm2 was observed to retain its wetting property after 30 days of storage in ambient atmosphere. After silanization, all the laser-textured Ti surfaces exhibited high hydrophobicity or superhydrophobicity, and the superhydrophobic laser-textured Ti surfaces using laser fluences of 1.5 and 1.8 J/cm2 remained stable when stored in air for over 30 days. The results imply the potential applications of these surfaces in a variety of fields.

  2. A novel approach to predict surface roughness in machining operations using fuzzy set theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Liang (Bill Tseng


    Full Text Available The increase of consumer needs for quality metal cutting related products with more precise tolerances and better product surface roughness has driven the metal cutting industry to continuously improve quality control of metal cutting processes. In this paper, two different approaches are discussed. First, design of experiments (DOE is used to determine the significant factors and then fuzzy logic approach is presented for the prediction of surface roughness. The data used for the training and checking the fuzzy logic performance is derived from the experiments conducted on a CNC milling machine. In order to obtain better surface roughness, the proper sets of cutting parameters are determined before the process takes place. The factors considered for DOE in the experiment were the depth of cut, feed rate per tooth, cutting speed, tool nose radius, the use of cutting fluid and the three components of the cutting force. Finally the significant factors were used as input factors for fuzzy logic mechanism and surface roughness is predicted with empirical formula developed. Test results show good agreement between the actual process output and the predicted surface roughness.

  3. Effect of two anti-erosion pastes on surface roughness of different restorative materials. (United States)

    Tirali, R E; Çehreli, S B; Yazici, R; Yalçinkaya, Z


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two antierosive pastes, Pronamel and Tooth Mousse Plus, on surface roughness of two composite (Filtek Supreme Ultra Universal Restorative and TPH Spectrum Restorative), one compomer (Dyract Extra), and two conventional glass ionomer restorative materials (Ionofil U and SDI) MATERIALS AND METHODS STUDY DESIGN: 14 discs (10 mm diameter x 2 mm thickness) were prepared for each material (n =14 x 5). The discs were randomly divided into two groups to receive either GC Tooth Mousse Plus application or Sensodyne Pronamel application with toothbrush. The surface roughness of the brushed samples were recorded by laser profilometer. STATISTICS Wilcoxon, Kruskal Wallis test and multiple comparison tests were used to analyse the data. It was revealed that the surface roughness of the Filtek Supreme, TPH, Dyract and Riva Selfcure materials were not affected from application of either pastes (p>0.005). However, surface roughness of manually mixed glass ionomer (Ionofil U) was significantly increased when brushed with both Tooth Mousse and Pronamel paste (p<0.001). Neither Pronamel, nor Tooth Mousse caused a significant change on the surface roughness of tested restorative materials except Ionofil U. It was significantly increased following brushing with either paste.

  4. Effect of whitening dentifrices on the surface roughness of commercial composites. (United States)

    Barbieri, Guilherme Machado; Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; Rodrigues-Junior, Sinval Adalberto; Burnett, Luiz Henrique


    Our study aimed to test the null hypothesis that whitening and non-whitening dentifrices affect similarly the surface roughness of commercial microhybrid composites, independent of the brushing time. One hundred and ninety-two disc-shaped specimens of Filtek Z250 (3 M/ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA) and Rok (SDI, Australia) were built up and randomly assigned to 24 groups, based on the dentifrices used (two whitening dentifrices: Colgate Max White-Colgate-Palmolive, São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, Brazil and Close Up Extra Whitening-Unilever, Brasil Higiene Pessoal e Limpeza Ltda, Ipojuca, Pernambuco, Brazil; and one non-whitening dentifrice: Colgate Total 12 Clean Mint-Colgate-Palmolive), and on the simulated brushing times (24 hours, 6, 12 and 24 months). The specimens were submitted to the toothbrushing regimens after which the surface roughness (Ra) was measured. Data was submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey test (α=0.05). The composite's surface roughness was significantly affected by the composites (p=0.0007), the dentifrices (p=0.0001), and the simulated brushing time (p=0.0001). Higher roughness was observed when the whitening dentifrices were used and when the brushing time increased. Filtek Z250 was more affected than Rok, especially after 24 months of simulated brushing. Whitening dentifrices produced higher surface roughness in the composites tested. The degree of surface compromising increased with brushing time and depends on the composite's microstructure and composition. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Non-Contact Surface Roughness Measurement by Implementation of a Spatial Light Modulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Aulbach


    Full Text Available The surface structure, especially the roughness, has a significant influence on numerous parameters, such as friction and wear, and therefore estimates the quality of technical systems. In the last decades, a broad variety of surface roughness measurement methods were developed. A destructive measurement procedure or the lack of feasibility of online monitoring are the crucial drawbacks of most of these methods. This article proposes a new non-contact method for measuring the surface roughness that is straightforward to implement and easy to extend to online monitoring processes. The key element is a liquid-crystal-based spatial light modulator, integrated in an interferometric setup. By varying the imprinted phase of the modulator, a correlation between the imprinted phase and the fringe visibility of an interferogram is measured, and the surface roughness can be derived. This paper presents the theoretical approach of the method and first simulation and experimental results for a set of surface roughnesses. The experimental results are compared with values obtained by an atomic force microscope and a stylus profiler.

  6. Sub ablative Er: YAG laser irradiation on surface roughness of eroded dental enamel. (United States)

    Curylofo-Zotti, Fabiana Almeida; Lepri, Taísa Penazzo; Colucci, Vivian; Turssi, Cecília Pedroso; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori


    This study evaluated the effects of Er:YAG laser irradiation applied at varying pulse repetition rate on the surface roughness of eroded enamel. Bovine enamel slabs (n = 10) were embedded in polyester resin, ground, and polished. To erosive challenges, specimens were immersed two times per day in 20mL of concentrated orange juice (pH = 3.84) under agitation, during a two-day period. Specimens were randomly assigned to irradiation with the Er:YAG laser (focused mode, pulse energy of 60 mJ and energy density of 3.79 J/cm(2) ) operating at 1, 2, 3, or 4 Hz. The control group was left nonirradiated. Surface roughness measurements were recorded post erosion-like formation and further erosive episodes by a profilometer and observed through atomic force microscopy (AFM). Analysis of variance revealed that the control group showed the lowest surface roughness, while laser-irradiated substrates did not differ from each other following post erosion-like lesion formation. According to analysis of covariance, at further erosive episodes, the control group demonstrated lower surface roughness (P > 0.05), than any of the irradiated groups (P dental enamel eroded. The AFM images showed that the specimens irradiated by the Er:YAG laser at 1 Hz presented a less rough surface than those irradiated at 2, 3, and 4 Hz. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The influence of heat accumulation on the surface roughness in powder-bed additive manufacturing (United States)

    Jamshidinia, Mahdi; Kovacevic, Radovan


    The influence of heat accumulation on surface roughness during powder-bed additive manufacturing was investigated. A series of Ti-6Al-4V thin plates were produced by using an identical heat input by electron beam melting® (EBM). Spacing distances of 5 mm, 10 mm, and 20 mm were used. The surface roughness of as-built thin plates was measured using a two-axis profilometer. A numerical model was developed to study the influence of spacing distance on heat accumulation. An inverse relationship between the spacing distance and surface roughness was revealed. The experimental and numerical results showed that the surface quality of buildups could be controlled not only by process parameters, but also by the arrangement of components in the buildup chamber. At a constant spacing distance, an increase in the number of powder layers resulted in the accumulation of more heat between the thin plates. An increase in the spacing distance resulted in an upward translation of the Bearing Area Curve (BAC) toward shallower depths, with a reduced core roughness depth (Rk) and peak height (Rpk). A logarithmic regression equation was established from the experimental data. This equation could be used to predict the surface roughness of parts fabricated by EBM® in the studied range of spacing distances.

  8. Surface Roughness Study on Microchannels of CO2 Laser Fabricating Pmma-Based Microfluidic Chip (United States)

    Chen, Xueye; Li, Tiechuan; Fu, Baoding

    A novel method named soak sacrificial layer ultrasonic method (SSLUM) has been presented for optimizing the surface roughness of the microchannels of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based microfluidic chips. CO2 laser was used for ablative microchannels on the PMMA sheet, and the effects of key parameters including laser power, laser ablation speed and solution concentration on the surface roughness of microchannels were estimated and optimized by SSLUM. The experimental observation demonstrates that the surface roughness results mainly from the residues on the channel wall, which are produced by the bubbles movement and bursting. The research results show that the surface roughness can be improved effectively by using SSLUM. In our experiment, the best value was Ra = 110nm with laser power 12W, laser ablation speed 10mm/s, the solution concentration 75%, and the time of ultrasonic vibration 25min. SSLUM is proven to be an effective, simple and rapid method for optimizing the surface roughness of microchannels of microfluidic chips.

  9. Comparison of different polishing methods on the surface roughness of microhybrid, microfill, and nanofill composite resins. (United States)

    Moda, Mariana D; Godas, André Gustavo de L; Fernandes, Juliana C; Suzuki, Thaís Y U; Guedes, Ana Paula A; Briso, André L F; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina; Dos Santos, Paulo H


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different polishing methods on the surface roughness of resin-based composites subjected to a thermocycling procedure. A total of 192 specimens were divided into 24 groups, according to composite materials (Filtek Z250, Point 4, Renamel Nanofill, Filtek Supreme Plus, Renamel Microfill, and Premise) and finishing and polishing systems (Sof-Lex Pop On, Super Snap, Flexidisc, and Flexidisc+Enamelize). The specimens were subjected to thermocycling (5000 cycles). Filtek Supreme Plus showed the lowest surface roughness values before thermocycling. After thermocycling, Filtek Supreme Plus continued to have the lowest surface roughness, with a statistically-significant difference for the other materials. After thermocycling, there was no statistically-significant difference among all the polishing techniques studied. The thermocycling was concluded as being able to change composite resins' surface roughness, whereas different finishing and polishing methods did not result in surface roughness changes after thermocycling. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Texture and wettability of metallic lotus leaves (United States)

    Frankiewicz, C.; Attinger, D.


    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of superrepellent surfaces.Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional

  11. Lp Estimates of Rough Maximal Functions Along Surfaces with Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad AL-SALMAN; Abdulla M. JARRAH


    In this paper, we study the Lp mapping properties of certain class of maximal oscillatory singular integral operators. We prove a general theorem for a class of maximal functions along surfaces. As a consequence of such theorem, we establish the Lp boundedness of various maximal oscillatory singular integrals provided that their kernels belong to the natural space L log L(Sn−1). Moreover, we highlight some additional results concerning operators with kernels in certain block spaces. The results in this paper substantially improve previously known results.

  12. Effect of alloy type and surface conditioning on roughness and bond strength of metal brackets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nergiz, I.; Schmage, P.; Herrmann, W.; Ozcan, M.; Nergiz, [No Value


    The effect of 5 different surface conditioning methods on bonding of metal brackets to cast dental alloys was examined. The surface conditioning methods were fine (30-µm) or rough (125-µm) diamond bur, sandblasting (50-µm or 110-µm aluminum oxide [Al2O3]), and silica coating (30-µm silica). Fifty

  13. Nanoscale roughness and morphology affect the IsoElectric Point of titania surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Borghi

    Full Text Available We report on the systematic investigation of the role of surface nanoscale roughness and morphology on the charging behaviour of nanostructured titania (TiO2 surfaces in aqueous solutions. IsoElectric Points (IEPs of surfaces have been characterized by direct measurement of the electrostatic double layer interactions between titania surfaces and the micrometer-sized spherical silica probe of an atomic force microscope in NaCl aqueous electrolyte. The use of a colloidal probe provides well-defined interaction geometry and allows effectively probing the overall effect of nanoscale morphology. By using supersonic cluster beam deposition to fabricate nanostructured titania films, we achieved a quantitative control over the surface morphological parameters. We performed a systematical exploration of the electrical double layer properties in different interaction regimes characterized by different ratios of characteristic nanometric lengths of the system: the surface rms roughness Rq, the correlation length ξ and the Debye length λD. We observed a remarkable reduction by several pH units of IEP on rough nanostructured surfaces, with respect to flat crystalline rutile TiO2. In order to explain the observed behavior of IEP, we consider the roughness-induced self-overlap of the electrical double layers as a potential source of deviation from the trend expected for flat surfaces.

  14. Effective aerodynamic roughness estimated from airborne laser altimeter measurements of surface features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, AC; Kustas, WP; Ritchie, JC; Klaassen, W; Menenti, M; Rango, A; Prueger, JH


    Aerodynamic roughness length (z(0)) and displacement height (d(0)) are important surface parameters for estimating surface fluxes in numerical models. These parameters are generally determined from wind flow characteristics using logarithmic wind profiles measured at a meteorological tower or by

  15. Ultrasound pulse-echo measurements on rough surfaces with linear array transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøj, Sidsel M. N.; Blanco, Esther N.; Wilhjelm, Jens E.


    The echo from planar surfaces with rms roughness, Rq, in the range from 0-155 μm was measured with a clinical linear array transducer at different angles of incidence at 6 MHz and 12 MHz. The echo-pulse from the surfaces was isolated with an equal sized window and the power of the echo-pulse was ...

  16. Nanoscale roughness and morphology affect the IsoElectric Point of titania surfaces. (United States)

    Borghi, Francesca; Vyas, Varun; Podestà, Alessandro; Milani, Paolo


    We report on the systematic investigation of the role of surface nanoscale roughness and morphology on the charging behaviour of nanostructured titania (TiO2) surfaces in aqueous solutions. IsoElectric Points (IEPs) of surfaces have been characterized by direct measurement of the electrostatic double layer interactions between titania surfaces and the micrometer-sized spherical silica probe of an atomic force microscope in NaCl aqueous electrolyte. The use of a colloidal probe provides well-defined interaction geometry and allows effectively probing the overall effect of nanoscale morphology. By using supersonic cluster beam deposition to fabricate nanostructured titania films, we achieved a quantitative control over the surface morphological parameters. We performed a systematical exploration of