WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface tension propellant

  1. Surface Tension Confines Cryogenic Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, Stephen H.; Schein, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    New type of Dewar provides passive, constant-temperature cryogenic cooling for scientific instruments under normal-to low-gravity conditions. Known as Surface-Tension-Contained Liquid Cryogen Cooler (STCLCC), keeps liquid cryogen in known location inside the Dewar by trapping liquid inside spongelike material. Unique sponge material fills most of volume of inner tank. Sponge is all-silica, open-cell material similar to that used for Space Shuttle thermal-protection tiles.

  2. Axelrod's model with surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Bruno; Prado, Carmen P. C.

    2014-06-01

    In this work we propose a subtle change in Axelrod's model for the dissemination of culture. The mechanism consists of excluding from the set of potentially interacting neighbors those that would never possibly exchange. Although the alteration proposed does not alter the state space topologically, it yields significant qualitative changes, specifically the emergence of surface tension, driving the system in some cases to metastable states. The transient behavior is considerably richer, and cultural regions become stable leading to the formation of different spatiotemporal patterns. A metastable "glassy" phase emerges between the globalized phase and the disordered, multicultural phase.

  3. Dynamical modeling of surface tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackbill, J.U.; Kothe, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    In a recent review it is said that free-surface flows ''represent some of the difficult remaining challenges in computational fluid dynamics''. There has been progress with the development of new approaches to treating interfaces, such as the level-set method and the improvement of older methods such as the VOF method. A common theme of many of the new developments has been the regularization of discontinuities at the interface. One example of this approach is the continuum surface force (CSF) formulation for surface tension, which replaces the surface stress given by Laplace's equation by an equivalent volume force. Here, we describe how CSF might be made more useful. Specifically, we consider a derivation of the CSF equations from a minimization of surface energy as outlined by Jacqmin. This reformulation suggests that if one eliminates the computation of curvature in terms of a unit normal vector, parasitic currents may be eliminated For this reformulation to work, it is necessary that transition region thickness be controlled. Various means for this, in addition to the one discussed by Jacqmin are discussed

  4. KAPPEL Propeller. Development of a Marine Propeller with Non-planar Lifting Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, J.; Andersen, Poul

    2002-01-01

    The principle of non-planar lifting surfaces is applied to the design of modern aircraft wings to obtain better lift to drag ratios. Whereas a pronounced fin or "winglet" at the wingtip has been developed for aircraft, the application of the non-planar principle to marine propellers, dealt...... with in this paper, has led to the KAPPEL propeller with blades curved towards the suction side integrating the fin or winglet into the propeller blade. The combined theoretical, experimental and practical approach to develop and design marine propellers with non-planar lifting surfaces has resulted in propellers...

  5. Density and surface tension of ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbeck, C; Lehmann, J; Lovelock, K R J; Cremer, T; Paape, N; Wasserscheid, P; Fröba, A P; Maier, F; Steinrück, H-P

    2010-12-30

    We measured the density and surface tension of 9 bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([Tf(2)N](-))-based and 12 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium ([C(8)C(1)Im](+))-based ionic liquids (ILs) with the vibrating tube and the pendant drop method, respectively. This comprehensive set of ILs was chosen to probe the influence of the cations and anions on density and surface tension. When the alkyl chain length in the [C(n)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N] series (n = 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12) is increased, a decrease in density is observed. The surface tension initially also decreases but reaches a plateau for alkyl chain lengths greater than n = 8. Functionalizing the alkyl chains with ethylene glycol groups results in a higher density as well as a higher surface tension. For the dependence of density and surface tension on the chemical nature of the anion, relations are only found for subgroups of the studied ILs. Density and surface tension values are discussed with respect to intermolecular interactions and surface composition as determined by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). The absence of nonvolatile surface-active contaminants was proven by ARXPS.

  6. Development of a Marine Propeller With Nonplanar Lifting Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Friesch, Jürgen; Kappel, Jens J.

    2005-01-01

    The principle of non-planar lifting surfaces is applied to the design of modern aircraft wings to obtain better lift to drag ratios. Whereas a pronounced fin or winglet at the wingtip has been developed for aircraft, the application of the nonplanar principle to marine propellers, dealt...... with in this paper, has led to the KAPPEL propeller with blades curved toward the suction side integrating the fin or winglet into the propeller blade. The combined theoretical, experimental, and practical approach to develop and design marine propellers with nonplanar lifting surfaces has resulted in propellers...

  7. Surface tension of normal and heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, J.; Rosner, N.; Grigull, V.

    1980-01-01

    A Skeleton Table and simple interpolation equation for the surface tension of light water was developed by the Working Group III of the International Association for the Properties of Steam and is recommended as an International Standard. The Skeleton Table is based on all known measurements of the surface tension and individual data were weighted corresponding to the accuracy of the measurements. The form of the interpolation equation is based on a physical concept. It represents an extension of van der Waals-equation, where the exponent conforms to the 'Scaling Laws'. In addition for application purposes simple relations for the Laplace-coefficient and for the density difference between the liquid and gaseous phases of light water are given. The same form of interpolation equation for the surface tension can be used for heavy water, for which the coefficients are given. However, this equation is based only on a single set of data. (orig.) [de

  8. Surface Tension Measurements with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goy, Nicolas-Alexandre; Denis, Zakari; Lavaud, Maxime; Grolleau, Adrian; Dufour, Nicolas; Deblais, Antoine; Delabre, Ulysse

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones are increasingly used in higher education and at university in mechanics, acoustics, and even thermodynamics as they offer a unique way to do simple science experiments. In this article, we show how smartphones can be used in fluid mechanics to measure surface tension of various liquids, which could help students understand the concept…

  9. Exact analytical density profiles and surface tension

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. May 2005 physics pp. 785–801. Classical charged fluids at equilibrium near ... is provided by the excess surface tension for an air–water interface, which is determined ... the potential drop created by the electric layer which appears as soon as the fluid has ...... radii, by symmetry, the charge density profile is flat,.

  10. Quantum surface tension in ideal gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisman, A.

    2005-01-01

    Due to wave character of atoms, an ideal gas confined in a finite domain exhibits Casimir like size effects. These effects become appreciable in a domain with at least one dimension in the order of micron. On this scale, thermodynamic state functions of an ideal gas become shape and size dependent and some new effects appear. In the literature, only some domains of regular shapes have been considered. In this study, the results are generalized to a domain of an arbitrary shape by using Weyl s conjecture for density of states. It is seen that free energy expression of an ideal Maxwellian gas consists of a classical volume dependent term and also a quantum originated surface dependent term, which causes a quantum surface tension. In a rectangular box filled by an ideal gas and separated by a movable wall into two parts, it is shown that a lateral force appears on the movable wall due to quantum surface tension

  11. Surface tension in soap films: revisiting a classic demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behroozi, F

    2010-01-01

    We revisit a classic demonstration for surface tension in soap films and introduce a more striking variation of it. The demonstration shows how the film, pulling uniformly and normally on a loose string, transforms it into a circular arc under tension. The relationship between the surface tension and the string tension is analysed and presented in a useful graphical form. (letters and comments)

  12. Surface tension in soap films: revisiting a classic demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behroozi, F [Department of Physics, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA 50614 (United States)], E-mail: behroozi@uni.edu

    2010-01-15

    We revisit a classic demonstration for surface tension in soap films and introduce a more striking variation of it. The demonstration shows how the film, pulling uniformly and normally on a loose string, transforms it into a circular arc under tension. The relationship between the surface tension and the string tension is analysed and presented in a useful graphical form. (letters and comments)

  13. Surface tension confined liquid cryogen cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, Stephen H. (Inventor); Schein, Michael E. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A cryogenic cooler is provided for use in craft such as launch, orbital, and space vehicles subject to substantial vibration, changes in orientation, and weightlessness. The cooler contains a small pore, large free volume, low density material to restrain a cryogen through surface tension effects during launch and zero-g operations and maintains instrumentation within the temperature range of 10 to 140 K. The cooler operation is completely passive, with no inherent vibration or power requirements.

  14. Generalized surface tension bounds in vacuum decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Ali; Paban, Sonia; Weinberg, Erick J.

    2018-02-01

    Coleman and De Luccia (CDL) showed that gravitational effects can prevent the decay by bubble nucleation of a Minkowski or AdS false vacuum. In their thin-wall approximation this happens whenever the surface tension in the bubble wall exceeds an upper bound proportional to the difference of the square roots of the true and false vacuum energy densities. Recently it was shown that there is another type of thin-wall regime that differs from that of CDL in that the radius of curvature grows substantially as one moves through the wall. Not only does the CDL derivation of the bound fail in this case, but also its very formulation becomes ambiguous because the surface tension is not well defined. We propose a definition of the surface tension and show that it obeys a bound similar in form to that of the CDL case. We then show that both thin-wall bounds are special cases of a more general bound that is satisfied for all bounce solutions with Minkowski or AdS false vacua. We discuss the limit where the parameters of the theory attain critical values and the bound is saturated. The bounce solution then disappears and a static planar domain wall solution appears in its stead. The scalar field potential then is of the form expected in supergravity, but this is only guaranteed along the trajectory in field space traced out by the bounce.

  15. Surface tension of H2O and D2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargaftik, N.B.; Voljak, L.D.; Volkov, B.N.

    1975-01-01

    There is a great number of works on surface tension of clean water (H 2 O) at temperatures up to 100 deg C and very few above the boiling point. Works on surface tension of heavy water (D 2 O) are insufficient. A review of works on surface tension of both kinds of water is given

  16. Enhanced propellant performance via environmentally friendly curable surface coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Manning

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface coating of granular propellants is widely used in a multiplicity of propellants for small, medium and large caliber ammunition. All small caliber ball propellants exhibit burning progressivity due to application of effective deterrent coatings. Large perforated propellant grains have also begun utilizing plasticizing and impregnated deterrent coatings with the purpose of increasing charge weights for greater energy and velocity for the projectile. The deterrent coating and impregnation process utilizes volatile organic compounds (VOCs and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs which results in propellants that need to be forced air dried which impacts air quality. Propellants undergo temperature fluctuations during their life. Diffusion coefficients vary exponentially with variations in temperature. A small temperature increase can induce a faster migration, even over a short period of time, which can lead to large deviations in the concentration. This large concentration change in the ammunition becomes a safety or performance liability. The presence of both polymeric deterrents and nitroglycerin(NG in the nitrocellulose matrix and organic solvents leads to higher diffusion rates. This results in continued emissions of VOCs and HAPs. Conventional polymers tend to partition within the propellant matrix. In other words, localized mixing can occur between the polymer and underlying propellant. This is due to solvent induced softening of the polymer vehicle over the propellant grain. In effect this creates a path where migration can occur. Since nitrate esters, like NG, are relatively small, it can exude to the surface and create a highly unstable and dangerous situation for the warfighter. Curable polymers do not suffer from this partitioning due to “melting” because no VOC solvents are present. They remain surface coated. The small scale characterization testing, such as closed bomb testing, small scale sensitivity, thermal stability, and

  17. Effects of superhydrophobic surface on the propeller wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hongseok; Lee, Jungjin; Park, Hyungmin

    2017-11-01

    This study investigates the change in propeller wake when the superhydrophobic surface is applied on the propeller blade. The propeller rotates in a quiescent water tank, facing its bottom, with a rotational Reynolds number of 96000. To measure the three-dimensional flow fields, we use stereo PIV and a water prism is installed at the camera-side tank wall. Two cameras are tilted 30 degrees from the normal axis of the tank wall, satisfying schiempflug condition. Superhydrophobic surface is made by coating hydrophobic nanoparticles on the propeller blade. Measurements are done on two vertical planes (at the center of propeller hub and the blade tip), and are ensemble averaged being classified by blade phase of 0 and 90 degrees. Velocity fluctuation, turbulent kinetic energy, and vorticity are evaluated. With superhydrophobic surface, it is found that the turbulence level is significantly (20 - 30 %) reduced with a small penalty (less than 5%) in the streamwise momentum (i.e., thrust) generation. This is because the cone shaped propeller wake gets narrower and organized vortex structures are broken with the superhydrophobic surfaces. More detailed flow analysis will be given. Supported by NRF (NRF-2016R1C1B2012775, NRF-2016M2B2A9A02945068) programs of Korea government.

  18. The law of corresponding states and surface tension of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digilov, R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text: Surface tension of liquid metals is one of fundamental and most important quantities in theory and practice of material processing and its temperature dependence leads to the well-known Marangoni convection. Although currently methods are sufficiently precise to measure the surface tension, there are uncertainties in experimental data and its temperature dependence mainly due to impurity, which even a trace of it strongly affects the results of measurements. The theoretical treatment from the first principles is unwieldy and not always permits one to calculate the surface tension with certainty. Another active research field deals with empirical correlation between the surface tension and bulk thermodynamic properties, which we interpret as a simple consequence of the law of corresponding states. In order to relate the surface tension and to bulk properties of liquid metals the reduced formula is derived by scaling with the melting point T m (0) at p = 0 and atomic volume Ω 0 2/3 at T = 0 K as macroscopic parameters for scaling ε and a characterizing the interatomic potential in metals. The reduced surface tension and the reduced surface entropy obtained in high temperature limit are discussed and compared with the experiment. The reduced temperature coefficient of the surface tension found is a universal constant for the metals of the same structure. It is shown that pressure dependence of the surface tension, so called baric coefficient of the surface tension, can be described by pressure dependence of scaling parameters T m (p) and Ω 0 (p). (author)

  19. Surface tension of liquid Al-Cu binary alloys.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Julianna; Brillo, Jürgen; Egry, Ivan; Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Surface tension data of liquid Al–Cu binary alloys have been measured contactlessly using the technique of electromagnetic levitation. A digital CMOS-camera (400 fps) recorded image sequences of the oscillating liquid sample and surface tensions were determined from analysis of the frequency spectra. Measurements were performed for samples covering the entire range of composition and precise data were obtained in a broad temperature range. It was found that the surface tensions can ...

  20. On relation between the quark-gluon bag surface tension and the colour tube string tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugaev, K.A.; Zinovjev, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    We revisit the bag phenomenology of deconfining phase transition aiming to replenish it by introducing systematically the bag surface tension. Comparing the free energies of such bags and the strings confining the static quark-antiquark pair, we express the string tension in terms of the bag surface tension and the bulk pressure in order to estimate the bag characteristics using the lattice QCD (LQCD) data. Our analysis of the bag entropy density demonstrates that the surface tension coefficient is amazingly negative at the cross-over (continuous transition). The approach developed allows us to naturally account for an origin of a pronounced maximum (observed in the LQCD studies) in the behaviour of heavy quark-antiquark pair entropy. The vicinity of the (tri-)critical endpoint is also analyzed to clarify the meaning of vanishing surface tension coefficient.

  1. Measurement for Surface Tension of Aqueous Inorganic Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiming Wen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bubble columns are effective means of filtration in filtered containment venting systems. Here, the surface tension has a significant influence on bubble size distribution and bubble deformation, which have a strong impact on the behavior of the bubble column. The influence of aqueous inorganic compounds on the surface tension depends on the electrolytic activity, Debye length, entropy of ion hydration, and surface deficiencies or excess. In this work, the surface tensions of same specific aqueous solutions have been measured by different methods including platinum plate method, platinum ring method, and maximum bubble pressure method. The measured surface tensions of both sodium hydroxide and sodium thiosulfate are less than that of water. As solution temperature ranges from 20 to 75°C, the surface tension of 0.5 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution decreases from 71 to 55 mN/m while that of 1 mol/L solution decreases from 60 to 45 mN/m. Similarly during the same temperature range, the surface tension of 0.5 mol/L sodium thiosulfate decreases from 70 to 38 mN/m, and that of 1 mol/L sodium thiosulfate is between 68 and 36 mN/m. The analysis for the influence mechanism of aqueous inorganic on surface tension is provided. In addition, experimental results show that the surface tension of solid aerosol suspension liquid has no obvious difference from that of distilled water.

  2. Surface tension and related thermodynamic quantities of aqueous electrolyte solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Matubayasi, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Surface tension provides a thermodynamic avenue for analyzing systems in equilibrium and formulating phenomenological explanations for the behavior of constituent molecules in the surface region. While there are extensive experimental observations and established ideas regarding desorption of ions from the surfaces of aqueous salt solutions, a more successful discussion of the theory has recently emerged, which allows the quantitative calculation of the distribution of ions in the surface region. Surface Tension and Related Thermodynamic Quantities of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions provides a d

  3. Surface tension modelling of liquid Cd-Sn-Zn alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fima, Przemyslaw; Novakovic, Rada

    2018-06-01

    The thermodynamic model in conjunction with Butler equation and the geometric models were used for the surface tension calculation of Cd-Sn-Zn liquid alloys. Good agreement was found between the experimental data for limiting binaries and model calculations performed with Butler model. In the case of ternary alloys, the surface tension variation with Cd content is better reproduced in the case of alloys lying on vertical sections defined by high Sn to Zn molar fraction ratio. The calculated surface tension is in relatively good agreement with the available experimental data. In addition, the surface segregation of liquid ternary Cd-Sn-Zn and constituent binaries has also been calculated.

  4. Nonzero Ideal Gas Contribution to the Surface Tension of Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sega, Marcello; Fábián, Balázs; Jedlovszky, Pál

    2017-06-15

    Surface tension, the tendency of fluid interfaces to behave elastically and minimize their surface, is routinely calculated as the difference between the lateral and normal components of the pressure or, invoking isotropy in momentum space, of the virial tensor. Here we show that the anisotropy of the kinetic energy tensor close to a liquid-vapor interface can be responsible for a large part of its surface tension (about 15% for water, independent from temperature).

  5. Surface tension of compositions of polyhexametyleneguanidine hydrochloride - surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumargaliyeva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We made up songs bactericidal polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride (metacyde with the surface-active substances - anionic sodium dodecylsulfate, cationic cetylpyridinium bromide, and nonionic Tween-80 and measured the surface tension of water solutions. The study showed that the composition metacyde with surface-active agents have a greater surface activity than the individual components.

  6. Recent Progress in Bionic Condensate Microdrop Self-Propelling Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaojing; Gao, Xuefeng; Jiang, Lei

    2017-12-01

    Bionic condensate microdrop self-propelling (CMDSP) surfaces are attracting increased attention as novel, low-adhesivity superhydrophobic surfaces due to their value in fundamental research and technological innovation, e.g., for enhancing heat transfer, energy-effective antifreezing, and electrostatic energy harvesting. Here, the focus is on recent progress in bionic CMDSP surfaces. Metal-based CMDSP surfaces, which are the most promising in their respective fields, are highlighted for use in future applications. The selected topics are divided into four sections: biological prototypes, mechanism and construction rules, fabrication, and applications of metal-based CMDSP surfaces. Finally, the challenges and future development trends in bionic CMDSP surfaces are envisioned, especially the utilization of potential bionic inspiration in the design of more advanced CMDSP surfaces. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Surface tension alteration on calcite, induced by ion substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakuma, Hiroshi; Andersson, Martin Peter; Bechgaard, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of water and organic molecules with mineral surfaces controls many processes in nature and industry. The thermodynamic property, surface tension, is usually determined from the contact angle between phases, but how does one understand the concept of surface tension at the nanoscale...... preferentially as ion pairs at solution-calcite interfaces. Mg2+ incorporation weakens organic molecule adhesion while strengthening water adsorption so Mg2+ substitution renders calcite more water wet. When Mg2+ replaces 10% of surface Ca2+, the contact angle changes dramatically, by 40 to 70, converting...

  8. Effects of surface tension on tray point efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, G.X.; Afacan, A.; Chuang, K.T. (Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada))

    1994-08-01

    Sieve tray efficiencies for the distillation of methanol/water, acetic acid/water, and cyclohexane/n-heptane mixtures were measured as a function of composition under fixed vapor and liquid rates in a 0.15 m diameter distillation column. The three binary distillation systems used in the study had a wide range of surface tensions measured as a function of composition. From the efficiencies measured, the number of vapor- and liquid-phase transfer units (Ng and Nl) was determined and the effects of surface tension on Ng and Nl were identified. To further verify the results obtained from the distillation column, bubble sizes in froths for air/water, air/methanol, and air/(water + surfactant) systems with different surface tensions were measured. The results show that surface tension has a significant effect on tray efficiency and the number of transfer units. Bubble sizes in the tray froths were mainly determined by surface tension, and bubble breakup and coalescence occur in the froths. 45 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Nanofluidic bubble pump using surface tension directed gas injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, Niels Roelof; Berenschot, Johan W.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; van den Berg, Albert

    2002-01-01

    A new concept for liquid manipulation has been developed and implemented in surface-micromachined fluid channels. It is based on the surface tension directed injection of a gas into the liquid flow through micrometer-sized holes in the microchannel wall. The injected gas is directed to an exhaust by

  10. Contact Angles and Surface Tension of Germanium-Silicon Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croell, A.; Kaiser, N.; Cobb, S.; Szofran, F. R.; Volz, M.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Precise knowledge of material parameters is more and more important for improving crystal growth processes. Two important parameters are the contact (wetting) angle and the surface tension, determining meniscus shapes and surface-tension driven flows in a variety of methods (Czochralski, EFG, floating-zone, detached Bridgman growth). The sessile drop technique allows the measurement of both parameters simultaneously and has been used to measure the contact angles and the surface tension of Ge(1-x)Si(x) (0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 1.3) alloys on various substrate materials. Fused quartz, Sapphire, glassy carbon, graphite, SiC, carbon-based aerogel, pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN), AIN, Si3N4, and polycrystalline CVD diamond were used as substrate materials. In addition, the effect of different cleaning procedures and surface treatments on the wetting behavior were investigated. Measurements were performed both under dynamic vacuum and gas atmospheres (argon or forming gas), with temperatures up to 1100 C. In some experiments, the sample was processed for longer times, up to a week, to investigate any changes of the contact angle and/or surface tension due to slow reactions with the substrate. For pure Ge, stable contact angles were found for carbon-based substrates and for pBN, for Ge(1-x)Si(x) only for pBN. The highest wetting angles were found for pBN substrates with angles around 170deg. For the surface tension of Ge, the most reliable values resulted in gamma(T) = (591- 0.077 (T-T(sub m)) 10(exp -3)N/m. The temperature dependence of the surface tension showed similar values for Ge(1-x)Si(x), around -0.08 x 10(exp -3)N/m K, and a compositional dependence of 2.2 x 10(exp -3)N/m at%Si.

  11. A density gradient theory based method for surface tension calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Xiaodong; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    The density gradient theory has been becoming a widely used framework for calculating surface tension, within which the same equation of state is used for the interface and bulk phases, because it is a theoretically sound, consistent and computationally affordable approach. Based on the observation...... that the optimal density path from the geometric mean density gradient theory passes the saddle point of the tangent plane distance to the bulk phases, we propose to estimate surface tension with an approximate density path profile that goes through this saddle point. The linear density gradient theory, which...... assumes linearly distributed densities between the two bulk phases, has also been investigated. Numerical problems do not occur with these density path profiles. These two approximation methods together with the full density gradient theory have been used to calculate the surface tension of various...

  12. Modeling of surface tension effects in venturi scrubbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Robert M.; Wu, Tatsu K. L.; Crowder, Jerry W.

    A modified model of venturi scrubber performance has been developed that addresses two effects of liquid surface tension: its effect on droplet size and its effect on particle penetration into the droplet. The predictions of the model indicate that, in general, collection efficiency increases with a decrease in liquid surface tension, but the range over which this increase is significant depends on the particle size and on the scrubber operating parameters. The predictions further indicate that the increases in collection efficiency are almost totally due to the effect of liquid surface tension on the mean droplet size, and that the collection efficiency is not significantly affected by the ability of the particle to penetrate the droplet.

  13. Surface tension and density of Si-Ge melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Enrica; Amore, Stefano; Giuranno, Donatella; Novakovic, Rada; Tuissi, Ausonio; Sobczak, Natalia; Nowak, Rafal; Korpala, Bartłomiej; Bruzda, Grzegorz

    2014-06-01

    In this work, the surface tension and density of Si-Ge liquid alloys were determined by the pendant drop method. Over the range of measurements, both properties show a linear temperature dependence and a nonlinear concentration dependence. Indeed, the density decreases with increasing silicon content exhibiting positive deviation from ideality, while the surface tension increases and deviates negatively with respect to the ideal solution model. Taking into account the Si-Ge phase diagram, a simple lens type, the surface tension behavior of the Si-Ge liquid alloys was analyzed in the framework of the Quasi-Chemical Approximation for the Regular Solutions model. The new experimental results were compared with a few data available in the literature, obtained by the containerless method.

  14. Surface tension in microsystems engineering below the capillary length

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This book describes how surface tension effects can be used by engineers to provide mechanical functions in miniaturized products (<1 mm). Even if precursors of this field such as Jurin or Laplace already date back to the 18th century, describing surface tension effects from a mechanical perspective is very recent. The originality of this book is to consider the effects of capillary bridges on solids, including forces and torques exerted both statically and dynamically by the liquid along the 6 degrees-of-freedom. It provides a comprehensive approach to various applications, such as capillary adhesion (axial force), centering force in packaging and micro-assembly (lateral force) and recent developments such as a capillary motor (torque). It devises how surface tension can be used to provide mechanical functions such as actuation (bubble-actuated compliant table), sealing and tightness, energy harvesting, nanodispending.

  15. Surface viscosity effects on the motion of self-propelling boat in a channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliperio, M. G.; Nolan Confesor, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Self-propelled droplets have been conceived as simple chemical toy models to mimic motile biological samples such as bacteria. The motion of these droplets is believe to be due to the surface tension gradient in the boundary of the droplet. We performed experiments to look at the effect of varying the medium viscosity to the speed of a circular boat that was soaked in Pentanol. We found that the boats undergo oscillatory type of motion inside a channel. Moreover we found the maximum speed of the boat is independent on the viscosity of the medium. On the other a time scale describing the width of the velocity profile of the boat was found to increase with increasing viscosity.

  16. Surface tension mediated conversion of light to work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, David; Pastine, Stefan J; Zettl, Alexander K; Frechet, Jean M. J

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for converting light energy to mechanical energy by modification of surface tension on a supporting fluid. The apparatus comprises an object which may be formed as a composite object comprising a support matrix and a highly light absorptive material. The support matrix may comprise a silicon polymer. The highly light absorptive material may comprise vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VANTs) embedded in the support matrix. The composite object is supported on a fluid. By exposing the highly light absorptive material to light, heat is generated, which changes the surface tension of the composite object, causing it to move physically within the fluid.

  17. Mathematical model for self-propelled droplets driven by interfacial tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, Ken H. [School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Tachibana, Kunihito; Tobe, Yuta; Kazama, Masaki [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Kitahata, Hiroyuki [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Omata, Seiro [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Nagayama, Masaharu, E-mail: nagayama@es.hokudai.ac.jp [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan)

    2016-03-21

    We propose a model for the spontaneous motion of a droplet induced by inhomogeneity in interfacial tension. The model is derived from a variation of the Lagrangian of the system and we use a time-discretized Morse flow scheme to perform its numerical simulations. Our model can naturally simulate the dynamics of a single droplet, as well as that of multiple droplets, where the volume of each droplet is conserved. We reproduced the ballistic motion and fission of a droplet, and the collision of two droplets was also examined numerically.

  18. Semi-implicit surface tension formulation with a Lagrangian surface mesh on an Eulerian simulation grid

    KAUST Repository

    Schroeder, Craig; Zheng, Wen; Fedkiw, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    -implicit and fully-coupled viscosity, pressure, and Lagrangian forces. We apply our new framework for forces on a Lagrangian mesh to the case of a surface tension force, which when treated explicitly leads to a tight time step restriction. By applying surface tension

  19. Dynamic Bubble Surface Tension Measurements in Northwest Atlantic Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieber, D. J.; Long, M. S.; Keene, W. C.; Kinsey, J. D.; Frossard, A. A.; Beaupre, S. R.; Duplessis, P.; Maben, J. R.; Lu, X.; Chang, R.; Zhu, Y.; Bisgrove, J.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous reports suggest that most organic matter (OM) associated with newly formed primary marine aerosol (PMA) originates from the sea-surface microlayer. However, surface-active OM rapidly adsorbs onto bubble surfaces in the water column and is ejected into the atmosphere when bubbles burst at the air-water interface. Here we present dynamic surface tension measurements of bubbles produced in near surface seawater from biologically productive and oligotrophic sites and in deep seawater collected from 2500 m in the northwest Atlantic. In all cases, the surface tension of bubble surfaces decreased within seconds after the bubbles were exposed to seawater. These observations demonstrate that bubble surfaces are rapidly saturated by surfactant material scavenged from seawater. Spatial and diel variability in bubble surface evolution indicate corresponding variability in surfactant concentrations and/or composition. Our results reveal that surface-active OM is found throughout the water column, and that at least some surfactants are not of recent biological origin. Our results also support the hypothesis that the surface microlayer is a minor to negligible source of OM associated with freshly produced PMA.

  20. A micro surface tension pump (MISPU) in a glass microchip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xing Yue Larry

    2011-01-07

    A non-membrane micro surface tension pump (MISPU) was fabricated on a glass microchip by one-step glass etching. It needs no material other than glass and is driven by digital gas pressure. The MISPU can be seen working like a piston pump inside the glass microchip under a microscope. The design of the valves (MISVA) and pistons (MISTON) was based on the surface tension theory of the micro surface tension alveolus (MISTA). The digital gas pressure controls the moving gas-liquid interface to open or close the input and output MISVAs to refill or drive the MISTON for pumping a liquid. Without any moving parts, a MISPU is a kind of long-lasting micro pump for micro chips that does not lose its water pumping efficiency over a 20-day period. The volumetric pump output varied from 0 to 10 nl s(-1) when the pump cycle time decreased from 5 min to 15 s. The pump head pressure was 1 kPa.

  1. Effect of potential attraction term on surface tension of ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, N.; Khordad, R.; Rezaei, G.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we have studied the effect of attraction term of molecular potential on surface tension of ionic liquids (ILs). For this purpose, we have introduced two different potential models to obtain analytical expressions for the surface tension of ILs. The introduced potential models have different attraction terms. The obtained surface tensions in this work have been compared with other theoretical methods and also experimental data. Using the calculated surface tension, the sound velocity is also estimated. We have studied the structural effects on the surface tensions of imidazolium-based ionic liquids. It is found that the cation alkyl chain length and the anion size play important roles to the surface tension of the selected ionic liquids. The calculated surface tensions show a good harmony with experimental data. It is clear that the attraction term of molecular potential has an important role on surface tension and sound velocity of our system.

  2. Liquid metal actuator driven by electrochemical manipulation of surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Loren; Wissman, James; Majidi, Carmel

    2017-12-01

    We examine the electrocapillary properties of a fluidic actuator composed of a liquid metal droplet that is submerged in electrolytic solution and attached to an elastic beam. The beam deflection is controlled by electrochemically driven changes in the surface energy of the droplet. The metal is a eutectic gallium-indium alloy that is liquid at room temperature and forms an nm-thin Ga2O3 skin when oxidized. The effective surface tension of the droplet changes dramatically with oxidation and reduction, which are reversibly controlled by applying low voltage to the electrolytic bath. Wetting the droplet to two copper pads allows for a controllable tensile force to be developed between the opposing surfaces. We demonstrate the ability to reliably control force by changing the applied oxidizing voltage. Actuator forces and droplet geometries are also examined by performing a computational fluid mechanics simulation using Surface Evolver. The theoretical predictions are in qualitative agreement with the experimental measurements and provide additional confirmation that actuation is driven by surface tension.

  3. Surface tension propulsion of fungal spores by use of microdroplets

    OpenAIRE

    Noblin, Xavier; Yang, Sylvia; Dumais, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Many edible mushrooms eject their spores (about 10 microns in size) at high speed (about 1 m/s) using surface tension forces in a few microseconds. Basically the coalescence of a droplet with the spore generates the necessary momentum to eject the spore. We have detailed this mechanism in \\cite{noblin2}. In this article, we give some details about the high speed movies (up to 250000 fps) of mushrooms' spores ejection attached to this submission. This video was submitted as part of the Gallery...

  4. Surface tension, hydrophobicity, and black holes: The entropic connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The geometric entropy arising from partitioning space in a fluid open-quote open-quote field theory close-quote close-quote is shown to be linearly proportional to the area of an excluded region. The coefficient of proportionality is related to surface tension by a thermodynamic argument. Good agreement with experimental data is obtained for a number of fluids. The calculation employs a density-matrix formalism developed previously for studying the origin of black hole entropy. This approach may lead to a practical technique for the evaluation of thermodynamic quantities with important entropic components. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  5. 30 CFR 57.4230 - Surface self-propelled equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 57.4230 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire... fire or its effects could impede escape from self-propelled equipment, a fire extinguisher shall be on...

  6. Superfluid 3He A-B surface tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartkowiak, M.; Haley, R.P.; Fisher, S.N.; Guenault, A.M.; Pickett, G.R.; Skyba, P.

    2003-01-01

    We have made two different measurements of interfacial energies below 300 μK, at zero pressure and in magnetic fields up to 400 mT. A variable magnetic field profile allows us to stabilize and precisely manipulate the position of the A-B interface. First, we can derive the difference in wall wetting energies from the behaviour of the phase boundary as it enters and exits a stack of glass capillary tubes. Secondly, we can measure the surface tension from the level of over- or under-magnetization needed to force the interface through an aperture. These are the first surface energy measurements in high magnetic fields in the zero-temperature limit. Our results are in surprising agreement with earlier measurements at high pressure close to T c

  7. Backward flow in a surface tension driven micropump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Jongil; Park, Joong Yull; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Kyung Chun; Kim, Hyundong; Berthier, Erwin; Beebe, David J

    2008-01-01

    A surface tension driven micropump harnessing the pressure difference generated by drops of different curvature radii proves to be a simple and attractive passive method to drive fluid flow in microdevices. Here we observed the appearance of backward flow when the initial sizes of the droplets at the inlet and outlet ports are similar. To explain this phenomenon several hypotheses have been investigated. Consideration of the inertia of the fluid in the channel revealed that it alone is insufficient to explain the observed backward flow. We discovered that rotational flow inside the outlet droplet could be a source of inertia, explaining the generation of the backward flow. In addition, we have experimentally determined that the ratio of the volumes of the initial outlet drop and inlet drop correlates with the occurrence of the backward flow. (note)

  8. Fowler's approximation for the surface tension and surface energy of Lennard-Jones fluids revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulero, A; Galan, C; Cuadros, F

    2003-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the validity of Fowler's approximation for calculating the surface tension and the surface energy of Lennard-Jones fluids. To do so, we consider three different explicit analytical expressions for the radial distribution function (RDF), including one proposed by our research group, together with very accurate expressions for the liquid and vapour densities, also proposed by our group. The calculation of the surface tension from the direct correlation function using both the Percus-Yevick and the hypernetted-chain approximations is also considered. Finally, our results are compared with those obtained by other authors by computer simulations or through relevant theoretical approximations. In particular, we consider the analytical expression proposed by Kalikmanov and Hofmans (1994 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 6 2207-14) for the surface tension. Our results indicate that the values for the surface energy in Fowler's approximation obtained by other authors are adequate, and can be calculated from the RDF models. For the surface tension, however, the values considered as valid in previous works seem to be incorrect. The correct values can be obtained from our model for the RDF or from the Kalikmanov and Hofmans expression with suitable inputs

  9. Using the surface tension to estimate the condensate density of superfluid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    Distortion of the condensate wavefunction at the free surface of superfluid 4 He contributes to the surface tension in proportion to the condensate fraction n 0 (T). Using this to resolve the present discrepancy between the measured and predicted temperature dependencies of the surface tension gives n 0 (T) in good agreement with results from neutron and x-ray scattering measurements. This picture is also consistent with the measured 3 He- 4 He interfacial tension

  10. Tensioned Fabric Structures with Surface in the Form of Chen-Gackstatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Hooi Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Form-finding has to be carried out for tensioned fabric structure in order to determine the initial equilibrium shape under prescribed support condition and prestress pattern. Tensioned fabric structures are normally designed to be in the form of equal tensioned surface. Tensioned fabric structure is highly suited to be used for realizing surfaces of complex or new forms. However, research study on a new form as a tensioned fabric structure has not attracted much attention. Another source of inspiration minimal surface which could be adopted as form for tensioned fabric structure is very crucial. The aim of this study is to propose initial equilibrium shape of tensioned fabric structures in the form of Chen-Gackstatter. Computational form-finding using nonlinear analysis method is used to determine the Chen-Gackstatter form of uniformly stressed surfaces. A tensioned fabric structure must curve equally in opposite directions to give the resulting surface a three dimensional stability. In an anticlastic doubly curved surface, the sum of all positive and all negative curvatures is zero. This study provides an alternative choice for structural designer to consider the Chen-Gackstatter applied in tensioned fabric structures. The results on factors affecting initial equilibrium shape can serve as a reference for proper selection of surface parameter for achieving a structurally viable surface.

  11. A waveless free surface flow past a submerged triangular obstacle in presence of surface tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakima Sekhri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Free surface flows passing a submerged triangular obstacle at the bottom of a channel. The problem is characterized by a nonlinear boundary condition on the surface of unknown configuration. The analytical exact solutions for these problems are not known. Following Dias and Vanden Broeck [6], we computed numerically the solutions via a series truncation method. These solutions depend on two parameters: the Weber number $\\alpha$ characterizing the strength of the surface tension and the angle $\\beta$ at the base characterizing the shape of the apex. Although free surface flows with surface tension admit capillary waves, it is found that solution exist only for values of the Weber number greater than $\\alpha_0$ for different configurations of the triangular obstacle.

  12. Surface Tension Driven Instability in the Regime of Stokes Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhenwei; Bowick, Mark; Xing, Xiangjun

    2010-03-01

    A cylinder of liquid inside another liquid is unstable towards droplet formation. This instability is driven by minimization of surface tension energy and was analyzed first by [1,2] and then by [3]. We revisit this problem in the limit of small Laplace number, where the inertial of liquids can be completely ignored. The stream function is found to obey biharmonic equation, and its analytic solutions are found. We rederive Tomotika's main results, and also obtain many new analytic results about the velocity fields. We also apply our formalism to study the recent experiment on toroidal liquid droplet[4]. Our framework shall have many applications in micro-fluidics. [1] L.Rayleigh, On The Instability of A Cylinder of Viscous Liquid Under Capillary Force, Scientific Papers, Cambridge, Vol.III, 1902. [2] L.Rayleigh, On The Instability of Cylindrical Fluid Surfaces, Scientific Papers, Cambridge, Vol.III, 1902. [3] S.Tomotika, On the Instability of a Cylindrical Thread of a Viscous Liquid surround by Another Viscous Fluid, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Volume 150, Issue 870, pp. 322-337. [4] E.Pairam and A.Fern'andez-Nieves, Generation and Stability of Toroidal Droplets in a Viscous Liquid, Physical Review Letters 102, 234501 (2009).

  13. Theory of the surface dipole layer and of surface tension in liquids of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senatore, G.; Tosi, M.P.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of the surface density profiles and of the surface tension of a two-component liquid of charged particles in equilibrium with its vapour is examined. The exact equilibrium conditions for the profiles are given in terms of the inverse response functions of the inhomogeneous fluid, and alternative exact expressions for the surface tension are derived. The use of a density gradient expansion reduces the problem to knowledge of properties of a homogeneous charged fluid on a uniform neutralizing background, in which the total particle density and the charge density are independent variables. Additional simplifications are discussed for special cases for which a perturbative treatment of the surface charge density profile can be developed, and in particular for nearly symmetric ionic liquids and for simple liquid metals. (author)

  14. Dynamic surface tension measurements of ionic surfactants using maximum bubble pressure tensiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Camilla U.; Moreno, Norman; Sharma, Vivek

    Dynamic surface tension refers to the time dependent variation in surface tension, and is intimately linked with the rate of mass transfer of a surfactant from liquid sub-phase to the interface. The diffusion- or adsorption-limited kinetics of mass transfer to interfaces is said to impact the so-called foamability and the Gibbs-Marangoni elasticity of surfaces. Dynamic surface tension measurements carried out with conventional methods like pendant drop analysis, Wilhelmy plate, etc. are limited in their temporal resolution (>50 ms). In this study, we describe design and application of maximum bubble pressure tensiometry for the measurement of dynamic surface tension effects at extremely short (1-50 ms) timescales. Using experiments and theory, we discuss the overall adsorption kinetics of charged surfactants, paying special attention to the influence of added salt on dynamic surface tension.

  15. Wetting and surface tension of bismate glass melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Seung-Bo; Kim, Dong-Sun; Hwang, Seongjin; Kim, Hyungsun

    2009-01-01

    Lead oxide glass frits are used widely in the electronics industry for low-temperature firing. On the other hand, one of the low-sintering and low-melting lead-free glass systems available, the bismate glass system, is considered to be an alternative to lead oxide glass. In order to extend the applications of Bi 2 O 3 glasses, this study examined the thermophysical properties of low-melting Bi 2 O 3 -B 2 O 3 -ZnO-BaO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 glass frits with various ZnO/B 2 O 3 ratios. The fundamental thermal properties, such as glass transition temperature and softening point, were examined by differential thermal analysis and a glass softening point determination system. The wetting angles, viscosities and surface tension of the various bismate glasses on an alumina substrate were measured using hot-stage microscopy and the sessile drop method. These thermophysical properties will be helpful in understanding the work of adhesion and the liquid spread kinetics of glass frits.

  16. Mapping surface tension induced menisci with application to tensiometry and refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Avanish; Kulkarni, Varun; Khor, Jian-Wei; Wereley, Steve

    2015-07-28

    In this work, we discuss an optical method for measuring surface tension induced menisci. The principle of measurement is based upon the change in the background pattern produced by the curvature of the meniscus acting as a lens. We measure the meniscus profile over an inclined glass plate and utilize the measured meniscus for estimation of surface tension and refractive index.

  17. Prediction of viscosities and surface tensions of fuels using a new corresponding states model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queimada, A.J.; Rolo, L.I.; Caco, A.I.

    2006-01-01

    While some properties of diesels are cheap, easy and fast to measure, such as densities, others such as surface tensions and viscosities are expensive and time consuming. A new approach that uses some basic information such as densities to predict viscosities and surface tensions is here proposed......) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. Density functional theory of simple polymers in a slit pore. III. Surface tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, Justin B.; McCoy, John D.; Curro, John G.; Swol, Frank van

    2000-01-01

    In a previous study of tangent hard-site chains near a surface, the inhomogeneous density profiles were found through density functional theory. In the current study, the surface tensions of these systems are found from the results of the previous study through a thermodynamic integration. The calculated surface tensions are then compared to those found directly through computer simulation. Both the surface tension and surface excess for polymeric systems are shown to differ qualitatively from those of atomic systems, although certain similarities are seen at high densities. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  19. Surface tension and related thermodynamic parameters of alcohols using the Traube stalagmometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilmohamud, B A; Seeneevassen, J; Rughooputh, S D D V; Ramasami, P

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus was devised using the Traube Stalagmometer for the determination of the surface tension of the alcohols methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol and butan-1-ol. Measurements were made under atmospheric pressure at temperatures between 288.15 K and 313.15 K. The surface tension values were correlated with temperature and surface thermodynamic parameters, namely surface entropy and surface enthalpy, were also calculated. The results obtained are in agreement with the literature and they are promising for the use of this low cost arrangement for accurate measurement of surface tension. Surface tension values were obtained with a maximum error of 0.5 mN m -1 and a maximum standard deviation of 0.8 mN m -1 . We recommend this arrangement for students in advanced university courses and it can also be used for research work

  20. Surface tension and Wulff shape for a lattice model without spin flip symmetry.

    CERN Document Server

    Bodineau, T

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new definition of surface tension and check it in a spin model of the Pirogov-Sinai class where the spin flip symmetry is broken. We study the model at low temperatures on the phase transitions line and prove: (i) existence of the surface tension in the thermodynamic limit, for any orientation of the surface and in all dimensions $d\\ge 2$; (ii) the Wulff shape constructed with such a surface tension coincides with the equilibrium shape of the cluster which appears when fixing the total spin magnetization (Wulff problem).

  1. Semi-implicit surface tension formulation with a Lagrangian surface mesh on an Eulerian simulation grid

    KAUST Repository

    Schroeder, Craig

    2012-02-01

    We present a method for applying semi-implicit forces on a Lagrangian mesh to an Eulerian discretization of the Navier Stokes equations in a way that produces a sparse symmetric positive definite system. The resulting method has semi-implicit and fully-coupled viscosity, pressure, and Lagrangian forces. We apply our new framework for forces on a Lagrangian mesh to the case of a surface tension force, which when treated explicitly leads to a tight time step restriction. By applying surface tension as a semi-implicit Lagrangian force, the resulting method benefits from improved stability and the ability to take larger time steps. The resulting discretization is also able to maintain parasitic currents at low levels. © 2011.

  2. Surface tension effects on vertical upward annular flows in a small diameter pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadatomi, Michio, E-mail: sadatomi@mech.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Dept. of Advanced Mechanical Systems, Kumamoto Univ., 39-1, Kurokami 2-chome, Chuou-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kawahara, Akimaro [Dept. of Advanced Mechanical Systems, Kumamoto Univ., 39-1, Kurokami 2-chome, Chuou-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, Aruta [Plant Design & Engineering Dept., Environment, Energy & Plant Headquarters, Hitachi Zosen Corporation, 7-89, Nankokita 1-chome, Suminoe-ku, Osaka, 559-8559 (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Surface tension effects were clarified on annular flow in a small diameter pipe. • The mean liquid film thickness became thinner with decreasing of surface tension. • The liquid droplet fraction and the interfacial shear stress became higher with it. • New prediction methods for the above parameters were developed and validated. - Abstract: Experiments were conducted to study the surface tension effects on vertical upward annular flows in a 5 mm I.D. pipe using water and low surface tension water with a little surfactant as the test liquid and air as the test gas. Firstly, the experimental results on the mean liquid film thickness, the liquid droplet fraction and the interfacial shear stress in annular flows together with some flow pictures are presented to clarify the surface tension effects. From these, the followings are clarified: In the low surface tension case, the liquid film surface becomes rough, the liquid film thickness thin, the liquid droplet fraction high, and the interfacial shear stress high. Secondary, correlations in literatures for the respective parameters are tested against the present data. The test results show that no correlation for the respective parameters could predict well the present data. Thus, correlations are revised by accounting for the surface tension effects. The results of the experiments, the correlations tests and their revisions mentioned above are presented in the present paper.

  3. Liquid Hydrogen Propellant Tank Sub-Surface Pressurization with Gaseous Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.; Cartagena, W.

    2015-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of a propellant tank pressurization system with the pressurant diffuser intentionally submerged beneath the surface of the liquid. Propellant tanks and pressurization systems are typically designed with the diffuser positioned to apply pressurant gas directly into the tank ullage space when the liquid propellant is settled. Space vehicles, and potentially propellant depots, may need to conduct tank pressurization operations in micro-gravity environments where the exact location of the liquid relative to the diffuser is not well understood. If the diffuser is positioned to supply pressurant gas directly to the tank ullage space when the propellant is settled, then it may become partially or completely submerged when the liquid becomes unsettled in a microgravity environment. In such case, the pressurization system performance will be adversely affected requiring additional pressurant mass and longer pressurization times. This series of tests compares and evaluates pressurization system performance using the conventional method of supplying pressurant gas directly to the propellant tank ullage, and then supplying pressurant gas beneath the liquid surface. The pressurization tests were conducted on the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) located at Test Stand 300 at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). EDU is a ground based Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) test article supported by Glenn Research Center (GRC) and MSFC. A 150 ft3 propellant tank was filled with liquid hydrogen (LH2). The pressurization system used regulated ambient helium (GHe) as a pressurant, a variable position valve to maintain flow rate, and two identical independent pressurant diffusers. The ullage diffuser was located in the forward end of the tank and was completely exposed to the tank ullage. The submerged diffuser was located in the aft end of the tank and was completely submerged when the tank liquid level was 10% or greater

  4. Density-functional calculations of the surface tension of liquid Al and Na

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, D.; Grimson, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    Calculations of the surface tensions of liquid Al and Na are described using the full ionic density functional formalism of Wood and Stroud (1983). Surface tensions are in good agreement with experiment in both cases, with results substantially better for Al than those found previously in the gradient approximation. Preliminary minimization with respect to surface profile leads to an oscillatory profile superimposed on a nearly steplike ionic density disribution; the oscillations have a wavellength of about a hardsphere diameter.

  5. Theoretical calculations of the surface tension of Ag(1-x)-Cu(x) liquid alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqra, Fathi; Ayyad, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A thermodynamic model for calculating the surface tension, and its temperature and composition dependences, of liquid binary alloys is described. → The model does not require the prior knowledge of the surface concentration and Gibbs energy. → The surface tension of the liquid Ag-Cu binary alloys has been calculated as a function of temperature and concentration. → The calculated values agree well with existing experimental data. - Abstract: The surface tension of silver-copper binary liquid alloys is calculated, in the frame work of Eyring theory. The calculations were made for different compositions (mole fraction, x Cu = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1), in the temperature range 1100-1800 K. The surface tension decreases with temperature increase, at a fixed copper fraction x Cu , and increases with increasing copper content. The calculated results are appropriately compared with existing literature data.

  6. A Computational Study of Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability with Surface Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Marianne; Velechovsky, Jan; Jibben, Zach; Masser, Thomas; LANL Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    We have added the capability to model surface tension in our adaptive mesh refinement compressible flow solver, xRage. Our surface tension capability employs the continuum surface force to model surface tension and the height function method to compute curvatures. We have verified our model implementation for the static and oscillating droplets test cases and the linear regime of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. With this newly added capability, we have performed a numerical study of the effects of surface tension on single-mode and multi-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. This work was performed under the auspices of the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy at Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52 - 06NA25396.

  7. Surface tension anomalies in room temperature ionic liquids-acetone solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hiroshi; Murata, Keisuke; Kiyokawa, Shota; Yoshimura, Yukihiro

    2018-05-01

    Surface tension anomalies were observed in room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL)-acetone solutions. The RTILs are 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazorium iodide with [Cnmim][I] in a [Cnmim][I]-x mol% acetone. The maximum value of the surface tension appeared at 40 mol% acetone, although density decreased monotonically with an increase in acetone concentration. A small alkyl chain length effect of the Cnmim+ cations was observed in the surface tension. By the Gibbs adsorption isotherm, it was found that I- anion-mediated surface structure became dominant above 40 mol%. In the different [Cnmim][TFSI]-acetone mixtures, normal decay of the surface tension was observed on the acetone concentration scale, where TFSI- is bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide.

  8. Prediction of surface tension of binary mixtures with the parachor method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Němec Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The parachor method for the estimation of the surface tension of binary mixtures is modified by considering temperature-dependent values of the parachor parameters. The temperature dependence is calculated by a least-squares fit of pure-solvent surface tension data to the binary parachor equation utilizing the Peng-Robinson equation of state for the calculation of equilibrium densities. A very good agreement between experimental binary surface tension data and the predictions of the modified parachor method are found for the case of the mixtures of carbon dioxide and butane, benzene, and cyclohexane, respectively. The surface tension is also predicted for three refrigerant mixtures, i.e. propane, isobutane, and chlorodifluoromethane, with carbon dioxide.

  9. The interfacial surface tension of a quark-gluon plasma fireball in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    surface tension with the cube of the critical transition temperature is in overall ... more rigorous structures may be built depending on the phenomenological success .... k +dk in a spherically symmetric situation, and gi is the degeneracy factor ( ...

  10. Evaluation on Dorsey Method in Surface Tension Measurement of Solder Liquids Containing Surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingke; Xie, Feiming; Fan, Jinsheng; Liu, Dayong; Huang, Jihua; Chen, Shuhai

    2018-06-01

    With the purpose of developing a feasible approach for measuring the surface tension of solders containing surfactants, the surface tension of Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu-xP solder alloys, with various drop sizes as well as different phosphorus (P) content, was evaluated using the Dorsey method based on the sessile drop test. The results show that the accuracy of the surface tension calculations depends on both of sessile drop size and the liquid metal composition. With a proper drop size, in the range of 4.5 mm to 5.3 mm in equivalent spherical diameters, the deviation of the surface tension calculation can be limited to 1.43 mN·m-1 and 6.30 mN·m-1 for SnAgCu and SnAgCu-P, respectively. The surface tension of SnAgCu-xP solder alloys decreases quickly to a minimum value when the P content reaches 0.5 wt% and subsequently increases slowly with the P content further increasing. The formation of a P-enriched surface layer and Sn4P3 intermetallic phases is regarded to be responsible for the decreasing and subsequent increasing of surface tension, respectively.

  11. Critical Assessment of the Surface Tension determined by the Maximum Pressure Bubble Method

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetto, Franco Emmanuel; Zolotucho, Hector; Prado, Miguel Oscar

    2015-01-01

    The main factors that influence the value of surface tension of a liquid measured with the Maximum Pressure Bubble Method are critically evaluated. We present experimental results showing the effect of capillary diameter, capillary depth, bubble spheroidicity and liquid density at room temperature. We show that the decrease of bubble spheroidicity due to increase of capillary immersion depth is not sufficient to explain the deviations found in the measured surface tension values. Thus, we pro...

  12. Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis for Estimating the Surface Tension of Cell Aggregates by Centrifugation

    OpenAIRE

    Kalantarian, Ali; Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Saad, Sameh M.I.; David, Robert; Winklbauer, Rudolf; Neumann, A. Wilhelm

    2009-01-01

    Biological tissues behave in certain respects like liquids. Consequently, the surface tension concept can be used to explain aspects of the in vitro and in vivo behavior of multicellular aggregates. Unfortunately, conventional methods of surface tension measurement cannot be readily applied to small cell aggregates. This difficulty can be overcome by an experimentally straightforward method consisting of centrifugation followed by axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA). Since the aggregates ...

  13. Experiment and model for the surface tension of amine–ionic liquids aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Pan; Du, LeiXia; Fu, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The surface tensions of MEA/DEA–ionic liquids aqueous solutions were measured. • The experiments were modeled satisfactorily by using a thermodynamic equation. • The temperature dependence of the surface tension was illustrated. • The effects of the mass fractions of MEA/DEA and ionic liquids were demonstrated. - Abstract: The surface tension (γ) of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF 4 ])–monoethanolamine (MEA), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Bmim][Br])–MEA, [Bmim][BF 4 ]–diethanolamine (DEA) and [Bmim][Br]–DEA aqueous solutions was measured by using the BZY-1 surface tension meter. The temperature ranged from (293.2 to 323.2) K. The mass fraction of amines and ionic liquids (ILS) respectively ranged from 0.15 to 0.30 and 0.05 to 0.10. A thermodynamic equation was proposed to model the surface tension of amines–ILS aqueous solutions and the calculated results agreed well with the experiments. The effects of temperature, mass fraction of amines and ILS on the surface tension were demonstrated on the basis of experiments and calculations

  14. Combined influence of inertia, gravity, and surface tension on the linear stability of Newtonian fiber spinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechert, M.; Scheid, B.

    2017-11-01

    The draw resonance effect appears in fiber spinning processes if the ratio of take-up to inlet velocity, the so-called draw ratio, exceeds a critical value and manifests itself in steady oscillations of flow velocity and fiber diameter. We study the effect of surface tension on the draw resonance behavior of Newtonian fiber spinning in the presence of inertia and gravity. Utilizing an alternative scaling makes it possible to visualize the results in stability maps of highly practical relevance. The interplay of the destabilizing effect of surface tension and the stabilizing effects of inertia and gravity lead to nonmonotonic stability behavior and local stability maxima with respect to the dimensionless fluidity and the dimensionless inlet velocity. A region of unconditional instability caused by the influence of surface tension is found in addition to the region of unconditional stability caused by inertia, which was described in previous works [M. Bechert, D. W. Schubert, and B. Scheid, Eur. J. Mech B 52, 68 (2015), 10.1016/j.euromechflu.2015.02.005; Phys. Fluids 28, 024109 (2016), 10.1063/1.4941762]. Due to its importance for a particular group of fiber spinning applications, a viscous-gravity-surface-tension regime, i.e., negligible effect of inertia, is analyzed separately. The mechanism underlying the destabilizing effect of surface tension is discussed and established stability criteria are tested for validity in the presence of surface tension.

  15. Surface tension and density of fusible metal melt with sulphur and selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najdich, Yu.V.; Krasovskij, Yu.P.; Chuvashov, Yu.N.

    1990-01-01

    Surface tension and density at 970 K have been determined for melts of Ga, In, Sn and Pb with S and Se. High surface activity of chalcogens in the melts has been found. A maximal adsorption of the active components and their ultimate surface activity that correlate with thermodinamical strength of the corresponding sulfides and selenides have been calculated

  16. Self-Propelled Soft Protein Microtubes with a Pt Nanoparticle Interior Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayakawa, Satoshi; Nakai, Yoko; Akiyama, Motofusa; Komatsu, Teruyuki

    2017-04-11

    Human serum albumin (HSA) microtubes with an interior surface composed of Pt nanoparticles (PtNPs) are self-propelled in aqueous H 2 O 2 medium. They can capture cyanine dye and Escherichia coli (E. coli) efficiently. Microtubes were prepared by wet templating synthesis by using a track-etched polycarbonate (PC) membrane with alternate filtrations of aqueous HSA, poly-l-arginine (PLA), and citrate-PtNPs. Subsequent dissolution of the PC template yielded uniform hollow cylinders made of (PLA/HSA) 8 PLA/PtNP stacking layers (1.16±0.02 μm outer diameter, ca. 23 μm length). In aqueous H 2 O 2 media, the soft protein microtubes are self-propelled by jetting O 2 bubbles from the open-end terminus. The effects of H 2 O 2 and surfactant concentrations on the velocity were investigated. The swimming microtube captured cyanine dye in the HSA component of the wall. Addition of an intermediate γ-Fe 3 O 4 layer allowed manipulation of the direction of movement of the tubule by using a magnetic field. Because the exterior surface is positively charged, the bubble-propelled microtubes adsorbed E. coli with high efficiency. The removal ratio of E. coli by a single treatment reached 99 %. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Some remarks on the solid surface tension determination from contact angle measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdziennicka, Anna; Szymczyk, Katarzyna; Krawczyk, Joanna; Jańczuk, Bronisław, E-mail: bronislaw.janczuk@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl

    2017-05-31

    Graphical abstract: Surface tension of PE, nylon 6 and quartz from different approaches to the interface tension. - Highlights: • New values of water and formamide surface tension components were established. • Quartz surface tension depends on its crystal face. • Usefulness of different approaches for solid surface tension determination was tested. - Abstract: The measurements of water, formamide and diiodomethane contact angle (θ) on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyethylene (PE), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), nylon 6, quartz and silica were performed. Based on the θ values of these liquids obtained on PTFE, the Lifshitz-van der Waals and acid-base and/or dispersion and polar components of their surface tension (ST) were determined. In turn, the θ values for water, formamide and diiodomethane on PMMA were applied to calculate the electron-acceptor and electron-donor parameters of the Lewis acid-base component of the formamide ST. For this calculation the same values of the electron-acceptor and electron-donor parameters for water ST were used. Taking into account the values of components and parameters of water, formamide and diiodomethane ST obtained by us, van Oss et al. and from the water(formamide)-n-alkane and water-diiodomethane interface tension, the components and parameters of studied solids ST were calculated. To this end different approaches to the interface tension were considered. The obtained values were compared with those in the literature. It was concluded that for determination of solid ST components and parameters, those of water, formamide and diiodomethane ST obtained from the θ measurements on the model solids should be used.

  18. Surface tension of droplets and Tolman lengths of real substances and mixtures from density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehner, Philipp; Gross, Joachim

    2018-04-01

    The curvature dependence of interfacial properties has been discussed extensively over the last decades. After Tolman published his work on the effect of droplet size on surface tension, where he introduced the interfacial property now known as Tolman length, several studies were performed with varying results. In recent years, however, some consensus has been reached about the sign and magnitude of the Tolman length of simple model fluids. In this work, we re-examine Tolman's equation and how it relates the Tolman length to the surface tension and we apply non-local classical density functional theory (DFT) based on the perturbed chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) to characterize the curvature dependence of the surface tension of real fluids as well as mixtures. In order to obtain a simple expression for the surface tension, we use a first-order expansion of the Tolman length as a function of droplet radius Rs, as δ(Rs) = δ0 + δ1/Rs, and subsequently expand Tolman's integral equation for the surface tension, whereby a second-order expansion is found to give excellent agreement with the DFT result. The radius-dependence of the surface tension of increasingly non-spherical substances is studied for n-alkanes, up to icosane. The infinite diameter Tolman length is approximately δ0 = -0.38 Å at low temperatures. For more strongly non-spherical substances and for temperatures approaching the critical point, however, the infinite diameter Tolman lengths δ0 turn positive. For mixtures, even if they contain similar molecules, the extrapolated Tolman length behaves strongly non-ideal, implying a qualitative change of the curvature behavior of the surface tension of the mixture.

  19. Surface tension and contact angles: Molecular origins and associated microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, H. T.

    1982-01-01

    Gradient theory converts the molecular theory of inhomogeneous fluid into nonlinear boundary value problems for density and stress distributions in fluid interfaces, contact line regions, nuclei and microdroplets, and other fluid microstructures. The relationship between the basic patterns of fluid phase behavior and the occurrence and stability of fluid microstructures was clearly established by the theory. All the inputs of the theory have molecular expressions which are computable from simple models. On another level, the theory becomes a phenomenological framework in which the equation of state of homogeneous fluid and sets of influence parameters of inhomogeneous fluids are the inputs and the structures, stress tensions and contact angles of menisci are the outputs. These outputs, which find applications in the science and technology of drops and bubbles, are discussed.

  20. Surface Tension of Multi-phase Flow with Multiple Junctions Governed by the Variational Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsutani, Shigeki; Nakano, Kota; Shinjo, Katsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    We explore a computational model of an incompressible fluid with a multi-phase field in three-dimensional Euclidean space. By investigating an incompressible fluid with a two-phase field geometrically, we reformulate the expression of the surface tension for the two-phase field found by Lafaurie et al. (J Comput Phys 113:134–147, 1994) as a variational problem related to an infinite dimensional Lie group, the volume-preserving diffeomorphism. The variational principle to the action integral with the surface energy reproduces their Euler equation of the two-phase field with the surface tension. Since the surface energy of multiple interfaces even with singularities is not difficult to be evaluated in general and the variational formulation works for every action integral, the new formulation enables us to extend their expression to that of a multi-phase (N-phase, N ≥ 2) flow and to obtain a novel Euler equation with the surface tension of the multi-phase field. The obtained Euler equation governs the equation for motion of the multi-phase field with different surface tension coefficients without any difficulties for the singularities at multiple junctions. In other words, we unify the theory of multi-phase fields which express low dimensional interface geometry and the theory of the incompressible fluid dynamics on the infinite dimensional geometry as a variational problem. We apply the equation to the contact angle problems at triple junctions. We computed the fluid dynamics for a two-phase field with a wall numerically and show the numerical computational results that for given surface tension coefficients, the contact angles are generated by the surface tension as results of balances of the kinematic energy and the surface energy.

  1. OPTIMIZATION OF POTASSIUM NITRATE BASED SOLID PROPELLANT GRAINS FORMULATION USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladipupo Olaosebikan Ogunleye

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of propellant formulation and geometry on the solid propellant grains internal ballistic performance using core, bates, rod and tubular and end-burn geometries. Response Surface Methodology (RSM was used to analyze and optimize the effect of sucrose, potassium nitrate and carbon on the chamber pressure, temperature, thrust and specific impulse of the solid propellant grains through Central Composite Design (CCD of the experiment. An increase in potassium nitrate increased the specific impulse while an increase in sucrose and carbon decreased specific impulse. The coefficient of determination (R2 for models of chamber pressure, temperature, thrust and specific impulse in terms of composition and geometry were 0.9737, 0.9984, 0.9745 and 0.9589, respectively. The optimum specific impulse of 127.89 s, pressure (462201 Pa, temperature (1618.3 K and thrust (834.83 N were obtained using 0.584 kg of sucrose, 1.364 kg of potassium nitrate and 0.052 kg of carbon as well as bate geometry. There was no significant difference between the calculated and experimented ballistic properties at p < 0.05. The bate grain geometry is more efficient for minimizing the oscillatory pressure in the combustion chamber.

  2. Determination of surface tension coefficient of liquids by diffraction of light on capillary waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolić, D; Nešić, Lj

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a simple technique for determining the coefficient of the surface tension of liquids, based on laser light diffraction on capillary waves. Capillary waves of given frequency are created by an exciter needle acting on the surface of liquid and represent a reflective diffraction grating, the constant of which (the wavelength of capillary waves) can be determined based on a known incidence angle of light (grazing angle). We obtain the coefficient of the surface tension of liquids by applying the dispersion relation for capillary waves and analyze the difficulties that arise when setting up and conducting the experiment in detail. (paper)

  3. Temporal instability of viscous liquid microjets with spatially varying surface tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlani, E P [Integrated Materials and Microstructures Laboratory, Electronic Imaging Products, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, NY 14650-2121 (United States)

    2005-01-07

    A linear theory is developed for the temporal instability of a viscous liquid microjet of Newtonian fluid with a spatially periodic variation of surface tension imposed along its length. The variation of surface tension induces Marangoni flow within the jet that leads to breakup and drop formation. An analytical expression is derived for the behaviour of the free surface of the microjet. This expression is useful for parametric analysis of jet instability and breakup as a function of jet radius, wavelength and fluid properties.

  4. Temporal instability of viscous liquid microjets with spatially varying surface tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlani, E P

    2005-01-01

    A linear theory is developed for the temporal instability of a viscous liquid microjet of Newtonian fluid with a spatially periodic variation of surface tension imposed along its length. The variation of surface tension induces Marangoni flow within the jet that leads to breakup and drop formation. An analytical expression is derived for the behaviour of the free surface of the microjet. This expression is useful for parametric analysis of jet instability and breakup as a function of jet radius, wavelength and fluid properties

  5. Surface tension of liquid Cu-Ti binary alloys measured by electromagnetic levitation and thermodynamic modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, S.; Brillo, J.; Egry, I.; Novakovic, R.

    2011-01-01

    The surface tension of liquid Cu-Ti alloys has been measured by using the containerless technique of electromagnetic levitation and theoretically calculated in the framework of the compound formation model. Measurements have been carried out on alloys covering the entire range of composition and over the temperature range 1275-2050 K. For all investigated alloys the surface tension can be described by a linear function of the temperature with negative slope. Due to the presence of different intermetallic compounds in the solid state the surface properties of liquid Cu-Ti alloys are satisfactory described by the compound formation model.

  6. Bubble extinction in Hele-Shaw flow with surface tension and kinetic undercooling regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallaston, Michael C; McCue, Scott W

    2013-01-01

    We perform an analytic and numerical study of an inviscid contracting bubble in a two-dimensional Hele-Shaw cell, where the effects of both surface tension and kinetic undercooling on the moving bubble boundary are not neglected. In contrast to expanding bubbles, in which both boundary effects regularize the ill-posedness arising from the viscous (Saffman–Taylor) instability, we show that in contracting bubbles the two boundary effects are in competition, with surface tension stabilizing the boundary, and kinetic undercooling destabilizing it. This competition leads to interesting bifurcation behaviour in the asymptotic shape of the bubble in the limit it approaches extinction. In this limit, the boundary may tend to become either circular, or approach a line or ‘slit’ of zero thickness, depending on the initial condition and the value of a nondimensional surface tension parameter. We show that over a critical range of surface tension values, both these asymptotic shapes are stable. In this regime there exists a third, unstable branch of limiting self-similar bubble shapes, with an asymptotic aspect ratio (dependent on the surface tension) between zero and one. We support our asymptotic analysis with a numerical scheme that utilizes the applicability of complex variable theory to Hele-Shaw flow. (paper)

  7. Unusual shapes for a catenary under the effects of surface tension and gravity: A variational treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behroozi, F.; Mohazzabi, P.; McCrickard, J.

    1995-01-01

    The familiar catenary is the shape assumed by a chain or string as it hangs from two points. The mathematical equation of the catenary was first published more than three hundred years ago by Leibnitz and Huygen, among others. Here we consider the shapes assumed by a hanging string in the presence of gravity and surface tension. The surface tension is introduced by suspending the string from a thin horizontal rod while the area bounded by the string and the rod is covered with a soap film. The string then assumes new and wonderful shapes depending on the relative strength of the surface tension and the weight per unit length of the string. When surface tension dominates, the string is pulled inward, assuming a convex shape similar to the Greek letter γ. On the other hand, when gravity is dominant the string is pulled outward and assumes a concave shape best described as a distorted catenary. However, when the gravitational force normal to the string matches the surface tension, the string takes a linear configuration similar to the letter V. Under suitable conditions, the string can be made to assume any of the three configurations by adjusting the separation of its end points. The equations that describe the shape of the string are derived by minimizing the total energy of the system and are presented for the three principal configurations

  8. Axisymmetric drop shape analysis for estimating the surface tension of cell aggregates by centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantarian, Ali; Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Saad, Sameh M I; David, Robert; Winklbauer, Rudolf; Neumann, A Wilhelm

    2009-02-18

    Biological tissues behave in certain respects like liquids. Consequently, the surface tension concept can be used to explain aspects of the in vitro and in vivo behavior of multicellular aggregates. Unfortunately, conventional methods of surface tension measurement cannot be readily applied to small cell aggregates. This difficulty can be overcome by an experimentally straightforward method consisting of centrifugation followed by axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA). Since the aggregates typically show roughness, standard ADSA cannot be applied and we introduce a novel numerical method called ADSA-IP (ADSA for imperfect profile) for this purpose. To examine the new methodology, embryonic tissues from the gastrula of the frog, Xenopus laevis, deformed in the centrifuge are used. It is confirmed that surface tension measurements are independent of centrifugal force and aggregate size. Surface tension is measured for ectodermal cells in four sample batches, and varies between 1.1 and 7.7 mJ/m2. Surface tension is also measured for aggregates of cells expressing cytoplasmically truncated EP/C-cadherin, and is approximately half as large. In parallel, such aggregates show a reduction in convergent extension-driven elongation after activin treatment, reflecting diminished intercellular cohesion.

  9. Surface tension estimation of high temperature melts of the binary alloys Ag-Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Ali; Arslan, Hüseyin

    2017-11-01

    Surface tension calculation of the binary alloys Ag-Au at the temperature of 1381 K, where Ag and Au have similar electronic structures and their atomic radii are comparable, are carried out in this study using several equations over entire composition range of Au. Apparently, the deviations from ideality of the bulk solutions, such as activities of Ag and Au are small and the maximum excess Gibbs free energy of mixing of the liquid phase is for instance -4500 J/mol at XAu = 0.5. Besides, the results obtained in Ag-Au alloys that at a constant temperature the surface tension increases with increasing composition while the surface tension decreases as the temperature increases for entire composition range of Au. Although data about surface tension of the Ag-Au alloy are limited, it was possible to make a comparison for the calculated results for the surface tension in this study with the available experimental data. Taken together, the average standard error analysis that especially the improved Guggenheim model in the other models gives the best agreement along with the experimental results at temperature 1383 K although almost all models are mutually in agreement with the other one.

  10. Design of an experimental apparatus for measurement of the surface tension of metastable fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinš, V.; Hrubý, J.; Hykl, J.; Blaha, J.; Šmíd, B.

    2013-04-01

    A unique experimental apparatus for measurement of the surface tension of aqueous mixtures has been designed, manufactured, and tested in our laboratory. The novelty of the setup is that it allows measurement of surface tension by two different methods: a modified capillary elevation method in a long vertical capillary tube and a method inspired by the approach of Hacker (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Technical Note 2510, 1-20, 1951), i.e. in a short horizontal capillary tube. Functionality of all main components of the apparatus, e.g., glass chamber with the capillary tube, temperature control unit consisting of two thermostatic baths with special valves for rapid temperature jumps, helium distribution setup allowing pressure variation above the liquid meniscus inside the capillary tube, has been successfully tested. Preliminary results for the surface tension of the stable and metastable supercooled water measured by the capillary elevation method at atmospheric pressure are provided. The surface tension of water measured at temperatures between +26 °C and -11 °C is in good agreement with the extrapolated IAPWS correlation (IAPWS Release on Surface Tension of Ordinary Water Substance, September 1994); however it disagrees with data by Hacker.

  11. Modeling the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwier, A. N.; Viglione, G. A.; Li, Z.; McNeill, V. Faye

    2013-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosols can contain thousands of organic compounds which impact aerosol surface tension, affecting aerosol properties such as heterogeneous reactivity, ice nucleation, and cloud droplet formation. We present new experimental data for the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic aqueous mixtures mimicking tropospheric aerosols. Each solution contained 2-6 organic compounds, including methylglyoxal, glyoxal, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, oxalic acid, succinic acid, leucine, alanine, glycine, and serine, with and without ammonium sulfate. We test two semi-empirical surface tension models and find that most reactive, complex, aqueous organic mixtures which do not contain salt are well described by a weighted Szyszkowski-Langmuir (S-L) model which was first presented by Henning et al. (2005). Two approaches for modeling the effects of salt were tested: (1) the Tuckermann approach (an extension of the Henning model with an additional explicit salt term), and (2) a new implicit method proposed here which employs experimental surface tension data obtained for each organic species in the presence of salt used with the Henning model. We recommend the use of method (2) for surface tension modeling of aerosol systems because the Henning model (using data obtained from organic-inorganic systems) and Tuckermann approach provide similar modeling results and goodness-of-fit (χ2) values, yet the Henning model is a simpler and more physical approach to modeling the effects of salt, requiring less empirically determined parameters.

  12. Spreading of oil films on water in the surface tension regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Surface tension forces will cause an oil to spread over water if the tension of the oil film (the summed surface and interfacial tensions for bulk oil films, or the equilibrium spreading tension for monomolecular films) is less than the surface tension of water. For oil films spreading in a 40 cm long channel, measurements are made of leading edge position and lateral profiles of film thickness, velocity, and tension as a function of time. Measurements of the tension profiles, important for evaluating proposed theories, is made possible by the development of a new technique based on the Wilhelmy method. The oils studied were silicones, fatty acids and alcohols, and mixtures of surfactants in otherwise nonspreading oils. The single-component oils show an acceleration zone connecting a slow-moving inner region with a fast-moving leading monolayer. The dependence of film tension on film thickness for spreading single-component oils often differs from that at equilibrium. The mixtures show a bulk oil film configuration which extends to the leading edge and have velocity profiles which increase smoothly. The theoretical framework, similarity transformation, and asymptotic solutions of Foda and Cox for single-component oils were shown to be valid. An analysis of spreading surfactant-oil mixtures is developed which allows them to be treated under this framework. An easily-used semi-empirical model is proposed which allows them to be treated under this framework. An easily-used semi-empirical model is proposed which allows accurate prediction of detailed spreading behavior for any spreading oil.

  13. Expressions of the radius and the surface tension of surface of tension in terms of the pressure distribution for nanoscale liquid threads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Hong; Wei Jiu-An; Cui Shu-Wen; Zhu Ru-Zeng

    2013-01-01

    The expressions of the radius and the surface tension of surface of tension R s and γ s in terms of the pressure distribution for nanoscale liquid threads are of great importance for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the interfacial phenomena of nanoscale fluids; these two basic expressions are derived in this paper. Although these expressions were derived first in the literature [Kim B G, Lee J S, Han M H, and Park S, 2006 Nanoscale and Microscale Thermophysical Engineering, 10, 283] and used widely thereafter, the derivation is wrong both in logical structure and physical thought. In view of the importance of these basic expressions, the logic and physical mistakes appearing in that derivation are pointed out. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  14. The surface tension of pure liquids. Thermodynamic components and corresponding states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyklema, J.

    1999-01-01

    From the temperature dependency of surface and interfacial tensions the surface excess energy and entropy per unit area can be obtained. The excess energy is a liquid-specific property; it varies over about three decades between liquid helium and molten metals. On the other hand, the excess entropy

  15. Performing chemical reactions in virtual capillary of surface tension ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The flow paths were fabricated by making parallel lines using permanent marker pen ink or other polymer on glass surfaces. Two mirror image patterned glass plates were then sandwiched one on top of the other, separated by a thin gap - created using a spacer. The aqueous liquid moves between the surfaces by capillary ...

  16. Concentration Dependences of the Surface Tension and Density of Solutions of Acetone-Ethanol-Water Systems at 293 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashev, R. Kh.; Dzhambulatov, R. S.; Mezhidov, V. Kh.; Elimkhanov, D. Z.

    2018-05-01

    Concentration dependences of the surface tension and density of solutions of three-component acetone-ethanol-water systems and the bounding binary systems at 273 K are studied. The molar volume, adsorption, and composition of surface layers are calculated. Experimental data and calculations show that three-component solutions are close to ideal ones. The surface tensions of these solutions are calculated using semi-empirical and theoretical equations. Theoretical equations qualitatively convey the concentration dependence of surface tension. A semi-empirical method based on the Köhler equation allows us to predict the concentration dependence of surface tension within the experimental error.

  17. Noncontact surface tension and viscosity measurements of rhenium in the liquid and undercooled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Takehiko; Paradis, Paul-Francois; Yoda, Shinichi

    2004-01-01

    Surface tension and viscosity of liquid rhenium, which have hardly been measured due to the extremely high melting temperature of rhenium, were measured using an electrostatic levitation method combined with the oscillation drop technique. Sample position instability problems caused by the photon pressure of the heating lasers and by sample evaporation were solved by modifying the electrodes design. Good sample stability allowed the measurements of the surface tension and the viscosity over wide temperature ranges including the undercooled states. Over the 2800-3600 K interval, the surface tension of rhenium was measured as σ(T)=2.71x10 3 -0.23(T-T m ), where T m is the melting temperature, 3453 K. At T m , the datum agrees well with the literature values. Similarly, on the same temperature range, the viscosity was determined as η(T)=0.08 exp[1.33x10 5 /(RT)] (mPa s)

  18. A hybrid model to predict the onset of gas entrainment with surface tension effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, W.; Bowden, R.C.; Hassan, I.G.; Kadem, L.

    2008-01-01

    The onset of gas entrainment, in a single downward oriented discharge from a stratified gas-liquid region with was modeled. The assumptions made in the development of the model reduced the problem to that of a potential flow. The discharge was modeled as a point-sink. Through use of the Kelvin-Laplace equation the model included the effects of surface tension. The resulting model required further knowledge of the flow field, specifically the dip radius of curvature prior to the onset of gas entrainment. The dip shape and size was investigated experimentally and correlations were provided to characterize the dip in terms of the discharge Froude number. The experimental correlation was used in conjunction with the theoretical model to predict the critical height. The results showed that by including surface tension effects the predicted critical height showed excellent agreement with experimental data. Surface tension reduces the critical height through the Bond number

  19. Predicting the minimum liquid surface tension activity of pseudomonads expressing biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, I U; Deeni, Y; Hapca, S M; McLaughlin, K; Spiers, A J

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria produce a variety of biosurfactants capable of significantly reducing liquid (aqueous) surface tension (γ) with a range of biological roles and biotechnological uses. To determine the lowest achievable surface tension (γMin ), we tested a diverse collection of Pseudomonas-like isolates from contaminated soil and activated sludge and identified those expressing biosurfactants by drop-collapse assay. Liquid surface tension-reducing ability was quantitatively determined by tensiometry, with 57 isolates found to significantly lower culture supernatant surface tensions to 24·5-49·1 mN m(-1) . Differences in biosurfactant behaviour determined by foaming, emulsion and oil-displacement assays were also observed amongst isolates producing surface tensions of 25-27 mN m(-1) , suggesting that a range of structurally diverse biosurfactants were being expressed. Individual distribution identification (IDI) analysis was used to identify the theoretical probability distribution that best fitted the surface tension data, which predicted a γMin of 24·24 mN m(-1) . This was in agreement with predictions based on earlier work of published mixed bacterial spp. data, suggesting a fundamental limit to the ability of bacterial biosurfactants to reduce surface tensions in aqueous systems. This implies a biological restriction on the synthesis and export of these agents or a physical-chemical restriction on their functioning once produced. Numerous surveys of biosurfactant-producing bacteria have been conducted, but only recently has an attempt been made to predict the minimum liquid surface tension these surface-active agents can achieve. Here, we determine a theoretical minimum of 24 mN m(-1) by statistical analysis of tensiometry data, suggesting a fundamental limit for biosurfactant activity in bacterial cultures incubated under standard growth conditions. This raises a challenge to our understanding of biosurfactant expression, secretion and function, as well as

  20. Effect of electrolytes on surface tension and surface adsorption of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemian, Ensieh; Najafi, Mojgan; Rafati, Amir Abbas; Felegari, Zahra

    2010-01-01

    Surface and bulk properties of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [C 6 mim][Cl] as an ionic liquid (IL) have been investigated by surface tension and electrical conductivity techniques at various temperatures. Results reveal that the ionic liquid behaves as surfactant-like and aggregates in aqueous solution. Critical aggregation concentration (cac) values obtained by conductivity and surface tension measurements are in good agreement with values found in the literature. A series of important and useful adsorption parameters including cac, surface excess concentration (Γ), and minimum surface area per molecule (A min ) at the air + water interface were estimated from surface tension in the presence and absence of different electrolytes. Obtained data show that the surface tension as well as the cac of [C 6 mim][Cl] is reduced by electrolytes. Also, values of surface excess concentration (Γ) show that the IL ions in the presence of electrolyte have much larger affinity to adsorption at the surface and this affinity increased in aqueous electrolyte solution in the order of I - > Br - > Cl - for counter ion of salts that was explained in terms of a larger repulsion of chloride anions from interface to the bromide and iodide anion as well as difference in their excess polarizability.

  1. A new corresponding state-based correlation for the surface tension of organic fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuihua; Tian, Jianxiang; Zheng, Mengmeng; Yi, Huili; Zhang, Laibin; Liu, Shuzhen

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed a new corresponding state-based correlation for organic fatty (aliphatic, carboxylic and polyfunctional) acids. By using the recently published surface tension data of the 99 acids [A. Mulero and I. Cachadiña, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 45 (2016) 033105] and comparing with the recently published other corresponding state correlations, we found that this correlation reproduces the lowest absolute average deviation (AAD) values for 82 acids out of the 99 acids. It can reproduce the surface tension data with AAD less than 10% for 89 out of the 99 acids.

  2. Surface tension effect on the mechanical properties of nanomaterials measured by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenot, Stéphane; Frétigny, Christian; Demoustier-Champagne, Sophie; Nysten, Bernard

    2004-04-01

    The effect of reduced size on the elastic properties measured on silver and lead nanowires and on polypyrrole nanotubes with an outer diameter ranging between 30 and 250 nm is presented and discussed. Resonant-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to measure their apparent elastic modulus. The measured modulus of the nanomaterials with smaller diameters is significantly higher than that of the larger ones. The latter is comparable to the macroscopic modulus of the materials. The increase of the apparent elastic modulus for the smaller diameters is attributed to surface tension effects. The surface tension of the probed material may be experimentally determined from these AFM measurements.

  3. An adaptive finite element method for simulating surface tension with the gradient theory of fluid interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng; Sun, Shuyu

    2014-01-01

    The gradient theory for the surface tension of simple fluids and mixtures is rigorously analyzed based on mathematical theory. The finite element approximation of surface tension is developed and analyzed, and moreover, an adaptive finite element method based on a physical-based estimator is proposed and it can be coupled efficiently with Newton's method as well. The numerical tests are carried out both to verify the proposed theory and to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An adaptive finite element method for simulating surface tension with the gradient theory of fluid interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2014-01-01

    The gradient theory for the surface tension of simple fluids and mixtures is rigorously analyzed based on mathematical theory. The finite element approximation of surface tension is developed and analyzed, and moreover, an adaptive finite element method based on a physical-based estimator is proposed and it can be coupled efficiently with Newton\\'s method as well. The numerical tests are carried out both to verify the proposed theory and to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A simple laboratory experiment to measure the surface tension of a liquid in contact with air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riba, Jordi-Roger; Esteban, Bernat

    2014-01-01

    A simple and accurate laboratory experiment to measure the surface tension of liquids has been developed, which is well suited to teach the behaviour of liquids to first- or second-year students of physics, engineering or chemistry. The experimental setup requires relatively inexpensive equipment usually found in physics and chemistry laboratories, since it consists of a used or recycled burette, an analytical balance and a stereoscopic microscope or a micrometer. Experimental data and error analysis show that the surface tension of distilled water, 1-butanol and glycerol can be determined with accuracy better than 1.4%. (paper)

  6. Interrelation of surface tension, optical turbidity, and color of operational transformer oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L’vov, S. Yu.; Lyut’ko, E. O.; Lankau, Ya. V.; Komarov, V. B.; Seliverstov, A. F.; Bondareva, V. N.; L’vov, Yu. N.; L’vov, M. Yu.; Ershov, B. G.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of the acidity, optical turbidity, surface tension, and color of transformer oil from 54 power transformers, autotransformers, and shunt reactors are reported. Changes in surface tension, optical turbidity, and color are found to obey adequate linear correlations, while the acidity has no correlation with any of these properties. Numerical criteria for the maximum permissible state (quality) of the oil with respect to optical turbidity and color are obtained. Recommendations to operating staff are provided for cases in which the criteria for optical turbidity and color are exceeded.

  7. Multi-phase-field method for surface tension induced elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiedung, Raphael; Steinbach, Ingo; Varnik, Fathollah

    2018-01-01

    A method, based on the multi-phase-field framework, is proposed that adequately accounts for the effects of a coupling between surface free energy and elastic deformation in solids. The method is validated via a number of analytically solvable problems. In addition to stress states at mechanical equilibrium in complex geometries, the underlying multi-phase-field framework naturally allows us to account for the influence of surface energy induced stresses on phase transformation kinetics. This issue, which is of fundamental importance on the nanoscale, is demonstrated in the limit of fast diffusion for a solid sphere, which melts due to the well-known Gibbs-Thompson effect. This melting process is slowed down when coupled to surface energy induced elastic deformation.

  8. Adhesion of bubbles and drops to solid surfaces, and anisotropic surface tensions studied by capillary meniscus dynamometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danov, Krassimir D.; Stanimirova, Rumyana D.; Kralchevsky, Peter A.; Marinova, Krastanka G.; Stoyanov, Simeon D.; Blijdenstein, Theodorus B.J.; Cox, Andrew R.; Pelan, Eddie G.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we review the principle and applications of two recently developed methods: the capillary meniscus dynamometry (CMD) for measuring the surface tension of bubbles/drops, and the capillary bridge dynamometry (CBD) for quantifying the bubble/drop adhesion to solid surfaces. Both methods are

  9. Simultaneous measurement of surface tension and viscosity using freely decaying oscillations of acoustically levitated droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, J.; Kilzer, A.; Petermann, M.

    2018-01-01

    Oscillations of small liquid drops around a spherical shape have been of great interest to scientists measuring physical properties such as interfacial tension and viscosity, over the last few decades. A powerful tool for contactless positioning is acoustic levitation, which has been used to simultaneously determine the surface tension and viscosity of liquids at ambient pressure. In order to extend this acoustic levitation measurement method to high pressure systems, the method is first evaluated under ambient pressure. To measure surface tension and viscosity using acoustically levitated oscillating drops, an image analysis method has to be developed and factors which may affect measurement, such as sound field or oscillation amplitude, have to be analyzed. In this paper, we describe the simultaneous measurement of surface tension and viscosity using freely decaying shape oscillations of acoustically levitated droplets of different liquids (silicone oils AK 5 and AK 10, squalane, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol, and 1-octanol) in air. These liquids vary in viscosity from 2 to about 30 mPa s. An acoustic levitation system, including an optimized standing wave acoustic levitator and a high-speed camera, was used for this study. An image analysis was performed with a self-written Matlab® code. The frequency of oscillation and the damping constant, required for the determination of surface tension and viscosity, respectively, were calculated from the evolution of the equatorial and polar radii. The results and observations are compared to data from the literature in order to analyze the accuracy of surface tension and viscosity determination, as well as the effect of non-spherical drop shape or amplitude of oscillation on measurement.

  10. Shapes of an Air Taylor Bubble in Stagnant Liquids Influenced by Different Surface Tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertnuwat, B.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this work is to propose an empirical model for predicting shapes of a Taylor bubble, which is a part of slug flows, under different values of the surface tension in stagnant liquids by employing numerical simulations. The k - Ɛ turbulence model was used in the framework of finite volume method for simulating flow fields in a unit of slug flow and also the pressure distribution on a Taylor bubble surface. Assuming that an air pressure distribution inside the Taylor bubble must be uniform, a grid search method was exploited to find an appropriate shape of a Taylor bubble for six values of surface tension. It was found that the shape of a Taylor bubble would be blunter if the surface tension was increased. This was because the surface tension affected the Froude number, controlling the flow around a Taylor bubble. The simulation results were also compared with the Taylor bubble shape, created by the Dumitrescu-and-Taylor model and former studies in order to ensure that they were consistent. Finally, the empirical model was presented from the simulation results.

  11. Combined Molecular Dynamics Simulation-Molecular-Thermodynamic Theory Framework for Predicting Surface Tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sresht, Vishnu; Lewandowski, Eric P; Blankschtein, Daniel; Jusufi, Arben

    2017-08-22

    A molecular modeling approach is presented with a focus on quantitative predictions of the surface tension of aqueous surfactant solutions. The approach combines classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations with a molecular-thermodynamic theory (MTT) [ Y. J. Nikas, S. Puvvada, D. Blankschtein, Langmuir 1992 , 8 , 2680 ]. The MD component is used to calculate thermodynamic and molecular parameters that are needed in the MTT model to determine the surface tension isotherm. The MD/MTT approach provides the important link between the surfactant bulk concentration, the experimental control parameter, and the surfactant surface concentration, the MD control parameter. We demonstrate the capability of the MD/MTT modeling approach on nonionic alkyl polyethylene glycol surfactants at the air-water interface and observe reasonable agreement of the predicted surface tensions and the experimental surface tension data over a wide range of surfactant concentrations below the critical micelle concentration. Our modeling approach can be extended to ionic surfactants and their mixtures with both ionic and nonionic surfactants at liquid-liquid interfaces.

  12. Experimental and theoretical study of surface tension of binary mixtures of (n-alkyl acetates + heptane, benzene, and toluene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafati, Amir Abbas; Ghasemian, Ensieh

    2009-01-01

    Surface properties of binary mixtures of (n-alkyl acetates + heptane, benzene, and toluene) have been measured by surface tension method at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. Also, the surface tension has been predicted based on the Suarez method. This method combines a model for the description of surface tension of liquid mixtures with a group contribution method for the calculation of activity coefficient. The mean relative standard deviations obtained from the comparison of experimental (measured) and calculated surface tension values for the eight binary systems are less than 1.5%, which leads to concluding that the model shows a good accuracy in different situations in comparison with other predicted equations. In addition, the relative Gibbs adsorption and the surface mole fraction have been evaluated using this model. The surface tension deviations were calculated from experimental results and have been fitted to the Redlich-Kister type polynomial relation

  13. Fowler's approximation for the surface tension and surface energy of Lennard-Jones fluids revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulero, A [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071-Badajoz (Spain); Galan, C [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071-Badajoz (Spain); Cuadros, F [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071-Badajoz (Spain)

    2003-04-16

    We present a detailed study of the validity of Fowler's approximation for calculating the surface tension and the surface energy of Lennard-Jones fluids. To do so, we consider three different explicit analytical expressions for the radial distribution function (RDF), including one proposed by our research group, together with very accurate expressions for the liquid and vapour densities, also proposed by our group. The calculation of the surface tension from the direct correlation function using both the Percus-Yevick and the hypernetted-chain approximations is also considered. Finally, our results are compared with those obtained by other authors by computer simulations or through relevant theoretical approximations. In particular, we consider the analytical expression proposed by Kalikmanov and Hofmans (1994 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 6 2207-14) for the surface tension. Our results indicate that the values for the surface energy in Fowler's approximation obtained by other authors are adequate, and can be calculated from the RDF models. For the surface tension, however, the values considered as valid in previous works seem to be incorrect. The correct values can be obtained from our model for the RDF or from the Kalikmanov and Hofmans expression with suitable inputs.

  14. Measurement and Modeling of Surface Tensions of Asymmetric Systems: Heptane, Eicosane, Docosane, Tetracosane and their Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queimada, Antonio; Silva, Filipa A. E.; Caco, Ana I.

    2003-01-01

    To extend the surface tension database for heavy or asymmetric n-alkane mixtures, measurements were performed using the Wilhelmy plate method. Measured systems included the binary mixtures heptane + eicosane, heptane + docosane and heptane + tetracosane and the ternary mixture heptane + eicosane ...

  15. Measurement and Modeling of Surface Tensions of Asymmetric Systems: Heptane, Eicosane, Docosane, Tetracosane and their Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queimada, Antonio; Silva, Filipa A.E; Caco, Ana I.

    2003-01-01

    To extend the surface tension database for heavy or asymmetric n-alkane mixtures, measurements were performed using the Wilhelmy plate method. Measured systems included the binary mixtures heptane + eicosane, heptane + docosane and heptane + tetracosane and the ternary mixture heptane + eicosane...

  16. Generation of Recommendable Values for the Surface Tension of Water Using a Nonparametric Regression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pátek, Jaroslav; Součková, Monika; Klomfar, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2016), s. 928-935 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00145S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : water * surface tension * experimental data * recommended data Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.323, year: 2016

  17. Standard reference data for the air-liquid and vapor-liquid surface tension of benzene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Součková, Monika; Klomfar, Jaroslav; Pátek, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 356, October (2013), s. 329-337 ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/0010 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : benzene * surface tension * experimental data * standard reference data Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.241, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378381213004196

  18. Estimation of the Critical Temperatures of Some More Deep Eutectic Solvents from Their Surface Tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhak Marcus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The critical temperatures of two dozen deep eutectic solvents, for only some of which these have been estimated previously, were estimated from the temperature dependences of their surface tensions and densities available in the literature according to the Eötvös and the Guggenheim expressions.

  19. Density, viscosity and surface tension of liquid phase Beckmann rearrangement mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidhof, K.T.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Schouten, J.C.; Tinge, J.T.

    2015-01-01

    We have determined the density, dynamic viscosity, and surface tension of liquid phase Beckmann rearrangement mixtures, consisting of e-caprolactam and fuming oleum. These important properties have been measured in wide ranges of both temperature and molar ratios of acid and e-caprolactam, covering

  20. Surface tension phenomena in the xylem sap of three diffuse porous temperate tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. K. Christensen-Dalsgaard; M. T. Tyree; P. G. Mussone

    2011-01-01

    In plant physiology models involving bubble nucleation, expansion or elimination, it is typically assumed that the surface tension of xylem sap is equal to that of pure water, though this has never been tested. In this study we collected xylem sap from branches of the tree species Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera and Sorbus...

  1. On the theory of type-I superconductor surface tension and twinning-plane-superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishonov, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    A correction is found to the surface tension in type-I superconductors which is proportional to the square root of the Ginsburg-Landau parameter. This correction is essential for obtaining the phase diagram and other thermodynamical variables of the narrow superconducting layer arising near the twinning plane in some metals

  2. Development of corresponding states model for estimation of the surface tension of chemical compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharagheizi, Farhad; Eslamimanesh, Ali; Sattari, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    include critical temperature or temperature/critical volume/acentric factor/critical pressure/reduced temperature/reduced normal boiling point temperature/molecular weight of the compounds. Around 1,300 surface tension data of 118 random compounds are used for developing the first model (a four...

  3. Relationship between surface tension and refractive index in binary non-electrolyte mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, I.L.; Pedrosa, G.C.; Katz, M.

    1990-01-01

    Lorentz-Lorenz equation for molecular refraction has been combined with Sugden's parachor equation for binary non-electrolyte mixtures at 298.15 K. The obtained equation has been shown successful in calculating values of surface tensions, by measuring refractive indices of the binary mixtures at the same mole fractions. The estimated error decreases when the mixtures present possible isorefractives. (Author) [es

  4. Surface tension of heptane, decane, hexadecane, eicosane, and some of their binary mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolo, Lara I.; Caco, Ana I.; Queimada, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Surface tension measurements were performed by the Wilhelmy plate method. Measured systems included pure heptane, decane, hexadecane, eicosane, and some of their binary mixtures at temperatures from 293.15 K to 343.15 K with an average absolute deviation of 1.6%. The results were compared with a ...

  5. On Surface Tension for Compact Stars R. Sharma & S. D. Maharaj

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In an earlier analysis it was demonstrated that general rel- ativity gives higher values of surface tension in strange stars with quark matter than neutron stars.We generate the modified Tolman–Oppenheimer–. Volkoff equation to incorporate anisotropic matter and use this to show that pressure anisotropy provides ...

  6. In situ droplet surface tension and viscosity measurements in gas metal arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, B; Siewert, E; Schein, J

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an adaptation of a drop oscillation technique that enables in situ measurements of thermophysical properties of an industrial pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process. Surface tension, viscosity, density and temperature were derived expanding the portfolio of existing methods and previously published measurements of surface tension in pulsed GMAW. Natural oscillations of pure liquid iron droplets are recorded during the material transfer with a high-speed camera. Frame rates up to 30000 fps were utilized to visualize iron droplet oscillations which were in the low kHz range. Image processing algorithms were employed for edge contour extraction of the droplets and to derive parameters such as oscillation frequencies and damping rates along different dimensions of the droplet. Accurate surface tension measurements were achieved incorporating the effect of temperature on density. These are compared with a second method that has been developed to accurately determine the mass of droplets produced during the GMAW process which enables precise surface tension measurements with accuracies up to 1% and permits the study of thermophysical properties also for metals whose density highly depends on temperature. Thermophysical properties of pure liquid iron droplets formed by a wire with 1.2 mm diameter were investigated in a pulsed GMAW process with a base current of 100 A and a pulse current of 600 A. Surface tension and viscosity of a sample droplet were 1.83 ± 0.02 N m -1 and 2.9 ± 0.3 mPa s, respectively. The corresponding droplet temperature and density are 2040 ± 50 K and 6830 ± 50 kg m -3 , respectively. (paper)

  7. Spreading of oil on water in the surface-tension regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, D.W.; Berg, J.C.

    1987-11-01

    Data which describe the unidirectional spreading of several pure oils and oil-surfactant mixtures on water in the surface-tension regime are reported. Leading-edge position and profiles of velocity, thickness and film tension are given as functions of time. The data are consistent with the numerical similarity solution of Foda and Cox (1980), although the measured dependence of the film tension on the film thickness often differs from the equilibrium relationship. The configuration of the oil film near the spreading origin may be either a coherent multimolecular layer or a multitude of thinning, outward-moving lenses surrounded by monolayer. The pure oils show an acceleration zone connecting the slow-moving inner region to a fast-moving outer region, while the oil-surfactant mixtures show a much more gradual increase in film velocity.

  8. Account for the surface tension in hydraulic modeling of the weir with a sharp threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medzveliya Manana Levanovna

    Full Text Available In the process of calculating and simulating water discharge in free channels it is necessary to know the flow features in case of small values of Reynolds and Weber numbers. The article considers the influence of viscosity and surface tension on the coefficient of a weir flow with sharp threshold. In the article the technique of carrying out experiments is stated, the equation is presented, which considers the influence of all factors: pressure over a spillway threshold, threshold height over a course bottom, speed of liquid, liquid density, dynamic viscosity, superficial tension, gravity acceleration, unit discharge, the width of the course. The surface tension and liquid density for the applied liquids changed a little. In the rectangular tray (6000x100x200 spillway with a sharp threshold was established. It is shown that weir flow coefficient depends on Reynolds number (in case Re < ~ 2000 and Webers number. A generalized expression for determining weir flow coefficient considering the influence of the forces of viscosity and surface tension is received.

  9. Single-Step Fabrication of High-Density Microdroplet Arrays of Low-Surface-Tension Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenqian; Li, Linxian; Du, Xin; Welle, Alexander; Levkin, Pavel A

    2016-04-01

    A facile approach for surface patterning that enables single-step fabrication of high-density arrays of low-surface-tension organic-liquid microdroplets is described. This approach enables miniaturized and parallel high-throughput screenings in organic solvents, formation of homogeneous arrays of hydrophobic nanoparticles, polymer micropads of specific shapes, and polymer microlens arrays. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Surface density profile and surface tension of the one-component classical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballone, P.; Senatore, G.; Trieste Univ.; Tosi, M.P.; Oxford Univ.

    1982-08-01

    The density profile and the interfacial tension of two classical plasmas in equilibrium at different densities are evaluated in the square-density-gradient approximation. For equilibrium in the absence of applied external voltage, the profile is oscillatory in the higher-density plasma and the interfacial tension is positive. The amplitude and phase of these oscillations and the magnitude of the interfacial tension are related to the width of the background profile. Approximate representations of the equilibrium profile by matching of its asymptotic forms are analyzed. A comparison with computer simulation data and a critical discussion of a local-density theory are also presented. (author)

  11. Numerical simulation of binary collisions using a modified surface tension model with particle method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhongguo; Xi Guang; Chen Xi

    2009-01-01

    The binary collision of liquid droplets is of both practical importance and fundamental value in computational fluid mechanics. We present a modified surface tension model within the moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method, and carry out two-dimensional simulations to investigate the mechanisms of coalescence and separation of the droplets during binary collision. The modified surface tension model improves accuracy and convergence. A mechanism map is established for various possible deformation pathways encountered during binary collision, as the impact speed is varied; a new pathway is reported when the collision speed is critical. In addition, eccentric collisions are simulated and the effect of the rotation of coalesced particle is explored. The results qualitatively agree with experiments and the numerical protocol may find applications in studying free surface flows and interface deformation

  12. Density and surface tension of melts of zirconium and hafnium fluorides with lithium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katyshev, S.F.; Artemov, V.V.; Desyatnik, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the temperature dependence of the density and surface tension of melts of LiF-ZrF 4 and LiF-HfF 4 . Density and surface tension were determined by the method of maximum pressure in an argon bubble. On the basis of experimental data over the entire concentration range the molar volumes and their relative deviations from the additive molar volumes were calculated for 1100 0 K. The positive deviations of the molar volumes from additivity in the LiF-HfF 4 system (22.45%) were greater than in the LiF-ZrF 4 system (15.75%). This indicated that the reaction with lithium fluoride is intensified with the switch to the hafnium fluoride. Results also demonstrated that the fluorides are surface-active components in the molten mixtures

  13. The Role of Surface Tension in the Crystallization of Metal Halide Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Zhumekenov, Ayan A.

    2017-07-06

    The exciting intrinsic properties discovered in single crystals of metal halide perovskites still await their translation into optoelectronic devices. The poor understanding and control of the crystallization process of these materials are current bottlenecks retarding the shift towards single crystal-based optoelectronics. Here we theoretically and experimentally elucidate the role of surface tension in the rapid synthesis of perovskite single crystals by inverse temperature crystallization (ITC). Understanding the nucleation and growth mechanisms enabled us to exploit surface tension to direct the growth of monocrystalline films of perovskites (AMX3, where A = CH3NH3+ or MA; M = Pb2+, Sn2+; X = Br-, I-) on the solution surface. We achieve up to 1 cm2-sized monocrystalline films with thickness on the order of the charge carrier diffusion length (~5-10 µm). Our work paves the way to control the crystallization process of perovskites, including thin film deposition, which is essential to advance the performance benchmarks of perovskite optoelectronics.

  14. Numerical modelling of microdroplet self-propelled jumping on micro-textured surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarzadeh, S. M. Reza; Dolatabadi, Ali; Chun Kim, Kyung

    2015-11-01

    Understanding various stages of single and multiple droplet impact on a super-hydrophobic surface is of interest for many industrial applications such as aerospace industry. In this study, the phenomenon of coalescence induced droplets self-propelled jumping on a micro-textured super-hydrophobic surface is numerically simulated using Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. This model mimics the scenario of coalescing cloud-sized particles over the surface structure of an aircraft. The VOF coupled with a dynamic contact angle model is used to simulate the coalescence of two equal size droplets, that are initially placed very closed to each other with their interface overlapping with each other's which triggers the incipience of their coalescence. The textured surface is modeled as a series of equally spaced squared pillars, with 111° as the intrinsic contact angle all over the solid contact area. It is shown that the radial velocity of coalescing liquid bridge is reverted to upward direction due to the counter action of the surface to the basal area of droplet in contact. The presence of air beneath the droplet inside micro grooves which aimed at repelling water droplet is also captured in this model. The simulated results are found in good agreement with experimental observations. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), Consortium de Recherche et d'innovation en Aerospatiale au Quebec (CRIAQ), Bombardier Aerospace, Pratt Whitney Canada.

  15. Contact angle and surface tension measurements of a five-ring polyphenyl ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Contact angle measurements were performed for a five-ring polyphenyl ether isomeric mixture on M-50 steel in a dry nitrogen atmosphere. Two different techniques were used: (1) a tilting plate apparatus, and (2) a sessile drop apparatus. Measurements were made for the temperature range 25 to 190 C. Surface tension was measured by a differential maximum bubble pressure technique over the range 23 to 220 C in room air. The critical surface energy of spreading (gamma /sub c/) was determined for the polyphenyl ether by plotting the cosine of the contact angle (theta) versus the surface tension (gamma /sub LV/). The straight line intercept at cosine theta = 1 is defined as gamma (sub c). Gamma (sub c) was found to be 30.1 dyn/cm for the tilting plate technique and 31.3 dyn/cm for the sessile drop technique. These results indicate that the polyphenyl ether is inherently autophobic (i.e., it will not spread on its own surface film until its surface tension is less than gamma /sub c/). This phenomenon is discussed in light of the wettability and wear problems encountered with this fluid.

  16. Surface tension and density of liquid In-Sn-Zn alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pstruś, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Using the dilatometric method, measurements of the density of liquid alloys of the ternary system In-Sn-Zn in four sections with a constant ratio Sn:In = 24:1, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, for various Zn additions (5, 10, 14, 20, 3 5, 50 and 75 at.% Zn) were performed at the temperature ranges of 500-1150 K. Density decreases linearly for all compositions. The molar volume calculated from density data exhibits close to ideal dependence on composition. Measurements of the surface tension of liquid alloys have been conducted using the method of maximum pressure in the gas bubbles. There were observed linear dependences on temperature with a negative gradients dσ/dT. Generally, with two exceptions, there was observed the increase of surface tension with increasing content of zinc. Using the Butler's model, the surface tension isotherms were calculated for temperatures T = 673 and 1073 K. Calculations show that only for high temperatures and for low content of zinc (up to about 35 at.%), the modeling is in very good agreement with experiment. Using the mentioned model, the composition of the surface phase was defined at two temperatures T = 673 and 973 K. Regardless of the temperature and of the defined section, the composition of the bulk is very different in comparison with the composition of the surface.

  17. A finite-volume HLLC-based scheme for compressible interfacial flows with surface tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrick, Daniel P. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States); Owkes, Mark [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT (United States); Regele, Jonathan D., E-mail: jregele@iastate.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Shock waves are often used in experiments to create a shear flow across liquid droplets to study secondary atomization. Similar behavior occurs inside of supersonic combustors (scramjets) under startup conditions, but it is challenging to study these conditions experimentally. In order to investigate this phenomenon further, a numerical approach is developed to simulate compressible multiphase flows under the effects of surface tension forces. The flow field is solved via the compressible multicomponent Euler equations (i.e., the five equation model) discretized with the finite volume method on a uniform Cartesian grid. The solver utilizes a total variation diminishing (TVD) third-order Runge–Kutta method for time-marching and second order TVD spatial reconstruction. Surface tension is incorporated using the Continuum Surface Force (CSF) model. Fluxes are upwinded with a modified Harten–Lax–van Leer Contact (HLLC) approximate Riemann solver. An interface compression scheme is employed to counter numerical diffusion of the interface. The present work includes modifications to both the HLLC solver and the interface compression scheme to account for capillary force terms and the associated pressure jump across the gas–liquid interface. A simple method for numerically computing the interface curvature is developed and an acoustic scaling of the surface tension coefficient is proposed for the non-dimensionalization of the model. The model captures the surface tension induced pressure jump exactly if the exact curvature is known and is further verified with an oscillating elliptical droplet and Mach 1.47 and 3 shock-droplet interaction problems. The general characteristics of secondary atomization at a range of Weber numbers are also captured in a series of simulations.

  18. A thermodynamic perturbation theory for the surface tension and ion density profile of a liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.; Kumaravadivel, R.

    1976-01-01

    A simple scheme for determining the ion density profile and the surface tension of a liquid metal is described. Assuming that the interaction between metallic pseudo-ions is of the form introduced by Evans, an approximate expression for the excess free energy of the system is derived using the thermodynamic perturbation theory of Weeks, Chandler and Anderson. This excess free energy is then minimized with respect to a parameter which specifies the ion density profile, and the surface tension is given directly. From a consideration of the dependence of the interionic forces on the electron density it is predicted that the ions should take up a very steep density profile at the liquid metal surface. This behaviour is contrasted with that to be expected for rare-gas fluids in which the interatomic forces are density-independent. The values of the surface tension calculated for liquid Na, K and Al from a simplified version of the theory are in reasonable agreement with experiment. (author)

  19. Novel method for the simultaneous estimation of density and surface tension of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirunavukkarasu, G.; Srinivasan, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    The conventional Hare's apparatus generally used for the determination of density of liquids has been modified by replacing its vertical arms (glass tubes) with capillary tubes of 30 cm length and 0.072 cm diameter. When the columns of liquids are drawn through the capillary tubes with reduced pressure at the top of the liquid columns and kept at equilibrium with the atmospheric pressure acting on the liquid surface outside the capillary tubes, the downward pressure due to gravity of the liquid columns has to be coupled with the pressure arising due to the effect of surface tension of the liquids. A fresh expression for the density and surface tension of liquids has been arrived at while equating the pressure balancing system for the two individual liquid columns of the modified Hare's apparatus. The experimental results showed that the proposed method is precise and accurate in the simultaneous estimation of density and surface tension of liquids, with an error of less than 5%

  20. Non-invasive high throughput approach for protein hydrophobicity determination based on surface tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhein, Sven; Bauer, Katharina Christin; Galm, Lara; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    The surface hydrophobicity of a protein is an important factor for its interactions in solution and thus the outcome of its production process. Yet most of the methods are not able to evaluate the influence of these hydrophobic interactions under natural conditions. In the present work we have established a high resolution stalagmometric method for surface tension determination on a liquid handling station, which can cope with accuracy as well as high throughput requirements. Surface tensions could be derived with a low sample consumption (800 μL) and a high reproducibility (content. The protein influence on the solutions' surface tension was correlated to the hydrophobicity of lysozyme, human lysozyme, BSA, and α-lactalbumin. Differences in proteins' hydrophobic character depending on pH and species could be resolved. Within this work we have developed a pH dependent hydrophobicity ranking, which was found to be in good agreement with literature. For the studied pH range of 3-9 lysozyme from chicken egg white was identified to be the most hydrophilic. α-lactalbumin at pH 3 exhibited the most pronounced hydrophobic character. The stalagmometric method occurred to outclass the widely used spectrophotometric method with bromophenol blue sodium salt as it gave reasonable results without restrictions on pH and protein species. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Analytical description of concentration dependence of surface tension in multicomponent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadashev, R; Kutuev, R [Complex Science Research Institute of the Science Academy of the Chechen Republic, 21 Staropromisl. shosse, Grozny 364096 (Russian Federation); Elimkhanov, D [Science Academy of the Chechen Republic (Russian Federation)], E-mail: edzhabrail@mail.ru

    2008-02-15

    From the basic fundamental thermodynamic expressions the equation of isotherms of the surface tension of a ternary system is received. Various assumptions concerning the concentration dependence of molar areas are usually made when the equation is derived. The dependence of the molar areas is calculated as an additive function of the structure of a volumetric phase or the structure of a surface layer. To define the concentration dependence of the molar areas we used a stricter thermodynamic expression offered by Butler. In the received equation the dependence of molar areas on the structure of the solution is taken into account. Therefore, the equation can be applied for the calculation of surface tension over a wide concentration range of the components. Unlike the known expressions, the equation includes the surface tension properties of lateral binary systems, which makes the accuracy of the calculated values considerably higher. Thus, among the advantages of the offered equation we can point out the mathematical simplicity of the received equation and the fact that the equation includes physical parameters the experimental definition of which does not present any special difficulties.

  2. Aluminum agglomeration involving the second mergence of agglomerates on the solid propellants burning surface: Experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Wen; Liu, Xin; Rezaiguia, Hichem; Liu, Huan; Wang, Zhixin; Liu, Peijin

    2017-07-01

    The agglomeration of aluminum particles usually occurs on the burning surface of aluminized composite propellants. It leads to low propellant combustion efficiency and high two-phase flow losses. To reach a thorough understanding of aluminum agglomeration behaviors, agglomeration processes, and particles size distribution of Al/AP/RDX/GAP propellants were studied by using a cinephotomicrography experimental technique, under 5 MPa. Accumulation, aggregation, and agglomeration phenomena of aluminum particles have been inspected, as well as the flame asymmetry of burning agglomerates. Results reveals that the dependency of the mean and the maximum agglomeration diameter to the burning rate and the virgin aluminum size have the same trend. A second-time mergence of multiple agglomerates on the burning surface is unveiled. Two typical modes of second mergence are concluded, based upon vertical and level movement of agglomerates, respectively. The latter mode is found to be dominant and sometimes a combination of the two modes may occur. A new model of aluminum agglomeration on the burning surface of composite propellants is derived to predict the particulates size distribution with a low computational amount. The basic idea is inspired from the well-known pocket models. The pocket size of the region formed by adjacent AP particles is obtained through scanning electron microscopy of the propellant cross-section coupled to an image processing method. The second mergence mechanism, as well as the effect of the burning rate on the agglomeration processes, are included in the present model. The mergence of two agglomerates is prescribed to occur only if their separation distance is less than a critical value. The agglomerates size distribution resulting from this original model match reasonably with the experimental data. Moreover, the present model gives superior results for mean agglomeration diameter compared to common empirical and pocket models. The average prediction

  3. Discrepancies over the onset of surfactant monomer aggregation interpreted by fluorescence, conductivity and surface tension methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Carvalho Costa

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Molecular probe techniques have made important contributions to the determination of microstructure of surfactant assemblies such as size, stability, micropolarity and conformation. Conductivity and surface tension were used to determine the critical aggregation concentration (cac of polymer-surfactant complexes and the critical micellar concentration (cmc of aqueous micellar aggregates. The results are compared with those of fluorescent techniques. Several surfactant systems were examined, 1-butanol-sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS mixtures, solutions containing poly(ethylene oxide-SDS, poly(vinylpyrrolidone-SDS and poly(acrylic acid-alkyltrimethylammonium bromide complexes. We found differences between the cac and cmc values obtained by conductivity or surface tension and those obtained by techniques which use hydrophobic probe.

  4. Light Meets Water in Nonlocal Media: Surface Tension Analogue in Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikis, Theodoros P.; Frantzeskakis, Dimitrios J.

    2017-06-01

    Shallow water wave phenomena find their analogue in optics through a nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) model in 2 +1 dimensions. We identify an analogue of surface tension in optics, namely, a single parameter depending on the degree of nonlocality, which changes the sign of dispersion, much like surface tension does in the shallow water wave problem. Using multiscale expansions, we reduce the NLS model to a Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation, which is of the KPII (KPI) type, for strong (weak) nonlocality. We demonstrate the emergence of robust optical antidark solitons forming Y -, X -, and H -shaped wave patterns, which are approximated by colliding KPII line solitons, similar to those observed in shallow waters.

  5. On the Problem of Determining Aggregation Numbers from Surface Tension Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanov, Anatoly I

    2017-11-07

    In view of the recent discovery of variable aggregation numbers in the vicinity of the critical micelle concentration (CMC), the mass-action-law theory of the surface tension isotherm of a micellar solution with variable aggregation numbers is formulated both for nonionic and ionic surfactants. It is shown that the shape of the surface tension isotherm should be concave in the logarithmic scale above the CMC. Considering a change in the isotherm slope at the CMC apparent break point, the problems of determining the aggregation number for nonionic micelles and the degree of counterion binding for ionic micelles are discussed. In case of the aggregation number variability near the CMC, finding the aggregation number above the CMC apparent break point is considered and a computational scheme is elaborated, requiring a higher precision for experiment. Some experimental data from the literature are analyzed, and the method of estimating the degree of counterion binding is improved.

  6. Interfacial Tension and Surface Pressure of High Density Lipoprotein, Low Density Lipoprotein, and Related Lipid Droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ollila, O. H. S.; Lamberg, A.; Lehtivaara, M.

    2012-01-01

    ) are essentially lipid droplets surrounded by specific proteins, their main function being to transport cholesterol. Interfacial tension and surface pressure of these particles are of great interest because they are related to the shape and the stability of the droplets and to protein adsorption at the interface....... Here we use coarse-grained molecular-dynamics simulations to consider a number of related issues by calculating the interfacial tension in protein-free lipid droplets, and in HDL and LDL particles mimicking physiological conditions. First, our results suggest that the curvature dependence......Lipid droplets play a central role in energy storage and metabolism on a cellular scale. Their core is comprised of hydrophobic lipids covered by a surface region consisting of amphiphilic lipids and proteins. For example, high and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively...

  7. A finite-density calculation of the surface tension of isotropic-nematic interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, B.G.; McMullen, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    The surface tension of the isotropic-nematic interface in a fluid of intermediate-sized hard particles is studied and calculated. The transition from isotropic to nematic is fixed to occur in a continuous fashion by varying the biaxiality of the model particles. A reversal in the preferred orientation of the bulk nematic relative to the isotropic-nematic interface suggests an oblique orientation of the bulk nematic. 32 refs., 8 figs

  8. Let’s not forget the critical role of surface tension in xylem water relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Christophe Domec

    2011-01-01

    The widely supported cohesion–tension theory of water transport explains the importance of a continuous water column and the mechanism of long-distance ascent of sap in plants (Dixon 1914, Tyree 2003, Angeles et al. 2004). The evaporation of water from the surfaces of mesophyll cells causes the air–water interface to retreat into the cellulose matrix of the plant cell...

  9. A Synthetic Phased Array Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor for Quantifying Bolt Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasim Guldiken

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report our findings on implementing a synthetic phased array surface acoustic wave sensor to quantify bolt tension. Maintaining proper bolt tension is important in many fields such as for ensuring safe operation of civil infrastructures. Significant advantages of this relatively simple methodology is its capability to assess bolt tension without any contact with the bolt, thus enabling measurement at inaccessible locations, multiple bolt measurement capability at a time, not requiring data collection during the installation and no calibration requirements. We performed detailed experiments on a custom-built flexible bench-top experimental setup consisting of 1018 steel plate of 12.7 mm (½ in thickness, a 6.4 mm (¼ in grade 8 bolt and a stainless steel washer with 19 mm (¾ in of external diameter. Our results indicate that this method is not only capable of clearly distinguishing properly bolted joints from loosened joints but also capable of quantifying how loose the bolt actually is. We also conducted detailed signal-to-noise (SNR analysis and showed that the SNR value for the entire bolt tension range was sufficient for image reconstruction.

  10. Effect of liquid surface tension on circular and linear hydraulic jumps; theory and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Rajesh Kumar; Jha, Narsing Kumar; Linden, Paul F.; Wilson, David Ian

    2017-11-01

    The hydraulic jump has attracted considerable attention since Rayleigh published his account in 1914. Watson (1964) proposed the first satisfactory explanation of the circular hydraulic jump by balancing the momentum and hydrostatic pressure across the jump, but this solution did not explain what actually causes the jump to form. Bohr et al. (1992) showed that the hydraulic jump happens close to the point where the local Froude number equals to one, suggesting a balance between inertial and hydrostatic contributions. Bush & Aristoff (2003) subsequently incorporated the effect of surface tension and showed that this is important when the jump radius is small. In this study, we propose a new account to explain the formation and evolution of hydraulic jumps under conditions where the jump radius is strongly influenced by the liquid surface tension. The theory is compared with experiments employing liquids of different surface tension and different viscosity, in circular and linear configurations. The model predictions and the experimental results show excellent agreement. Commonwealth Scholarship Commission, St. John's college, University of Cambridge.

  11. Surface tension and wetting properties of rapeseed oil to biofuel conversion by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyński, Siemowit; Sujak, Agnieszka; Stępniewski, Andrzej; Kornarzyński, Krzysztof; Ejtel, Marta; Kowal, Natalia; Tomczyk-Warunek, Agnieszka; Szcześniak, Emil; Tomczyńska-Mleko, Marta; Mleko, Stanisław

    2018-04-01

    This work presents a study on the surface tension, density and wetting behaviour of distilled glycerol, technical grade glycerol and the matter organic non-glycerin fraction. The research was conducted to expand the knowledge about the physical properties of wastes from the rapeseed oil biofuel production. The results show that the densities of technical grade glycerol (1.300 g cm-3) and distilled glycerol (1.267 g cm-3) did not differ and were significantly lower than the density of the matter organic non-glycerin fraction (1.579 g cm-3). Furthermore, the surface tension of distilled glycerol (49.6 mN m-1) was significantly higher than the matter organic non-glycerin fraction (32.7 mN m-1) and technical grade glycerol (29.5 mN m-1). As a result, both technical grade glycerol and the matter organic non-glycerin fraction had lower contact angles than distilled glycerol. The examined physical properties of distilled glycerol were found to be very close to that of the commercially available pure glycerol. The results suggest that technical grade glycerol may have potential application in the production of glycerol/fuel blends or biosurfactants. The presented results indicate that surface tension measurements are more useful when examining the quality of biofuel wastes than is density determination, as they allow for a more accurate analysis of the effects of impurities on the physical properties of the biofuel by-products.

  12. Improvement of gas entrainment prediction method. Introduction of surface tension effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kei; Sakai, Takaaki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Uchibori, Akihiro; Eguchi, Yuzuru; Monji, Hideaki; Xu, Yongze

    2010-01-01

    A gas entrainment (GE) prediction method has been developed to establish design criteria for the large-scale sodium-cooled fast reactor (JSFR) systems. The prototype of the GE prediction method was already confirmed to give reasonable gas core lengths by simple calculation procedures. However, for simplification, the surface tension effects were neglected. In this paper, the evaluation accuracy of gas core lengths is improved by introducing the surface tension effects into the prototype GE prediction method. First, the mechanical balance between gravitational, centrifugal, and surface tension forces is considered. Then, the shape of a gas core tip is approximated by a quadratic function. Finally, using the approximated gas core shape, the authors determine the gas core length satisfying the mechanical balance. This improved GE prediction method is validated by analyzing the gas core lengths observed in simple experiments. Results show that the analytical gas core lengths calculated by the improved GE prediction method become shorter in comparison to the prototype GE prediction method, and are in good agreement with the experimental data. In addition, the experimental data under different temperature and surfactant concentration conditions are reproduced by the improved GE prediction method. (author)

  13. The behavior of surface tension on steady-state rotating fluids in the low gravity environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Leslie, Fred W.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of surface tension on steady-state rotating fluids in a low gravity environment is studied. All the values of the physical parameters used in these calculations, except in the low gravity environments, are based on the measurements carried out by Leslie (1985) in the low gravity environment of a free-falling aircraft. The profile of the interface of two fluids is derived from Laplace's equation relating the pressure drop across an interface to the radii of curvature which has been applied to a low gravity rotating bubble that contacts the container boundary. The interface shape depends on the ratio of gravity to surface tension forces, the ratio of centrifugal to surface tension forces, the contact radius of the interface to the boundary, and the contact angle. The shape of the bubble is symmetric about its equator in a zero-gravity environment. This symmetry disappears and gradually shifts to parabolic profiles as the gravity environment becomes non-zero. The location of the maximum radius of the bubble moves upward from the center of the depth toward the top boundary of the cylinder as gravity increases. The contact radius of interface to the boundary r0 at the top side of cylinder increases and r0 at the bottom side of the cylinder decreases as the gravity environment increases from zero to 1 g.

  14. Surface crack growth in cylindrical hollow specimen subject to tension and torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shlyannikov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The subject for studies is an aluminium cylindrical hollow specimen with external axial and part circumferential semi-elliptical surface crack undergoing fatigue loads. Both the optical microscope measurements and the crack opening displacement (COD method are used to monitor and calculate both crack depth and crack length during the tests. The variation of crack growth behaviour is studied under cyclic axial tension, pure torsion and combined tension+torsion fatigue loading. For the particular surface flaw geometries considered, the elastic and plastic in-plane and out-of-plane constraint parameters, as well as the governing parameter for stress fields in the form of In-integral and plastic stress intensity factor, are obtained as a function of the aspect ratio, dimensionless crack length and crack depth. The combined effect of tension and torsion loading and initial surface flaw orientation on the crack growth for two type of aluminium alloys is made explicit. The experimental and numerical results of the present study provided the opportunity to explore the suggestion that fatigue crack propagation may be governed more strongly by the plastic stress intensity factor rather than the magnitude of the elastic SIFs alone. One advantage of the plastic SIF is its sensitivity to combined loading due to accounting for the plastic properties of the material.

  15. Two Surface-Tension Formulations For The Level Set Interface-Tracking Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepel, S.V.; Smith, B.L.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes a comparative study of two surface-tension models for the Level Set interface tracking method. In both models, the surface tension is represented as a body force, concentrated near the interface, but the technical implementation of the two options is different. The first is based on a traditional Level Set approach, in which the surface tension is distributed over a narrow band around the interface using a smoothed Delta function. In the second model, which is based on the integral form of the fluid-flow equations, the force is imposed only in those computational cells through which the interface passes. Both models have been incorporated into the Finite-Element/Finite-Volume Level Set method, previously implemented into the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code CFX-4. A critical evaluation of the two models, undertaken in the context of four standard Level Set benchmark problems, shows that the first model, based on the smoothed Delta function approach, is the more general, and more robust, of the two. (author)

  16. On the modelling of semi-insulating GaAs including surface tension and bulk stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, W.; Duderstadt, F.

    2004-07-01

    Necessary heat treatment of single crystal semi-insulating Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), which is deployed in micro- and opto- electronic devices, generate undesirable liquid precipitates in the solid phase. The appearance of precipitates is influenced by surface tension at the liquid/solid interface and deviatoric stresses in the solid. The central quantity for the description of the various aspects of phase transitions is the chemical potential, which can be additively decomposed into a chemical and a mechanical part. In particular the calculation of the mechanical part of the chemical potential is of crucial importance. We determine the chemical potential in the framework of the St. Venant-Kirchhoff law which gives an appropriate stress/strain relation for many solids in the small strain regime. We establish criteria, which allow the correct replacement of the St. Venant-Kirchhoff law by the simpler Hooke law. The main objectives of this study are: (i) We develop a thermo-mechanical model that describes diffusion and interface motion, which both are strongly influenced by surface tension effects and deviatoric stresses. (ii) We give an overview and outlook on problems that can be posed and solved within the framework of the model. (iii) We calculate non-standard phase diagrams, i.e. those that take into account surface tension and non-deviatoric stresses, for GaAs above 786 C, and we compare the results with classical phase diagrams without these phenomena. (orig.)

  17. Faraday forcing of high-temperature levitated liquid metal drops for the measurement of surface tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosius, Nevin; Ward, Kevin; Matsumoto, Satoshi; SanSoucie, Michael; Narayanan, Ranga

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a method for the measurement of surface tension using continuous periodic forcing is presented. To reduce gravitational effects, samples are electrostatically levitated prior to forcing. The method, called Faraday forcing, is particularly well suited for fluids that require high temperature measurements such as liquid metals where conventional surface tension measurement methods are not possible. It offers distinct advantages over the conventional pulse-decay analysis method when the sample viscosity is high or the levitation feedback control system is noisy. In the current method, levitated drops are continuously translated about a mean position at a small, constant forcing amplitude over a range of frequencies. At a particular frequency in this range, the drop suddenly enters a state of resonance, which is confirmed by large executions of prolate/oblate deformations about the mean spherical shape. The arrival at this resonant condition is a signature that the parametric forcing frequency is equal to the drop's natural frequency, the latter being a known function of surface tension. A description of the experimental procedure is presented. A proof of concept is given using pure Zr and a Ti 39.5 Zr 39.5 Ni 21 alloy as examples. The results compare favorably with accepted literature values obtained using the pulse-decay method.

  18. A thermodynamical model for the surface tension of silicate melts in contact with H2O gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Simone; Battaglia, Maurizio; Trigila, Raffaello

    2016-01-01

    Surface tension plays an important role in the nucleation of H2O gas bubbles in magmatic melts and in the time-dependent rheology of bubble-bearing magmas. Despite several experimental studies, a physics based model of the surface tension of magmatic melts in contact with H2O is lacking. This paper employs gradient theory to develop a thermodynamical model of equilibrium surface tension of silicate melts in contact with H2O gas at low to moderate pressures. In the last decades, this approach has been successfully applied in studies of industrial mixtures but never to magmatic systems. We calibrate and verify the model against literature experimental data, obtained by the pendant drop method, and by inverting bubble nucleation experiments using the Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT). Our model reproduces the systematic decrease in surface tension with increased H2O pressure observed in the experiments. On the other hand, the effect of temperature is confirmed by the experiments only at high pressure. At atmospheric pressure, the model shows a decrease of surface tension with temperature. This is in contrast with a number of experimental observations and could be related to microstructural effects that cannot be reproduced by our model. Finally, our analysis indicates that the surface tension measured inverting the CNT may be lower than the value measured by the pendant drop method, most likely because of changes in surface tension controlled by the supersaturation.

  19. Effects of Ce concentrations on ignition temperature and surface tension of Mg-9wt.%Al alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Deng Zhenghua; Li Huaji; Zhao Wanjun

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are well known for their excellent properties, but the potential issues with oxidation and burning during melting and casting largely limit its industrial applications. The addition of Ce in magnesium alloys can significantly raise ignition-proof performance and change the structure of the oxide film on the surface of the molten metal as well as the surface tension values. Surface tension is an important physical parameter of the metal melts, and it plays an important role in...

  20. The influence of microstructure on surface strain distributions in a nickel micro-tension specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, T J; Shade, P A; Schuren, J C; Groeber, M A

    2013-01-01

    This work presents an integrated experimental and modeling approach for examining the deformation of a pure nickel polycrystal utilizing micro-mechanical testing and a crystal-based elasto-viscoplastic finite-element model (CPFEM). The objective is to study the influence of microstructure on the heterogeneous deformation in polycrystalline materials, and to utilize a modeling framework to explore aspects of the deformation that are difficult or impossible to measure experimentally. To accomplish this, a micro-tension specimen containing 259 grains was created from a pure nickel foil material and deformed in uniaxial tension. After the deformation, the specimen was destructively serial sectioned in concert with electron back scattering diffraction, and these data were used to instantiate a CPFEM simulation. The material parameters in the CPFEM model were calibrated by matching the experimental macroscopic stress-strain response of the micro-tension specimen, and then the simulation results were compared with experimental surface deformations measured with digital image correlation. After validating the simulation results by comparing measured and predicted surface strain distributions, a parametric study of the influence of both crystallographic texture and grain morphology is presented to better understand the influence of microstructure on the development of heterogeneous deformation in the pure nickel polycrystalline material. (paper)

  1. Effects of Ce concentrations on ignition temperature and surface tension of Mg-9wt.%Al alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Zhenghua

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys are well known for their excellent properties, but the potential issues with oxidation and burning during melting and casting largely limit its industrial applications. The addition of Ce in magnesium alloys can significantly raise ignition-proof performance and change the structure of the oxide film on the surface of the molten metal as well as the surface tension values. Surface tension is an important physical parameter of the metal melts, and it plays an important role in the formation of surface oxide film. In this present work, the ignition temperature and the surface tension of Mg-9wt.%Al alloy with different Ce concentrations were studied. Surface tensions was measured using the maximum bubble pressure method (MBPM. Ignition temperature was measured using NiCr-NiSi type thermocouples and was monitored and recorded via a WXT-604 desk recording device. The results show that the ignition point of Mg-9wt.%Al alloy can be effectively elevated by adding Ce. The ignition temperature reaches its highest point of 720 ℃ when the addition of Ce is 1wt.%. The surface tension of the molten Mg-9wt.%Al alloy decreases exponentially with the increase of Ce addition at the same temperature. Similarly, the experiment also shows that the surface tension of Mg-9wt.%Al alloy decreases exponentially with the increase of temperature.

  2. Surface tension of a coal extract in an organic solvent; Sekitan chushutsu seibun no kaigo to hyomen choryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, T.; Hayasaka, K.; Takanohashi, T.; Iino, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    The behavior and properties of associated bodies were studied through measurement of surface tension considering acetone-soluble fraction relatively light among various solvent extracts of coal. In experiment, the acetone-soluble fraction was extracted from the substances extracted from Upper Freeport coal as standard specimen using the mixed solvent of carbon disulfide (CS2) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), and it was dissolved into NMP after drying. Surface tension was measured by Wilhelmy method. The experimental results are as follows. Equilibrium surface tension is equal to the surface tension of pure solvent in a low concentration range of solution, and decreases with an increase in concentration approaching a fixed value at 0 in log concentration, nearly showing an S curve. Adsorption of species with non-polar aromatic ring of the acetone-soluble fraction on a solution surface probably decreases surface tension. Change with time in surface tension is observed which suggests fast initial reaction and slow subsequent reaction. 4 figs.

  3. On a Hele-Shaw flow with a time-dependent gap in the presence of surface tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savina, T V; Nepomnyashchy, A A

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of surface tension into a Hele-Shaw problem makes it more realistic from the physical viewpoint, but more difficult from the mathematical viewpoint. In this paper we discuss a Hele-Shaw flow with a time-dependent gap taking into account the surface tension of the free boundary. We use the Schwarz function method to find asymptotic solutions for the interior problem in the case when the initial shape of the droplet is a weakly distorted circle. (paper)

  4. A waveless two-dimensional flow in a channel against an inclined wall with surface tension effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzougui, Abdelkrim; Mekias, Hocine; Guechi, Fairouz

    2007-01-01

    Surface tension effect on a two-dimensional channel flow against an inclined wall is considered. The flow is assumed to be steady, irrotational, inviscid and incompressible. The effect of surface tension is taken into account and the effect of gravity is neglected. Numerical solutions are obtained via series truncation procedure. The problem is solved numerically for various values of the Weber number α and for various values of the inclination angle β between the horizontal bottom and the inclined wall

  5. A waveless two-dimensional flow in a channel against an inclined wall with surface tension effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merzougui, Abdelkrim [Departement de Mathematiques, Faculte des sciences, Universite Mohamed Boudiaf, M' sila, 28000 (Algeria); Mekias, Hocine [Departement de Mathematiques, Faculte des sciences, Universite Farhat Abbas Setif 19000 (Algeria); Guechi, Fairouz [Departement de Mathematiques, Faculte des sciences, Universite Farhat Abbas Setif 19000 (Algeria)

    2007-11-23

    Surface tension effect on a two-dimensional channel flow against an inclined wall is considered. The flow is assumed to be steady, irrotational, inviscid and incompressible. The effect of surface tension is taken into account and the effect of gravity is neglected. Numerical solutions are obtained via series truncation procedure. The problem is solved numerically for various values of the Weber number {alpha} and for various values of the inclination angle {beta} between the horizontal bottom and the inclined wall.

  6. Annotated bibliography for liquid metal surface tensions of groups III-A, IV-A, and V-A metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtha, M.J.; Burnet, G.

    1976-04-01

    An annotated bibliography has been prepared which includes summaries of 82 publications dating from 1920 and dealing with the measurement of the surface tensions of Groups III-A, IV-A, and V-A metals in the liquid state. The bibliography is organized by key element investigated, and contains a tabulation of correlations for surface tension as a function of temperature. A brief discussion dealing with variables and methods has been included

  7. Use of local and global limit load solutions for plates with surface cracks under tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Y. [British Energy Generation Ltd, Barnett Way, Bamwood, Gloucester GL4 3RS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: yuebao.lei@british-energy.com

    2007-09-15

    Some available experimental results for the ductile failure of plates with surface cracks under tension are reviewed. The response of crack driving force, J, and the ligament strain near the local and global limit loads are investigated by performing elastic-perfectly plastic finite element (FE) analysis of a plate with a semi-elliptical crack under tension. The results show that a ligament may survive until the global collapse load is reached when the average ligament strain at the global collapse load, which depends on the uniaxial strain corresponding to the flow stress of the material and the crack geometry, is less than the true fracture strain of the material obtained from uniaxial tension tests. The FE analysis shows that ligament yielding corresponding to the local limit load has little effect on J and the average ligament strain, whereas approach to global collapse corresponds to a sharp increase in both J and the average ligament strain. The prediction of the FE value of J using the reference stress method shows that the global limit load is more relevant to J-estimation than the local one.

  8. Use of local and global limit load solutions for plates with surface cracks under tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Some available experimental results for the ductile failure of plates with surface cracks under tension are reviewed. The response of crack driving force, J, and the ligament strain near the local and global limit loads are investigated by performing elastic-perfectly plastic finite element (FE) analysis of a plate with a semi-elliptical crack under tension. The results show that a ligament may survive until the global collapse load is reached when the average ligament strain at the global collapse load, which depends on the uniaxial strain corresponding to the flow stress of the material and the crack geometry, is less than the true fracture strain of the material obtained from uniaxial tension tests. The FE analysis shows that ligament yielding corresponding to the local limit load has little effect on J and the average ligament strain, whereas approach to global collapse corresponds to a sharp increase in both J and the average ligament strain. The prediction of the FE value of J using the reference stress method shows that the global limit load is more relevant to J-estimation than the local one

  9. The approximate determination of the critical temperature of a liquid by measuring surface tension versus the temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroto, J A; Nieves, F J de las; Quesada-Perez, M

    2004-01-01

    A classical experience in a physics student laboratory is to determine the surface tension of a liquid versus the temperature and to check the linear appearance of the obtained graph. In this work we show a simple method to estimate the critical temperature of three liquids by using experimental data of surface tension at different temperatures. By a logarithm fitting between surface tension and temperature, the critical temperature can be determined and compared with data from the literature. For two liquids (butanol and nitrobenzene) the comparison is acceptable but the differences are too high for the third liquid (water). By discussing the results it seems to be clear that the difference between the critical temperature of the liquid and the maximum temperature of the surface tension measurements is the determining factor in obtaining acceptable results. From this study it is possible to obtain more information on the liquid characteristics from surface tension measurements that are currently carried out in a student laboratory. Besides, in this paper it is shown how to select the most suitable liquids which provide both acceptable values for the critical temperature and measurements of the surface tension at moderate temperatures. The complementary use of numerical methods permits us to offer a complete experience for the students with a simple laboratory experiment which we recommend for physics students in advanced university courses

  10. Surface tension effects on the behavior of a cavity growing, collapsing, and rebounding near a rigid wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-yu; Zhang, Hui-sheng

    2004-11-01

    Surface tension effects on the behavior of a pure vapor cavity or a cavity containing some noncondensible contents, which is growing, collapsing, and rebounding axisymmetrically near a rigid wall, are investigated numerically by the boundary integral method for different values of dimensionless stand-off parameter gamma, buoyancy parameter delta, and surface tension parameter beta. It is found that at the late stage of the collapse, if the resultant action of the Bjerknes force and the buoyancy force is not small, surface tension will not have significant effects on bubble behavior except that the bubble collapse time is shortened and the liquid jet becomes wider. If the resultant action of the two force is small enough, surface tension will have significant and in some cases substantial effects on bubble behavior, such as changing the direction of the liquid jet, making a new liquid jet appear, in some cases preventing the bubble from rebound before jet impact, and in other cases causing the bubble to rebound or even recollapse before jet impact. The mechanism of surface tension effects on the collapsing behavior of a cavity has been analyzed. The mechanisms of some complicated phenomena induced by surface tension effects are illustrated by analysis of the computed velocity fields and pressure contours of the liquid flow outside the bubble at different stages of the bubble evolution.

  11. Investigations of surface-tension effects due to small-scale complex boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiansheng

    In this Ph.D. dissertation, we have investigated some important surface-tension phenomena including capillarity, wetting, and wicking. We mainly focus on the geometric aspects of these problems, and to learn about how structures affect properties. . In the first project (Chapter 2), we used numerical simulations and experiments to study the meniscus of a fluid confined in capillaries with complicated cross-sectional geometries. In the simulations, we computed the three-dimensional shapes of the menisci formed in polygonal and star-shaped capillaries with sharp or rounded corners. Height variations across the menisci were used to quantify the effect of surface tension. Analytical solutions were derived for all the cases where the cross-sectional geometry was a regular polygon or a regular star-shape. Power indices that characterize the effects of corner rounding were extracted from simulation results. These findings can serve as guide for fabrications of unconventional three-dimensional structures in Capillary Force Lithography experiments. Experimental demonstrations of the working principle was also performed. Although quantitative matching between simulation and experimental results was not achieved due to the limitation of material properties, clear qualitative trends were observed and interesting three-dimensional nano-structures were produced. A second project (Chapter 3) focused on developing techniques to produce three-dimensional hierarchically structured superhydrophobic surfaces with high aspect ratios. We experimented with two different high-throughput electron-beam-lithography processes featuring single and dual electron-beam exposures. After a surface modification procedure with a hydrophobic silane, the structured surfaces exhibited two distinct superhydrophobic behaviors---high and low adhesion. While both types of superhydrophobic surfaces exhibited very high (approximately 160° water advancing contact angles, the water receding contact angles on

  12. Short-Time Structural Stability of Compressible Vortex Sheets with Surface Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ben

    2016-11-01

    Assume we start with an initial vortex-sheet configuration which consists of two inviscid fluids with density bounded below flowing smoothly past each other, where a strictly positive fixed coefficient of surface tension produces a surface tension force across the common interface, balanced by the pressure jump. We model the fluids by the compressible Euler equations in three space dimensions with a very general equation of state relating the pressure, entropy and density such that the sound speed is positive. We prove that, for a short time, there exists a unique solution of the equations with the same structure. The mathematical approach consists of introducing a carefully chosen artificial viscosity-type regularisation which allows one to linearise the system so as to obtain a collection of transport equations for the entropy, pressure and curl together with a parabolic-type equation for the velocity which becomes fairly standard after rotating the velocity according to the interface normal. We prove a high order energy estimate for the non-linear equations that is independent of the artificial viscosity parameter which allows us to send it to zero. This approach loosely follows that introduced by Shkoller et al. in the setting of a compressible liquid-vacuum interface. Although already considered by Coutand et al. [10] and Lindblad [17], we also make some brief comments on the case of a compressible liquid-vacuum interface, which is obtained from the vortex sheets problem by replacing one of the fluids by vacuum, where it is possible to obtain a structural stability result even without surface tension.

  13. Effect of increased surface tension and assisted ventilation on /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferies, A.L.; Kawano, T.; Mori, S.; Burger, R.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) and high-frequency oscillation (HFO) on the clearance of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) from lungs with altered surface tension properties. A submicronic aerosol of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was insufflated into the lungs of anesthetized, tracheotomized rabbits before and 1 h after the administration of the aerosolized detergent dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (OT). Rabbits were ventilated by one of four methods: 1) spontaneous breathing; 2) CMV at 12 cmH2O mean airway pressure (MAP); 3) HFO at 12 cmH2O MAP; 4) HFO at 16 cmH2O MAP. Administration of OT resulted in decreased arterial PO2 (PaO2), increased lung wet-to-dry weight ratios, and abnormal lung pressure-volume relationships, compatible with increased surface tension. /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance was accelerated after OT in all groups. The post-OT rate of clearance (k) was significantly faster (P less than 0.05) in the CMV at 12 cmH2O MAP [k = 7.57 +/- 0.71%/min (SE)] and HFO at 16 cmH2O MAP (k = 6.92 +/- 0.61%/min) groups than in the spontaneously breathing (k = 4.32 +/- 0.55%/min) and HFO at 12 cmH2O MAP (4.68 +/- 0.63%/min) groups. The clearance curves were biexponential in the former two groups. We conclude that pulmonary clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA is accelerated in high surface tension pulmonary edema, and this effect is enhanced by both conventional ventilation and HFO at high mean airway pressure

  14. Adhesion of bubbles and drops to solid surfaces, and anisotropic surface tensions studied by capillary meniscus dynamometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danov, Krassimir D; Stanimirova, Rumyana D; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Marinova, Krastanka G; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Blijdenstein, Theodorus B J; Cox, Andrew R; Pelan, Eddie G

    2016-07-01

    Here, we review the principle and applications of two recently developed methods: the capillary meniscus dynamometry (CMD) for measuring the surface tension of bubbles/drops, and the capillary bridge dynamometry (CBD) for quantifying the bubble/drop adhesion to solid surfaces. Both methods are based on a new data analysis protocol, which allows one to decouple the two components of non-isotropic surface tension. For an axisymmetric non-fluid interface (e.g. bubble or drop covered by a protein adsorption layer with shear elasticity), the CMD determines the two different components of the anisotropic surface tension, σs and σφ, which are acting along the "meridians" and "parallels", and vary throughout the interface. The method uses data for the instantaneous bubble (drop) profile and capillary pressure, but the procedure for data processing is essentially different from that of the conventional drop shape analysis (DSA) method. In the case of bubble or drop pressed against a substrate, which forms a capillary bridge, the CBD method allows one to determine also the capillary-bridge force for both isotropic (fluid) and anisotropic (solidified) adsorption layers. The experiments on bubble (drop) detachment from the substrate show the existence of a maximal pulling force, Fmax, that can be resisted by an adherent fluid particle. Fmax can be used to quantify the strength of adhesion of bubbles and drops to solid surfaces. Its value is determined by a competition of attractive transversal tension and repulsive disjoining pressure forces. The greatest Fmax values have been measured for bubbles adherent to glass substrates in pea-protein solutions. The bubble/wall adhesion is lower in solutions containing the protein HFBII hydrophobin, which could be explained with the effect of sandwiched protein aggregates. The applicability of the CBD method to emulsion systems is illustrated by experiments with soybean-oil drops adherent to hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates in

  15. Viscosity and surface tension of binary systems of N,N-dimethylformamide with alkan-1-ols at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, Abubaker A.; Alkhaldi, Khaled H.A.E.; AlTuwaim, Mohammad S.; Al-Jimaz, Adel S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Physical properties of binary mixtures of DMF+1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, or 1-heptanol. ► Viscosity and surface tension were measured. ►Δη, Δσ σ and G ∗E were calculated using the experimental data. ► H σ and S σ were determined using the surface tension data. ► Semi-empirical relations were used to estimate the viscosity of liquid mixtures. - Abstract: Viscosity η and surface tension σ were measured for binary mixtures of N,N-dimethylformamide DMF with pentan-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, and heptan-1-ol at T = (298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K and atmospheric pressure over the entire mole fraction range. Deviations in viscosity Δη and surface tension Δσ were calculated using experimental results. Moreover, the values of the excess Gibbs free energy of activation G ∗E , surface enthalpy H σ and surface entropy S σ of these mixtures were determined. Viscosity measurements of the binary systems were correlated with Grunberg and Nissan, the three-body and four-body McAllister expressions. Viscosity deviation, surface tension deviation and excess Gibbs energy of activation functions were fitted to the method of Redlich–Kister (R–K) polynomial to estimate the coefficients and standard deviations. The effects of chain length of alkan-1-ols and temperature on the thermodynamic properties of binary systems were studied.

  16. A sharp interface method for compressible liquid–vapor flow with phase transition and surface tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fechter, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.fechter@iag.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Aerodynamik und Gasdynamik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 21, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Munz, Claus-Dieter, E-mail: munz@iag.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Aerodynamik und Gasdynamik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 21, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Rohde, Christian, E-mail: Christian.Rohde@mathematik.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Angewandte Analysis und Numerische Simulation, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Zeiler, Christoph, E-mail: Christoph.Zeiler@mathematik.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Angewandte Analysis und Numerische Simulation, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2017-05-01

    The numerical approximation of non-isothermal liquid–vapor flow within the compressible regime is a difficult task because complex physical effects at the phase interfaces can govern the global flow behavior. We present a sharp interface approach which treats the interface as a shock-wave like discontinuity. Any mixing of fluid phases is avoided by using the flow solver in the bulk regions only, and a ghost-fluid approach close to the interface. The coupling states for the numerical solution in the bulk regions are determined by the solution of local two-phase Riemann problems across the interface. The Riemann solution accounts for the relevant physics by enforcing appropriate jump conditions at the phase boundary. A wide variety of interface effects can be handled in a thermodynamically consistent way. This includes surface tension or mass/energy transfer by phase transition. Moreover, the local normal speed of the interface, which is needed to calculate the time evolution of the interface, is given by the Riemann solution. The interface tracking itself is based on a level-set method. The focus in this paper is the description of the two-phase Riemann solver and its usage within the sharp interface approach. One-dimensional problems are selected to validate the approach. Finally, the three-dimensional simulation of a wobbling droplet and a shock droplet interaction in two dimensions are shown. In both problems phase transition and surface tension determine the global bulk behavior.

  17. Standard practice for fracture testing with surface-crack tension specimens

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the design, preparation, and testing of surface-crack tension (SCT) specimens. It relates specifically to testing under continuously increasing force and excludes cyclic and sustained loadings. The quantity determined is the residual strength of a specimen having a semielliptical or circular-segment fatigue crack in one surface. This value depends on the crack dimensions and the specimen thickness as well as the characteristics of the material. 1.2 Metallic materials that can be tested are not limited by strength, thickness, or toughness. However, tests of thick specimens of tough materials may require a tension test machine of extremely high capacity. The applicability of this practice to nonmetallic materials has not been determined. 1.3 This practice is limited to specimens having a uniform rectangular cross section in the test section. The test section width and length must be large with respect to the crack length. Crack depth and length should be chosen to suit the ultimate pu...

  18. Effects of surface tension and viscosity on the forming and transferring process of microscale droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shulei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Cunbin; Wang, Dongyang; Ba, Dechun; Xie, Yuanhua; Du, Guangyu; Ba, Yaoshuai; Lin, Qiao

    2016-12-01

    Surface tension and viscosity act as important roles on the fluid flow in microchannel channels. In order to understand the influencing mechanism, three dimensional numerical simulations as well as experimental investigations were carried out on the slug formation and transfer in a rectangle T-junction microchannel. The simulation showed that the increasing Capillary number (Ca) resulted in the decreasing slug volume. Due to the existence of film thickness and corner flow, the characteristic length of slug was not the same trend completely. The results also showed that the pressure of junction point fluctuated periodically in the process of slug formation, which can reflect the slug formation period and the effect of the various conditions on pressure change. Two other pressure monitoring points were located in vertical channel and main channel and they monitored the pressure of two phase flow respectively. The increasing surface tension resulted in an increasing of total pressure, the interface pressure drop of two phases and the period of slug formation. The frequency of slug formation and two phases total pressure increased with the viscosity of continuous phase.

  19. Incorporating contact angles in the surface tension force with the ACES interface curvature scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owkes, Mark

    2017-11-01

    In simulations of gas-liquid flows interacting with solid boundaries, the contact line dynamics effect the interface motion and flow field through the surface tension force. The surface tension force is directly proportional to the interface curvature and the problem of accurately imposing a contact angle must be incorporated into the interface curvature calculation. Many commonly used algorithms to compute interface curvatures (e.g., height function method) require extrapolating the interface, with defined contact angle, into the solid to allow for the calculation of a curvature near a wall. Extrapolating can be an ill-posed problem, especially in three-dimensions or when multiple contact lines are near each other. We have developed an accurate methodology to compute interface curvatures that allows for contact angles to be easily incorporated while avoiding extrapolation and the associated challenges. The method, known as Adjustable Curvature Evaluation Scale (ACES), leverages a least squares fit of a polynomial to points computed on the volume-of-fluid (VOF) representation of the gas-liquid interface. The method is tested by simulating canonical test cases and then applied to simulate the injection and motion of water droplets in a channel (relevant to PEM fuel cells).

  20. An accessible micro-capillary electrophoresis device using surface-tension-driven flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Swomitra K.; Warrick, Jay; Gorski, Jack; Beebe, David J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a rapidly fabricated micro-capillary electrophoresis chip that utilizes surface-tension-driven flow for sample injection and extraction of DNA. Surface-tension-driven flow (i.e. passive pumping) injects a fixed volume of sample that can be predicted mathematically. Passive pumping eliminates the need for tubing, valves, syringe pumps, and other equipment typically needed for interfacing with microelectrophoresis chips. This method requires a standard micropipette to load samples before separation, and remove the resulting bands after analysis. The device was made using liquid phase photopolymerization to rapidly fabricate the chip without the need of special equipment typically associated with the construction of microelectrophoresis chips (e.g. cleanroom). Batch fabrication time for the device presented here was 1.5 h including channel coating time to suppress electroosmotic flow. Devices were constructed out of poly-isobornyl acrylate and glass. A standard microscope with a UV source was used for sample detection. Separations were demonstrated using Promega BenchTop 100 bp ladder in hydroxyl ethyl cellulose (HEC) and oligonucleotides of 91 and 118 bp were used to characterize sample injection and extraction of DNA bands. The end result was an inexpensive micro-capillary electrophoresis device that uses tools (e.g. micropipette, electrophoretic power supplies, and microscopes) already present in most labs for sample manipulation and detection, making it more accessible for potential end users. PMID:19425002

  1. Surface tension driven aggregation of organic nanowires via lab in a droplet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianmin; Yin, Baipeng; Fu, Shaoyan; Feng, Man; Zhang, Ziming; Dong, Haiyun; Gao, Faming; Zhao, Yong Sheng

    2018-06-05

    Directing the architecture of complex organic nanostructures is desirable and still remains a challenge in areas of materials science due to their structure-dependent collective optoelectronic properties. Herein, we demonstrate a simple and versatile solution strategy that allows surface tension to drive low-dimensional nanostructures to aggregate into complex structures via a lab in a droplet technique. By selecting a suitable combination of a solvent and an anti-solvent with controllable surface tension difference, the droplets can be automatically cracked into micro-droplets, which provides an aggregation force directed toward the centre of the droplet to drive the low-dimensional building blocks to form the special aggregations during the self-assembly process. This synthetic strategy has been shown to be universal for organic materials, which is beneficial for further optimizing the optoelectronic properties. These results contribute to gaining an insightful understanding on the detailed growth mechanism of complex organic nanostructures and greatly promoting the development of organic nanophotonics.

  2. d-α-tocopherol nanoemulsions: Size properties, rheological behavior, surface tension, osmolarity and cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Teixeira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the assessment of the physicochemical stability of d-α-tocopherol formulated in medium chain triglyceride nanoemulsions, stabilized with Tween®80 and Lipoid®S75 as surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively. d-α-tocopherol was selected as active ingredient because of its well-recognized interesting anti-oxidant properties (such as radical scavenger for food and pharmaceutical industries. A series of nanoemulsions of mean droplet size below 90 nm (polydispersity index < 0.15 have been produced by high-pressure homogenization, and their surface electrical charge (zeta potential, pH, surface tension, osmolarity, and rheological behavior, were characterized as a function of the d-α-tocopherol loading. In vitro studies in Caco-2 cell lines confirmed the safety profile of the developed nanoemulsions with percentage of cell viability above 90% for all formulations.

  3. A novel technique for including surface tension in PLIC-VOF methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, M.; Yadigaroglu, G. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Nuclear Engineering Lab. ETH-Zentrum, CLT, Zurich (Switzerland); Smith, B. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. for Thermal-Hydraulics

    2002-02-01

    Various versions of Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) methods have been used successfully for the numerical simulation of gas-liquid flows with an explicit tracking of the phase interface. Of these, Piecewise-Linear Interface Construction (PLIC-VOF) appears as a fairly accurate, although somewhat more involved variant. Including effects due to surface tension remains a problem, however. The most prominent methods, Continuum Surface Force (CSF) of Brackbill et al. and the method of Zaleski and co-workers (both referenced later), both induce spurious or 'parasitic' currents, and only moderate accuracy in regards to determining the curvature. We present here a new method to determine curvature accurately using an estimator function, which is tuned with a least-squares-fit against reference data. Furthermore, we show how spurious currents may be drastically reduced using the reconstructed interfaces from the PLIC-VOF method. (authors)

  4. Surface tension-induced high aspect-ratio PDMS micropillars with concave and convex lens tips

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei

    2013-04-01

    This paper reports a novel method for the fabrication of 3-dimensional (3D) Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars with concave and convex lens tips in a one-step molding process, using a CO2 laser-machined Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) mold with through holes. The PDMS micropillars are 4 mm high and have an aspect ratio of 251. The micropillars are formed by capillary force drawing up PDMS into the through hole mold. The concave and convex lens tips of the PDMS cylindrical micropillars are induced by surface tension and are controllable by changing the surface wetting properties of the through holes in the PMMA mold. This technique eliminates the requirements of expensive and complicated facilities to prepare a 3D mold, and it provides a simple and rapid method to fabricate 3D PDMS micropillars with controllable dimensions and tip shapes. © 2013 IEEE.

  5. Surface tension-induced high aspect-ratio PDMS micropillars with concave and convex lens tips

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei; Fan, Yiqiang; Yi, Ying; Foulds, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a novel method for the fabrication of 3-dimensional (3D) Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars with concave and convex lens tips in a one-step molding process, using a CO2 laser-machined Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) mold with through holes. The PDMS micropillars are 4 mm high and have an aspect ratio of 251. The micropillars are formed by capillary force drawing up PDMS into the through hole mold. The concave and convex lens tips of the PDMS cylindrical micropillars are induced by surface tension and are controllable by changing the surface wetting properties of the through holes in the PMMA mold. This technique eliminates the requirements of expensive and complicated facilities to prepare a 3D mold, and it provides a simple and rapid method to fabricate 3D PDMS micropillars with controllable dimensions and tip shapes. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. New sensitive micro-measurements of dynamic surface tension and diffusion coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinoshita, Koji; Ortiz, Elisa Parra; Needham, David

    2017-01-01

    Currently available dynamic surface tension (DST) measurement methods, such as Wilhelmy plate, droplet- or bubble-based methods, still have various experimental limitations such as the large size of the interface, convection in the solution, or a certain “dead time” at initial measurement....... These limitations create inconsistencies for the kinetic analysis of surfactant adsorption/desorption, especially significant for ionic surfactants. Here, the “micropipette interfacial area-expansion method” was introduced and validated as a new DST measurement having a high enough sensitivity to detect diffusion...... for surface excess concentration. We found that the measured diffusion coefficient of 1-Octanol, 7.2 ± 0.8 × 10−6 cm2/s, showed excellent agreement with the result from an alternative method, “single microdroplet catching method”, to measure the diffusion coefficient from diffusion-controlled microdroplet...

  7. Surface tension and wetting behaviour of Bi-In-Sn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervina Efzan Mohd Noor; Ahmad Badri Ismail; Soong, T.K.; Chin, Y.T.; Luay Bakir Hussain

    2007-01-01

    Concerns about possible landfill contamination, influent discharge from production process are one of the reasons convert from lead-containing electronics to lead-free containing. The surface and interfacial properties of Bi-In-Sn lead-free solder system as a basic system of multicomponent alloys proposed as lead-free solder materials have been studied. The surface tension of Bi-In-Sn lead-free solder system of melting temperature 60 degree Celsius has been measured the temperature range 80 degree Celsius and 140 degree Celsius. The study of the wetting behaviour of Bi-In-Sn lead-free solder system on a Cu substrate has been performed by measuring contact angle on various metal substrates by Optical Microscopy with software. (author)

  8. Asymptotic stability of shear-flow solutions to incompressible viscous free boundary problems with and without surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Ian

    2018-04-01

    This paper concerns the dynamics of a layer of incompressible viscous fluid lying above a rigid plane and with an upper boundary given by a free surface. The fluid is subject to a constant external force with a horizontal component, which arises in modeling the motion of such a fluid down an inclined plane, after a coordinate change. We consider the problem both with and without surface tension for horizontally periodic flows. This problem gives rise to shear-flow equilibrium solutions, and the main thrust of this paper is to study the asymptotic stability of the equilibria in certain parameter regimes. We prove that there exists a parameter regime in which sufficiently small perturbations of the equilibrium at time t=0 give rise to global-in-time solutions that return to equilibrium exponentially in the case with surface tension and almost exponentially in the case without surface tension. We also establish a vanishing surface tension limit, which connects the solutions with and without surface tension.

  9. Surface Tension Directed Fluidic Self-Assembly of Semiconductor Chips across Length Scales and Material Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantonu Biswas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This publication provides an overview and discusses some challenges of surface tension directed fluidic self-assembly of semiconductor chips which are transported in a liquid medium. The discussion is limited to surface tension directed self-assembly where the capture, alignment, and electrical connection process is driven by the surface free energy of molten solder bumps where the authors have made a contribution. The general context is to develop a massively parallel and scalable assembly process to overcome some of the limitations of current robotic pick and place and serial wire bonding concepts. The following parts will be discussed: (2 Single-step assembly of LED arrays containing a repetition of a single component type; (3 Multi-step assembly of more than one component type adding a sequence and geometrical shape confinement to the basic concept to build more complex structures; demonstrators contain (3.1 self-packaging surface mount devices, and (3.2 multi-chip assemblies with unique angular orientation. Subsequently, measures are discussed (4 to enable the assembly of microscopic chips (10 μm–1 mm; a different transport method is introduced; demonstrators include the assembly of photovoltaic modules containing microscopic silicon tiles. Finally, (5 the extension to enable large area assembly is presented; a first reel-to-reel assembly machine is realized; the machine is applied to the field of solid state lighting and the emerging field of stretchable electronics which requires the assembly and electrical connection of semiconductor devices over exceedingly large area substrates.

  10. Studies on surface tension effect for free surface flow around floating models; Futai mokei mawari no jiyu hyomenryu ni oyobosu hyomen choryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K [Yokohama National Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Akiba, H [Toyo Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    The effect of surface tension on free surface flow around floating models is discussed experimentally and numerically. Three-dimensional free surface flow around vertical circular cylinders floating in a circulating water channel was visually observed, where a surface-active agent was added to water. The results are analyzed using Weber number. The numerical analysis was done for vertical cylinder and CY100 models using the Rankine source method. Weber number of at least around 120 is necessary to eliminate the effect of surface tension from free surface flow around the CY100 model. The numerical analysis for the cylinder model needs simulation with wavelength shorter than that of free surface wave used by the Rankine source method. The model for the resistance test should be at least around 7m long to eliminate the effect of surface tension at Froude number of 0.1 or higher. 15 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Studies on surface tension effect for free surface flow around floating models; Futai mokei mawari no jiyu hyomenryu ni oyobosu hyomen choryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K. [Yokohama National Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Akiba, H. [Toyo Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The effect of surface tension on free surface flow around floating models is discussed experimentally and numerically. Three-dimensional free surface flow around vertical circular cylinders floating in a circulating water channel was visually observed, where a surface-active agent was added to water. The results are analyzed using Weber number. The numerical analysis was done for vertical cylinder and CY100 models using the Rankine source method. Weber number of at least around 120 is necessary to eliminate the effect of surface tension from free surface flow around the CY100 model. The numerical analysis for the cylinder model needs simulation with wavelength shorter than that of free surface wave used by the Rankine source method. The model for the resistance test should be at least around 7m long to eliminate the effect of surface tension at Froude number of 0.1 or higher. 15 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Pendent_Drop: An ImageJ Plugin to Measure the Surface Tension from an Image of a Pendent Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Daerr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The pendent drop method for surface tension measurement consists in analysing the shape of an axisymmetric drop hanging from a capillary tube. This software is an add-on for the public domain image processing software ImageJ which matches a theoretical profile to the contour of a pendent drop, either interactively or by automatically minimising the mismatch. It provides an estimate of the surface tension, drop volume and surface area from the best matching parameters. It can be used in a headless setup. It is hosted on http://fiji.sc/List_of_update_sites with the source code on https://github.com/adaerr/pendent-drop

  13. Effect of temperature and composition on the surface tension and surface properties of binary mixtures containing DMSO and short chain alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri, Ahmad; Fazli, Mostafa; Bakhshaei, Malihe

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface tension of DMSO + alcohol (methanol, ethanol and isopropanol) at various temperatures was measured. • The surface tension data of binary mixtures were correlated with four equations. • Intermolecular interaction of DMSO with alcohol was discussed. • The surface mole fraction of alcohol increase with increasing the length of alcohol chain. - Abstract: Surface tension of binary mixtures of methanol, ethanol and isopropanol with DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) was measured over the whole range of composition at atmospheric pressure of 82.5 kPa within the temperatures between (298.15 and 328.15) K. The experimental measurements were used to calculate in surface tension deviations (Δσ). The sign of Δσ for all temperatures is negative (except of methanol/DMSO system) because of the factors of hydrogen bonding and dipole–dipole interactions in the DMSO-alcohol systems. Surface tension values of the binary systems were correlated with FLW, MS, RK and LWW models. The mean standard deviation obtained from the comparison of experimental and calculated surface tension values for binary systems with three models (FLW, MS and RK) at various temperatures is less than 0.83. Also, the results of the LWW model were used to account for the interaction energy between alcohols and DMSO in binary mixtures. The temperature dependence of σ (surface tension) at fixed composition of solutions was used to estimate surface enthalpy, H s , and surface entropy, S s . The results obtained show that the values of the thermodynamic parameters for alcohol/DMSO mixtures decrease with increasing alkyl chain length of alcohol. Finally, the results are discussed in terms of surface mole fraction and lyophobicity using the extended Langmuir (EL) isotherm.

  14. The dynamics of nucleation and growth of a particle in the ternary alloy melt with anisotropic surface tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Wen; Li, Lin-Yan; Guo, Hui-Min

    2017-08-28

    The dynamics of nucleation and growth of a particle affected by anisotropic surface tension in the ternary alloy melt is studied. The uniformly valid asymptotic solution for temperature field, concentration field, and interface evolution of nucleation and particle growth is obtained by means of the multiple variable expansion method. The asymptotic solution reveals the critical radius of nucleation in the ternary alloy melt and an inward melting mechanism of the particle induced by the anisotropic effect of surface tension. The critical radius of nucleation is dependent on isotropic surface tension, temperature undercooling, and constitutional undercooling in the ternary alloy melt, and the solute diffusion melt decreases the critical radius of nucleation. Immediately after a nucleus forms in the initial stage of solidification, the anisotropic effect of surface tension makes some parts of its interface grow inward while some parts grow outward. Until the inward melting attains a certain distance (which is defined as "the melting depth"), these parts of interface start to grow outward with other parts. The interface of the particle evolves into an ear-like deformation, whose inner diameter may be less than two times the critical radius of nucleation within a short time in the initial stage of solidification. The solute diffusion in the ternary alloy melt decreases the effect of anisotropic surface tension on the interface deformation.

  15. The Effect of Surface Tension on the Gravity-driven Thin Film Flow of Newtonian and Power-law Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Kieweg, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    Gravity-driven thin film flow is of importance in many fields, as well as for the design of polymeric drug delivery vehicles, such as anti-HIV topical microbicides. There have been many prior works on gravity-driven thin films. However, the incorporation of surface tension effect has not been well studied for non-Newtonian fluids. After surface tension effect was incorporated into our 2D (i.e. 1D spreading) power-law model, we found that surface tension effect not only impacted the spreading speed of the microbicide gel, but also had an influence on the shape of the 2D spreading profile. We observed a capillary ridge at the front of the fluid bolus. Previous literature shows that the emergence of a capillary ridge is strongly related to the contact line fingering instability. Fingering instabilities during epithelial coating may change the microbicide gel distribution and therefore impact how well it can protect the epithelium. In this study, we focused on the capillary ridge in 2D flow and performed a series of simulations and showed how the capillary ridge height varies with other parameters, such as surface tension coefficient, inclination angle, initial thickness, and power-law parameters. As shown in our results, we found that capillary ridge height increased with higher surface tension, steeper inclination angle, bigger initial thickness, and more Newtonian fluids. This study provides the initial insights of how to optimize the flow and prevent the appearance of a capillary ridge and fingering instability. PMID:23687391

  16. Dynamic surface tension measurement for the screening of biosurfactants produced by Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum PTCC 1896.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Nafiseh; Soleimanian-Zad, Sabihe; Sheikh-Zeinoddin, Mahmoud

    2017-06-01

    Currently, screening of microbial biosurfactants (BSs) is based on their equilibrium surface tension values obtained using static surface tension measurement. However, a good surfactant should not only have a low equilibrium surface tension, but its dynamic surface tension (DST) should also decrease rapidly with time. In this study, screening of BSs produced by Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum PTCC 1896 (probiotic) was performed based on their DST values measured by Wilhelmy plate tensiometry. The relationship between DST and structural and functional properties (anti-adhesive activity) of the BSs was investigated. The results showed that the changes in the yield, productivity and structure of the BSs were growth medium and incubation time dependent (p<0.05). Structurally different BSs produced exhibited identical equilibrium surface tension values. However, differences among the structure/yield of the BSs were observed through the measurement of their DST. The considerable dependence of DST on the concentration and composition of the BS proteins was observed (p<0.05). Moreover, the anti-adhesive activity of the BS was found to be positively correlated with its DST. The results suggest that the DST measurement could serve as an efficient method for the clever screening of BSs producer/production condition, and consequently, for the investigation of probiotic features of bacteria, since the anti-adhesive activity is an important criterion of probiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dynamics of two-phase interfaces and surface tensions: A density-functional theory perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsyshin, Petr; Sibley, David N.; Duran-Olivencia, Miguel A.; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2016-11-01

    Classical density functional theory (DFT) is a statistical mechanical framework for the description of fluids at the nanoscale, where the inhomogeneity of the fluid structure needs to be carefully accounted for. By expressing the grand free-energy of the fluid as a functional of the one-body density, DFT offers a theoretically consistent and computationally accessible way to obtain two-phase interfaces and respective interfacial tensions in a ternary solid-liquid-gas system. The dynamic version of DFT (DDFT) can be rigorously derived from the Smoluchowsky picture of the dynamics of colloidal particles in a solvent. It is generally agreed that DDFT can capture the diffusion-driven evolution of many soft-matter systems. In this context, we use DDFT to investigate the dynamic behaviour of two-phase interfaces in both equilibrium and dynamic wetting and discuss the possibility of defining a time-dependent surface tension, which still remains in debate. We acknowledge financial support from the European Research Council via Advanced Grant No. 247031 and from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council of the UK via Grants No. EP/L027186 and EP/L020564.

  18. Modeling of a Curvilinear Planar Crack with a Curvature-Dependent Surface Tension

    KAUST Repository

    Zemlyanova, A. Y.; Walton, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    An approach to modeling fracture incorporating interfacial mechanics is applied to the example of a curvilinear plane strain crack. The classical Neumann boundary condition is augmented with curvature-dependent surface tension. It is shown that the considered model eliminates the integrable crack-tip stress and strain singularities of order 1/2 present in the classical linear fracture mechanics solutions, and also leads to the sharp crack opening that is consistent with empirical observations. Unlike for the case of a straight crack, for a general curvilinear crack some components of the stresses and the derivatives of the displacements may still possess weaker singularities of a logarithmic type. Generalizations of the present study that lead to complete removal of all crack-tip singularities, including logarithmic, are the subject of a future paper. © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  19. A multiscale method for compressible liquid-vapor flow with surface tension*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaegle Felix

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Discontinuous Galerkin methods have become a powerful tool for approximating the solution of compressible flow problems. Their direct use for two-phase flow problems with phase transformation is not straightforward because this type of flows requires a detailed tracking of the phase front. We consider the fronts in this contribution as sharp interfaces and propose a novel multiscale approach. It combines an efficient high-order Discontinuous Galerkin solver for the computation in the bulk phases on the macro-scale with the use of a generalized Riemann solver on the micro-scale. The Riemann solver takes into account the effects of moderate surface tension via the curvature of the sharp interface as well as phase transformation. First numerical experiments in three space dimensions underline the overall performance of the method.

  20. Measurement of the surface tension by the method of maximum gas bubble pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugne, Jean

    1971-01-01

    A gas bubble method for measuring surface tension was studied. Theoretical investigations demonstrated that the maximum pressure can be represented by the envelope of a certain family of curves and that the physical nature of the capillary tube imposes an upper limit to its useful radius. With a given tube and a specified liquid, the dynamic evolution of the gas bubble depends only upon the variation of the mass of gas contained with time; this fact may restrict the choice of tubes. The use of one single tube requires important corrections. Computer treatment of the problem led to some accurate equations for calculating γ. Schroedinger equations and Sudgen's table are examined. The choice of tubes, the necessary corrections, density measurement, and the accuracy attainable are discussed. Experiments conducted with water and mercury using the sessile drop method and continuous recording of the pressure verified the theoretical ideas. (author) [fr

  1. Measurement uncertainty evaluation of cellular spheroids surface tension in compressing tests using Young-Laplace equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatrici, Anderson; Santos Baptista, Leandra; Mauro Granjeiro, José

    2018-03-01

    Regenerative Medicine comprises the Biotechnology, Tissue Engineering and Biometrology for stem cell therapy. Starting from stem cells extracted from the patient, autologous implant, these cells are cultured and differentiated into other tissues, for example, articular cartilage. These cells are reorganized into microspheres (cell spheroids). Such tissue units are recombined into functional tissues constructs that can be implanted in the injured region for regeneration. It is necessary the biomechanical characterization of these constructed to determine if their properties are similar to native tissue. In this study was carried out the modeling of the calculation of uncertainty of the surface tension of cellular spheroids with the use of the Young-Laplace equation. We obtained relative uncertainties about 10%.

  2. Effect of surface tension on the behavior of adhesive contact based on Lennard-Jones potential law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinyao; Xu, Wei

    2018-02-01

    The present study explores the effect of surface tension on adhesive contact behavior where the adhesion is interpreted by long-range intermolecular forces. The adhesive contact is analyzed using the equivalent system of a rigid sphere and an elastic half space covered by a membrane with surface tension. The long-range intermolecular forces are modeled with the Lennard‒Jones (L‒J) potential law. The current adhesive contact issue can be represented by a nonlinear integral equation, which can be solved by Newton‒Raphson method. In contrast to previous studies which consider intermolecular forces as short-range, the present study reveals more details of the features of adhesive contact with surface tension, in terms of jump instabilities, pull-off forces, pressure distribution within the contact area, etc. The transition of the pull-off force is not only consistent with previous studies, but also presents some new interesting characteristics in the current situation.

  3. Effect of Surface Tension Anisotropy and Welding Parameters on Initial Instability Dynamics During Solidification: A Phase-Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fengyi; Wei, Yanhong

    2018-05-01

    The effects of surface tension anisotropy and welding parameters on initial instability dynamics during gas tungsten arc welding of an Al-alloy are investigated by a quantitative phase-field model. The results show that the surface tension anisotropy and welding parameters affect the initial instability dynamics in different ways during welding. The surface tension anisotropy does not influence the solute diffusion process but does affect the stability of the solid/liquid interface during solidification. The welding parameters affect the initial instability dynamics by varying the growth rate and thermal gradient. The incubation time decreases, and the initial wavelength remains stable as the welding speed increases. When welding power increases, the incubation time increases and the initial wavelength slightly increases. Experiments were performed for the same set of welding parameters used in modeling, and the results of the experiments and simulations were in good agreement.

  4. Elastic-Plastic J-Integral Solutions or Surface Cracks in Tension Using an Interpolation Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, P. A.; Wells, D. N.

    2013-01-01

    No closed form solutions exist for the elastic-plastic J-integral for surface cracks due to the nonlinear, three-dimensional nature of the problem. Traditionally, each surface crack must be analyzed with a unique and time-consuming nonlinear finite element analysis. To overcome this shortcoming, the authors have developed and analyzed an array of 600 3D nonlinear finite element models for surface cracks in flat plates under tension loading. The solution space covers a wide range of crack shapes and depths (shape: 0.2 less than or equal to a/c less than or equal to 1, depth: 0.2 less than or equal to a/B less than or equal to 0.8) and material flow properties (elastic modulus-to-yield ratio: 100 less than or equal to E/ys less than or equal to 1,000, and hardening: 3 less than or equal to n less than or equal to 20). The authors have developed a methodology for interpolating between the goemetric and material property variables that allows the user to reliably evaluate the full elastic-plastic J-integral and force versus crack mouth opening displacement solution; thus, a solution can be obtained very rapidly by users without elastic-plastic fracture mechanics modeling experience. Complete solutions for the 600 models and 25 additional benchmark models are provided in tabular format.

  5. Influence of additives on melt viscosity, surface tension, and film formation of dry powder coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Dorothea; McGinity, James W

    2009-06-01

    Limited information on thermally cured dry-powder coatings used for solid dosage forms has been available in the literature. The aim of this study was to characterize the film formation process of Eudragit L 100-55 dry-powder coatings and to investigate the influence of film additives on melt viscosity and surface tension. The coating process employed no liquids and the plasticizer was combined with the polymer using hot melt extrusion. Thermoanalytical methods including differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to investigate the thermal properties of the dry-coating formulations. The rheological behavior of the coating formulations were characterized with the extrusion torque, and the surface energy parameters were determined from contact angle measurements. The influence of the level of triethyl citrate (TEC) as plasticizer and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 in the polymer film on film formation was investigated using a digital force tester. TGA confirmed thermal stability of all coating excipients at the investigated curing conditions. Increasing TEC levels and the addition of PEG 3350 as a low melting excipient in the coating reduced the viscosity of the polymer. Plasticization of the polymer with TEC increased the surface free energy, whereas the admixture of 10% PEG 3350 did not affect the surface free energy of Eudragit L 100-55. The spreading coefficient of the polymers over two sample tablet formulations was reduced with increasing surface free energy. During the curing process, puncture strength, and elongation of powder-cast films increased. The effect of curing time on the mechanical properties was dependent on the plasticizer content. The incorporation of TEC and PEG 3350 into the Eudragit L 100-55 powder coating formulation improved film formation. Mechanical testing of powder-cast films showed an increase of both elongation and puncture strength over the curing process as criterion for polymer particle fusion

  6. Solid propellant impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, E.C.

    1976-03-01

    Future space missions, as in the past, call for the continued use of radioisotopes as heat sources for thermoelectric power generators. In an effort to minimize the risk of radioactive contamination of the environment, a complete safety analysis of each such system is necessary. As a part of these analyses, the effects on such a system of a solid propellant fire environment resulting from a catastrophic launch pad abort must be considered. Several impact tests were conducted in which either a simulant MHW-FSA or a steel ball was dropped on the cold, unignited or the hot, burning surface of a block of UTP-3001 solid propellant. The rebound velocities were measured for both surface conditions of the propellant. The resulting coefficient of restitution, determined as the ratio of the components of the impact and rebound velocities perpendicular to the impact surface of the propellant, were not very dependent on whether the surface was cold or hot at the time of impact

  7. Ground-based PIV and numerical flow visualization results from the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pline, Alexander D.; Werner, Mark P.; Hsieh, Kwang-Chung

    1991-01-01

    The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE) is a Space Transportation System flight experiment to study both transient and steady thermocapillary fluid flows aboard the United States Microgravity Laboratory-1 (USML-1) Spacelab mission planned for June, 1992. One of the components of data collected during the experiment is a video record of the flow field. This qualitative data is then quantified using an all electric, two dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique called Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT), which uses a simple space domain particle tracking algorithm. Results using the ground based STDCE hardware, with a radiant flux heating mode, and the PDT system are compared to numerical solutions obtained by solving the axisymmetric Navier Stokes equations with a deformable free surface. The PDT technique is successful in producing a velocity vector field and corresponding stream function from the raw video data which satisfactorily represents the physical flow. A numerical program is used to compute the velocity field and corresponding stream function under identical conditions. Both the PDT system and numerical results were compared to a streak photograph, used as a benchmark, with good correlation.

  8. Surface tensions of binary mixtures of ionic liquids with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide as the common anion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.B.; Domínguez-Pérez, M.; Cabeza, O.; Lopes-da-Silva, J.A.; Freire, M.G.; Coutinho, J.A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel data for the surface tensions of mixtures [C 4 mim][NTf 2 ] + [C 4 C 1 mim]/[C 3 mpy]/[C 3 mpyr]/[C 3 mpip][NTf 2 ] are presented. • γ were determined at a fixed temperature, 298.2 K, and at atmospheric pressure, for the whole composition range. • Surface tension deviations showed the near ideal behavior of the selected mixtures. • Gibbs adsorption isotherms showed the surface preferential adsorption of one ionic liquid over the other. -- Abstract: While values for thermophysical properties of ionic liquids are becoming widely available, data for ionic liquid mixtures are still scarce. In an effort to overcome this limitation and understand the behavior of ionic liquid mixtures, novel data for the surface tension of mixtures composed of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [C 4 mim][NTf 2 ], with other ionic liquids with a common anion, namely 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium, [C 4 C 1 mim] + , 3-methyl-1-propylpyridinium, [C 3 mpy] + , 1-methyl-1-propylpyrrolidinium, [C 3 mpyr] + , and 1-methyl-1-propylpiperidinium, [C 3 mpip] + , were measured at T = 298.2 K and atmospheric pressure over the entire composition range. From the surface tension deviations derived from the experimental results, it was possible to infer that the cation alkyl chain length of the second ionic liquid constituting the mixture has a stronger influence in the ideal mixture behavior than the type of family the ionic liquid cation belongs to. The Gibbs adsorption isotherms, estimated from the experimental values, show that the composition of the vapor–liquid interface is not the same as that of the bulk and that the interface is richer in the ionic liquid with the lowest surface tension, [C 4 mim][NTf 2

  9. Reducing surface tension in endodontic chelator solutions has no effect on their ability to remove calcium from instrumented root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Matthias; Schicht, Olivier; Sener, Beatrice; Schmidlin, Patrick

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of reducing surface tension in endodontic chelator solutions on their ability to remove calcium from instrumented root canals. Aqueous solutions containing 15.5% EDTA, 10% citric acid, or 18% 1- hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate (HEBP) were prepared with and without 1% (wt/wt) polysorbate (Tween) 80 and 9% propylene glycol. Surface tension in these solutions was measured using the Wilhelmy method. Sixty-four extracted, single-rooted human teeth of similar length were instrumented and irrigated with a 1% sodium hypochlorite solution and then randomly assigned (n = 8 per group) to receive a final one-minute rinse with 5 ml of test solutions, water, or the pure aqueous Tween/propylene glycol solution. Calcium concentration in eluates was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. Incorporation of wetting agents resulted in a reduction of surface tension values by approximately 50% in all tested solutions. However, none of the solutions with reduced surface tension chelated more calcium from canals than their pure counterparts (p > 0.05).

  10. Determination of Surface Tension of Surfactant Solutions through Capillary Rise Measurements: An Image-Processing Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck-Iriart, Cristia´n; De-Candia, Ariel; Rodriguez, Javier; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we described an image processing procedure for the measurement of surface tension of the air-liquid interface using isothermal capillary action. The experiment, designed for an undergraduate course, is based on the analysis of a series of solutions with diverse surfactant concentrations at different ionic strengths. The objective of…

  11. Density, viscosity, and surface tension of synthesis grade imidazolium,pyridinium, and pyrrolidinium based room temperature ionic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galan Sanchez, L.M.; Espel, J.R.; Onink, S.A.F.; Meindersma, G.W.; Haan, de A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Density, viscosity, and surface tension data sets of 13 ionic liquids formed by imidazolium, pyridinium, or pyrrolidinium cations paired with dicyanamide (DCA), tetrafluoroborate (BF4¯), thiocyanate (SCN¯),methylsulfate (MeSO4¯), and trifluoroacetate (TFA) anions are reported. The properties were

  12. Studies on the interaction between nanodiamond and human hemoglobin by surface tension measurement and spectroscopy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishkar, Leila; Taheri, Saba; Makarem, Somayeh; Alizadeh Zeinabad, Hojjat; Rahimi, Arash; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Falahati, Mojtaba

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a novel method to probe molecular interactions and binding of human hemoglobin (Hb) with nanodiamond (ND) was introduced based on the surface tension measurement. This method complements conventional techniques, which are basically done by zeta potential and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements, near and far circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy. Addition of ND to Hb solution increased the surface tension value of Hb-ND complex relative to those of Hb and ND molecules. The zeta potential values reveled that Hb and ND provide identical charge distribution at pH 7.5. DLS measurements demonstrated that Hb, ND, and ND-Hb complex have hydrodynamic radiuses of 98.37 ± 4.57, 122.07 ± 7.88 nm and 62.27 ± 3.70 at pH of 7.5 respectively. Far and near UV-CD results indicated the loss of α-helix structure and conformational changes of Hb, respectively. Intrinsic fluorescence data demonstrated that the fluorescence quenching of Hb by ND was the result of the static quenching. The hydrophobic interaction plays a pivotal role in the interaction of ND with Hb. Fluorescence intensity changes over time revealed conformational change of Hb continues after the mixing of the components (Hb-ND) till 15 min, which is indicative of the denaturation of the Hb relative to the protein control. Extrinsic fluorescence data showed a considerable enhancement of the ANS fluorescence intensity of Hb-ND system relative to the Hb till 60 nM of ND, likely persuaded by greater exposure of nonpolar residues of Hb hydrophobic pocket. The remarkable decrease in T m value of Hb in Hb-ND complex exhibits interaction of Hb with ND conducts to conformational changes of Hb. This study offers consequential discrimination into the interaction of ND with proteins, which may be of significance for further appeal of these nanoparticles in biotechnology prosecution.

  13. Natural convection with evaporation in a vertical cylindrical cavity under the effect of temperature-dependent surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Danil A.; Sheremet, Mikhail A.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of surface tension on laminar natural convection in a vertical cylindrical cavity filled with a weak evaporating liquid has been analyzed numerically. The cylindrical enclosure is insulated at the bottom, heated by a constant heat flux from the side, and cooled by a non-uniform evaporative heat flux from the top free surface having temperature-dependent surface tension. Governing equations with corresponding boundary conditions formulated in dimensionless stream function, vorticity, and temperature have been solved by finite difference method of the second-order accuracy. The influence of Rayleigh number, Marangoni number, and aspect ratio on the liquid flow and heat transfer has been studied. Obtained results have revealed that the heat transfer rate at free surface decreases with Marangoni number and increases with Rayleigh number, while the average temperature inside the cavity has an opposite behavior; namely, it growths with Marangoni number and reduces with Rayleigh number.

  14. Pressure and surface tension of solid-liquid interface using Tara zona density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradi, M.; Kavosh Tehrani, M.

    2001-01-01

    The weighted density functional theory proposed by Tara zona is applied to study the solid-liquid interface. In the last two decades the weighted density functional became a useful tool to consider the properties of inhomogeneous liquids. In this theory, the role of the size of molecules or the particles of which the matter is composed, was found to be important. In this research we study a hard sphere fluid beside a hard wall. For this study the liquid is an inhomogeneous system. We use the definition of the direct correlation function as a second derivative of free energy with respect to the density. We use this definition and the definition of the weighting function, then we minimize the grand potential with respect to the density to get the Euler Lagrange equation and we obtain an integral equation to find the inhomogeneous density profile. The obtained density profile as a function of the distance from the wall, for different bulk density is pitted in three dimensions. We also calculate the pressure and compare it with the Carnahan-Starling results, and finally we obtained the surface tension at liquid-solid interface and compared it with the results of Monte Carlo simulation

  15. Theory of melt polyelectrolyte blends and block copolymers: Phase behavior, surface tension, and microphase periodicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sing, Charles E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Zwanikken, Jos W.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2015-01-21

    Polymer mixtures such as blends or block copolymers are of great interest in energy applications and functional materials, and often, one or more of these species contain charges. The traditional fashion in which such materials are studied uses Self-Consistent Field Theory (SCFT) methods that incorporate electrostatics using Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory. We adapt a new and rigorous approach that does not rely on the mean-field assumptions inherent in the PB theory and instead uses Liquid State (LS) integral equation theory to articulate charge correlations that are completely neglected in PB. We use this theory to calculate phase diagrams for both blends and block copolyelectrolytes using SCFT-LS and demonstrate how their phase behavior is highly dependent on chain length, charge fraction, charge size, and the strength of Coulombic interactions. Beyond providing phase behavior of blends and block copolyelectrolytes, we can use this theory to investigate the interfacial properties such as surface tension and block copolyelectrolyte lamellar spacing. Lamellar spacing provides a way to directly compare the SCFT-LS theory to the results of experiments. SCFT-LS will provide conceptual and mathematical clarification of the role of charge correlations in these systems and aid in the design of materials based on charge polymers.

  16. The Prediction of Surface Tension of Ternary Mixtures at Different Temperatures Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khazaei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, artificial neural network (ANN has been employed to propose a practical model for predicting the surface tension of multi-component mixtures. In order to develop a reliable model based on the ANN, a comprehensive experimental data set including 15 ternary liquid mixtures at different temperatures was employed. These systems consist of 777 data points generally containing hydrocarbon components. The ANN model has been developed as a function of temperature, critical properties, and acentric factor of the mixture according to conventional corresponding-state models. 80% of the data points were employed for training ANN and the remaining data were utilized for testing the generated model. The average absolute relative deviations (AARD% of the model for the training set, the testing set, and the total data points were obtained 1.69, 1.86, and 1.72 respectively. Comparing the results with Flory theory, Brok-Bird equation, and group contribution theory has proved the high prediction capability of the attained model.

  17. Theory of melt polyelectrolyte blends and block copolymers: Phase behavior, surface tension, and microphase periodicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sing, Charles E.; Zwanikken, Jos W.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Polymer mixtures such as blends or block copolymers are of great interest in energy applications and functional materials, and often, one or more of these species contain charges. The traditional fashion in which such materials are studied uses Self-Consistent Field Theory (SCFT) methods that incorporate electrostatics using Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory. We adapt a new and rigorous approach that does not rely on the mean-field assumptions inherent in the PB theory and instead uses Liquid State (LS) integral equation theory to articulate charge correlations that are completely neglected in PB. We use this theory to calculate phase diagrams for both blends and block copolyelectrolytes using SCFT-LS and demonstrate how their phase behavior is highly dependent on chain length, charge fraction, charge size, and the strength of Coulombic interactions. Beyond providing phase behavior of blends and block copolyelectrolytes, we can use this theory to investigate the interfacial properties such as surface tension and block copolyelectrolyte lamellar spacing. Lamellar spacing provides a way to directly compare the SCFT-LS theory to the results of experiments. SCFT-LS will provide conceptual and mathematical clarification of the role of charge correlations in these systems and aid in the design of materials based on charge polymers

  18. Pressure and surface tension of soild-liquid interface using Tarazona density functional theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available   The weighted density functional theory proposed by Tarazona is applied to study the solid-liquid interface. In the last two decades the weighted density functional became a useful tool to consider the properties of inhomogeneous liquids. In this theory, the role of the size of molecules or the particles of which the matter is composed, was found to be important. In this resarch we study a hard sphere fluid beside a hard wall. For this study the liquid is an inhomogeneous system. We use the definition of the direct correlation function as a second derivative of free energy with respect to the density. We use this definition and the definition of the weighting function, then we minimize the grand potential with respect to the density to get the Euler Lagrange equation and we obtain an integral equation to find the inhomogeneous density profile. The obtained density profile as a function of the distance from the wall, for different bulk density is plotted in three dimensions. We also calculate the pressure and compare it with the Carnahan-starling results, and finally we obtained the surface tension at liquid-solid interface and compared it with the results of Monte Carlo simulation.

  19. Lung ventilation injures areas with discrete alveolar flooding, in a surface tension-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, You; Kharge, Angana Banerjee; Perlman, Carrie E

    2014-10-01

    With proteinaceous-liquid flooding of discrete alveoli, a model of the edema pattern in the acute respiratory distress syndrome, lung inflation over expands aerated alveoli adjacent to flooded alveoli. Theoretical considerations suggest that the overexpansion may be proportional to surface tension, T. Yet recent evidence indicates proteinaceous edema liquid may not elevate T. Thus whether the overexpansion is injurious is not known. Here, working in the isolated, perfused rat lung, we quantify fluorescence movement from the vasculature to the alveolar liquid phase as a measure of overdistension injury to the alveolar-capillary barrier. We label the perfusate with fluorescence; micropuncture a surface alveolus and instill a controlled volume of nonfluorescent liquid to obtain a micropunctured-but-aerated region (control group) or a region with discrete alveolar flooding; image the region at a constant transpulmonary pressure of 5 cmH2O; apply five ventilation cycles with a positive end-expiratory pressure of 0-20 cmH2O and tidal volume of 6 or 12 ml/kg; return the lung to a constant transpulmonary pressure of 5 cmH2O; and image for an additional 10 min. In aerated areas, ventilation is not injurious. With discrete alveolar flooding, all ventilation protocols cause sustained injury. Greater positive end-expiratory pressure or tidal volume increases injury. Furthermore, we determine T and find injury increases with T. Inclusion of either plasma proteins or Survanta in the flooding liquid does not alter T or injury. Inclusion of 2.7-10% albumin and 1% Survanta together, however, lowers T and injury. Contrary to expectation, albumin inclusion in our model facilitates exogenous surfactant activity. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Investigations of the surface tension of coal ash slags under gasification conditions; Untersuchungen zur Oberflaechenspannung von Kohleschlacken unter Vergasungsbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchior, Tobias

    2011-10-26

    In the context of CO{sub 2}-emission-induced global warming, greenhouse gases resulting from the production of electricity in coal-fired power plants gain increasing attention. One possible way to reduce such emissions is to gasify coal instead of burning it. The corresponding process is referred to as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle and allows for the separation of CO{sub 2} before converting a synthesis gas into electrical energy. However, further improvements in efficiency and availability of this plant technology are needed to render the alternative generation of electricity sensible from an economic point of view. One corresponding approach introduces hot gas cleaning facilities to the gasification plant which guarantee a removal of slag particles from the synthesis gas at high temperatures. The development of such filters depends on the availability of data on the material properties of the coal ash slags to be withdrawn. In this respect, the surface tension is a relevant characteristic. Currently, the surface tension of real coal ash slags as well as of synthetic model systems was measured successfully by means of the sessile drop and the maximum bubble pressure method. With regard to the sessile drop technique, those experiments were conducted in a gasification-like atmosphere at temperatures of up to 1500 C. Furthermore, the pressure inside the experimental vessel was raised to 10 bar in order to allow for deriving the influence of this variable on the surface tension. In contrast, maximum bubble pressure trials were realised at atmospheric pressure while the gas atmosphere assured inert conditions. For performing sessile drop measurements, a corresponding apparatus was set up and is described in detail in this thesis. Three computer algorithms were employed to calculate surface tensions out of the photos of sessile drops and their individual performance was evaluated. A very good agreement between two of the codes was found while the third one

  1. Mass transfer in fuel cells. [electron microscopy of components, thermal decomposition of Teflon, water transport, and surface tension of KOH solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. D., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Results of experiments on electron microscopy of fuel cell components, thermal decomposition of Teflon by thermogravimetry, surface area and pore size distribution measurements, water transport in fuel cells, and surface tension of KOH solutions are described.

  2. The effects of temperature and alkyl chain length on the density and surface tension of the imidazolium-based geminal dicationic ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosavi, Majid; Khashei, Fatemeh; Sharifi, Ali; Mirzaei, Mojtaba

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface tension and density of three GDILs were measured at different temperatures. • Surface entropy and surface enthalpy indicate the surface ordering in these GDILs. • Parachors and critical temperatures of these systems were estimated. • Results of GDILs were compared with the results of corresponding traditional MILs. • Relations between surface tension, density and viscosity of GDILs were demonstrated. - Abstract: Surface tensions and densities of three imidazolium-based geminal dicationic ionic liquids (GDILs) with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [NTf 2 ] − , as a common anion, have been measured at ambient pressure at different temperatures in the range from 296.00 to 353.15 K. The surface thermodynamic functions such as surface entropy and surface enthalpy were derived from the temperature dependence of surface tension which indicated the surface ordering in these GDILs. As well as the parachor, the critical temperatures of these systems have been estimated using the Guggenheim and Eotvos correlations. In each case, the results of GDILs have been compared with the results of corresponding traditional monocationic ILs (MILs). Also, the relations between the surface tension and density and also surface tension and viscosity data have been demonstrated and discussed.

  3. Evaluation of salivary surface tension in a cohort of young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglio-Bonda, P L; Laguini, E; Davoli, C; Pattarino, F; Foglio-Bonda, A

    2018-03-01

    To determine salivary pH, flow rate (FR) and surface tension (γs) in a cohort of 30 healthy young adults. To acquire cohort biological independent variables (age, gender, weight, height, medications, smoking, pathologies, and allergies) and to correlate them with pH, FR and γs obtained values. Evaluate the possible variation of the γs values during the time after the withdrawal and the influence of the operational abilities of the experimenting operators. Evaluate the relationship between γs, pH and FR  and the dependence between pH and FR. Non-stimulated saliva samples were taken in four different time span, for three days, with a drooling method for 15 minutes. The saliva sample was analyzed, in terms of γs, by two different operators (OP1 and OP2), twice consecutive (γs-1 and γs-2) for a total of 360 measurements. The γs was calculated using the du Noüy method. The FR was evaluated by weighing technique and pH by pH indicator papers. The measurements of γs performed by two different operators (OP1, OP2) showed respectively average values of 46.46 mN/m and 43.45 mN/m, while the mean FR was 0.29 ± 0.13 mL/min and the average pH was 7.1 ± 0.43. There were no significant correlations between γs and the biological variables analyzed. We can consider as reference values, in a sample of young adults, γs 45.56 ± 6.51 mN/m.

  4. Validity and Reliability of Surface Electromyography in the Assessment of Primary Muscle Tension Dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoddami, Seyyedeh Maryam; Talebian, Saeed; Izadi, Farzad; Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin

    2017-05-01

    The study aims to evaluate the reliability and the discriminative validity of surface electromyography (sEMG) in the assessment of patients with primary muscle tension dysphonia (MTD). The study design is cross-sectional. Fifteen patients with primary MTD (mean age: 34.07 ± 10.99 years) and 15 healthy volunteers (mean age: 34.53 ± 10.63 years) were included. All participants underwent evaluation of sEMG to record the electrical activity of the thyrohyoid and cricothyroid muscles. The outcome measures were the root mean square (RMS), activity peak, duration, and time to the peak activity, which were obtained during /a/ and /i/ prolongation for test-retest reliability. The test-retest reliability was good to excellent for the RMS and peak activity measures (intraclass correlation coefficient [agreement] [ICC agreement ] = 0.49-0.98). The reliability for the activity duration was poor to excellent (ICC agreement  = 0.19-0.9). Poor test-retest reliability was found for the time to peak measure (ICC agreement  = 0.15-0.37). The standard error of measurement for all sEMG measures was between 0.41 and 2.05. The smallest detectable change (SDC) was calculated between 1.13 and 5.66. The highest SDC values were obtained for the peak and the lowest SDCs were documented for the duration (5.66 and 1.13, respectively). All sEMG measures were not able to discriminate between the MTD patients and healthy subjects (P > 0.05). The sEMG is a reliable tool to measure the RMS, the peak activity, and the activity duration in primary MTD. However, it is not able to discriminate the patients with primary MTD from healthy subjects. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamic surface tension and adsorption mechanism of surfactin biosurfactant at the air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaizi, Sagheer A

    2018-03-01

    The dynamic adsorption of the anionic biosurfactant, surfactin, at the air-water interface has been investigated in this work and compared to those of two synthetic surfactants: the anionic sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) and the nonionic octaethylene glycol monotetradecyl ether (C 14 E 8 ). The results revealed that surfactin adsorption at the air-water interface is purely controlled by diffusion mechanism at the initial stage of the adsorption process (i.e., [Formula: see text]), but shifts towards a mixed diffusion-barrier mechanism when surface tension approaches equilibrium (i.e., [Formula: see text]) due to the development of an energy barrier for adsorption. Such energy barrier has been found to be a function of the surfactin bulk concentration (increases with increasing surfactin concentration) and it is estimated to be in the range of 1.8-9.5 kJ/mol. Interestingly, such a trend (pure diffusion-controlled mechanism at [Formula: see text] and mixed diffusion-barrier mechanism at [Formula: see text]) has been also observed for the nonionic C 14 E 8 surfactant. Unlike the pure diffusion-controlled mechanism of the initial surfactin adsorption, which was the case in the presence and the absence of the sodium ion (Na + ), SDBS showed a mixed diffusion-barrier controlled at both short and long time, with an energy barrier of 3.0-9.0 and 3.8-18.0 kJ/mol, respectively. Such finding highlights the nonionic-like adsorption mechanism of surfactin despite its negative charge.

  6. Silica-Assisted Nucleation of Polymer Foam Cells with Nanoscopic Dimensions: Impact of Particle Size, Line Tension, and Surface Functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shanqiu; Eijkelenkamp, Rik; Duvigneau, Joost; Vancso, G Julius

    2017-11-01

    Core-shell nanoparticles consisting of silica as core and surface-grafted poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as shell with different diameters were prepared and used as heterogeneous nucleation agents to obtain CO 2 -blown poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposite foams. PDMS was selected as the shell material as it possesses a low surface energy and high CO 2 -philicity. The successful synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The cell size and cell density of the PMMA micro- and nanocellular materials were determined by scanning electron microscopy. The cell nucleation efficiency using core-shell nanoparticles was significantly enhanced when compared to that of unmodified silica. The highest nucleation efficiency observed had a value of ∼0.5 for nanoparticles with a core diameter of 80 nm. The particle size dependence of cell nucleation efficiency is discussed taking into account line tension effects. Complete engulfment by the polymer matrix of particles with a core diameter below 40 nm at the cell wall interface was observed corresponding to line tension values of approximately 0.42 nN. This line tension significantly increases the energy barrier of heterogeneous nucleation and thus reduces the nucleation efficiency. The increase of the CO 2 saturation pressure to 300 bar prior to batch foaming resulted in an increased line tension length. We observed a decrease of the heterogeneous nucleation efficiency for foaming after saturation with CO 2 at 300 bar, which we attribute to homogenous nucleation becoming more favorable at the expense of heterogeneous nucleation in this case. Overall, it is shown that the contribution of line tension to the free energy barrier of heterogeneous foam cell nucleation must be considered to understand foaming of viscoelastic materials. This finding emphasizes the need for new strategies including the use of

  7. Detachment of polystyrene particles from collector surfaces by surface tension forces induced by air-bubble passage through a parallel plate flow chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, PJ; vanderMei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    1997-01-01

    By allowing an air-bubble to pass through a parallel plate flow chamber with negatively charged, colloidal polystyrene particles adhering to the bottom collector plate of the chamber, the detachment of adhering particles stimulated by surface tension forces induced by the passage of a liquid-air

  8. Measurement of the surface tension of Santowax 'R', para-, meta-, and ortho-terphenyl, diphenyl, diphenyl ether and dowtherm 'A'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowring, R.W.; Garton, D.A.; Kinneir, J.H.

    1961-09-01

    Values of surface tension were obtained over the temperature range from near the melting point to near the normal boiling point of each substance. A capillary rise method was used employing a closed glass U-tube apparatus. The accuracy was ± 3% near the melting point falling to ± 5% near the normal boiling point. Values of the parachor calculated from the experimental data were in excellent agreement with those calculated from the molecular structure using the method proposed by Sugden. The surface tension in each case decreased with ascending temperature from near 30 to 40 dynes/cm close to the melting point to 13 to 15 dynes/cm near the normal boiling point. (author)

  9. Influence of Zinc on the Surface Tension, Density and Molar Volume of (Ag-Sneut +Zn Liquid Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gąsior W.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The dilatometric and maximum bubble pressure methods were applied for the measurements of the density and surface tension of liquid (Ag-Sneut +Zn lead-free solders. The experiments were carried out in the temperature range from 515 to 1223 K for the alloys of the zinc concentration equaling 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 of the mole fraction. It was found that the temperature dependence of both the density and the surface tension could be thought as linear, so they were interpreted by straight line equations. The experimental data of the molar volume of the investigated alloys were described by the polynomial dependent on the composition and temperature.

  10. The effect of a curvature-dependent surface tension on the singularities at the tips of a straight interface crack

    KAUST Repository

    Zemlyanova, A. Y.

    2013-03-08

    A problem of an interface crack between two semi-planes made out of different materials under an action of an in-plane loading of general tensile-shear type is treated in a semi-analytical manner with the help of Dirichlet-to-Neumann mappings. The boundaries of the crack and the interface between semi-planes are subjected to a curvature-dependent surface tension. The resulting system of six singular integro-differential equations is reduced to the system of three Fredholm equations. It is shown that the introduction of the curvature-dependent surface tension eliminates both classical integrable power singularity of the order 1/2 and an oscillating singularity present in a classical linear elasticity solutions. The numerical results are obtained by solving the original system of singular integro-differential equations by approximating unknown functions with Taylor polynomials. © 2013 The Author.

  11. Effect of Vegetable Oils on the Surface Tension, Diffusion and Efficiency of Sethoxydim to Control Wild oat (Avena ludoviciana Durieu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hammami

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During last century, population explosion has been pressing man to produce more supplies of food by consuming more energy in agroecosystems like applying chemical management strategies. herbicides have increasingly become a key component of weed management programs. In Iran, using herbicides led to increasing wheat yield about 20% and 22% in rainfed and irrigated farms respectively (20. Nonetheless, herbicides have also a negative impact on environment. A tool for reducing the herbicide usage which allows to decreasing their cost and side effects is the use of adjuvants. They increase the effectiveness of the post-emergence herbicides. Some adjuvants have toxic effects on living organisms such as Polyethoxylated tallowamine adjuvants that they are very toxic in fairy shrimp (Thamnocephalus platyurus (6. Vegetable oils are not phytotoxic and likely are degraded and metabolized quickly in the environment (8. Sethoxydim is an acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase inhibitor that is considered to be a key enzyme in lipid biosynthesis. Similar to other foliar applied herbicides, it need to be associated with an adjuvant for more effective control. Vegetable oils can be developed characteristics of sethoxydim solution such as surface tension and spry drop diffusion. Therefore, the objective of this research is to determine the effect of vegetable oils on the surface tension, diffusion and efficiency of sethoxydim to control wild oat (Avena ludoviciana Durieu.. Materials and Metods: To evaluate the effect of vegetable oils on properties of sethoxydim solution, a series of experiments were separately conducted at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Khorasan Science and Technology Park in 2012. For evaluating the effect of vegetable oils on surface tension of distilled water and sethoxydim solution and the sethoxydim efficiency on wild oat control, three experiments were conducted as factorial based on completely randomized design. In other

  12. Efficient numerical methods for simulating surface tension of multi-component mixtures with the gradient theory of fluid interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2015-08-01

    Surface tension significantly impacts subsurface flow and transport, and it is the main cause of capillary effect, a major immiscible two-phase flow mechanism for systems with a strong wettability preference. In this paper, we consider the numerical simulation of the surface tension of multi-component mixtures with the gradient theory of fluid interfaces. Major numerical challenges include that the system of the Euler-Lagrange equations is solved on the infinite interval and the coefficient matrix is not positive definite. We construct a linear transformation to reduce the Euler-Lagrange equations, and naturally introduce a path function, which is proven to be a monotonic function of the spatial coordinate variable. By using the linear transformation and the path function, we overcome the above difficulties and develop the efficient methods for calculating the interface and its interior compositions. Moreover, the computation of the surface tension is also simplified. The proposed methods do not need to solve the differential equation system, and they are easy to be implemented in practical applications. Numerical examples are tested to verify the efficiency of the proposed methods. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  13. The Mechanical of the Small Axisymmetric Oscillations of the Liquid with the Surface Tension Forces in Elastic Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Goncharov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate small axisymmetric oscillations of a liquid in an elastic tank. We also take into account the influence of surface tension forces. For this, we turn to the mechanical analogue of the considered mechanical system. To realize the transition to mechanical analogue we use the energy method: postulating the equality of kinetic and potential energy for the investigated mechanical system and the mechanical system analog. Due to this transition we can further investigate the oscillations of a mechanical analogue. As a mechanical analogue, we consider the oscillator in the spring. The mass of the oscillator is calculated as the weight of the fluid to make oscillations. The oscillator spring constant is calculated using the identity of equations, namely, equation of free small oscillations of the oscillator and equation of free small oscillations of the system under investigation: the fluid in the elastic tank. The identity of equations allows us to draw conclusion about the identity of the natural frequencies for the source mechanical system and the system of a mechanical analogue. Next, we take into consideration the action of the surface tension. We record the Laplace condition for excess pressure because of the forces of surface tension. Then we compile the expression for the generalized force, taking into account the phenomenon of the surface tension. Next, we write the equation of oscillations of a mechanical analogue. The surface tension, due to the introduction of the generalized force in the equation for small oscillations of the mechanical analogue will change the natural frequency of the mechanical analogue. The paper presents the appropriate dependencies. The abovementioned allows us to investigate the stability of small motions of fluid in microgravity or low gravity by studying the stability of small motions of mechanical analogue. The latter is especially important due to the design and development of advanced

  14. Variant of a volume-of-fluid method for surface tension-dominant two ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-12-27

    Dec 27, 2013 ... face tension-dominant two-phase flows are explained. ... for one particular fluid inside a cell as its material volume divided by the total ... the reconstructed interface and the velocity field, and the final part ..... Welch S W J and Wilson J 2000 A volume of fluid based method for fluid flows with phase change. J.

  15. The effect of a soap film on a catenary: measurement of surface tension from the triangular configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behroozi, F [Department of Physics, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA 50614 (United States); Behroozi, P S, E-mail: behroozi@uni.edu [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    A chain assumes the well-known shape known as a catenary when it hangs loosely from two points in a gravitational field. The correct solution of the catenary was one of the early triumphs of the newly invented calculus of variations at the end of the 17th century. Here we revisit the catenary and show that, for a chain hanging from a horizontal rod, three new and distinct configurations are possible if a soap film covers the area bounded by the chain and the rod. We first review the general problem and discuss the conditions under which the chain assumes a concave, triangular or convex configuration. The deciding factor is the strength of surface tension relative to the gravitational force per unit length of the chain. The conditions under which the chain assumes the shape of a perfect triangle are discussed in greater detail and analysed to obtain the tension along the chain. The triangular configuration is especially intriguing to undergraduates and may be used as a simple experiment to obtain the surface tension of the soap solution by measuring just one angle of the triangle.

  16. The effect of a soap film on a catenary: measurement of surface tension from the triangular configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behroozi, F; Behroozi, P S

    2011-01-01

    A chain assumes the well-known shape known as a catenary when it hangs loosely from two points in a gravitational field. The correct solution of the catenary was one of the early triumphs of the newly invented calculus of variations at the end of the 17th century. Here we revisit the catenary and show that, for a chain hanging from a horizontal rod, three new and distinct configurations are possible if a soap film covers the area bounded by the chain and the rod. We first review the general problem and discuss the conditions under which the chain assumes a concave, triangular or convex configuration. The deciding factor is the strength of surface tension relative to the gravitational force per unit length of the chain. The conditions under which the chain assumes the shape of a perfect triangle are discussed in greater detail and analysed to obtain the tension along the chain. The triangular configuration is especially intriguing to undergraduates and may be used as a simple experiment to obtain the surface tension of the soap solution by measuring just one angle of the triangle.

  17. Surface tension of decane binary and ternary mixtures with eicosane, docosane, and tetracosane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queimada, Antonio; Cao, A.I.; Marrucho, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    -C24H50 and the ternary n-C10H22 + n-C20H42 + n-C24H50 were measured from 293.15 K (or above the solution melting temperature) up to 343.15 K. An average absolute deviation of 1.3% was obtained in comparison with pure component literature data. No mixture information for the reported systems was found......A tensiometer operating on the Wilhelmy plate method was employed to measure liquid-vapor interfacial tensions of three binary mixtures and one ternary mixture of decane with eicosane, docosane, and tetracosane. Tensions of binary mixtures n-C10H22 + n-C20H42, n-C10H22 + n-C22H46, and n-C10H22 + n...

  18. Surface Tension of Supercooled Water Determined by Using a Counterpressure Capillary Rise Method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinš, Václav; Fransen, M. A. L. J.; Hykl, Jiří; Hrubý, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 17 (2015), s. 5567-5575 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG13056; GA ČR GJ15-07129Y Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : capillary tube * interfacial tension * metastable liquid * supercooled liquid Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 3.187, year: 2015 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jpcb.5b00545

  19. Comparative simulations of microjetting using atomistic and continuous approaches in the presence of viscosity and surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, O.; Jaouen, S.; Soulard, L.; Heuzé, O.; Colombet, L.

    2017-10-01

    We compare, at similar scales, the processes of microjetting and ejecta production from shocked roughened metal surfaces by using atomistic and continuous approaches. The atomistic approach is based on very large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with systems containing up to 700 × 106 atoms. The continuous approach is based on Eulerian hydrodynamics simulations with adaptive mesh refinement; the simulations take into account the effects of viscosity and surface tension, and the equation of state is calculated from the MD simulations. The microjetting is generated by shock-loading above its fusion point a three-dimensional tin crystal with an initial sinusoidal free surface perturbation, the crystal being set in contact with a vacuum. Several samples with homothetic wavelengths and amplitudes of defect are simulated in order to investigate the influence of viscosity and surface tension of the metal. The simulations show that the hydrodynamic code reproduces with very good agreement the profiles, calculated from the MD simulations, of the ejected mass and velocity along the jet. Both codes also exhibit a similar fragmentation phenomenology of the metallic liquid sheets ejected, although the fragmentation seed is different. We show in particular, that it depends on the mesh size in the continuous approach.

  20. The effects of viscosity, surface tension, and flow rate on gasoil-water flow pattern in microchannels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boogar, Rahman Sadeghi; Gheshlaghi, Reza; Mahdavi, Mahmood Akhavan [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    A microchannel was fabricated with glass tubes to investigate the effect of viscosity, surface tension, and flow rate on the liquid-liquid two-phase flow regime. Water and gasoil were selected as aqueous and organic working fluids, respectively. The two fluids were injected into the microchannel and created either slug or parallel profile depending on the applied conditions. The range of Reynolds and capillary numbers was chosen in such a way that neither inertia nor interfacial tension forces were negligible. Xanthan gum was used to increase viscosity and Triton X-100 (TX-100) and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) were used to reduce the interfacial tension. The results demonstrated that higher value of viscosity and flow rate increased interfacial area, but slug flow regime remained unchanged. The two surfactants showed different effects on the flow regime and interfacial area. Addition of TX-100 did not change the slug flow but decreased the interfacial area. In contrast, addition of SDS increased interfacial area by decreasing the slug’s length in the low concentrations and by switching from slug to parallel regime at high concentrations.

  1. Equilibrium surface tension and the interaction energy of DMSO with tert-butyl alcohol or iso-amyl alcohol at various temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri, Ahmad; Moradian, Zohreh

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface tension of non-ideal binary systems of alcohol/DMSO determined. • The surface tension data of binary mixtures were correlated with five equations. • The interaction energy values were calculated by using LWW model. • The U 12 value shows different behavior for two systems with increasing temperature. - Abstract: Surface tension of binary mixtures of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and iso-amyl alcohol (IAA) with DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) were measured over the entire concentration range at pressure of 82.5 kPa at temperatures between (298.15 and 328.15) K. Correlating the surface tension and surface tension deviation of the above mentioned binary systems was performed with empirical and thermodynamic based models. The average relative error obtained from the comparison of experimental and calculated surface tension values for the two binary systems with five models at various temperatures is less than 2%. The effect of temperature on the interaction energy values in binary mixtures has been used to obtain information about solute structural effects on DMSO. Also, the experimental data were used to evaluate the nature and type of intermolecular interactions in binary mixtures

  2. Uncovering behavioural diversity amongst high-strength Pseudomonas spp. surfactants at the limit of liquid surface tension reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Kamaluddeen; Deeni, Yusuf Y; Hapca, Simona M; Moore, Luke; Spiers, Andrew J

    2018-02-01

    Bacterial biosurfactants have a wide range of biological functions and biotechnological applications. Previous analyses had suggested a limit to their reduction of aqueous liquid surface tensions (γMin), and here we confirm this in an analysis of 25 Pseudomonas spp. strains isolated from soil which produce high-strength surfactants that reduce surface tensions to 25.2 ± 0.1-26.5 ± 0.2 mN m-1 (the surface tension of sterile growth medium and pure water was 52.9 ± 0.4 mN m-1 and 72.1 ± 1.2 mN m-1, respectively). Comparisons of culture supernatants produced using different growth media and semi-purified samples indicate that the limit of 24.2-24.7 mN m-1 is not greatly influenced by culture conditions, pH or NaCl concentrations. We have used foam, emulsion and oil-displacement behavioural assays as a simple and cost-effective proxy for in-depth biochemical characterisation, and these suggest that there is significant structural diversity amongst these surfactants that may reflect different biological functions and offer new biotechnological opportunities. Finally, we obtained a draft genome for the strain producing the highest strength surfactant, and identified a cluster of non-ribosomal protein synthase genes that may produce a cyclic lipopeptide (CLP)-like surfactant. Further investigation of this group of related bacteria recovered from the same site will allow a better understanding of the significance of the great variety of surfactants produced by bacterial communities found in soil and elsewhere. © FEMS 2018. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Analysis of effect of temperature gradients on surface-tension phenomena in gas-tungsten-arc welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.A.; Chien, P.S.J.

    1982-10-01

    Fluid motion directed by surface tension is considered as a contributor to heat penetration in a weld pool. The potential phenomena at the gas-liquid interface were analyzed, and the dependence of surface motion on temperature in the gas-tungsten-arc (GTA) welding process was examined. An existing heat-transfer model was used and was able to predict weld size to +- 50% of the actual value. A momentum-transfer equation was derived by considering the contribution of Lorentz force. The momentum boundary condition was developed and was able to predict the Marangoni effect. The magnitude of surface-tension-driven force is comparable to the gravitational force on one gram. An empirical approach was proposed to couple heat-transfer and momentum-transfer phenomena. A dimensional analysis identified the pertinent dimensionless groups as Reynolds, Weber, Froude, Peclet, and Power numbers and a dimensionless velocity. A simplified form of the correction was developed by combining dimensionless groups to yield a correlation with the Bond, Prandtl, and modified power numbers. Future experimental work was proposed to test the functionality of the dimensionless groups

  4. An apparatus with a horizontal capillary tube intended for measurement of the surface tension of supercooled liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinš, Václav; Hošek, Jan; Hykl, Jiří; Hrubý, Jan

    2015-05-01

    New experimental apparatus for measurement of the surface tension of liquids under the metastable supercooled state has been designed and assembled in the study. The measuring technique is similar to the method employed by P.T. Hacker [NACA TN 2510] in 1951. A short liquid thread of the liquid sample was sucked inside a horizontal capillary tube partly placed in a temperature-controlled glass chamber. One end of the capillary tube was connected to a setup with inert gas which allowed for precise tuning of the gas overpressure in order of hundreds of Pa. The open end of the capillary tube was precisely grinded and polished before the measurement in order to assure planarity and perpendicularity of the outer surface. The liquid meniscus at the open end was illuminated by a laser beam and observed by a digital camera. Application of an increasing overpressure of the inert gas at the inner meniscus of the liquid thread caused variation of the outer meniscus such that it gradually changed from concave to flat and subsequently convex shape. The surface tension at the temperature of the inner meniscus could be evaluated from the overpressure corresponding to exactly planar outer meniscus. Detailed description of the new setup together with results of the preliminary tests is provided in the study.

  5. Effect of surface tension and coefficient of thermal expansion in 30 nm scale nanoimprinting with two flexible polymer molds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Kwan; Cho, Hye Sung; Jung, Ho-Sup; Suh, Kahp-Yang; Lim, Kipil; Kim, Ki-Bum; Choi, Dae-Geun; Jeong, Jun-Ho

    2012-01-01

    We report on nanoimprinting of polymer thin films at 30 nm scale resolution using two types of ultraviolet (UV)-curable, flexible polymer molds: perfluoropolyether (PFPE) and polyurethane acrylate (PUA). It was found that the quality of nanopatterning at the 30 nm scale is largely determined by the combined effects of surface tension and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the polymer mold. In particular, the polar component of surface tension may play a critical role in clean release of the mold, as evidenced by much reduced delamination or broken structures for the less polarized PFPE mold when patterning a relatively hydrophilic PMMA film. In contrast, such problems were not notably observed with a relatively hydrophobic PS film for both polymer molds. In addition, the demolding characteristic was also influenced by the coefficient of thermal expansion so that no delamination or uniformity problems were observed when patterning a UV-curable polymer film at room temperature. These results suggest that a proper polymeric mold material needs to be chosen for patterning polymer films under different surface properties and processing conditions, providing insights into how a clean demolding characteristic can be obtained at 30 nm scale nanopatterning. (paper)

  6. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1 is present in hyaline membranes and modulates surface tension of surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griese Matthias

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1 is a secreted scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein that binds various bacteria and is thought to participate in innate pulmonary host defense. We hypothesized that pulmonary DMBT1 could contribute to respiratory distress syndrome in neonates by modulating surfactant function. Methods DMBT1 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry and mRNA in situ hybridization in post-mortem lungs of preterm and full-term neonates with pulmonary hyaline membranes. The effect of human recombinant DMBT1 on the function of bovine and porcine surfactant was measured by a capillary surfactometer. DMBT1-levels in tracheal aspirates of ventilated preterm and term infants were determined by ELISA. Results Pulmonary DMBT1 was localized in hyaline membranes during respiratory distress syndrome. In vitro addition of human recombinant DMBT1 to the surfactants increased surface tension in a dose-dependent manner. The DMBT1-mediated effect was reverted by the addition of calcium depending on the surfactant preparation. Conclusion Our data showed pulmonary DMBT1 expression in hyaline membranes during respiratory distress syndrome and demonstrated that DMBT1 increases lung surface tension in vitro. This raises the possibility that DMBT1 could antagonize surfactant supplementation in respiratory distress syndrome and could represent a candidate target molecule for therapeutic intervention in neonatal lung disease.

  7. The use of computational thermodynamics for the determination of surface tension and Gibbs-Thomson coefficient of multicomponent alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, D. J. S.; Bezerra, B. N.; Collyer, M. N.; Garcia, A.; Ferreira, I. L.

    2018-04-01

    The simulation of casting processes demands accurate information on the thermophysical properties of the alloy; however, such information is scarce in the literature for multicomponent alloys. Generally, metallic alloys applied in industry have more than three solute components. In the present study, a general solution of Butler's formulation for surface tension is presented for multicomponent alloys and is applied in quaternary Al-Cu-Si-Fe alloys, thus permitting the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient to be determined. Such coefficient is a determining factor to the reliability of predictions furnished by microstructure growth models and by numerical computations of solidification thermal parameters, which will depend on the thermophysical properties assumed in the calculations. The Gibbs-Thomson coefficient for ternary and quaternary alloys is seldom reported in the literature. A numerical model based on Powell's hybrid algorithm and a finite difference Jacobian approximation has been coupled to a Thermo-Calc TCAPI interface to assess the excess Gibbs energy of the liquid phase, permitting liquidus temperature, latent heat, alloy density, surface tension and Gibbs-Thomson coefficient for Al-Cu-Si-Fe hypoeutectic alloys to be calculated, as an example of calculation capabilities for multicomponent alloys of the proposed method. The computed results are compared with thermophysical properties of binary Al-Cu and ternary Al-Cu-Si alloys found in the literature and presented as a function of the Cu solute composition.

  8. Density, viscosity, surface tension, and spectroscopic properties for binary system of 1,2-ethanediamine + diethylene glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lihua; Zhang, Jianbin; Li, Qiang; Guo, Bo; Zhao, Tianxiang; Sha, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Excess property of the binary system 1,2-ethanediamine (EDA) + diethylene glycol (DEG). - Highlights: • Densities and viscosities of EDA + DEG at 298.15–318.150 K were listed. • Thermodynamics data of EDA + DEG at 298.15–318.15 K were calculated. • Surface tension of EDA + DEG at 298.15 K was measured. • Intermolecular interaction of EDA with DEG was discussed. - Abstract: This paper reports density and viscosity data at T = 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, and 318.15 K and surface tension data at 298.15 K for the binary system 1,2-ethanediamine (EDA) + diethylene glycol (DEG) as a function of composition under atmospheric pressure. From the experimental density and viscosity data, the excess molar volume and viscosity deviation were calculated, and the results were fitted to a Redlich–Kister equation to obtain the coefficients and to estimate the standard deviations between the experimental and calculated quantities. Based on the kinematic viscosity data, enthalpy of activation for viscous flow, entropy of activation for the viscous flow, and Gibbs energies of activation of viscous flow were calculated. In addition, based on Fourier transform infrared spectra, UV–vis spectra, and electrical conductivity for the system EDA + DEG with various concentrations, intermolecular interaction of EDA with DEG was discussed

  9. Surface Tension Flows inside Surfactant-Added Poly(dimethylsiloxane Microstructures with Velocity-Dependent Contact Angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh Jian Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Filling of liquid samples is realized in a microfluidic device with applications including analytical systems, biomedical devices, and systems for fundamental research. The filling of a disk-shaped polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchamber by liquid is analyzed with reference to microstructures with inlets and outlets. The microstructures are fabricated using a PDMS molding process with an SU-8 mold. During the filling, the motion of the gas-liquid interface is determined by the competition among inertia, adhesion, and surface tension. A single ramp model with velocity-dependent contact angles is implemented for the accurate calculation of surface tension forces in a three-dimensional volume-of-fluid based model. The effects of the parameters of this functional form are investigated. The influences of non-dimensional parameters, such as the Reynolds number and the Weber number, both determined by the inlet velocity, on the flow characteristics are also examined. An oxygen-plasma-treated PDMS substrate is utilized, and the microstructure is modified to be hydrophilic. Flow experiments are conducted into both hydrophilic and hydrophobic PDMS microstructures. Under a hydrophobic wall condition, numerical simulations with imposed boundary conditions of static and dynamic contact angles can successfully predict the moving of the meniscus compared with experimental measurements. However, for a hydrophilic wall, accurate agreement between numerical and experimental results is obvious as the dynamic contact angles were implemented.

  10. Measurement and study of density, surface tension, and viscosity of quaternary ammonium-based ionic liquids ([N222(n)]Tf2N)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghatee, Mohammad Hadi; Bahrami, Maryam; Khanjari, Neda

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterization of high purity synthesized alkyl quaternary ammonium ionic liquids. • Measurement of temperature dependent surface tension, density, viscosity and critical point. • Systematic increase of surface energy and surface entropy having plateau at high chain length. • Accurate application of VFT and fluidity equations to temperature dependent viscosities. • Particular variation of fluidity exponent with a plateau at high alkyl chain length. -- Abstract: In this work five quaternary ammonium-based ionic liquids with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion were synthesized and their density, viscosity and surface tensions were measured in the temperature range (298 to 373) K. Surface tensions were measured by capillary rise method using a homemade capillary apparatus, in which the liquid/vapor can be brought into equilibrium practically. Measurements of viscosities and surface tensions were performed under water–vapor free atmosphere. The surface tension of quaternary ammonium-based ILs decreases as the alkyl chain length increases. Also surface energy and surface entropy are found as increasing functions of alkyl chain length with a plateau at high lengths in the surface. The viscosities measured by capillary viscometer fit in VFT equation, indication of non-Arrhenius ionic liquids. Viscosities are also fitted quite accurately in the relation we have developed recently as the fluidity equation with the characteristics exponent ϕ. Values of ϕ for ionic liquids are close to one another and tend to the limiting value, almost 0.328, asymptotically as the alkyl chain length increases. The critical temperatures predicted via the temperature dependent surface tensions decrease with increasing alkyl chain length of the cation. The trend of predicted critical temperature of these ionic liquids conforms to those of imidazolium-based ILs

  11. Crystallization of hard spheres revisited. II. Thermodynamic modeling, nucleation work, and the surface of tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, David; Speck, Thomas

    2018-06-14

    Combining three numerical methods (forward flux sampling, seeding of droplets, and finite-size droplets), we probe the crystallization of hard spheres over the full range from close to coexistence to the spinodal regime. We show that all three methods allow us to sample different regimes and agree perfectly in the ranges where they overlap. By combining the nucleation work calculated from forward flux sampling of small droplets and the nucleation theorem, we show how to compute the nucleation work spanning three orders of magnitude. Using a variation of the nucleation theorem, we show how to extract the pressure difference between the solid droplet and ambient liquid. Moreover, combining the nucleation work with the pressure difference allows us to calculate the interfacial tension of small droplets. Our results demonstrate that employing bulk quantities yields inaccurate results for the nucleation rate.

  12. On Energy Inequality for the Problem on the Evolution of Two Fluids of Different Types Without Surface Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, Irina Vlad.

    2015-03-01

    The paper deals with the motion of two immiscible viscous fluids in a container, one of the fluids being compressible while another one being incompressible. The interface between the fluids is an unknown closed surface where surface tension is neglected. We assume the compressible fluid to be barotropic, the pressure being given by an arbitrary smooth increasing function. This problem is considered in anisotropic Sobolev-Slobodetskiǐ spaces. We show that the L 2-norms of the velocity and deviation of compressible fluid density from the mean value decay exponentially with respect to time. The proof is based on a local existence theorem (Denisova, Interfaces Free Bound 2:283-312, 2000) and on the idea of constructing a function of generalized energy, proposed by Padula (J Math Fluid Mech 1:62-77, 1999). In addition, we eliminate the restrictions for the viscosities which appeared in Denisova (Interfaces Free Bound 2:283-312, 2000).

  13. A nonpolar, nonamphiphilic molecule can accelerate adsorption of phospholipids and lower their surface tension at the air/water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc Nghia; Trinh Dang, Thuan Thao; Waton, Gilles; Vandamme, Thierry; Krafft, Marie Pierre

    2011-10-04

    The adsorption dynamics of a series of phospholipids (PLs) at the interface between an aqueous solution or dispersion of the PL and a gas phase containing the nonpolar, nonamphiphilic linear perfluorocarbon perfluorohexane (PFH) was studied by bubble profile analysis tensiometry. The PLs investigated were dioctanoylphosphatidylcholine (DiC(8)-PC), dilaurylphosphatidylcholine, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. The gas phase consisted of air or air saturated with PFH. The perfluorocarbon gas was found to have an unexpected, strong effect on both the adsorption rate and the equilibrium interfacial tension (γ(eq)) of the PLs. First, for all of the PLs, and at all concentrations investigated, the γ(eq) values were significantly lower (by up to 10 mN m(-1)) when PFH was present in the gas phase. The efficacy of PFH in decreasing γ(eq) depends on the ability of PLs to form micelles or vesicles in water. For vesicles, it also depends on the gel or fluid state of the membranes. Second, the adsorption rates of all the PLs at the interface (as assessed by the time required for the initial interfacial tension to be reduced by 30%) are significantly accelerated (by up to fivefold) by the presence of PFH for the lower PL concentrations. Both the surface-tension reducing effect and the adsorption rate increasing effect establish that PFH has a strong interaction with the PL monolayer and acts as a cosurfactant at the interface, despite the absence of any amphiphilic character. Fitting the adsorption profiles of DiC(8)-PC at the PFH-saturated air/aqueous solution interface with the modified Frumkin model indicated that the PFH molecule lay horizontally at the interface. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Propellers in Saturn's rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sremcevic, M.; Stewart, G. R.; Albers, N.; Esposito, L. W.

    2013-12-01

    Theoretical studies and simulations have demonstrated the effects caused by objects embedded in planetary rings. Even if the objects are too small to be directly observed, each creates a much larger gravitational imprint on the surrounding ring material. These strongly depend on the mass of the object and range from "S" like propeller-shaped structures for about 100m-sized icy bodies to the opening of circumferential gaps as in the case of the embedded moons Pan and Daphnis and their corresponding Encke and Keeler Gaps. Since the beginning of the Cassini mission many of these smaller objects (~data from Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) and Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) experiments. We show evidence that B ring seems to harbor two distinct populations of propellers: "big" propellers covering tens of degrees in azimuth situated in the densest part of B ring, and "small" propellers in less dense inner B ring that are similar in size and shape to known A ring propellers. The population of "big" propellers is exemplified with a single object which is observed for 5 years of Cassini data. The object is seen as a very elongated bright stripe (40 degrees wide) in unlit Cassini images, and dark stripe in lit geometries. In total we report observing the feature in images at 18 different epochs between 2005 and 2010. In UVIS occultations we observe this feature as an optical depth depletion in 14 out of 93 occultation cuts at corrotating longitudes compatible with imaging data. Combining the available Cassini data we infer that the object is a partial gap located at r=112,921km embedded in the high optical depth region of the B ring. The gap moves at Kepler speed appropriate for its radial location. Radial offsets of the gap locations in UVIS occultations are consistent with an asymmetric propeller shape. The asymmetry of the observed shape is most likely a consequence of the strong surface mass density gradient, as the feature is located at an edge between

  15. Application of the Eötvos and Guggenheim empirical rules for predicting the density and surface tension of ionic liquids analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjalli, Farouq S.; Vakili-Nezhaad, Gholamreza; Shahbaz, Kaveh; AlNashef, Inas M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Critical temperatures of eight common DES were calculated using two methods. • Density and surface tension were calculated using the Rackett and Guggenheim equations. • The Rackett method should be used in the low temperature range only. • The Eötvos and Guggenheim methods gave best density and surface tension predictions. - Abstract: The recent continuing interest in deep eutectic solvents (DES) as ionic liquids analogues and their successful applications in different areas of separation necessities the existence of reliable physical and thermodynamic properties database. The scarcity of data on the physical properties of such solvents, increases the need for their prediction using reliable methods. In this study, first the critical temperatures of eight DES systems have been calculated based on the Eötvos empirical equation using the experimental data of the density and surface tension at various temperatures, then the density and surface tension values of these systems were predicted from the calculated critical temperatures. For the density prediction the Eötvos and Guggenheim equations were combined to introduce a simple power law equation using the estimated critical temperatures from the Eötvos and the Modified Lydersen–Joback–Reid group contribution methods. Finally, the estimated critical temperatures by these two methods were used in the Guggenheim empirical equation to calculate the surface tension of the DES systems. The prediction quality of the two physical properties under investigation were compared and proper recommendations were postulated

  16. Application of the Eötvos and Guggenheim empirical rules for predicting the density and surface tension of ionic liquids analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mjalli, Farouq S., E-mail: farouqsm@yahoo.com [Petroleum and Chemical Engineering Department, Sultan Qaboos University, 123 Sultanate of Oman (Oman); Vakili-Nezhaad, Gholamreza; Shahbaz, Kaveh [School of Engineering, Taylor' s University, 47500 Selangor (Malaysia); AlNashef, Inas M. [Chemical Engineering Department, King Saud University, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: • Critical temperatures of eight common DES were calculated using two methods. • Density and surface tension were calculated using the Rackett and Guggenheim equations. • The Rackett method should be used in the low temperature range only. • The Eötvos and Guggenheim methods gave best density and surface tension predictions. - Abstract: The recent continuing interest in deep eutectic solvents (DES) as ionic liquids analogues and their successful applications in different areas of separation necessities the existence of reliable physical and thermodynamic properties database. The scarcity of data on the physical properties of such solvents, increases the need for their prediction using reliable methods. In this study, first the critical temperatures of eight DES systems have been calculated based on the Eötvos empirical equation using the experimental data of the density and surface tension at various temperatures, then the density and surface tension values of these systems were predicted from the calculated critical temperatures. For the density prediction the Eötvos and Guggenheim equations were combined to introduce a simple power law equation using the estimated critical temperatures from the Eötvos and the Modified Lydersen–Joback–Reid group contribution methods. Finally, the estimated critical temperatures by these two methods were used in the Guggenheim empirical equation to calculate the surface tension of the DES systems. The prediction quality of the two physical properties under investigation were compared and proper recommendations were postulated.

  17. Direct Observation of Domain-Wall Surface Tension by Deflating or Inflating a Magnetic Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueying; Vernier, Nicolas; Zhao, Weisheng; Yu, Haiming; Vila, Laurent; Zhang, Yue; Ravelosona, Dafiné

    2018-02-01

    The surface energy of a magnetic domain wall (DW) strongly affects its static and dynamic behaviors. However, this effect is seldom directly observed, and some of the related phenomena are not well understood. Moreover, a reliable method to quantify the DW surface energy is still absent. Here, we report a series of experiments in which the DW surface energy becomes a dominant parameter. We observe that a semicircular magnetic domain bubble can spontaneously collapse under the Laplace pressure induced by DW surface energy. We further demonstrate that the surface energy can lead to a geometrically induced pinning when the DW propagates in a Hall cross or from a nanowire into a nucleation pad. Based on these observations, we develop two methods to quantify the DW surface energy, which can be very helpful in the estimation of intrinsic parameters such as Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions or exchange stiffness in magnetic ultrathin films.

  18. Tension Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tight band around your head. A tension headache (tension-type headache) is the most common type of headache, and ... Headache after a head injury, especially if the headache gets worse ... tension or stress. But research suggests muscle contraction isn't the ...

  19. Mapping of immunogenic and protein-interacting regions at the surface of the seven-bladed β-propeller domain of the HIV-1 cellular interactor EED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouet Patrice

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human EED protein, a member of the superfamily of Polycomb group proteins, is involved in multiple cellular protein complexes. Its C-terminal domain, which is common to the four EED isoforms, contains seven repeats of a canonical WD-40 motif. EED is an interactor of three HIV-1 proteins, matrix (MA, integrase (IN and Nef. An antiviral activity has been found to be associated with isoforms EED3 and EED4 at the late stage of HIV-1 replication, due to a negative effect on virus assembly and genomic RNA packaging. The aim of the present study was to determine the regions of the EED C-terminal core domain which were accessible and available to protein interactions, using three-dimensional (3D protein homology modelling with a WD-40 protein of known structure, and epitope mapping of anti-EED antibodies. Results Our data suggested that the C-terminal domain of EED was folded as a seven-bladed β-propeller protein. During the completion of our work, crystallographic data of EED became available from co-crystals of the EED C-terminal core with the N-terminal domain of its cellular partner EZH2. Our 3D-model was in good congruence with the refined structural model determined from crystallographic data, except for a unique α-helix in the fourth β-blade. More importantly, the position of flexible loops and accessible β-strands on the β-propeller was consistent with our mapping of immunogenic epitopes and sites of interaction with HIV-1 MA and IN. Certain immunoreactive regions were found to overlap with the EZH2, MA and IN binding sites, confirming their accessibility and reactivity at the surface of EED. Crystal structure of EED showed that the two discrete regions of interaction with MA and IN did not overlap with each other, nor with the EZH2 binding pocket, but were contiguous, and formed a continuous binding groove running along the lateral face of the β-propeller. Conclusion Identification of antibody-, MA-, IN- and EZH2

  20. Influence of Contact Angle, Growth Angle and Melt Surface Tension on Detached Solidification of InSb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yazhen; Regel, Liya L.; Wilcox, William R.

    2000-01-01

    We extended the previous analysis of detached solidification of InSb based on the moving meniscus model. We found that for steady detached solidification to occur in a sealed ampoule in zero gravity, it is necessary for the growth angle to exceed a critical value, the contact angle for the melt on the ampoule wall to exceed a critical value, and the melt-gas surface tension to be below a critical value. These critical values would depend on the material properties and the growth parameters. For the conditions examined here, the sum of the growth angle and the contact angle must exceed approximately 130, which is significantly less than required if both ends of the ampoule are open.

  1. Effects of non-uniform temperature gradients on surface tension driven two component magneto convection in a porous- fluid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, N.; Sumithra, R.

    2018-04-01

    The problem of surface tension driven two component magnetoconvection is investigated in a Porous-Fluid system, consisting of anincompressible two component electrically conducting fluid saturatedporous layer above which lies a layer of the same fluid in the presence of a uniform vertical magnetic field. The lower boundary of the porous layeris rigid and the upper boundary of the fluid layer is free with surfacetension effects depending on both temperature and concentration, boththese boundaries are insulating to heat and mass. At the interface thevelocity, shear and normal stress, heat and heat flux, mass and mass fluxare assumed to be continuous suitable for Darcy-Brinkman model. Theeigenvalue problem is solved in linear, parabolic and inverted parabolictemperature profiles and the corresponding Thermal Marangoni Numberis obtained for different important physical parameters.

  2. Mean field diffusion models for precipitation in crystalline GaAs including surface tension and bulk stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, Wolfgang [Weierstrass-Institut fuer Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik (WIAS) im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (Germany); Kimmerle, Sven-Joachim [Humboldt-Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics

    2009-07-01

    Based on a thermodynamically consistent model for precipitation in gallium arsenide crystals including surface tension and bulk stresses by Dreyer and Duderstadt, we propose different mathematical models to describe the size evolution of liquid droplets in a crystalline solid. The first class of models treats the diffusion-controlled regime of interface motion, while the second class is concerned with the interface-controlled regime of interface motion. Our models take care of conservation of mass and substance. We consider homogenised models, where different length scales of the experimental situation have been exploited in order to simplify the equations. These homogenised models generalise the well-known Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner model for Ostwald ripening. Mean field models capture the main properties of our system and are well adapted for numerics and further analysis. Numerical evidence suggests in which case which one of the two regimes might be appropriate to the experimental situation. (orig.)

  3. Surface tension, density, and speed of sound for the ternary mixture {l_brace}diethyl carbonate + p-xylene + decane{r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosteiro, Laura; Casas, Lidia M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Legido, Jose L. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain)], E-mail: xllegido@uvigo.es

    2009-05-15

    This paper reports the results of a new experimental study of thermophysical properties for the ternary mixture of {l_brace}diethyl carbonate + p-xylene + decane{r_brace}. Surface tension has been measured at 298.15 K and, density and speed of sound have been measured in the temperature range T = (288.15 to 308.15) K. Excess molar volumes, excess isentropic compressibilities, and surface tension deviations, have been calculated from experimental data. Surface tension deviations have been correlated with Cibulka equation and Nagata and Tamura equation was used for the other excess properties. Good accuracy has been obtained. These excess magnitudes are discussed qualitatively in terms of the nature and type of intermolecular interactions of the components involved.

  4. Effects of the kinematic viscosity and surface tension on the bubble take-off period in a catalase-hydrogen peroxide system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Satoshi; Iida, Yoshinori

    2009-06-01

    The effect of kinematic viscosity and surface tension of the solution was investigated by adding catalase, glucose oxidase, or glucose on the bubble movement in a catalase-hydrogen peroxide system. The kinematic viscosity was measured using a Cannon-Fenske kinematic viscometer. The surface tension of the solution was measured by the Wilhelmy method using a self-made apparatus. The effects of the hole diameter/cell wall thickness, catalase concentration, glucose concentration, and glucose oxidase concentration on the kinematic viscosity, surface tension, and bubble take-off period were investigated. With our system, the effects of the changes in the solution materiality on the bubble take-off period were proven to be very small in comparison to the change in the oxygen-producing rate.

  5. Simulation of Two-Fluid Flows by the Least-Squares Finite Element Method Using a Continuum Surface Tension Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Yu, Sheng-Tao; Jiang, Bo-nan

    1996-01-01

    In this paper a numerical procedure for simulating two-fluid flows is presented. This procedure is based on the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method proposed by Hirt and Nichols and the continuum surface force (CSF) model developed by Brackbill, et al. In the VOF method fluids of different properties are identified through the use of a continuous field variable (color function). The color function assigns a unique constant (color) to each fluid. The interfaces between different fluids are distinct due to sharp gradients of the color function. The evolution of the interfaces is captured by solving the convective equation of the color function. The CSF model is used as a means to treat surface tension effect at the interfaces. Here a modified version of the CSF model, proposed by Jacqmin, is used to calculate the tension force. In the modified version, the force term is obtained by calculating the divergence of a stress tensor defined by the gradient of the color function. In its analytical form, this stress formulation is equivalent to the original CSF model. Numerically, however, the use of the stress formulation has some advantages over the original CSF model, as it bypasses the difficulty in approximating the curvatures of the interfaces. The least-squares finite element method (LSFEM) is used to discretize the governing equation systems. The LSFEM has proven to be effective in solving incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and pure convection equations, making it an ideal candidate for the present applications. The LSFEM handles all the equations in a unified manner without any additional special treatment such as upwinding or artificial dissipation. Various bench mark tests have been carried out for both two dimensional planar and axisymmetric flows, including a dam breaking, oscillating and stationary bubbles and a conical liquid sheet in a pressure swirl atomizer.

  6. Flow and Displacement of Non-Newtonian Fluid(Power-Law Model) by Surface Tension and Gravity Force in Inclined Circular Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moh, Jeong Hah; Cho, Y. I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical analysis of a flow driven by surface tension and gravity in an inclined circular tube. A governing equation is developed for describing the displacement of a non-Newtonian fluid(Power-law model) that continuously flows into a circular tube owing to surface tension, which represents a second-order, nonlinear, non-homogeneous, and ordinary differential form. It was found that quantitatively, the theoretical predictions of the governing equation were in excellent agreement with the solutions of the equation for horizontal tubes and the past experimental data. In addition, the predictions compared very well with the results of the force balance equation for steady

  7. Effect of temperature and chain length on the viscosity and surface tension of binary systems of N,N-dimethylformamide with 1-octanol, 1-nonanol and 1-decanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, Abubaker A.; Alkhaldi, Khaled H.A.E.; AlTuwaim, Mohammad S.; Al-Jimaz, Adel S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of temperature and chain length on η and σ of DMF + 1-alkanol binary systems. • Viscosity and surface tension were obtained. • Δη, Δσ and G ∗E were calculated using the experimental data. • H σ and S σ were determined using the surface tension data. • Semi-empirical relations were used to estimate the viscosity of liquid mixtures. - Abstract: Viscosity and surface tension of binary systems of N,N-dimethylformamide DMF with higher 1-alkanols (C 8 –C 10 ) were measured at atmospheric pressure and four different temperatures over the entire range of mole fraction. The experimental measurements were used to calculate the deviations in viscosity and surface tension. Furthermore, the excess Gibbs free energy of activation, surface enthalpy and surface entropy of the (DMF + 1-alkanols) binary mixtures were determined. In addition, the deviation and excess properties were fitted to the method of Redlich–Kister (R–K) polynomial. Viscosity data of the binary systems were correlated with three different expressions (Grunberg and Nissan, the three-body, and four-body McAllister). The effects of the chain length of the higher 1-alkanols and temperature were investigated

  8. The effect of surface tension on the contraction coefficient of a jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasmi, A; Mekias, H

    2003-01-01

    Two-dimensional free surface potential flow issued from an opening of a container is considered. The flow is assumed to be inviscid and incompressible. The mathematical problem, which is characterized by the nonlinear boundary condition on the free surface of an unknown equation, is solved via a series truncation. We computed solutions for all Weber numbers. Our problem is an extension of the work done by Ackerberg and Liu (1987 Phys. Fluids 30 289-96), the results confirm and extend their results

  9. Determination of enthalpy, temperature, surface tension and geometry of the material transfer in PGMAW for the system argon–iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siewert, E; Schein, J; Forster, G

    2013-01-01

    The metal transfer is a fundamental process in gas metal arc welding, which substantially determines the shape of the weld seam and strongly influences arc formation and stability. In this investigation the material transfer from the wire electrode (anode) to the workpiece (cathode) is analysed experimentally with high accuracy using various innovative diagnostic techniques for a pulsed gas metal arc welding (PGMAW) process. A high-speed two-colour pyrometer, a calorimeter, thermocouples, a stereo optical setup and a droplet oscillation technique are used to analyse a precisely defined PGMAW process. Thus, results obtained are verified by different measurement techniques and enable a comprehensive description of the material transfer procedure. The surface temperature of both electrodes as well as the droplet temperature, enthalpy and surface tension were determined. Furthermore, the geometry of the arc, wire, droplets and weld pool were extracted in three dimensions in order to describe the interaction between the material transfer and the formation of the weld seam. The experiments are performed using argon as shielding gas and pure iron as filler and base material to reduce complex chemical processes. It turned out that the wire feed rate has the biggest influence on droplet temperature and detachment. A correlation between weld pool formation and weld pool surface temperature gradient was observed, which is mainly a function of welding speed and wire feed rate. The experimental results obtained provide a detailed data pool for use in modelling. (paper)

  10. The influence of the choice of propeller design tool on propeller performance

    OpenAIRE

    Skåland, Edvard Knutsen

    2016-01-01

    In this master thesis different propeller design and analysis methods are presented and compared in terms of the accuracy and computational efficiency of their theory. These methods include lifting line, vortex lattice lifting surface and panel methods. A propeller design program based on lifting line theory was developed by the author. This program has been used together with the propeller design programs OpenProp and AKPD to make six propeller designs. The designs are based o...

  11. KINEMATICAL FEATURES OF FORMATION OF A FLANGE WITH MINIMUM TENSION OF A TRANSIENT TOROIDAL SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Sidorenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The technology of plastic forming of wide flanges in tube billets with the predicted length of the transitional toroidal section between the outer plane of the flange and the internal cavity of the pipe is proposed. The procedure for calculating the length of this section is given. In order to eliminate the toroidal portion in the flange formed during the flanging of the pipe, it is proposed to perform its plastic shaping by depositing the cylindrical part of the workpiece. Equations for calculating the extent of the free surface on the toroidal part of the workpiece when it is shaped, depending on the coefficient of contact friction and the presence of a radial support of the flange are obtained. The variant of forming in the flange the toroidal section in the stamp with the compensation cavity is proposed. Equations for calculating the deformation force and the extent of the free surface are given.

  12. Computer modeling of the dynamics of surface tension on rotating fluids in low and microgravity environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Tsao, Y. D.; Hong, B. B.; Leslie, Fred W.

    1989-01-01

    Time-dependent evolutions of the profile of the free surface (bubble shapes) for a cylindrical container partially filled with a Newtonian fluid of constant density, rotating about its axis of symmetry, have been studied. Numerical computations have been carried out with the following situations: (1) linear functions of spin-up and spin-down in low- and microgravity environments, (2) linear functions of increasing and decreasing gravity environments at high- and low-rotating cylinder speeds, and (3) step functions of spin-up and spin-down in a low-gravity environment.

  13. Time-dependent dynamical behavior of surface tension on rotating fluids under microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Tsao, Y. D.; Hong, B. B.; Leslie, F. W.

    1988-01-01

    Time dependent evolutions of the profile of free surface (bubble shapes) for a cylindrical container partially filled with a Newtonian fluid of constant density, rotating about its axis of symmetry, have been studied. Numerical computations of the dynamics of bubble shapes have been carried out with the following situations: (1) linear functions of spin-up and spin-down in low and microgravity environments, (2) step functions of spin-up and spin-down in a low gravity environment, and (3) sinusoidal function oscillation of gravity environment in high and low rotating cylinder speeds.

  14. J-integral and limit load analysis of semi-elliptical surface cracks in plates under tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Systematic detailed non-linear finite element (FE) analyses are described for semi-elliptical surface cracks in plates under tension. Limit load solutions are obtained from the FE J results through the reference stress method. The results show that the type of the relationship between J and the limit load mainly depends on the ratio a/t, where a is the crack depth and t the thickness of the plate. For a/t≤0.5, J for any position along the crack front can be predicted by the reference stress method using a single limit load value, except for the points very close to the plate surface. For a/t=0.8, J can only be approximately estimated because no single limit load value can be found to satisfy all the FE J solutions along the crack front. However, for all cases considered, the maximum J value along the crack front can still be predicted by using the global limit load in the reference stress method. The limit load data obtained from this work can be well predicted by a global limit load equation developed by Goodall and Webster

  15. Marangoni instability in a thin film heated from below: Effect of nonmonotonic dependence of surface tension on temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Rajkumar; Mondal, Pranab Kumar

    2018-04-01

    We investigate Marangoni instability in a thin liquid film resting on a substrate of low thermal conductivity and separated from the surrounding gas phase by a deformable free surface. Considering a nonmonotonic variation of surface tension with temperature, here we analytically derive the neutral stability curve for the monotonic and oscillatory modes of instability (for both the long-wave and short-wave perturbations) under the framework of linear stability analysis. For the long-wave instability, we derive a set of amplitude equations using the scaling k ˜(Bi) 1 /2 , where k is the wave number and Bi is the Biot number. Through this investigation, we demonstrate that for such a fluid layer upon heating from below, both monotonic and oscillatory instability can appear for a certain range of the dimensionless parameters, viz., Biot number (Bi ) , Galileo number (Ga ) , and inverse capillary number (Σ ) . Moreover, we unveil, through this study, the influential role of the above-mentioned parameters on the stability of the system and identify the critical values of these parameters above which instability initiates in the liquid layer.

  16. Surface tensions of multi-component mixed inorganic/organic aqueous systems of atmospheric significance: measurements, model predictions and importance for cloud activation predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Topping

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict the physical properties of aerosol particles, it is necessary to adequately capture the behaviour of the ubiquitous complex organic components. One of the key properties which may affect this behaviour is the contribution of the organic components to the surface tension of aqueous particles in the moist atmosphere. Whilst the qualitative effect of organic compounds on solution surface tensions has been widely reported, our quantitative understanding on mixed organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems is limited. Furthermore, it is unclear whether models that exist in the literature can reproduce the surface tension variability for binary and higher order multi-component organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems of atmospheric significance. The current study aims to resolve both issues to some extent. Surface tensions of single and multiple solute aqueous solutions were measured and compared with predictions from a number of model treatments. On comparison with binary organic systems, two predictive models found in the literature provided a range of values resulting from sensitivity to calculations of pure component surface tensions. Results indicate that a fitted model can capture the variability of the measured data very well, producing the lowest average percentage deviation for all compounds studied. The performance of the other models varies with compound and choice of model parameters. The behaviour of ternary mixed inorganic/organic systems was unreliably captured by using a predictive scheme and this was dependent on the composition of the solutes present. For more atmospherically representative higher order systems, entirely predictive schemes performed poorly. It was found that use of the binary data in a relatively simple mixing rule, or modification of an existing thermodynamic model with parameters derived from binary data, was able to accurately capture the surface tension variation with concentration. Thus

  17. Group contribution and parachor analysis of experimental data on densities and surface tension for six ionic liquids with the [PF6] anion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klomfar, Jaroslav; Součková, Monika; Pátek, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 385, January (2015), s. 62-71 ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00145S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : ionic liquid * density * surface tension * odd-even effect Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.846, year: 2015

  18. Surface tension-induced PDMS micro-pillars with controllable tips and tilt angles

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei; Fan, Yiqiang; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Foulds, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a novel method to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro-pillars using a CO2 laser-machined poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) mold with through-holes. This method eliminates the requirements of expensive and complicated facilities to fabricate a 3D mold. The micro-pillars were formed by the capillary force that draws PDMS into the through-holes of the PMMA mold. The tilt angles of the micro-pillars depend on the tilt angles of the through-holes in the mold, and the concave and convex micro-lens tip shapes of the PDMS micro-pillars can be modified by changing the surface wettability of the PMMA through-holes.

  19. Surface tension-induced PDMS micro-pillars with controllable tips and tilt angles

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei

    2013-12-21

    This paper reports a novel method to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro-pillars using a CO2 laser-machined poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) mold with through-holes. This method eliminates the requirements of expensive and complicated facilities to fabricate a 3D mold. The micro-pillars were formed by the capillary force that draws PDMS into the through-holes of the PMMA mold. The tilt angles of the micro-pillars depend on the tilt angles of the through-holes in the mold, and the concave and convex micro-lens tip shapes of the PDMS micro-pillars can be modified by changing the surface wettability of the PMMA through-holes.

  20. Dynamical behavior of surface tension on rotating fluids in low and microgravity environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Tsao, Y. D.; Hong, B. B.; Leslie, F. W.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to the time-dependent evolutions of the free surface profile (bubble shapes) of a cylindrical container, partially filled with a Newtonian fluid of constant density, rotating about its axis of symmetry in low and microgravity environments. The dynamics of the bubble shapes are calculated for four cases: linear time-dependent functions of spin-up and spin-down in low and microgravity, linear time-dependent functions of increasing and decreasing gravity at high and low rotating cylinder speeds, time-dependent step functions of spin-up and spin-down in low gravity, and sinusoidal function oscillation of the gravity environment in high and low rotating cylinder speeds. It is shown that the computer algorithms developed by Hung et al. (1988) may be used to simulate the profile of time-dependent bubble shapes under variations of centrifugal, capillary, and gravity forces.

  1. Experimental Investigation of the Self-Propelled Motion of a Sodium Oleate Tablet and Boat at an Oil-Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watahiki, Yasuhito; Nomoto, Tomonori; Chiari, Luca; Toyota, Taro; Fujinami, Masanori

    2018-05-15

    The self-propelled behaviors of macroscopic inanimate objects at surfaces and interfaces are ubiquitous phenomena of fundamental interest in interface science. However, given the existence of a large variety of systems with their own inherent chemical properties, the kinematics of the self-propelled motion and the dynamics of the forces driving these systems often remain largely unknown. Here, we experimentally investigate the spontaneous motion of a sodium oleate tablet at a water-nitrobenzene interface, under nonequilibrium and global isothermal conditions, through measurements of the interfacial tension with the noninvasive, quasi-elastic laser scattering method. The sodium oleate tablet was self-propelled due to an imbalance in the interfacial tension induced by the inhomogeneous adsorption of oleate/oleic acid molecules. The kinetics of the self-propelled motion of a boat-shaped plastic sheet bearing sodium oleate tablets at a sodium oleate aqueous solution-nitrobenzene interface was also studied. The interfacial tension difference between the front and rear of the boat was quantitatively identified as the force pushing the boat forward, although the Marangoni flow due to the uneven distribution of the interfacial tension behind the boat tended to decelerate the motion.

  2. Viscosity and surface tension effects during multiphase flow in propped fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzikowski, Michał; Dąbrowski, Marcin

    2017-04-01

    Geological sequestration of CO2 was proposed as an important mechanism to reduce its emission into atmosphere. CO2 exhibits a higher affinity to organic matter than methane molecules and, potentially, it could be pumped and stored in shale reservoirs while enhancing late stage shale gas production. A successful analysis of CO2 sequestration in low matrix permeability rocks such as shales requires a thorough understanding of multiphase flow in stimulated rock fractures, which provide most significant pathways for fluids in such systems. Multiphase fracture flows are also of great relevance to brine, oil and gas migration in petroleum systems, water and stream circulation in geothermal reservoirs, and chemical transport of non-aqueous phase liquids in shallow hydrogeological systems, particularly in partially saturated zones. There are various physical models that describe phenomena taking place during multiphase flow through porous media. One of key aspects that need to be considered are pore-scale effects related to capillarity. Unfortunately, detailed models that describe motion and evolution of phase or component boundary require direct numerical simulations and spatial resolutions that are hard to reach when considering industrial relevant systems. Main aim of the presented work was the development of reduced 2.5D models based on Brinkman approximation of thin domain flow that would be able to capture local scale phenomena without expensive 3D simulations. Presented approach was designed specifically to tackle incompressible and immiscible systems and is based on Continuous Surface Force approach presented by Brackbill et al., implemented using Lattice Boltzmann Method. Presented approach where firstly validated against standard test cases with known classical solution and known experimental data. In the second part, we present and discuss two component, immiscible permeability data for rough and propped fracture obtained with our code for a rage of proppants

  3. Investigation of wettability to evaluate the morphology and surface tension wood filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new scheme of a highly efficient line for preparing safflower grains for processing consisting of an air-sieve separator, a magnetic separator, an ovary, a puppet, and a stone picker. The new after vortex separator is a vibroseparator for separating the products close in physical properties, grinding Machine with a duo-aspirator, a photoseparator and a device for moisture-thermal treatment. Advantages of the proposed line for preparation of safflower grain for processing are that an additional plant in front of the photocarerator of the grinding machine and duo-espirator allows the crest to separate and remove or refine the shell of the seed in the form of a shell layer for more efficient subsequent spectral point analysis, which determines the grain composition for the purpose of sorting it On the basis of chemical composition and color in the photo separator, and sequential placement after the stone separator of a vibro separator for separation of products close in physical properties, a grinding machine with a duo-aspirator, a photoseparator and a device for moisture-thermal treatment, provides an intensification of the technological process of efficient separation of safflower from impurities and its preparation for further processing and Due to the rational layout of equipment.A highly efficient photocell separator is also provided, the advantages of which are that the installation of a storage and vibrating feeder in relation to the slanting tray from the back side and the execution of a smooth curved transition to the vibrating feeder in the upper part of the pitcher allows improving the separation of grain products by reducing the amplitude of grain oscillations, Caused by a rebound from the surface of the tray during the loading of the sorted material from the vibrating feeder.

  4. Facile and rapid DNA extraction and purification from food matrices using IFAST (immiscible filtration assisted by surface tension).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotman, Lindsay N; Lin, Guangyun; Berry, Scott M; Johnson, Eric A; Beebe, David J

    2012-09-07

    Extraction and purification of DNA is a prerequisite to detection and analytical techniques. While DNA sample preparation methods have improved over the last few decades, current methods are still time consuming and labor intensive. Here we demonstrate a technology termed IFAST (Immiscible Filtration Assisted by Surface Tension), that relies on immiscible phase filtration to reduce the time and effort required to purify DNA. IFAST replaces the multiple wash and centrifugation steps required by traditional DNA sample preparation methods with a single step. To operate, DNA from lysed cells is bound to paramagnetic particles (PMPs) and drawn through an immiscible fluid phase barrier (i.e. oil) by an external handheld magnet. Purified DNA is then eluted from the PMPs. Here, detection of Clostridium botulinum type A (BoNT/A) in food matrices (milk, orange juice), a bioterrorism concern, was used as a model system to establish IFAST's utility in detection assays. Data validated that the DNA purified by IFAST was functional as a qPCR template to amplify the bont/A gene. The sensitivity limit of IFAST was comparable to the commercially available Invitrogen ChargeSwitch® method. Notably, pathogen detection via IFAST required only 8.5 μL of sample and was accomplished in five-fold less time. The simplicity, rapidity and portability of IFAST offer significant advantages when compared to existing DNA sample preparation methods.

  5. Process for the leaching of AP from propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, G. C.; Mcintosh, M. J. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A method for the recovery of ammonium perchlorate from waste solid rocket propellant is described wherein shredded particles of the propellant are leached with an aqueous leach solution containing a low concentration of surface active agent while stirring the suspension.

  6. Free surface flow under gravity and surface tension due to an applied pressure distribution: i Bond number greater than one-third

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleewong, Montri; Asavanant, Jack [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Mathematics and Advanced Virtual Intelligence Computing Center, Bangkok (Thailand); Grimshaw, Roger [Loughborough University, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-01

    We consider steady free surface two-dimensional flow due to a localized applied pressure distribution under the effects of both gravity and surface tension in water of constant depth, and in the presence of a uniform stream. The fluid is assumed to be inviscid and incompressible, and the flow is irrotational. The behavior of the forced nonlinear waves is characterized by three parameters: the Froude number, F, the Bond number, {tau}>1/3, and the magnitude and sign of the pressure forcing parameter {epsilon}. The fully nonlinear wave problem is solved numerically by using a boundary integral method. For small amplitude waves and F<1 but not too close to 1, linear theory gives a good prediction for the numerical solution of the nonlinear problem in the case of bifurcation from the uniform flow. As F approaches 1, the nonlinear terms need to be taken account of. In this case the forced Korteweg-de Vries equation is found to be an appropriate model to describe bifurcations from an unforced solitary wave. In general, it is found that for given values of F<1 and {tau}>1/3, there exists both elevation and depression waves. In some cases, a limiting configuration in the form of a trapped bubble occurs in the depression wave solutions. (orig.)

  7. Propelling a water drop with the vapor-mediated Marangoni effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungho; Kim, Ho-Young

    2013-11-01

    We show that a water drop on solid surfaces can be propelled just by placing a volatile alcohol drop nearby. It is found to be because the water-air interface near the alcohol drop mixes with alcohol vapor, thereby locally lowering the surface tension. The surface-tension-gradient induces the motion of the water drop, enabling the trajectory control of water drops through the motion of remote alcohol drops. This vapor-mediated Marangoni effect also gives rise to other interesting interfacial flow phenomena, such as nucleation of holes on a water film and ballooning of a water drop hanging from a syringe needle with the approach of an alcohol drop. We visualize such interfacial dynamics with a high-speed camera and rationalize their salient features by scaling analysis. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (grant no. 2012-008023).

  8. Perancangan Propeler Self-Propelled Barge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy Teguh kurniawan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Makalah ini menyampaikan suatu penelitian tentang perancangan propeler yang optimal beserta pemilihan daya mesin yang efisien pada self-propelled barge dengan memperhitungkan besarnya nilai tahanan dari barge tersebut. Dengan penambahan sistem propulsi, diharapkan barge dapat beroperasi dengan lebih efisien dibandingkan saat barge beroperasi menggunakan sistem towing atau ditarik tug boat. Perhitungan tahanan barge dilakukan menggunakan metode Holtrop dan Guldhammer-Harvald sehingga dapat diperhi-tungkan geometri dan jenis propeler yang optimal beserta daya mesin yang efisien untuk barge. Propeler yang dianalisis adalah propeler tipe B-Troost Series, sedangkan variasi yang dilakukan untuk perencanaan propeler pada kajian ini adalah variasi putaran propeler pada rentang antara 310-800 rpm, serta variasi jumlah daun pada rentang tiga, empat, lima, dan enam. Besarnya nilai tahanan self-propelled barge untuk metode Holtrop adalah 105.91 kilonewton, sedangkan hasil per-hitungan dari metode Guldhammer-Harvald didapatkan nilai sebesar 109.14 kilonewton. Tipe propeler yang dipilih setelah dilakukan uji kavitasi adalah tipe Troost Series B4-40, dengan diameter sebesar 2.1 m, efisiensi sebesar 0.421, pitch ratio se-besar 0.591, dengan putaran propeler 400 rpm. Daya mesin yg dibutuhkan barge pada kondisi maksimum (BHPMCR sebesar 1669.5 HP. Dengan mempertimbangkan daya tersebut, maka dipilih mesin jenis Caterpillar tipe Marine 3516B yang mem-punyai daya maksimum sebesar 1285 kilowatt atau 1722.5 horsepower dengan putaran mesin sebesar 1200 rpm

  9. Determination of the Critical Micelle Concentration of Neutral and Ionic Surfactants with Fluorometry, Conductometry, and Surface Tension-A Method Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Norman; Behnke, Thomas; Resch-Genger, Ute

    2018-01-01

    Micelles are of increasing importance as versatile carriers for hydrophobic substances and nanoprobes for a wide range of pharmaceutical, diagnostic, medical, and therapeutic applications. A key parameter indicating the formation and stability of micelles is the critical micelle concentration (CMC). In this respect, we determined the CMC of common anionic, cationic, and non-ionic surfactants fluorometrically using different fluorescent probes and fluorescence parameters for signal detection and compared the results with conductometric and surface tension measurements. Based upon these results, requirements, advantages, and pitfalls of each method are discussed. Our study underlines the versatility of fluorometric methods that do not impose specific requirements on surfactants and are especially suited for the quantification of very low CMC values. Conductivity and surface tension measurements yield smaller uncertainties particularly for high CMC values, yet are more time- and substance consuming and not suitable for every surfactant.

  10. A molecular dynamics investigation of the surface tension of water nanodroplets and a new technique for local pressure determination through density correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Kai-Yang; Wang, Feng

    2018-04-01

    The surface tension of nanoscale droplets of water was studied with molecular dynamics simulations using the BLYPSP-4F water potential. The internal pressure of the droplet was measured using an empirical correlation between the pressure and density, established through a series of bulk simulations performed at pressures from 1 to 1000 bars. Such a procedure allows for reliable determination of internal pressure without the need to calculate the local virial. The surface tension, estimated with the Young-Laplace relation, shows good agreement with the Tolman equation with a Tolman length of -0.48 Å. The interface of a liquid water droplet is shown to be around 1.1-1.3 nm thick depending on radii. The fairly thick interface region puts a lower limit on the size of droplets that still have a bulk-like interior.

  11. Temperature Dependence of the Surface Tension and Density at 0.1 MPa for 1-Ethyl- and 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Dicyanamide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klomfar, Jaroslav; Součková, Monika; Pátek, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 8 (2011), s. 3454-3462 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/0010; GA AV ČR IAA200760701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : surface tension * density * dicyanamide * experimental data Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.693, year: 2011 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/je200502j

  12. Surface tension and 0.1 MPa densities of imidazolium-, pyridinium-, pyrrolidinium-, and piperidinium-based tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ionic liquids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Součková, Monika; Klomfar, Jaroslav; Pátek, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 333, NOV 15 2012 (2012), s. 38-46 ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/0010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : ionic liquid * tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate * density * surface tension Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.379, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037838121200310X

  13. Surface tension and density for members of four ionic liquid homologous series containing a pyridinium based-cation and the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klomfar, Jaroslav; Součková, Monika; Pátek, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 431, January (2017), s. 24-33 ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00145S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : ionic liquid * pyridinium-based cation * bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion * density-temperature relation * surface tension-temperature relation * recommended property values Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics OBOR OECD: Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.473, year: 2016

  14. Determination of the enthalpy of vaporization and prediction of surface tension for ionic liquid 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium propionate [C(n)mim][Pro](n = 4, 5, 6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jing; Yang, Hong-Xu; Liu, Ru-Jing; Li, Chi; Xia, Li-Xin; Yang, Jia-Zhen

    2014-11-13

    With the use of isothermogravimetrical analysis, the enthalpies of vaporization, Δ(g)lH(o)m(T(av)), at the average temperature, T(av) = 445.65 K, for the ionic liquids (ILs) 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium propionate [C(n)mim][Pro](n = 4, 5, 6) were determined. Using Verevkin's method, the difference of heat capacities between the vapor phase and the liquid phase, Δ(g)lC(p)(o)m, for [C(n)mim][Pro](n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6), were calculated based on the statistical thermodynamics. Therefore, with the use of Δ(g)lC(p)(o)m, the values of Δ(g)lH(o)m(T(av)) were transformed into Δ(g)lH(o)m(298), 126.8, 130.3, and 136.5 for [C(n)mim][Pro](n = 4, 5, 6), respectively. In terms of the new scale of polarity for ILs, the order of the polarity of [C(n)mim][Pro](n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) was predicted, that is, the polarity decreases with increasing methylene. A new model of the relationship between the surface tension and the enthalpy of vaporization for aprotic ILs was put forward and used to predict the surface tension for [C(n)mim][Pro](n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) and others. The predicted surface tension for the ILs is in good agreement with the experimental one.

  15. The application of computational thermodynamics and a numerical model for the determination of surface tension and Gibbs-Thomson coefficient of aluminum based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacome, Paulo A.D.; Landim, Mariana C.; Garcia, Amauri; Furtado, Alexandre F.; Ferreira, Ivaldo L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Surface tension and the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient are computed for Al-based alloys. → Butler's scheme and ThermoCalc are used to compute the thermophysical properties. → Predictive cell/dendrite growth models depend on accurate thermophysical properties. → Mechanical properties can be related to the microstructural cell/dendrite spacing. - Abstract: In this paper, a solution for Butler's formulation is presented permitting the surface tension and the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient of Al-based binary alloys to be determined. The importance of Gibbs-Thomson coefficient for binary alloys is related to the reliability of predictions furnished by predictive cellular and dendritic growth models and of numerical computations of solidification thermal variables, which will be strongly dependent on the thermophysical properties assumed for the calculations. A numerical model based on Powell hybrid algorithm and a finite difference Jacobian approximation was coupled to a specific interface of a computational thermodynamics software in order to assess the excess Gibbs energy of the liquid phase, permitting the surface tension and Gibbs-Thomson coefficient for Al-Fe, Al-Ni, Al-Cu and Al-Si hypoeutectic alloys to be calculated. The computed results are presented as a function of the alloy composition.

  16. The application of computational thermodynamics and a numerical model for the determination of surface tension and Gibbs-Thomson coefficient of aluminum based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacome, Paulo A.D.; Landim, Mariana C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Fluminense Federal University, Av. dos Trabalhadores, 420-27255-125 Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Amauri, E-mail: amaurig@fem.unicamp.br [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, PO Box 6122, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Furtado, Alexandre F.; Ferreira, Ivaldo L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Fluminense Federal University, Av. dos Trabalhadores, 420-27255-125 Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-08-20

    Highlights: {yields} Surface tension and the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient are computed for Al-based alloys. {yields} Butler's scheme and ThermoCalc are used to compute the thermophysical properties. {yields} Predictive cell/dendrite growth models depend on accurate thermophysical properties. {yields} Mechanical properties can be related to the microstructural cell/dendrite spacing. - Abstract: In this paper, a solution for Butler's formulation is presented permitting the surface tension and the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient of Al-based binary alloys to be determined. The importance of Gibbs-Thomson coefficient for binary alloys is related to the reliability of predictions furnished by predictive cellular and dendritic growth models and of numerical computations of solidification thermal variables, which will be strongly dependent on the thermophysical properties assumed for the calculations. A numerical model based on Powell hybrid algorithm and a finite difference Jacobian approximation was coupled to a specific interface of a computational thermodynamics software in order to assess the excess Gibbs energy of the liquid phase, permitting the surface tension and Gibbs-Thomson coefficient for Al-Fe, Al-Ni, Al-Cu and Al-Si hypoeutectic alloys to be calculated. The computed results are presented as a function of the alloy composition.

  17. Effect of viscosity and surface tension on the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor instability and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability under nonlinear domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahul Banerjee; Khan, M.; Mandal, L.K.; Roy, S.; Gupta, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability and Richtmyer-Meshkov (R-M) instability are well known problems in the formation of some astrophysical structures such as the supernova remnants in the Eagle and Crab nebula. A core collapse supernova is driven by an externally powerful shock, and strong shocks are the breeding ground of hydrodynamic instability such as Rayleigh-Taylor instability or Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. These instabilities are also important issues in the design of targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). In an ICF target, a high density fluid is frequently accelerated by the pressure of a low density fluid and after ablation the density quickly decays. So, small ripples at such an interface will grow. Under potential flow model, the perturbed interface between heavier fluid and lighter fluid form bubble and spike like structures. The bubbles are in the form of columns of lighter fluid interleaved by falling spike of heavy fluid. In this paper, we like to presented the effect of viscosity and surface tension on Rayleigh-Taylor instability and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability under the non-linear Layzer's approach and described the displacement curvature, growth and velocity of the tip of the bubble as well as spike. It is seen that, in absence of surface tension the lowering of the asymptotic velocity of the tip of the bubble which is formed when the lighter fluid penetrates into the denser fluid and thus encounters the viscous drag due to the denser fluid, which depends only on the denser fluid's viscosity coefficient. On the other hand the asymptotic velocity of the tip of the spike formed as the denser fluid penetrates into the lighter fluid is reduced by an amount which depends only on the viscosity coefficient of the lighter fluid and the spike is resisted by the viscous drag due to the lighter fluid. However, in presence of surface tension the asymptotic velocity of the tip of the bubble (spike) and

  18. Tension headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, D K

    1978-05-01

    Headache is an extremely common symptom, and many headaches undoubtedly have a relationship to stressful situations. The clear definition, however, of a "tension headache" complex and its differentiation from migraine in some patients is difficult. The problems are in the identification of a specific headache pattern induced by stress or "tension" and the relationship of the symptom to involuntary contraction of neck and scalp muscles. Treatment consists of analgesics and occasionally mild tranquilizers. Psychotherapy consists of reassurance and often other supportive measures, including modification of life styles. Various feedback techniques have been reported of value, but their superiority to suggestion and hypnosis is still problematic.

  19. Tip-modified Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with tip-modified propellers and the methods which, over a period of two decades, have been applied to develop such propellers. The development is driven by the urge to increase the efficiency of propellers and can be seen as analogous to fitting end plates and winglets to aircraft...... propeller, have efficiency increases of a reasonable magnitude in both open-water and behind-ship conditions....

  20. Thrust Vector Control of an Upper-Stage Rocket with Multiple Propellant Slosh Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Rubio Hervas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thrust vector control problem for an upper-stage rocket with propellant slosh dynamics is considered. The control inputs are defined by the gimbal deflection angle of a main engine and a pitching moment about the center of mass of the spacecraft. The rocket acceleration due to the main engine thrust is assumed to be large enough so that surface tension forces do not significantly affect the propellant motion during main engine burns. A multi-mass-spring model of the sloshing fuel is introduced to represent the prominent sloshing modes. A nonlinear feedback controller is designed to control the translational velocity vector and the attitude of the spacecraft, while suppressing the sloshing modes. The effectiveness of the controller is illustrated through a simulation example.

  1. Bead-bead interaction parameters in dissipative particle dynamics: Relation to bead-size, solubility parameter, and surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Amitesh; McGrother, Simon

    2004-01-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) is a mesoscale modeling method for simulating equilibrium and dynamical properties of polymers in solution. The basic idea has been around for several decades in the form of bead-spring models. A few years ago, Groot and Warren [J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4423 (1997)] established an important link between DPD and the Flory-Huggins χ-parameter theory for polymer solutions. We revisit the Groot-Warren theory and investigate the DPD interaction parameters as a function of bead size. In particular, we show a consistent scheme of computing the interfacial tension in a segregated binary mixture. Results for three systems chosen for illustration are in excellent agreement with experimental results. This opens the door for determining DPD interactions using interfacial tension as a fitting parameter.

  2. A comment on "pH and the surface tension of water" (J. K. Beattie, A. M. Djerdjev, A. Gray-Weale, N. Kallay, J. Lutzenkirchen, T. Preocanin, A. Selmani, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 422 (2014) 54.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Pavel; Tobias, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 448, Jun 15 (2015), s. 593 ISSN 0021-9797 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : surface tension * Gibbs adsorption equation * hydroxide * water Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.782, year: 2015

  3. Do the contact angle and line tension of surface-attached droplets depend on the radius of curvature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subir K; Egorov, Sergei A; Virnau, Peter; Winter, David; Binder, Kurt

    2018-06-27

    Results from Monte Carlo simulations of wall-attached droplets in the three-dimensional Ising lattice gas model and in a symmetric binary Lennard-Jones fluid, confined by antisymmetric walls, are analyzed, with the aim to estimate the dependence of the contact angle [Formula: see text] on the droplet radius [Formula: see text] of curvature. Sphere-cap shape of the wall-attached droplets is assumed throughout. An approach, based purely on 'thermodynamic' observables, e.g. chemical potential, excess density due to the droplet, etc, is used, to avoid ambiguities in the decision which particles belong (or do not belong, respectively) to the droplet. It is found that the results are compatible with a variation [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] being the contact angle in the thermodynamic limit ([Formula: see text]). The possibility to use such results to estimate the excess free energy related to the contact line of the droplet, namely the line tension, at the wall, is discussed. Various problems that hamper this approach and were not fully recognized in previous attempts to extract the line tension are identified. It is also found that the dependence of wall tensions on the difference of chemical potential of the droplet from that at the bulk coexistence provides effectively a change of the contact angle of similar magnitude. The simulation approach yields precise estimates for the excess density due to wall-attached droplets and the corresponding free energy excess, relative to a system without a droplet at the same chemical potential. It is shown that this information suffices to estimate nucleation barriers, not affected by ambiguities on droplet shape, contact angle and line tension.

  4. Density and surface tension of high-temperature stratifying mixtures of alkali metal bromides and lithium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rukavishnikova, I.V.; Lokett, V.N.; Burukhin, A.S.; Stepanov, V.P.

    2006-01-01

    The density and interphase tension of molten mixtures of lithium fluoride with potassium, rubidium, and cesium bromides were measured over the temperature range 1120-1320 K in the region of limited mutual solubility by the hydrostatic weighing and meniscus weight methods. The dependences of properties on the size ratio between the mixed ions were determined. The critical order parameters for systems with the predominantly ionic character of interparticle interactions were estimated [ru

  5. Comparison of rheological, mechanical, electrical properties of HDPE filled with BaTiO{sub 3} with different polar surface tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Jun [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); College of Mechanics Engineering, Nanjing Institute of Industry Technology, Nanjing, 210023 (China); Zhang, Jun, E-mail: zhangjun@njtech.edu.cn [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The non-polar and short vinyl groups can greatly reduce G′ of HDPE composites. • Long chains on BaTiO{sub 3} surface enhance the interaction of BaTiO{sub 3} with HDPE. • Polar amino groups on BaTiO{sub 3} surface raise the interaction of BaTiO{sub 3} with HDPE. • Polar amino groups can boost the dielectric constant of HDPE composites. • The potential use in electronic equipment of the KH550 composites is obtained. - Abstract: In this work, three types of coupling agents: isopropyl trioleic titanate (NDZ105), vinyltriethoxysilane (SG-Si151), 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (KH550) were applied to modify the surface tension of Barium titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) particles. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirm the chemical adherence of coupling agents to the particle surface. The long hydrocarbon chains in NDZ105 can cover the particle surface and reduce the polar surface tension of BaTiO{sub 3} from 37.53 mJ/m{sup 2} to 7.51 mJ/m{sup 2}, turning it from hydrophilic to oleophilic properties. The short and non-polar vinyl groups in SG-Si151 does not influence the surface tension of BaTiO{sub 3}, but make BaTiO{sub 3} have both hydrophilic and oleophilic properties. The polar amino in KH550 can keep BaTiO{sub 3} still with hydrophilic properties. It is found that SG-Si151 modified BaTiO{sub 3} has the lowest interaction with HDPE matrix, lowering the storage modulus of HDPE composites to the greatest extent. As for mechanical properties, the polar amino groups in KH550 on BaTiO{sub 3} surface can improve the adhesion of BaTiO{sub 3} with HDPE matrix, which increases the elongation at break of HDPE composites to the greatest extent. In terms of electrical properties, the polar amino groups on surface of BaTiO{sub 3} can boost the dielectric properties of HDPE/BaTiO{sub 3} composites and decrease the volume resistivity of HDPE/BaTiO{sub 3} composites. The aim of this study is to investigate how functional groups

  6. High burn rate solid composite propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manship, Timothy D.

    High burn rate propellants help maintain high levels of thrust without requiring complex, high surface area grain geometries. Utilizing high burn rate propellants allows for simplified grain geometries that not only make production of the grains easier, but the simplified grains tend to have better mechanical strength, which is important in missiles undergoing high-g accelerations. Additionally, high burn rate propellants allow for a higher volumetric loading which reduces the overall missile's size and weight. The purpose of this study is to present methods of achieving a high burn rate propellant and to develop a composite propellant formulation that burns at 1.5 inches per second at 1000 psia. In this study, several means of achieving a high burn rate propellant were presented. In addition, several candidate approaches were evaluated using the Kepner-Tregoe method with hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-based propellants using burn rate modifiers and dicyclopentadiene (DCPD)-based propellants being selected for further evaluation. Propellants with varying levels of nano-aluminum, nano-iron oxide, FeBTA, and overall solids loading were produced using the HTPB binder and evaluated in order to determine the effect the various ingredients have on the burn rate and to find a formulation that provides the burn rate desired. Experiments were conducted to compare the burn rates of propellants using the binders HTPB and DCPD. The DCPD formulation matched that of the baseline HTPB mix. Finally, GAP-plasticized DCPD gumstock dogbones were attempted to be made for mechanical evaluation. Results from the study show that nano-additives have a substantial effect on propellant burn rate with nano-iron oxide having the largest influence. Of the formulations tested, the highest burn rate was a 84% solids loading mix using nano-aluminum nano-iron oxide, and ammonium perchlorate in a 3:1(20 micron: 200 micron) ratio which achieved a burn rate of 1.2 inches per second at 1000

  7. A Variational Reduction and the Existence of a Fully Localised Solitary Wave for the Three-Dimensional Water-Wave Problem with Weak Surface Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffoni, Boris; Groves, Mark D.; Wahlén, Erik

    2018-06-01

    Fully localised solitary waves are travelling-wave solutions of the three- dimensional gravity-capillary water wave problem which decay to zero in every horizontal spatial direction. Their existence has been predicted on the basis of numerical simulations and model equations (in which context they are usually referred to as `lumps'), and a mathematically rigorous existence theory for strong surface tension (Bond number {β} greater than {1/3}) has recently been given. In this article we present an existence theory for the physically more realistic case {0 point of the reduced functional is found by minimising it over its natural constraint set.

  8. Surface Tension of Binary Mixtures Including Polar Components Modeled by the Density Gradient Theory Combined with the PC-SAFT Equation of State

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinš, Václav; Planková, Barbora; Hrubý, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 5 (2013), s. 792-812 ISSN 0195-928X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760905; GA ČR(CZ) GPP101/11/P046; GA ČR GA101/09/1633 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : chemical polarity * gradient theory * surface tension Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.623, year: 2013 http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&id=doi:10.1007/s10765-012-1207-z

  9. Exploring inclusion complexes of ionic liquids with α- and β- cyclodextrin by NMR, IR, mass, density, viscosity, surface tension and conductance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Biraj Kumar; Rajbanshi, Biplab; Yasmin, Ananya; Roy, Mahendra Nath

    2018-05-01

    The formation of the host-guest inclusion complexes of ionic liquids namely [BMIm]Cl and [HMIm]Cl with α-CD and β-CD were studied by means of physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. Conductivity and surface tension study were in good agreement with the 1H NMR and FT-IR studies which confirm the formation of the inclusion complexes. The Density and viscosity study also supported the formation of the ICs. Further the stoichiometry was determined 1:1 for each case and the association constants and thermodynamic parameters derived supported the most feasible formation of the [BMIm]Cl- β-CD inclusion complex.

  10. On the theory and computation of surface tension: The elimination of parasitic currents through energy conservation in the second-gradient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamet, Didier; Torres, David; Brackbill, J.U.

    2002-01-01

    Errors in the computation of fluid flows with surface tension are examined. These errors cause large parasitic flows when the capillary number is large and have often been attributed to truncation error in underresolved interfacial regions. A study using the second-gradient method reveals that when truncation error is eliminated in the computation of energy exchanges between surface and kinetic energies so that energy is strictly conserved, the parasitic currents are reduced to round-off. The results are based on general thermodynamic arguments and can be used to guide improvements in other methods, such as the continuum-surface-force (CSF) method, which is commonly used with the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method

  11. On the theory and computation of surface tension: The elimination of parasitic currents through energy conservation in the second-gradient method

    CERN Document Server

    Jamet, D; Brackbill, J U

    2002-01-01

    Errors in the computation of fluid flows with surface tension are examined. These errors cause large parasitic flows when the capillary number is large and have often been attributed to truncation error in underresolved interfacial regions. A study using the second-gradient method reveals that when truncation error is eliminated in the computation of energy exchanges between surface and kinetic energies so that energy is strictly conserved, the parasitic currents are reduced to round-off. The results are based on general thermodynamic arguments and can be used to guide improvements in other methods, such as the continuum-surface-force (CSF) method, which is commonly used with the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method.

  12. Mars Ascent Vehicle-Propellant Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John; Rousseau, Jeremy; Williams, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    , followed by an additional year at simulated Mars surface conditions. The actual Mars surface environment is based on the igloo design, actively maintains the propellant at or above -40 degC, 95% carbon dioxide at Mars surface pressure. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Mars environment test facility is shown in figure 1 and located in the East Test area of Redstone Arsenal due to storage of live propellants. The facility consists of a vacuum chamber placed inside a large freezer unit. The facility includes pressure and temperature monitoring equipment in addition to a vacuum quality monitoring system spectrometer to record any outgassing products.

  13. Experimental Research on Air Propellers III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, W F; Lesley, E P

    1920-01-01

    Report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of propellers that examined the influence of the following characteristics: (1) nominal pitch ratio 1.3 combined with a certain number of the more common or standard forms and proportions; (2) driving face slightly rounded or convex; (3) change in the location of the maximum thickness ordinate of the blade section; (4) pushing forward the leading edge of the blade, thus giving a rounded convex surface on the leading side of the driving face. (5) a series of values for the constant "angle of attack" in forming propellers with radially increasing pitch. In accordance with these purposes tests were carried out on 28 propellers.

  14. THE PROPELLER AND THE FROG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Margaret; Chiang, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    'Propellers' in planetary rings are disturbances in ring material excited by moonlets that open only partial gaps. We describe a new type of co-orbital resonance that can explain the observed non-Keplerian motions of propellers. The resonance is between the moonlet underlying the propeller and co-orbiting ring particles downstream of the moonlet where the gap closes. The moonlet librates within the gap about an equilibrium point established by co-orbiting material and stabilized by the Coriolis force. In the limit of small libration amplitude, the libration period scales linearly with the gap azimuthal width and inversely as the square root of the co-orbital mass. The new resonance recalls but is distinct from conventional horseshoe and tadpole orbits; we call it the 'frog' resonance, after the relevant term in equine hoof anatomy. For a ring surface density and gap geometry appropriate for the propeller Bleriot in Saturn's A ring, our theory predicts a libration period of ∼4 years, similar to the ∼3.7 year period over which Bleriot's orbital longitude is observed to vary. These librations should be subtracted from the longitude data before any inferences about moonlet migration are made.

  15. Effect of Al_2O_3 Nanoparticles Additives on the Density, Saturated Vapor Pressure, Surface Tension and Viscosity of Isopropyl Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhelezny, Vitaly; Geller, Vladimir; Semenyuk, Yury; Nikulin, Artem; Lukianov, Nikolai; Lozovsky, Taras; Shymchuk, Mykola

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents results of an experimental study of the density, saturated vapor pressure, surface tension and viscosity of Al_2O_3 nanoparticle colloidal solutions in isopropyl alcohol. Studies of the thermophysical properties of nanofluids were performed at various temperatures and concentrations of Al_2O_3 nanoparticles. The paper gives considerable attention to a turbidimetric analysis of the stability of nanofluid samples. Samples of nanofluids remained stable over the range of parameters of the experiments, ensuring the reliability of the thermophysical property data for the Al_2O_3 nanoparticle colloidal solutions in isopropyl alcohol. The studies show that the addition of Al_2O_3 nanoparticles leads to an increase of the density, saturated vapor pressure and viscosity, as well as a decrease for the surface tension of isopropyl alcohol. The information reported in this paper on the various thermophysical properties for the isopropyl alcohol/Al_2O_3 nanoparticle model system is useful for the development of thermodynamically consistent models for predicting properties of nanofluids and correct modeling of the heat exchange processes.

  16. Force Field Benchmark of the TraPPE_UA for Polar Liquids: Density, Heat of Vaporization, Dielectric Constant, Surface Tension, Volumetric Expansion Coefficient, and Isothermal Compressibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Rojas, Edgar; Aguilar-Pineda, Jorge Alberto; Pérez de la Luz, Alexander; de Jesús González, Edith Nadir; Alejandre, José

    2018-02-08

    The transferable potential for a phase equilibria force field in its united-atom version, TraPPE_UA, is evaluated for 41 polar liquids that include alcohols, thiols, ethers, sulfides, aldehydes, ketones, and esters to determine its ability to reproduce experimental properties that were not included in the parametrization procedure. The intermolecular force field parameters for pure components were fit to reproduce experimental boiling temperature, vapor-liquid coexisting densities, and critical point (temperature, density, and pressure) using Monte Carlo simulations in different ensembles. The properties calculated in this work are liquid density, heat of vaporization, dielectric constant, surface tension, volumetric expansion coefficient, and isothermal compressibility. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed in the gas and liquid phases, and also at the liquid-vapor interface. We found that relative error between calculated and experimental data is 1.2% for density, 6% for heat of vaporization, and 6.2% for surface tension, in good agreement with the experimental data. The dielectric constant is systematically underestimated, and the relative error is 37%. Evaluating the performance of the force field to reproduce the volumetric expansion coefficient and isothermal compressibility requires more experimental data.

  17. Effects of reduced surface tension on two-phase diversion cross-flow between subchannels simplifying triangle tight lattice rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Akimaro; Sadatomi, Michio; Higuchi, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    Two-phase diversion cross-flow between tight lattice subchannels has been investigated experimentally and analytically. For hydraulically non-equilibrium flows with the pressure difference between the subchannels, experiments were conducted using a vertical multiple-channel with two subchannels simplifying a triangle tight lattice rod bundle. To know the effects of the reduced surface tension on the diversion cross-flow, water and water with a surfactant were used as the test liquids. Data were obtained on the axial variations in the pressure difference between the subchannels, gas and liquid flow rates and void fraction in each subchannel for slug-churn and annular flows. In the analysis, flow redistribution processes due to the diversion cross-flow have been calculated by our subchannel analysis code based on a two-fluid model. From a comparison between the experiment and the code calculation, the code was found to be valid against the present data if the improved constitutive equations of wall and interfacial friction reported in our previous paper were incorporated to account for the reduced surface tension effects. (author)

  18. The Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN properties of 2-methyltetrols and C3-C6 polyols from osmolality and surface tension measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ekström

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A significant fraction of the organic material in aerosols is made of highly soluble compounds such as sugars (mono- and polysaccharides and polyols such as the 2-methyltetrols, methylerythritol and methyltreitol. Because of their high solubility these compounds are considered as potentially efficient CCN material. For the 2-methyltetrols, this would have important implications for cloud formation at global scale because they are thought to be produced by the atmospheric oxidation of isoprene. To investigate this question, the complete Köhler curves for C3-C6 polyols and the 2-methyltetrols have been determined experimentally from osmolality and surface tension measurements. Contrary to what was expected, none of these compounds displayed a higher CCN efficiency than organic acids. Their Raoult terms show that this limited CCN efficiency is due to their absence of dissociation in water, this in spite of slight surface-tension effects for the 2-methyltetrols. Thus, compounds such as saccharides and polyols would not contribute more to cloud formation than other organic compounds studied so far. In particular, the presence of 2-methyltetrols in aerosols would not particularly enhance cloud formation in the atmosphere, in contrary to recently suggested.

  19. Adsorção e propriedades de volume de misturas binárias água álcool: um experimento didático com base em medidas de tensão superficial An undergraduate experiment in physical chemistry: adsorption and bulk properties of alcohol-water mixtures based on surface tension measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelly C. dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An undergraduate physical chemistry experiment based on the drop counting method for surface tension measurements is proposed to demonstrate adsorption isotherms of binary aqueous solutions of ethanol, n-propanol, and n-butanol. Excess surface is obtained by the derivative of surface tension taken with respect to alcohol activity, after this activity calculation using van Laar equation. Laboratory class contents are surface tension, excess surface, percolation of hydrogen bonds, micelle, activity, and ideal solution.

  20. Thin concentrator photovoltaic module with micro-solar cells which are mounted by self-align method using surface tension of melted solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Terauchi, Masaharu; Aya, Youichirou; Kanayama, Shutetsu; Nishitani, Hikaru; Nakagawa, Tohru; Takase, Michihiko

    2017-09-01

    We are developing a thin and lightweight CPV module using small size lens system made from poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) with a short focal length and micro-solar cells to decrease the transporting and the installing costs of CPV systems. In order to achieve high conversion efficiency in CPV modules using micro-solar cells, the micro-solar cells need to be mounted accurately to the irradiated region of the concentrated sunlight. In this study, we have successfully developed self-align method thanks to the surface tension of the melted solder even utilizing commercially available surface-mounting technology (SMT). Solar cells were self-aligned to the specified positions of the circuit board by this self-align method with accuracy within ±10 µm. We actually fabricated CPV modules using this self-align method and demonstrated high conversion efficiency of our CPV module.

  1. pH-Sensitive self-propelled motion of oil droplets in the presence of cationic surfactants containing hydrolyzable ester linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, Taisuke; Kuroha, Rie; Toyota, Taro

    2012-01-17

    Self-propelled oil droplets in a nonequilibrium system have drawn much attention as both a primitive type of inanimate chemical machinery and a dynamic model of the origin of life. Here, to create the pH-sensitive self-propelled motion of oil droplets, we synthesized cationic surfactants containing hydrolyzable ester linkages. We found that n-heptyloxybenzaldehyde oil droplets were self-propelled in the presence of ester-containing cationic surfactant. In basic solution prepared with sodium hydroxide, oil droplets moved as molecular aggregates formed on their surface. Moreover, the self-propelled motion in the presence of the hydrolyzable cationic surfactant lasted longer than that in the presence of nonhydrolyzable cationic surfactant. This is probably due to the production of a fatty acid by the hydrolysis of the ester-containing cationic surfactant and the subsequent neutralization of the fatty acid with sodium hydroxide. A complex surfactant was formed in the aqueous solution because of the cation and anion combination. Because such complex formation can induce both a decrease in the interfacial tension of the oil droplet and self-assembly with n-heptyloxybenzaldehyde and lauric acid in the aqueous dispersion, the prolonged movement of the oil droplet may be explained by the increase in heterogeneity of the interfacial tension of the oil droplet triggered by the hydrolysis of the ester-containing surfactant. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Adsorption properties of biologically active derivatives of quaternary ammonium surfactants and their mixtures at aqueous/air interface. I. Equilibrium surface tension, surfactant aggregation and wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojewska, Monika; Biadasz, Andrzej; Kotkowiak, Michał; Olejnik, Anna; Rychlik, Joanna; Dudkowiak, Alina; Prochaska, Krystyna

    2013-10-01

    The adsorption properties of surfactant mixtures containing two types of quaternary derivatives of lysosomotropic substances: alkyl N,N-dimethylalaninates methobromides and alkyl N,N-dimethylglycinates methobromides were studied. Quantitative and qualitative description of the adsorption process was carried out on the basis of experimentally obtained equilibrium surface tension isotherms. The results indicated that most of the systems studied revealed synergistic effect both in adsorption and wetting properties. In vitro studies on human cancer cells were undertaken and the data obtained showed that the mixtures suppressed the cancer cells' proliferation more effectively than individual components. Results of preliminary research on the interaction of catanionic mixtures with phospholipids suggested a possibility of a strong penetration of cell membranes by the mixtures investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Surface Tension Guided Hanging-Drop: Producing Controllable 3D Spheroid of High-Passaged Human Dermal Papilla Cells and Forming Inductive Microtissues for Hair-Follicle Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bojie; Miao, Yong; Wang, Jin; Fan, Zhexiang; Du, Lijuan; Su, Yongsheng; Liu, Bingcheng; Hu, Zhiqi; Xing, Malcolm

    2016-03-09

    Human dermal papilla (DP) cells have been studied extensively when grown in the conventional monolayer. However, because of great deviation from the real in vivo three-dimensional (3D) environment, these two-dimensional (2D) grown cells tend to lose the hair-inducible capability during passaging. Hence, these 2D caused concerns have motivated the development of novel 3D culture techniques to produce cellular microtissues with suitable mimics. The hanging-drop approach is based on surface tension-based technique and the interaction between surface tension and gravity field that makes a convergence of liquid drops. This study used this technique in a converged drop to form cellular spheroids of dermal papilla cells. It leads to a controllable 3Dspheroid model for scalable fabrication of inductive DP microtissues. The optimal conditions for culturing high-passaged (P8) DP spheroids were determined first. Then, the morphological, histological and functional studies were performed. In addition, expressions of hair-inductive markers including alkaline phosphatase, α-smooth muscle actin and neural cell adhesion molecule were also analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunostaining and immunoblotting. Finally, P8-DP microtissues were coimplanted with newborn mouse epidermal cells (EPCs) into nude mice. Our results indicated that the formation of 3D microtissues not only endowed P8-DP microtissues many similarities to primary DP, but also confer these microtissues an enhanced ability to induce hair-follicle (HF) neogenesis in vivo. This model provides a potential to elucidate the native biology of human DP, and also shows the promising for the controllable and scalable production of inductive DP cells applied in future follicle regeneration.

  4. Improvement of the free-surface tension model in shallow water basin by using in-situ bottom-friction measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, Elena; Kuznetsov, Konstantin; Roux, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Wind stress on the free surface is the main driving force behind the circulation of the upper part of the ocean, which in hydrodynamic models are usually defined in terms of the coefficient of surface tension (Zhang et al., 2009, Davies et al., 2003). Moreover, wave motion impacts local currents and changes sea level, impacts the transport and the stratification of the entire water column. Influence of surface waves at the bottom currents is particularly pronounced in the shallow coastal systems. However, existing methods of parameterization of the surface tension have significant limits, especially in strong wind waves (Young et al., 2001, Jones et al., 2004) due to the difficulties of measuring the characteristics of surface waves in stormy conditions. Thus, the formula for calculating the coefficient of surface tension in our day is the actual problem in modeling fluid dynamics, particularly in the context of strong surface waves. In the hydrodynamic models usually a coefficient of surface tension is calculated once at the beginning of computation as a constant that depends on the averaged wind waves characteristic. Usually cases of strongly nonlinear wind waves are not taken into account, what significantly reduces the accuracy of the calculation of the flow structures and further calculation of the other processes in water basins, such as the spread of suspended matter and pollutants. Thus, wave motion influencing the pressure on the free surface and at the bottom must be considered in hydrodynamic models particularly in shallow coastal systems. A method of reconstruction of a free-surface drag coefficient based on the measured in-situ bottom pressure fluctuations is developed and applied in a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model MARS3D, developed by the French laboratory of IFREMER (IFREMER - French Research Institute for Marine Dynamics). MARS3D solves the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluid in the Boussinesq approximation and with the

  5. The Equilibrium Spreading Tension of Pulmonary Surfactant

    OpenAIRE

    Dagan, Maayan P.; Hall, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Monomolecular films at an air/water interface coexist at the equilibrium spreading tension (γe) with the bulk phase from which they form. For individual phospholipids, γe is single-valued, and separates conditions at which hydrated vesicles adsorb from tensions at which overcompressed monolayers collapse. With pulmonary surfactant, isotherms show that monolayers compressed on the surface of bubbles coexist with the three-dimensional collapsed phase over a range of surface tensions. γe therefo...

  6. Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, John P.; Andersen, Poul

    This book deals with flows over propellers operating behind ships, and the hydrodynamic forces and moments which the propeller generates on the shaft and on the ship hull.The first part of the text is devoted to fundamentals of the flow about hydrofoil sections (with and without cavitation...... of an intermittently cavitating propeller in a wake and the pressures and forces it exerts on the shaft and on the ship hull is examined. A final chapter discusses the optimization of efficiency of compound propulsors. The authors have taken care to clearly describe physical concepts and mathematical steps. Appendices...

  7. Unexpected finite size effects in interfacial systems: Why bigger is not always better—Increase in uncertainty of surface tension with bulk phase width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longford, Francis G. J.; Essex, Jonathan W.; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton; Frey, Jeremy G.

    2018-06-01

    We present an unexpected finite size effect affecting interfacial molecular simulations that is proportional to the width-to-surface-area ratio of the bulk phase Ll/A. This finite size effect has a significant impact on the variance of surface tension values calculated using the virial summation method. A theoretical derivation of the origin of the effect is proposed, giving a new insight into the importance of optimising system dimensions in interfacial simulations. We demonstrate the consequences of this finite size effect via a new way to estimate the surface energetic and entropic properties of simulated air-liquid interfaces. Our method is based on macroscopic thermodynamic theory and involves comparing the internal energies of systems with varying dimensions. We present the testing of these methods using simulations of the TIP4P/2005 water forcefield and a Lennard-Jones fluid model of argon. Finally, we provide suggestions of additional situations, in which this finite size effect is expected to be significant, as well as possible ways to avoid its impact.

  8. Silica-Assisted Nucleation of Polymer Foam Cells with Nanoscopic Dimensions : Impact of Particle Size, Line Tension, and Surface Functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shanqiu; Eijkelenkamp, Rik; Duvigneau, Joost; Vancso, G. Julius

    2017-01-01

    Core-shell nanoparticles consisting of silica as core and surface-grafted poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as shell with different diameters were prepared and used as heterogeneous nucleation agents to obtain CO2-blown poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposite foams. PDMS was selected as the shell

  9. Surface tension and 0.1 MPa density of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborates in a homologous series perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Součková, Monika; Klomfar, Jaroslav; Pátek, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 100, September (2016), s. 79-88 ISSN 0021-9614 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00145S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : 1-Cn-3-methylimidazolium cation * tetrafluoroborate anion * density–temperature relation * surface tension–temperature relation * recommended property values Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2016

  10. Free surface flows under compensated gravity conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyer, Miachel E

    2007-01-01

    This book considers the behavior of fluids in a low-gravity environment with special emphasis on application in PMD (propellant management device) systems . In the compensated gravity environment of a spacecraft, the hydrostatic pressure decreases to very low values depending on the residual acceleration, and surface tension forces become dominant. Consequently, surface tension can be used to transport and position liquids if the residual acceleration and the resulting hydrostatic pressure are small compared to the capillary pressure. One prominent application is the use of PMDs in surface-tension satellite tanks. PMDs must ensure that the tank outlet is covered with liquid whenever outflow is demanded. Furthermore, PMDs are used to ensure expulsion and refilling of tanks for liquids and gases for life support, reactants, and experiment supplies. Since most of the PMD designs are not testable on ground and thus rely on analytical or numerical concepts, this book treats three different flow problems with analy...

  11. Autonomous Propellant Loading Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Autonomous Propellant Loading (APL) project consists of three activities. The first is to develop software that will automatically control loading of...

  12. Modeling Propellant Tank Dynamics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of my work will be to develop accurate models of self-pressurizing propellant tanks for use in designing hybrid rockets. The first key goal is to...

  13. A systematic study on the influence of nuclear surface tension and temperature upon the parameterization of the fusion dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharaei, R.; Hadikhani, A. [Hakim Sabzevari University, Department of Physics, Sciences Faculty, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    For the first time the influence of the surface energy coefficient γ and temperature T on the parameterization of the fusion barriers is systematically analyzed within the framework of the proximity formalism, namely proximity 1977, proximity 1988 and proximity 2010 models. A total of 114 fusion reactions with the condition 39 ≤ Z{sub 1}Z{sub 2} ≤ 1520 for the charge product of their participant nuclei have been studied. We present γ-dependent and T -dependent pocket formulas which reproduce the theoretical and empirical data of the fusion barrier height and position for our considered reactions with good accuracy. It is shown that the quality of the γ-dependent formula enhances by increasing the strength of the surface energy coefficient. Moreover, the obtained results confirm that imposing the thermal effects improves the agreement between the parameterized and empirical data of the barrier characteristics. (orig.)

  14. Estimation of real ship propelling performance by the surface velocity lattice method using model ship flow field data; Mokeisen ryujo data wo mochiita hyomen uzu koshiho ni yoru jissen suishin seino no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kai, H; Ikehata, M; Sakai, S [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-01

    This is basically a technique wherein the wing element method is replaced by a surface vortex lattice method. A horseshoe vortex of unknown intensity and source surface of known intensity are distributed on the wing surface and, under conditions that the fluid will not cross the boundary, the intensity of horseshoe vortex circulation is calculated for the solution of the fluid field. For the simulation of a real ship in navigation, the required propeller revolution thrust is determined using the real ship resistance value and real ship thrust reduction factor estimated from a model ship resistance test by extrapolation. The calculation of propeller performance is conducted in the quasi-steady condition using the force of fluid working on one wing for each wing angle (with the wing rotated at the increment of 6 degrees), and the thrust and torque are determined using the averages of values obtained in one cycle. It is found that the torque value is overestimated in a considerable degree in the wing element theory. In the surface vortex lattice method, both thrust and torque values agree with experimental values mostly, and this method is found to be accurate enough as a navigation element calculation tool when many panels are considered. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Disposal of Liquid Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-13

    propellant includes an oxi- dizer (hydroxylammoniuin nitrate), a fuel (triethanolammonium nitrate), and water . In an- ticipation of widespread (both...are also included. 20. DISTRIBUTION/ AVAILABILIT ’." OF ABMTRACT 21 ABSTRACT SECURITY CLASSIF.CATICIN IUNCLASSIFIEDIUNLIMITED 0 SAME AS RPT. 0 OTIC...trieth- anolammoiur nitrate), anG water . In anticipation of widespread (both conti- nental U.S. and abroac) use of the propellant, USATHAMA began a

  16. Hygroscopic properties of Amazonian biomass burning and European background HULIS and investigation of their effects on surface tension with two models linking H-TDMA to CCNC data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Fors

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available HUmic-LIke Substances (HULIS have been identified as major contributors to the organic carbon in atmospheric aerosol. The term "HULIS" is used to describe the organic material found in aerosol particles that resembles the humic organic material in rivers and sea water and in soils. In this study, two sets of filter samples from atmospheric aerosols were collected at different sites. One set of samples was collected at the K-puszta rural site in Hungary, about 80 km SE of Budapest, and a second was collected at a site in Rondônia, Amazonia, Brazil, during the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia – Smoke Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climate (LBA-SMOCC biomass burning season experiment. HULIS were extracted from the samples and their hygroscopic properties were studied using a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA at relative humidity (RH <100%, and a cloud condensation nucleus counter (CCNC at RH >100%. The H-TDMA measurements were carried out at a dry diameter of 100 nm and for RH ranging from 30 to 98%. At 90% RH the HULIS samples showed diameter growth factors between 1.04 and 1.07, reaching values of 1.4 at 98% RH. The cloud nucleating properties of the two sets of aerosol samples were analysed using two types of thermal static cloud condensation nucleus counters. Two different parameterization models were applied to investigate the potential effect of HULIS surface activity, both yielding similar results. For the K-puszta winter HULIS sample, the surface tension at the point of activation was estimated to be lowered by between 34% (47.7 mN/m and 31% (50.3 mN/m for dry sizes between 50 and 120 nm in comparison to pure water. A moderate lowering was also observed for the entire water soluble aerosol sample, including both organic and inorganic compounds, where the surface tension was decreased by between 2% (71.2 mN/m and 13% (63.3 mN/m.

  17. Surface tension and 0.1 MPa density data for 1-Cn-3-methylimidazolium iodides with n=3, 4, and 6, validated using a parachor and group contribution model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Součková, Monika; Klomfar, Jaroslav; Pátek, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 83, April (2015), s. 52-60 ISSN 0021-9614 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00145S; GA ČR GA101/09/0010 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : density * surface tension * 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide * group contribution method * parachor Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.196, year: 2015

  18. Surface tension and 0.1 MPa density for members of homologous series of ionic liquids composed of imidazolium-, pyridinium-, and pyrrolidinium-based cations and of cyano-groups containing anions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Součková, Monika; Klomfar, Jaroslav; Pátek, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 406, November (2015), s. 181-193 ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00145S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : ionic liquid * surface tension-temperature relation * density -temperature relation * cyano-funcionalized anion Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.846, year: 2015

  19. Self-propelled oil droplets consuming "fuel" surfactant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyota, Taro; Maru, Naoto; Hanczyc, Martin M

    2009-01-01

    A micrometer-sized oil droplet of 4-octylaniline containing 5 mol % of an amphiphilic catalyst exhibited a self-propelled motion, producing tiny oil droplets, in an aqueous dispersion of an amphiphilic precursor of 4-octylaniline. The tiny droplets on the surface of the self-propelled droplet wer...

  20. Effect of surface tension on the dynamical behavior of bubble in rotating fluids under low gravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Tsao, Y. D.; Leslie, Fred W.; Hong, B. B.

    1988-01-01

    Time dependent evolutions of the profile of free surface (bubble shapes) for a cylindrical container partially filled with a Newtonian fluid of constant density, rotating about its axis of symmetry, have been studied. Numerical computations of the dynamics of bubble shapes have been carried out with the following situations: (1) linear functions of spin-up and spin-down in low and microgravity environments, (2) linear functions of increasing and decreasing gravity enviroment in high and low rotating cylidner speeds, (3) step functions of spin-up and spin-down in a low gravity environment, and (4) sinusoidal function oscillation of gravity environment in high and low rotating cylinder speeds. The initial condition of bubble profiles was adopted from the steady-state formulations in which the computer algorithms have been developed by Hung and Leslie (1988), and Hung et al. (1988).

  1. Nucleation, growth and transport modelling of helium bubbles under nuclear irradiation in lead–lithium with the self-consistent nucleation theory and surface tension corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradera, J.; Cuesta-López, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The work presented in this manuscript provides a reliable computational tool to quantify the He complex phenomena in a HCLL. • A model based on the self-consistent nucleation theory (SCT) is exposed. It includes radiation induced nucleation modelling and surface tension corrections. • Results informed reinforce the necessity of conducting experiments to determine nucleation conditions and bubble transport parameters in LM breeders. • Our findings and model provide a good qualitative insight into the helium nucleation phenomenon in LM systems for fusion technology and can be used to identify key system parameters. -- Abstract: Helium (He) nucleation in liquid metal breeding blankets of a DT fusion reactor may have a significant impact regarding system design, safety and operation. Large He production rates are expected due to tritium (T) fuel self-sufficiency requirement, as both, He and T, are produced at the same rate. Low He solubility, local high concentrations, radiation damage and fluid discontinuities, among other phenomena, may yield the necessary conditions for He nucleation. Hence, He nucleation may have a significant impact on T inventory and may lower the T breeding ratio. A model based on the self-consistent nucleation theory (SCT) with a surface tension curvature correction model has been implemented in OpenFOAM ® CFD code. A modification through a single parameter of the necessary nucleation condition is proposed in order to take into account all the nucleation triggering phenomena, specially radiation induced nucleation. Moreover, the kinetic growth model has been adapted so as to allow for the transition from a critical cluster to a macroscopic bubble with a diffusion growth process. Limitations and capabilities of the models are shown by means of zero-dimensional simulations and sensitivity analyses to key parameters under HCLL breeding unit conditions. Results provide a good qualitative insight into the helium nucleation

  2. Force Field Benchmark of Organic Liquids: Density, Enthalpy of Vaporization, Heat Capacities, Surface Tension, Isothermal Compressibility, Volumetric Expansion Coefficient, and Dielectric Constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleman, Carl; van Maaren, Paul J; Hong, Minyan; Hub, Jochen S; Costa, Luciano T; van der Spoel, David

    2012-01-10

    The chemical composition of small organic molecules is often very similar to amino acid side chains or the bases in nucleic acids, and hence there is no a priori reason why a molecular mechanics force field could not describe both organic liquids and biomolecules with a single parameter set. Here, we devise a benchmark for force fields in order to test the ability of existing force fields to reproduce some key properties of organic liquids, namely, the density, enthalpy of vaporization, the surface tension, the heat capacity at constant volume and pressure, the isothermal compressibility, the volumetric expansion coefficient, and the static dielectric constant. Well over 1200 experimental measurements were used for comparison to the simulations of 146 organic liquids. Novel polynomial interpolations of the dielectric constant (32 molecules), heat capacity at constant pressure (three molecules), and the isothermal compressibility (53 molecules) as a function of the temperature have been made, based on experimental data, in order to be able to compare simulation results to them. To compute the heat capacities, we applied the two phase thermodynamics method (Lin et al. J. Chem. Phys.2003, 119, 11792), which allows one to compute thermodynamic properties on the basis of the density of states as derived from the velocity autocorrelation function. The method is implemented in a new utility within the GROMACS molecular simulation package, named g_dos, and a detailed exposé of the underlying equations is presented. The purpose of this work is to establish the state of the art of two popular force fields, OPLS/AA (all-atom optimized potential for liquid simulation) and GAFF (generalized Amber force field), to find common bottlenecks, i.e., particularly difficult molecules, and to serve as a reference point for future force field development. To make for a fair playing field, all molecules were evaluated with the same parameter settings, such as thermostats and barostats

  3. Nucleation, growth and transport modelling of helium bubbles under nuclear irradiation in lead–lithium with the self-consistent nucleation theory and surface tension corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradera, J., E-mail: jfradera@ubu.es; Cuesta-López, S., E-mail: scuesta@ubu.es

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The work presented in this manuscript provides a reliable computational tool to quantify the He complex phenomena in a HCLL. • A model based on the self-consistent nucleation theory (SCT) is exposed. It includes radiation induced nucleation modelling and surface tension corrections. • Results informed reinforce the necessity of conducting experiments to determine nucleation conditions and bubble transport parameters in LM breeders. • Our findings and model provide a good qualitative insight into the helium nucleation phenomenon in LM systems for fusion technology and can be used to identify key system parameters. -- Abstract: Helium (He) nucleation in liquid metal breeding blankets of a DT fusion reactor may have a significant impact regarding system design, safety and operation. Large He production rates are expected due to tritium (T) fuel self-sufficiency requirement, as both, He and T, are produced at the same rate. Low He solubility, local high concentrations, radiation damage and fluid discontinuities, among other phenomena, may yield the necessary conditions for He nucleation. Hence, He nucleation may have a significant impact on T inventory and may lower the T breeding ratio. A model based on the self-consistent nucleation theory (SCT) with a surface tension curvature correction model has been implemented in OpenFOAM{sup ®} CFD code. A modification through a single parameter of the necessary nucleation condition is proposed in order to take into account all the nucleation triggering phenomena, specially radiation induced nucleation. Moreover, the kinetic growth model has been adapted so as to allow for the transition from a critical cluster to a macroscopic bubble with a diffusion growth process. Limitations and capabilities of the models are shown by means of zero-dimensional simulations and sensitivity analyses to key parameters under HCLL breeding unit conditions. Results provide a good qualitative insight into the helium

  4. Heat transfer in heterogeneous propellant combustion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewster, M.Q.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that heat transfer plays an important role in several critical areas of heterogeneous, solid-propellant combustion systems. These areas include heat feedback to the propellant surface, heat transfer between burning aluminum droplets and their surroundings, heat transfer to internal insulation systems, and heat transfer to aft-end equipment. Gas conduction dominates heat feedback to the propellant surface in conventional ammonium perchlorate (AP) composite propellants, although particle radiative feedback also plays a significant role in combustion of metalized propellants. Particle radiation plays a dominant role in heat transfer to internal insulation, compared with that of convection. However, conduction by impingement of burning aluminum particles, which has not been extensively studied, may also be significant. Radiative heat loss plays an important role in determining the burning rate of molten aluminum particles due to a highly luminous, oxide particle-laden, detached flame envelope. Radiation by aluminum oxide smoke particles also plays a dominant role in heat transfer from the exhaust plume to aft-end equipment. Uncertainties in aluminum oxide particle-size distribution and optical properties still make it difficult to predict radiative plume heat transfer accurately from first principles

  5. Surface tension of calcium hydroxide associated with different substances Tensão superficial do hidróxido de cálcio associado a diferentes substâncias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Estrela

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface tension of calcium hydroxide (CH associated with different substances (deionized distilled water, camphorated paramonochlorophenol, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate, Otosporin, 3% sodium lauryl ether sulphate; Furacin, PMC Furacin using tensiometer. The action of the substances studied on the dentinal structure enhances the property of surface tension. This method consists in the application of force to separate a platinum ring immersed in the substances. Thus, torsion was applied to the screw until the platinum ring separated during substances testing. Considering the methodology applied, the following can be concluded: distilled water alone or associated with CH presented a high surface tension (70.00 and 68.40 dynes/cm; calcium hydroxide in association with anionic detergent showed low surface tension (31.60 dynes/cm; camphorated paramonochlorophenol plus CH presented low surface tension (37.50 dynes/cm; 2% chlorhexidine associated with calcium hydroxide showed high surface tension values (58.00 dynes/cm; Otosporin plus calcium hydroxide showed low surface tension (35.40 dynes/cm; paramonochlorophenol Furacin mixed with calcium hydroxide presented surface tension equal to 45.50 dynes/cm; sodium hypochlorite presented high surface tension (75.00 dynes/cm. Antimicrobial agents more indicated in endodontics, i.e. CH, chlorhexidine and hypochlorite, presented the highest surface tension.Estudou-se a tensão superficial do hidróxido de cálcio associado a diferentes substâncias (água destilada deionizada, paramonoclorofenol canforado, digluconato de clorexidina 2%, Otosporin, sulfato éter lauril sódio 3%, furacin, PMC furacin usando tensiômetro. O modelo experimental consistiu na aplicação de uma força para separar um anel de platina imerso na superfície das substâncias, exercido por um tensiômetro. Considerando a metodologia aplicada, pode-se concluir: a água destilada isolada ou

  6. Numerical investigation on the influence of surface tension and viscous force on the bubble dynamics with a CLSVOF method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhiying; Li, Yikai; Huang, Biao; Gao, Deming [Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing (China)

    2016-06-15

    We numerically investigated the rising of bubbles in a quiescent liquid layer. The numerical simulation is performed by solving the incompressible, multiphase Navier-Stokes equations via computational code in axisymmetric coordinates using a Coupled level-set and volume-of-fluid (CLSVOF) method. The numerical results show that the CLSVOF method with a novel algebraic relation between F and f for axisymmetric two-phase flows not only can predict the bubble surface accurately, but also overcome the deficiency in preserving volume conservation. The effects of the Reynolds number Re and the Bond number Bo on the bubble deformation and its motion are investigated. The results show that with the increasing of Re (10 < Re < 150), the bubble shape transfers from oblate ellipsoidal cap to toroidal when Bo = 116. With the increasing of Bo (10 < Bo < 700), the bubble shape transfers from oblate ellipsoidal to toroidal when Re = 30. Although the toroidal bubble shapes are reached in these two cases, the transition modes are different. For the case Bo = 116, the bubble front is pierced by an upward jet from the rear of the bubble. While for the case Re = 30, the rear of the bubble is pierced by a downward jet from the front part.

  7. Evaluation of surface tension and Tolman length as a function of droplet radius from experimental nucleation rate and supersaturation ratio: metal vapor homogeneous nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onischuk, A A; Purtov, P A; Baklanov, A M; Karasev, V V; Vosel, S V

    2006-01-07

    Zinc and silver vapor homogeneous nucleations are studied experimentally at the temperature from 600 to 725 and 870 K, respectively, in a laminar flow diffusion chamber with Ar as a carrier gas at atmospheric pressure. The size, shape, and concentration of aerosol particles outcoming the diffusion chamber are analyzed by a transmission electron microscope and an automatic diffusion battery. The wall deposit is studied by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Using SEM data the nucleation rate for both Zn and Ag is estimated as 10(10) cm(-3) s(-1). The dependence of critical supersaturation on temperature for Zn and Ag measured in this paper as well as Li, Na, Cs, Ag, Mg, and Hg measured elsewhere is analyzed. To this aim the classical nucleation theory is extended by the dependence of surface tension on the nucleus radius. The preexponent in the formula for the vapor nucleation rate is derived using the formula for the work of formation of noncritical embryo [obtained by Nishioka and Kusaka [J. Chem. Phys. 96, 5370 (1992)] and later by Debenedetti and Reiss [J. Chem. Phys. 108, 5498 (1998)

  8. Insights into the interactions among Surfactin, betaines, and PAM: surface tension, small-angle neutron scattering, and small-angle X-ray scattering study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jingwen; Liu, Fang; Garamus, Vasil M; Almásy, László; Handge, Ulrich A; Willumeit, Regine; Mu, Bozhong; Zou, Aihua

    2014-04-01

    The interactions among neutral polymer polyacrylamide (PAM) and the biosurfactant Surfactin and four betaines, N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate (SDDAB), N-tetradecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate (STDAB), N-hexadecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate (SHDAB), and N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-2-ammonio-acetate (C12BE), in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) have been studied by surface tension measurements, small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and rheological experiments. It has been confirmed that the length of alkyl chain is a key parameter of interaction between betaines and PAM. Differences in scattering contrast between X-ray and neutrons for surfactants and PAM molecules provide the opportunity to separately follow the changes of structure of PAM and surfactant aggregates. At concentrations of betaines higher than CMC (critical micelle concentration) and C2 (CMC of surfactant with the presence of polymer), spherical micelles are formed in betaines and betaines/PAM solutions. Transition from spherical to rod-like aggregates (micelles) has been observed in solutions of Surfactin and Surfactin/SDDAB (αSurfactin = 0.67 (molar fraction)) with addition of 0.8 wt % of PAM. The conformation change of PAM molecules only can be observed for Surfactin/SDDAB/PAM system. Viscosity values follow the structural changes suggested from scattering measurements i.e., gradually increases for mixtures PAM → Surfactin/PAM → Surfactin/SDDAB/PAM in PBS.

  9. Spray and Combustion of Gelled Hypergolic Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-20

    moisture absorption on the fumed silica surface correlates directly to the ambient humidity , and can reach 12% by weight at an atmospheric humidity of...propellant interface, the liquid at the interface can be heated to the homogeneous vapor nucleation temperature rather than the boiling point. At this

  10. Eletromiograma de superfície durante stress experimental como subsídio no diagnóstico da cefaléia tensional: resultados em 100 casos Surface scalp and neck electromyography with stress as diagnostic criterion in chronic tension headache: results in 100 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceme Ferreira Jordy

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Eletromiograma de superfície foi realizado no crânio e pescoço, durante stress provocado por frio, em 100 pacientes sofrendo cefaléia crônica isolada. Os resultados de diagnóstico obtidos com a eletromiografia revelaram erro de 24% a 32% na avaliação clínica da cefaléia tensional segundo os critérios anamnésicos referendados pelo Comitê de Classificação das Cefaléias, da Sociedade Internacional de Cefaléia (1988. A eletromiografia durante stress é proposta como novo critério de diagnóstico da Cefaléia tensional.We report the use of surface scalp and neck electromyography during experimental stress state in a series of 100 out-patients suffering from chronic tension headache. Results revealed a 24% to 32% of diagnostic errors in the diagnostic obtained by routine anamnestic procedures and following the criteria recommended by the Headache Classification Commitee of the International Headache Society (1988. The electromyography with stress is proposed as a new diagnostic criterion for tension headache.

  11. Technology of foamed propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnlein-Mauss, Jutta; Kroeber, Hartmut [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Chemische Technologie ICT, Pfinztal (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Foamed propellants are based on crystalline explosives bonded in energetic reaction polymers. Due to their porous structures they are distinguished by high burning rates. Energy content and material characteristics can be varied by using different energetic fillers, energetic polymers and porous structures. Foamed charges can be produced easily by the reaction injection moulding process. For the manufacturing of foamed propellants a semi-continuous remote controlled production plant in pilot scale was set up and a modified reaction injection moulding process was applied. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Heterogeneous propellant internal ballistics: criticism and regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, R. L.

    2011-10-01

    Although heterogeneous propellant and its innately nondeterministic, chemically discrete morphology dominates applications, ballisticcharacterization deterministic time-mean burning rate and acoustic admittance measures' absence of explicit, nondeterministic information requires homogeneous propellant with a smooth, uniformly regressing burning surface: inadequate boundary conditions for heterogeneous propellant grained applications. The past age overcame this dichotomy with one-dimensional (1D) models and empirical knowledge from numerous, adequately supported motor developments and supplementary experiments. However, current cost and risk constraints inhibit this approach. Moreover, its fundamental science approach is more sensitive to incomplete boundary condition information (garbage-in still equals garbage-out) and more is expected. This work critiques this situation and sketches a path forward based on enhanced ballistic and motor characterizations in the workplace and approximate model and apparatus developments mentored by CSAR DNS capabilities (or equivalent).

  13. Propeller TAP flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Bille, Camilla; Wamberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    major complications needing additional surgery. One flap was lost due to a vascular problem. Breast reconstruction can be performed by a propeller TAP flap without cutting the descending branch of the thoracodorsal vessels. However, the authors would recommend that a small cuff of muscle is left around...

  14. Reactor vessel stud tensioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malandra, L.J.; Beer, R.W.; Salton, R.B.; Spiegelman, S.R.; Cognevich, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    A quick-acting stud tensioner, for facilitating the loosening or tightening of a stud nut on a reactor vessel stud, has gripper jaws which when the tensioner is lowered into engagement with the upper end of the stud are moved inwards to grip the upper end and which when the tensioner is lifted move outward to release the upper end. (author)

  15. New Propellants and Cryofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palasezski, Bryan; Sullivan, Neil S.; Hamida, Jaha; Kokshenev, V.

    2006-01-01

    The proposed research will investigate the stability and cryogenic properties of solid propellants that are critical to NASA s goal of realizing practical propellant designs for future spacecraft. We will determine the stability and thermal properties of a solid hydrogen-liquid helium stabilizer in a laboratory environment in order to design a practical propellant. In particular, we will explore methods of embedding atomic species and metallic nano-particulates in hydrogen matrices suspended in liquid helium. We will also measure the characteristic lifetimes and diffusion of atomic species in these candidate cryofuels. The most promising large-scale advance in rocket propulsion is the use of atomic propellants; most notably atomic hydrogen stabilized in cryogenic environments, and metallized-gelled liquid hydrogen (MGH) or densified gelled hydrogen (DGH). The new propellants offer very significant improvements over classic liquid oxygen/hydrogen fuels because of two factors: (1) the high energy-release, and (ii) the density increase per unit energy release. These two changes can lead to significant reduced mission costs and increased payload to orbit weight ratios. An achievable 5 to 10 percent improvement in specific impulse for the atomic propellants or MGH fuels can result in a doubling or tripling of system payloads. The high-energy atomic propellants must be stored in a stabilizing medium such as solid hydrogen to inhibit or delay their recombination into molecules. The goal of the proposed research is to determine the stability and thermal properties of the solid hydrogen-liquid helium stabilizer. Magnetic resonance techniques will be used to measure the thermal lifetimes and the diffusive motions of atomic species stored in solid hydrogen grains. The properties of metallic nano-particulates embedded in hydrogen matrices will also be studied and analyzed. Dynamic polarization techniques will be developed to enhance signal/noise ratios in order to be able to

  16. Viscosity, surface tension, density and contact angle of selected PbI2, PbCl2 and methylammonium lead halide perovskite solutions used in perovskite solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Ahmadian-Yazdi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite solar cells (PSCs are currently under vigorous research and development, owing to their compelling power conversion efficiencies. PSCs are solution-processed and, therefore, are fabricated using casting and printing methods, such as spin, spray and blade coating. The coating characteristics significantly depend on the physical and rheological properties of the solutions. Thus, due to the scarcity of such properties, in this work, we report the surface tension, viscosity, density, and contact angle of selected methylammonium lead halide perovskite solutions, in order to gain insight into the behavior of the perovskite solutions and the range of such physical properties. The contact angles were measured on PEDOT:PSS and compact TiO2 (c-TiO2 substrates, commonly used as the underneath layers of the perovskite film. In total, 12 solutions of CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbI3-xClx dissolved in common solvents, as well as solutions of PbI2, PbCl2, and CH3NH3I were tested. Among the results, it is shown that the tested perovskite solutions are Newtonian, the apparent contact angles on the mesoporous TiO2 (m-TiO2 are close to zero, on the PEDOT:PSS are around 10°, and on the c-TiO2 are around 30°. Also, contact angle hysteresis is observed in the case of the c-TiO2 substrates. Representative impact dynamics and spreading of perovskite solution droplets are also studied, to demonstrate the importance of the solution properties and process parameters on the coating process.

  17. Viscosity, surface tension, density and contact angle of selected PbI2, PbCl2 and methylammonium lead halide perovskite solutions used in perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian-Yazdi, Mohammad-Reza; Rahimzadeh, Amin; Chouqi, Zineb; Miao, Yihe; Eslamian, Morteza

    2018-02-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are currently under vigorous research and development, owing to their compelling power conversion efficiencies. PSCs are solution-processed and, therefore, are fabricated using casting and printing methods, such as spin, spray and blade coating. The coating characteristics significantly depend on the physical and rheological properties of the solutions. Thus, due to the scarcity of such properties, in this work, we report the surface tension, viscosity, density, and contact angle of selected methylammonium lead halide perovskite solutions, in order to gain insight into the behavior of the perovskite solutions and the range of such physical properties. The contact angles were measured on PEDOT:PSS and compact TiO2 (c-TiO2) substrates, commonly used as the underneath layers of the perovskite film. In total, 12 solutions of CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbI3-xClx dissolved in common solvents, as well as solutions of PbI2, PbCl2, and CH3NH3I were tested. Among the results, it is shown that the tested perovskite solutions are Newtonian, the apparent contact angles on the mesoporous TiO2 (m-TiO2) are close to zero, on the PEDOT:PSS are around 10°, and on the c-TiO2 are around 30°. Also, contact angle hysteresis is observed in the case of the c-TiO2 substrates. Representative impact dynamics and spreading of perovskite solution droplets are also studied, to demonstrate the importance of the solution properties and process parameters on the coating process.

  18. Alkyl chain interaction at the surface of room temperature ionic liquids: systematic variation of alkyl chain length (R = C(1)-C(4), C(8)) in both cation and anion of [RMIM][R-OSO(3)] by sum frequency generation and surface tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cherry S; Baldelli, Steven

    2009-01-29

    The gas-liquid interface of halide-free 1,3-dialkylimidazolium alkyl sulfates [RMIM][R-OSO(3)] with R chain length from C(1)-C(4) and C(8) has been studied systematically using the surface-specific sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and surface tension measurements. From the SFG spectra, vibrational modes from the methyl group of both cation and anion are observed for all ionic liquid samples considered in the present study. These results suggest the presence of both ions at the gas-liquid interface, which is further supported by surface tension measurements. Surface tension data show a decreasing trend as the alkyl chain in the imidazolium cation is varied from methyl to butyl chain, with a specific anion. A similar trend is observed when the alkyl chain of the anion is modified and the cation is fixed.

  19. Diffuse interfacelets in transcritical flows of propellants into high-pressure combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzay, Javier; Jofre, Lluis

    2017-11-01

    Rocket engines and new generations of high-power jet engines and diesel engines oftentimes involve the injection of one or more reactants at subcritical temperatures into combustor environments at high pressures, and more particularly, at pressures higher than those corresponding to the critical points of the individual components of the mixture, which typically range from 13 to 50 bars for most propellants. This class of trajectories in the thermodynamic space has been traditionally referred to as transcritical. Under particular conditions often found in hydrocarbon-fueled chemical propulsion systems, and despite the prevailing high pressures, the flow in the combustor may contain regions close to the injector where a diffuse interface is formed in between the fuel and oxidizer streams that is sustained by surface-tension forces as a result of the elevation of the critical pressure of the mixture. This talk describes progress towards modeling these effects in the conservation equations. Funded by the US Department of Energy.

  20. Temperature dependence of the surface tension and 0.1 MPa density for 1-Cn-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate with n=2, 4, and 6

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Součková, Monika; Klomfar, Jaroslav; Pátek, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 48, MAY 2012 (2012), s. 267-275 ISSN 0021-9614 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/0010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : ionic liquid s * tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate * surface tension * group contribution method * density Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.297, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021961411004770

  1. Low Temperature Densities from (218 to 364) K and up to 50 MPa in Pressure and Surface Tension for Trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and Dicyanamide and 1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium Hexafluorophosphate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klomfar, Jaroslav; Součková, Monika; Pátek, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, July (2014), s. 2263-2274 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00145S; GA ČR GA101/09/0010 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium cation * 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate * bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion * dicyanamide anion * experimental pvT data * surface tension * internal pressure Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.037, year: 2014

  2. Density, viscosity, surface tension, and molar volume of propylene glycol + water mixtures from 293 to 323 K and correlations by the Jouyban–Acree model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim S. Khattab

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Density, viscosity, surface tension and molar volume of propylene glycol + water mixtures at 293, 298, 303, 308, 313, 318, and 323 K are reported, compared with the available literature data and the Jouyban–Acree model was used for mathematical correlation of the data. The mean relative deviation (MRD was used as an error criterion and the MRD values for data correlation of density, viscosity, surface tension and molar volume at different investigated temperatures are 0.1 ± 0.1%, 7.6 ± 6.4%, 3.4 ± 3.7%, and 0.4 ± 0.4%, respectively. The corresponding MRDs for the predicted properties after training the model using the experimental data at 298 K are 0.1 ± 0.2%, 12.8 ± 9.3%, 4.7 ± 4.1% and 0.6 ± 0.5%, respectively for density, viscosity, surface tension, and molar volume data.

  3. The screw propeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrabee, E. E.

    1980-07-01

    Marine and air screw propellers are considered in terms of theoretical hydrodynamics as developed by Joukowsky, Prandtl, and Betz. Attention is given to the flow around wings of finite span where spanwise flow exists and where lift and the bound vorticity must all go smoothly to zero at the wing tips. The concept of a trailing vortex sheet made up of infinitesimal line vortexes roughly aligned with the direction of flight is discussed in this regard. Also considered is induced velocity, which tends to convect the sheet downward at every stage in the roll-up process, the vortex theory of propellers and the Betz-Prandtl circulation distribution. The performance of the Gossamer Albatross and of a pedal-driven biplane called the Chrysalis are also discussed.

  4. Study of the pitting effects during the pre-ignition plasma–propellant interaction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, Yuhua; Li, Xingwen; Wu, Jian; Jia, Shenli; Zhao, Weiyu; Murphy, Anthony B

    2016-01-01

    The propellant ignition mechanism has become a central issue in the electrothermal chemical (ETC) launch technology, and the pre-ignition plasma–propellant interactions are critical in determining the ignition characteristics. In this work, both an open-air ablation test and an interrupted burning test are conducted for three different propellants. A fused silica window, which is transparent in all relevant wavelengths, is utilized to investigate the role of the plasma radiation. Surface pitting of the propellants after interaction with the plasma is analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of pits on the plasma ignition is then studied and a possible formation mechanism of pits is proposed. The input heat flux and the surface temperature of the propellants are obtained by solving a pre-ignition plasma–propellant interaction model. The results shed light on the pre-ignition plasma ignition mechanisms and will assist in the development of propellants for an ETC launcher. (paper)

  5. Free-Energy Barrier of Filling a Spherical Cavity in the Presence of Line Tension: Implication to the Energy Barrier between the Cassie and Wenzel States on a Superhydrophobic Surface with Spherical Cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamatsu, Masao

    2016-09-20

    The free-energy barrier of filling a spherical cavity having an inner wall of various wettabilities is studied. The morphology and free energy of a lens-shaped droplet are determined from the minimum of the free energy. The effect of line tension on the free energy is also studied. Then, the equilibrium contact angle of the droplet is determined from the generalized Young's equation. By increasing the droplet volume within the spherical cavity, the droplet morphology changes from spherical with an equilibrium contact angle of 180° to a lens with a convex meniscus, where the morphological complete drying transition occurs. By further increasing the droplet volume, the meniscus changes from convex to concave. Then, the lens-shaped droplet with concave meniscus spreads over the whole inner wall, resulting in an equilibrium contact angle of 0° to leave a spherical bubble, where the morphological complete wetting transition occurs. Finally, the whole cavity is filled with liquid. The free energy shows a barrier from complete drying to complete wetting as a function of droplet volume, which corresponds to the energy barrier between the Cassie and Wenzel states of the superhydrophobic surface with spherical cavities. The free-energy maximum occurs when the meniscus of the droplet becomes flat, and it is given by an analytic formula. The effect of line tension is expressed by the scaled line tension, and this effect is largest at the free-energy maximum. The positive line tension increases the free-energy maximum, which thus increases the stability of the Cassie superhydrophobic state, whereas the negative line tension destabilizes the superhydrophobic state.

  6. Bistable (latching) solenoid actuated propellant isolation valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, H.; Deboi, H. H.

    1979-01-01

    The design, fabrication, assembly and test of a development configuration bistable (latching) solenoid actuated propellant isolation valve suitable for the control hydrazine and liquid fluorine to an 800 pound thrust rocket engine is described. The valve features a balanced poppet, utilizing metal bellows, a hard poppet/seat interface and a flexure support system for the internal moving components. This support system eliminates sliding surfaces, thereby rendering the valve free of self generated particles.

  7. Strength of Screw Propellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-07

    ship because of increese of propeller efficiency and saving on the high cost of difficult to obtain materials (bronze, brass, stainless steel). The...indAjate that. x :axmuin stresses in the blade cross section are the cor-,prc-.,; ivFe norm-al strcs3es at point G. The maximom tensile stres-ses cis a...and stern part of the ship. Because of purely technical difficulties and also because of the relatively high cost of preparations for such tests, only

  8. Tension type headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashish Chowdhury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tension type headaches are common in clinical practice. Earlier known by various names, the diagnosis has had psychological connotations. Recent evidence has helped clarify the neurobiological basis and the disorder is increasingly considered more in the preview of neurologists. The classification, clinical features, differential diagnosis and treatment of tension type headache are discussed in this paper.

  9. Tensions in Distributed Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jeanne; Ng, David

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This article proposes the utility of using activity theory as an analytical lens to examine the theoretical construct of distributed leadership, specifically to illuminate tensions encountered by leaders and how they resolved these tensions. Research Method: The study adopted the naturalistic inquiry approach of a case study of an…

  10. Space Transportation Infrastructure Supported By Propellant Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Woodcock, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    A space transportation infrastructure is described that utilizes propellant depot servicing platforms to support all foreseeable missions in the Earth-Moon vicinity and deep space out to Mars. The infrastructure utilizes current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) systems such as the Delta IV Heavy, Atlas V, and Falcon 9, for all crew, cargo, and propellant launches to orbit. Propellant launches are made to Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Depot and an Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 1 (L1) Depot to support a new reusable in-space transportation vehicles. The LEO Depot supports missions to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) for satellite servicing and to L1 for L1 Depot missions. The L1 Depot supports Lunar, Earth-Sun L2 (ESL2), Asteroid and Mars Missions. New vehicle design concepts are presented that can be launched on current 5 meter diameter ELV systems. These new reusable vehicle concepts include a Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) for crew transportation between the LEO Depot, L1 Depot and missions beyond L1; a new reusable lunar lander for crew transportation between the L1 Depot and the lunar surface; and Mars orbital Depot are based on International Space Station (ISS) heritage hardware. Data provided includes the number of launches required for each mission utilizing current ELV systems (Delta IV Heavy or equivalent) and the approximate vehicle masses and propellant requirements. Also included is a discussion on affordability with ideas on technologies that could reduce the number of launches required and thoughts on how this infrastructure include competitive bidding for ELV flights and propellant services, developments of new reusable in-space vehicles and development of a multiuse infrastructure that can support many government and commercial missions simultaneously.

  11. Well-defined critical association concentration and rapid adsorption at the air/water interface of a short amphiphilic polymer, amphipol A8-35: a study by Förster resonance energy transfer and dynamic surface tension measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Fabrice; Popot, Jean-Luc; Tribet, Christophe

    2012-07-17

    Amphipols (APols) are short amphiphilic polymers designed to handle membrane proteins (MPs) in aqueous solutions as an alternative to small surfactants (detergents). APols adsorb onto the transmembrane, hydrophobic surface of MPs, forming small, water-soluble complexes, in which the protein is biochemically stabilized. At variance with MP/detergent complexes, MP/APol ones remain stable even at extreme dilutions. Pure APol solutions self-associate into well-defined micelle-like globules comprising a few APol molecules, a rather unusual behavior for amphiphilic polymers, which typically form ill-defined assemblies. The best characterized APol to date, A8-35, is a random copolymer of acrylic acid, isopropylacrylamide, and octylacrylamide. In the present work, the concentration threshold for self-association of A8-35 in salty buffer (NaCl 100 mM, Tris/HCl 20 mM, pH 8.0) has been studied by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements and tensiometry. In a 1:1 mol/mol mixture of APols grafted with either rhodamine or 7-nitro-1,2,3-benzoxadiazole, the FRET signal as a function of A8-35 concentration is essentially zero below a threshold concentration of 0.002 g·L(-1) and increases linearly with concentration above this threshold. This indicates that assembly takes place in a narrow concentration interval around 0.002 g·L(-1). Surface tension measurements decreases regularly with concentration until a threshold of ca. 0.004 g·L(-1), beyond which it reaches a plateau at ca. 30 mN·m(-1). Within experimental uncertainties, the two techniques thus yield a comparable estimate of the critical self-assembly concentration. The kinetics of variation of the surface tension was analyzed by dynamic surface tension measurements in the time window 10 ms-100 s. The rate of surface tension decrease was similar in solutions of A8-35 and of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate when both compounds were at a similar molar concentration of n-alkyl moieties. Overall, the

  12. Discovery Of B Ring Propellers In Cassini UVIS, And ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sremcevic, Miodrag; Stewart, G. R.; Albers, N.; Esposito, L. W.

    2012-10-01

    We present evidence for the existence of propellers in Saturn's B ring by combining data from Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) and Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) experiments. We identify two propeller populations: (1) tens of degrees wide propellers in the dense B ring core, and (2) smaller, more A ring like, propellers populating the inner B ring. The prototype of the first population is an object observed at 18 different epochs between 2005 and 2010. The ubiquitous propeller "S" shape is seen both in UVIS occultations as an optical depth depletion and in ISS as a 40 degrees wide bright stripe in unlit geometries and dark in lit geometries. Combining the available Cassini data we infer that the object is a partial gap embedded in the high optical depth region of the B ring. The gap moves at orbital speed consistent with its radial location. From the radial separation of the propeller wings we estimate that the embedded body, which causes the propeller structure, is about 1.5km in size located at a=112,921km. The UVIS occultations indicate an asymmetric propeller "S" shape. Since the object is located at an edge between high and relatively low optical depth, this asymmetry is most likely a consequence of the strong surface mass density gradient. We estimate that there are possibly dozen up to 100 other propeller objects in Saturn's B ring. The location of the discovered body, at an edge of a dense ringlet within the B ring, suggests a novel mechanism for the up to now illusive B ring irregular large-scale structure of alternating high and low optical depth ringlets. We propose that this B ring irregular structure may have its cause in the presence of many embedded bodies that shepherd the individual B ring ringlets.

  13. Simulations of the DARPA Suboff Submarine Including Self-Propulsion with the E1619 Propeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Young and Kinnas (2003) to evaluate supercavitating and surface-piercing propellers. The simulation’s predicted results compare well with experimental...Young Y, Kinnas S. 2003. Analysis of supercavitating and surface-piercing propeller flows via BEM. Comput. Mech. 32, 269-280. Yu-cun P, Huai-xin Z

  14. Burning Characteristics of Ammonium-Nitrate-Based Composite Propellants with a Hydroxyl-Terminated Polybutadiene/Polytetrahydrofuran Blend Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kohga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium-nitrate-(AN- based composite propellants prepared with a hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB/polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF blend binder have unique thermal decomposition characteristics. In this study, the burning characteristics of AN/HTPB/PTHF propellants are investigated. The specific impulse and adiabatic flame temperature of an AN-based propellant theoretically increases with an increase in the proportion of PTHF in the HTPB/PTHF blend. With an AN/HTPB propellant, a solid residue is left on the burning surface of the propellant, and the shape of this residue is similar to that of the propellant. On the other hand, an AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant does not leave a solid residue. The burning rates of the AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant are not markedly different from those of the AN/HTPB propellant because some of the liquefied HTPB/PTHF binder cover the burning surface and impede decomposition and combustion. The burning rates of an AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant with a burning catalyst are higher than those of an AN/HTPB propellant supplemented with a catalyst. The beneficial effect of the blend binder on the burning characteristics is clarified upon the addition of a catalyst. The catalyst suppresses the negative influence of the liquefied binder that covers the burning surface. Thus, HTPB/PTHF blend binders are useful in improving the performance of AN-based propellants.

  15. Integral analysis of cavity pressurization in a fuel rod during an ULOF driven TOP with inclusion of surface tension effects on froth gas bubbles and variable cavity conditions due to fuel melting and ejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royl, P.

    1984-02-01

    The transient cavity pressurization in an ULOF driven TOP excursion has been analyzed for the SPX-1 reactor with an equation of state that allows to simulate the contribution of small froth gas bubbles to the pressure build-up in a fuel pin with inclusion of restraints from surface tension. Calculations were performed for various bubble parameters. Estimates are made for effective gas availabilities at fuel melting which can be used in a cavity model with an ideal gas equation to arrive at similar pressure transients

  16. Parachute Cord Tension Sensor

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To design and fabricate a light weight (few oz), very small (~2 inch length) parachute cord tension sensor demonstrator device.A major challenge for the CPAS (The...

  17. Leadership. Using Creative Tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David L.

    1986-01-01

    Leadership involves maintaining a balance of the variables which comprise leadership. Love and fear, types of power, success and effectiveness, and driving and restraining forces are discussed as sources of the creative tension a leader uses to influence others. (MT)

  18. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide.......To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  19. Spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Benjamin Oliver; Itam, Sarah; Probst, Fey

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We present a patient with sudden onset progressive shortness of breath and no history of trauma, who rapidly became haemodynamically compromised with a pneumothorax and pleural effusion seen on chest radiograph. He was treated for spontaneous tension pneumothorax but this was soon revealed to be a tension haemopneumothorax. He underwent urgent thoracotomy after persistent bleeding to explore an apical vascular abnormality seen on CT scanning. To our knowledge this is the first such c...

  20. Tension perturbations of black brane spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traschen, Jennie; Fox, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    We consider black brane spacetimes that have at least one spatial translation Killing field that is tangent to the brane. A new parameter, the tension of a spacetime, is defined. The tension parameter is associated with spatial translations in much the same way that the ADM mass is associated with the time translation Killing field. In this work, we explore the implications of the spatial translation symmetry for small perturbations around a background black brane. For static-charged black branes we derive a law which relates the tension perturbation to the surface gravity times the change in the horizon area, plus terms that involve variations in the charges and currents. We find that as a black brane evaporates the tension decreases. We also give a simple derivation of a first law for black brane spacetimes. These constructions hold when the background stress-energy is governed by a Hamiltonian, and the results include arbitrary perturbative stress-energy sources

  1. Hull-Propeller Interaction and Its Effect on Propeller Cavitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regener, Pelle Bo

    In order to predict the required propulsion power for a ship reliably and accurately, it is not sufficient to only evaluate the resistance of the hull and the propeller performance in open water alone. Interaction effects between hull and propeller can even be a decisive factor in ship powering...... prediction and design optimization. The hull-propeller interaction coefficients of effective wake fraction, thrust deduction factor, and relative rotative efficiency are traditionally determined by model tests. Self-propulsion model tests consistently show an increase in effective wake fractions when using...... velocities. This offers an opportunity for additional insight into hull-propeller interaction and the propeller’s actual operating condition behind the ship, as the actual (effective) inflow is computed. Self-propulsion simulations at model and full scale were carried out for a bulk carrier, once...

  2. Reference Data for the Density, Viscosity, and Surface Tension of Liquid Al-Zn, Ag-Sn, Bi-Sn, Cu-Sn, and Sn-Zn Eutectic Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobosz, Alexandra; Gancarz, Tomasz

    2018-03-01

    The data for the physicochemical properties viscosity, density, and surface tension obtained by different experimental techniques have been analyzed for liquid Al-Zn, Ag-Sn, Bi-Sn, Cu-Sn, and Sn-Zn eutectic alloys. All experimental data sets have been categorized and described by the year of publication, the technique used to obtain the data, the purity of the samples and their compositions, the quoted uncertainty, the number of data in the data set, the form of data, and the temperature range. The proposed standard deviations of liquid eutectic Al-Zn, Ag-Sn, Bi-Sn, Cu-Sn, and Sn-Zn alloys are 0.8%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 0.2%, and 0.1% for the density, 8.7%, 4.1%, 3.6%, 5.1%, and 4.0% for viscosity, and 1.0%, 0.5%, 0.3%, N/A, and 0.4% for surface tension, respectively, at a confidence level of 95%.

  3. Cryogenic Propellant Feed System Analytical Tool Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusby, Brian S.; Miranda, Bruno M.; Collins, Jacob A.

    2011-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Branch at NASA s Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) has developed a parametric analytical tool to address the need to rapidly predict heat leak into propellant distribution lines based on insulation type, installation technique, line supports, penetrations, and instrumentation. The Propellant Feed System Analytical Tool (PFSAT) will also determine the optimum orifice diameter for an optional thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to counteract heat leak into the feed line and ensure temperature constraints at the end of the feed line are met. PFSAT was developed primarily using Fortran 90 code because of its number crunching power and the capability to directly access real fluid property subroutines in the Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties (REFPROP) Database developed by NIST. A Microsoft Excel front end user interface was implemented to provide convenient portability of PFSAT among a wide variety of potential users and its ability to utilize a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) developed in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The focus of PFSAT is on-orbit reaction control systems and orbital maneuvering systems, but it may be used to predict heat leak into ground-based transfer lines as well. PFSAT is expected to be used for rapid initial design of cryogenic propellant distribution lines and thermodynamic vent systems. Once validated, PFSAT will support concept trades for a variety of cryogenic fluid transfer systems on spacecraft, including planetary landers, transfer vehicles, and propellant depots, as well as surface-based transfer systems. The details of the development of PFSAT, its user interface, and the program structure will be presented.

  4. Diagnostics of Gun Barrel Propellants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lederman, S

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the applicability of the spontaneous Raman diagnostic technique to the determination of the temperature of the propellant gases in the vicinity of the muzzle of a 2Omm...

  5. Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Flight Demonstration development has been canceled in favor of a ground test bed development for of passive/active cryogenic propellant storage, transfer, and...

  6. Cavitation simulation on marine propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Keun Woo

    Cavitation on marine propellers causes thrust breakdown, noise, vibration and erosion. The increasing demand for high-efficiency propellers makes it difficult to avoid the occurrence of cavitation. Currently, practical analysis of propeller cavitation depends on cavitation tunnel test, empirical...... criteria and inviscid flow method, but a series of model test is costly and the other two methods have low accuracy. Nowadays, computational fluid dynamics by using a viscous flow solver is common for practical industrial applications in many disciplines. Cavitation models in viscous flow solvers have been...... hydrofoils and conventional/highly-skewed propellers are performed with one of three cavitation models proven in 2D analysis. 3D cases also show accuracy and robustness of numerical method in simulating steady and unsteady sheet cavitation on complicated geometries. Hydrodynamic characteristics of cavitation...

  7. Experimental protocols for and studies of the effects of surface passivation and water isotopes on the gliding speed of microtubules propelled by kinesin-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Roger Andrew

    This dissertation explores how the kinesin-1 and microtubule system is affected by surface passivation and water isotopes. Surface passivation was found to affect the gliding speed that microtubules exhibit in the gliding motility assay and the lengths of microtubules supported by the passivation. It was also found that gliding speeds of microtubules are very sensitive to temperature changes. Studies changing the water isotope were a first attempt to investigate if changing the solvent changed the osmotic pressure of the solution kinesin and microtubules were in. No osmotic pressure changes were observed, however, the experiments using different isotopes of water did illuminate the possibility that kinesin may be sensitive to viscosity changes in the solvent. This experiment also suggests further experiments that can be specifically designed to probe osmotic pressure changes. This thesis was also the first thesis ever, to the best of the author's knowledge, to be done in a completely open format. All information and notebook entries that are related to it, as well as the thesis itself, can be found on the website OpenWetWare. The thesis can also be found there including all the different versions that went into its editing. The philosophy and process of making data open and accessible to every one is also discussed.

  8. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, Thomas R [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL

    2015-02-13

    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spray coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.

  9. Spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Benjamin Oliver; Itam, Sarah; Probst, Fey

    2008-10-31

    We present a patient with sudden onset progressive shortness of breath and no history of trauma, who rapidly became haemodynamically compromised with a pneumothorax and pleural effusion seen on chest radiograph. He was treated for spontaneous tension pneumothorax but this was soon revealed to be a tension haemopneumothorax. He underwent urgent thoracotomy after persistent bleeding to explore an apical vascular abnormality seen on CT scanning. To our knowledge this is the first such case reported.Aetiology and current approach to spontaneous haemothorax are discussed briefly.

  10. Spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itam Sarah

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a patient with sudden onset progressive shortness of breath and no history of trauma, who rapidly became haemodynamically compromised with a pneumothorax and pleural effusion seen on chest radiograph. He was treated for spontaneous tension pneumothorax but this was soon revealed to be a tension haemopneumothorax. He underwent urgent thoracotomy after persistent bleeding to explore an apical vascular abnormality seen on CT scanning. To our knowledge this is the first such case reported. Aetiology and current approach to spontaneous haemothorax are discussed briefly.

  11. Creating Tension in Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, Bernarr

    This paper discusses the rationale and teaching methods for a six-week unit, for a high school freshman English Class, on perception, semantics, and writing, which places special focus on developing tension in student writing. The first four objectives of the course focus on perception and the next two focus on semantics. The seventh…

  12. Tension-filled Governance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celik, Tim Holst

    on the statesituated tension-filled functional relationship between legitimation and accumulation, the study both historically and theoretically reworks this approach and reapplies it for the post-1970s/1990s governance period. It asks whether and to what extent governance has served as a distinctive post- 1970s/1990s...

  13. Rein tension during canter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egenvall, Agneta; Eisersiö, Marie; Rhodin, Marie; van Weeren, P.R.; Roepstorff, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Riders generally use reins as a means for communication with the horse. At present, the signalling pattern is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to illustrate and analyse the rein tension patterns in a number of rider/horse combinations across a variety of exercises in the canter gait. Our

  14. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T

    2004-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and dorzolamide raise optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether timolol, which belongs to another group of glaucoma drugs called beta...

  15. Coulomb string tension, asymptotic string tension, and the gluon chain

    OpenAIRE

    Greensite, Jeff; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2014-01-01

    We compute, via numerical simulations, the non-perturbative Coulomb potential of pure SU(3) gauge theory in Coulomb gauge. We find that that the Coulomb potential scales nicely in accordance with asymptotic freedom, that the Coulomb potential is linear in the infrared, and that the Coulomb string tension is about four times larger than the asymptotic string tension. We explain how it is possible that the asymptotic string tension can be lower than the Coulomb string tension by a factor of four.

  16. 30 CFR 56.4230 - Self-propelled equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....4230 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 56.4230 Self-propelled equipment. (a)(1) Whenever a fire or its effects...

  17. Propeller Flaps: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisti, Andrea; D'Aniello, Carlo; Fortezza, Leonardo; Tassinari, Juri; Cuomo, Roberto; Grimaldi, Luca; Nisi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Since their introduction in 1991, propeller flaps are increasingly used as a surgical approach to loss of substance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the indications and to verify the outcomes and the complication rates using this reconstructing technique through a literature review. A search on PubMed was performed using "propeller flap", "fasciocutaneous flap", "local flap" or "pedicled flap" as key words. We selected clinical studies using propeller flaps as a reconstructing technique. We found 119 studies from 1991 to 2015. Overall, 1,315 propeller flaps were reported in 1,242 patients. Most frequent indications included loss of substance following tumor excision, repair of trauma-induced injuries, burn scar contractures, pressure sores and chronic infections. Complications were observed in 281/1242 patients (22.6%) occurring more frequently in the lower limbs (31.8%). Partial flap necrosis and venous congestion were the most frequent complications. The complications' rate was significantly higher in infants (70 years old) but there was not a significant difference between the sexes. Trend of complication rate has not improved during the last years. Propeller flaps showed a great success rate with low morbidity, quick recovery, good aesthetic outcomes and reduced cost. The quality and volume of the transferred soft tissue, the scar orientation and the possibility of direct donor site closure should be considered in order to avoid complications. Indications for propeller flaps are small- or medium-sized defects located in a well-vascularized area with healthy surrounding tissues. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  18. The tension of framed membranes from computer simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamkens, Daniel; Jeppesen, Claus; Ipsen, John H.

    2018-01-01

    the membranes display power-law characteristics for the equation of state, while higher tension levels includes both an extended linear (elastic) as well as a highly non-linear stretching regime. For semi-flexible membranes a transition from extended to buckled conformations takes place at negative frame......Abstract.: We have analyzed the behavior of a randomly triangulated, self-avoiding surface model of a flexible, fluid membrane subject to a circular boundary by Wang-Landau Monte Carlo computer simulation techniques. The dependence of the canonical free energy and frame tension on the frame area...... is obtained for flexible membranes. It is shown that for low bending rigidities the framed membrane is only stable above a threshold tension, suggesting a discontinuous transition from the collapsed (branched polymer) state to a finite tension extended state. In a tension range above this threshold tension...

  19. Tensão superficial estática de soluções aquosas com óleos minerais e vegetais utilizados na agricultura Surface tension of mineral oils and vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina G. de Mendonça

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a tensão superficial estática de soluções aquosas com formulações de óleos minerais e vegetais emulsionáveis utilizados como adjuvantes na agricultura. Os óleos minerais e vegetais, quando adicionados aos produtos fitossanitários, podem imprimir características desejáveis à calda de pulverização, como reduzir a tensão superficial em soluções aquosas, possibilitar maior contato da calda com a superfície vegetal ou reduzir o potencial de deriva durante as pulverizações. Foram testados os seguintes produtos comerciais: óleos minerais (Assist, Attach, Dytrol, Iharol, Mineral Oil, Spinner, Sunspray-E e Triona e óleos vegetais (Agrex'oil Vegetal, Crop Oil, Natur'l Óleo, Óleo Vegetal Nortox e Veget Oil, todos com registro de uso na agricultura. A tensão superficial das soluções aquosas foi avaliada em 11 concentrações para cada produto (0,025; 0,05; 0,1; 0,25; 0,5; 0,75; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5 e 3,0% v/v. Essa propriedade dos óleos minerais e dos óleos vegetais foi estimada medindo-se a massa das gotas formadas na extremidade de uma bureta. Ao conjunto de dados obtidos para cada produto, na avaliação da tensão superficial, foram determinadas as análises de variância e de regressão, ajustando-se os dados ao Modelo de Mitscherlich. Entre os óleos minerais, destacaram-se os produtos: Assist, Dytrol, Iharol e Mineral Oil por apresentarem as menores tensões superficiais mínimas estimadas pelo Modelo, respectivamente, 29,255; 28,442; 26,097 e 28,584 mN m-1. Os óleos vegetais que apresentaram os menores valores de tensão superficial mínima estimados pelo Modelo, foram: Agrex' oil Vegetal (27,716 mN m-1, Natur'l óleo (28,216 mN m-1, Veget Oil (27,308 mN m-1 e Crop Oil (29,964 mN m-1.The aim of this work was to evaluate the surface tension of water emulsion with mineral oils and vegetable oils used as adjuvant. The mineral and vegetable oils when added to the agrochemicals can

  20. Low cost manned Mars mission based on indigenous propellant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Cinnamon, M.; Hamling, S.; Mahn, K.; Phillips, J.; Westmark, V.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes a low-cost approach to the manned exploration of Mars (which involves an unmanned mission followed two years later by a manned mission) based on near-term technologies and in situ propellant production. Particular attention is given to the basic mission architecture and its major components, including the orbital analysis, the unmanned segment, the Earth Return Vehicle, the aerobrake design, life sciences, guidance, communications, power, propellant production, the surface rovers, and Mars science. Also discussed are the cost per mission over an assumed 8-yr initiative.

  1. Laser-propelled ram accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasoh, A. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Fluid Science

    2000-11-01

    The concept of 'laser-propelled ram accelerator (L-RAMAC)' is proposed. Theoretically it is capable of achieving a higher launch speed than that by a chemical ram accelerator because a higher specific energy can be input to the propellant gas. The laser beam is supplied through the muzzle, focused as an annulus behind the base of the projectile. The performance of L-RAMAC is analized based on generalized Rankine-Hugoniot relations, suggesting that a superorbital muzzle speed is achievable out of this device. (orig.)

  2. A stochastic pocket model for aluminum agglomeration in solid propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallier, Stany [SNPE Materiaux Energetiques, Vert le Petit (France)

    2009-04-15

    A new model is derived to estimate the size and fraction of aluminum agglomerates at the surface of a burning propellant. The basic idea relies on well-known pocket models in which aluminum is supposed to aggregate and melt within pocket volumes imposed by largest oxidizer particles. The proposed model essentially relaxes simple assumptions of previous pocket models on propellant structure by accounting for an actual microstructure obtained by packing. The use of statistical tools from stochastic geometry enables to determine a statistical pocket size volume and hence agglomerate diameter and agglomeration fraction. Application to several AP/Al propellants gives encouraging results that are shown to be superior to former pocket models. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. New sensitive micro-measurements of dynamic surface tension and diffusion coefficients: Validated and tested for the adsorption of 1-Octanol at a microscopic air-water interface and its dissolution into water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Koji; Parra, Elisa; Needham, David

    2017-02-15

    Currently available dynamic surface tension (DST) measurement methods, such as Wilhelmy plate, droplet- or bubble-based methods, still have various experimental limitations such as the large size of the interface, convection in the solution, or a certain "dead time" at initial measurement. These limitations create inconsistencies for the kinetic analysis of surfactant adsorption/desorption, especially significant for ionic surfactants. Here, the "micropipette interfacial area-expansion method" was introduced and validated as a new DST measurement having a high enough sensitivity to detect diffusion controlled molecular adsorption at the air-water interfaces. To validate the new technique, the diffusion coefficient of 1-Octanol in water was investigated with existing models: the Ward Tordai model for the long time adsorption regime (1-100s), and the Langmuir and Frumkin adsorption isotherm models for surface excess concentration. We found that the measured diffusion coefficient of 1-Octanol, 7.2±0.8×10 -6 cm 2 /s, showed excellent agreement with the result from an alternative method, "single microdroplet catching method", to measure the diffusion coefficient from diffusion-controlled microdroplet dissolution, 7.3±0.1×10 -6 cm 2 /s. These new techniques for determining adsorption and diffusion coefficients can apply for a range of surface active molecules, especially the less-characterized ionic surfactants, and biological compounds such as lipids, peptides, and proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Elastic-Plastic J-Integral Solutions or Surface Cracks in Tension Using an Interpolation Methodology. Appendix C -- Finite Element Models Solution Database File, Appendix D -- Benchmark Finite Element Models Solution Database File

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wells, Douglas N.

    2013-01-01

    No closed form solutions exist for the elastic-plastic J-integral for surface cracks due to the nonlinear, three-dimensional nature of the problem. Traditionally, each surface crack must be analyzed with a unique and time-consuming nonlinear finite element analysis. To overcome this shortcoming, the authors have developed and analyzed an array of 600 3D nonlinear finite element models for surface cracks in flat plates under tension loading. The solution space covers a wide range of crack shapes and depths (shape: 0.2 less than or equal to a/c less than or equal to 1, depth: 0.2 less than or equal to a/B less than or equal to 0.8) and material flow properties (elastic modulus-to-yield ratio: 100 less than or equal to E/ys less than or equal to 1,000, and hardening: 3 less than or equal to n less than or equal to 20). The authors have developed a methodology for interpolating between the goemetric and material property variables that allows the user to reliably evaluate the full elastic-plastic J-integral and force versus crack mouth opening displacement solution; thus, a solution can be obtained very rapidly by users without elastic-plastic fracture mechanics modeling experience. Complete solutions for the 600 models and 25 additional benchmark models are provided in tabular format.

  5. Large Propellant Tank Cryo-Cooler (LPTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In rocket test and launch facilities, cryogenic propellants stored in tanks boils off due to heat leakage, with the following impacts:Ø   Waste, propellants boil off...

  6. Quadcopter thrust optimization with ducted-propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuantama Endrowednes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In relation to quadcopter body frame model, propeller can be categorized into propeller with ducted and without ducted. This study present differences between those two using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics method. Both categories utilize two blade-propeller with diameter of 406 (mm. Propeller rotation generates acceleration per time unit on the volume of air. Based on the behavior of generated air velocity, ducted propeller can be modeled into three versions. The generated thrust and performance on each model were calculated to determine the best model. The use of ducted propeller increases the total weight of quadcopter and also total thrust. The influence of this modeling were analyzed in detail with variation of angular velocity propeller from 1000 (rpm to 9000 (rpm. Besides the distance between propeller tip and ducted barrier, the size of ducted is also an important part in thrust optimization and total weight minimization of quadcopter.

  7. Seawater Immersion of GEM II Propellant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Merrill, Calude

    1999-01-01

    ... (% AP lost/week aged in seawater) and intercepts that depend on sample size. Friction and impact data on dried aged propellant samples showed no increased burning hazard compared with propellant not exposed to water...

  8. Transitions of tethered chain molecules under tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luettmer-Strathmann, Jutta; Binder, Kurt

    2014-09-21

    An applied tension force changes the equilibrium conformations of a polymer chain tethered to a planar substrate and thus affects the adsorption transition as well as the coil-globule and crystallization transitions. Conversely, solvent quality and surface attraction are reflected in equilibrium force-extension curves that can be measured in experiments. To investigate these effects theoretically, we study tethered chains under tension with Wang-Landau simulations of a bond-fluctuation lattice model. Applying our model to pulling experiments on biological molecules we obtain a good description of experimental data in the intermediate force range, where universal features dominate and finite size effects are small. For tethered chains in poor solvent, we observe the predicted two-phase coexistence at transitions from the globule to stretched conformations and also discover direct transitions from crystalline to stretched conformations. A phase portrait for finite chains constructed by evaluating the density of states for a broad range of solvent conditions and tensions shows how increasing tension leads to a disappearance of the globular phase. For chains in good solvents tethered to hard and attractive surfaces we find the predicted scaling with the chain length in the low-force regime and show that our results are well described by an analytical, independent-bond approximation for the bond-fluctuation model for the highest tensions. Finally, for a hard or slightly attractive surface the stretching of a tethered chain is a conformational change that does not correspond to a phase transition. However, when the surface attraction is sufficient to adsorb a chain it will undergo a desorption transition at a critical value of the applied force. Our results for force-induced desorption show the transition to be discontinuous with partially desorbed conformations in the coexistence region.

  9. Innovative boron nitride-doped propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Manning

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. military has a need for more powerful propellants with balanced/stoichiometric amounts of fuel and oxidants. However, balanced and more powerful propellants lead to accelerated gun barrel erosion and markedly shortened useful barrel life. Boron nitride (BN is an interesting potential additive for propellants that could reduce gun wear effects in advanced propellants (US patent pending 2015-026P. Hexagonal boron nitride is a good lubricant that can provide wear resistance and lower flame temperatures for gun barrels. Further, boron can dope steel, which drastically improves its strength and wear resistance, and can block the formation of softer carbides. A scalable synthesis method for producing boron nitride nano-particles that can be readily dispersed into propellants has been developed. Even dispersion of the nano-particles in a double-base propellant has been demonstrated using a solvent-based processing approach. Stability of a composite propellant with the BN additive was verified. In this paper, results from propellant testing of boron nitride nano-composite propellants are presented, including closed bomb and wear and erosion testing. Detailed characterization of the erosion tester substrates before and after firing was obtained by electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This promising boron nitride additive shows the ability to improve gun wear and erosion resistance without any destabilizing effects to the propellant. Potential applications could include less erosive propellants in propellant ammunition for large, medium and small diameter fire arms.

  10. Propelling arboriculture into the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson

    2011-01-01

    Research is the engine that propels arboriculture and urban forestry into the future. New knowledge, technologies, and tools provide arborists with improved tree care practices that result in healthier urban forests. The ISA Science and Research Committee (SRC) is composed of 13 professionals and researchers who are dedicated to elevating the importance of research...

  11. Plasma ignition of LOVA propellants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, C.A. van; Boluijt, A.G.; Schilt, A.

    2010-01-01

    Ignition experiments were performed using a gun simulator which is equipped with a burst disk. This equipment facilitates the application of propellant loading densities which are comparable to those applied in regular ammunitions. For this study the gun simulator was equipped with a plasma jet

  12. Producing propellants from water in lunar soil using solar lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    The exploration of the Solar System is directly related to the efficiency of engines designed to explore it, and consequently, to the propulsion techniques, materials and propellants for those engines. With the present day propulsion techniques it is necessary great quantities of propellants to impulse a manned spacecraft to Mars and beyond in the Solar System, which makes these operations financially very expensive because of the costs involved in launching it from planet Earth, due to its high gravity field strength. To solve this problem, it is needed a planetary place with smaller gravity field strength, near to the Earth and with great quantities of substances at the surface necessary for the in-situ production of propellants for spacecrafts. The only place available is Earth's natural satellite the Moon. So, here in this paper, I propose the creation of a Lunar Propellant Manufacturer. It is a robot-spacecraft which can be launched from Earth using an Energia Rocket, and to land on the Moon in an area (principally near to the north pole where it was discovered water molecules ice recently) with great quantities of oxygen and hydrogen (propellants) in the silicate soil, previously observed and mapped by spacecrafts in lunar orbit, for the extraction of those molecules from the soil and the in-situ production of the necessary propellants. The Lunar Propellant Manufacturer (LPM) spacecraft consists of: 1) a landing system with four legs (extendable) and rovers -when the spacecraft touches down, the legs retract in order that two apparatuses, analogue to tractor's wheeled belts parallel sided and below the spacecraft, can touch firmly the ground -it will be necessary for the displacement of the spacecraft to new areas with richer propellants content, when the early place has already exhausted in propellants; 2) a digging machine -a long, resistant extendable arm with an excavator hand, in the outer part of the spacecraft -it will extend itself to the ground

  13. Mars Propellant Liquefaction Modeling in Thermal Desktop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Pooja; Hauser, Dan; Sutherlin, Steven

    2017-01-01

    NASAs current Mars architectures are assuming the production and storage of 23 tons of liquid oxygen on the surface of Mars over a duration of 500+ days. In order to do this in a mass efficient manner, an energy efficient refrigeration system will be required. Based on previous analysis NASA has decided to do all liquefaction in the propulsion vehicle storage tanks. In order to allow for transient Martian environmental effects, a propellant liquefaction and storage system for a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) was modeled using Thermal Desktop. The model consisted of a propellant tank containing a broad area cooling loop heat exchanger integrated with a reverse turbo Brayton cryocooler. Cryocooler sizing and performance modeling was conducted using MAV diurnal heat loads and radiator rejection temperatures predicted from a previous thermal model of the MAV. A system was also sized and modeled using an alternative heat rejection system that relies on a forced convection heat exchanger. Cryocooler mass, input power, and heat rejection for both systems were estimated and compared against sizing based on non-transient sizing estimates.

  14. Drag and Torque on Locked Screw Propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Tabaczek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Few data on drag and torque on locked propeller towed in water are available in literature. Those data refer to propellers of specific geometry (number of blades, blade area, pitch and skew of blades. The estimation of drag and torque of an arbitrary propeller considered in analysis of ship resistance or propulsion is laborious. The authors collected and reviewed test data available in the literature. Based on collected data there were developed the empirical formulae for estimation of hydrodynamic drag and torque acting on locked screw propeller. Supplementary CFD computations were carried out in order to prove the applicability of the formulae to modern moderately skewed screw propellers.

  15. Tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor; Bendtsen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The substantial societal and individual burdens associated with tension-type headache (TTH) constitute a previously overlooked major public health issue. TTH is prevalent, affecting up to 78% of the general population, and 3% suffer from chronic TTH. Pericranial myofascial nociception probably...... is important for the pathophysiology of episodic TTH, whereas sensitization of central nociceptive pathways seems responsible for the conversion of episodic to chronic TTH. Headache-related disability usually can be reduced by identification of trigger factors combined with nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic...... treatments, but effective treatment modalities are lacking. Benefits can be gained by development of specific and effective treatment strategies....

  16. Surface Tension and p−ρ−T Data for 1,1,1,3,3-Pentafluorobutane (HFC-365mfc) and 1,1,1,2,2,3,3-Heptafluoro-3-methoxy-propane (HFE-347mcc)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klomfar, Jaroslav; Součková, Monika; Pátek, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 8 (2013), s. 2316-2325 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/0010 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : surface tension * density * HFC-365mfc * HFE-347mcc Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.045, year: 2013

  17. Calculation of marine propeller static strength based on coupled BEM/FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YE Liyu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] The reliability of propeller stress has a great influence on the safe navigation of a ship. To predict propeller stress quickly and accurately,[Methods] a new numerical prediction model is developed by coupling the Boundary Element Method(BEMwith the Finite Element Method (FEM. The low order BEM is used to calculate the hydrodynamic load on the blades, and the Prandtl-Schlichting plate friction resistance formula is used to calculate the viscous load. Next, the calculated hydrodynamic load and viscous correction load are transmitted to the calculation of the Finite Element as surface loads. Considering the particularity of propeller geometry, a continuous contact detection algorithm is developed; an automatic method for generating the finite element mesh is developed for the propeller blade; a code based on the FEM is compiled for predicting blade stress and deformation; the DTRC 4119 propeller model is applied to validate the reliability of the method; and mesh independence is confirmed by comparing the calculated results with different sizes and types of mesh.[Results] The results show that the calculated blade stress and displacement distribution are reliable. This method avoids the process of artificial modeling and finite element mesh generation, and has the advantages of simple program implementation and high calculation efficiency.[Conclusions] The code can be embedded into the code of theoretical and optimized propeller designs, thereby helping to ensure the strength of designed propellers and improve the efficiency of propeller design.

  18. Proceedings of the colloquium: The response of liquids to dynamic tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    The contributed papers are: - Tension pulses in a liquid column; - A generalized cavitationn model for liquids; - Transmission of a tension pulse through water; - Current status of the equation of state in Lagrangian codes; - The effects of the reflection of an underwater shock at a free surface; - The calculation of the propagation of tension and recompaction waves

  19. Numerical analysis and experiment research on fluid orbital performance of vane type propellant management device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Q; Li, Y; Pan, H L; Liu, J T; Zhuang, B T

    2015-01-01

    Vane type propellant management device (PMD) is one of the key components of the vane-type surface tension tank (STT), and its fluid orbital performance directly determines the STT's success or failure. In present paper, numerical analysis and microgravity experiment study on fluid orbital performance of a vane type PMD were carried out. By using two-phase flow model of volume of fluid (VOF), fluid flow characteristics in the tank with the vane type PMD were numerically calculated, and the rules of fluid transfer and distribution were gotten. A abbreviate model test system of the vane type PMD is established and microgravity drop tower tests were performed, then fluid management and transmission rules of the vane type PMD were obtained under microgravity environment. The analysis and tests results show that the vane type PMD has good and initiative fluid orbital management ability and meets the demands of fluid orbital extrusion in the vane type STT. The results offer valuable guidance for the design and optimization of the new generation of vane type PMD, and also provide a new approach for fluid management and control in space environment

  20. Fatigue crack growth behaviour of semi-elliptical surface cracks for an API 5L X65 gas pipeline under tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaari, M. S.; Akramin, M. R. M.; Ariffin, A. K.; Abdullah, S.; Kikuchi, M.

    2018-02-01

    The paper is presenting the fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior of semi-elliptical surface cracks for API X65 gas pipeline using S-version FEM. A method known as global-local overlay technique was used in this study to predict the fatigue behavior that involve of two separate meshes each specifically for global (geometry) and local (crack). The pre-post program was used to model the global geometry (coarser mesh) known as FAST including the material and boundary conditions. Hence, the local crack (finer mesh) will be defined the exact location and the mesh control accordingly. The local mesh was overlaid along with the global before the numerical computation taken place to solve the engineering problem. The stress intensity factors were computed using the virtual crack closure-integral method (VCCM). The most important results is the behavior of the fatigue crack growth, which contains the crack depth (a), crack length (c) and stress intensity factors (SIF). The correlation between the fatigue crack growth and the SIF shows a good growth for the crack depth (a) and dissimilar for the crack length (c) where stunned behavior was resulted. The S-version FEM will benefiting the user due to the overlay technique where it will shorten the computation process.

  1. Homogenization Issues in the Combustion of Heterogeneous Solid Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Buckmaster, J.; Jackson, T. L.; Massa, L.

    2002-01-01

    We examine random packs of discs or spheres, models for ammonium-perchlorate-in-binder propellants, and discuss their average properties. An analytical strategy is described for calculating the mean or effective heat conduction coefficient in terms of the heat conduction coefficients of the individual components, and the results are verified by comparison with those of direct numerical simulations (dns) for both 2-D (disc) and 3-D (sphere) packs across which a temperature difference is applied. Similarly, when the surface regression speed of each component is related to the surface temperature via a simple Arrhenius law, an analytical strategy is developed for calculating an effective Arrhenius law for the combination, and these results are verified using dns in which a uniform heat flux is applied to the pack surface, causing it to regress. These results are needed for homogenization strategies necessary for fully integrated 2-D or 3-D simulations of heterogeneous propellant combustion.

  2. Experimental research on air propellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, William F

    1918-01-01

    The purposes of the experimental investigation on the performance of air propellers described in this report are as follows: (1) the development of a series of design factors and coefficients drawn from model forms distributed with some regularity over the field of air-propeller design and intended to furnish a basis of check with similar work done in other aerodynamic laboratories, and as a point of departure for the further study of special or individual types and forms; (2) the establishment of a series of experimental values derived from models and intended for later use as a basis for comparison with similar results drawn from certain selected full-sized forms and tested in free flight.

  3. Study on Combustion Characteristics and Propelling Projectile Motion Process of Bulk-Loaded Liquid Propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiaochun; Yu, Yonggang; Mang, Shanshan

    2017-07-01

    Data are presented showing that the problem of gas-liquid interaction instability is an important subject in the combustion and the propellant projectile motion process of a bulk-loaded liquid propellant gun (BLPG). The instabilities themselves arise from the sources, including fluid motion, to form a combustion gas cavity called Taylor cavity, fluid turbulence and breakup caused by liquid motion relative to the combustion chamber walls, and liquid surface breakup arising from a velocity mismatch on the gas-liquid interface. Typically, small disturbances that arise early in the BLPG combustion interior ballistic cycle can become amplified in the absence of burn rate limiting characteristics. Herein, significant attention has been given to developing and emphasizing the need for better combustion repeatability in the BLPG. Based on this goal, the concept of using different geometries of the combustion chamber is introduced and the concept of using a stepped-wall structure on the combustion chamber itself as a useful means of exerting boundary control on the combustion evolution to thus restrain the combustion instability has been verified experimentally in this work. Moreover, based on this background, the numerical simulation is devoted to a special combustion issue under transient high-pressure and high-temperature conditions, namely, studying the combustion mechanism in a stepped-wall combustion chamber with full monopropellant on one end that is stationary and the other end can move at high speed. The numerical results also show that the burning surface of the liquid propellant can be defined geometrically and combustion is well behaved as ignition and combustion progressivity are in a suitable range during each stage in this combustion chamber with a stepped-wall structure.

  4. Combustion characteristics of SMX and SMX based propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, David A.

    This work investigates the combustion of the new solid nitrate ester 2,3-hydroxymethyl-2,3-dinitro-1,4-butanediol tetranitrate (SMX, C6H 8N6O16). SMX was synthesized for the first time in 2008. It has a melting point of 85 °C and oxygen balance of 0% to CO 2, allowing it to be used as an energetic additive or oxidizer in solid propellants. In addition to its neat combustion characteristics, this work also explores the use of SMX as a potential replacement for nitroglycerin (NG) in double base gun propellants and as a replacement for ammonium perchlorate in composite rocket propellants. The physical properties, sensitivity characteristics, and combustion behaviors of neat SMX were investigated. Its combustion is stable at pressures of up to at least 27.5 MPa (n = 0.81). The observed flame structure is nearly identical to that of other double base propellant ingredients, with a primary flame attached at the surface, a thick isothermal dark zone, and a luminous secondary flame wherein final recombination reactions occur. As a result, the burning rate and primary flame structure can be modeled using existing one-dimensional steady state techniques. A zero gas-phase activation energy approximation results in a good fit between modeled and observed behavior. Additionally, SMX was considered as a replacement for nitroglycerin in a double base propellant. Thermochemical calculations indicate improved performance when compared with the common double base propellant JA2 at SMX loadings above 40 wt-%. Also, since SMX is a room temperature solid, migration may be avoided. Like other nitrate esters, SMX is susceptible to decomposition over long-term storage due to the presence of excess acid in the crystals; the addition of stabilizers (e.g., derivatives of urea) during synthesis should be sufficient to prevent this. the addition of Both unplasticized and plasticized propellants were formulated. Thermal analysis of unplasticized propellant showed a distinct melt

  5. General definition of gravitational tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmark, T.; Obers, N.A.

    2004-01-01

    In this note we give a general definition of the gravitational tension in a given asymptotically translationally-invariant spatial direction of a space-time. The tension is defined via the extrinsic curvature in analogy with the Hawking-Horowitz definition of energy. We show the consistency with the ADM tension formulas for asymptotically-flat space-times, in particular for Kaluza-Klein black hole solutions. Moreover, we apply the general tension formula to near-extremal branes, constituting a check for non-asymptotically flat space-times. (author)

  6. Membrane tension regulates clathrin-coated pit dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Allen

    2014-03-01

    Intracellular organization depends on close communication between the extracellular environment and a network of cytoskeleton filaments. The interactions between cytoskeletal filaments and the plasma membrane lead to changes in membrane tension that in turns help regulate biological processes. Endocytosis is thought to be stimulated by low membrane tension and the removal of membrane increases membrane tension. While it is appreciated that the opposing effects of exocytosis and endocytosis have on keeping plasma membrane tension to a set point, it is not clear how membrane tension affects the dynamics of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs), the individual functional units of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, although it was recently shown that actin dynamics counteracts membrane tension during CCP formation, it is not clear what roles plasma membrane tension plays during CCP initiation. Based on the notion that plasma membrane tension is increased when the membrane area increases during cell spreading, we designed micro-patterned surfaces of different sizes to control the cell spreading sizes. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of living cells and high content image analysis were used to quantify the dynamics of CCPs. We found that there is an increased proportion of CCPs with short (<20s) lifetime for cells on larger patterns. Interestingly, cells on larger patterns have higher CCP initiation density, an effect unexpected based on the conventional view of decreasing endocytosis with increasing membrane tension. Furthermore, by analyzing the intensity profiles of CCPs that were longer-lived, we found CCP intensity decreases with increasing cell size, indicating that the CCPs are smaller with increasing membrane tension. Finally, disruption of actin dynamics significantly increased the number of short-lived CCPs, but also decreased CCP initiation rate. Together, our study reveals new mechanistic insights into how plasma membrane tension regulates

  7. Structural design significance of tension-tension fatigue data on composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    Constant cycle tension-tension fatigue and related static tension data have been generated on six single composite material/orientation combinations and twenty-one hybrid composite material/orientation combinations. Anomalies are related to the temperature rise and stopped interval creep, whereas endurance limit stresses (runouts) are associated with static proportional limit values, when they occur, and internal damage. The significance of these room temperature-dry data on the design allowables and weight of aerodynamic structueres is discussed. Such structures are helicopter rotor blades and wing and horizontal stabilizer lower surfaces. Typical criteria for turning these data into preliminary allowables are shown, as are examples of such allowables developed from the data. These values are then compared to those that might be used if the structures were made of metal.

  8. Tension type headaches: a review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Location of the pain:There is often a typical location for tension- type headaches, as ... Cranial nerve abnormalities, including papilloedema. • Signs of ... peripheral and central mechanisms underlie tension-type ... Physiotherapy has been shown to be an effective management option for .... Acupuncture in primary headache.

  9. A theoretical and experimental investigation of propeller performance methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkan, K. D.; Gregorek, G. M.; Mikkelson, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper briefly covers aspects related to propeller performance by means of a review of propeller methodologies; presentation of wind tunnel propeller performance data taken in the NASA Lewis Research Center 10 x 10 wind tunnel; discussion of the predominent limitations of existing propeller performance methodologies; and a brief review of airfoil developments appropriate for propeller applications.

  10. Propeller Test Facilities Â

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: Three electrically driven whirl test stands are used to determine propeller (or other rotating device) performance at various rotational speeds. These...

  11. Nonsteady Combustion Mechanisms of Advanced Solid Propellants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Branch, Melvyn

    1997-01-01

    .... The individual tasks which we are studying will pursue solid propellant decomposition under unsteady conditions, nonsteady aspects of gas phase flame structure measurements, numerical modeling...

  12. Injection dynamics of gelled propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Changjin

    Gel propellants have been recognized as attractive candidates for future propulsion systems due to the reduced tendency to spill and the energy advantages over solid propellants. One of strong benefits emphasized in gel propellant applications is a throttling capability, but the accurate flow control is more complicated and difficult than with conventional Newtonian propellants because of the unique rheological behaviors of gels. This study is a computational effort directed to enhance understanding of the injector internal flow characteristics for gel propellants under rocket injection conditions. In simulations, the emphasized rheology is a shear-thinning which represents a viscosity decrease with increasing a shear rate. It is described by a generalized Newtonian fluid constitutive equation and Carreau-Yasuda model. Using this rheological model, two injection schemes are considered in the present study: axially-fed and cross-fed injection for single-element and multi-element impinging injectors, respectively. An axisymmetric model is developed to describe the axially-fed injector flows and fully three-dimensional model is utilized to simulate cross-fed injector flows. Under axially-fed injection conditions investigated, three distinct modes, an unsteady, steady, and hydraulic flip mode, are observed and mapped in terms of Reynolds number and orifice design. In an unsteady mode, quasi-periodic oscillations occur near the inlet lip leading mass pulsations and viscosity fluctuations at the orifice exit. This dynamic behavior is characterized using a time-averaged discharge coefficient, oscillation magnitude and frequency by a parametric study with respect to an orifice design, Reynolds number and rheology. As a result, orifice exit flows for gel propellants appear to be significantly influenced by a viscous damping and flow resistance due to a shear thinning behavior and these are observed in each factors considered. Under conditions driven by a manifold crossflow

  13. Foreword: Surface Tensions: Between Explanation and Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauvelt, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Introduces this issue of the journal, which is devoted to new perspectives on critical histories of graphic design. Notes that the essays in this issue offer examples of the variety of interpretative approaches available that serve to question both the previously unchallenged acceptance of historical explanations and the transcendent understanding…

  14. Surface tension confined liquid cryogen cooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castles, S.H.; Schein, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    A cryogenic cooler is described for use in craft such as launch, orbital and space vehicles subject to changes in orientation and conditions of vibration and weightlessness comprising: an insulated tank; a porous open celled sponge-like material disposed substantially throughout the contained volume of the insulated tank; a cryogenic fluid disposed within the sponge-like material; a cooling finger immersed in the cryogenic fluid, the finger extending from inside the insulated tank externally to an outside source such as an instrument detector for the purpose of transmitting heat from the outside source into the cryogenic fluid; means for filling the insulated tank with cryogenic fluid; and means for venting vaporized cryogenic fluid from the insulated tank

  15. Evaluation of Resuspension from Propeller Wash in Pearl Harbor and San Diego Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Figure 45) for twin-engine tug-boat. Input parameters for the model include propeller type (Kort nozzle or traditional), propeller diameter, thrust ...2D velocity field revealed by PIV. The vector field represents the actual velocity field subtracting the mean stream-wise velocity averaged over the...A. 1974. Fundamental Aspects of Surface Erosion of Cohesive Soils. Ph.D. thesis , University of California, Davis, Davis, CA. Liao, Q., H. A

  16. Studies on Decomposition and Combustion Mechanism of Solid Fuel Rich Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    thrust to cruise at supersonic speed. This was followed by the test of large diameter ramjet called burner test vehicle (BTV). Advanced low volume...propellant surface. Vernekar et al (43) found that in pressed AP-Al pellets , maximum burn rate is obtained at intermediate metal content. Jain et al...conjunction with high pressure window strand burner . They found that the propellant combustion was irregular and regression rate varied from 0.3 to 3

  17. MUSCLE TENSION DYSPHONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Hočevar Boltežar

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Muscle tension dysphonia (MTD is the cause of hoarseness in almost one half of the patients with voice disorders. The otorhinolaryngologic examination discovers no evident organic lesions in the larynx at least in the beginning of the voice problems. The reason for the hoarse voice is a disordered and maladjusted activity of the muscles taking part in phonation and/or articulation. In some patients, the irregular function of the larynx results in mucosal lesions on vocal folds. The factors participating in the development of MTD, directly or indirectly influence the quality of laryngeal mucosa, the activity of the phonatory muscles and/or increase of the vocal load. In the diagnostics and treatment of the MTD a phoniatrician, a speech and language therapist and a psychologist closely cooperate with the patient who must take an active role. The treatment is a long-lasting one but resulted in a high percentage of clinical success.Conclusions. Most likely, MTD is not a special disease but only a reflection of any disorder in the complicated system of regulation and realization of phonation. The prognosis of treatment is good when all unfavourable factors participating in development of MTD are eliminated and a proper professional voice- and psychotherapy started.

  18. Feasibility Study and Demonstration of an Aluminum and Ice Solid Propellant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothee L. Pourpoint

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum-water reactions have been proposed and studied for several decades for underwater propulsion systems and applications requiring hydrogen generation. Aluminum and water have also been proposed as a frozen propellant, and there have been proposals for other refrigerated propellants that could be mixed, frozen in situ, and used as solid propellants. However, little work has been done to determine the feasibility of these concepts. With the recent availability of nanoscale aluminum, a simple binary formulation with water is now feasible. Nanosized aluminum has a lower ignition temperature than micron-sized aluminum particles, partly due to its high surface area, and burning times are much faster than micron aluminum. Frozen nanoscale aluminum and water mixtures are stable, as well as insensitive to electrostatic discharge, impact, and shock. Here we report a study of the feasibility of an nAl-ice propellant in small-scale rocket experiments. The focus here is not to develop an optimized propellant; however improved formulations are possible. Several static motor experiments have been conducted, including using a flight-weight casing. The flight weight casing was used in the first sounding rocket test of an aluminum-ice propellant, establishing a proof of concept for simple propellant mixtures making use of nanoscale particles.

  19. Freestyle multiple propeller flap reconstruction (jigsaw puzzle approach) for complicated back defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Woo; Oh, Tae Suk; Eom, Jin Sup; Sun, Yoon Chi; Suh, Hyun Suk; Hong, Joon Pio

    2015-05-01

    The reconstruction of the posterior trunk remains to be a challenge as defects can be extensive, with deep dead space, and fixation devices exposed. Our goal was to achieve a tension-free closure for complex defects on the posterior trunk. From August 2006 to May 2013, 18 cases were reconstructed with multiple flaps combining perforator(s) and local skin flaps. The reconstructions were performed using freestyle approach. Starting with propeller flap(s) in single or multilobed design and sequentially in conjunction with adjacent random pattern flaps such as fitting puzzle. All defects achieved tensionless primary closure. The final appearance resembled a jigsaw puzzle-like appearance. The average size of defect was 139.6 cm(2) (range, 36-345 cm(2)). A total of 26 perforator flaps were used in addition to 19 random pattern flaps for 18 cases. In all cases, a single perforator was used for each propeller flap. The defect and the donor site all achieved tension-free closure. The reconstruction was 100% successful without flap loss. One case of late infection was noted at 12 months after surgery. Using multiple lobe designed propeller flaps in conjunction with random pattern flaps in a freestyle approach, resembling putting a jigsaw puzzle together, we can achieve a tension-free closure by distributing the tension to multiple flaps, supplying sufficient volume to obliterate dead space, and have reliable vascularity as the flaps do not need to be oversized. This can be a viable approach to reconstruct extensive defects on the posterior trunk. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Numerical Analysis of the Unsteady Propeller Performance in the Ship Wake Modified By Different Wake Improvement Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugalski Tomasz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the summary of results of the numerical analysis of the unsteady propeller performance in the non-uniform ship wake modified by the different wake improvement devices. This analysis is performed using the lifting surface program DUNCAN for unsteady propeller analysis. Te object of the analysis is a 7000 ton chemical tanker, for which four different types of the wake improvement devices have been designed: two vortex generators, a pre-swirl stator, and a boundary layer alignment device. These produced five different cases of the ship wake structure: the original hull and hull equipped alternatively with four wake improvement devices. Two different propellers were analyzed in these five wake fields, one being the original reference propeller P0 and the other - a specially designed, optimized propeller P3. Te analyzed parameters were the pictures of unsteady cavitation on propeller blades, harmonics of pressure pulses generated by the cavitating propellers in the selected points and the fluctuating bearing forces on the propeller shaft. Some of the calculated cavitation phenomena were confronted with the experimental. Te objective of the calculations was to demonstrate the differences in the calculated unsteady propeller performance resulting from the application of different wake improvement devices. Te analysis and discussion of the results, together with the appropriate conclusions, are included in the paper.

  1. 78 FR 4038 - Critical Parts for Airplane Propellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... manufacturers are not required to provide information concerning propeller critical part design, manufacture, or... engineering, manufacturing, and service management processes should provide clear information for propeller... manufacture critical parts for airplane propellers update their manuals to record engineering, manufacture...

  2. Local deformation method for measuring element tension in space deployable structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belov Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the local deformation method to determine the tension of cord and thin membrane elements in space deployable structure as antenna reflector. Possible measuring instrument model, analytical and numerical solutions and experimental results are presented. The boundary effects on measurement results of metallic mesh reflector surface tension are estimated. The study case depicting non-uniform reflector surface tension is considered.

  3. Supercritical Fluid Processing of Propellant Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    of insoluble material present in the polymeric neopentyl glycol azelate (NPGA) binder. Laub (2) summarizes (from Refs 3 & 4) the various polymeric...binders used in composite propellant formulations for DOD missile systems. e.g., these include: polyneopentyl glycol azelate (NPGA) in HAWK. hydroxy...systems. Composite smokeless propellants containing polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyethylene glycol adepate (PEGA) and polycaprolactone are currently under

  4. Development of hydrazinium nitroformate based solid propellants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schöyer, H.F.R.; Schnorhk, A.J.; Korting, P.A.O.G.; Lit, P.J. van; Mul, J.M.; Gadiot, G.; Meulenbrugge, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    The development of new high-performance propellant combinations requires the establishment of safety and handling characteristics and thermodynamic decomposition and explosive properties. This paper addresses the early development phases of a new composite solid propellant based on HNF as oxidizer

  5. Green plasticizers for multibase gun propellants (Lecture)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoolderman, C.; Driel, C.A. van; Zebregs, M.

    2007-01-01

    TNO Defence, Security and Safety has a long history of research on gun propellants. Areas investigated are formulating (new ingredients, optimization), manufacturing, charge design and lifetime assessment [1,2,3,4,5]. In conventional propellants inert plasticizers are used to alter performance,

  6. Tests on thirteen navy type model propellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, W F

    1927-01-01

    The tests on these model propellers were undertaken for the purpose of determining the performance coefficients and characteristics for certain selected series of propellers of form and type as commonly used in recent navy designs. The first series includes seven propellers of pitch ratio varying by 0.10 to 1.10, the area, form of blade, thickness, etc., representing an arbitrary standard propeller which had shown good results. The second series covers changes in thickness of blade section, other things equal, and the third series, changes in blade area, other things equal. These models are all of 36-inch diameter. Propellers A to G form the series on pitch ratio, C, N. I. J the series on thickness of section, and K, M, C, L the series on area. (author)

  7. Small-Scale Shock Testing of Propellants and Ingredients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dawley, S

    2004-01-01

    .... The use of small-scale gap testing to evaluate the shock sensitivity of individual propellant ingredients and propellant formulations is a valuable method for experimentally establishing shock...

  8. Structure of Partially Premixed Flames and Advanced Solid Propellants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Branch, Melvyn

    1998-01-01

    The combustion of solid rocket propellants of advanced energetic materials involves a complex process of decomposition and condensed phase reactions in the solid propellant, gaseous flame reactions...

  9. A Study of Flame Physics and Solid Propellant Rocket Physics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buckmaster, John

    2007-01-01

    ..., the combustion of heterogeneous propellants containing aluminum, the use of a genetic algorithm to optimally define false-kinetics parameters in propellant combustion modeling, the calculation of fluctuations...

  10. Tension pneumocephalus: Mount Fuji sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulastya Sanyal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old male was operated for a space occupying lesion in the brain. A noncontrast computed tomography scan done in the late postoperative period showed massive subdural air collection causing compression of bilateral frontal lobes with widening of interhemispheric fissure and the frontal lobes acquiring a peak like configuration - causing tension pneumocephalus-"Mount Fuji sign." Tension pneumocephalus occurs when air enters the extradural or intradural spaces in sufficient volume to exert a mass or pressure effect on the brain, leading to brain herniation. Tension pneumocephalus is a surgical emergency, which needs immediate intervention in the form of decompression of the cranial cavity by a burr hole or needle aspiration. The Mount Fuji sign differentiates tension pneumocephalus from pneumocephalus.

  11. RANS simulation of cavitation and hull pressure fluctuation for marine propeller operating behind-hull condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Kwang-Jun; Park, Hyung-Gil; Seo, Jongsoo

    2013-12-01

    Simulations of cavitation flow and hull pressure fluctuation for a marine propeller operating behind a hull using the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) are presented. A full hull body submerged under the free surface is modeled in the computational domain to simulate directly the wake field of the ship at the propeller plane. Simulations are performed in design and ballast draught conditions to study the effect of cavitation number. And two propellers with slightly different geometry are simulated to validate the detectability of the numerical simulation. All simulations are performed using a commercial CFD software FLUENT. Cavitation patterns of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental results carried out in Samsung CAvitation Tunnel (SCAT). The simulation results for the hull pressure fluctuation induced by a propeller are also compared with the experimental results showing good agreement in the tendency and amplitude, especially, for the first blade frequency.

  12. RANS simulation of cavitation and hull pressure fluctuation for marine propeller operating behind-hull condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Jun Paik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of cavitation flow and hull pressure fluctuation for a marine propeller operating behind a hull using the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS are presented. A full hull body submerged under the free surface is modeled in the computational domain to simulate directly the wake field of the ship at the propeller plane. Simulations are performed in design and ballast draught conditions to study the effect of cavitation number. And two propellers with slightly different geometry are simulated to validate the detectability of the numerical simulation. All simulations are performed using a commercial CFD software FLUENT. Cavitation patterns of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental results carried out in Samsung CAvitation Tunnel (SCAT. The simulation results for the hull pressure fluctuation induced by a propeller are also compared with the experimental results showing good agreement in the tendency and amplitude, especially, for the first blade frequency.

  13. Mitochondrial Respiration and Oxygen Tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel S; Meitha, Karlia; Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of respiration and oxygen tension in plant organs allow a precise understanding of mitochondrial capacity and function within the context of cellular oxygen metabolism. Here we describe methods that can be routinely used for the isolation of intact mitochondria, and the determination of respiratory electron transport, together with techniques for in vivo determination of oxygen tension and measurement of respiration by both CO 2 production and O 2 consumption that enables calculation of the respiratory quotient [CO 2 ]/[O 2 ].

  14. On the combustion mechanisms of ZrH2 in double-base propellant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjing; Zhao, Fengqi; Yuan, Zhifeng; Wang, Ying; An, Ting; Chen, Xueli; Xuan, Chunlei; Zhang, Jiankan

    2017-12-13

    Metal hydrides are regarded as a series of promising hydrogen-supplying fuel for solid rocket propellants. Their effects on the energetic and combustion performances of propellants are closely related to their reaction mechanisms. Here we report a first attempt to determine the reaction mechanism of ZrH 2 , a high-density metal hydride, in the combustion of a double-base propellant to evaluate its potential as a fuel. ZrH 2 is determined to possess good resistance to oxidation by nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine. Thus its combustion starts with dehydrogenation to generate H 2 and metallic Zr. Subsequently, the newly formed Zr and H 2 participate in the combustion and, especially, Zr melts and then combusts on the burning surface which favors the heat feedback to the propellant. This phenomenon is completely different from the combustion behavior of the traditional fuel Al, where the Al particles are ejected off the burning surface of the propellant to get into the luminous flame zone to burn. The findings in this work validate the potential of ZrH 2 as a hydrogen-supplying fuel for double-base propellants.

  15. New Delivery Systems and Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Dolovich

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC propellants from industrial and household products has been agreed to by over 165 countires of which more than 135 are developing countries. The timetable for this process is outlined in the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer document and in several subsequent amendments. Pressured metered dose inhalers (pMDIs for medical use have been granted temporary exemptions until replacement formulations, providing the same medication via the same route, and with the same efficacy and safety profiles, are approved for human use. Hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs are the alternative propellants for CFCs-12 and -114. Their potential for damage to the ozone layer is nonexistent, and while they are greenhouse gases, their global warming potential is a fraction (one-tenth of that of CFCs. Replacement formulations for almost all inhalant respiratory medications have been or are being produced and tested; in Canada, it is anticipated that the transition to these HFA or CFC-free pMDIs will be complete by the year 2005. Initially, an HFA pMDI was to be equivalent to the CFC pMDI being replaced, in terms of aerosol properties and effective clinical dose. However, this will not necessarily be the situation, particularly for some corticosteroid products. Currently, only one CFC-free formulation is available in Canada – Airomir, a HFA salbutamol pMDI. This paper discusses the in vitro aerosol characteristics, in vivo deposition and clinical data for several HFA pMDIs for which there are data available in the literature. Alternative delivery systems to the pMDI, namely, dry powder inhalers and nebulizers, are briefly reviewed.

  16. Energy coefficients for a propeller series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Smærup

    2004-01-01

    The efficiency for a propeller is calculated by energy coefficients. These coefficients are related to four types of losses, i.e. the axial, the rotational, the frictional, and the finite blade number loss, and one gain, i.e. the axial gain. The energy coefficients are derived by use...... of the potential theory with the propeller modelled as an actuator disk. The efficiency based on the energy coefficients is calculated for a propeller series. The results show a good agreement between the efficiency based on the energy coefficients and the efficiency obtained by a vortex-lattice method....

  17. Noise from Two-Blade Propellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, E Z; Deming, A F

    1936-01-01

    The two-blade propeller, one of the most powerful sources of sound known, has been studied with the view of obtaining fundamental information concerning the noise emission. In order to eliminate engine noise, the propeller was mounted on an electric motor. A microphone was used to pick up the sound whose characteristics were studied electrically. The distribution of noise throughout the frequency range, as well as the spatial distribution about the propeller, was studied. The results are given in the form of polar diagrams. An appendix of common acoustical terms is included.

  18. Shuttle APS propellant thermal conditioner study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, W. E.

    1971-01-01

    A study program was performed to allow selection of thermal conditioner assemblies for superheating O2 and H2 at supercritical pressures. The application was the auxiliary propulsion system (APS) for the space shuttle vehicle. The O2/H2 APS propellant feed system included propellant conditioners, of which the thermal conditioner assemblies were a part. Cryogens, pumped to pressures above critical, were directed to the thermal conditioner assembly included: (1) a gas generator assembly with ignition system and bipropellant valves, which burned superheated O2 and H2 at rich conditions; (2) a heat exchanger assembly for thermal conditioning of the cryogenic propellant; and (3) a dump nozzle for heat exchanger exhaust.

  19. Surface chemistry theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bikerman, J J

    2013-01-01

    Surface Chemistry Theory and Applications focuses on liquid-gas, liquid-liquid, solid-gas, solid-liquid, and solid-solid surfaces. The book first offers information on liquid-gas surfaces, including surface tension, measurement of surface tension, rate of capillarity rise, capillary attraction, bubble pressure and pore size, and surface tension and temperature. The text then ponders on liquid-liquid and solid-gas surfaces. Discussions focus on surface energy of solids, surface roughness and cleanness, adsorption of gases and vapors, adsorption hysteresis, interfacial tension, and interfacial t

  20. 14 CFR 35.23 - Propeller control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... propeller effect under the intended operating conditions. (4) The failure or corruption of data or signals... corruption of airplane-supplied data does not result in hazardous propeller effects. (e) The propeller... effect. (2) Failures or malfunctions directly affecting the propeller control system in a typical...

  1. Using PDV to Understand Damage in Rocket Motor Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tear, Gareth; Chapman, David; Ottley, Phillip; Proud, William; Gould, Peter; Cullis, Ian

    2017-06-01

    There is a continuing requirement to design and manufacture insensitive munition (IM) rocket motors for in-service use under a wide range of conditions, particularly due to shock initiation and detonation of damaged propellant spalled across the central bore of the rocket motor (XDT). High speed photography has been crucial in determining this behaviour, however attempts to model the dynamic behaviour are limited by the lack of precision particle and wave velocity data with which to validate against. In this work Photonic Doppler Velocimetery (PDV) has been combined with high speed video to give accurate point velocity and timing measurements of the rear surface of a propellant block impacted by a fragment travelling upto 1.4 km s-1. By combining traditional high speed video with PDV through a dichroic mirror, the point of velocity measurement within the debris cloud has been determined. This demonstrates a new capability to characterise the damage behaviour of a double base rocket motor propellant and hence validate the damage and fragmentation algorithms used in the numerical simulations.

  2. High-Fidelity Microstructural Characterization and Performance Modeling of Aluminized Composite Propellant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosiba, Graham D.; Wixom, Ryan R.; Oehlschlaeger, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    Image processing and stereological techniques were used to characterize the heterogeneity of composite propellant and inform a predictive burn rate model. Composite propellant samples made up of ammonium perchlorate (AP), hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), and aluminum (Al) were faced with an ion mill and imaged with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray tomography (micro-CT). Properties of both the bulk and individual components of the composite propellant were determined from a variety of image processing tools. An algebraic model, based on the improved Beckstead-Derr-Price model developed by Cohen and Strand, was used to predict the steady-state burning of the aluminized composite propellant. In the presented model the presence of aluminum particles within the propellant was introduced. The thermal effects of aluminum particles are accounted for at the solid-gas propellant surface interface and aluminum combustion is considered in the gas phase using a single global reaction. In conclusion, properties derived from image processing were used directly as model inputs, leading to a sample-specific predictive combustion model.

  3. CFD Fuel Slosh Modeling of Fluid-Structure Interaction in Spacecraft Propellant Tanks with Diaphragms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sances, Dillon J.; Gangadharan, Sathya N.; Sudermann, James E.; Marsell, Brandon

    2010-01-01

    Liquid sloshing within spacecraft propellant tanks causes rapid energy dissipation at resonant modes, which can result in attitude destabilization of the vehicle. Identifying resonant slosh modes currently requires experimental testing and mechanical pendulum analogs to characterize the slosh dynamics. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques have recently been validated as an effective tool for simulating fuel slosh within free-surface propellant tanks. Propellant tanks often incorporate an internal flexible diaphragm to separate ullage and propellant which increases modeling complexity. A coupled fluid-structure CFD model is required to capture the damping effects of a flexible diaphragm on the propellant. ANSYS multidisciplinary engineering software employs a coupled solver for analyzing two-way Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) cases such as the diaphragm propellant tank system. Slosh models generated by ANSYS software are validated by experimental lateral slosh test results. Accurate data correlation would produce an innovative technique for modeling fuel slosh within diaphragm tanks and provide an accurate and efficient tool for identifying resonant modes and the slosh dynamic response.

  4. The steady performance prediction of propeller-rudder-bulb system based on potential iterative method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y B; Su, Y M; Ju, L; Huang, S L

    2012-01-01

    A new numerical method was developed for predicting the steady hydrodynamic performance of propeller-rudder-bulb system. In the calculation, the rudder and bulb was taken into account as a whole, the potential based surface panel method was applied both to propeller and rudder-bulb system. The interaction between propeller and rudder-bulb was taken into account by velocity potential iteration in which the influence of propeller rotation was considered by the average influence coefficient. In the influence coefficient computation, the singular value should be found and deleted. Numerical results showed that the method presented is effective for predicting the steady hydrodynamic performance of propeller-rudder system and propeller-rudder-bulb system. Comparing with the induced velocity iterative method, the method presented can save programming and calculation time. Changing dimensions, the principal parameter—bulb size that affect energy-saving effect was studied, the results show that the bulb on rudder have a optimal size at the design advance coefficient.

  5. Magnetic tension and gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsagas, Christos G

    2006-01-01

    The gravitational collapse of a magnetized medium is investigated by studying qualitatively the convergence of a timelike family of non-geodesic worldlines in the presence of a magnetic field. Focusing on the field's tension, we illustrate how the winding of the magnetic forcelines due to the fluid's rotation assists the collapse, while shear-like distortions in the distribution of the field's gradients resist contraction. We also show that the relativistic coupling between magnetism and geometry, together with the tension properties of the field, lead to a magneto-curvature stress that opposes the collapse. This tension stress grows stronger with increasing curvature distortion, which means that it could potentially dominate over the gravitational pull of the matter. If this happens, a converging family of non-geodesic worldlines can be prevented from focusing without violating the standard energy conditions

  6. Development and implementation of a propeller test capability for GL-10 "Greased Lightning" propeller design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Brian Edward

    Interest in small unmanned aerial vehicles has increased dramatically in recent years. Hybrid vehicles which allow forward flight as a fixed wing aircraft and a true vertical landing capability have always had applications. Management of the available energy and noise associated with electric propeller propulsion systems presents many challenges. NASA Langley has developed the Greased Lightning 10 (GL-10) vertical takeoff, unmanned aerial vehicle with ten individual motors and propellers. All are used for propulsion during takeoff and contribute to acoustic noise pollution which is an identified nuisance to the surrounding users. A propeller test capability was developed to gain an understanding of how the noise can be reduced while meeting minimum thrust requirements. The designed propeller test stand allowed for various commercially available propellers to be tested for potential direct replacement of the current GL-10 propellers and also supported testing of a newly designed propeller provided by the Georgia Institute of Technology. Results from the test program provided insight as to which factors affect the noise as well as performance characteristics. The outcome of the research effort showed that the current GL-10 propeller still represents the best choice of all the candidate propellers tested.

  7. Effect of Propellant Composition to the Temperature Sensitivity of Composite Propellant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Amir; Mamat, Rizalman; Amin, Makeen; Wan Ali, Wan Khairuddin

    2012-01-01

    The propellant composition is one of several parameter that influencing the temperature sensitivity of composite propellant. In this paper, experimental investigation of temperature sensitivity in burning rate of composite propellant was conducted. Four sets of different propellant compositions had been prepared with the combination of ammonium perchlorate (AP) as an oxidizer, aluminum (Al) as fuel and hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) as fuel and binder. For each mixture, HTPB binder was fixed at 15% and cured with isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). By varying AP and Al, the effect of oxidizer- fuel mixture ratio (O/F) on the whole propellant can be determined. The propellant strands were manufactured using compression molded method and burnt in a strand burner using wire technique over a range of pressure from 1 atm to 31 atm. The results obtained shows that the temperature sensitivity, a, increases with increasing O/F. Propellant p80 which has O/F ratio of 80/20 gives the highest value of temperature sensitivity which is 1.687. The results shows that the propellant composition has significant effect on the temperature sensitivity of composite propellant

  8. Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket (APTR) is a novel concept for propulsion of space exploration or orbit transfer vehicles. APTR propulsion is provided by...

  9. The PROPEL Electrodynamic Tether Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilen, Sven G.; Johnson, C. Les; Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Alexander, Leslie; Gilchrist, Brian E.; Hoyt, Robert P.; Elder, Craig H.; Fuhrhop, Keith P.; Scadera, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The PROPEL ("Propulsion using Electrodynamics") mission will demonstrate the operation of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system in low Earth orbit and advance its technology readiness level for multiple applications. The PROPEL mission has two primary objectives: first, to demonstrate the capability of electrodynamic tether technology to provide robust and safe, near-propellantless propulsion for orbit-raising, de-orbit, plane change, and station keeping, as well as to perform orbital power harvesting and formation flight; and, second, to fully characterize and validate the performance of an integrated electrodynamic tether propulsion system, qualifying it for infusion into future multiple satellite platforms and missions with minimal modification. This paper provides an overview of the PROPEL system and design reference missions; mission goals and required measurements; and ongoing PROPEL mission design efforts.

  10. In-Space Manufacture of Storable Propellants

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Many deep-space, missions, especially those that return material or crews to near-Earth space, are severely limited by the need to carry propellants and heat shields...

  11. Nuclear thermal rockets using indigenous Martian propellants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubrin, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper considers a novel concept for a Martian descent and ascent vehicle, called NIMF (for nuclear rocket using indigenous Martian fuel), the propulsion for which will be provided by a nuclear thermal reactor which will heat an indigenous Martian propellant gas to form a high-thrust rocket exhaust. The performance of each of the candidate Martian propellants, which include CO2, H2O, CH4, N2, CO, and Ar, is assessed, and the methods of propellant acquisition are examined. Attention is also given to the issues of chemical compatibility between candidate propellants and reactor fuel and cladding materials, and the potential of winged Mars supersonic aircraft driven by this type of engine. It is shown that, by utilizing the nuclear landing craft in combination with a hydrogen-fueled nuclear thermal interplanetary vehicle and a heavy lift booster, it is possible to achieve a manned Mars mission in one launch. 6 refs

  12. Propeller performance analysis using lifting line theory

    OpenAIRE

    Flood, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document Approved for public release ; distribution is unlimited Propellers are typically optimized to provide the maximum thrust for the minimum torque at a specific number of revolutions per minute (RPM) at a particular ship speed. This process allows ships to efficiently travel at their design speed. However, it is useful to know how the propeller performs during off-design conditions. This is especially true for naval warships whose missions req...

  13. Propellant selection for ramjets with solid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmucker, R H; Lips, H

    1976-03-11

    Ramjet propulsion using solid propellant for post-boost acceleration of missiles exhibits several favorable properties, brought about by heterogeneous combustion. A simplified theory for calculating the performance of possible propellants is presented, and they are classified with respect to maximum fuel-specific impulse. The optimal choice of fuel, from a system standpoint, must consider volume constraints, and defines the requirements for motor geometry.

  14. HMX based enhanced energy LOVA gun propellant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanghavi, R.R. [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India)]. E-mail: sanghavirr@yahoo.co.uk; Kamale, P.J. [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India); Shaikh, M.A.R. [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India); Shelar, S.D. [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India); Kumar, K. Sunil [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India); Singh, Amarjit [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India)

    2007-05-08

    Efforts to develop gun propellants with low vulnerability have recently been focused on enhancing the energy with a further improvement in its sensitivity characteristics. These propellants not only prevent catastrophic disasters due to unplanned initiation of currently used gun propellants (based on nitrate esters) but also realize enhanced energy levels to increase the muzzle velocity of the projectiles. Now, in order to replace nitroglycerine, which is highly sensitive to friction and impact, nitramines meet the requirements as they offer superior energy due to positive heat of formation, typical stoichiometry with higher decomposition temperatures and also owing to negative oxygen balance are less sensitive than stoichiometrically balanced NG. RDX has been widely reported for use in LOVA propellant. In this paper we have made an effort to present the work on scantily reported nitramine HMX based LOVA gun propellant while incorporating energetic plasticizer glycidyl azide polymer to enhance the energy level. HMX is known to be thermally stable at higher temperature than RDX and also proved to be less vulnerable to small scale shaped charge jet attack as its decomposition temperature is 270 deg. C. HMX also offers improved impulse due to its superior heat of formation (+17 kcal/mol) as compared to RDX (+14 kcal/mol). It has also been reported that a break point will not appear until 35,000 psi for propellant comprising of 5 {mu}m HMX. Since no work has been reported in open literature regarding replacement of RDX by HMX, the present studies were carried out.

  15. Propeller installation effects on turboprop aircraft acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Giulia; Barakos, George N.; Bown, Nicholas

    2018-06-01

    Propeller installation options for a twin-engined turboprop aircraft are evaluated at cruise conditions, aiming to identify the quieter configuration. Computational fluid dynamics is used to investigate the near-field acoustics and transfer functions are employed to estimate the interior cabin noise. Co-rotating and counter-rotating installation options are compared. The effect of propeller synchrophasing is also considered. The employed method captures the complexity of the acoustic field generated by the interactions of the propeller sound fields among each other and with the airframe, showing also the importance of simulating the whole problem to predict the actual noise on a flying aircraft. Marked differences among the various layouts are observed. The counter-rotating top-in option appears the best in terms of acoustics, the top-out propeller rotation leading to louder noise because of inflow conditions and the occurrence of constructive acoustic interferences. Synchrophasing is shown to be beneficial for co-rotating propellers, specially regarding the interior noise, because of favorable effects in the interaction between the propeller direct sound field and the noise due to the airframe. An angle closer to the maximum relative blade shift was found to be the best choice, yielding, however, higher sound levels than those provided by the counter-rotating top-in layout.

  16. Counter-rotating type tidal stream power unit boarded on pillar (performances and flow conditions of tandem propellers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Yuta; Kanemoto, Toshiaki; Hiraki, Koju

    2013-12-01

    The authors have invented the unique counter-rotating type tidal stream power unit composed of the tandem propellers and the double rotational armature type peculiar generator without the traditional stator. The front and the rear propellers counter-drive the inner and the outer armatures of the peculiar generator, respectively. The unit has the fruitful advantages that not only the output is sufficiently higher without supplementary equipment such as a gearbox, but also the rotational moment hardly act on the pillar because the rotational torque of both propellers/armatures are counter-balanced in the unit. This paper discusses experimentally the performances of the power unit and the effects of the propeller rotation on the sea surface. The axial force acting on the pillar increases naturally with the increase of not only the stream velocity but also the drag of the tandem propellers. Besides, the force vertical to the stream also acts on the pillar, which is induced from the Karman vortex street and the dominant frequencies appear owing to the front and the rear propeller rotations. The propeller rotating in close to the sea surface brings the abnormal wave and the amplitude increases as the stream velocity is faster and/or the drag is stronger.

  17. AUTOGENIC THERAPY IN TENSION HEADACHE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amruthraj, Brunda; Mishra, H.; Kumaraiah, V.

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY Ten subjects diagnosed as Psychalgia were taken for study. A multiple baseline design was adapted and clients were subjected to 30 sessions of autogenic training. They were assessed using physiological (EMG and thermal change) and behavioural measures (Visual analogue scale and behavioural symptom checklist). Findings revealed autogenic therapy to be effective in reducing tension headache. PMID:21927245

  18. Tensions of Corporate Social Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert

    , and formally rational tools like key performance indicators (KPIs) can be developed and employed in service of the selected substantively rational ends. I show how these KPIs can serve to highlight tensions between substantively rational ends. As such, I argue the CSR bureaucracy can create a space...

  19. AUTOGENIC THERAPY IN TENSION HEADACHE

    OpenAIRE

    Amruthraj, Brunda; Mishra, H.; Kumaraiah, V.

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY Ten subjects diagnosed as Psychalgia were taken for study. A multiple baseline design was adapted and clients were subjected to 30 sessions of autogenic training. They were assessed using physiological (EMG and thermal change) and behavioural measures (Visual analogue scale and behavioural symptom checklist). Findings revealed autogenic therapy to be effective in reducing tension headache.

  20. Cavitation noise studies on marine propellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. D.; Mani, K.; Arakeri, V. H.

    1990-04-01

    Experimental observations are described of cavitation inception and noise from five model propellers, three basic and two modified, tested in the open jet section of the Indian Institute of Science high-speed water tunnel facility. Extensive experiments on the three basic propellers of different design, which included visualization of cavitation and measurements of noise, showed that the dominant type of cavitation was in the form of tip vortex cavitation, accompanied by leading edge suction side sheet cavitation in its close vicinity, and the resultant noise depended on parameters such as the advance coefficient, the cavitation number, and the propeller geometry. Of these, advance coefficient was found to have the maximum influence not only on cavitation noise but also on the inception of cavitation. Noise levels and frequencies of spectra obtained from all the three basic propellers at conditions near inception and different advance coefficient values, when plotted in the normalized form as suggested by Blake, resulted in a universal spectrum which would be useful for predicting cavitation noise at prototype scales when a limited extent of cavitation is expected in the same form as observed on the present models. In an attempt to delay the onset of tip vortex cavitation, the blades of two of the three basic propellers were modified by drilling small holes in the tip and leading edge areas. Studies on the modified propellers showed that the effectiveness of the blade modification was apparently stronger at low advance coefficient values and depended on the blade sectional profile. Measurements of cavitation noise indicated that the modification also improved the acoustic performance of the propellers as it resulted in a complete attenuation of the low-frequency spectral peaks, which were prominent with the basic propellers. In addition to the above studies, which were conducted under uniform flow conditions, one of the basic propellers was tested in the simulated

  1. Tension Tests of Copper Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Jo; Kim, Chung Youb [Chonnam Nat’l Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Tension tests for copper thin films with thickness of 12 μm were performed by using a digital image correlation method based on consecutive digital images. When calculating deformation using digital image correlation, a large deformation causes errors in the calculated result. In this study, the calculation procedure was improved to reduce the error, so that the full field deformation and the strain of the specimen could be accurately and directly measured on its surface. From the calculated result, it can be seen that the strain distribution is not uniform and its variation is severe, unlike the distribution in a common bulk specimen. This might result from the surface roughness introduced in the films during the fabrication process by electro-deposition.

  2. Self-propelled magnesium based micromotors: synthesis and magnetic steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Dongdong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the magnesium based Janus micromotors were prepared by an asymmetric coating of Co-Au bilayer on the surface of Mg microparticles. The micromotor could efficiently self-propel in phosphate buffer saline (PBS with a highest speed of 221 μm·s−1 without any extra additives through the macrogalvanic corrosion and pitting corrosion mechanism. The influence of pH value of PBS buffer on the motion of micromotor was also investigated. Moreover, we demonstrated that the motion of micromotor could be controlled by an external magnetic field rapidly and accurately, indicating the potential application in biomedicine.

  3. Propeller and inflow vortex interaction : vortex response and impact on the propeller performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Zhou, T; Sciacchitano, A.; Veldhuis, L.L.M.; Eitelberg, G.

    2016-01-01

    The aerodynamic operating conditions of a propeller can include complex situations where vorticity from sources upstream can enter the propeller plane. In general, when the vorticity enters in a concentrated form of a vortex, the interaction between the vortex and blade is referred to as

  4. Project Minerva: A low cost manned Mars mission based on indigenous propellant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beder, David; Bryan, Richard; Bui, Tuyen; Caviezel, Kelly; Cinnamon, Mark; Daggert, Todd; Folkers, Mike; Fornia, Mark; Hanks, Natasha; Hamilton, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Project Minerva is a low-cost manned Mars mission designed to deliver a crew of four to the Martian surface using only two sets of two launches from the Kennedy Space Center. Key concepts which make this mission realizable are the use of near-term technologies and in-situ propellant production, following the scenario originally proposed by R. Zubrin. The first set of launches delivers two unmanned payloads into low Earth orbit (LEO): the first payload consists of an Earth Return Vehicle (ERV), a propellant production plant, and a set of robotic vehicles; the second payload consists of the trans-Mars injection (TMI) upper stage. In LEO, the two payloads are docked and the configuration is injected into a Mars transfer orbit. The landing on Mars is performed with the aid of multiple aerobraking maneuvers. On the Martian surface, the propellant production plant uses a Sabatier/electrolysis type process to combine nine tons of hydrogen with carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere to produce over a hundred tons of liquid oxygen and liquid methane, which are later used as the propellants for the rover expeditions and the manned return journey of the ERV. The systems necessary for the flights to and from Mars, as well as those needed for the stay on Mars, are discussed. These systems include the transfer vehicle design, life support, guidance and communications, rovers and telepresence, power generation, and propellant manufacturing. Also included are the orbital mechanics, the scientific goals, and the estimated mission costs.

  5. Thermal Vacuum Test Correlation of a Zero Propellant Load Case Thermal Capacitance Propellant Gauging Analytical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckim, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and correlation of a thermal model that forms the foundation of a thermal capacitance spacecraft propellant load estimator. Specific details of creating the thermal model for the diaphragm propellant tank used on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale spacecraft using ANSYS and the correlation process implemented are presented. The thermal model was correlated to within plus or minus 3 degrees Celsius of the thermal vacuum test data, and was determined sufficient to make future propellant predictions on MMS. The model was also found to be relatively sensitive to uncertainties in applied heat flux and mass knowledge of the tank. More work is needed to improve temperature predictions in the upper hemisphere of the propellant tank where predictions were found to be 2 to 2.5 C lower than the test data. A road map for applying the model to predict propellant loads on the actual MMS spacecraft toward its end of life in 2017-2018 is also presented.

  6. Advances in LO2 Propellant Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Gopal; Orth, Michael; Stone, William; Perry, Gretchen; Holt, Kimberly; Suter, John

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the cryogenic testing and analysis that has recently been completed as part of a multi-year effort to develop a new, more robust and operable LO2 propellant conditioning system. Phase 1 of the program consisted of feasibility demonstrations ot four novel propellant conditioning concepts. A no-bleed, passive propellant conditioning option was shown for the first time to successfully provide desired propellant inlet conditions. The benefits of passive conditioning are reduced operations costs, decreased hardware costs, enhanced operability and increased reliability on future expendable launch vehicles In Phase 2 of the test program, effects of major design parameters were studied and design correlation for future vehicle design were developed. Simultaneously, analytical models were developed and validated. Over 100 tests were conducted with a full-scale feedline using LN2 as the test fluid. A circulation pump provided a range of pressure and flow conditions. The test results showed that the passive propellant conditioning system is insensitive to variations in many of the parameters. The test program provides the validation necessary to incorporate the passive conditioning system into the baseline of future vehicles. Modeling of these systems using computational fluid dynamics seems highly promising.

  7. In-Space Propellant Production Using Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, William; Johnson, Wesley; Swanger, Adam; McQuade, William

    2012-01-01

    A new era of space exploration is being planned. Manned exploration architectures under consideration require the long term storage of cryogenic propellants in space, and larger science mission directorate payloads can be delivered using cryogenic propulsion stages. Several architecture studies have shown that in-space cryogenic propulsion depots offer benefits including lower launch costs, smaller launch vehicles, and enhanced mission flexibility. NASA is currently planning a Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) technology demonstration mission that will use existing technology to demonstrate long duration storage, acquisition, mass gauging, and transfer of liquid hydrogen in low Earth orbit. This mission will demonstrate key technologies, but the CPST architecture is not designed for optimal mission operations for a true propellant depot. This paper will consider cryogenic propellant depots that are designed for operability. The operability principles considered are reusability, commonality, designing for the unique environment of space, and use of active control systems, both thermal and fluid. After considering these operability principles, a proposed depot architecture will be presented that uses water launch and on orbit electrolysis and liquefaction. This could serve as the first true space factory. Critical technologies needed for this depot architecture, including on orbit electrolysis, zero-g liquefaction and storage, rendezvous and docking, and propellant transfer, will be discussed and a developmental path forward will be presented. Finally, use of the depot to support the NASA Science Mission Directorate exploration goals will be presented.

  8. Urinary incontinence - tension-free vaginal tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/007377.htm Urinary incontinence - tension-free vaginal tape To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Placement of tension-free vaginal tape is surgery to help control stress urinary ...

  9. Characteristics of a non-volatile liquid propellant in liquid-fed ablative pulsed plasma thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, William Yeong Liang; Schönherr, Tony; Koizumi, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    In the past several decades, the use of electric propulsion in spacecraft has experienced tremendous growth. With the increasing adoption of small satellites in the kilogram range, suitable propulsion systems will be necessary in the near future. Pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs) were the first form of electric propulsion to be deployed in orbit, and are highly suitable for small satellites due to their inherent simplicity. However, their lifetime is limited by disadvantages such as carbon deposition leading to thruster failure, and complicated feeding systems required due to the conventional use of solid propellants (usually polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)). A promising alternative to solid propellants has recently emerged in the form of non-volatile liquids that are stable in vacuum. This study presents a broad comparison of the non-volatile liquid perfluoropolyether (PFPE) and solid PTFE as propellants on a PPT with a common design base. We show that liquid PFPE can be successfully used as a propellant, and exhibits similar plasma discharge properties to conventional solid PTFE, but with a mass bit that is an order of magnitude higher for an identical ablation area. We also demonstrate that the liquid PFPE propellant has exceptional resistance to carbon deposition, completely negating one of the major causes of thruster failure, while solid PTFE exhibited considerable carbon build-up. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to examine the elemental compositions of the surface deposition on the electrodes and the ablation area of the propellant (or PFPE encapsulator). The results show that based on its physical characteristics and behavior, non-volatile liquid PFPE is an extremely promising propellant for use in PPTs, with an extensive scope available for future research and development.

  10. Effect of Chamber Pressurization Rate on Combustion and Propagation of Solid Propellant Cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei-Lan; Wei, Shen; Yuan, Shu-Shen

    2002-01-01

    area of the propellant grain satisfies the designed value. But cracks in propellant grain can be generated during manufacture, storage, handing and so on. The cracks can provide additional surface area for combustion. The additional combustion may significantly deviate the performance of the rocket motor from the designed conditions, even lead to explosive catastrophe. Therefore a thorough study on the combustion, propagation and fracture of solid propellant cracks must be conducted. This paper takes an isolated propellant crack as the object and studies the effect of chamber pressurization rate on the combustion, propagation and fracture of the crack by experiment and theoretical calculation. deformable, the burning inside a solid propellant crack is a coupling of solid mechanics and combustion dynamics. In this paper, a theoretical model describing the combustion, propagation and fracture of the crack was formulated and solved numerically. The interaction of structural deformation and combustion process was included in the theoretical model. The conservation equations for compressible fluid flow, the equation of state for perfect gas, the heat conducting equation for the solid-phase, constitutive equation for propellant, J-integral fracture criterion and so on are used in the model. The convective burning inside the crack and the propagation and fracture of the crack were numerically studied by solving the set of nonlinear, inhomogeneous gas-phase governing equations and solid-phase equations. On the other hand, the combustion experiments for propellant specimens with a precut crack were conducted by RTR system. Predicted results are in good agreement with experimental data, which validates the reasonableness of the theoretical model. Both theoretical and experimental results indicate that the chamber pressurization rate has strong effects on the convective burning in the crack, crack fracture initiation and fracture pattern.

  11. Robust Tensioned Kevlar Suspension Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joseph B.; Naylor, Bret J.; Holmes, Warren A.

    2012-01-01

    One common but challenging problem in cryogenic engineering is to produce a mount that has excellent thermal isolation but is also rigid. Such mounts can be achieved by suspending the load from a network of fibers or strings held in tension. Kevlar fibers are often used for this purpose owing to their high strength and low thermal conductivity. A suite of compact design elements has been developed to improve the reliability of suspension systems made of Kevlar.

  12. Delayed Tension Pneumothorax During Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Lun Chen

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Tension pneumothorax is a life-threatening emergency that rapidly results in cardiopulmonary arrest. It requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. We present 2 cases from our practice, 1 caused by blunt chest trauma and the other resulting from laparoscopic surgery. Both were successfully treated by insertion of a chest tube. The diagnosis and treatment of intraoperative pneumothorax is discussed together with a review of the literature.

  13. CFD analysis of cloud cavitation on three tip-modified propellers with systematically varied tip geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, K. W.; Andersen, Poul

    2015-01-01

    The blade tip loading is often reduced as an effort to restrain sheet and tip vortex cavitation in the design of marine propellers. This CFD analysis demonstrates that an excessive reduction of the tip loading can cause cloud cavitation responsible for much of noise and surface erosion. Detached...

  14. Particle size distribution effect on burn rate of ammonium nitrate based propellant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, J.R.; Klein, A.J.J.; Zee, F.W.M.

    1995-01-01

    Burn rate control of a Phase Stabilised Ammonium Nitrate (PSAN) propellant by specific surface area (SSA) tuning of the PSAN oxidiser resulted in unexpected effects of applying a new batch of PSAN having a different particle size distribution. Analysis of the deviations and consultation of

  15. The engineering of a nuclear thermal landing and ascent vehicle utilizing indigenous Martian propellant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubrin, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    The following paper reports on a design study of a novel space transportation concept known as a ''NIMF'' (Nuclear rocket using Indigenous Martian Fuel.) The NIMF is a ballistic vehicle which obtains its propellant out of the Martian air by compression and liquefaction of atmospheric CO 2 . This propellant is subsequently used to generate rocket thrust at a specific impulse of 264 s by being heated to high temperature (2800 K) gas in the NIMFs' nuclear thermal rocket engines. The vehicle is designed to provide surface to orbit and surface to surface transportation, as well as housing, for a crew of three astronauts. It is capable of refueling itself for a flight to its maximum orbit in less than 50 days. The ballistic NIMF has a mass of 44.7 tonnes and, with the assumed 2800 K propellant temperature, is capable of attaining highly energetic (250 km by 34000 km elliptical) orbits. This allows it to rendezvous with interplanetary transfer vehicles which are only very loosely bound into orbit around Mars. If a propellant temperature of 2000 K is assumed, then low Mars orbit can be attained; while if 3100 K is assumed, then the ballistic NIMF is capable of injecting itself onto a minimum energy transfer orbit to Earth in a direct ascent from the Martian surface

  16. Design and simulation on the morphing composite propeller (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanlong; Li, Qinyu; Liu, Liwu; Lan, Xin; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2017-04-01

    As one of the most crucial part of the unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV), the composite propeller plays an important role on the UUV's performance. As the composite propeller behaves excellent properties in hydroelastic facet and acoustic suppression, it attracts increasing attentions all over the globe. This paper goes a step further based on this idea, and comes up with a novel concept of "morphing composite propeller" (MCP) to improve the performance of the conventional composite propeller (CCP) to anticipate the improved propeller can perform better to propel the UUV. Based on the new concept, a novel MCP is designed. Each blade of the propeller is assembled with an active rotatable flap (ARF) to change the blade's local camber with flap rotation. Then the transmission mechanism (TM) has been designed and housed in the propeller blade to push the ARF. With the ARF rotating, the UUV can be propelled by different thrusts under certain rotation velocities of the propeller. Based on the design, the Fluent is exploited to analyze the fluid dynamics around the propeller. Finally, based on the design and hydrodynamic analysis, the structural response for the novel morphing composite propeller is calculated. The propeller blade is simplified and layered with composite materials. And the structure response of an MCP is obtained with various rotation angle under the hydrodynamic pressure. This simulation can instruct the design and fabrication techniques of the MCP.

  17. Shock loading and reactive flow modeling studies of void induced AP/AL/HTPB propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P. J.; Lindfors, A. J.

    1998-07-01

    The unreactive Hugoniot of a class 1.3 propellant has been investigated by shock compression experiments. The results are analyzed in terms of an ignition and growth reactive flow model using the DYNA2D hydrocode. The calculated shock ignition parameters of the model show a linear dependence on measured void volume which appears to reproduce the observed gauge records well. Shock waves were generated by impact in a 75 mm single stage powder gun. Manganin and PVDF pressure gauges provided pressure-time histories to 140 kbar. The propellants were of similar formulation differing only in AP particle size and the addition of a burn rate modifer (Fe2O3) from that of previous investigations. Results show neglible effect of AP particle size on shock response in contrast to the addition of Fe2O3 which appears to `stiffen' the unreactive Hugoniot and enhances significantly the reactive rates under shock. The unreactive Hugoniot, within experimental error, compares favorably to the solid AP Hugoniot. Shock experiments were performed on propellant samples strained to induce insitu voids. The material state was quantified by uniaxial tension dialatometry. The experimental records show a direct correlation between void volume (0 to 1.7%) and chemical reactivity behind the shock front. These results are discussed in terms of `hot spot' ignition resulting from the shock collapse of the voids.

  18. Extension of a simplified computer program for analysis of solid-propellant rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforzini, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    A research project to develop a computer program for the preliminary design and performance analysis of solid propellant rocket engines is discussed. The following capabilities are included as computer program options: (1) treatment of wagon wheel cross sectional propellant configurations alone or in combination with circular perforated grains, (2) calculation of ignition transients with the igniter treated as a small rocket engine, (3) representation of spherical circular perforated grain ends as an alternative to the conical end surface approximation used in the original program, and (4) graphical presentation of program results using a digital plotter.

  19. Analysis of Aerodynamic Load of LSU-03 (LAPAN Surveillance UAV-03) Propeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmadi Nuranto, Awang; Jamaludin Fitroh, Ahmad; Syamsudin, Hendri

    2018-04-01

    The existing propeller of the LSU-03 aircraft is made of wood. To improve structural strength and obtain better mechanical properties, the propeller will be redesigned usingcomposite materials. It is necessary to simulate and analyze the design load. This research paper explainsthe simulation and analysis of aerodynamic load prior to structural design phase of composite propeller. Aerodynamic load calculations are performed using both the Blade Element Theory(BET) and the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD)simulation. The result of both methods show a close agreement, the different thrust forces is only 1.2 and 4.1% for two type mesh. Thus the distribution of aerodynamic loads along the surface of the propeller blades of the 3-D CFD simulation results are considered valid and ready to design the composite structure. TheCFD results is directly imported to the structure model using the Direct Import CFD / One-Way Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) method. Design load of propeller is chosen at the flight condition at speed of 20 km/h at 7000 rpm.

  20. CFD simulation on Kappel propeller with a hull wake field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Keun Woo; Andersen, Poul; Møller Bering, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    Marine propellers are designed not for the open-water operation, but for the operation behind a hull due to the inhomogeneous hull wake and thrust deduction. The adaptation for the hull wake is important for the propulsive efficiency and cavitation risk especially on single-screw ships. CFD...... simulations for a propeller with a hull model have showed acceptable agreement with a model test result in the thrust and torque (Larsson et al. 2010). In the current work, a measured hull wake is applied to the simulation instead of modelling a hull, because the hull geometry is mostly not available...... for propeller designers and the computational effort can be reduced by excluding the hull. The CFD simulation of a propeller flow with a hull wake is verified in order to use CFD as a propeller design tool. A Kappel propeller, which is an innovative tip-modified propeller, is handled. Kappel propellers...