WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface tension bubbles

  1. Dynamic Bubble Surface Tension Measurements in Northwest Atlantic Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieber, D. J.; Long, M. S.; Keene, W. C.; Kinsey, J. D.; Frossard, A. A.; Beaupre, S. R.; Duplessis, P.; Maben, J. R.; Lu, X.; Chang, R.; Zhu, Y.; Bisgrove, J.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous reports suggest that most organic matter (OM) associated with newly formed primary marine aerosol (PMA) originates from the sea-surface microlayer. However, surface-active OM rapidly adsorbs onto bubble surfaces in the water column and is ejected into the atmosphere when bubbles burst at the air-water interface. Here we present dynamic surface tension measurements of bubbles produced in near surface seawater from biologically productive and oligotrophic sites and in deep seawater collected from 2500 m in the northwest Atlantic. In all cases, the surface tension of bubble surfaces decreased within seconds after the bubbles were exposed to seawater. These observations demonstrate that bubble surfaces are rapidly saturated by surfactant material scavenged from seawater. Spatial and diel variability in bubble surface evolution indicate corresponding variability in surfactant concentrations and/or composition. Our results reveal that surface-active OM is found throughout the water column, and that at least some surfactants are not of recent biological origin. Our results also support the hypothesis that the surface microlayer is a minor to negligible source of OM associated with freshly produced PMA.

  2. Critical Assessment of the Surface Tension determined by the Maximum Pressure Bubble Method

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetto, Franco Emmanuel; Zolotucho, Hector; Prado, Miguel Oscar

    2015-01-01

    The main factors that influence the value of surface tension of a liquid measured with the Maximum Pressure Bubble Method are critically evaluated. We present experimental results showing the effect of capillary diameter, capillary depth, bubble spheroidicity and liquid density at room temperature. We show that the decrease of bubble spheroidicity due to increase of capillary immersion depth is not sufficient to explain the deviations found in the measured surface tension values. Thus, we pro...

  3. Nanofluidic bubble pump using surface tension directed gas injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, Niels Roelof; Berenschot, Johan W.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; van den Berg, Albert

    2002-01-01

    A new concept for liquid manipulation has been developed and implemented in surface-micromachined fluid channels. It is based on the surface tension directed injection of a gas into the liquid flow through micrometer-sized holes in the microchannel wall. The injected gas is directed to an exhaust by

  4. Shapes of an Air Taylor Bubble in Stagnant Liquids Influenced by Different Surface Tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertnuwat, B.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this work is to propose an empirical model for predicting shapes of a Taylor bubble, which is a part of slug flows, under different values of the surface tension in stagnant liquids by employing numerical simulations. The k - Ɛ turbulence model was used in the framework of finite volume method for simulating flow fields in a unit of slug flow and also the pressure distribution on a Taylor bubble surface. Assuming that an air pressure distribution inside the Taylor bubble must be uniform, a grid search method was exploited to find an appropriate shape of a Taylor bubble for six values of surface tension. It was found that the shape of a Taylor bubble would be blunter if the surface tension was increased. This was because the surface tension affected the Froude number, controlling the flow around a Taylor bubble. The simulation results were also compared with the Taylor bubble shape, created by the Dumitrescu-and-Taylor model and former studies in order to ensure that they were consistent. Finally, the empirical model was presented from the simulation results.

  5. Bubble extinction in Hele-Shaw flow with surface tension and kinetic undercooling regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallaston, Michael C; McCue, Scott W

    2013-01-01

    We perform an analytic and numerical study of an inviscid contracting bubble in a two-dimensional Hele-Shaw cell, where the effects of both surface tension and kinetic undercooling on the moving bubble boundary are not neglected. In contrast to expanding bubbles, in which both boundary effects regularize the ill-posedness arising from the viscous (Saffman–Taylor) instability, we show that in contracting bubbles the two boundary effects are in competition, with surface tension stabilizing the boundary, and kinetic undercooling destabilizing it. This competition leads to interesting bifurcation behaviour in the asymptotic shape of the bubble in the limit it approaches extinction. In this limit, the boundary may tend to become either circular, or approach a line or ‘slit’ of zero thickness, depending on the initial condition and the value of a nondimensional surface tension parameter. We show that over a critical range of surface tension values, both these asymptotic shapes are stable. In this regime there exists a third, unstable branch of limiting self-similar bubble shapes, with an asymptotic aspect ratio (dependent on the surface tension) between zero and one. We support our asymptotic analysis with a numerical scheme that utilizes the applicability of complex variable theory to Hele-Shaw flow. (paper)

  6. Adhesion of bubbles and drops to solid surfaces, and anisotropic surface tensions studied by capillary meniscus dynamometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danov, Krassimir D.; Stanimirova, Rumyana D.; Kralchevsky, Peter A.; Marinova, Krastanka G.; Stoyanov, Simeon D.; Blijdenstein, Theodorus B.J.; Cox, Andrew R.; Pelan, Eddie G.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we review the principle and applications of two recently developed methods: the capillary meniscus dynamometry (CMD) for measuring the surface tension of bubbles/drops, and the capillary bridge dynamometry (CBD) for quantifying the bubble/drop adhesion to solid surfaces. Both methods are

  7. Dynamic surface tension measurements of ionic surfactants using maximum bubble pressure tensiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Camilla U.; Moreno, Norman; Sharma, Vivek

    Dynamic surface tension refers to the time dependent variation in surface tension, and is intimately linked with the rate of mass transfer of a surfactant from liquid sub-phase to the interface. The diffusion- or adsorption-limited kinetics of mass transfer to interfaces is said to impact the so-called foamability and the Gibbs-Marangoni elasticity of surfaces. Dynamic surface tension measurements carried out with conventional methods like pendant drop analysis, Wilhelmy plate, etc. are limited in their temporal resolution (>50 ms). In this study, we describe design and application of maximum bubble pressure tensiometry for the measurement of dynamic surface tension effects at extremely short (1-50 ms) timescales. Using experiments and theory, we discuss the overall adsorption kinetics of charged surfactants, paying special attention to the influence of added salt on dynamic surface tension.

  8. Adhesion of bubbles and drops to solid surfaces, and anisotropic surface tensions studied by capillary meniscus dynamometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danov, Krassimir D; Stanimirova, Rumyana D; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Marinova, Krastanka G; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Blijdenstein, Theodorus B J; Cox, Andrew R; Pelan, Eddie G

    2016-07-01

    Here, we review the principle and applications of two recently developed methods: the capillary meniscus dynamometry (CMD) for measuring the surface tension of bubbles/drops, and the capillary bridge dynamometry (CBD) for quantifying the bubble/drop adhesion to solid surfaces. Both methods are based on a new data analysis protocol, which allows one to decouple the two components of non-isotropic surface tension. For an axisymmetric non-fluid interface (e.g. bubble or drop covered by a protein adsorption layer with shear elasticity), the CMD determines the two different components of the anisotropic surface tension, σs and σφ, which are acting along the "meridians" and "parallels", and vary throughout the interface. The method uses data for the instantaneous bubble (drop) profile and capillary pressure, but the procedure for data processing is essentially different from that of the conventional drop shape analysis (DSA) method. In the case of bubble or drop pressed against a substrate, which forms a capillary bridge, the CBD method allows one to determine also the capillary-bridge force for both isotropic (fluid) and anisotropic (solidified) adsorption layers. The experiments on bubble (drop) detachment from the substrate show the existence of a maximal pulling force, Fmax, that can be resisted by an adherent fluid particle. Fmax can be used to quantify the strength of adhesion of bubbles and drops to solid surfaces. Its value is determined by a competition of attractive transversal tension and repulsive disjoining pressure forces. The greatest Fmax values have been measured for bubbles adherent to glass substrates in pea-protein solutions. The bubble/wall adhesion is lower in solutions containing the protein HFBII hydrophobin, which could be explained with the effect of sandwiched protein aggregates. The applicability of the CBD method to emulsion systems is illustrated by experiments with soybean-oil drops adherent to hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates in

  9. Measurement of the surface tension by the method of maximum gas bubble pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugne, Jean

    1971-01-01

    A gas bubble method for measuring surface tension was studied. Theoretical investigations demonstrated that the maximum pressure can be represented by the envelope of a certain family of curves and that the physical nature of the capillary tube imposes an upper limit to its useful radius. With a given tube and a specified liquid, the dynamic evolution of the gas bubble depends only upon the variation of the mass of gas contained with time; this fact may restrict the choice of tubes. The use of one single tube requires important corrections. Computer treatment of the problem led to some accurate equations for calculating γ. Schroedinger equations and Sudgen's table are examined. The choice of tubes, the necessary corrections, density measurement, and the accuracy attainable are discussed. Experiments conducted with water and mercury using the sessile drop method and continuous recording of the pressure verified the theoretical ideas. (author) [fr

  10. Detachment of polystyrene particles from collector surfaces by surface tension forces induced by air-bubble passage through a parallel plate flow chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, PJ; vanderMei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    1997-01-01

    By allowing an air-bubble to pass through a parallel plate flow chamber with negatively charged, colloidal polystyrene particles adhering to the bottom collector plate of the chamber, the detachment of adhering particles stimulated by surface tension forces induced by the passage of a liquid-air

  11. Direct Observation of Domain-Wall Surface Tension by Deflating or Inflating a Magnetic Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueying; Vernier, Nicolas; Zhao, Weisheng; Yu, Haiming; Vila, Laurent; Zhang, Yue; Ravelosona, Dafiné

    2018-02-01

    The surface energy of a magnetic domain wall (DW) strongly affects its static and dynamic behaviors. However, this effect is seldom directly observed, and some of the related phenomena are not well understood. Moreover, a reliable method to quantify the DW surface energy is still absent. Here, we report a series of experiments in which the DW surface energy becomes a dominant parameter. We observe that a semicircular magnetic domain bubble can spontaneously collapse under the Laplace pressure induced by DW surface energy. We further demonstrate that the surface energy can lead to a geometrically induced pinning when the DW propagates in a Hall cross or from a nanowire into a nucleation pad. Based on these observations, we develop two methods to quantify the DW surface energy, which can be very helpful in the estimation of intrinsic parameters such as Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions or exchange stiffness in magnetic ultrathin films.

  12. Effects of the kinematic viscosity and surface tension on the bubble take-off period in a catalase-hydrogen peroxide system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Satoshi; Iida, Yoshinori

    2009-06-01

    The effect of kinematic viscosity and surface tension of the solution was investigated by adding catalase, glucose oxidase, or glucose on the bubble movement in a catalase-hydrogen peroxide system. The kinematic viscosity was measured using a Cannon-Fenske kinematic viscometer. The surface tension of the solution was measured by the Wilhelmy method using a self-made apparatus. The effects of the hole diameter/cell wall thickness, catalase concentration, glucose concentration, and glucose oxidase concentration on the kinematic viscosity, surface tension, and bubble take-off period were investigated. With our system, the effects of the changes in the solution materiality on the bubble take-off period were proven to be very small in comparison to the change in the oxygen-producing rate.

  13. Numerical investigation on the influence of surface tension and viscous force on the bubble dynamics with a CLSVOF method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhiying; Li, Yikai; Huang, Biao; Gao, Deming [Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing (China)

    2016-06-15

    We numerically investigated the rising of bubbles in a quiescent liquid layer. The numerical simulation is performed by solving the incompressible, multiphase Navier-Stokes equations via computational code in axisymmetric coordinates using a Coupled level-set and volume-of-fluid (CLSVOF) method. The numerical results show that the CLSVOF method with a novel algebraic relation between F and f for axisymmetric two-phase flows not only can predict the bubble surface accurately, but also overcome the deficiency in preserving volume conservation. The effects of the Reynolds number Re and the Bond number Bo on the bubble deformation and its motion are investigated. The results show that with the increasing of Re (10 < Re < 150), the bubble shape transfers from oblate ellipsoidal cap to toroidal when Bo = 116. With the increasing of Bo (10 < Bo < 700), the bubble shape transfers from oblate ellipsoidal to toroidal when Re = 30. Although the toroidal bubble shapes are reached in these two cases, the transition modes are different. For the case Bo = 116, the bubble front is pierced by an upward jet from the rear of the bubble. While for the case Re = 30, the rear of the bubble is pierced by a downward jet from the front part.

  14. Effect of surface tension on the dynamical behavior of bubble in rotating fluids under low gravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Tsao, Y. D.; Leslie, Fred W.; Hong, B. B.

    1988-01-01

    Time dependent evolutions of the profile of free surface (bubble shapes) for a cylindrical container partially filled with a Newtonian fluid of constant density, rotating about its axis of symmetry, have been studied. Numerical computations of the dynamics of bubble shapes have been carried out with the following situations: (1) linear functions of spin-up and spin-down in low and microgravity environments, (2) linear functions of increasing and decreasing gravity enviroment in high and low rotating cylidner speeds, (3) step functions of spin-up and spin-down in a low gravity environment, and (4) sinusoidal function oscillation of gravity environment in high and low rotating cylinder speeds. The initial condition of bubble profiles was adopted from the steady-state formulations in which the computer algorithms have been developed by Hung and Leslie (1988), and Hung et al. (1988).

  15. Nucleation, growth and transport modelling of helium bubbles under nuclear irradiation in lead–lithium with the self-consistent nucleation theory and surface tension corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradera, J.; Cuesta-López, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The work presented in this manuscript provides a reliable computational tool to quantify the He complex phenomena in a HCLL. • A model based on the self-consistent nucleation theory (SCT) is exposed. It includes radiation induced nucleation modelling and surface tension corrections. • Results informed reinforce the necessity of conducting experiments to determine nucleation conditions and bubble transport parameters in LM breeders. • Our findings and model provide a good qualitative insight into the helium nucleation phenomenon in LM systems for fusion technology and can be used to identify key system parameters. -- Abstract: Helium (He) nucleation in liquid metal breeding blankets of a DT fusion reactor may have a significant impact regarding system design, safety and operation. Large He production rates are expected due to tritium (T) fuel self-sufficiency requirement, as both, He and T, are produced at the same rate. Low He solubility, local high concentrations, radiation damage and fluid discontinuities, among other phenomena, may yield the necessary conditions for He nucleation. Hence, He nucleation may have a significant impact on T inventory and may lower the T breeding ratio. A model based on the self-consistent nucleation theory (SCT) with a surface tension curvature correction model has been implemented in OpenFOAM ® CFD code. A modification through a single parameter of the necessary nucleation condition is proposed in order to take into account all the nucleation triggering phenomena, specially radiation induced nucleation. Moreover, the kinetic growth model has been adapted so as to allow for the transition from a critical cluster to a macroscopic bubble with a diffusion growth process. Limitations and capabilities of the models are shown by means of zero-dimensional simulations and sensitivity analyses to key parameters under HCLL breeding unit conditions. Results provide a good qualitative insight into the helium nucleation

  16. Nucleation, growth and transport modelling of helium bubbles under nuclear irradiation in lead–lithium with the self-consistent nucleation theory and surface tension corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradera, J., E-mail: jfradera@ubu.es; Cuesta-López, S., E-mail: scuesta@ubu.es

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The work presented in this manuscript provides a reliable computational tool to quantify the He complex phenomena in a HCLL. • A model based on the self-consistent nucleation theory (SCT) is exposed. It includes radiation induced nucleation modelling and surface tension corrections. • Results informed reinforce the necessity of conducting experiments to determine nucleation conditions and bubble transport parameters in LM breeders. • Our findings and model provide a good qualitative insight into the helium nucleation phenomenon in LM systems for fusion technology and can be used to identify key system parameters. -- Abstract: Helium (He) nucleation in liquid metal breeding blankets of a DT fusion reactor may have a significant impact regarding system design, safety and operation. Large He production rates are expected due to tritium (T) fuel self-sufficiency requirement, as both, He and T, are produced at the same rate. Low He solubility, local high concentrations, radiation damage and fluid discontinuities, among other phenomena, may yield the necessary conditions for He nucleation. Hence, He nucleation may have a significant impact on T inventory and may lower the T breeding ratio. A model based on the self-consistent nucleation theory (SCT) with a surface tension curvature correction model has been implemented in OpenFOAM{sup ®} CFD code. A modification through a single parameter of the necessary nucleation condition is proposed in order to take into account all the nucleation triggering phenomena, specially radiation induced nucleation. Moreover, the kinetic growth model has been adapted so as to allow for the transition from a critical cluster to a macroscopic bubble with a diffusion growth process. Limitations and capabilities of the models are shown by means of zero-dimensional simulations and sensitivity analyses to key parameters under HCLL breeding unit conditions. Results provide a good qualitative insight into the helium

  17. Integral analysis of cavity pressurization in a fuel rod during an ULOF driven TOP with inclusion of surface tension effects on froth gas bubbles and variable cavity conditions due to fuel melting and ejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royl, P.

    1984-02-01

    The transient cavity pressurization in an ULOF driven TOP excursion has been analyzed for the SPX-1 reactor with an equation of state that allows to simulate the contribution of small froth gas bubbles to the pressure build-up in a fuel pin with inclusion of restraints from surface tension. Calculations were performed for various bubble parameters. Estimates are made for effective gas availabilities at fuel melting which can be used in a cavity model with an ideal gas equation to arrive at similar pressure transients

  18. Measurement for Surface Tension of Aqueous Inorganic Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiming Wen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bubble columns are effective means of filtration in filtered containment venting systems. Here, the surface tension has a significant influence on bubble size distribution and bubble deformation, which have a strong impact on the behavior of the bubble column. The influence of aqueous inorganic compounds on the surface tension depends on the electrolytic activity, Debye length, entropy of ion hydration, and surface deficiencies or excess. In this work, the surface tensions of same specific aqueous solutions have been measured by different methods including platinum plate method, platinum ring method, and maximum bubble pressure method. The measured surface tensions of both sodium hydroxide and sodium thiosulfate are less than that of water. As solution temperature ranges from 20 to 75°C, the surface tension of 0.5 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution decreases from 71 to 55 mN/m while that of 1 mol/L solution decreases from 60 to 45 mN/m. Similarly during the same temperature range, the surface tension of 0.5 mol/L sodium thiosulfate decreases from 70 to 38 mN/m, and that of 1 mol/L sodium thiosulfate is between 68 and 36 mN/m. The analysis for the influence mechanism of aqueous inorganic on surface tension is provided. In addition, experimental results show that the surface tension of solid aerosol suspension liquid has no obvious difference from that of distilled water.

  19. Generalized surface tension bounds in vacuum decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Ali; Paban, Sonia; Weinberg, Erick J.

    2018-02-01

    Coleman and De Luccia (CDL) showed that gravitational effects can prevent the decay by bubble nucleation of a Minkowski or AdS false vacuum. In their thin-wall approximation this happens whenever the surface tension in the bubble wall exceeds an upper bound proportional to the difference of the square roots of the true and false vacuum energy densities. Recently it was shown that there is another type of thin-wall regime that differs from that of CDL in that the radius of curvature grows substantially as one moves through the wall. Not only does the CDL derivation of the bound fail in this case, but also its very formulation becomes ambiguous because the surface tension is not well defined. We propose a definition of the surface tension and show that it obeys a bound similar in form to that of the CDL case. We then show that both thin-wall bounds are special cases of a more general bound that is satisfied for all bounce solutions with Minkowski or AdS false vacua. We discuss the limit where the parameters of the theory attain critical values and the bound is saturated. The bounce solution then disappears and a static planar domain wall solution appears in its stead. The scalar field potential then is of the form expected in supergravity, but this is only guaranteed along the trajectory in field space traced out by the bounce.

  20. Dependence of bubble behavior in subcooled boiling on surface wettability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Takahiro; Nagakura, Hiroshi; Okawa, Tomio

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of visualization experiments that were carried out to investigate the dynamics of vapor bubbles generated in water pool boiling. In the experiments, vapor bubbles were generated on a vertical circular surface of a copper block containing nine cartridge heaters, and the contact angle of the heated surface was used as a main experimental parameter. The experiments were performed under subcooled as well as nearly saturated conditions. To enable clear observation of individual bubbles with a high speed camera, the heat flux was kept low enough to eliminate significant overlapping of bubbles. When the contact angle was small, the bubbles were lifted-off the vertical heated surface within a short period of time after the nucleation. On the other hand, when the contact angle was large, they slid up the vertical surface for a long distance. When bubbles were lifted-off the heated surface in subcooled liquid, bubble life-time was significantly shortened since bubbles collapsed rapidly due to condensation. It was shown that this distinct difference in bubble dynamics could be attributed to the effects of surface tension force.

  1. Effects of surface tension on tray point efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, G.X.; Afacan, A.; Chuang, K.T. (Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada))

    1994-08-01

    Sieve tray efficiencies for the distillation of methanol/water, acetic acid/water, and cyclohexane/n-heptane mixtures were measured as a function of composition under fixed vapor and liquid rates in a 0.15 m diameter distillation column. The three binary distillation systems used in the study had a wide range of surface tensions measured as a function of composition. From the efficiencies measured, the number of vapor- and liquid-phase transfer units (Ng and Nl) was determined and the effects of surface tension on Ng and Nl were identified. To further verify the results obtained from the distillation column, bubble sizes in froths for air/water, air/methanol, and air/(water + surfactant) systems with different surface tensions were measured. The results show that surface tension has a significant effect on tray efficiency and the number of transfer units. Bubble sizes in the tray froths were mainly determined by surface tension, and bubble breakup and coalescence occur in the froths. 45 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Surface Tension Confines Cryogenic Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, Stephen H.; Schein, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    New type of Dewar provides passive, constant-temperature cryogenic cooling for scientific instruments under normal-to low-gravity conditions. Known as Surface-Tension-Contained Liquid Cryogen Cooler (STCLCC), keeps liquid cryogen in known location inside the Dewar by trapping liquid inside spongelike material. Unique sponge material fills most of volume of inner tank. Sponge is all-silica, open-cell material similar to that used for Space Shuttle thermal-protection tiles.

  3. Axelrod's model with surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Bruno; Prado, Carmen P. C.

    2014-06-01

    In this work we propose a subtle change in Axelrod's model for the dissemination of culture. The mechanism consists of excluding from the set of potentially interacting neighbors those that would never possibly exchange. Although the alteration proposed does not alter the state space topologically, it yields significant qualitative changes, specifically the emergence of surface tension, driving the system in some cases to metastable states. The transient behavior is considerably richer, and cultural regions become stable leading to the formation of different spatiotemporal patterns. A metastable "glassy" phase emerges between the globalized phase and the disordered, multicultural phase.

  4. Dynamical modeling of surface tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackbill, J.U.; Kothe, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    In a recent review it is said that free-surface flows ''represent some of the difficult remaining challenges in computational fluid dynamics''. There has been progress with the development of new approaches to treating interfaces, such as the level-set method and the improvement of older methods such as the VOF method. A common theme of many of the new developments has been the regularization of discontinuities at the interface. One example of this approach is the continuum surface force (CSF) formulation for surface tension, which replaces the surface stress given by Laplace's equation by an equivalent volume force. Here, we describe how CSF might be made more useful. Specifically, we consider a derivation of the CSF equations from a minimization of surface energy as outlined by Jacqmin. This reformulation suggests that if one eliminates the computation of curvature in terms of a unit normal vector, parasitic currents may be eliminated For this reformulation to work, it is necessary that transition region thickness be controlled. Various means for this, in addition to the one discussed by Jacqmin are discussed

  5. Surface tension in microsystems engineering below the capillary length

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This book describes how surface tension effects can be used by engineers to provide mechanical functions in miniaturized products (<1 mm). Even if precursors of this field such as Jurin or Laplace already date back to the 18th century, describing surface tension effects from a mechanical perspective is very recent. The originality of this book is to consider the effects of capillary bridges on solids, including forces and torques exerted both statically and dynamically by the liquid along the 6 degrees-of-freedom. It provides a comprehensive approach to various applications, such as capillary adhesion (axial force), centering force in packaging and micro-assembly (lateral force) and recent developments such as a capillary motor (torque). It devises how surface tension can be used to provide mechanical functions such as actuation (bubble-actuated compliant table), sealing and tightness, energy harvesting, nanodispending.

  6. Pressure and tension waves from bubble collapse near a solid boundary: A numerical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Christiane; Koch, Max; Lauterborn, Werner; Mettin, Robert

    2017-12-01

    The acoustic waves being generated during the motion of a bubble in water near a solid boundary are calculated numerically. The open source package OpenFOAM is used for solving the Navier-Stokes equation and extended to include nonlinear acoustic wave effects via the Tait equation for water. A bubble model with a small amount of gas is chosen, the gas obeying an adiabatic law. A bubble starting from a small size with high internal pressure near a flat, solid boundary is studied. The sequence of events from bubble growth via axial microjet formation, jet impact, annular nanojet formation, torus-bubble collapse, and bubble rebound to second collapse is described. The different pressure and tension waves with their propagation properties are demonstrated.

  7. Surface tension effects on the behavior of a cavity growing, collapsing, and rebounding near a rigid wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-yu; Zhang, Hui-sheng

    2004-11-01

    Surface tension effects on the behavior of a pure vapor cavity or a cavity containing some noncondensible contents, which is growing, collapsing, and rebounding axisymmetrically near a rigid wall, are investigated numerically by the boundary integral method for different values of dimensionless stand-off parameter gamma, buoyancy parameter delta, and surface tension parameter beta. It is found that at the late stage of the collapse, if the resultant action of the Bjerknes force and the buoyancy force is not small, surface tension will not have significant effects on bubble behavior except that the bubble collapse time is shortened and the liquid jet becomes wider. If the resultant action of the two force is small enough, surface tension will have significant and in some cases substantial effects on bubble behavior, such as changing the direction of the liquid jet, making a new liquid jet appear, in some cases preventing the bubble from rebound before jet impact, and in other cases causing the bubble to rebound or even recollapse before jet impact. The mechanism of surface tension effects on the collapsing behavior of a cavity has been analyzed. The mechanisms of some complicated phenomena induced by surface tension effects are illustrated by analysis of the computed velocity fields and pressure contours of the liquid flow outside the bubble at different stages of the bubble evolution.

  8. Density and surface tension of ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbeck, C; Lehmann, J; Lovelock, K R J; Cremer, T; Paape, N; Wasserscheid, P; Fröba, A P; Maier, F; Steinrück, H-P

    2010-12-30

    We measured the density and surface tension of 9 bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([Tf(2)N](-))-based and 12 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium ([C(8)C(1)Im](+))-based ionic liquids (ILs) with the vibrating tube and the pendant drop method, respectively. This comprehensive set of ILs was chosen to probe the influence of the cations and anions on density and surface tension. When the alkyl chain length in the [C(n)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N] series (n = 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12) is increased, a decrease in density is observed. The surface tension initially also decreases but reaches a plateau for alkyl chain lengths greater than n = 8. Functionalizing the alkyl chains with ethylene glycol groups results in a higher density as well as a higher surface tension. For the dependence of density and surface tension on the chemical nature of the anion, relations are only found for subgroups of the studied ILs. Density and surface tension values are discussed with respect to intermolecular interactions and surface composition as determined by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). The absence of nonvolatile surface-active contaminants was proven by ARXPS.

  9. Bubbling surface operators and S-duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomis, Jaume; Matsuura, Shunji

    2007-01-01

    We construct smooth asymptotically /ADS solutions of Type IIB supergravity corresponding to all the half-BPS surface operators in N = 4 SYM. All the parameters labeling a half-BPS surface operator are identified in the corresponding bubbling geometry. We use the supergravity description of surface operators to study the action of the SL(2,Z) duality group of N 4 SYM on the parameters of the surface operator, and find that it coincides with the recent proposal by Gukov and Witten in the framework of the gauge theory approach to the geometrical Langlands with ramification. We also show that whenever a bubbling geometry becomes singular that the path integral description of the corresponding surface operator also becomes singular

  10. The hydrodynamics of bubble rise and impact with solid surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manica, Rogerio; Klaseboer, Evert; Chan, Derek Y C

    2016-09-01

    A bubble smaller than 1mm in radius rises along a straight path in water and attains a constant speed due to the balance between buoyancy and drag force. Depending on the purity of the system, within the two extreme limits of tangentially immobile or mobile boundary conditions at the air-water interface considerably different terminal speeds are possible. When such a bubble impacts on a horizontal solid surface and bounces, interesting physics can be observed. We study this physical phenomenon in terms of forces, which can be of colloidal, inertial, elastic, surface tension and viscous origins. Recent advances in high-speed photography allow for the observation of phenomena on the millisecond scale. Simultaneous use of such cameras to visualize both rise/deformation and the dynamics of the thin film drainage through interferometry are now possible. These experiments confirm that the drainage process obeys lubrication theory for the spectrum of micrometre to millimetre-sized bubbles that are covered in this review. We aim to bridge the colloidal perspective at low Reynolds numbers where surface forces are important to high Reynolds number fluid dynamics where the effect of the surrounding flow becomes important. A model that combines a force balance with lubrication theory allows for the quantitative comparison with experimental data under different conditions without any fitting parameter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Surface tension of normal and heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, J.; Rosner, N.; Grigull, V.

    1980-01-01

    A Skeleton Table and simple interpolation equation for the surface tension of light water was developed by the Working Group III of the International Association for the Properties of Steam and is recommended as an International Standard. The Skeleton Table is based on all known measurements of the surface tension and individual data were weighted corresponding to the accuracy of the measurements. The form of the interpolation equation is based on a physical concept. It represents an extension of van der Waals-equation, where the exponent conforms to the 'Scaling Laws'. In addition for application purposes simple relations for the Laplace-coefficient and for the density difference between the liquid and gaseous phases of light water are given. The same form of interpolation equation for the surface tension can be used for heavy water, for which the coefficients are given. However, this equation is based only on a single set of data. (orig.) [de

  12. Surface tension phenomena in the xylem sap of three diffuse porous temperate tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. K. Christensen-Dalsgaard; M. T. Tyree; P. G. Mussone

    2011-01-01

    In plant physiology models involving bubble nucleation, expansion or elimination, it is typically assumed that the surface tension of xylem sap is equal to that of pure water, though this has never been tested. In this study we collected xylem sap from branches of the tree species Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera and Sorbus...

  13. Surface Tension Measurements with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goy, Nicolas-Alexandre; Denis, Zakari; Lavaud, Maxime; Grolleau, Adrian; Dufour, Nicolas; Deblais, Antoine; Delabre, Ulysse

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones are increasingly used in higher education and at university in mechanics, acoustics, and even thermodynamics as they offer a unique way to do simple science experiments. In this article, we show how smartphones can be used in fluid mechanics to measure surface tension of various liquids, which could help students understand the concept…

  14. Exact analytical density profiles and surface tension

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. May 2005 physics pp. 785–801. Classical charged fluids at equilibrium near ... is provided by the excess surface tension for an air–water interface, which is determined ... the potential drop created by the electric layer which appears as soon as the fluid has ...... radii, by symmetry, the charge density profile is flat,.

  15. Quantum surface tension in ideal gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisman, A.

    2005-01-01

    Due to wave character of atoms, an ideal gas confined in a finite domain exhibits Casimir like size effects. These effects become appreciable in a domain with at least one dimension in the order of micron. On this scale, thermodynamic state functions of an ideal gas become shape and size dependent and some new effects appear. In the literature, only some domains of regular shapes have been considered. In this study, the results are generalized to a domain of an arbitrary shape by using Weyl s conjecture for density of states. It is seen that free energy expression of an ideal Maxwellian gas consists of a classical volume dependent term and also a quantum originated surface dependent term, which causes a quantum surface tension. In a rectangular box filled by an ideal gas and separated by a movable wall into two parts, it is shown that a lateral force appears on the movable wall due to quantum surface tension

  16. Surface tension in soap films: revisiting a classic demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behroozi, F

    2010-01-01

    We revisit a classic demonstration for surface tension in soap films and introduce a more striking variation of it. The demonstration shows how the film, pulling uniformly and normally on a loose string, transforms it into a circular arc under tension. The relationship between the surface tension and the string tension is analysed and presented in a useful graphical form. (letters and comments)

  17. Surface tension in soap films: revisiting a classic demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behroozi, F [Department of Physics, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA 50614 (United States)], E-mail: behroozi@uni.edu

    2010-01-15

    We revisit a classic demonstration for surface tension in soap films and introduce a more striking variation of it. The demonstration shows how the film, pulling uniformly and normally on a loose string, transforms it into a circular arc under tension. The relationship between the surface tension and the string tension is analysed and presented in a useful graphical form. (letters and comments)

  18. Nonlinear Bubble Dynamics And The Effects On Propagation Through Near-Surface Bubble Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Timothy G.

    2004-11-01

    Nonlinear bubble dynamics are often viewed as the unfortunate consequence of having to use high acoustic pressure amplitudes when the void fraction in the near-surface oceanic bubble layer is great enough to cause severe attenuation (e.g. >50 dB/m). This is seen as unfortunate since existing models for acoustic propagation in bubbly liquids are based on linear bubble dynamics. However, the development of nonlinear models does more than just allow quantification of the errors associated with the use of linear models. It also offers the possibility of propagation modeling and acoustic inversions which appropriately incorporate the bubble nonlinearity. Furthermore, it allows exploration and quantification of possible nonlinear effects which may be exploited. As a result, high acoustic pressure amplitudes may be desirable even in low void fractions, because they offer opportunities to gain information about the bubble cloud from the nonlinearities, and options to exploit the nonlinearities to enhance communication and sonar in bubbly waters. This paper presents a method for calculating the nonlinear acoustic cross-sections, scatter, attenuations and sound speeds from bubble clouds which may be inhomogeneous. The method allows prediction of the time dependency of these quantities, both because the cloud may vary and because the incident acoustic pulse may have finite and arbitrary time history. The method can be readily adapted for bubbles in other environments (e.g. clouds of interacting bubbles, sediments, structures, in vivo, reverberant conditions etc.). The possible exploitation of bubble acoustics by marine mammals, and for sonar enhancement, is explored.

  19. Surface tension confined liquid cryogen cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, Stephen H. (Inventor); Schein, Michael E. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A cryogenic cooler is provided for use in craft such as launch, orbital, and space vehicles subject to substantial vibration, changes in orientation, and weightlessness. The cooler contains a small pore, large free volume, low density material to restrain a cryogen through surface tension effects during launch and zero-g operations and maintains instrumentation within the temperature range of 10 to 140 K. The cooler operation is completely passive, with no inherent vibration or power requirements.

  20. A thermodynamical model for the surface tension of silicate melts in contact with H2O gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Simone; Battaglia, Maurizio; Trigila, Raffaello

    2016-01-01

    Surface tension plays an important role in the nucleation of H2O gas bubbles in magmatic melts and in the time-dependent rheology of bubble-bearing magmas. Despite several experimental studies, a physics based model of the surface tension of magmatic melts in contact with H2O is lacking. This paper employs gradient theory to develop a thermodynamical model of equilibrium surface tension of silicate melts in contact with H2O gas at low to moderate pressures. In the last decades, this approach has been successfully applied in studies of industrial mixtures but never to magmatic systems. We calibrate and verify the model against literature experimental data, obtained by the pendant drop method, and by inverting bubble nucleation experiments using the Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT). Our model reproduces the systematic decrease in surface tension with increased H2O pressure observed in the experiments. On the other hand, the effect of temperature is confirmed by the experiments only at high pressure. At atmospheric pressure, the model shows a decrease of surface tension with temperature. This is in contrast with a number of experimental observations and could be related to microstructural effects that cannot be reproduced by our model. Finally, our analysis indicates that the surface tension measured inverting the CNT may be lower than the value measured by the pendant drop method, most likely because of changes in surface tension controlled by the supersaturation.

  1. The interaction between multiple bubbles and the free surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aman; Yao Xiongliang

    2008-01-01

    The flow is assumed to be potential, and a boundary integral method is used to solve the Laplace equation for the velocity potential to investigate the shape and the position of the bubble. A 3D code to study the bubble dynamics is developed, and the calculation results agree well with the experimental data. Numerical analyses are carried out for the interaction between multiple bubbles near the free surface including in-phase and out-of-phase bubbles. The calculation result shows that the bubble period increases with the decrease of the distance between bubble centres because of the depression effect between multiple bubbles. The depression has no relationship with the free surface and it is more apparent for out-of-phase bubbles. There are great differences in dynamic behaviour between the in-phase bubbles and the out-of-phase bubbles due to the depression effect. Furthermore, the interaction among eight bubbles is simulated with a three-dimensional model, and the evolving process and the relevant physical phenomena are presented. These phenomena can give a reference to the future work on the power of bubbles induced by multiple charges exploding simultaneously or continuously

  2. Surface tension of H2O and D2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargaftik, N.B.; Voljak, L.D.; Volkov, B.N.

    1975-01-01

    There is a great number of works on surface tension of clean water (H 2 O) at temperatures up to 100 deg C and very few above the boiling point. Works on surface tension of heavy water (D 2 O) are insufficient. A review of works on surface tension of both kinds of water is given

  3. Inertial collapse of bubble pairs near a solid surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahyari Beig, Shahaboddin; Johnsen, Eric

    2017-11-01

    Cavitation occurs in a variety of applications ranging from naval structures to biomedical ultrasound. One important consequence is structural damage to neighboring surfaces following repeated inertial collapse of vapor bubbles. Although the mechanical loading produced by the collapse of a single bubble has been widely investigated, less is known about the detailed dynamics of the collapse of multiple bubbles. In such a problem, the bubble-bubble interactions typically affect the dynamics, e.g., by increasing the non-sphericity of the bubbles and amplifying/hindering the collapse intensity depending on the flow parameters. Here, we quantify the effects of bubble-bubble interactions on the bubble dynamics, as well as the pressures/temperatures produced by the collapse of a pair of gas bubbles near a rigid surface. We perform high-resolution simulations of this problem by solving the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for gas/liquid flows. The results are used to investigate the non-spherical bubble dynamics and characterize the pressure and temperature fields based on the relevant parameters entering the problem: stand-off distance, geometrical configuration (angle, relative size, distance), collapse strength. This research was supported in part by ONR Grant N00014-12-1-0751 and NSF Grant CBET 1253157.

  4. Long-life of a bubble on the surface of a water-alcohol mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rage, Gibran; Hernandez-Sanchez, J. Federico; Wilhelmus, Monica M.; Zenit, Roberto

    2016-11-01

    The lifetime of superficial bubbles has been used traditionally to determine the alcohol content in destilled beverages and spirits. With the proper alcohol content, the bubbles, known as pearls, have a particularly long life which is much longer than that in either pure water or pure ethanol. To understand this peculiar behavior, we conducted controlled experiments in water-ethanol mixtures and in samples of mezcal, an artisanal agave spirit. We assess the effect of the changes in viscosity, surface tension and density of the liquids. Also, we analyzed the effects of surfactants and evaporation rate differences, which lead to Marangoni convection in the draining film.

  5. Tungsten surface evolution by helium bubble nucleation, growth and rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefta, Faiza; Wirth, Brian D.; Hammond, Karl D.; Juslin, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations reveal sub-surface mechanisms likely involved in the initial formation of nanometre-sized ‘fuzz’ in tungsten exposed to low-energy helium plasmas. Helium clusters grow to over-pressurized bubbles as a result of repeated cycles of helium absorption and Frenkel pair formation. The self-interstitials either reach the surface as isolated adatoms or trap at the bubble periphery before organizing into prismatic 〈1 1 1〉 dislocation loops. Surface roughening occurs as single adatoms migrate to the surface, prismatic loops glide to the surface to form adatom islands, and ultimately as over-pressurized gas bubbles burst. (paper)

  6. Collapse of a cavitation bubble near a free surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chahine, G.

    1976-01-01

    The interaction between a collapsing bubble and a free surface is investigated theoretically and experimentally using high speed photography. A limiting value for the distance from the free surface to the center of the bubble reported to its radius is found. Under this limit the free surface is not disturbed during the collapse, in the first approximation. Only in this case, the method of images can be used and the free surface be replaced by an image-source, symmetrical with respect to the free surface to the sink representing the bubble. Above this limit, observations show a singular perturbation in the free surface with the formation of a thin spike directed to the air. In all cases the bubble is repelled from the free surface and the re-entering jet, formed during collapse, is oriented away from it [fr

  7. A study on bubble detachment and the impact of heated surface structure in subcooled nucleate boiling flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wen; Chen Peipei; Jones, Barclay G.; Newell, Ty A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the bubble detachment phenomena under subcooled nucleate boiling conditions, in order to obtain a better understanding of the bubble dynamics on horizontal flat heat exchangers. Refrigerant R134a is chosen as a simulant fluid due to its merits of having smaller surface tension, reduced latent heat, and lower boiling temperature than water. Experiments are run with varying experimental parameters, e.g. pressure, inlet subcooled level, flow rate, etc. Digital images are obtained at frame rates up to 4000 frames/s, showing the characteristics of bubble movements. Bubble departure and bubble lift-off, which are described as bubbles detaching from the original nucleation sites and bubbles detaching from the horizontal heated surface respectively, are both considered and measured. Results are compared against the model proposed by Klausner et al. for the prediction of bubble detachment sizes. While good overall agreement is shown, it is suggested that finite rather than zero bubble contact area should be assumed, which improves the model prediction at the pressure range of 300-500 kPa while playing no significant role at a lower pressure of 150 kPa where the model was originally benchmarked. The impact of heated surface structure is studied whose results provide support to the above assumption

  8. The behavior of surface tension on steady-state rotating fluids in the low gravity environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Leslie, Fred W.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of surface tension on steady-state rotating fluids in a low gravity environment is studied. All the values of the physical parameters used in these calculations, except in the low gravity environments, are based on the measurements carried out by Leslie (1985) in the low gravity environment of a free-falling aircraft. The profile of the interface of two fluids is derived from Laplace's equation relating the pressure drop across an interface to the radii of curvature which has been applied to a low gravity rotating bubble that contacts the container boundary. The interface shape depends on the ratio of gravity to surface tension forces, the ratio of centrifugal to surface tension forces, the contact radius of the interface to the boundary, and the contact angle. The shape of the bubble is symmetric about its equator in a zero-gravity environment. This symmetry disappears and gradually shifts to parabolic profiles as the gravity environment becomes non-zero. The location of the maximum radius of the bubble moves upward from the center of the depth toward the top boundary of the cylinder as gravity increases. The contact radius of interface to the boundary r0 at the top side of cylinder increases and r0 at the bottom side of the cylinder decreases as the gravity environment increases from zero to 1 g.

  9. The law of corresponding states and surface tension of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digilov, R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text: Surface tension of liquid metals is one of fundamental and most important quantities in theory and practice of material processing and its temperature dependence leads to the well-known Marangoni convection. Although currently methods are sufficiently precise to measure the surface tension, there are uncertainties in experimental data and its temperature dependence mainly due to impurity, which even a trace of it strongly affects the results of measurements. The theoretical treatment from the first principles is unwieldy and not always permits one to calculate the surface tension with certainty. Another active research field deals with empirical correlation between the surface tension and bulk thermodynamic properties, which we interpret as a simple consequence of the law of corresponding states. In order to relate the surface tension and to bulk properties of liquid metals the reduced formula is derived by scaling with the melting point T m (0) at p = 0 and atomic volume Ω 0 2/3 at T = 0 K as macroscopic parameters for scaling ε and a characterizing the interatomic potential in metals. The reduced surface tension and the reduced surface entropy obtained in high temperature limit are discussed and compared with the experiment. The reduced temperature coefficient of the surface tension found is a universal constant for the metals of the same structure. It is shown that pressure dependence of the surface tension, so called baric coefficient of the surface tension, can be described by pressure dependence of scaling parameters T m (p) and Ω 0 (p). (author)

  10. Surface tension of liquid Al-Cu binary alloys.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Julianna; Brillo, Jürgen; Egry, Ivan; Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Surface tension data of liquid Al–Cu binary alloys have been measured contactlessly using the technique of electromagnetic levitation. A digital CMOS-camera (400 fps) recorded image sequences of the oscillating liquid sample and surface tensions were determined from analysis of the frequency spectra. Measurements were performed for samples covering the entire range of composition and precise data were obtained in a broad temperature range. It was found that the surface tensions can ...

  11. On relation between the quark-gluon bag surface tension and the colour tube string tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugaev, K.A.; Zinovjev, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    We revisit the bag phenomenology of deconfining phase transition aiming to replenish it by introducing systematically the bag surface tension. Comparing the free energies of such bags and the strings confining the static quark-antiquark pair, we express the string tension in terms of the bag surface tension and the bulk pressure in order to estimate the bag characteristics using the lattice QCD (LQCD) data. Our analysis of the bag entropy density demonstrates that the surface tension coefficient is amazingly negative at the cross-over (continuous transition). The approach developed allows us to naturally account for an origin of a pronounced maximum (observed in the LQCD studies) in the behaviour of heavy quark-antiquark pair entropy. The vicinity of the (tri-)critical endpoint is also analyzed to clarify the meaning of vanishing surface tension coefficient.

  12. Study of droplet entrainment from bubbling surface in a bubble column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez de Santiago, M.

    1991-05-01

    In a bubble column droplets are ejected from the free surface by bubble bursting or splashing. Depending on their size, the droplets are partly carried away by the streaming gas or fall back to the bubbling surface by gravity force. Experiments have been carried out to determine the void fraction in the column by means of an optical probe. In the interfacial zone the bubble bursting process was captured with a high-speed video camera. Simultaneous measurements were made of size and velocity of droplets at several distances from the bubbling surface with a Phase-Doppler Anemometry. The bubble column can be divided into three regions: A lower zone with a flat profile of the local void fraction, a central zone where the flow regime is steady and an upper zone where the local void fraction grows rapidly. A two-parameter log-normal distribution function was proposed in order to describe the polydisperse distribution of droplet-size. Results were obtained concerning the entrainment, concentration, volume fraction and interfacial area of droplets. Finally, it was found that the turbulence intensity affects the droplet terminal velocity for droplets smaller than the Kolmogorov microscale [fr

  13. Effects of surface orientation on lifetime of near-surface nanoscale He bubble in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Jiechao; Fu, Baoqin; Wu, Zhangwen; Hou, Qing, E-mail: qhou@scu.edu.cn

    2017-02-15

    In multiscale modeling of the morphological evolution of plasma facing materials in nuclear fusion reactors, the knowledge of the timescales of the involved physical processes is important. In the present study, a new method based on molecular dynamics simulations was developed to extract the lifetime of helium bubbles near tungsten surfaces. It was found that the lifetime of a helium bubble can be described by the Arrhenius equation. However, the lifetime of a helium bubble depends on the thickness of tungsten film above the helium bubble in the substrate and the bubble size. The influence of surface orientations on the lifetime of helium bubbles was also observed, and the performance of helium bubbles on the (1 1 1) surface is very different from on the (0 0 1) and (0 1 1) surfaces. The role of the helium bubble lifetime in other simulation techniques, such as in kinetic Monte Carlo methods and rate theory, is discussed.

  14. Bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dholakia, Nikhilesh; Turcan, Romeo V.

    2013-01-01

    A goal of our ongoing research stream is to develop a multidisciplinary metatheory of bubbles. In this viewpoint paper we put forward a typology of bubbles by comparing four types of assets – entertainment, commodities, financial securities (stocks), and housing properties – where bubbles could...... and do form occasionally. Cutting across and comparing such varied asset types provides some rich insights into the nature of bubbles – and offers an inductive way to arrive at the typology of bubbles....

  15. Surface tension and related thermodynamic quantities of aqueous electrolyte solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Matubayasi, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Surface tension provides a thermodynamic avenue for analyzing systems in equilibrium and formulating phenomenological explanations for the behavior of constituent molecules in the surface region. While there are extensive experimental observations and established ideas regarding desorption of ions from the surfaces of aqueous salt solutions, a more successful discussion of the theory has recently emerged, which allows the quantitative calculation of the distribution of ions in the surface region. Surface Tension and Related Thermodynamic Quantities of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions provides a d

  16. Theory calculation of combination of 'embryo' bubble growing-up visible bubble in bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zipiao; Sheng Xiangdong; Dai Changjiang

    2004-01-01

    By aid of island combination theory of 'embryo' bubble, it is resolved well the question which 'embryo' bubble grows up a visible bubble in the bubble chamber. Through theory calculation it is shown that radius of the big' embryo' bubble combinated not only relates with work matter such as surface tension coefficient, saturation vapour pressure and boiling point of liquid, but also does absorbing quantity of heat and the numbers of 'embryo' bubbles combination. It is explained reasonably that the radius of bubbles in bubble chamber is different for the same energies of neutrons and proton. The track of neutron in bubble chamber is long and thin, and the track of proton in bubble chamber is wide and short. It is also explained reasonably that the bubble radius of the incident particles with more charges which there are the same energies will be wider than that of the incident particles with less charges in the track. (author)

  17. Bubble growth and detachment between two close surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath, H.E.S.

    1985-01-01

    Nucleate boiling is an efficient heat transfer process both as a mean of achieving high heat flux at moderate surface temperature and as a mean of generating steam. The ability to predict nucleate boiling heat flux depends on many interconnected factors such as the number of active sites, the frequency of bubble emission at these sites, and the heat transfer associated with a single bubble. Therefore, the determination of the bubble shape, growth, detachment diameter, and detachment time plays an important role in understanding the boiling mechanisms and in predicting the heat transfer rates. Although much research have been carried-out for the study of free bubble dynamics, the analysis of such problem in a narrow gap-between two close and parallel surfaces (as the gaps between steam generator tubes and tube sheet) has not been attempted, so far as the author is aware. This paper represents an attempt to shed some light on this complex problem. (author)

  18. Undulations on the surface of elongated bubbles in confined gas-liquid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnini, M.; Ferrari, A.; Thome, J. R.; Stone, H. A.

    2017-08-01

    A systematic analysis is presented of the undulations appearing on the surface of long bubbles in confined gas-liquid flows. CFD simulations of the flow are performed with a self-improved version of the open-source solver ESI OpenFOAM (release 2.3.1), for Ca =0.002 -0.1 and Re =0.1 -1000 , where Ca =μ U /σ and Re =2 ρ U R /μ , with μ and ρ being, respectively, the viscosity and density of the liquid, σ the surface tension, U the bubble velocity, and R the tube radius. A model, based on an extension of the classical axisymmetric Bretherton theory, accounting for inertia and for the curvature of the tube's wall, is adopted to better understand the CFD results. The thickness of the liquid film, and the wavelength and decay rate of the undulations extracted from the CFD simulations, agree well with those obtained with the theoretical model. Inertial effects appear when the Weber number of the flow We =Ca Re =O (10-1) and are manifest by a larger number of undulation crests that become evident on the surface of the rear meniscus of the bubble. This study demonstrates that the necessary bubble length for a flat liquid film region to exist between the rear and front menisci rapidly increases above 10 R when Ca >0.01 and the value of the Reynolds number approaches 1000.

  19. Surface tension modelling of liquid Cd-Sn-Zn alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fima, Przemyslaw; Novakovic, Rada

    2018-06-01

    The thermodynamic model in conjunction with Butler equation and the geometric models were used for the surface tension calculation of Cd-Sn-Zn liquid alloys. Good agreement was found between the experimental data for limiting binaries and model calculations performed with Butler model. In the case of ternary alloys, the surface tension variation with Cd content is better reproduced in the case of alloys lying on vertical sections defined by high Sn to Zn molar fraction ratio. The calculated surface tension is in relatively good agreement with the available experimental data. In addition, the surface segregation of liquid ternary Cd-Sn-Zn and constituent binaries has also been calculated.

  20. Density and surface tension of melts of zirconium and hafnium fluorides with lithium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katyshev, S.F.; Artemov, V.V.; Desyatnik, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the temperature dependence of the density and surface tension of melts of LiF-ZrF 4 and LiF-HfF 4 . Density and surface tension were determined by the method of maximum pressure in an argon bubble. On the basis of experimental data over the entire concentration range the molar volumes and their relative deviations from the additive molar volumes were calculated for 1100 0 K. The positive deviations of the molar volumes from additivity in the LiF-HfF 4 system (22.45%) were greater than in the LiF-ZrF 4 system (15.75%). This indicated that the reaction with lithium fluoride is intensified with the switch to the hafnium fluoride. Results also demonstrated that the fluorides are surface-active components in the molten mixtures

  1. Drops and bubbles in contact with solid surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The third volume in a series dedicated to colloids and interfaces, Drops and Bubbles in Contact with Solid Surfaces presents an up-to-date overview of the fundamentals and applications of drops and bubbles and their interaction with solid surfaces. The chapters cover the theoretical and experimental aspects of wetting and wettability, liquid-solid interfacial properties, and spreading dynamics on different surfaces, including a special section on polymers. The book examines issues related to interpretation of contact angle from nano to macro systems. Expert contributors discuss interesting pec

  2. Nonzero Ideal Gas Contribution to the Surface Tension of Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sega, Marcello; Fábián, Balázs; Jedlovszky, Pál

    2017-06-15

    Surface tension, the tendency of fluid interfaces to behave elastically and minimize their surface, is routinely calculated as the difference between the lateral and normal components of the pressure or, invoking isotropy in momentum space, of the virial tensor. Here we show that the anisotropy of the kinetic energy tensor close to a liquid-vapor interface can be responsible for a large part of its surface tension (about 15% for water, independent from temperature).

  3. Measurement of pressure on a surface using bubble acoustic resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldham, Ben; Manasseh, Richard; Liffman, Kurt; Šutalo, Ilija D; Illesinghe, Suhith; Ooi, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The frequency response of gas bubbles as a function of liquid ambient pressure was measured and compared with theory. A bubble size with equivalent spherical radius of 2.29 mm was used over a frequency range of 1000–1500 Hz. The ultimate aim is to develop an acoustic sensor that can measure static pressure and is sensitive to variations as small as a few kPa. The classical bubble resonance frequency is known to vary with ambient pressure. Experiments were conducted with a driven bubble in a pressurizable tank with a signal processing system designed to extract the resonant peak. Since the background response of the containing tank is significant, particularly near tank-modal resonances, it must be carefully removed from the bubble response signal. A dual-hydrophone method was developed to allow rapid and reliable real-time measurements. The expected pressure dependence was found. In order to obtain a reasonable match with theory, the classical theory was modified by the introduction of a 'mirror bubble' to account for the influence of a nearby surface. (technical design note)

  4. Surface tension of compositions of polyhexametyleneguanidine hydrochloride - surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumargaliyeva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We made up songs bactericidal polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride (metacyde with the surface-active substances - anionic sodium dodecylsulfate, cationic cetylpyridinium bromide, and nonionic Tween-80 and measured the surface tension of water solutions. The study showed that the composition metacyde with surface-active agents have a greater surface activity than the individual components.

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF GAS-DENSITY AND LIQUID PROPERTIES ON BUBBLE BREAKUP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WILKINSON, PM; VANSCHAYK, A; SPRONKEN, JPM; VANDIERENDONCK, LL

    On the basis of a literature review of bubble breakup experiments, it is demonstrated that both liquid viscosity and surface tension have an influence on bubble stability and, thus, bubble breakup, for small as well as large bubbles. Possible influences of the gas properties on bubble breakup have

  6. Effects of Ce concentrations on ignition temperature and surface tension of Mg-9wt.%Al alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Zhenghua

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys are well known for their excellent properties, but the potential issues with oxidation and burning during melting and casting largely limit its industrial applications. The addition of Ce in magnesium alloys can significantly raise ignition-proof performance and change the structure of the oxide film on the surface of the molten metal as well as the surface tension values. Surface tension is an important physical parameter of the metal melts, and it plays an important role in the formation of surface oxide film. In this present work, the ignition temperature and the surface tension of Mg-9wt.%Al alloy with different Ce concentrations were studied. Surface tensions was measured using the maximum bubble pressure method (MBPM. Ignition temperature was measured using NiCr-NiSi type thermocouples and was monitored and recorded via a WXT-604 desk recording device. The results show that the ignition point of Mg-9wt.%Al alloy can be effectively elevated by adding Ce. The ignition temperature reaches its highest point of 720 ℃ when the addition of Ce is 1wt.%. The surface tension of the molten Mg-9wt.%Al alloy decreases exponentially with the increase of Ce addition at the same temperature. Similarly, the experiment also shows that the surface tension of Mg-9wt.%Al alloy decreases exponentially with the increase of temperature.

  7. Bubble entrapment during sphere impact onto quiescent liquid surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2011-01-01

    We report observations of air bubble entrapment when a solid sphere impacts a quiescent liquid surface. Using high-speed imaging, we show that a small amount of air is entrapped at the bottom tip of the impacting sphere. This phenomenon is examined

  8. Surface tension alteration on calcite, induced by ion substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakuma, Hiroshi; Andersson, Martin Peter; Bechgaard, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of water and organic molecules with mineral surfaces controls many processes in nature and industry. The thermodynamic property, surface tension, is usually determined from the contact angle between phases, but how does one understand the concept of surface tension at the nanoscale...... preferentially as ion pairs at solution-calcite interfaces. Mg2+ incorporation weakens organic molecule adhesion while strengthening water adsorption so Mg2+ substitution renders calcite more water wet. When Mg2+ replaces 10% of surface Ca2+, the contact angle changes dramatically, by 40 to 70, converting...

  9. Interactions between bubble formation and heating surface in nucleate boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luke, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    The heat transfer and bubble formation is investigated in pool boiling of propane. Size distributions of active nucleation sites on single horizontal copper and steel tubes with different diameter and surface finishes have been calculated from heat transfer measurements over wide ranges of heat flux and selected pressure. The model assumptions of Luke and Gorenflo for the heat transfer near growing and departing bubbles, which were applied in the calculations, have been slightly modified and the calculated results have been compared to experimental investigations by high speed video techniques. The calculated number of active sites shows a good coincidence for the tube with smaller diameter, while the results for the tube with larger diameter describe the same relative increase of the active sites. The comparison of the cumulative size distribution of the active and potential nucleation sites demonstrates the same slope of the curve and that the critical radius of a stable bubble nuclei is smaller than the average cavity size. (author)

  10. Interactions between bubble formation and heating surface in nucleate boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luke, Andrea [Leibniz University, Hannover (Denmark). Inst. of Thermodynamics], e-mail: ift@ift.uni-hannover.de

    2009-07-01

    The heat transfer and bubble formation is investigated in pool boiling of propane. Size distributions of active nucleation sites on single horizontal copper and steel tubes with different diameter and surface finishes have been calculated from heat transfer measurements over wide ranges of heat flux and selected pressure. The model assumptions of Luke and Gorenflo for the heat transfer near growing and departing bubbles, which were applied in the calculations, have been slightly modified and the calculated results have been compared to experimental investigations by high speed video techniques. The calculated number of active sites shows a good coincidence for the tube with smaller diameter, while the results for the tube with larger diameter describe the same relative increase of the active sites. The comparison of the cumulative size distribution of the active and potential nucleation sites demonstrates the same slope of the curve and that the critical radius of a stable bubble nuclei is smaller than the average cavity size. (author)

  11. Contact angle and surface tension measurements of a five-ring polyphenyl ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Contact angle measurements were performed for a five-ring polyphenyl ether isomeric mixture on M-50 steel in a dry nitrogen atmosphere. Two different techniques were used: (1) a tilting plate apparatus, and (2) a sessile drop apparatus. Measurements were made for the temperature range 25 to 190 C. Surface tension was measured by a differential maximum bubble pressure technique over the range 23 to 220 C in room air. The critical surface energy of spreading (gamma /sub c/) was determined for the polyphenyl ether by plotting the cosine of the contact angle (theta) versus the surface tension (gamma /sub LV/). The straight line intercept at cosine theta = 1 is defined as gamma (sub c). Gamma (sub c) was found to be 30.1 dyn/cm for the tilting plate technique and 31.3 dyn/cm for the sessile drop technique. These results indicate that the polyphenyl ether is inherently autophobic (i.e., it will not spread on its own surface film until its surface tension is less than gamma /sub c/). This phenomenon is discussed in light of the wettability and wear problems encountered with this fluid.

  12. Surface tension and density of liquid In-Sn-Zn alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pstruś, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Using the dilatometric method, measurements of the density of liquid alloys of the ternary system In-Sn-Zn in four sections with a constant ratio Sn:In = 24:1, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, for various Zn additions (5, 10, 14, 20, 3 5, 50 and 75 at.% Zn) were performed at the temperature ranges of 500-1150 K. Density decreases linearly for all compositions. The molar volume calculated from density data exhibits close to ideal dependence on composition. Measurements of the surface tension of liquid alloys have been conducted using the method of maximum pressure in the gas bubbles. There were observed linear dependences on temperature with a negative gradients dσ/dT. Generally, with two exceptions, there was observed the increase of surface tension with increasing content of zinc. Using the Butler's model, the surface tension isotherms were calculated for temperatures T = 673 and 1073 K. Calculations show that only for high temperatures and for low content of zinc (up to about 35 at.%), the modeling is in very good agreement with experiment. Using the mentioned model, the composition of the surface phase was defined at two temperatures T = 673 and 973 K. Regardless of the temperature and of the defined section, the composition of the bulk is very different in comparison with the composition of the surface.

  13. Bubble entrapment during sphere impact onto quiescent liquid surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy

    2011-06-20

    We report observations of air bubble entrapment when a solid sphere impacts a quiescent liquid surface. Using high-speed imaging, we show that a small amount of air is entrapped at the bottom tip of the impacting sphere. This phenomenon is examined across a broad range of impact Reynolds numbers, 0.2 a Re = (DU0/Il) a 1.2\\' 105. Initially, a thin air pocket is formed due to the lubrication pressure in the air layer between the sphere and the liquid surface. As the liquid surface deforms, the liquid contacts the sphere at a finite radius, producing a thin sheet of air which usually contracts to a nearly hemispherical bubble at the bottom tip of the sphere depending on the impact parameters and liquid properties. When a bubble is formed, the final bubble size increases slightly with the sphere diameter, decreases with impact speed but appears independent of liquid viscosity. In contrast, for the largest viscosities tested herein, the entrapped air remains in the form of a sheet, which subsequently deforms upon close approach to the base of the tank. The initial contact diameter is found to conform to scalings based on the gas Reynolds number whilst the initial thickness of the air pocket or adimplea scales with a Stokes\\' number incorporating the influence of the air viscosity, sphere diameter and impact speed and liquid density. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

  14. Contact Angles and Surface Tension of Germanium-Silicon Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croell, A.; Kaiser, N.; Cobb, S.; Szofran, F. R.; Volz, M.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Precise knowledge of material parameters is more and more important for improving crystal growth processes. Two important parameters are the contact (wetting) angle and the surface tension, determining meniscus shapes and surface-tension driven flows in a variety of methods (Czochralski, EFG, floating-zone, detached Bridgman growth). The sessile drop technique allows the measurement of both parameters simultaneously and has been used to measure the contact angles and the surface tension of Ge(1-x)Si(x) (0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 1.3) alloys on various substrate materials. Fused quartz, Sapphire, glassy carbon, graphite, SiC, carbon-based aerogel, pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN), AIN, Si3N4, and polycrystalline CVD diamond were used as substrate materials. In addition, the effect of different cleaning procedures and surface treatments on the wetting behavior were investigated. Measurements were performed both under dynamic vacuum and gas atmospheres (argon or forming gas), with temperatures up to 1100 C. In some experiments, the sample was processed for longer times, up to a week, to investigate any changes of the contact angle and/or surface tension due to slow reactions with the substrate. For pure Ge, stable contact angles were found for carbon-based substrates and for pBN, for Ge(1-x)Si(x) only for pBN. The highest wetting angles were found for pBN substrates with angles around 170deg. For the surface tension of Ge, the most reliable values resulted in gamma(T) = (591- 0.077 (T-T(sub m)) 10(exp -3)N/m. The temperature dependence of the surface tension showed similar values for Ge(1-x)Si(x), around -0.08 x 10(exp -3)N/m K, and a compositional dependence of 2.2 x 10(exp -3)N/m at%Si.

  15. A density gradient theory based method for surface tension calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Xiaodong; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    The density gradient theory has been becoming a widely used framework for calculating surface tension, within which the same equation of state is used for the interface and bulk phases, because it is a theoretically sound, consistent and computationally affordable approach. Based on the observation...... that the optimal density path from the geometric mean density gradient theory passes the saddle point of the tangent plane distance to the bulk phases, we propose to estimate surface tension with an approximate density path profile that goes through this saddle point. The linear density gradient theory, which...... assumes linearly distributed densities between the two bulk phases, has also been investigated. Numerical problems do not occur with these density path profiles. These two approximation methods together with the full density gradient theory have been used to calculate the surface tension of various...

  16. Modeling of surface tension effects in venturi scrubbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Robert M.; Wu, Tatsu K. L.; Crowder, Jerry W.

    A modified model of venturi scrubber performance has been developed that addresses two effects of liquid surface tension: its effect on droplet size and its effect on particle penetration into the droplet. The predictions of the model indicate that, in general, collection efficiency increases with a decrease in liquid surface tension, but the range over which this increase is significant depends on the particle size and on the scrubber operating parameters. The predictions further indicate that the increases in collection efficiency are almost totally due to the effect of liquid surface tension on the mean droplet size, and that the collection efficiency is not significantly affected by the ability of the particle to penetrate the droplet.

  17. Surface tension and density of Si-Ge melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Enrica; Amore, Stefano; Giuranno, Donatella; Novakovic, Rada; Tuissi, Ausonio; Sobczak, Natalia; Nowak, Rafal; Korpala, Bartłomiej; Bruzda, Grzegorz

    2014-06-01

    In this work, the surface tension and density of Si-Ge liquid alloys were determined by the pendant drop method. Over the range of measurements, both properties show a linear temperature dependence and a nonlinear concentration dependence. Indeed, the density decreases with increasing silicon content exhibiting positive deviation from ideality, while the surface tension increases and deviates negatively with respect to the ideal solution model. Taking into account the Si-Ge phase diagram, a simple lens type, the surface tension behavior of the Si-Ge liquid alloys was analyzed in the framework of the Quasi-Chemical Approximation for the Regular Solutions model. The new experimental results were compared with a few data available in the literature, obtained by the containerless method.

  18. Surface tension mediated conversion of light to work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, David; Pastine, Stefan J; Zettl, Alexander K; Frechet, Jean M. J

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for converting light energy to mechanical energy by modification of surface tension on a supporting fluid. The apparatus comprises an object which may be formed as a composite object comprising a support matrix and a highly light absorptive material. The support matrix may comprise a silicon polymer. The highly light absorptive material may comprise vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VANTs) embedded in the support matrix. The composite object is supported on a fluid. By exposing the highly light absorptive material to light, heat is generated, which changes the surface tension of the composite object, causing it to move physically within the fluid.

  19. Acoustic characteristics of bubble bursting at the surface of a high-viscosity liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiao-Bo; Zhang Jian-Run; Li Pu

    2012-01-01

    An acoustic pressure model of bubble bursting is proposed. An experiment studying the acoustic characteristics of the bursting bubble at the surface of a high-viscosity liquid is reported. It is found that the sudden bursting of a bubble at the high-viscosity liquid surface generates N-shape wave at first, then it transforms into a jet wave. The fundamental frequency of the acoustic signal caused by the bursting bubble decreases linearly as the bubble size increases. The results of the investigation can be used to understand the acoustic characteristics of bubble bursting. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  20. Surface tension and contact angles: Molecular origins and associated microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, H. T.

    1982-01-01

    Gradient theory converts the molecular theory of inhomogeneous fluid into nonlinear boundary value problems for density and stress distributions in fluid interfaces, contact line regions, nuclei and microdroplets, and other fluid microstructures. The relationship between the basic patterns of fluid phase behavior and the occurrence and stability of fluid microstructures was clearly established by the theory. All the inputs of the theory have molecular expressions which are computable from simple models. On another level, the theory becomes a phenomenological framework in which the equation of state of homogeneous fluid and sets of influence parameters of inhomogeneous fluids are the inputs and the structures, stress tensions and contact angles of menisci are the outputs. These outputs, which find applications in the science and technology of drops and bubbles, are discussed.

  1. Investigations of the surface tension of coal ash slags under gasification conditions; Untersuchungen zur Oberflaechenspannung von Kohleschlacken unter Vergasungsbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchior, Tobias

    2011-10-26

    In the context of CO{sub 2}-emission-induced global warming, greenhouse gases resulting from the production of electricity in coal-fired power plants gain increasing attention. One possible way to reduce such emissions is to gasify coal instead of burning it. The corresponding process is referred to as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle and allows for the separation of CO{sub 2} before converting a synthesis gas into electrical energy. However, further improvements in efficiency and availability of this plant technology are needed to render the alternative generation of electricity sensible from an economic point of view. One corresponding approach introduces hot gas cleaning facilities to the gasification plant which guarantee a removal of slag particles from the synthesis gas at high temperatures. The development of such filters depends on the availability of data on the material properties of the coal ash slags to be withdrawn. In this respect, the surface tension is a relevant characteristic. Currently, the surface tension of real coal ash slags as well as of synthetic model systems was measured successfully by means of the sessile drop and the maximum bubble pressure method. With regard to the sessile drop technique, those experiments were conducted in a gasification-like atmosphere at temperatures of up to 1500 C. Furthermore, the pressure inside the experimental vessel was raised to 10 bar in order to allow for deriving the influence of this variable on the surface tension. In contrast, maximum bubble pressure trials were realised at atmospheric pressure while the gas atmosphere assured inert conditions. For performing sessile drop measurements, a corresponding apparatus was set up and is described in detail in this thesis. Three computer algorithms were employed to calculate surface tensions out of the photos of sessile drops and their individual performance was evaluated. A very good agreement between two of the codes was found while the third one

  2. New sensitive micro-measurements of dynamic surface tension and diffusion coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinoshita, Koji; Ortiz, Elisa Parra; Needham, David

    2017-01-01

    Currently available dynamic surface tension (DST) measurement methods, such as Wilhelmy plate, droplet- or bubble-based methods, still have various experimental limitations such as the large size of the interface, convection in the solution, or a certain “dead time” at initial measurement....... These limitations create inconsistencies for the kinetic analysis of surfactant adsorption/desorption, especially significant for ionic surfactants. Here, the “micropipette interfacial area-expansion method” was introduced and validated as a new DST measurement having a high enough sensitivity to detect diffusion...... for surface excess concentration. We found that the measured diffusion coefficient of 1-Octanol, 7.2 ± 0.8 × 10−6 cm2/s, showed excellent agreement with the result from an alternative method, “single microdroplet catching method”, to measure the diffusion coefficient from diffusion-controlled microdroplet...

  3. Semi-implicit surface tension formulation with a Lagrangian surface mesh on an Eulerian simulation grid

    KAUST Repository

    Schroeder, Craig; Zheng, Wen; Fedkiw, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    -implicit and fully-coupled viscosity, pressure, and Lagrangian forces. We apply our new framework for forces on a Lagrangian mesh to the case of a surface tension force, which when treated explicitly leads to a tight time step restriction. By applying surface tension

  4. Modelling of bubble-mediated gas transfer: Fundamental principles and a laboratory test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woolf, D.K.; Leifer, I.S.; Nightingale, P.D.; Rhee, T.S.; Bowyer, P.; Caulliez, G.; Leeuw, G. de; Larsen, S.E.; Liddicoat, M.; Baker, J.; Andreae, M.O.

    2007-01-01

    The air-water exchange of gases can be substantially enhanced by wave breaking and specifically by bubble-mediated transfer. A feature of bubble-mediated transfer is the additional pressure on bubbles resulting from the hydrostatic forces on a submerged bubble and from surface tension and curvature.

  5. Bubble coalescence dynamics and supersaturation in electrolytic gas evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stover, R.L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

    1996-08-01

    The apparatus and procedures developed in this research permit the observation of electrolytic bubble coalescence, which heretofore has not been possible. The influence of bubble size, electrolyte viscosity, surface tension, gas type, and pH on bubble coalescence was examined. The Navier-Stokes equations with free surface boundary conditions were solved numerically for the full range of experimental variables that were examined. Based on this study, the following mechanism for bubble coalescence emerges: when two gas bubbles coalesce, the surface energy decreases as the curvature and surface area of the resultant bubble decrease, and the energy is imparted into the surrounding liquid. The initial motion is driven by the surface tension and slowed by the inertia and viscosity of the surrounding fluid. The initial velocity of the interface is approximately proportional to the square root of the surface tension and inversely proportional to the square root of the bubble radius. Fluid inertia sustains the oblate/prolate oscillations of the resultant bubble. The period of the oscillations varies with the bubble radius raised to the 3/2 power and inversely with the square root of the surface tension. Viscous resistance dampens the oscillations at a rate proportional to the viscosity and inversely proportional to the square of the bubble radius. The numerical simulations were consistent with most of the experimental results. The differences between the computed and measured saddle point decelerations and periods suggest that the surface tension in the experiments may have changed during each run. By adjusting the surface tension in the simulation, a good fit was obtained for the 150-{micro}m diameter bubbles. The simulations fit the experiments on larger bubbles with very little adjustment of surface tension. A more focused analysis should be done to elucidate the phenomena that occur in the receding liquid film immediately following rupture.

  6. Effects of additional inertia force on bubble breakup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Liangming; Zhang Wenzhi; Chen Deqi; Xu Jianhui; Xu Jianjun; Huang Yanping

    2011-01-01

    Through VOF two-phase flow model, the single bubble deformation and breakup in a vertical narrow channel is numerically investigated in the study based on the force balance at the process of bubble breakup. The effect of surface tension force, the additional inertia force and bubble initial shape on bubble breakup are analyzed according to the velocity variation at the break-up point and the minimum necking size when the bubble is breaking up. It is found that the surface tension force, the additional inertia force and the bubble initial shape have significant effects on the bubble breakup through the fluid injection toward to the bubble, which finally induces the onset of bubble breakup. (authors)

  7. Bubble Departure from Metal-Graphite Composite Surfaces and Its Effects on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, David F.; Sankovic, John M.; Motil, Brian J.; Yang, W-J.; Zhang, Nengli

    2010-01-01

    The formation and growth processes of a bubble in the vicinity of graphite micro-fiber tips on metal-graphite composite boiling surfaces and their effects on boiling behavior are investigated. It is discovered that a large number of micro bubbles are formed first at the micro scratches and cavities on the metal matrix in pool boiling. By virtue of the non-wetting property of graphite, once the growing micro bubbles touch the graphite tips, the micro bubbles are sucked by the tips and merged into larger micro bubbles sitting on the end of the tips. The micro bubbles grow rapidly and coalesce to form macro bubbles, each spanning several tips. The necking process of a detaching macro bubble is analyzed. It is revealed that a liquid jet is produced by sudden break-off of the bubble throat. The composite surfaces not only have higher temperatures in micro- and macrolayers but also make higher frequency of the bubble departure, which increase the average heat fluxes in both the bubble growth stage and in the bubble departure period. Based on these analyses, the enhancement mechanism of pool boiling heat transfer on composite surfaces is clearly revealed.

  8. Experiments on bubble dynamics between a free surface and a rigid wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A. M.; Cui, P.; Wang, Y.

    2013-10-01

    Experiments were conducted where the underwater bubble oscillates between two boundaries, a free surface and a horizontal rigid wall. The motion features of both the bubble and the free surface were investigated, via the consideration of two key factors, i.e., the non-dimensional distances from the bubble to the two boundaries. To support the investigation, experiments were conducted in the first place where the bubble oscillates near only one of the two boundaries. Then the other boundary was inserted at different positions to observe the changes in the motion features, including the types, maximum speed and height of the water spike and skirt, the form and speed of the jets, and bubble shapes. Correspondence is found between the motion features of the free surface and different stages of bubble oscillation. Intriguing details such as gas torus around the jet, double jets, bubble entrapment, and microjet of the water spike, etc., are observed.

  9. A micro surface tension pump (MISPU) in a glass microchip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xing Yue Larry

    2011-01-07

    A non-membrane micro surface tension pump (MISPU) was fabricated on a glass microchip by one-step glass etching. It needs no material other than glass and is driven by digital gas pressure. The MISPU can be seen working like a piston pump inside the glass microchip under a microscope. The design of the valves (MISVA) and pistons (MISTON) was based on the surface tension theory of the micro surface tension alveolus (MISTA). The digital gas pressure controls the moving gas-liquid interface to open or close the input and output MISVAs to refill or drive the MISTON for pumping a liquid. Without any moving parts, a MISPU is a kind of long-lasting micro pump for micro chips that does not lose its water pumping efficiency over a 20-day period. The volumetric pump output varied from 0 to 10 nl s(-1) when the pump cycle time decreased from 5 min to 15 s. The pump head pressure was 1 kPa.

  10. Effect of potential attraction term on surface tension of ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, N.; Khordad, R.; Rezaei, G.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we have studied the effect of attraction term of molecular potential on surface tension of ionic liquids (ILs). For this purpose, we have introduced two different potential models to obtain analytical expressions for the surface tension of ILs. The introduced potential models have different attraction terms. The obtained surface tensions in this work have been compared with other theoretical methods and also experimental data. Using the calculated surface tension, the sound velocity is also estimated. We have studied the structural effects on the surface tensions of imidazolium-based ionic liquids. It is found that the cation alkyl chain length and the anion size play important roles to the surface tension of the selected ionic liquids. The calculated surface tensions show a good harmony with experimental data. It is clear that the attraction term of molecular potential has an important role on surface tension and sound velocity of our system.

  11. Interfacial Bubble Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Brian; Shabane, Parvis; Cypull, Olivia; Cheng, Shengfeng; Feitosa, Klebert

    Soap bubbles floating at an air-water experience deformations as a result of surface tension and hydrostatic forces. In this experiment, we investigate the nature of such deformations by taking cross-sectional images of bubbles of different volumes. The results show that as their volume increases, bubbles transition from spherical to hemispherical shape. The deformation of the interface also changes with bubble volume with the capillary rise converging to the capillary length as volume increases. The profile of the top and bottom of the bubble and the capillary rise are completely determined by the volume and pressure differences. James Madison University Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4VA Consortium, Research Corporation for Advancement of Science.

  12. Liquid metal actuator driven by electrochemical manipulation of surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Loren; Wissman, James; Majidi, Carmel

    2017-12-01

    We examine the electrocapillary properties of a fluidic actuator composed of a liquid metal droplet that is submerged in electrolytic solution and attached to an elastic beam. The beam deflection is controlled by electrochemically driven changes in the surface energy of the droplet. The metal is a eutectic gallium-indium alloy that is liquid at room temperature and forms an nm-thin Ga2O3 skin when oxidized. The effective surface tension of the droplet changes dramatically with oxidation and reduction, which are reversibly controlled by applying low voltage to the electrolytic bath. Wetting the droplet to two copper pads allows for a controllable tensile force to be developed between the opposing surfaces. We demonstrate the ability to reliably control force by changing the applied oxidizing voltage. Actuator forces and droplet geometries are also examined by performing a computational fluid mechanics simulation using Surface Evolver. The theoretical predictions are in qualitative agreement with the experimental measurements and provide additional confirmation that actuation is driven by surface tension.

  13. Influence of surface conditions in nucleate boiling--the concept of bubble flux density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoukri, M.; Judd, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the influence of surface conditions in nucleate pool boiling is presented. The surface conditions are represented by the number and distribution of the active nucleation sites as well as the size and size distribution of the cavities that constitute the nucleation sites. The heat transfer rate during nucleate boiling is shown to be influenced by the surface condition through its effect on the number and distribution of the active nucleation sites as well as the frequency of bubble departure from each of these different size cavities. The concept of bubble flux density, which is a function of both the active site density and frequency of bubble departure, is introduced. A method of evaluating the bubble flux density is proposed and a uniform correlation between the boiling heat flux and the bubble flux density is found to exist for a particular solid-liquid combination irrespective of the surface finish within the region of isolated bubbles

  14. Influence of Zinc on the Surface Tension, Density and Molar Volume of (Ag-Sneut +Zn Liquid Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gąsior W.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The dilatometric and maximum bubble pressure methods were applied for the measurements of the density and surface tension of liquid (Ag-Sneut +Zn lead-free solders. The experiments were carried out in the temperature range from 515 to 1223 K for the alloys of the zinc concentration equaling 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 of the mole fraction. It was found that the temperature dependence of both the density and the surface tension could be thought as linear, so they were interpreted by straight line equations. The experimental data of the molar volume of the investigated alloys were described by the polynomial dependent on the composition and temperature.

  15. Bubble dynamics equations in Newton fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, J

    2008-01-01

    For the high-speed flow of Newton fluid, bubble is produced and expanded when it moves toward the surface of fluid. Bubble dynamics is a very important research field to understand the intrinsic feature of bubble production and motion. This research formulates the bubble expansion by expansion-local rotation transformation, which can be calculated by the measured velocity field. Then, the related dynamic equations are established to describe the interaction between the fluid and the bubble. The research shows that the bubble production condition can be expressed by critical vortex value and fluid pressure; and the bubble expansion rate can be obtained by solving the non-linear dynamic equation of bubble motion. The results may help the related research as it shows a special kind of fluid motion in theoretic sense. As an application example, the nanofiber radium-voltage relation and threshold voltage-surface tension relation in electrospinning process are discussed

  16. Surface tension propulsion of fungal spores by use of microdroplets

    OpenAIRE

    Noblin, Xavier; Yang, Sylvia; Dumais, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Many edible mushrooms eject their spores (about 10 microns in size) at high speed (about 1 m/s) using surface tension forces in a few microseconds. Basically the coalescence of a droplet with the spore generates the necessary momentum to eject the spore. We have detailed this mechanism in \\cite{noblin2}. In this article, we give some details about the high speed movies (up to 250000 fps) of mushrooms' spores ejection attached to this submission. This video was submitted as part of the Gallery...

  17. Surface tension, hydrophobicity, and black holes: The entropic connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The geometric entropy arising from partitioning space in a fluid open-quote open-quote field theory close-quote close-quote is shown to be linearly proportional to the area of an excluded region. The coefficient of proportionality is related to surface tension by a thermodynamic argument. Good agreement with experimental data is obtained for a number of fluids. The calculation employs a density-matrix formalism developed previously for studying the origin of black hole entropy. This approach may lead to a practical technique for the evaluation of thermodynamic quantities with important entropic components. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  18. Superfluid 3He A-B surface tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartkowiak, M.; Haley, R.P.; Fisher, S.N.; Guenault, A.M.; Pickett, G.R.; Skyba, P.

    2003-01-01

    We have made two different measurements of interfacial energies below 300 μK, at zero pressure and in magnetic fields up to 400 mT. A variable magnetic field profile allows us to stabilize and precisely manipulate the position of the A-B interface. First, we can derive the difference in wall wetting energies from the behaviour of the phase boundary as it enters and exits a stack of glass capillary tubes. Secondly, we can measure the surface tension from the level of over- or under-magnetization needed to force the interface through an aperture. These are the first surface energy measurements in high magnetic fields in the zero-temperature limit. Our results are in surprising agreement with earlier measurements at high pressure close to T c

  19. The Equilibrium Spreading Tension of Pulmonary Surfactant

    OpenAIRE

    Dagan, Maayan P.; Hall, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Monomolecular films at an air/water interface coexist at the equilibrium spreading tension (γe) with the bulk phase from which they form. For individual phospholipids, γe is single-valued, and separates conditions at which hydrated vesicles adsorb from tensions at which overcompressed monolayers collapse. With pulmonary surfactant, isotherms show that monolayers compressed on the surface of bubbles coexist with the three-dimensional collapsed phase over a range of surface tensions. γe therefo...

  20. Micro-bubble morphologies following drop impacts onto a pool surface

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Thoraval, M.-J.; Takehara, K.; Etoh, T.G.

    2012-01-01

    When a drop impacts at low velocity onto a pool surface, a hemispheric air layer cushions and can delay direct contact. Herein we use ultra-high-speed video to study the rupture of this layer, to explain the resulting variety of observed distribution of bubbles. The size and distribution of micro-bubbles is determined by the number and location of the primary punctures. Isolated holes lead to the formation of bubble necklaces when the edges of two growing holes meet, whereas bubble nets are produced by regular shedding of micro-bubbles from a sawtooth edge instability. For the most viscous liquids the air film contracts more rapidly than the capillary-viscous velocity through repeated spontaneous ruptures of the edge. From the speed of hole opening and the total volume of micro-bubbles we conclude that the air sheet ruptures when its thickness approaches ?100.

  1. Micro-bubble morphologies following drop impacts onto a pool surface

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2012-10-01

    When a drop impacts at low velocity onto a pool surface, a hemispheric air layer cushions and can delay direct contact. Herein we use ultra-high-speed video to study the rupture of this layer, to explain the resulting variety of observed distribution of bubbles. The size and distribution of micro-bubbles is determined by the number and location of the primary punctures. Isolated holes lead to the formation of bubble necklaces when the edges of two growing holes meet, whereas bubble nets are produced by regular shedding of micro-bubbles from a sawtooth edge instability. For the most viscous liquids the air film contracts more rapidly than the capillary-viscous velocity through repeated spontaneous ruptures of the edge. From the speed of hole opening and the total volume of micro-bubbles we conclude that the air sheet ruptures when its thickness approaches ?100.

  2. Bubble induced flow field modulation for pool boiling enhancement over a tubular surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghupathi, P. A.; Joshi, I. M.; Jaikumar, A.; Emery, T. S.; Kandlikar, S. G.

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate the efficacy of using a strategically placed enhancement feature to modify the trajectory of bubbles nucleating on a horizontal tubular surface to increase both the critical heat flux (CHF) and the heat transfer coefficient (HTC). The CHF on a plain tube is shown to be triggered by a local dryout at the bottom of the tube due to vapor agglomeration. To mitigate this effect and delay CHF, the nucleating bubble trajectory is modified by incorporating a bubble diverter placed axially at the bottom of the tube. The nucleating bubble at the base of the diverter experiences a tangential evaporation momentum force (EMF) which causes the bubble to grow sideways away from the tube and avoid localized bubble patches that are responsible for CHF initiation. High speed imaging confirmed the lateral displacement of the bubbles away from the diverter closely matched with the theoretical predictions using EMF and buoyancy forces. Since the EMF is stronger at higher heat fluxes, bubble displacement increases with heat flux and results in the formation of separate liquid-vapor pathways wherein the liquid enters almost unobstructed at the bottom and the vapor bubble leaves sideways. Experimental results yielded CHF and HTC enhancements of ˜60% and ˜75%, respectively, with the diverter configuration when compared to a plain tube. This work can be used for guidance in developing enhancement strategies to effectively modulate the liquid-vapor flow around the heater surface at various locations to enhance HTC and CHF.

  3. Creeping motion of long bubbles and drops in capillary tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westborg, Henrik; Hassager, Ole

    1989-01-01

    The flow of inviscid bubbles and viscous drops in capillary tubes has been simulated by a Galerkin finite element method with surface tension included at the bubble/liquid interface. The results show good agreement with published experimental results. At low capillary numbers the front and the rear...... of the bubble are nearly spherical. As the capillary number increases the thickness of the wetting film between the tube wall and the bubble increases, and the bubble assumes a more slender shape with a characteristic bump at the rear. Recirculations are found in front and behind the bubble, which disappear...

  4. Backward flow in a surface tension driven micropump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Jongil; Park, Joong Yull; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Kyung Chun; Kim, Hyundong; Berthier, Erwin; Beebe, David J

    2008-01-01

    A surface tension driven micropump harnessing the pressure difference generated by drops of different curvature radii proves to be a simple and attractive passive method to drive fluid flow in microdevices. Here we observed the appearance of backward flow when the initial sizes of the droplets at the inlet and outlet ports are similar. To explain this phenomenon several hypotheses have been investigated. Consideration of the inertia of the fluid in the channel revealed that it alone is insufficient to explain the observed backward flow. We discovered that rotational flow inside the outlet droplet could be a source of inertia, explaining the generation of the backward flow. In addition, we have experimentally determined that the ratio of the volumes of the initial outlet drop and inlet drop correlates with the occurrence of the backward flow. (note)

  5. Nucleation in bubble chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harigel, G.G.

    1988-01-01

    Various sources and mechanisms for bubble formation in superheated liquids are discussed. Bubble chambers can be filled with a great variety of liquids, such as e.g. the cryogenic liquids hydrogen, deuterium, neon, neon/hydrogen mixtures, argon, nitrogen, argon/nitrogen mixtures, or the warm liquids propane and various Freon like Freon-13B1. The superheated state is normally achieved by a rapid movement of an expansion piston or membrane, but can also be produced by standing ultrasonic waves, shock waves, or putting liquids under tension. Bubble formation can be initiated by ionizing particles, by intense (laser) light, or on rough surfaces. The creation of embryonic bubbles is not completely understood, but the macroscopic growth and condensation can be calculated, allowing to estimate the dynamic heat load [fr

  6. Fowler's approximation for the surface tension and surface energy of Lennard-Jones fluids revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulero, A; Galan, C; Cuadros, F

    2003-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the validity of Fowler's approximation for calculating the surface tension and the surface energy of Lennard-Jones fluids. To do so, we consider three different explicit analytical expressions for the radial distribution function (RDF), including one proposed by our research group, together with very accurate expressions for the liquid and vapour densities, also proposed by our group. The calculation of the surface tension from the direct correlation function using both the Percus-Yevick and the hypernetted-chain approximations is also considered. Finally, our results are compared with those obtained by other authors by computer simulations or through relevant theoretical approximations. In particular, we consider the analytical expression proposed by Kalikmanov and Hofmans (1994 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 6 2207-14) for the surface tension. Our results indicate that the values for the surface energy in Fowler's approximation obtained by other authors are adequate, and can be calculated from the RDF models. For the surface tension, however, the values considered as valid in previous works seem to be incorrect. The correct values can be obtained from our model for the RDF or from the Kalikmanov and Hofmans expression with suitable inputs

  7. Using the surface tension to estimate the condensate density of superfluid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    Distortion of the condensate wavefunction at the free surface of superfluid 4 He contributes to the surface tension in proportion to the condensate fraction n 0 (T). Using this to resolve the present discrepancy between the measured and predicted temperature dependencies of the surface tension gives n 0 (T) in good agreement with results from neutron and x-ray scattering measurements. This picture is also consistent with the measured 3 He- 4 He interfacial tension

  8. Low-Cost Production of Photonic Bandgap Materials Through Bubbling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Brien, Daniel J; Wetzel, Eric D

    2007-01-01

    .... This report proposes a simple low-cost method for PBGM production. A device has been constructed that produces micrometer-sized, monodisperse bubbles that can be assembled into a crystal lattice by surface tension...

  9. Effect of viscosity and surface tension on the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor instability and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability under nonlinear domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahul Banerjee; Khan, M.; Mandal, L.K.; Roy, S.; Gupta, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability and Richtmyer-Meshkov (R-M) instability are well known problems in the formation of some astrophysical structures such as the supernova remnants in the Eagle and Crab nebula. A core collapse supernova is driven by an externally powerful shock, and strong shocks are the breeding ground of hydrodynamic instability such as Rayleigh-Taylor instability or Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. These instabilities are also important issues in the design of targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). In an ICF target, a high density fluid is frequently accelerated by the pressure of a low density fluid and after ablation the density quickly decays. So, small ripples at such an interface will grow. Under potential flow model, the perturbed interface between heavier fluid and lighter fluid form bubble and spike like structures. The bubbles are in the form of columns of lighter fluid interleaved by falling spike of heavy fluid. In this paper, we like to presented the effect of viscosity and surface tension on Rayleigh-Taylor instability and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability under the non-linear Layzer's approach and described the displacement curvature, growth and velocity of the tip of the bubble as well as spike. It is seen that, in absence of surface tension the lowering of the asymptotic velocity of the tip of the bubble which is formed when the lighter fluid penetrates into the denser fluid and thus encounters the viscous drag due to the denser fluid, which depends only on the denser fluid's viscosity coefficient. On the other hand the asymptotic velocity of the tip of the spike formed as the denser fluid penetrates into the lighter fluid is reduced by an amount which depends only on the viscosity coefficient of the lighter fluid and the spike is resisted by the viscous drag due to the lighter fluid. However, in presence of surface tension the asymptotic velocity of the tip of the bubble (spike) and

  10. Methane Bubbles Transport Particles From Contaminated Sediment to a Lake Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delwiche, K.; Hemond, H.

    2017-12-01

    Methane bubbling from aquatic sediments has long been known to transport carbon to the atmosphere, but new evidence presented here suggests that methane bubbles also transport particulate matter to a lake surface. This transport pathway is of particular importance in lakes with contaminated sediments, as bubble transport could increase human exposure to toxic metals. The Upper Mystic Lake in Arlington, MA has a documented history of methane bubbling and sediment contamination by arsenic and other heavy metals, and we have conducted laboratory and field studies demonstrating that methane bubbles are capable of transporting sediment particles over depths as great as 15 m in Upper Mystic Lake. Methane bubble traps were used in-situ to capture particles adhered to bubble interfaces, and to relate particle mass transport to bubble flux. Laboratory studies were conducted in a custom-made 15 m tall water column to quantify the relationship between water column height and the mass of particulate transport. We then couple this particle transport data with historical estimates of ebullition from Upper Mystic Lake to quantify the significance of bubble-mediated particle transport to heavy metal cycling within the lake. Results suggest that methane bubbles can represent a significant pathway for contaminated sediment to reach surface waters even in relatively deep water bodies. Given the frequent co-occurrence of contaminated sediments and high bubble flux rates, and the potential for human exposure to heavy metals, it will be critical to study the significance of this transport pathway for a range of sediment and contaminant types.

  11. Dissolution of spherical cap CO2 bubbles attached to flat surfaces in air-saturated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Pablo; Parrales, Miguel A.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier

    2014-11-01

    Bubbles attached to flat surfaces immersed in quiescent liquid environments often display a spherical cap (SC) shape. Their dissolution is a phenomenon commonly observed experimentally. Modelling these bubbles as fully spherical may lead to an inaccurate estimate of the bubble dissolution rate. We develop a theoretical model for the diffusion-driven dissolution or growth of such multi-component SC gas bubbles under constant pressure and temperature conditions. Provided the contact angle of the bubble with the surface is large, the concentration gradients in the liquid may be approximated as spherically symmetric. The area available for mass transfer depends on the instantaneous bubble contact angle, whose dynamics is computed from the adhesion hysteresis model [Hong et al., Langmuir, vol. 27, 6890-6896 (2011)]. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements on the dissolution of SC CO2 bubbles immersed in air-saturated water support the validity of our model. We verify that contact line pinning slows down the dissolution rate, and the fact that any bubble immersed in a saturated gas-liquid solution eventually attains a final equilibrium size. Funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through Grant DPI2011-28356-C03-0.

  12. Tensioned Fabric Structures with Surface in the Form of Chen-Gackstatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Hooi Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Form-finding has to be carried out for tensioned fabric structure in order to determine the initial equilibrium shape under prescribed support condition and prestress pattern. Tensioned fabric structures are normally designed to be in the form of equal tensioned surface. Tensioned fabric structure is highly suited to be used for realizing surfaces of complex or new forms. However, research study on a new form as a tensioned fabric structure has not attracted much attention. Another source of inspiration minimal surface which could be adopted as form for tensioned fabric structure is very crucial. The aim of this study is to propose initial equilibrium shape of tensioned fabric structures in the form of Chen-Gackstatter. Computational form-finding using nonlinear analysis method is used to determine the Chen-Gackstatter form of uniformly stressed surfaces. A tensioned fabric structure must curve equally in opposite directions to give the resulting surface a three dimensional stability. In an anticlastic doubly curved surface, the sum of all positive and all negative curvatures is zero. This study provides an alternative choice for structural designer to consider the Chen-Gackstatter applied in tensioned fabric structures. The results on factors affecting initial equilibrium shape can serve as a reference for proper selection of surface parameter for achieving a structurally viable surface.

  13. A waveless free surface flow past a submerged triangular obstacle in presence of surface tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakima Sekhri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Free surface flows passing a submerged triangular obstacle at the bottom of a channel. The problem is characterized by a nonlinear boundary condition on the surface of unknown configuration. The analytical exact solutions for these problems are not known. Following Dias and Vanden Broeck [6], we computed numerically the solutions via a series truncation method. These solutions depend on two parameters: the Weber number $\\alpha$ characterizing the strength of the surface tension and the angle $\\beta$ at the base characterizing the shape of the apex. Although free surface flows with surface tension admit capillary waves, it is found that solution exist only for values of the Weber number greater than $\\alpha_0$ for different configurations of the triangular obstacle.

  14. Surface Tension Driven Instability in the Regime of Stokes Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhenwei; Bowick, Mark; Xing, Xiangjun

    2010-03-01

    A cylinder of liquid inside another liquid is unstable towards droplet formation. This instability is driven by minimization of surface tension energy and was analyzed first by [1,2] and then by [3]. We revisit this problem in the limit of small Laplace number, where the inertial of liquids can be completely ignored. The stream function is found to obey biharmonic equation, and its analytic solutions are found. We rederive Tomotika's main results, and also obtain many new analytic results about the velocity fields. We also apply our formalism to study the recent experiment on toroidal liquid droplet[4]. Our framework shall have many applications in micro-fluidics. [1] L.Rayleigh, On The Instability of A Cylinder of Viscous Liquid Under Capillary Force, Scientific Papers, Cambridge, Vol.III, 1902. [2] L.Rayleigh, On The Instability of Cylindrical Fluid Surfaces, Scientific Papers, Cambridge, Vol.III, 1902. [3] S.Tomotika, On the Instability of a Cylindrical Thread of a Viscous Liquid surround by Another Viscous Fluid, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Volume 150, Issue 870, pp. 322-337. [4] E.Pairam and A.Fern'andez-Nieves, Generation and Stability of Toroidal Droplets in a Viscous Liquid, Physical Review Letters 102, 234501 (2009).

  15. Theory of the surface dipole layer and of surface tension in liquids of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senatore, G.; Tosi, M.P.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of the surface density profiles and of the surface tension of a two-component liquid of charged particles in equilibrium with its vapour is examined. The exact equilibrium conditions for the profiles are given in terms of the inverse response functions of the inhomogeneous fluid, and alternative exact expressions for the surface tension are derived. The use of a density gradient expansion reduces the problem to knowledge of properties of a homogeneous charged fluid on a uniform neutralizing background, in which the total particle density and the charge density are independent variables. Additional simplifications are discussed for special cases for which a perturbative treatment of the surface charge density profile can be developed, and in particular for nearly symmetric ionic liquids and for simple liquid metals. (author)

  16. Wetting and surface tension of bismate glass melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Seung-Bo; Kim, Dong-Sun; Hwang, Seongjin; Kim, Hyungsun

    2009-01-01

    Lead oxide glass frits are used widely in the electronics industry for low-temperature firing. On the other hand, one of the low-sintering and low-melting lead-free glass systems available, the bismate glass system, is considered to be an alternative to lead oxide glass. In order to extend the applications of Bi 2 O 3 glasses, this study examined the thermophysical properties of low-melting Bi 2 O 3 -B 2 O 3 -ZnO-BaO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 glass frits with various ZnO/B 2 O 3 ratios. The fundamental thermal properties, such as glass transition temperature and softening point, were examined by differential thermal analysis and a glass softening point determination system. The wetting angles, viscosities and surface tension of the various bismate glasses on an alumina substrate were measured using hot-stage microscopy and the sessile drop method. These thermophysical properties will be helpful in understanding the work of adhesion and the liquid spread kinetics of glass frits.

  17. Mapping surface tension induced menisci with application to tensiometry and refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Avanish; Kulkarni, Varun; Khor, Jian-Wei; Wereley, Steve

    2015-07-28

    In this work, we discuss an optical method for measuring surface tension induced menisci. The principle of measurement is based upon the change in the background pattern produced by the curvature of the meniscus acting as a lens. We measure the meniscus profile over an inclined glass plate and utilize the measured meniscus for estimation of surface tension and refractive index.

  18. Prediction of viscosities and surface tensions of fuels using a new corresponding states model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queimada, A.J.; Rolo, L.I.; Caco, A.I.

    2006-01-01

    While some properties of diesels are cheap, easy and fast to measure, such as densities, others such as surface tensions and viscosities are expensive and time consuming. A new approach that uses some basic information such as densities to predict viscosities and surface tensions is here proposed......) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Interaction Mechanisms between Air Bubble and Molybdenite Surface: Impact of Solution Salinity and Polymer Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lei; Wang, Jingyi; Yuan, Duowei; Shi, Chen; Cui, Xin; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Qi; Liu, Qingxia; Zeng, Hongbo

    2017-03-07

    The surface characteristics of molybdenite (MoS 2 ) such as wettability and surface interactions have attracted much research interest in a wide range of engineering applications, such as froth flotation. In this work, a bubble probe atomic force microscope (AFM) technique was employed to directly measure the interaction forces between an air bubble and molybdenite mineral surface before/after polymer (i.e., guar gum) adsorption treatment. The AFM imaging showed that the polymer coverage on the surface of molybdenite could achieve ∼5.6, ∼44.5, and ∼100% after conditioning in 1, 5, and 10 ppm polymer solution, respectively, which coincided with the polymer coverage results based on contact angle measurements. The electrolyte concentration and surface treatment by polymer adsorption were found to significantly affect bubble-mineral interaction and attachment. The experimental force results on bubble-molybdenite (without polymer treatment) agreed well with the calculations using a theoretical model based on the Reynolds lubrication theory and augmented Young-Laplace equation including the effect of disjoining pressure. The overall surface repulsion was enhanced when the NaCl concentration decreased from 100 to 1 mM, which inhibited the bubble-molybdenite attachment. After conditioning the molybdenite surface in 1 ppm polymer solution, it was more difficult for air bubbles to attach to the molybdenite surface due to the weakened hydrophobic interaction with a shorter decay length. Increasing the polymer concentration to 5 ppm effectively inhibited bubble attachment on mineral surface, which was mainly due to the much reduced hydrophobic interaction as well as the additional steric repulsion between the extended polymer chains and bubble surface. The results provide quantitative information on the interaction mechanism between air bubbles and molybdenite mineral surfaces on the nanoscale, with useful implications for the development of effective polymer

  20. Density functional theory of simple polymers in a slit pore. III. Surface tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, Justin B.; McCoy, John D.; Curro, John G.; Swol, Frank van

    2000-01-01

    In a previous study of tangent hard-site chains near a surface, the inhomogeneous density profiles were found through density functional theory. In the current study, the surface tensions of these systems are found from the results of the previous study through a thermodynamic integration. The calculated surface tensions are then compared to those found directly through computer simulation. Both the surface tension and surface excess for polymeric systems are shown to differ qualitatively from those of atomic systems, although certain similarities are seen at high densities. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  1. Droplets, Bubbles and Ultrasound Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpak, Oleksandr; Verweij, Martin; de Jong, Nico; Versluis, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of droplets and bubbles with ultrasound has been studied extensively in the last 25 years. Microbubbles are broadly used in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications, for instance, as ultrasound contrast agents. They have a similar size as red blood cells, and thus are able to circulate within blood vessels. Perfluorocarbon liquid droplets can be a potential new generation of microbubble agents as ultrasound can trigger their conversion into gas bubbles. Prior to activation, they are at least five times smaller in diameter than the resulting bubbles. Together with the violent nature of the phase-transition, the droplets can be used for local drug delivery, embolotherapy, HIFU enhancement and tumor imaging. Here we explain the basics of bubble dynamics, described by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation, bubble resonance frequency, damping and quality factor. We show the elegant calculation of the above characteristics for the case of small amplitude oscillations by linearizing the equations. The effect and importance of a bubble coating and effective surface tension are also discussed. We give the main characteristics of the power spectrum of bubble oscillations. Preceding bubble dynamics, ultrasound propagation is introduced. We explain the speed of sound, nonlinearity and attenuation terms. We examine bubble ultrasound scattering and how it depends on the wave-shape of the incident wave. Finally, we introduce droplet interaction with ultrasound. We elucidate the ultrasound-focusing concept within a droplets sphere, droplet shaking due to media compressibility and droplet phase-conversion dynamics.

  2. Surface tension and related thermodynamic parameters of alcohols using the Traube stalagmometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilmohamud, B A; Seeneevassen, J; Rughooputh, S D D V; Ramasami, P

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus was devised using the Traube Stalagmometer for the determination of the surface tension of the alcohols methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol and butan-1-ol. Measurements were made under atmospheric pressure at temperatures between 288.15 K and 313.15 K. The surface tension values were correlated with temperature and surface thermodynamic parameters, namely surface entropy and surface enthalpy, were also calculated. The results obtained are in agreement with the literature and they are promising for the use of this low cost arrangement for accurate measurement of surface tension. Surface tension values were obtained with a maximum error of 0.5 mN m -1 and a maximum standard deviation of 0.8 mN m -1 . We recommend this arrangement for students in advanced university courses and it can also be used for research work

  3. Electric field effects on the dynamics of bubble detachment from an inclined surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marco, P; Morganti, N; Saccone, G

    2015-01-01

    An experimental apparatus to study bubble detachment from an inclined surface under the action of electric forces is described. It consists of a container filled with FC72 at room temperature and pressure where a train of gas bubbles is injected from an orifice. An electrostatic field can be imposed around the bubble, while the cell can be tilted from 0 to 90°. It is possible to study interface growth with the aid of high-speed cinematography. Since the interface is asymmetrical, a mirror system allowed to acquire, in the same frame, two images at 90° of the bubble. Different inclinations, injection rates and voltages were tested in order to couple the effects of shear gravity and electric field. Curvature and contact angles have been derived with appropriate interpolation methods of the profile. Force balances on the bubble were checked, finding an electric force, which, at first pulls the bubbles from the orifice, then pushes it against the surface. The motion of the center of gravity confirms this behaviour. A power balance has been developed to determine the energy contributions, revealing that surface growth incorporates both the effects of inlet power and electric field. (paper)

  4. Surface tension and Wulff shape for a lattice model without spin flip symmetry.

    CERN Document Server

    Bodineau, T

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new definition of surface tension and check it in a spin model of the Pirogov-Sinai class where the spin flip symmetry is broken. We study the model at low temperatures on the phase transitions line and prove: (i) existence of the surface tension in the thermodynamic limit, for any orientation of the surface and in all dimensions $d\\ge 2$; (ii) the Wulff shape constructed with such a surface tension coincides with the equilibrium shape of the cluster which appears when fixing the total spin magnetization (Wulff problem).

  5. Semi-implicit surface tension formulation with a Lagrangian surface mesh on an Eulerian simulation grid

    KAUST Repository

    Schroeder, Craig

    2012-02-01

    We present a method for applying semi-implicit forces on a Lagrangian mesh to an Eulerian discretization of the Navier Stokes equations in a way that produces a sparse symmetric positive definite system. The resulting method has semi-implicit and fully-coupled viscosity, pressure, and Lagrangian forces. We apply our new framework for forces on a Lagrangian mesh to the case of a surface tension force, which when treated explicitly leads to a tight time step restriction. By applying surface tension as a semi-implicit Lagrangian force, the resulting method benefits from improved stability and the ability to take larger time steps. The resulting discretization is also able to maintain parasitic currents at low levels. © 2011.

  6. Surface tension effects on vertical upward annular flows in a small diameter pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadatomi, Michio, E-mail: sadatomi@mech.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Dept. of Advanced Mechanical Systems, Kumamoto Univ., 39-1, Kurokami 2-chome, Chuou-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kawahara, Akimaro [Dept. of Advanced Mechanical Systems, Kumamoto Univ., 39-1, Kurokami 2-chome, Chuou-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, Aruta [Plant Design & Engineering Dept., Environment, Energy & Plant Headquarters, Hitachi Zosen Corporation, 7-89, Nankokita 1-chome, Suminoe-ku, Osaka, 559-8559 (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Surface tension effects were clarified on annular flow in a small diameter pipe. • The mean liquid film thickness became thinner with decreasing of surface tension. • The liquid droplet fraction and the interfacial shear stress became higher with it. • New prediction methods for the above parameters were developed and validated. - Abstract: Experiments were conducted to study the surface tension effects on vertical upward annular flows in a 5 mm I.D. pipe using water and low surface tension water with a little surfactant as the test liquid and air as the test gas. Firstly, the experimental results on the mean liquid film thickness, the liquid droplet fraction and the interfacial shear stress in annular flows together with some flow pictures are presented to clarify the surface tension effects. From these, the followings are clarified: In the low surface tension case, the liquid film surface becomes rough, the liquid film thickness thin, the liquid droplet fraction high, and the interfacial shear stress high. Secondary, correlations in literatures for the respective parameters are tested against the present data. The test results show that no correlation for the respective parameters could predict well the present data. Thus, correlations are revised by accounting for the surface tension effects. The results of the experiments, the correlations tests and their revisions mentioned above are presented in the present paper.

  7. Adsorption of egg phosphatidylcholine to an air/water and triolein/water bubble interface: use of the 2-dimensional phase rule to estimate the surface composition of a phospholipid/triolein/water surface as a function of surface pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsche, Matthew A; Wang, Libo; Small, Donald M

    2010-03-11

    Phospholipid monolayers play a critical role in the structure and stabilization of biological interfaces, including all membranes, the alveoli of the lungs, fat droplets in adipose tissue, and lipoproteins. The behavior of phospholipids in bilayers and at an air-water interface is well understood. However, the study of phospholipids at oil-water interfaces is limited due to technical challenges. In this study, egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) was deposited from small unilamellar vesicles onto a bubble of either air or triolein (TO) formed in a low-salt buffer. The surface tension (gamma) was measured using a drop tensiometer. We observed that EPC binds irreversibly to both interfaces and at equilibrium exerts approximately 12 and 15 mN/m of pressure (Pi) at an air and TO interface, respectively. After EPC was bound to the interface, the unbound EPC was washed out of the cuvette, and the surface was compressed to study the Pi/area relationship. To determine the surface concentration (Gamma), which cannot be measured directly, compression isotherms from a Langmuir trough and drop tensiometer were compared. The air-water interfaces had identical characteristics using both techniques; thus, Gamma on the bubble can be determined by overlaying the two isotherms. Both TO and EPC are surface-active, so in a mixed TO/EPC monolayer, both molecules will be exposed to water. Since TO is less surface-active than EPC, as Pi increases, the TO is progressively ejected. To understand the Pi/area isotherm of EPC on a TO bubble, a variety of TO-EPC mixtures were spread at the air-water interface. The isotherms show an abrupt break in the curve caused by the ejection of TO from the monolayer into a new bulk phase. By overlaying the compression isotherm above the ejection point with a TO bubble compression isotherm, Gamma can be estimated. This allows determination of Gamma of EPC on a TO bubble as a function of Pi.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulations study of nano bubble attachment at hydrophobic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jiaqi; Dang, Liem X.; Miller, Jan D.

    2018-01-01

    Bubble attachment phenomena are examined using Molecular Dynamics Simulations (MDS) for the first time. The simulation involves a nitrogen nano bubble containing 906 nitrogen molecules in a water phase with 74,000 water molecules at molybdenite surfaces. During a simulation period of 1 ns, film rupture and displacement occurs. The attached nanobubble at the hydrophobic molybdenite face surface results in a contact angle of about 90º. This spontaneous attachment is due to a “water exclusion zone” at the molybdenite face surface and can be explained by a van der Waals (vdW) attractive force, as discussed in the literature. In contrast, the film is stable at the hydrophilic quartz (001) surface and the bubble does not attach. Contact angles determined from MD simulations are reported, and these results agree well with experimental and MDS sessile drop results. In this way, film stability and bubble attachment are described with respect to interfacial water structure for surfaces of different polarity. Interfacial water molecules at the hydrophobic molybdenite face surface have relatively weak interactions with the surface when compared to the hydrophilic quartz (001) surface, as revealed by the presence of a 3 Å “water exclusion zone” at the molybdenite/water interface. The molybdenite armchair-edge and zigzag-edge surfaces show a comparably slow process for film rupture and displacement when compared to the molybdenite face surface, which is consistent with their relatively weak hydrophobic character.

  9. Density-functional calculations of the surface tension of liquid Al and Na

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, D.; Grimson, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    Calculations of the surface tensions of liquid Al and Na are described using the full ionic density functional formalism of Wood and Stroud (1983). Surface tensions are in good agreement with experiment in both cases, with results substantially better for Al than those found previously in the gradient approximation. Preliminary minimization with respect to surface profile leads to an oscillatory profile superimposed on a nearly steplike ionic density disribution; the oscillations have a wavellength of about a hardsphere diameter.

  10. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of crown spike due to coupling effect between bubbles and free surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Rui; Zhang A-Man; Li Shuai

    2014-01-01

    The motion of gas bubbles beneath a free surface will lead to a spike of fluid on the free surface. The distance of the bubbles to the free surface is the key factor to different phenomena. When the inception distance varies in some range, crown phenomenon would happen after the impact of weak buoyancy bubbles, so this kind of spike is defined as crown spike in the present paper. Based on potential flow theory, a three-dimensional numerical model is established to simulate the motion of the free-surface spike generated by one bubble or a horizontal line of two in-phase bubbles. After the downward jet formed near the end of the collapse phase, the simulation of the free surface is performed to study the crown spike without regard to the toroidal bubble's effect. Calculations about the interaction between one bubble and free surface agree well with the experimental results conducted with a high-speed camera, and relative error is within 15%. Crown spike in both single- and two-bubble cases are simulated numerically. Different features and laws of the motion of crown spike, depending on the bubble-boundary distances and the inter-bubble distances, have been investigated

  11. Study of non-spherical bubble oscillations near a surface in a weak acoustic standing wave field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoyu; Cegla, Frederic; Mettin, Robert; Holsteyns, Frank; Lippert, Alexander

    2014-04-01

    The interaction of acoustically driven bubbles with a wall is important in many applications of ultrasound and cavitation, as the close boundary can severely alter the bubble dynamics. In this paper, the non-spherical surface oscillations of bubbles near a surface in a weak acoustic standing wave field are investigated experimentally and numerically. The translation, the volume, and surface mode oscillations of bubbles near a flat glass surface were observed by a high speed camera in a standing wave cell at 46.8 kHz. The model approach is based on a modified Keller-Miksis equation coupled to surface mode amplitude equations in the first order, and to the translation equations. Modifications are introduced due to the adjacent wall. It was found that a bubble's oscillation mode can change in the presence of the wall, as compared to the bubble in the bulk liquid. In particular, the wall shifts the instability pressure thresholds to smaller driving frequencies for fixed bubble equilibrium radii, or to smaller equilibrium radii for fixed excitation frequency. This can destabilize otherwise spherical bubbles, or stabilize bubbles undergoing surface oscillations in the bulk. The bubble dynamics observed in experiment demonstrated the same trend as the theoretical results.

  12. Theoretical calculations of the surface tension of Ag(1-x)-Cu(x) liquid alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqra, Fathi; Ayyad, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A thermodynamic model for calculating the surface tension, and its temperature and composition dependences, of liquid binary alloys is described. → The model does not require the prior knowledge of the surface concentration and Gibbs energy. → The surface tension of the liquid Ag-Cu binary alloys has been calculated as a function of temperature and concentration. → The calculated values agree well with existing experimental data. - Abstract: The surface tension of silver-copper binary liquid alloys is calculated, in the frame work of Eyring theory. The calculations were made for different compositions (mole fraction, x Cu = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1), in the temperature range 1100-1800 K. The surface tension decreases with temperature increase, at a fixed copper fraction x Cu , and increases with increasing copper content. The calculated results are appropriately compared with existing literature data.

  13. A Computational Study of Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability with Surface Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Marianne; Velechovsky, Jan; Jibben, Zach; Masser, Thomas; LANL Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    We have added the capability to model surface tension in our adaptive mesh refinement compressible flow solver, xRage. Our surface tension capability employs the continuum surface force to model surface tension and the height function method to compute curvatures. We have verified our model implementation for the static and oscillating droplets test cases and the linear regime of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. With this newly added capability, we have performed a numerical study of the effects of surface tension on single-mode and multi-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. This work was performed under the auspices of the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy at Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52 - 06NA25396.

  14. Surface tension anomalies in room temperature ionic liquids-acetone solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hiroshi; Murata, Keisuke; Kiyokawa, Shota; Yoshimura, Yukihiro

    2018-05-01

    Surface tension anomalies were observed in room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL)-acetone solutions. The RTILs are 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazorium iodide with [Cnmim][I] in a [Cnmim][I]-x mol% acetone. The maximum value of the surface tension appeared at 40 mol% acetone, although density decreased monotonically with an increase in acetone concentration. A small alkyl chain length effect of the Cnmim+ cations was observed in the surface tension. By the Gibbs adsorption isotherm, it was found that I- anion-mediated surface structure became dominant above 40 mol%. In the different [Cnmim][TFSI]-acetone mixtures, normal decay of the surface tension was observed on the acetone concentration scale, where TFSI- is bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide.

  15. Tribology of thin wetting films between bubble and moving solid surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakashev, Stoyan I; Stöckelhuber, Klaus W; Tsekov, Roumen; Phan, Chi M; Heinrich, Gert

    2014-08-01

    This work shows a successful example of coupling of theory and experiment to study the tribology of bubble rubbing on solid surface. Such kind of investigation is reported for the first time in the literature. A theory about wetting film intercalated between bubble and moving solid surface was developed, thus deriving the non-linear evolution differential equation which accounted for the friction slip coefficient at the solid surface. The stationary 3D film thickness profile, which appears to be a solution of the differential equation, for each particular speed of motion of the solid surface was derived by means of special procedure and unique interferometric experimental setup. This allowed us to determine the 3D map of the lift pressure within the wetting film, the friction force per unit area and the friction coefficient of rubbing at different speeds of motion of the solid surface. Thus, we observed interesting tribological details about the rubbing of the bubble on the solid surface like for example: 1. A regime of mixed friction between dry and lubricated friction exists in the range of 6-170 μm/s, beyond which the rubbing between the bubble and solid becomes completely lubricated and passes through the maximum; 2. The friction coefficient of rubbing has high values at very small speeds of solid's motion and reduces substantially with the increase of the speed of the solid motion until reaching small values, which change insignificantly with the further increase of the speed of the solid. Despite the numerous studies on the motion of bubble/droplet in close proximity to solid wall in the literature, the present investigation appears to be a step ahead in this area as far as we were able to derive 3D maps of the bubble close to the solid surface, which makes the investigation more profound. © 2013.

  16. Prediction of surface tension of binary mixtures with the parachor method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Němec Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The parachor method for the estimation of the surface tension of binary mixtures is modified by considering temperature-dependent values of the parachor parameters. The temperature dependence is calculated by a least-squares fit of pure-solvent surface tension data to the binary parachor equation utilizing the Peng-Robinson equation of state for the calculation of equilibrium densities. A very good agreement between experimental binary surface tension data and the predictions of the modified parachor method are found for the case of the mixtures of carbon dioxide and butane, benzene, and cyclohexane, respectively. The surface tension is also predicted for three refrigerant mixtures, i.e. propane, isobutane, and chlorodifluoromethane, with carbon dioxide.

  17. The interfacial surface tension of a quark-gluon plasma fireball in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    surface tension with the cube of the critical transition temperature is in overall ... more rigorous structures may be built depending on the phenomenological success .... k +dk in a spherically symmetric situation, and gi is the degeneracy factor ( ...

  18. Evaluation on Dorsey Method in Surface Tension Measurement of Solder Liquids Containing Surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingke; Xie, Feiming; Fan, Jinsheng; Liu, Dayong; Huang, Jihua; Chen, Shuhai

    2018-06-01

    With the purpose of developing a feasible approach for measuring the surface tension of solders containing surfactants, the surface tension of Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu-xP solder alloys, with various drop sizes as well as different phosphorus (P) content, was evaluated using the Dorsey method based on the sessile drop test. The results show that the accuracy of the surface tension calculations depends on both of sessile drop size and the liquid metal composition. With a proper drop size, in the range of 4.5 mm to 5.3 mm in equivalent spherical diameters, the deviation of the surface tension calculation can be limited to 1.43 mN·m-1 and 6.30 mN·m-1 for SnAgCu and SnAgCu-P, respectively. The surface tension of SnAgCu-xP solder alloys decreases quickly to a minimum value when the P content reaches 0.5 wt% and subsequently increases slowly with the P content further increasing. The formation of a P-enriched surface layer and Sn4P3 intermetallic phases is regarded to be responsible for the decreasing and subsequent increasing of surface tension, respectively.

  19. Fundamental study of FC-72 pool boiling surface temperature fluctuations and bubble behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Alison R.

    A heater designed to monitor surface temperature fluctuations during pool boiling experiments while the bubbles were simultaneously being observed has been fabricated and tested. The heat source was a transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) layer commercially deposited on a fused quartz substrate. Four copper-nickel thin film thermocouples (TFTCs) on the heater surface measured the surface temperature, while a thin layer of sapphire or fused silica provided electrical insulation between the TFTCs and the ITO. The TFTCs were micro-fabricated using the liftoff process to deposit the nickel and copper metal films. The TFTC elements were 50 mum wide and overlapped to form a 25 mum by 25 mum junction. TFTC voltages were recorded by a DAQ at a sampling rate of 50 kHz. A high-speed CCD camera recorded bubble images from below the heater at 2000 frames/second. A trigger sent to the camera by the DAQ synchronized the bubble images and the surface temperature data. As the bubbles and their contact rings grew over the TFTC junction, correlations between bubble behavior and surface temperature changes were demonstrated. On the heaters with fused silica insulation layers, 1--2°C temperature drops on the order of 1 ms occurred as the contact ring moved over the TFTC junction during bubble growth and as the contact ring moved back over the TFTC junction during bubble departure. These temperature drops during bubble growth and departure were due to microlayer evaporation and liquid rewetting the heated surface, respectively. Microlayer evaporation was not distinguished as the primary method of heat removal from the surface. Heaters with sapphire insulation layers did not display the measurable temperature drops observed with the fused silica heaters. The large thermal diffusivity of the sapphire compared to the fused silica was determined as the reason for the absence of these temperature drops. These findings were confirmed by a comparison of temperature drops in a 2-D simulation of

  20. Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis for Estimating the Surface Tension of Cell Aggregates by Centrifugation

    OpenAIRE

    Kalantarian, Ali; Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Saad, Sameh M.I.; David, Robert; Winklbauer, Rudolf; Neumann, A. Wilhelm

    2009-01-01

    Biological tissues behave in certain respects like liquids. Consequently, the surface tension concept can be used to explain aspects of the in vitro and in vivo behavior of multicellular aggregates. Unfortunately, conventional methods of surface tension measurement cannot be readily applied to small cell aggregates. This difficulty can be overcome by an experimentally straightforward method consisting of centrifugation followed by axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA). Since the aggregates ...

  1. Effects of gravity level on bubble formation and rise in low-viscosity liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suñol, Francesc; González-Cinca, Ricard

    2015-05-01

    We present an experimental analysis of the effects of gravity level on the formation and rise dynamics of bubbles. Experiments were carried out with millimeter-diameter bubbles in the hypergravity environment provided by the large-diameter centrifuge of the European Space Agency. Bubble detachment from a nozzle is determined by buoyancy and surface tension forces regardless of the gravity level. Immediately after detachment, bubble trajectory is deviated by the Coriolis force. Subsequent bubble rise is dominated by inertial forces and follows a zig-zag trajectory with amplitude and frequency dependent on the gravity level. Vorticity production is enhanced as gravity increases, which destabilizes the flow and therefore the bubble path.

  2. Freezing Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingett, Christian; Ahmadi, Farzad; Nath, Saurabh; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    The two-stage freezing process of a liquid droplet on a substrate is well known; however, how bubbles freeze has not yet been studied. We first deposited bubbles on a silicon substrate that was chilled at temperatures ranging from -10 °C to -40 °C, while the air was at room temperature. We observed that the freeze front moved very slowly up the bubble, and in some cases, even came to a complete halt at a critical height. This slow freezing front propagation can be explained by the low thermal conductivity of the thin soap film, and can be observed more clearly when the bubble size or the surface temperature is increased. This delayed freezing allows the frozen portion of the bubble to cool the air within the bubble while the top part is still liquid, which induces a vapor pressure mismatch that either collapses the top or causes the top to pop. In cases where the freeze front reaches the top of the bubble, a portion of the top may melt and slowly refreeze; this can happen more than just once for a single bubble. We also investigated freezing bubbles inside of a freezer where the air was held at -20 °C. In this case, the bubbles freeze quickly and the ice grows radially from nucleation sites instead of perpendicular to the surface, which provides a clear contrast with the conduction limited room temperature bubbles.

  3. Lattice Boltzmann Study of Bubbles on a Patterned Superhydrophobic Surface under Shear Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Kai; Hou, Guoxiang; Leng, Wenjun

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies shear flow over a 2D patterned superhydrophobic surface using lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Single component Shan-Chen multiphase model and Carnahan-Starling EOS are adopted to handle the liquid-gas flow on superhydrophobic surface with entrapped micro-bubbles. The shape of bubble interface and its influence on slip length under different shear rates are investigated. With increasing shear rate, the bubble interface deforms. Then the contact lines are depinned from the slot edges and move downstream. When the shear rate is high enough, a continuous gas layer forms. If the protrusion angle is small, the gas layer forms and collapse periodically, and accordingly the slip length changes periodically. While if the protrusion angle is large, the gas layer is steady and separates the solid wall from liquid, resulting in a very large slip length.

  4. Experiment and model for the surface tension of amine–ionic liquids aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Pan; Du, LeiXia; Fu, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The surface tensions of MEA/DEA–ionic liquids aqueous solutions were measured. • The experiments were modeled satisfactorily by using a thermodynamic equation. • The temperature dependence of the surface tension was illustrated. • The effects of the mass fractions of MEA/DEA and ionic liquids were demonstrated. - Abstract: The surface tension (γ) of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF 4 ])–monoethanolamine (MEA), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Bmim][Br])–MEA, [Bmim][BF 4 ]–diethanolamine (DEA) and [Bmim][Br]–DEA aqueous solutions was measured by using the BZY-1 surface tension meter. The temperature ranged from (293.2 to 323.2) K. The mass fraction of amines and ionic liquids (ILS) respectively ranged from 0.15 to 0.30 and 0.05 to 0.10. A thermodynamic equation was proposed to model the surface tension of amines–ILS aqueous solutions and the calculated results agreed well with the experiments. The effects of temperature, mass fraction of amines and ILS on the surface tension were demonstrated on the basis of experiments and calculations

  5. Combined influence of inertia, gravity, and surface tension on the linear stability of Newtonian fiber spinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechert, M.; Scheid, B.

    2017-11-01

    The draw resonance effect appears in fiber spinning processes if the ratio of take-up to inlet velocity, the so-called draw ratio, exceeds a critical value and manifests itself in steady oscillations of flow velocity and fiber diameter. We study the effect of surface tension on the draw resonance behavior of Newtonian fiber spinning in the presence of inertia and gravity. Utilizing an alternative scaling makes it possible to visualize the results in stability maps of highly practical relevance. The interplay of the destabilizing effect of surface tension and the stabilizing effects of inertia and gravity lead to nonmonotonic stability behavior and local stability maxima with respect to the dimensionless fluidity and the dimensionless inlet velocity. A region of unconditional instability caused by the influence of surface tension is found in addition to the region of unconditional stability caused by inertia, which was described in previous works [M. Bechert, D. W. Schubert, and B. Scheid, Eur. J. Mech B 52, 68 (2015), 10.1016/j.euromechflu.2015.02.005; Phys. Fluids 28, 024109 (2016), 10.1063/1.4941762]. Due to its importance for a particular group of fiber spinning applications, a viscous-gravity-surface-tension regime, i.e., negligible effect of inertia, is analyzed separately. The mechanism underlying the destabilizing effect of surface tension is discussed and established stability criteria are tested for validity in the presence of surface tension.

  6. Numerical simulation of superheated vapor bubble rising in stagnant liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkhaniani, N.; Ansari, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    In present study, the rising of superheated vapor bubble in saturated liquid is simulated using volume of fluid method in OpenFOAM cfd package. The surface tension between vapor-liquid phases is considered using continuous surface force method. In order to reduce spurious current near interface, Lafaurie smoothing filter is applied to improve curvature calculation. Phase change is considered using Tanasawa mass transfer model. The variation of saturation temperature in vapor bubble with local pressure is considered with simplified Clausius-Clapeyron relation. The couple velocity-pressure equation is solved using PISO algorithm. The numerical model is validated with: (1) isothermal bubble rising and (2) one-dimensional horizontal film condensation. Then, the shape and life time history of single superheated vapor bubble are investigated. The present numerical study shows vapor bubble in saturated liquid undergoes boiling and condensation. It indicates bubble life time is nearly linear proportional with bubble size and superheat temperature.

  7. Prediction of bubble detachment diameter in flow boiling based on force analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Deqi; Pan Liangming; Ren Song

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► All the forces acting on the growing bubbles are taken into account in the model. ► The bubble contact diameter has significant effect on bubble detachment. ► Bubble growth force and surface tension are more significant in narrow channel. ► A good agreement between the predicted and the measured results is achieved. - Abstract: Bubble detachment diameter is one of the key parameters in the study of bubble dynamics and boiling heat transfer, and it is hard to be measured in a boiling system. In order to predict the bubble detachment diameter, a theoretical model is proposed based on forces analysis in this paper. All the forces acting on a bubble are taken into account to establish a model for different flow boiling configurations, including narrow and conventional channels, upward, downward and horizontal flows. A correlation of bubble contact circle diameter is adopted in this study, and it is found that the bubble contact circle diameter has significant effect on bubble detachment. A new correlation taking the bubble contact circle diameter into account for the evaluation of bubble growth force is proposed in this study, and it is found that the bubble growth force and surface tension force are more significant in narrow channel when comparing with that in conventional channel. A visual experiment was carried out in order to verify present model; and the experimental data from published literature are used also. A good agreement between predicted and measured results is achieved.

  8. The air bubble entrapped under a drop impacting on a solid surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoroddsen, S. T.; Etoh, T. G.; Takehara, K.; Ootsuka, N.; Hatsuki, Y.

    2005-12-01

    We present experimental observations of the disk of air caught under a drop impacting onto a solid surface. By imaging the impact through an acrylic plate with an ultra-high-speed video camera, we can follow the evolution of the air disk as it contracts into a bubble under the centre of the drop. The initial size and contraction speed of the disk were measured for a range of impact Weber and Reynolds numbers. The size of the initial disk is related to the bottom curvature of the drop at the initial contact, as measured in free-fall. The initial contact often leaves behind a ring of micro-bubbles, marking its location. The air disk contracts at a speed comparable to the corresponding air disks caught under a drop impacting onto a liquid surface. This speed also seems independent of the wettability of the liquid, which only affects the azimuthal shape of the contact line. For some impact conditions, the dynamics of the contraction leaves a small droplet at the centre of the bubble. This arises from a capillary wave propagating from the edges of the contracting disk towards the centre. As the wave converges its amplitude grows until it touches the solid substrate, thereby pinching off the micro-droplet at the plate, in the centre of the bubble. The effect of increasing liquid viscosity is to slow down the contraction speed and to produce a more irregular contact line leaving more micro-bubbles along the initial ring.

  9. Letter: Entrapment and interaction of an air bubble with an oscillating cavitation bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Y. S.; Karri, Badarinath; Sahu, Kirti Chandra

    2018-04-01

    The mechanism of the formation of an air bubble due to an oscillating cavitation bubble in its vicinity is reported from an experimental study using high-speed imaging. The cavitation bubble is created close to the free surface of water using a low-voltage spark circuit comprising two copper electrodes in contact with each other. Before the bubble is created, a third copper wire is positioned in contact with the free surface of water close to the two crossing electrodes. Due to the surface tension at the triple point (wire-water-air) interface, a small dip is observed in the free surface at the point where the wire is immersed. When the cavitation bubble is created, the bubble pushes at the dip while expanding and pulls at it while collapsing. The collapse phase leads to the entrapment of an air bubble at the wire immersion point. During this phase, the air bubble undergoes a "catapult" effect, i.e., it expands to a maximum size and then collapses with a microjet at the free surface. To the best of our knowledge, this mechanism has not been reported so far. A parametric study is also conducted to understand the effects of wire orientation and bubble distance from the free surface.

  10. Surface tension and density of fusible metal melt with sulphur and selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najdich, Yu.V.; Krasovskij, Yu.P.; Chuvashov, Yu.N.

    1990-01-01

    Surface tension and density at 970 K have been determined for melts of Ga, In, Sn and Pb with S and Se. High surface activity of chalcogens in the melts has been found. A maximal adsorption of the active components and their ultimate surface activity that correlate with thermodinamical strength of the corresponding sulfides and selenides have been calculated

  11. Simulation of an Underwater Acoustic Communication Channel Characterized by Wind-Generated Surface Waves and Bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dol, H.S.; Colin, M.E.G.D.; Ainslie, M.A.; Walree, P.A. van; Janmaat, J.

    2012-01-01

    Sea surface scattering by wind-generated waves and bubbles is regarded to be the main non-platform related cause of the time variability of shallow acoustic communication channels. Simulations for predicting the quality of acoustic communication links in such channels thus require adequate modeling

  12. Some remarks on the solid surface tension determination from contact angle measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdziennicka, Anna; Szymczyk, Katarzyna; Krawczyk, Joanna; Jańczuk, Bronisław, E-mail: bronislaw.janczuk@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl

    2017-05-31

    Graphical abstract: Surface tension of PE, nylon 6 and quartz from different approaches to the interface tension. - Highlights: • New values of water and formamide surface tension components were established. • Quartz surface tension depends on its crystal face. • Usefulness of different approaches for solid surface tension determination was tested. - Abstract: The measurements of water, formamide and diiodomethane contact angle (θ) on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyethylene (PE), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), nylon 6, quartz and silica were performed. Based on the θ values of these liquids obtained on PTFE, the Lifshitz-van der Waals and acid-base and/or dispersion and polar components of their surface tension (ST) were determined. In turn, the θ values for water, formamide and diiodomethane on PMMA were applied to calculate the electron-acceptor and electron-donor parameters of the Lewis acid-base component of the formamide ST. For this calculation the same values of the electron-acceptor and electron-donor parameters for water ST were used. Taking into account the values of components and parameters of water, formamide and diiodomethane ST obtained by us, van Oss et al. and from the water(formamide)-n-alkane and water-diiodomethane interface tension, the components and parameters of studied solids ST were calculated. To this end different approaches to the interface tension were considered. The obtained values were compared with those in the literature. It was concluded that for determination of solid ST components and parameters, those of water, formamide and diiodomethane ST obtained from the θ measurements on the model solids should be used.

  13. Surface tension of droplets and Tolman lengths of real substances and mixtures from density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehner, Philipp; Gross, Joachim

    2018-04-01

    The curvature dependence of interfacial properties has been discussed extensively over the last decades. After Tolman published his work on the effect of droplet size on surface tension, where he introduced the interfacial property now known as Tolman length, several studies were performed with varying results. In recent years, however, some consensus has been reached about the sign and magnitude of the Tolman length of simple model fluids. In this work, we re-examine Tolman's equation and how it relates the Tolman length to the surface tension and we apply non-local classical density functional theory (DFT) based on the perturbed chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) to characterize the curvature dependence of the surface tension of real fluids as well as mixtures. In order to obtain a simple expression for the surface tension, we use a first-order expansion of the Tolman length as a function of droplet radius Rs, as δ(Rs) = δ0 + δ1/Rs, and subsequently expand Tolman's integral equation for the surface tension, whereby a second-order expansion is found to give excellent agreement with the DFT result. The radius-dependence of the surface tension of increasingly non-spherical substances is studied for n-alkanes, up to icosane. The infinite diameter Tolman length is approximately δ0 = -0.38 Å at low temperatures. For more strongly non-spherical substances and for temperatures approaching the critical point, however, the infinite diameter Tolman lengths δ0 turn positive. For mixtures, even if they contain similar molecules, the extrapolated Tolman length behaves strongly non-ideal, implying a qualitative change of the curvature behavior of the surface tension of the mixture.

  14. Time-dependent dynamical behavior of surface tension on rotating fluids under microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Tsao, Y. D.; Hong, B. B.; Leslie, F. W.

    1988-01-01

    Time dependent evolutions of the profile of free surface (bubble shapes) for a cylindrical container partially filled with a Newtonian fluid of constant density, rotating about its axis of symmetry, have been studied. Numerical computations of the dynamics of bubble shapes have been carried out with the following situations: (1) linear functions of spin-up and spin-down in low and microgravity environments, (2) step functions of spin-up and spin-down in a low gravity environment, and (3) sinusoidal function oscillation of gravity environment in high and low rotating cylinder speeds.

  15. A nonpolar, nonamphiphilic molecule can accelerate adsorption of phospholipids and lower their surface tension at the air/water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc Nghia; Trinh Dang, Thuan Thao; Waton, Gilles; Vandamme, Thierry; Krafft, Marie Pierre

    2011-10-04

    The adsorption dynamics of a series of phospholipids (PLs) at the interface between an aqueous solution or dispersion of the PL and a gas phase containing the nonpolar, nonamphiphilic linear perfluorocarbon perfluorohexane (PFH) was studied by bubble profile analysis tensiometry. The PLs investigated were dioctanoylphosphatidylcholine (DiC(8)-PC), dilaurylphosphatidylcholine, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. The gas phase consisted of air or air saturated with PFH. The perfluorocarbon gas was found to have an unexpected, strong effect on both the adsorption rate and the equilibrium interfacial tension (γ(eq)) of the PLs. First, for all of the PLs, and at all concentrations investigated, the γ(eq) values were significantly lower (by up to 10 mN m(-1)) when PFH was present in the gas phase. The efficacy of PFH in decreasing γ(eq) depends on the ability of PLs to form micelles or vesicles in water. For vesicles, it also depends on the gel or fluid state of the membranes. Second, the adsorption rates of all the PLs at the interface (as assessed by the time required for the initial interfacial tension to be reduced by 30%) are significantly accelerated (by up to fivefold) by the presence of PFH for the lower PL concentrations. Both the surface-tension reducing effect and the adsorption rate increasing effect establish that PFH has a strong interaction with the PL monolayer and acts as a cosurfactant at the interface, despite the absence of any amphiphilic character. Fitting the adsorption profiles of DiC(8)-PC at the PFH-saturated air/aqueous solution interface with the modified Frumkin model indicated that the PFH molecule lay horizontally at the interface. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Dynamical behavior of surface tension on rotating fluids in low and microgravity environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Tsao, Y. D.; Hong, B. B.; Leslie, F. W.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to the time-dependent evolutions of the free surface profile (bubble shapes) of a cylindrical container, partially filled with a Newtonian fluid of constant density, rotating about its axis of symmetry in low and microgravity environments. The dynamics of the bubble shapes are calculated for four cases: linear time-dependent functions of spin-up and spin-down in low and microgravity, linear time-dependent functions of increasing and decreasing gravity at high and low rotating cylinder speeds, time-dependent step functions of spin-up and spin-down in low gravity, and sinusoidal function oscillation of the gravity environment in high and low rotating cylinder speeds. It is shown that the computer algorithms developed by Hung et al. (1988) may be used to simulate the profile of time-dependent bubble shapes under variations of centrifugal, capillary, and gravity forces.

  17. Surface Tension of Multi-phase Flow with Multiple Junctions Governed by the Variational Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsutani, Shigeki; Nakano, Kota; Shinjo, Katsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    We explore a computational model of an incompressible fluid with a multi-phase field in three-dimensional Euclidean space. By investigating an incompressible fluid with a two-phase field geometrically, we reformulate the expression of the surface tension for the two-phase field found by Lafaurie et al. (J Comput Phys 113:134–147, 1994) as a variational problem related to an infinite dimensional Lie group, the volume-preserving diffeomorphism. The variational principle to the action integral with the surface energy reproduces their Euler equation of the two-phase field with the surface tension. Since the surface energy of multiple interfaces even with singularities is not difficult to be evaluated in general and the variational formulation works for every action integral, the new formulation enables us to extend their expression to that of a multi-phase (N-phase, N ≥ 2) flow and to obtain a novel Euler equation with the surface tension of the multi-phase field. The obtained Euler equation governs the equation for motion of the multi-phase field with different surface tension coefficients without any difficulties for the singularities at multiple junctions. In other words, we unify the theory of multi-phase fields which express low dimensional interface geometry and the theory of the incompressible fluid dynamics on the infinite dimensional geometry as a variational problem. We apply the equation to the contact angle problems at triple junctions. We computed the fluid dynamics for a two-phase field with a wall numerically and show the numerical computational results that for given surface tension coefficients, the contact angles are generated by the surface tension as results of balances of the kinematic energy and the surface energy.

  18. Gas transport into a cavitation bubble during the explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenziel, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    When considering cavitation bubbles exploding from small stream nuclei the surface tension plays an important role, and mostly negative pressures exist in the surroundings of such a bubble. During the short explosion time, the gas and vapor pressure in the bubble plays no important role in the dynamic process. The high radial velocity of the bubble wall introduces a steep gradient in the concentration of dissolved air near it, which results in some enforced gas transport into the bubble. During the bubble implosion it is necessary to take into account the amount of gas in the bubble, as it certainly plays an important role in exploring the cavitation erosion. In this survey the solution of a mathematical model for the gas diffusion process is compared with some experimental results

  19. Determination of surface tension coefficient of liquids by diffraction of light on capillary waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolić, D; Nešić, Lj

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a simple technique for determining the coefficient of the surface tension of liquids, based on laser light diffraction on capillary waves. Capillary waves of given frequency are created by an exciter needle acting on the surface of liquid and represent a reflective diffraction grating, the constant of which (the wavelength of capillary waves) can be determined based on a known incidence angle of light (grazing angle). We obtain the coefficient of the surface tension of liquids by applying the dispersion relation for capillary waves and analyze the difficulties that arise when setting up and conducting the experiment in detail. (paper)

  20. Temporal instability of viscous liquid microjets with spatially varying surface tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlani, E P [Integrated Materials and Microstructures Laboratory, Electronic Imaging Products, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, NY 14650-2121 (United States)

    2005-01-07

    A linear theory is developed for the temporal instability of a viscous liquid microjet of Newtonian fluid with a spatially periodic variation of surface tension imposed along its length. The variation of surface tension induces Marangoni flow within the jet that leads to breakup and drop formation. An analytical expression is derived for the behaviour of the free surface of the microjet. This expression is useful for parametric analysis of jet instability and breakup as a function of jet radius, wavelength and fluid properties.

  1. Temporal instability of viscous liquid microjets with spatially varying surface tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlani, E P

    2005-01-01

    A linear theory is developed for the temporal instability of a viscous liquid microjet of Newtonian fluid with a spatially periodic variation of surface tension imposed along its length. The variation of surface tension induces Marangoni flow within the jet that leads to breakup and drop formation. An analytical expression is derived for the behaviour of the free surface of the microjet. This expression is useful for parametric analysis of jet instability and breakup as a function of jet radius, wavelength and fluid properties

  2. Surface tension of liquid Cu-Ti binary alloys measured by electromagnetic levitation and thermodynamic modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, S.; Brillo, J.; Egry, I.; Novakovic, R.

    2011-01-01

    The surface tension of liquid Cu-Ti alloys has been measured by using the containerless technique of electromagnetic levitation and theoretically calculated in the framework of the compound formation model. Measurements have been carried out on alloys covering the entire range of composition and over the temperature range 1275-2050 K. For all investigated alloys the surface tension can be described by a linear function of the temperature with negative slope. Due to the presence of different intermetallic compounds in the solid state the surface properties of liquid Cu-Ti alloys are satisfactory described by the compound formation model.

  3. Unusual shapes for a catenary under the effects of surface tension and gravity: A variational treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behroozi, F.; Mohazzabi, P.; McCrickard, J.

    1995-01-01

    The familiar catenary is the shape assumed by a chain or string as it hangs from two points. The mathematical equation of the catenary was first published more than three hundred years ago by Leibnitz and Huygen, among others. Here we consider the shapes assumed by a hanging string in the presence of gravity and surface tension. The surface tension is introduced by suspending the string from a thin horizontal rod while the area bounded by the string and the rod is covered with a soap film. The string then assumes new and wonderful shapes depending on the relative strength of the surface tension and the weight per unit length of the string. When surface tension dominates, the string is pulled inward, assuming a convex shape similar to the Greek letter γ. On the other hand, when gravity is dominant the string is pulled outward and assumes a concave shape best described as a distorted catenary. However, when the gravitational force normal to the string matches the surface tension, the string takes a linear configuration similar to the letter V. Under suitable conditions, the string can be made to assume any of the three configurations by adjusting the separation of its end points. The equations that describe the shape of the string are derived by minimizing the total energy of the system and are presented for the three principal configurations

  4. Axisymmetric drop shape analysis for estimating the surface tension of cell aggregates by centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantarian, Ali; Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Saad, Sameh M I; David, Robert; Winklbauer, Rudolf; Neumann, A Wilhelm

    2009-02-18

    Biological tissues behave in certain respects like liquids. Consequently, the surface tension concept can be used to explain aspects of the in vitro and in vivo behavior of multicellular aggregates. Unfortunately, conventional methods of surface tension measurement cannot be readily applied to small cell aggregates. This difficulty can be overcome by an experimentally straightforward method consisting of centrifugation followed by axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA). Since the aggregates typically show roughness, standard ADSA cannot be applied and we introduce a novel numerical method called ADSA-IP (ADSA for imperfect profile) for this purpose. To examine the new methodology, embryonic tissues from the gastrula of the frog, Xenopus laevis, deformed in the centrifuge are used. It is confirmed that surface tension measurements are independent of centrifugal force and aggregate size. Surface tension is measured for ectodermal cells in four sample batches, and varies between 1.1 and 7.7 mJ/m2. Surface tension is also measured for aggregates of cells expressing cytoplasmically truncated EP/C-cadherin, and is approximately half as large. In parallel, such aggregates show a reduction in convergent extension-driven elongation after activin treatment, reflecting diminished intercellular cohesion.

  5. Surface tension estimation of high temperature melts of the binary alloys Ag-Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Ali; Arslan, Hüseyin

    2017-11-01

    Surface tension calculation of the binary alloys Ag-Au at the temperature of 1381 K, where Ag and Au have similar electronic structures and their atomic radii are comparable, are carried out in this study using several equations over entire composition range of Au. Apparently, the deviations from ideality of the bulk solutions, such as activities of Ag and Au are small and the maximum excess Gibbs free energy of mixing of the liquid phase is for instance -4500 J/mol at XAu = 0.5. Besides, the results obtained in Ag-Au alloys that at a constant temperature the surface tension increases with increasing composition while the surface tension decreases as the temperature increases for entire composition range of Au. Although data about surface tension of the Ag-Au alloy are limited, it was possible to make a comparison for the calculated results for the surface tension in this study with the available experimental data. Taken together, the average standard error analysis that especially the improved Guggenheim model in the other models gives the best agreement along with the experimental results at temperature 1383 K although almost all models are mutually in agreement with the other one.

  6. Design of an experimental apparatus for measurement of the surface tension of metastable fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinš, V.; Hrubý, J.; Hykl, J.; Blaha, J.; Šmíd, B.

    2013-04-01

    A unique experimental apparatus for measurement of the surface tension of aqueous mixtures has been designed, manufactured, and tested in our laboratory. The novelty of the setup is that it allows measurement of surface tension by two different methods: a modified capillary elevation method in a long vertical capillary tube and a method inspired by the approach of Hacker (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Technical Note 2510, 1-20, 1951), i.e. in a short horizontal capillary tube. Functionality of all main components of the apparatus, e.g., glass chamber with the capillary tube, temperature control unit consisting of two thermostatic baths with special valves for rapid temperature jumps, helium distribution setup allowing pressure variation above the liquid meniscus inside the capillary tube, has been successfully tested. Preliminary results for the surface tension of the stable and metastable supercooled water measured by the capillary elevation method at atmospheric pressure are provided. The surface tension of water measured at temperatures between +26 °C and -11 °C is in good agreement with the extrapolated IAPWS correlation (IAPWS Release on Surface Tension of Ordinary Water Substance, September 1994); however it disagrees with data by Hacker.

  7. Modeling the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwier, A. N.; Viglione, G. A.; Li, Z.; McNeill, V. Faye

    2013-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosols can contain thousands of organic compounds which impact aerosol surface tension, affecting aerosol properties such as heterogeneous reactivity, ice nucleation, and cloud droplet formation. We present new experimental data for the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic aqueous mixtures mimicking tropospheric aerosols. Each solution contained 2-6 organic compounds, including methylglyoxal, glyoxal, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, oxalic acid, succinic acid, leucine, alanine, glycine, and serine, with and without ammonium sulfate. We test two semi-empirical surface tension models and find that most reactive, complex, aqueous organic mixtures which do not contain salt are well described by a weighted Szyszkowski-Langmuir (S-L) model which was first presented by Henning et al. (2005). Two approaches for modeling the effects of salt were tested: (1) the Tuckermann approach (an extension of the Henning model with an additional explicit salt term), and (2) a new implicit method proposed here which employs experimental surface tension data obtained for each organic species in the presence of salt used with the Henning model. We recommend the use of method (2) for surface tension modeling of aerosol systems because the Henning model (using data obtained from organic-inorganic systems) and Tuckermann approach provide similar modeling results and goodness-of-fit (χ2) values, yet the Henning model is a simpler and more physical approach to modeling the effects of salt, requiring less empirically determined parameters.

  8. Interaction of the Helium, Hydrogen, Air, Argon, and Nitrogen Bubbles with Graphite Surface in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartali, Ruben; Otyepka, Michal; Pykal, Martin; Lazar, Petr; Micheli, Victor; Gottardi, Gloria; Laidani, Nadhira

    2017-05-24

    The interaction of the confined gas with solid surface immersed in water is a common theme of many important fields such as self-cleaning surface, gas storage, and sensing. For that reason, we investigated the gas-graphite interaction in the water medium. The graphite surface was prepared by mechanical exfoliation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). The surface chemistry and morphology were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, profilometry, and atomic force microscopy. The surface energy of HOPG was estimated by contact angle measurements using the Owens-Wendt method. The interaction of gases (Ar, He, H 2 , N 2 , and air) with graphite was studied by a captive bubble method, in which the gas bubble was in contact with the exfoliated graphite surface in water media. The experimental data were corroborated by molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory calculations. The surface energy of HOPG equaled to 52.8 mJ/m 2 and more of 95% of the surface energy was attributed to dispersion interactions. The results on gas-surface interaction indicated that HOPG surface had gasphilic behavior for helium and hydrogen, while gasphobic behavior for argon and nitrogen. The results showed that the variation of the gas contact angle was related to the balance between the gas-surface and gas-gas interaction potentials. For helium and hydrogen the gas-surface interaction was particularly high compared to gas-gas interaction and this promoted the favorable interaction with graphite surface.

  9. Spreading of oil films on water in the surface tension regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Surface tension forces will cause an oil to spread over water if the tension of the oil film (the summed surface and interfacial tensions for bulk oil films, or the equilibrium spreading tension for monomolecular films) is less than the surface tension of water. For oil films spreading in a 40 cm long channel, measurements are made of leading edge position and lateral profiles of film thickness, velocity, and tension as a function of time. Measurements of the tension profiles, important for evaluating proposed theories, is made possible by the development of a new technique based on the Wilhelmy method. The oils studied were silicones, fatty acids and alcohols, and mixtures of surfactants in otherwise nonspreading oils. The single-component oils show an acceleration zone connecting a slow-moving inner region with a fast-moving leading monolayer. The dependence of film tension on film thickness for spreading single-component oils often differs from that at equilibrium. The mixtures show a bulk oil film configuration which extends to the leading edge and have velocity profiles which increase smoothly. The theoretical framework, similarity transformation, and asymptotic solutions of Foda and Cox for single-component oils were shown to be valid. An analysis of spreading surfactant-oil mixtures is developed which allows them to be treated under this framework. An easily-used semi-empirical model is proposed which allows them to be treated under this framework. An easily-used semi-empirical model is proposed which allows accurate prediction of detailed spreading behavior for any spreading oil.

  10. Expressions of the radius and the surface tension of surface of tension in terms of the pressure distribution for nanoscale liquid threads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Hong; Wei Jiu-An; Cui Shu-Wen; Zhu Ru-Zeng

    2013-01-01

    The expressions of the radius and the surface tension of surface of tension R s and γ s in terms of the pressure distribution for nanoscale liquid threads are of great importance for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the interfacial phenomena of nanoscale fluids; these two basic expressions are derived in this paper. Although these expressions were derived first in the literature [Kim B G, Lee J S, Han M H, and Park S, 2006 Nanoscale and Microscale Thermophysical Engineering, 10, 283] and used widely thereafter, the derivation is wrong both in logical structure and physical thought. In view of the importance of these basic expressions, the logic and physical mistakes appearing in that derivation are pointed out. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  11. The surface tension of pure liquids. Thermodynamic components and corresponding states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyklema, J.

    1999-01-01

    From the temperature dependency of surface and interfacial tensions the surface excess energy and entropy per unit area can be obtained. The excess energy is a liquid-specific property; it varies over about three decades between liquid helium and molten metals. On the other hand, the excess entropy

  12. Performing chemical reactions in virtual capillary of surface tension ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The flow paths were fabricated by making parallel lines using permanent marker pen ink or other polymer on glass surfaces. Two mirror image patterned glass plates were then sandwiched one on top of the other, separated by a thin gap - created using a spacer. The aqueous liquid moves between the surfaces by capillary ...

  13. Concentration Dependences of the Surface Tension and Density of Solutions of Acetone-Ethanol-Water Systems at 293 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashev, R. Kh.; Dzhambulatov, R. S.; Mezhidov, V. Kh.; Elimkhanov, D. Z.

    2018-05-01

    Concentration dependences of the surface tension and density of solutions of three-component acetone-ethanol-water systems and the bounding binary systems at 273 K are studied. The molar volume, adsorption, and composition of surface layers are calculated. Experimental data and calculations show that three-component solutions are close to ideal ones. The surface tensions of these solutions are calculated using semi-empirical and theoretical equations. Theoretical equations qualitatively convey the concentration dependence of surface tension. A semi-empirical method based on the Köhler equation allows us to predict the concentration dependence of surface tension within the experimental error.

  14. Noncontact surface tension and viscosity measurements of rhenium in the liquid and undercooled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Takehiko; Paradis, Paul-Francois; Yoda, Shinichi

    2004-01-01

    Surface tension and viscosity of liquid rhenium, which have hardly been measured due to the extremely high melting temperature of rhenium, were measured using an electrostatic levitation method combined with the oscillation drop technique. Sample position instability problems caused by the photon pressure of the heating lasers and by sample evaporation were solved by modifying the electrodes design. Good sample stability allowed the measurements of the surface tension and the viscosity over wide temperature ranges including the undercooled states. Over the 2800-3600 K interval, the surface tension of rhenium was measured as σ(T)=2.71x10 3 -0.23(T-T m ), where T m is the melting temperature, 3453 K. At T m , the datum agrees well with the literature values. Similarly, on the same temperature range, the viscosity was determined as η(T)=0.08 exp[1.33x10 5 /(RT)] (mPa s)

  15. A hybrid model to predict the onset of gas entrainment with surface tension effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, W.; Bowden, R.C.; Hassan, I.G.; Kadem, L.

    2008-01-01

    The onset of gas entrainment, in a single downward oriented discharge from a stratified gas-liquid region with was modeled. The assumptions made in the development of the model reduced the problem to that of a potential flow. The discharge was modeled as a point-sink. Through use of the Kelvin-Laplace equation the model included the effects of surface tension. The resulting model required further knowledge of the flow field, specifically the dip radius of curvature prior to the onset of gas entrainment. The dip shape and size was investigated experimentally and correlations were provided to characterize the dip in terms of the discharge Froude number. The experimental correlation was used in conjunction with the theoretical model to predict the critical height. The results showed that by including surface tension effects the predicted critical height showed excellent agreement with experimental data. Surface tension reduces the critical height through the Bond number

  16. Predicting the minimum liquid surface tension activity of pseudomonads expressing biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, I U; Deeni, Y; Hapca, S M; McLaughlin, K; Spiers, A J

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria produce a variety of biosurfactants capable of significantly reducing liquid (aqueous) surface tension (γ) with a range of biological roles and biotechnological uses. To determine the lowest achievable surface tension (γMin ), we tested a diverse collection of Pseudomonas-like isolates from contaminated soil and activated sludge and identified those expressing biosurfactants by drop-collapse assay. Liquid surface tension-reducing ability was quantitatively determined by tensiometry, with 57 isolates found to significantly lower culture supernatant surface tensions to 24·5-49·1 mN m(-1) . Differences in biosurfactant behaviour determined by foaming, emulsion and oil-displacement assays were also observed amongst isolates producing surface tensions of 25-27 mN m(-1) , suggesting that a range of structurally diverse biosurfactants were being expressed. Individual distribution identification (IDI) analysis was used to identify the theoretical probability distribution that best fitted the surface tension data, which predicted a γMin of 24·24 mN m(-1) . This was in agreement with predictions based on earlier work of published mixed bacterial spp. data, suggesting a fundamental limit to the ability of bacterial biosurfactants to reduce surface tensions in aqueous systems. This implies a biological restriction on the synthesis and export of these agents or a physical-chemical restriction on their functioning once produced. Numerous surveys of biosurfactant-producing bacteria have been conducted, but only recently has an attempt been made to predict the minimum liquid surface tension these surface-active agents can achieve. Here, we determine a theoretical minimum of 24 mN m(-1) by statistical analysis of tensiometry data, suggesting a fundamental limit for biosurfactant activity in bacterial cultures incubated under standard growth conditions. This raises a challenge to our understanding of biosurfactant expression, secretion and function, as well as

  17. Effect of electrolytes on surface tension and surface adsorption of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemian, Ensieh; Najafi, Mojgan; Rafati, Amir Abbas; Felegari, Zahra

    2010-01-01

    Surface and bulk properties of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [C 6 mim][Cl] as an ionic liquid (IL) have been investigated by surface tension and electrical conductivity techniques at various temperatures. Results reveal that the ionic liquid behaves as surfactant-like and aggregates in aqueous solution. Critical aggregation concentration (cac) values obtained by conductivity and surface tension measurements are in good agreement with values found in the literature. A series of important and useful adsorption parameters including cac, surface excess concentration (Γ), and minimum surface area per molecule (A min ) at the air + water interface were estimated from surface tension in the presence and absence of different electrolytes. Obtained data show that the surface tension as well as the cac of [C 6 mim][Cl] is reduced by electrolytes. Also, values of surface excess concentration (Γ) show that the IL ions in the presence of electrolyte have much larger affinity to adsorption at the surface and this affinity increased in aqueous electrolyte solution in the order of I - > Br - > Cl - for counter ion of salts that was explained in terms of a larger repulsion of chloride anions from interface to the bromide and iodide anion as well as difference in their excess polarizability.

  18. The gas-bubble superlattice and the development of surface structure in He+ and H+ irradiated metals at 300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.B.; Mazey, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to investigate the spatial arrangement of the small gas bubbles produced at 300 K in several fcc metals including copper and in the hcp metal titanium by 30 keV helium ion irradiation, and in copper by 16 keV proton irradiation. For the fcc metals it is found that the helium gas bubbles lie on a superlattice having a fcc structure with principal axes aligned with those of the metal matrix. The bubble lattice constant, α 1 , measured for a helium fluence just below the critical dose for radiation blistering of the metal surface (approx. equal to 4 x 10 21 He + /m 2 ) is typically approx. equal to 7 nm with bubble diameters typically approx. equal to 2 nm. For titanium, similar bubble ordering is seen is samples irradiated to a level of approx. equal to 1.5 x 10 22 He + /m 2 , with bubble sizes and spacings approximately 50% greater than those for the fcc metals. Pipe-like passages formed by the interconnection of strings of helium gas bubbles are evident in all metals studied. Superlattice formation is also a freature of the hydrogen bubble structure in copper following irradiation to a level of approx. equal to 1.3 x 10 23 H + /m 2 . At an early stage of bubble development small bubbles (approx. equal to 2 nm diameter) arranged on a lattice of spacing α 1 approx. equal to 12 nm are found. The bubble structure evolves further through several well-defined stages before radiation blistering of the surface occurs. Some implications for gas release and for synergistic effects in irradiated surfaces are suggested by these results and by those obtained in other recent experiments. (orig.)

  19. Simulation of Two-Fluid Flows by the Least-Squares Finite Element Method Using a Continuum Surface Tension Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Yu, Sheng-Tao; Jiang, Bo-nan

    1996-01-01

    In this paper a numerical procedure for simulating two-fluid flows is presented. This procedure is based on the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method proposed by Hirt and Nichols and the continuum surface force (CSF) model developed by Brackbill, et al. In the VOF method fluids of different properties are identified through the use of a continuous field variable (color function). The color function assigns a unique constant (color) to each fluid. The interfaces between different fluids are distinct due to sharp gradients of the color function. The evolution of the interfaces is captured by solving the convective equation of the color function. The CSF model is used as a means to treat surface tension effect at the interfaces. Here a modified version of the CSF model, proposed by Jacqmin, is used to calculate the tension force. In the modified version, the force term is obtained by calculating the divergence of a stress tensor defined by the gradient of the color function. In its analytical form, this stress formulation is equivalent to the original CSF model. Numerically, however, the use of the stress formulation has some advantages over the original CSF model, as it bypasses the difficulty in approximating the curvatures of the interfaces. The least-squares finite element method (LSFEM) is used to discretize the governing equation systems. The LSFEM has proven to be effective in solving incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and pure convection equations, making it an ideal candidate for the present applications. The LSFEM handles all the equations in a unified manner without any additional special treatment such as upwinding or artificial dissipation. Various bench mark tests have been carried out for both two dimensional planar and axisymmetric flows, including a dam breaking, oscillating and stationary bubbles and a conical liquid sheet in a pressure swirl atomizer.

  20. A new corresponding state-based correlation for the surface tension of organic fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuihua; Tian, Jianxiang; Zheng, Mengmeng; Yi, Huili; Zhang, Laibin; Liu, Shuzhen

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed a new corresponding state-based correlation for organic fatty (aliphatic, carboxylic and polyfunctional) acids. By using the recently published surface tension data of the 99 acids [A. Mulero and I. Cachadiña, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 45 (2016) 033105] and comparing with the recently published other corresponding state correlations, we found that this correlation reproduces the lowest absolute average deviation (AAD) values for 82 acids out of the 99 acids. It can reproduce the surface tension data with AAD less than 10% for 89 out of the 99 acids.

  1. Surface tension effect on the mechanical properties of nanomaterials measured by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenot, Stéphane; Frétigny, Christian; Demoustier-Champagne, Sophie; Nysten, Bernard

    2004-04-01

    The effect of reduced size on the elastic properties measured on silver and lead nanowires and on polypyrrole nanotubes with an outer diameter ranging between 30 and 250 nm is presented and discussed. Resonant-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to measure their apparent elastic modulus. The measured modulus of the nanomaterials with smaller diameters is significantly higher than that of the larger ones. The latter is comparable to the macroscopic modulus of the materials. The increase of the apparent elastic modulus for the smaller diameters is attributed to surface tension effects. The surface tension of the probed material may be experimentally determined from these AFM measurements.

  2. An adaptive finite element method for simulating surface tension with the gradient theory of fluid interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng; Sun, Shuyu

    2014-01-01

    The gradient theory for the surface tension of simple fluids and mixtures is rigorously analyzed based on mathematical theory. The finite element approximation of surface tension is developed and analyzed, and moreover, an adaptive finite element method based on a physical-based estimator is proposed and it can be coupled efficiently with Newton's method as well. The numerical tests are carried out both to verify the proposed theory and to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An adaptive finite element method for simulating surface tension with the gradient theory of fluid interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2014-01-01

    The gradient theory for the surface tension of simple fluids and mixtures is rigorously analyzed based on mathematical theory. The finite element approximation of surface tension is developed and analyzed, and moreover, an adaptive finite element method based on a physical-based estimator is proposed and it can be coupled efficiently with Newton\\'s method as well. The numerical tests are carried out both to verify the proposed theory and to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A simple laboratory experiment to measure the surface tension of a liquid in contact with air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riba, Jordi-Roger; Esteban, Bernat

    2014-01-01

    A simple and accurate laboratory experiment to measure the surface tension of liquids has been developed, which is well suited to teach the behaviour of liquids to first- or second-year students of physics, engineering or chemistry. The experimental setup requires relatively inexpensive equipment usually found in physics and chemistry laboratories, since it consists of a used or recycled burette, an analytical balance and a stereoscopic microscope or a micrometer. Experimental data and error analysis show that the surface tension of distilled water, 1-butanol and glycerol can be determined with accuracy better than 1.4%. (paper)

  5. Interrelation of surface tension, optical turbidity, and color of operational transformer oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L’vov, S. Yu.; Lyut’ko, E. O.; Lankau, Ya. V.; Komarov, V. B.; Seliverstov, A. F.; Bondareva, V. N.; L’vov, Yu. N.; L’vov, M. Yu.; Ershov, B. G.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of the acidity, optical turbidity, surface tension, and color of transformer oil from 54 power transformers, autotransformers, and shunt reactors are reported. Changes in surface tension, optical turbidity, and color are found to obey adequate linear correlations, while the acidity has no correlation with any of these properties. Numerical criteria for the maximum permissible state (quality) of the oil with respect to optical turbidity and color are obtained. Recommendations to operating staff are provided for cases in which the criteria for optical turbidity and color are exceeded.

  6. Multi-phase-field method for surface tension induced elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiedung, Raphael; Steinbach, Ingo; Varnik, Fathollah

    2018-01-01

    A method, based on the multi-phase-field framework, is proposed that adequately accounts for the effects of a coupling between surface free energy and elastic deformation in solids. The method is validated via a number of analytically solvable problems. In addition to stress states at mechanical equilibrium in complex geometries, the underlying multi-phase-field framework naturally allows us to account for the influence of surface energy induced stresses on phase transformation kinetics. This issue, which is of fundamental importance on the nanoscale, is demonstrated in the limit of fast diffusion for a solid sphere, which melts due to the well-known Gibbs-Thompson effect. This melting process is slowed down when coupled to surface energy induced elastic deformation.

  7. Simultaneous measurement of surface tension and viscosity using freely decaying oscillations of acoustically levitated droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, J.; Kilzer, A.; Petermann, M.

    2018-01-01

    Oscillations of small liquid drops around a spherical shape have been of great interest to scientists measuring physical properties such as interfacial tension and viscosity, over the last few decades. A powerful tool for contactless positioning is acoustic levitation, which has been used to simultaneously determine the surface tension and viscosity of liquids at ambient pressure. In order to extend this acoustic levitation measurement method to high pressure systems, the method is first evaluated under ambient pressure. To measure surface tension and viscosity using acoustically levitated oscillating drops, an image analysis method has to be developed and factors which may affect measurement, such as sound field or oscillation amplitude, have to be analyzed. In this paper, we describe the simultaneous measurement of surface tension and viscosity using freely decaying shape oscillations of acoustically levitated droplets of different liquids (silicone oils AK 5 and AK 10, squalane, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol, and 1-octanol) in air. These liquids vary in viscosity from 2 to about 30 mPa s. An acoustic levitation system, including an optimized standing wave acoustic levitator and a high-speed camera, was used for this study. An image analysis was performed with a self-written Matlab® code. The frequency of oscillation and the damping constant, required for the determination of surface tension and viscosity, respectively, were calculated from the evolution of the equatorial and polar radii. The results and observations are compared to data from the literature in order to analyze the accuracy of surface tension and viscosity determination, as well as the effect of non-spherical drop shape or amplitude of oscillation on measurement.

  8. Combined Molecular Dynamics Simulation-Molecular-Thermodynamic Theory Framework for Predicting Surface Tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sresht, Vishnu; Lewandowski, Eric P; Blankschtein, Daniel; Jusufi, Arben

    2017-08-22

    A molecular modeling approach is presented with a focus on quantitative predictions of the surface tension of aqueous surfactant solutions. The approach combines classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations with a molecular-thermodynamic theory (MTT) [ Y. J. Nikas, S. Puvvada, D. Blankschtein, Langmuir 1992 , 8 , 2680 ]. The MD component is used to calculate thermodynamic and molecular parameters that are needed in the MTT model to determine the surface tension isotherm. The MD/MTT approach provides the important link between the surfactant bulk concentration, the experimental control parameter, and the surfactant surface concentration, the MD control parameter. We demonstrate the capability of the MD/MTT modeling approach on nonionic alkyl polyethylene glycol surfactants at the air-water interface and observe reasonable agreement of the predicted surface tensions and the experimental surface tension data over a wide range of surfactant concentrations below the critical micelle concentration. Our modeling approach can be extended to ionic surfactants and their mixtures with both ionic and nonionic surfactants at liquid-liquid interfaces.

  9. Experimental and theoretical study of surface tension of binary mixtures of (n-alkyl acetates + heptane, benzene, and toluene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafati, Amir Abbas; Ghasemian, Ensieh

    2009-01-01

    Surface properties of binary mixtures of (n-alkyl acetates + heptane, benzene, and toluene) have been measured by surface tension method at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. Also, the surface tension has been predicted based on the Suarez method. This method combines a model for the description of surface tension of liquid mixtures with a group contribution method for the calculation of activity coefficient. The mean relative standard deviations obtained from the comparison of experimental (measured) and calculated surface tension values for the eight binary systems are less than 1.5%, which leads to concluding that the model shows a good accuracy in different situations in comparison with other predicted equations. In addition, the relative Gibbs adsorption and the surface mole fraction have been evaluated using this model. The surface tension deviations were calculated from experimental results and have been fitted to the Redlich-Kister type polynomial relation

  10. Fowler's approximation for the surface tension and surface energy of Lennard-Jones fluids revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulero, A [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071-Badajoz (Spain); Galan, C [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071-Badajoz (Spain); Cuadros, F [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071-Badajoz (Spain)

    2003-04-16

    We present a detailed study of the validity of Fowler's approximation for calculating the surface tension and the surface energy of Lennard-Jones fluids. To do so, we consider three different explicit analytical expressions for the radial distribution function (RDF), including one proposed by our research group, together with very accurate expressions for the liquid and vapour densities, also proposed by our group. The calculation of the surface tension from the direct correlation function using both the Percus-Yevick and the hypernetted-chain approximations is also considered. Finally, our results are compared with those obtained by other authors by computer simulations or through relevant theoretical approximations. In particular, we consider the analytical expression proposed by Kalikmanov and Hofmans (1994 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 6 2207-14) for the surface tension. Our results indicate that the values for the surface energy in Fowler's approximation obtained by other authors are adequate, and can be calculated from the RDF models. For the surface tension, however, the values considered as valid in previous works seem to be incorrect. The correct values can be obtained from our model for the RDF or from the Kalikmanov and Hofmans expression with suitable inputs.

  11. Measurement and Modeling of Surface Tensions of Asymmetric Systems: Heptane, Eicosane, Docosane, Tetracosane and their Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queimada, Antonio; Silva, Filipa A. E.; Caco, Ana I.

    2003-01-01

    To extend the surface tension database for heavy or asymmetric n-alkane mixtures, measurements were performed using the Wilhelmy plate method. Measured systems included the binary mixtures heptane + eicosane, heptane + docosane and heptane + tetracosane and the ternary mixture heptane + eicosane ...

  12. Measurement and Modeling of Surface Tensions of Asymmetric Systems: Heptane, Eicosane, Docosane, Tetracosane and their Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queimada, Antonio; Silva, Filipa A.E; Caco, Ana I.

    2003-01-01

    To extend the surface tension database for heavy or asymmetric n-alkane mixtures, measurements were performed using the Wilhelmy plate method. Measured systems included the binary mixtures heptane + eicosane, heptane + docosane and heptane + tetracosane and the ternary mixture heptane + eicosane...

  13. Generation of Recommendable Values for the Surface Tension of Water Using a Nonparametric Regression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pátek, Jaroslav; Součková, Monika; Klomfar, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2016), s. 928-935 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00145S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : water * surface tension * experimental data * recommended data Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.323, year: 2016

  14. Standard reference data for the air-liquid and vapor-liquid surface tension of benzene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Součková, Monika; Klomfar, Jaroslav; Pátek, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 356, October (2013), s. 329-337 ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/0010 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : benzene * surface tension * experimental data * standard reference data Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.241, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378381213004196

  15. Estimation of the Critical Temperatures of Some More Deep Eutectic Solvents from Their Surface Tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhak Marcus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The critical temperatures of two dozen deep eutectic solvents, for only some of which these have been estimated previously, were estimated from the temperature dependences of their surface tensions and densities available in the literature according to the Eötvös and the Guggenheim expressions.

  16. Density, viscosity and surface tension of liquid phase Beckmann rearrangement mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidhof, K.T.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Schouten, J.C.; Tinge, J.T.

    2015-01-01

    We have determined the density, dynamic viscosity, and surface tension of liquid phase Beckmann rearrangement mixtures, consisting of e-caprolactam and fuming oleum. These important properties have been measured in wide ranges of both temperature and molar ratios of acid and e-caprolactam, covering

  17. On the theory of type-I superconductor surface tension and twinning-plane-superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishonov, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    A correction is found to the surface tension in type-I superconductors which is proportional to the square root of the Ginsburg-Landau parameter. This correction is essential for obtaining the phase diagram and other thermodynamical variables of the narrow superconducting layer arising near the twinning plane in some metals

  18. Development of corresponding states model for estimation of the surface tension of chemical compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharagheizi, Farhad; Eslamimanesh, Ali; Sattari, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    include critical temperature or temperature/critical volume/acentric factor/critical pressure/reduced temperature/reduced normal boiling point temperature/molecular weight of the compounds. Around 1,300 surface tension data of 118 random compounds are used for developing the first model (a four...

  19. Relationship between surface tension and refractive index in binary non-electrolyte mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, I.L.; Pedrosa, G.C.; Katz, M.

    1990-01-01

    Lorentz-Lorenz equation for molecular refraction has been combined with Sugden's parachor equation for binary non-electrolyte mixtures at 298.15 K. The obtained equation has been shown successful in calculating values of surface tensions, by measuring refractive indices of the binary mixtures at the same mole fractions. The estimated error decreases when the mixtures present possible isorefractives. (Author) [es

  20. Surface tension of heptane, decane, hexadecane, eicosane, and some of their binary mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolo, Lara I.; Caco, Ana I.; Queimada, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Surface tension measurements were performed by the Wilhelmy plate method. Measured systems included pure heptane, decane, hexadecane, eicosane, and some of their binary mixtures at temperatures from 293.15 K to 343.15 K with an average absolute deviation of 1.6%. The results were compared with a ...

  1. On Surface Tension for Compact Stars R. Sharma & S. D. Maharaj

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In an earlier analysis it was demonstrated that general rel- ativity gives higher values of surface tension in strange stars with quark matter than neutron stars.We generate the modified Tolman–Oppenheimer–. Volkoff equation to incorporate anisotropic matter and use this to show that pressure anisotropy provides ...

  2. Intensely oscillating cavitation bubble in microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siew-Wan, Ohl; Tandiono; Klaseboer, Evert; Dave, Ow; Choo, Andre; Claus-Dieter, Ohl

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the technical breakthrough in generating intense ultrasonic cavitation in the confinement of a microfluidics channel [1], and applications that has been developed on this platform for the past few years [2,3,4,5]. Our system consists of circular disc transducers (10-20 mm in diameter), the microfluidics channels on PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane), and a driving circuitry. The cavitation bubbles are created at the gas- water interface due to strong capillary waves which are generated when the system is driven at its natural frequency (around 100 kHz) [1]. These bubbles oscillate and collapse within the channel. The bubbles are useful for sonochemistry and the generation of sonoluminescence [2]. When we add bacteria (Escherichia coli), and yeast cells (Pichia pastoris) into the microfluidics channels, the oscillating and collapsing bubbles stretch and lyse these cells [3]. Furthermore, the system is effective (DNA of the harvested intracellular content remains largely intact), and efficient (yield reaches saturation in less than 1 second). In another application, human red blood cells are added to a microchamber. Cell stretching and rapture are observed when a laser generated cavitation bubble expands and collapses next to the cell [4]. A numerical model of a liquid pocket surrounded by a membrane with surface tension which was placed next to an oscillating bubble was developed using the Boundary Element Method. The simulation results showed that the stretching of the liquid pocket occurs only when the surface tension is within a certain range. (paper)

  3. In situ droplet surface tension and viscosity measurements in gas metal arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, B; Siewert, E; Schein, J

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an adaptation of a drop oscillation technique that enables in situ measurements of thermophysical properties of an industrial pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process. Surface tension, viscosity, density and temperature were derived expanding the portfolio of existing methods and previously published measurements of surface tension in pulsed GMAW. Natural oscillations of pure liquid iron droplets are recorded during the material transfer with a high-speed camera. Frame rates up to 30000 fps were utilized to visualize iron droplet oscillations which were in the low kHz range. Image processing algorithms were employed for edge contour extraction of the droplets and to derive parameters such as oscillation frequencies and damping rates along different dimensions of the droplet. Accurate surface tension measurements were achieved incorporating the effect of temperature on density. These are compared with a second method that has been developed to accurately determine the mass of droplets produced during the GMAW process which enables precise surface tension measurements with accuracies up to 1% and permits the study of thermophysical properties also for metals whose density highly depends on temperature. Thermophysical properties of pure liquid iron droplets formed by a wire with 1.2 mm diameter were investigated in a pulsed GMAW process with a base current of 100 A and a pulse current of 600 A. Surface tension and viscosity of a sample droplet were 1.83 ± 0.02 N m -1 and 2.9 ± 0.3 mPa s, respectively. The corresponding droplet temperature and density are 2040 ± 50 K and 6830 ± 50 kg m -3 , respectively. (paper)

  4. Spreading of oil on water in the surface-tension regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, D.W.; Berg, J.C.

    1987-11-01

    Data which describe the unidirectional spreading of several pure oils and oil-surfactant mixtures on water in the surface-tension regime are reported. Leading-edge position and profiles of velocity, thickness and film tension are given as functions of time. The data are consistent with the numerical similarity solution of Foda and Cox (1980), although the measured dependence of the film tension on the film thickness often differs from the equilibrium relationship. The configuration of the oil film near the spreading origin may be either a coherent multimolecular layer or a multitude of thinning, outward-moving lenses surrounded by monolayer. The pure oils show an acceleration zone connecting the slow-moving inner region to a fast-moving outer region, while the oil-surfactant mixtures show a much more gradual increase in film velocity.

  5. Account for the surface tension in hydraulic modeling of the weir with a sharp threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medzveliya Manana Levanovna

    Full Text Available In the process of calculating and simulating water discharge in free channels it is necessary to know the flow features in case of small values of Reynolds and Weber numbers. The article considers the influence of viscosity and surface tension on the coefficient of a weir flow with sharp threshold. In the article the technique of carrying out experiments is stated, the equation is presented, which considers the influence of all factors: pressure over a spillway threshold, threshold height over a course bottom, speed of liquid, liquid density, dynamic viscosity, superficial tension, gravity acceleration, unit discharge, the width of the course. The surface tension and liquid density for the applied liquids changed a little. In the rectangular tray (6000x100x200 spillway with a sharp threshold was established. It is shown that weir flow coefficient depends on Reynolds number (in case Re < ~ 2000 and Webers number. A generalized expression for determining weir flow coefficient considering the influence of the forces of viscosity and surface tension is received.

  6. Single-Step Fabrication of High-Density Microdroplet Arrays of Low-Surface-Tension Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenqian; Li, Linxian; Du, Xin; Welle, Alexander; Levkin, Pavel A

    2016-04-01

    A facile approach for surface patterning that enables single-step fabrication of high-density arrays of low-surface-tension organic-liquid microdroplets is described. This approach enables miniaturized and parallel high-throughput screenings in organic solvents, formation of homogeneous arrays of hydrophobic nanoparticles, polymer micropads of specific shapes, and polymer microlens arrays. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Boiling crisis as inhibition of bubble detachment by the vapor recoil force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolayev, V.S.; Beysens, D.; Garrabos, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Boiling crisis is a transition between nucleate and film boiling. In this communication we present a physical model of the boiling crisis based on the vapor recoil effect. Our numerical simulations of the thermally controlled bubble growth at high heat fluxes show how the bubble begins to spread over the heater thus forming a germ for the vapor film. The vapor recoil force not only causes the vapor spreading, it also creates a strong adhesion to the heater that prevents the bubble departure, thus favoring the further bubble spreading. Near the liquid-gas critical point, the bubble growth is very slow and allows the kinetics of the bubble spreading to be observed. Since the surface tension is very small in this regime, only microgravity conditions can preserve a convex bubble shape. Under such conditions, we observed an increase of the apparent contact angle and spreading of the dry spot under the bubble, thus confirming our model of the boiling crisis. (authors)

  8. Surface density profile and surface tension of the one-component classical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballone, P.; Senatore, G.; Trieste Univ.; Tosi, M.P.; Oxford Univ.

    1982-08-01

    The density profile and the interfacial tension of two classical plasmas in equilibrium at different densities are evaluated in the square-density-gradient approximation. For equilibrium in the absence of applied external voltage, the profile is oscillatory in the higher-density plasma and the interfacial tension is positive. The amplitude and phase of these oscillations and the magnitude of the interfacial tension are related to the width of the background profile. Approximate representations of the equilibrium profile by matching of its asymptotic forms are analyzed. A comparison with computer simulation data and a critical discussion of a local-density theory are also presented. (author)

  9. Observations of electric discharge streamer propagation and capillary oscillations on the surface of air bubbles in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommers, B S; Foster, J E [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 (United States); Babaeva, N Yu; Kushner, Mark J [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 (United States)

    2011-03-02

    The propagation of electric discharge streamers inside bubbles in liquids is of interest for the remediation of toxins in water and plasma-based surgical instruments. The manner of streamer propagation has an important influence on the production of reactive species that are critical to these applications. Streamer propagation along the surface of electrode-attached bubbles of air in water, previously predicted by numerical simulations, has been experimentally imaged using a fast frame-rate camera. The successive pulsing of the streamer discharge inside the bubbles produced oscillations along the air-water interface. Subsequent streamers were observed to closely follow surface distortions induced by such oscillations. The oscillations likely arise from the non-uniform perturbation of the bubble driven by the electric field of the streamer and were found to be consistent with Kelvin's equation for capillary oscillations. For a narrow range of applied voltage pulse frequencies, the oscillation amplitude increased over several pulse periods indicating, potentially, resonant behaviour. We also observed coupling between bubbles wherein oscillations in a second bubble without an internal discharge were induced by the presence of a streamer in a fixed bubble. (fast track communication)

  10. Free surface flow under gravity and surface tension due to an applied pressure distribution: i Bond number greater than one-third

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleewong, Montri; Asavanant, Jack [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Mathematics and Advanced Virtual Intelligence Computing Center, Bangkok (Thailand); Grimshaw, Roger [Loughborough University, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-01

    We consider steady free surface two-dimensional flow due to a localized applied pressure distribution under the effects of both gravity and surface tension in water of constant depth, and in the presence of a uniform stream. The fluid is assumed to be inviscid and incompressible, and the flow is irrotational. The behavior of the forced nonlinear waves is characterized by three parameters: the Froude number, F, the Bond number, {tau}>1/3, and the magnitude and sign of the pressure forcing parameter {epsilon}. The fully nonlinear wave problem is solved numerically by using a boundary integral method. For small amplitude waves and F<1 but not too close to 1, linear theory gives a good prediction for the numerical solution of the nonlinear problem in the case of bifurcation from the uniform flow. As F approaches 1, the nonlinear terms need to be taken account of. In this case the forced Korteweg-de Vries equation is found to be an appropriate model to describe bifurcations from an unforced solitary wave. In general, it is found that for given values of F<1 and {tau}>1/3, there exists both elevation and depression waves. In some cases, a limiting configuration in the form of a trapped bubble occurs in the depression wave solutions. (orig.)

  11. Numerical simulation of binary collisions using a modified surface tension model with particle method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhongguo; Xi Guang; Chen Xi

    2009-01-01

    The binary collision of liquid droplets is of both practical importance and fundamental value in computational fluid mechanics. We present a modified surface tension model within the moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method, and carry out two-dimensional simulations to investigate the mechanisms of coalescence and separation of the droplets during binary collision. The modified surface tension model improves accuracy and convergence. A mechanism map is established for various possible deformation pathways encountered during binary collision, as the impact speed is varied; a new pathway is reported when the collision speed is critical. In addition, eccentric collisions are simulated and the effect of the rotation of coalesced particle is explored. The results qualitatively agree with experiments and the numerical protocol may find applications in studying free surface flows and interface deformation

  12. The Role of Surface Tension in the Crystallization of Metal Halide Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Zhumekenov, Ayan A.

    2017-07-06

    The exciting intrinsic properties discovered in single crystals of metal halide perovskites still await their translation into optoelectronic devices. The poor understanding and control of the crystallization process of these materials are current bottlenecks retarding the shift towards single crystal-based optoelectronics. Here we theoretically and experimentally elucidate the role of surface tension in the rapid synthesis of perovskite single crystals by inverse temperature crystallization (ITC). Understanding the nucleation and growth mechanisms enabled us to exploit surface tension to direct the growth of monocrystalline films of perovskites (AMX3, where A = CH3NH3+ or MA; M = Pb2+, Sn2+; X = Br-, I-) on the solution surface. We achieve up to 1 cm2-sized monocrystalline films with thickness on the order of the charge carrier diffusion length (~5-10 µm). Our work paves the way to control the crystallization process of perovskites, including thin film deposition, which is essential to advance the performance benchmarks of perovskite optoelectronics.

  13. Nucleation and growth of vapor bubbles in the liquid bulk and at a solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagov, V.V.

    1977-01-01

    The main achievements in the study of the vapor phase origin in liquid and the subsequent growth of the vapor bubbles are presented briefly, and a number of issues on which there is no single opinion as yet are also outlined. The theory of homogeneous nucleation and a great number of experiments make it possible not only to explain qualitatively the causes of spontaneous formation of vapor nucleation centers in the metastable liquid but provides a simple computational relation for the estimating the intensity of this process. None of the existing hypotheses, however, can give a complete answer to the question of the mechanism of the vapor phase nucleation on a solid surface under ''pure conditions'', although this is a more pressing problem. At the same time, the role of cavities of reservoir type (with a narrow orifice) on the surface under heating as reliable stabilizers of the vapor formation (especially in liquid metals) is clarified from the practical point of view. Thus, the identification of technology for production of such cavities would make it possible to increase substantially the efficiency of heat transferring surfaces. Any computational relations for the growth of bubbles on the heating surface also are (and, according to the author, necessarily will be) approximate ones, although considerable success has been achieved in this field

  14. A finite-volume HLLC-based scheme for compressible interfacial flows with surface tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrick, Daniel P. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States); Owkes, Mark [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT (United States); Regele, Jonathan D., E-mail: jregele@iastate.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Shock waves are often used in experiments to create a shear flow across liquid droplets to study secondary atomization. Similar behavior occurs inside of supersonic combustors (scramjets) under startup conditions, but it is challenging to study these conditions experimentally. In order to investigate this phenomenon further, a numerical approach is developed to simulate compressible multiphase flows under the effects of surface tension forces. The flow field is solved via the compressible multicomponent Euler equations (i.e., the five equation model) discretized with the finite volume method on a uniform Cartesian grid. The solver utilizes a total variation diminishing (TVD) third-order Runge–Kutta method for time-marching and second order TVD spatial reconstruction. Surface tension is incorporated using the Continuum Surface Force (CSF) model. Fluxes are upwinded with a modified Harten–Lax–van Leer Contact (HLLC) approximate Riemann solver. An interface compression scheme is employed to counter numerical diffusion of the interface. The present work includes modifications to both the HLLC solver and the interface compression scheme to account for capillary force terms and the associated pressure jump across the gas–liquid interface. A simple method for numerically computing the interface curvature is developed and an acoustic scaling of the surface tension coefficient is proposed for the non-dimensionalization of the model. The model captures the surface tension induced pressure jump exactly if the exact curvature is known and is further verified with an oscillating elliptical droplet and Mach 1.47 and 3 shock-droplet interaction problems. The general characteristics of secondary atomization at a range of Weber numbers are also captured in a series of simulations.

  15. A thermodynamic perturbation theory for the surface tension and ion density profile of a liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.; Kumaravadivel, R.

    1976-01-01

    A simple scheme for determining the ion density profile and the surface tension of a liquid metal is described. Assuming that the interaction between metallic pseudo-ions is of the form introduced by Evans, an approximate expression for the excess free energy of the system is derived using the thermodynamic perturbation theory of Weeks, Chandler and Anderson. This excess free energy is then minimized with respect to a parameter which specifies the ion density profile, and the surface tension is given directly. From a consideration of the dependence of the interionic forces on the electron density it is predicted that the ions should take up a very steep density profile at the liquid metal surface. This behaviour is contrasted with that to be expected for rare-gas fluids in which the interatomic forces are density-independent. The values of the surface tension calculated for liquid Na, K and Al from a simplified version of the theory are in reasonable agreement with experiment. (author)

  16. Novel method for the simultaneous estimation of density and surface tension of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirunavukkarasu, G.; Srinivasan, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    The conventional Hare's apparatus generally used for the determination of density of liquids has been modified by replacing its vertical arms (glass tubes) with capillary tubes of 30 cm length and 0.072 cm diameter. When the columns of liquids are drawn through the capillary tubes with reduced pressure at the top of the liquid columns and kept at equilibrium with the atmospheric pressure acting on the liquid surface outside the capillary tubes, the downward pressure due to gravity of the liquid columns has to be coupled with the pressure arising due to the effect of surface tension of the liquids. A fresh expression for the density and surface tension of liquids has been arrived at while equating the pressure balancing system for the two individual liquid columns of the modified Hare's apparatus. The experimental results showed that the proposed method is precise and accurate in the simultaneous estimation of density and surface tension of liquids, with an error of less than 5%

  17. Non-invasive high throughput approach for protein hydrophobicity determination based on surface tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhein, Sven; Bauer, Katharina Christin; Galm, Lara; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    The surface hydrophobicity of a protein is an important factor for its interactions in solution and thus the outcome of its production process. Yet most of the methods are not able to evaluate the influence of these hydrophobic interactions under natural conditions. In the present work we have established a high resolution stalagmometric method for surface tension determination on a liquid handling station, which can cope with accuracy as well as high throughput requirements. Surface tensions could be derived with a low sample consumption (800 μL) and a high reproducibility (content. The protein influence on the solutions' surface tension was correlated to the hydrophobicity of lysozyme, human lysozyme, BSA, and α-lactalbumin. Differences in proteins' hydrophobic character depending on pH and species could be resolved. Within this work we have developed a pH dependent hydrophobicity ranking, which was found to be in good agreement with literature. For the studied pH range of 3-9 lysozyme from chicken egg white was identified to be the most hydrophilic. α-lactalbumin at pH 3 exhibited the most pronounced hydrophobic character. The stalagmometric method occurred to outclass the widely used spectrophotometric method with bromophenol blue sodium salt as it gave reasonable results without restrictions on pH and protein species. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Analytical description of concentration dependence of surface tension in multicomponent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadashev, R; Kutuev, R [Complex Science Research Institute of the Science Academy of the Chechen Republic, 21 Staropromisl. shosse, Grozny 364096 (Russian Federation); Elimkhanov, D [Science Academy of the Chechen Republic (Russian Federation)], E-mail: edzhabrail@mail.ru

    2008-02-15

    From the basic fundamental thermodynamic expressions the equation of isotherms of the surface tension of a ternary system is received. Various assumptions concerning the concentration dependence of molar areas are usually made when the equation is derived. The dependence of the molar areas is calculated as an additive function of the structure of a volumetric phase or the structure of a surface layer. To define the concentration dependence of the molar areas we used a stricter thermodynamic expression offered by Butler. In the received equation the dependence of molar areas on the structure of the solution is taken into account. Therefore, the equation can be applied for the calculation of surface tension over a wide concentration range of the components. Unlike the known expressions, the equation includes the surface tension properties of lateral binary systems, which makes the accuracy of the calculated values considerably higher. Thus, among the advantages of the offered equation we can point out the mathematical simplicity of the received equation and the fact that the equation includes physical parameters the experimental definition of which does not present any special difficulties.

  19. Discrepancies over the onset of surfactant monomer aggregation interpreted by fluorescence, conductivity and surface tension methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Carvalho Costa

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Molecular probe techniques have made important contributions to the determination of microstructure of surfactant assemblies such as size, stability, micropolarity and conformation. Conductivity and surface tension were used to determine the critical aggregation concentration (cac of polymer-surfactant complexes and the critical micellar concentration (cmc of aqueous micellar aggregates. The results are compared with those of fluorescent techniques. Several surfactant systems were examined, 1-butanol-sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS mixtures, solutions containing poly(ethylene oxide-SDS, poly(vinylpyrrolidone-SDS and poly(acrylic acid-alkyltrimethylammonium bromide complexes. We found differences between the cac and cmc values obtained by conductivity or surface tension and those obtained by techniques which use hydrophobic probe.

  20. Light Meets Water in Nonlocal Media: Surface Tension Analogue in Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikis, Theodoros P.; Frantzeskakis, Dimitrios J.

    2017-06-01

    Shallow water wave phenomena find their analogue in optics through a nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) model in 2 +1 dimensions. We identify an analogue of surface tension in optics, namely, a single parameter depending on the degree of nonlocality, which changes the sign of dispersion, much like surface tension does in the shallow water wave problem. Using multiscale expansions, we reduce the NLS model to a Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation, which is of the KPII (KPI) type, for strong (weak) nonlocality. We demonstrate the emergence of robust optical antidark solitons forming Y -, X -, and H -shaped wave patterns, which are approximated by colliding KPII line solitons, similar to those observed in shallow waters.

  1. On the Problem of Determining Aggregation Numbers from Surface Tension Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanov, Anatoly I

    2017-11-07

    In view of the recent discovery of variable aggregation numbers in the vicinity of the critical micelle concentration (CMC), the mass-action-law theory of the surface tension isotherm of a micellar solution with variable aggregation numbers is formulated both for nonionic and ionic surfactants. It is shown that the shape of the surface tension isotherm should be concave in the logarithmic scale above the CMC. Considering a change in the isotherm slope at the CMC apparent break point, the problems of determining the aggregation number for nonionic micelles and the degree of counterion binding for ionic micelles are discussed. In case of the aggregation number variability near the CMC, finding the aggregation number above the CMC apparent break point is considered and a computational scheme is elaborated, requiring a higher precision for experiment. Some experimental data from the literature are analyzed, and the method of estimating the degree of counterion binding is improved.

  2. Interfacial Tension and Surface Pressure of High Density Lipoprotein, Low Density Lipoprotein, and Related Lipid Droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ollila, O. H. S.; Lamberg, A.; Lehtivaara, M.

    2012-01-01

    ) are essentially lipid droplets surrounded by specific proteins, their main function being to transport cholesterol. Interfacial tension and surface pressure of these particles are of great interest because they are related to the shape and the stability of the droplets and to protein adsorption at the interface....... Here we use coarse-grained molecular-dynamics simulations to consider a number of related issues by calculating the interfacial tension in protein-free lipid droplets, and in HDL and LDL particles mimicking physiological conditions. First, our results suggest that the curvature dependence......Lipid droplets play a central role in energy storage and metabolism on a cellular scale. Their core is comprised of hydrophobic lipids covered by a surface region consisting of amphiphilic lipids and proteins. For example, high and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively...

  3. A finite-density calculation of the surface tension of isotropic-nematic interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, B.G.; McMullen, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    The surface tension of the isotropic-nematic interface in a fluid of intermediate-sized hard particles is studied and calculated. The transition from isotropic to nematic is fixed to occur in a continuous fashion by varying the biaxiality of the model particles. A reversal in the preferred orientation of the bulk nematic relative to the isotropic-nematic interface suggests an oblique orientation of the bulk nematic. 32 refs., 8 figs

  4. Let’s not forget the critical role of surface tension in xylem water relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Christophe Domec

    2011-01-01

    The widely supported cohesion–tension theory of water transport explains the importance of a continuous water column and the mechanism of long-distance ascent of sap in plants (Dixon 1914, Tyree 2003, Angeles et al. 2004). The evaporation of water from the surfaces of mesophyll cells causes the air–water interface to retreat into the cellulose matrix of the plant cell...

  5. A Synthetic Phased Array Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor for Quantifying Bolt Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasim Guldiken

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report our findings on implementing a synthetic phased array surface acoustic wave sensor to quantify bolt tension. Maintaining proper bolt tension is important in many fields such as for ensuring safe operation of civil infrastructures. Significant advantages of this relatively simple methodology is its capability to assess bolt tension without any contact with the bolt, thus enabling measurement at inaccessible locations, multiple bolt measurement capability at a time, not requiring data collection during the installation and no calibration requirements. We performed detailed experiments on a custom-built flexible bench-top experimental setup consisting of 1018 steel plate of 12.7 mm (½ in thickness, a 6.4 mm (¼ in grade 8 bolt and a stainless steel washer with 19 mm (¾ in of external diameter. Our results indicate that this method is not only capable of clearly distinguishing properly bolted joints from loosened joints but also capable of quantifying how loose the bolt actually is. We also conducted detailed signal-to-noise (SNR analysis and showed that the SNR value for the entire bolt tension range was sufficient for image reconstruction.

  6. Computer modeling of the dynamics of surface tension on rotating fluids in low and microgravity environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Tsao, Y. D.; Hong, B. B.; Leslie, Fred W.

    1989-01-01

    Time-dependent evolutions of the profile of the free surface (bubble shapes) for a cylindrical container partially filled with a Newtonian fluid of constant density, rotating about its axis of symmetry, have been studied. Numerical computations have been carried out with the following situations: (1) linear functions of spin-up and spin-down in low- and microgravity environments, (2) linear functions of increasing and decreasing gravity environments at high- and low-rotating cylinder speeds, and (3) step functions of spin-up and spin-down in a low-gravity environment.

  7. Effect of liquid surface tension on circular and linear hydraulic jumps; theory and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Rajesh Kumar; Jha, Narsing Kumar; Linden, Paul F.; Wilson, David Ian

    2017-11-01

    The hydraulic jump has attracted considerable attention since Rayleigh published his account in 1914. Watson (1964) proposed the first satisfactory explanation of the circular hydraulic jump by balancing the momentum and hydrostatic pressure across the jump, but this solution did not explain what actually causes the jump to form. Bohr et al. (1992) showed that the hydraulic jump happens close to the point where the local Froude number equals to one, suggesting a balance between inertial and hydrostatic contributions. Bush & Aristoff (2003) subsequently incorporated the effect of surface tension and showed that this is important when the jump radius is small. In this study, we propose a new account to explain the formation and evolution of hydraulic jumps under conditions where the jump radius is strongly influenced by the liquid surface tension. The theory is compared with experiments employing liquids of different surface tension and different viscosity, in circular and linear configurations. The model predictions and the experimental results show excellent agreement. Commonwealth Scholarship Commission, St. John's college, University of Cambridge.

  8. Surface tension and wetting properties of rapeseed oil to biofuel conversion by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyński, Siemowit; Sujak, Agnieszka; Stępniewski, Andrzej; Kornarzyński, Krzysztof; Ejtel, Marta; Kowal, Natalia; Tomczyk-Warunek, Agnieszka; Szcześniak, Emil; Tomczyńska-Mleko, Marta; Mleko, Stanisław

    2018-04-01

    This work presents a study on the surface tension, density and wetting behaviour of distilled glycerol, technical grade glycerol and the matter organic non-glycerin fraction. The research was conducted to expand the knowledge about the physical properties of wastes from the rapeseed oil biofuel production. The results show that the densities of technical grade glycerol (1.300 g cm-3) and distilled glycerol (1.267 g cm-3) did not differ and were significantly lower than the density of the matter organic non-glycerin fraction (1.579 g cm-3). Furthermore, the surface tension of distilled glycerol (49.6 mN m-1) was significantly higher than the matter organic non-glycerin fraction (32.7 mN m-1) and technical grade glycerol (29.5 mN m-1). As a result, both technical grade glycerol and the matter organic non-glycerin fraction had lower contact angles than distilled glycerol. The examined physical properties of distilled glycerol were found to be very close to that of the commercially available pure glycerol. The results suggest that technical grade glycerol may have potential application in the production of glycerol/fuel blends or biosurfactants. The presented results indicate that surface tension measurements are more useful when examining the quality of biofuel wastes than is density determination, as they allow for a more accurate analysis of the effects of impurities on the physical properties of the biofuel by-products.

  9. Improvement of gas entrainment prediction method. Introduction of surface tension effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kei; Sakai, Takaaki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Uchibori, Akihiro; Eguchi, Yuzuru; Monji, Hideaki; Xu, Yongze

    2010-01-01

    A gas entrainment (GE) prediction method has been developed to establish design criteria for the large-scale sodium-cooled fast reactor (JSFR) systems. The prototype of the GE prediction method was already confirmed to give reasonable gas core lengths by simple calculation procedures. However, for simplification, the surface tension effects were neglected. In this paper, the evaluation accuracy of gas core lengths is improved by introducing the surface tension effects into the prototype GE prediction method. First, the mechanical balance between gravitational, centrifugal, and surface tension forces is considered. Then, the shape of a gas core tip is approximated by a quadratic function. Finally, using the approximated gas core shape, the authors determine the gas core length satisfying the mechanical balance. This improved GE prediction method is validated by analyzing the gas core lengths observed in simple experiments. Results show that the analytical gas core lengths calculated by the improved GE prediction method become shorter in comparison to the prototype GE prediction method, and are in good agreement with the experimental data. In addition, the experimental data under different temperature and surfactant concentration conditions are reproduced by the improved GE prediction method. (author)

  10. Surface crack growth in cylindrical hollow specimen subject to tension and torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shlyannikov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The subject for studies is an aluminium cylindrical hollow specimen with external axial and part circumferential semi-elliptical surface crack undergoing fatigue loads. Both the optical microscope measurements and the crack opening displacement (COD method are used to monitor and calculate both crack depth and crack length during the tests. The variation of crack growth behaviour is studied under cyclic axial tension, pure torsion and combined tension+torsion fatigue loading. For the particular surface flaw geometries considered, the elastic and plastic in-plane and out-of-plane constraint parameters, as well as the governing parameter for stress fields in the form of In-integral and plastic stress intensity factor, are obtained as a function of the aspect ratio, dimensionless crack length and crack depth. The combined effect of tension and torsion loading and initial surface flaw orientation on the crack growth for two type of aluminium alloys is made explicit. The experimental and numerical results of the present study provided the opportunity to explore the suggestion that fatigue crack propagation may be governed more strongly by the plastic stress intensity factor rather than the magnitude of the elastic SIFs alone. One advantage of the plastic SIF is its sensitivity to combined loading due to accounting for the plastic properties of the material.

  11. Two Surface-Tension Formulations For The Level Set Interface-Tracking Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepel, S.V.; Smith, B.L.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes a comparative study of two surface-tension models for the Level Set interface tracking method. In both models, the surface tension is represented as a body force, concentrated near the interface, but the technical implementation of the two options is different. The first is based on a traditional Level Set approach, in which the surface tension is distributed over a narrow band around the interface using a smoothed Delta function. In the second model, which is based on the integral form of the fluid-flow equations, the force is imposed only in those computational cells through which the interface passes. Both models have been incorporated into the Finite-Element/Finite-Volume Level Set method, previously implemented into the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code CFX-4. A critical evaluation of the two models, undertaken in the context of four standard Level Set benchmark problems, shows that the first model, based on the smoothed Delta function approach, is the more general, and more robust, of the two. (author)

  12. On the modelling of semi-insulating GaAs including surface tension and bulk stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, W.; Duderstadt, F.

    2004-07-01

    Necessary heat treatment of single crystal semi-insulating Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), which is deployed in micro- and opto- electronic devices, generate undesirable liquid precipitates in the solid phase. The appearance of precipitates is influenced by surface tension at the liquid/solid interface and deviatoric stresses in the solid. The central quantity for the description of the various aspects of phase transitions is the chemical potential, which can be additively decomposed into a chemical and a mechanical part. In particular the calculation of the mechanical part of the chemical potential is of crucial importance. We determine the chemical potential in the framework of the St. Venant-Kirchhoff law which gives an appropriate stress/strain relation for many solids in the small strain regime. We establish criteria, which allow the correct replacement of the St. Venant-Kirchhoff law by the simpler Hooke law. The main objectives of this study are: (i) We develop a thermo-mechanical model that describes diffusion and interface motion, which both are strongly influenced by surface tension effects and deviatoric stresses. (ii) We give an overview and outlook on problems that can be posed and solved within the framework of the model. (iii) We calculate non-standard phase diagrams, i.e. those that take into account surface tension and non-deviatoric stresses, for GaAs above 786 C, and we compare the results with classical phase diagrams without these phenomena. (orig.)

  13. Faraday forcing of high-temperature levitated liquid metal drops for the measurement of surface tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosius, Nevin; Ward, Kevin; Matsumoto, Satoshi; SanSoucie, Michael; Narayanan, Ranga

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a method for the measurement of surface tension using continuous periodic forcing is presented. To reduce gravitational effects, samples are electrostatically levitated prior to forcing. The method, called Faraday forcing, is particularly well suited for fluids that require high temperature measurements such as liquid metals where conventional surface tension measurement methods are not possible. It offers distinct advantages over the conventional pulse-decay analysis method when the sample viscosity is high or the levitation feedback control system is noisy. In the current method, levitated drops are continuously translated about a mean position at a small, constant forcing amplitude over a range of frequencies. At a particular frequency in this range, the drop suddenly enters a state of resonance, which is confirmed by large executions of prolate/oblate deformations about the mean spherical shape. The arrival at this resonant condition is a signature that the parametric forcing frequency is equal to the drop's natural frequency, the latter being a known function of surface tension. A description of the experimental procedure is presented. A proof of concept is given using pure Zr and a Ti 39.5 Zr 39.5 Ni 21 alloy as examples. The results compare favorably with accepted literature values obtained using the pulse-decay method.

  14. Contribution to the study of techniques of measurement of interface surface area in bubble flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veteau, Jean-Michel

    1981-01-01

    This research thesis addresses problems raised by the measurement of the interface area per volume unit in duct bubble flows. The author first reports a literature survey of existing methods (photographic, chemical and optical methods) which give access to the value of the parameter which is commonly named 'specific surface area'. He analyses under which conditions these methods lead to a rigorous determination of the SVIM (mean integral volume surface). The author highlights the theoretical contributions of models related to each of these methods which are indeed global methods as they allow the interface surface area to be directly obtained in a given volume of a two-phase mixture. Then, the author reports the development of an original technique based on the use of phase detecting local probes. In the next part, the author compares photographic and optical methods, on the one hand, and optical and local methods, on the other hand. Recommendations are made for the development of local methods [fr

  15. Surface chemistry theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bikerman, J J

    2013-01-01

    Surface Chemistry Theory and Applications focuses on liquid-gas, liquid-liquid, solid-gas, solid-liquid, and solid-solid surfaces. The book first offers information on liquid-gas surfaces, including surface tension, measurement of surface tension, rate of capillarity rise, capillary attraction, bubble pressure and pore size, and surface tension and temperature. The text then ponders on liquid-liquid and solid-gas surfaces. Discussions focus on surface energy of solids, surface roughness and cleanness, adsorption of gases and vapors, adsorption hysteresis, interfacial tension, and interfacial t

  16. Effects of Ce concentrations on ignition temperature and surface tension of Mg-9wt.%Al alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Deng Zhenghua; Li Huaji; Zhao Wanjun

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are well known for their excellent properties, but the potential issues with oxidation and burning during melting and casting largely limit its industrial applications. The addition of Ce in magnesium alloys can significantly raise ignition-proof performance and change the structure of the oxide film on the surface of the molten metal as well as the surface tension values. Surface tension is an important physical parameter of the metal melts, and it plays an important role in...

  17. Wrinkling in the deflation of elastic bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumaitre, Elodie; Knoche, Sebastian; Cicuta, Pietro; Vella, Dominic

    2013-03-01

    The protein hydrophobin HFBII self-assembles into very elastic films at the surface of water; these films wrinkle readily upon compression. We demonstrate and study this wrinkling instability in the context of non-planar interfaces by forming HFBII layers at the surface of bubbles whose interfaces are then compressed by deflation of the bubble. By varying the initial concentration of the hydrophobin solutions, we are able to show that buckling occurs at a critical packing fraction of protein molecules on the surface. Independent experiments show that at this packing fraction the interface has a finite positive surface tension, and not zero surface tension as is usually assumed at buckling. We attribute this non-zero wrinkling tension to the finite elasticity of these interfaces. We develop a simple geometrical model for the evolution of the wrinkle length with further deflation and show that wrinkles grow rapidly near the needle (used for deflation) towards the mid-plane of the bubble. This geometrical model yields predictions for the length of wrinkles in good agreement with experiments independently of the rheological properties of the adsorbed layer.

  18. Wrinkling in the deflation of elastic bubbles

    KAUST Repository

    Aumaitre, Elodie

    2013-03-01

    The protein hydrophobin HFBII self-assembles into very elastic films at the surface of water; these films wrinkle readily upon compression. We demonstrate and study this wrinkling instability in the context of non-planar interfaces by forming HFBII layers at the surface of bubbles whose interfaces are then compressed by deflation of the bubble. By varying the initial concentration of the hydrophobin solutions, we are able to show that buckling occurs at a critical packing fraction of protein molecules on the surface. Independent experiments show that at this packing fraction the interface has a finite positive surface tension, and not zero surface tension as is usually assumed at buckling. We attribute this non-zero wrinkling tension to the finite elasticity of these interfaces. We develop a simple geometrical model for the evolution of the wrinkle length with further deflation and show that wrinkles grow rapidly near the needle (used for deflation) towards the mid-plane of the bubble. This geometrical model yields predictions for the length of wrinkles in good agreement with experiments independently of the rheological properties of the adsorbed layer. © 2013 EDP Sciences, SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  19. The influence of microstructure on surface strain distributions in a nickel micro-tension specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, T J; Shade, P A; Schuren, J C; Groeber, M A

    2013-01-01

    This work presents an integrated experimental and modeling approach for examining the deformation of a pure nickel polycrystal utilizing micro-mechanical testing and a crystal-based elasto-viscoplastic finite-element model (CPFEM). The objective is to study the influence of microstructure on the heterogeneous deformation in polycrystalline materials, and to utilize a modeling framework to explore aspects of the deformation that are difficult or impossible to measure experimentally. To accomplish this, a micro-tension specimen containing 259 grains was created from a pure nickel foil material and deformed in uniaxial tension. After the deformation, the specimen was destructively serial sectioned in concert with electron back scattering diffraction, and these data were used to instantiate a CPFEM simulation. The material parameters in the CPFEM model were calibrated by matching the experimental macroscopic stress-strain response of the micro-tension specimen, and then the simulation results were compared with experimental surface deformations measured with digital image correlation. After validating the simulation results by comparing measured and predicted surface strain distributions, a parametric study of the influence of both crystallographic texture and grain morphology is presented to better understand the influence of microstructure on the development of heterogeneous deformation in the pure nickel polycrystalline material. (paper)

  20. Colliding with a crunching bubble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freivogel, Ben; Freivogel, Ben; Horowitz, Gary T.; Shenker, Stephen

    2007-03-26

    In the context of eternal inflation we discuss the fate of Lambda = 0 bubbles when they collide with Lambda< 0 crunching bubbles. When the Lambda = 0 bubble is supersymmetric, it is not completely destroyed by collisions. If the domain wall separating the bubbles has higher tension than the BPS bound, it is expelled from the Lambda = 0 bubble and does not alter its long time behavior. If the domain wall saturates the BPS bound, then it stays inside the Lambda = 0 bubble and removes a finite fraction of future infinity. In this case, the crunch singularity is hidden behind the horizon of a stable hyperbolic black hole.

  1. Visual Observation of Bubble Departure Characteristics in the Nano-particle Coated Heating Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Won Soek; Yoo, Shin; Lee, Jae Young

    2010-01-01

    Although the great enhancement of the thermal conductivity of the nanofluids, the fluid mixed with small amount of the nano meter sized particles, has been known, many experimental data of the boiling heat transfer reported degraded heat transfer rate than the fresh fluid. However, the great enhancement of the critical heat flux in nanofluids has been reported by many investigators. Due to the opaque scattering of the nano particles in nano fluids, direct observation of the bubble dynamics in the boiling process has not been made. However, it has been known that the boiling heat transfer characteristics of the heater coated by the nano particles in the fresh water are almost similar to that in the nano fluid. Recently, consensus has been made in the understanding of the CHF enhancement of nanofluids or nano-particle coated heater as the surface phenomena. Therefore, in the present paper, we do experimental study to observe the bubble departure in the pool boiling process with the nano-particle coated heater

  2. Surface tension of a coal extract in an organic solvent; Sekitan chushutsu seibun no kaigo to hyomen choryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, T.; Hayasaka, K.; Takanohashi, T.; Iino, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    The behavior and properties of associated bodies were studied through measurement of surface tension considering acetone-soluble fraction relatively light among various solvent extracts of coal. In experiment, the acetone-soluble fraction was extracted from the substances extracted from Upper Freeport coal as standard specimen using the mixed solvent of carbon disulfide (CS2) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), and it was dissolved into NMP after drying. Surface tension was measured by Wilhelmy method. The experimental results are as follows. Equilibrium surface tension is equal to the surface tension of pure solvent in a low concentration range of solution, and decreases with an increase in concentration approaching a fixed value at 0 in log concentration, nearly showing an S curve. Adsorption of species with non-polar aromatic ring of the acetone-soluble fraction on a solution surface probably decreases surface tension. Change with time in surface tension is observed which suggests fast initial reaction and slow subsequent reaction. 4 figs.

  3. Anti-Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufaile, Alberto; Sartorelli, José Carlos

    2003-08-01

    An anti-bubble is a striking kind of bubble in liquid that seemingly does not comply the buoyancy, and after few minutes it disappears suddenly inside the liquid. Different from a simple air bubble that rises directly to the liquid surface, an anti-bubble wanders around in the fluid due to its slightly lesser density than the surrounding liquid. In spite of this odd behavior, an anti-bubble can be understood as the opposite of a conventional soap bubble in air, which is a shell of liquid surrounding air, and an anti-bubble is a shell of air surrounding a drop of the liquid inside the liquid. Two-phase flow has been a subject of interest due to its relevance to process equipment for contacting gases and liquids applied in industry. A chain of bubbles rising in a liquid formed from a nozzle is a two-phase flow, and there are certain conditions in which spherical air shells, called anti-bubbles, are produced. The purpose of this work is mainly to note the existence of anti-bubbling regime as a sequel of a bubbling system. We initially have presented the experimental apparatus. After this we have described the evolution of the bubbling regimes, and emulated the effect of bubbling coalescence with simple maps. Then is shown the inverted dripping as a consequence of the bubble coalescence, and finally the conditions for anti-bubble formation.

  4. On a Hele-Shaw flow with a time-dependent gap in the presence of surface tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savina, T V; Nepomnyashchy, A A

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of surface tension into a Hele-Shaw problem makes it more realistic from the physical viewpoint, but more difficult from the mathematical viewpoint. In this paper we discuss a Hele-Shaw flow with a time-dependent gap taking into account the surface tension of the free boundary. We use the Schwarz function method to find asymptotic solutions for the interior problem in the case when the initial shape of the droplet is a weakly distorted circle. (paper)

  5. A waveless two-dimensional flow in a channel against an inclined wall with surface tension effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzougui, Abdelkrim; Mekias, Hocine; Guechi, Fairouz

    2007-01-01

    Surface tension effect on a two-dimensional channel flow against an inclined wall is considered. The flow is assumed to be steady, irrotational, inviscid and incompressible. The effect of surface tension is taken into account and the effect of gravity is neglected. Numerical solutions are obtained via series truncation procedure. The problem is solved numerically for various values of the Weber number α and for various values of the inclination angle β between the horizontal bottom and the inclined wall

  6. A waveless two-dimensional flow in a channel against an inclined wall with surface tension effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merzougui, Abdelkrim [Departement de Mathematiques, Faculte des sciences, Universite Mohamed Boudiaf, M' sila, 28000 (Algeria); Mekias, Hocine [Departement de Mathematiques, Faculte des sciences, Universite Farhat Abbas Setif 19000 (Algeria); Guechi, Fairouz [Departement de Mathematiques, Faculte des sciences, Universite Farhat Abbas Setif 19000 (Algeria)

    2007-11-23

    Surface tension effect on a two-dimensional channel flow against an inclined wall is considered. The flow is assumed to be steady, irrotational, inviscid and incompressible. The effect of surface tension is taken into account and the effect of gravity is neglected. Numerical solutions are obtained via series truncation procedure. The problem is solved numerically for various values of the Weber number {alpha} and for various values of the inclination angle {beta} between the horizontal bottom and the inclined wall.

  7. Annotated bibliography for liquid metal surface tensions of groups III-A, IV-A, and V-A metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtha, M.J.; Burnet, G.

    1976-04-01

    An annotated bibliography has been prepared which includes summaries of 82 publications dating from 1920 and dealing with the measurement of the surface tensions of Groups III-A, IV-A, and V-A metals in the liquid state. The bibliography is organized by key element investigated, and contains a tabulation of correlations for surface tension as a function of temperature. A brief discussion dealing with variables and methods has been included

  8. Use of local and global limit load solutions for plates with surface cracks under tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Y. [British Energy Generation Ltd, Barnett Way, Bamwood, Gloucester GL4 3RS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: yuebao.lei@british-energy.com

    2007-09-15

    Some available experimental results for the ductile failure of plates with surface cracks under tension are reviewed. The response of crack driving force, J, and the ligament strain near the local and global limit loads are investigated by performing elastic-perfectly plastic finite element (FE) analysis of a plate with a semi-elliptical crack under tension. The results show that a ligament may survive until the global collapse load is reached when the average ligament strain at the global collapse load, which depends on the uniaxial strain corresponding to the flow stress of the material and the crack geometry, is less than the true fracture strain of the material obtained from uniaxial tension tests. The FE analysis shows that ligament yielding corresponding to the local limit load has little effect on J and the average ligament strain, whereas approach to global collapse corresponds to a sharp increase in both J and the average ligament strain. The prediction of the FE value of J using the reference stress method shows that the global limit load is more relevant to J-estimation than the local one.

  9. Use of local and global limit load solutions for plates with surface cracks under tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Some available experimental results for the ductile failure of plates with surface cracks under tension are reviewed. The response of crack driving force, J, and the ligament strain near the local and global limit loads are investigated by performing elastic-perfectly plastic finite element (FE) analysis of a plate with a semi-elliptical crack under tension. The results show that a ligament may survive until the global collapse load is reached when the average ligament strain at the global collapse load, which depends on the uniaxial strain corresponding to the flow stress of the material and the crack geometry, is less than the true fracture strain of the material obtained from uniaxial tension tests. The FE analysis shows that ligament yielding corresponding to the local limit load has little effect on J and the average ligament strain, whereas approach to global collapse corresponds to a sharp increase in both J and the average ligament strain. The prediction of the FE value of J using the reference stress method shows that the global limit load is more relevant to J-estimation than the local one

  10. The approximate determination of the critical temperature of a liquid by measuring surface tension versus the temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroto, J A; Nieves, F J de las; Quesada-Perez, M

    2004-01-01

    A classical experience in a physics student laboratory is to determine the surface tension of a liquid versus the temperature and to check the linear appearance of the obtained graph. In this work we show a simple method to estimate the critical temperature of three liquids by using experimental data of surface tension at different temperatures. By a logarithm fitting between surface tension and temperature, the critical temperature can be determined and compared with data from the literature. For two liquids (butanol and nitrobenzene) the comparison is acceptable but the differences are too high for the third liquid (water). By discussing the results it seems to be clear that the difference between the critical temperature of the liquid and the maximum temperature of the surface tension measurements is the determining factor in obtaining acceptable results. From this study it is possible to obtain more information on the liquid characteristics from surface tension measurements that are currently carried out in a student laboratory. Besides, in this paper it is shown how to select the most suitable liquids which provide both acceptable values for the critical temperature and measurements of the surface tension at moderate temperatures. The complementary use of numerical methods permits us to offer a complete experience for the students with a simple laboratory experiment which we recommend for physics students in advanced university courses

  11. Investigations of surface-tension effects due to small-scale complex boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiansheng

    In this Ph.D. dissertation, we have investigated some important surface-tension phenomena including capillarity, wetting, and wicking. We mainly focus on the geometric aspects of these problems, and to learn about how structures affect properties. . In the first project (Chapter 2), we used numerical simulations and experiments to study the meniscus of a fluid confined in capillaries with complicated cross-sectional geometries. In the simulations, we computed the three-dimensional shapes of the menisci formed in polygonal and star-shaped capillaries with sharp or rounded corners. Height variations across the menisci were used to quantify the effect of surface tension. Analytical solutions were derived for all the cases where the cross-sectional geometry was a regular polygon or a regular star-shape. Power indices that characterize the effects of corner rounding were extracted from simulation results. These findings can serve as guide for fabrications of unconventional three-dimensional structures in Capillary Force Lithography experiments. Experimental demonstrations of the working principle was also performed. Although quantitative matching between simulation and experimental results was not achieved due to the limitation of material properties, clear qualitative trends were observed and interesting three-dimensional nano-structures were produced. A second project (Chapter 3) focused on developing techniques to produce three-dimensional hierarchically structured superhydrophobic surfaces with high aspect ratios. We experimented with two different high-throughput electron-beam-lithography processes featuring single and dual electron-beam exposures. After a surface modification procedure with a hydrophobic silane, the structured surfaces exhibited two distinct superhydrophobic behaviors---high and low adhesion. While both types of superhydrophobic surfaces exhibited very high (approximately 160° water advancing contact angles, the water receding contact angles on

  12. On the shape of giant soap bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, C.; Darbois Texier, B.; Reyssat, E.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus; Quere, D.; Clanet, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of gravity on giant soap bubbles and show that it becomes dominant above the critical size ℓ=a2/e0ℓ=a2/e0, where e0e0 is the mean thickness of the soap film and a=γb/ρg−√a=γb/ρg is the capillary length ( γbγb stands for vapor–liquid surface tension, and ρρ stands for the liquid

  13. On the shape of giant soap bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, C.; Texier, B.D.; Reyssat, E.; Snoeijer, J.H.; Quéré, D.; Clanet, C.

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of gravity on giant soap bubbles and show that it becomes dominant above the critical size ℓ = a2 /e0, where e0 is the mean thickness of the soap film and a = √γb/ρg is the capillary length (γb stands for vapor-liquid surface tension, and ρ stands for the liquid density). We

  14. Short-Time Structural Stability of Compressible Vortex Sheets with Surface Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ben

    2016-11-01

    Assume we start with an initial vortex-sheet configuration which consists of two inviscid fluids with density bounded below flowing smoothly past each other, where a strictly positive fixed coefficient of surface tension produces a surface tension force across the common interface, balanced by the pressure jump. We model the fluids by the compressible Euler equations in three space dimensions with a very general equation of state relating the pressure, entropy and density such that the sound speed is positive. We prove that, for a short time, there exists a unique solution of the equations with the same structure. The mathematical approach consists of introducing a carefully chosen artificial viscosity-type regularisation which allows one to linearise the system so as to obtain a collection of transport equations for the entropy, pressure and curl together with a parabolic-type equation for the velocity which becomes fairly standard after rotating the velocity according to the interface normal. We prove a high order energy estimate for the non-linear equations that is independent of the artificial viscosity parameter which allows us to send it to zero. This approach loosely follows that introduced by Shkoller et al. in the setting of a compressible liquid-vacuum interface. Although already considered by Coutand et al. [10] and Lindblad [17], we also make some brief comments on the case of a compressible liquid-vacuum interface, which is obtained from the vortex sheets problem by replacing one of the fluids by vacuum, where it is possible to obtain a structural stability result even without surface tension.

  15. Effect of increased surface tension and assisted ventilation on /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferies, A.L.; Kawano, T.; Mori, S.; Burger, R.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) and high-frequency oscillation (HFO) on the clearance of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) from lungs with altered surface tension properties. A submicronic aerosol of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was insufflated into the lungs of anesthetized, tracheotomized rabbits before and 1 h after the administration of the aerosolized detergent dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (OT). Rabbits were ventilated by one of four methods: 1) spontaneous breathing; 2) CMV at 12 cmH2O mean airway pressure (MAP); 3) HFO at 12 cmH2O MAP; 4) HFO at 16 cmH2O MAP. Administration of OT resulted in decreased arterial PO2 (PaO2), increased lung wet-to-dry weight ratios, and abnormal lung pressure-volume relationships, compatible with increased surface tension. /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance was accelerated after OT in all groups. The post-OT rate of clearance (k) was significantly faster (P less than 0.05) in the CMV at 12 cmH2O MAP [k = 7.57 +/- 0.71%/min (SE)] and HFO at 16 cmH2O MAP (k = 6.92 +/- 0.61%/min) groups than in the spontaneously breathing (k = 4.32 +/- 0.55%/min) and HFO at 12 cmH2O MAP (4.68 +/- 0.63%/min) groups. The clearance curves were biexponential in the former two groups. We conclude that pulmonary clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA is accelerated in high surface tension pulmonary edema, and this effect is enhanced by both conventional ventilation and HFO at high mean airway pressure

  16. Two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer flow along vertical and inclined surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.; Epstein, M.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of a two-phase gas bubble liquid boundary layer along vertical and inclined porous surfaces with uniform gas injection is investigated experimentally and analytically. Using argon gas and water as the working fluids, a photographical study of the two-phase boundary layer flow has been performed for various angles of inclination ranging from 45 0 to 135 0 and gas injection rates ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 m/s. An integral method has been employed to solve the system of equations governing the two-phase motion. The effects of the gas injection rate and the angle of inclination on the growth of the boundary layer have been determined

  17. Two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer flow along vertical and inclined surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.; Epstein, M.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of a two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer along vertical and inclined porous surfaces with uniform gas injection is investigated experimentally and analytically. Using argon gas and water as the working fluids, a photographical study of the two-phase boundary layer flow has been performed for various angles of inclination ranging from 45 0 to 135 0 and gas injection rates ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 m/s. An integral method has been employed to solve the system of equations governing the two-phase motion. The effects of the gas injection rate and the angle of inclination on the growth of the boundary layer have been determined. The predicted boundary layer thickness is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The calculated axial liquid velocity and the void fraction in the two-phase region are also presented along with the observed flow behavior

  18. Validation of simulations of an underwater acoustic communication channel characterized by wind-generated surface waves and bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dol, H.S.; Colin, M.E.G.D.; Ainlie, M.A.; Gerdes, F.; Schäfke, A.; Özkan Sertlekc, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows that it is possible to simulate realistic shallow-water acoustic communication channels using available acoustic propagation models. Key factor is the incorporation of realistic time-dependent sea surface conditions, including both waves and bubbles due to wind.

  19. Air bubble-induced detachment of polystyrene particles with different sizes from collector surfaces in a parallel plate flow chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Suarez, C; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    2001-01-01

    Particle size was found to be an important factor in air bubble-induced detachment of colloidal particles from collector surfaces in a parallel plate flow chamber and generally polystyrene particles with a diameter of 806 nm detached less than particles with a diameter of 1400 nm. Particle

  20. Viscosity and surface tension of binary systems of N,N-dimethylformamide with alkan-1-ols at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, Abubaker A.; Alkhaldi, Khaled H.A.E.; AlTuwaim, Mohammad S.; Al-Jimaz, Adel S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Physical properties of binary mixtures of DMF+1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, or 1-heptanol. ► Viscosity and surface tension were measured. ►Δη, Δσ σ and G ∗E were calculated using the experimental data. ► H σ and S σ were determined using the surface tension data. ► Semi-empirical relations were used to estimate the viscosity of liquid mixtures. - Abstract: Viscosity η and surface tension σ were measured for binary mixtures of N,N-dimethylformamide DMF with pentan-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, and heptan-1-ol at T = (298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K and atmospheric pressure over the entire mole fraction range. Deviations in viscosity Δη and surface tension Δσ were calculated using experimental results. Moreover, the values of the excess Gibbs free energy of activation G ∗E , surface enthalpy H σ and surface entropy S σ of these mixtures were determined. Viscosity measurements of the binary systems were correlated with Grunberg and Nissan, the three-body and four-body McAllister expressions. Viscosity deviation, surface tension deviation and excess Gibbs energy of activation functions were fitted to the method of Redlich–Kister (R–K) polynomial to estimate the coefficients and standard deviations. The effects of chain length of alkan-1-ols and temperature on the thermodynamic properties of binary systems were studied.

  1. A sharp interface method for compressible liquid–vapor flow with phase transition and surface tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fechter, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.fechter@iag.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Aerodynamik und Gasdynamik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 21, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Munz, Claus-Dieter, E-mail: munz@iag.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Aerodynamik und Gasdynamik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 21, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Rohde, Christian, E-mail: Christian.Rohde@mathematik.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Angewandte Analysis und Numerische Simulation, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Zeiler, Christoph, E-mail: Christoph.Zeiler@mathematik.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Angewandte Analysis und Numerische Simulation, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2017-05-01

    The numerical approximation of non-isothermal liquid–vapor flow within the compressible regime is a difficult task because complex physical effects at the phase interfaces can govern the global flow behavior. We present a sharp interface approach which treats the interface as a shock-wave like discontinuity. Any mixing of fluid phases is avoided by using the flow solver in the bulk regions only, and a ghost-fluid approach close to the interface. The coupling states for the numerical solution in the bulk regions are determined by the solution of local two-phase Riemann problems across the interface. The Riemann solution accounts for the relevant physics by enforcing appropriate jump conditions at the phase boundary. A wide variety of interface effects can be handled in a thermodynamically consistent way. This includes surface tension or mass/energy transfer by phase transition. Moreover, the local normal speed of the interface, which is needed to calculate the time evolution of the interface, is given by the Riemann solution. The interface tracking itself is based on a level-set method. The focus in this paper is the description of the two-phase Riemann solver and its usage within the sharp interface approach. One-dimensional problems are selected to validate the approach. Finally, the three-dimensional simulation of a wobbling droplet and a shock droplet interaction in two dimensions are shown. In both problems phase transition and surface tension determine the global bulk behavior.

  2. Standard practice for fracture testing with surface-crack tension specimens

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the design, preparation, and testing of surface-crack tension (SCT) specimens. It relates specifically to testing under continuously increasing force and excludes cyclic and sustained loadings. The quantity determined is the residual strength of a specimen having a semielliptical or circular-segment fatigue crack in one surface. This value depends on the crack dimensions and the specimen thickness as well as the characteristics of the material. 1.2 Metallic materials that can be tested are not limited by strength, thickness, or toughness. However, tests of thick specimens of tough materials may require a tension test machine of extremely high capacity. The applicability of this practice to nonmetallic materials has not been determined. 1.3 This practice is limited to specimens having a uniform rectangular cross section in the test section. The test section width and length must be large with respect to the crack length. Crack depth and length should be chosen to suit the ultimate pu...

  3. Effects of surface tension and viscosity on the forming and transferring process of microscale droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shulei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Cunbin; Wang, Dongyang; Ba, Dechun; Xie, Yuanhua; Du, Guangyu; Ba, Yaoshuai; Lin, Qiao

    2016-12-01

    Surface tension and viscosity act as important roles on the fluid flow in microchannel channels. In order to understand the influencing mechanism, three dimensional numerical simulations as well as experimental investigations were carried out on the slug formation and transfer in a rectangle T-junction microchannel. The simulation showed that the increasing Capillary number (Ca) resulted in the decreasing slug volume. Due to the existence of film thickness and corner flow, the characteristic length of slug was not the same trend completely. The results also showed that the pressure of junction point fluctuated periodically in the process of slug formation, which can reflect the slug formation period and the effect of the various conditions on pressure change. Two other pressure monitoring points were located in vertical channel and main channel and they monitored the pressure of two phase flow respectively. The increasing surface tension resulted in an increasing of total pressure, the interface pressure drop of two phases and the period of slug formation. The frequency of slug formation and two phases total pressure increased with the viscosity of continuous phase.

  4. Incorporating contact angles in the surface tension force with the ACES interface curvature scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owkes, Mark

    2017-11-01

    In simulations of gas-liquid flows interacting with solid boundaries, the contact line dynamics effect the interface motion and flow field through the surface tension force. The surface tension force is directly proportional to the interface curvature and the problem of accurately imposing a contact angle must be incorporated into the interface curvature calculation. Many commonly used algorithms to compute interface curvatures (e.g., height function method) require extrapolating the interface, with defined contact angle, into the solid to allow for the calculation of a curvature near a wall. Extrapolating can be an ill-posed problem, especially in three-dimensions or when multiple contact lines are near each other. We have developed an accurate methodology to compute interface curvatures that allows for contact angles to be easily incorporated while avoiding extrapolation and the associated challenges. The method, known as Adjustable Curvature Evaluation Scale (ACES), leverages a least squares fit of a polynomial to points computed on the volume-of-fluid (VOF) representation of the gas-liquid interface. The method is tested by simulating canonical test cases and then applied to simulate the injection and motion of water droplets in a channel (relevant to PEM fuel cells).

  5. An accessible micro-capillary electrophoresis device using surface-tension-driven flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Swomitra K.; Warrick, Jay; Gorski, Jack; Beebe, David J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a rapidly fabricated micro-capillary electrophoresis chip that utilizes surface-tension-driven flow for sample injection and extraction of DNA. Surface-tension-driven flow (i.e. passive pumping) injects a fixed volume of sample that can be predicted mathematically. Passive pumping eliminates the need for tubing, valves, syringe pumps, and other equipment typically needed for interfacing with microelectrophoresis chips. This method requires a standard micropipette to load samples before separation, and remove the resulting bands after analysis. The device was made using liquid phase photopolymerization to rapidly fabricate the chip without the need of special equipment typically associated with the construction of microelectrophoresis chips (e.g. cleanroom). Batch fabrication time for the device presented here was 1.5 h including channel coating time to suppress electroosmotic flow. Devices were constructed out of poly-isobornyl acrylate and glass. A standard microscope with a UV source was used for sample detection. Separations were demonstrated using Promega BenchTop 100 bp ladder in hydroxyl ethyl cellulose (HEC) and oligonucleotides of 91 and 118 bp were used to characterize sample injection and extraction of DNA bands. The end result was an inexpensive micro-capillary electrophoresis device that uses tools (e.g. micropipette, electrophoretic power supplies, and microscopes) already present in most labs for sample manipulation and detection, making it more accessible for potential end users. PMID:19425002

  6. Surface tension driven aggregation of organic nanowires via lab in a droplet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianmin; Yin, Baipeng; Fu, Shaoyan; Feng, Man; Zhang, Ziming; Dong, Haiyun; Gao, Faming; Zhao, Yong Sheng

    2018-06-05

    Directing the architecture of complex organic nanostructures is desirable and still remains a challenge in areas of materials science due to their structure-dependent collective optoelectronic properties. Herein, we demonstrate a simple and versatile solution strategy that allows surface tension to drive low-dimensional nanostructures to aggregate into complex structures via a lab in a droplet technique. By selecting a suitable combination of a solvent and an anti-solvent with controllable surface tension difference, the droplets can be automatically cracked into micro-droplets, which provides an aggregation force directed toward the centre of the droplet to drive the low-dimensional building blocks to form the special aggregations during the self-assembly process. This synthetic strategy has been shown to be universal for organic materials, which is beneficial for further optimizing the optoelectronic properties. These results contribute to gaining an insightful understanding on the detailed growth mechanism of complex organic nanostructures and greatly promoting the development of organic nanophotonics.

  7. d-α-tocopherol nanoemulsions: Size properties, rheological behavior, surface tension, osmolarity and cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Teixeira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the assessment of the physicochemical stability of d-α-tocopherol formulated in medium chain triglyceride nanoemulsions, stabilized with Tween®80 and Lipoid®S75 as surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively. d-α-tocopherol was selected as active ingredient because of its well-recognized interesting anti-oxidant properties (such as radical scavenger for food and pharmaceutical industries. A series of nanoemulsions of mean droplet size below 90 nm (polydispersity index < 0.15 have been produced by high-pressure homogenization, and their surface electrical charge (zeta potential, pH, surface tension, osmolarity, and rheological behavior, were characterized as a function of the d-α-tocopherol loading. In vitro studies in Caco-2 cell lines confirmed the safety profile of the developed nanoemulsions with percentage of cell viability above 90% for all formulations.

  8. A novel technique for including surface tension in PLIC-VOF methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, M.; Yadigaroglu, G. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Nuclear Engineering Lab. ETH-Zentrum, CLT, Zurich (Switzerland); Smith, B. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. for Thermal-Hydraulics

    2002-02-01

    Various versions of Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) methods have been used successfully for the numerical simulation of gas-liquid flows with an explicit tracking of the phase interface. Of these, Piecewise-Linear Interface Construction (PLIC-VOF) appears as a fairly accurate, although somewhat more involved variant. Including effects due to surface tension remains a problem, however. The most prominent methods, Continuum Surface Force (CSF) of Brackbill et al. and the method of Zaleski and co-workers (both referenced later), both induce spurious or 'parasitic' currents, and only moderate accuracy in regards to determining the curvature. We present here a new method to determine curvature accurately using an estimator function, which is tuned with a least-squares-fit against reference data. Furthermore, we show how spurious currents may be drastically reduced using the reconstructed interfaces from the PLIC-VOF method. (authors)

  9. Surface tension-induced high aspect-ratio PDMS micropillars with concave and convex lens tips

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei

    2013-04-01

    This paper reports a novel method for the fabrication of 3-dimensional (3D) Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars with concave and convex lens tips in a one-step molding process, using a CO2 laser-machined Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) mold with through holes. The PDMS micropillars are 4 mm high and have an aspect ratio of 251. The micropillars are formed by capillary force drawing up PDMS into the through hole mold. The concave and convex lens tips of the PDMS cylindrical micropillars are induced by surface tension and are controllable by changing the surface wetting properties of the through holes in the PMMA mold. This technique eliminates the requirements of expensive and complicated facilities to prepare a 3D mold, and it provides a simple and rapid method to fabricate 3D PDMS micropillars with controllable dimensions and tip shapes. © 2013 IEEE.

  10. Surface tension-induced high aspect-ratio PDMS micropillars with concave and convex lens tips

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei; Fan, Yiqiang; Yi, Ying; Foulds, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a novel method for the fabrication of 3-dimensional (3D) Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars with concave and convex lens tips in a one-step molding process, using a CO2 laser-machined Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) mold with through holes. The PDMS micropillars are 4 mm high and have an aspect ratio of 251. The micropillars are formed by capillary force drawing up PDMS into the through hole mold. The concave and convex lens tips of the PDMS cylindrical micropillars are induced by surface tension and are controllable by changing the surface wetting properties of the through holes in the PMMA mold. This technique eliminates the requirements of expensive and complicated facilities to prepare a 3D mold, and it provides a simple and rapid method to fabricate 3D PDMS micropillars with controllable dimensions and tip shapes. © 2013 IEEE.

  11. Surface tension and wetting behaviour of Bi-In-Sn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervina Efzan Mohd Noor; Ahmad Badri Ismail; Soong, T.K.; Chin, Y.T.; Luay Bakir Hussain

    2007-01-01

    Concerns about possible landfill contamination, influent discharge from production process are one of the reasons convert from lead-containing electronics to lead-free containing. The surface and interfacial properties of Bi-In-Sn lead-free solder system as a basic system of multicomponent alloys proposed as lead-free solder materials have been studied. The surface tension of Bi-In-Sn lead-free solder system of melting temperature 60 degree Celsius has been measured the temperature range 80 degree Celsius and 140 degree Celsius. The study of the wetting behaviour of Bi-In-Sn lead-free solder system on a Cu substrate has been performed by measuring contact angle on various metal substrates by Optical Microscopy with software. (author)

  12. Asymptotic stability of shear-flow solutions to incompressible viscous free boundary problems with and without surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Ian

    2018-04-01

    This paper concerns the dynamics of a layer of incompressible viscous fluid lying above a rigid plane and with an upper boundary given by a free surface. The fluid is subject to a constant external force with a horizontal component, which arises in modeling the motion of such a fluid down an inclined plane, after a coordinate change. We consider the problem both with and without surface tension for horizontally periodic flows. This problem gives rise to shear-flow equilibrium solutions, and the main thrust of this paper is to study the asymptotic stability of the equilibria in certain parameter regimes. We prove that there exists a parameter regime in which sufficiently small perturbations of the equilibrium at time t=0 give rise to global-in-time solutions that return to equilibrium exponentially in the case with surface tension and almost exponentially in the case without surface tension. We also establish a vanishing surface tension limit, which connects the solutions with and without surface tension.

  13. Surface Tension Directed Fluidic Self-Assembly of Semiconductor Chips across Length Scales and Material Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantonu Biswas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This publication provides an overview and discusses some challenges of surface tension directed fluidic self-assembly of semiconductor chips which are transported in a liquid medium. The discussion is limited to surface tension directed self-assembly where the capture, alignment, and electrical connection process is driven by the surface free energy of molten solder bumps where the authors have made a contribution. The general context is to develop a massively parallel and scalable assembly process to overcome some of the limitations of current robotic pick and place and serial wire bonding concepts. The following parts will be discussed: (2 Single-step assembly of LED arrays containing a repetition of a single component type; (3 Multi-step assembly of more than one component type adding a sequence and geometrical shape confinement to the basic concept to build more complex structures; demonstrators contain (3.1 self-packaging surface mount devices, and (3.2 multi-chip assemblies with unique angular orientation. Subsequently, measures are discussed (4 to enable the assembly of microscopic chips (10 μm–1 mm; a different transport method is introduced; demonstrators include the assembly of photovoltaic modules containing microscopic silicon tiles. Finally, (5 the extension to enable large area assembly is presented; a first reel-to-reel assembly machine is realized; the machine is applied to the field of solid state lighting and the emerging field of stretchable electronics which requires the assembly and electrical connection of semiconductor devices over exceedingly large area substrates.

  14. Effects of ice crystal surface roughness and air bubble inclusions on cirrus cloud radiative properties from remote sensing perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Guanglin; Panetta, R. Lee; Yang, Ping; Kattawar, George W.; Zhai, Peng-Wang

    2017-01-01

    We study the combined effects of surface roughness and inhomogeneity on the optical scattering properties of ice crystals and explore the consequent implications to remote sensing of cirrus cloud properties. Specifically, surface roughness and inhomogeneity are added to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) collection 6 (MC6) cirrus cloud particle habit model. Light scattering properties of the new habit model are simulated using a modified version of the Improved Geometric Optics Method (IGOM). Both inhomogeneity and surface roughness affect the single scattering properties significantly. In visible bands, inhomogeneity and surface roughness both tend to smooth the phase function and eliminate halos and the backscattering peak. The asymmetry parameter varies with the degree of surface roughness following a U shape - decreases and then increases - with a minimum at around 0.15, whereas it decreases monotonically with the air bubble volume fraction. Air bubble inclusions significantly increase phase matrix element -P_1_2 for scattering angles between 20°–120°, whereas surface roughness has a much weaker effect, increasing -P_1_2 slightly from 60°–120°. Radiative transfer simulations and cirrus cloud property retrievals are conducted by including both the factors. In terms of surface roughness and air bubble volume fraction, retrievals of cirrus cloud optical thickness or the asymmetry parameter using solar bands show similar patterns of variation. Polarimetric simulations using the MC6 cirrus cloud particle habit model are shown to be more consistent with observations when both surface roughness and inhomogeneity are simultaneously considered. - Highlights: • Surface roughness and air bubble inclusions affect optical properties of ice crystals significantly. • Including both factors improves simulations of ice cloud.• Cirrus cloud particle habit model of the MODIS collection 6 achieves better self-consistency and consistency with

  15. Studies on surface tension effect for free surface flow around floating models; Futai mokei mawari no jiyu hyomenryu ni oyobosu hyomen choryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K [Yokohama National Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Akiba, H [Toyo Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    The effect of surface tension on free surface flow around floating models is discussed experimentally and numerically. Three-dimensional free surface flow around vertical circular cylinders floating in a circulating water channel was visually observed, where a surface-active agent was added to water. The results are analyzed using Weber number. The numerical analysis was done for vertical cylinder and CY100 models using the Rankine source method. Weber number of at least around 120 is necessary to eliminate the effect of surface tension from free surface flow around the CY100 model. The numerical analysis for the cylinder model needs simulation with wavelength shorter than that of free surface wave used by the Rankine source method. The model for the resistance test should be at least around 7m long to eliminate the effect of surface tension at Froude number of 0.1 or higher. 15 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Studies on surface tension effect for free surface flow around floating models; Futai mokei mawari no jiyu hyomenryu ni oyobosu hyomen choryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K. [Yokohama National Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Akiba, H. [Toyo Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The effect of surface tension on free surface flow around floating models is discussed experimentally and numerically. Three-dimensional free surface flow around vertical circular cylinders floating in a circulating water channel was visually observed, where a surface-active agent was added to water. The results are analyzed using Weber number. The numerical analysis was done for vertical cylinder and CY100 models using the Rankine source method. Weber number of at least around 120 is necessary to eliminate the effect of surface tension from free surface flow around the CY100 model. The numerical analysis for the cylinder model needs simulation with wavelength shorter than that of free surface wave used by the Rankine source method. The model for the resistance test should be at least around 7m long to eliminate the effect of surface tension at Froude number of 0.1 or higher. 15 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. The impact of dissolved fluorine on bubble nucleation in hydrous rhyolite melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James E.; Hajimirza, Sahand; Webster, James D.; Gonnermann, Helge M.

    2018-04-01

    Surface tension of hydrous rhyolitic melt is high enough that large degrees of supersaturation are needed to homogeneously nucleate H2O bubbles during eruptive magma ascent. This study examines whether dissolved fluorine lowers surface tension of hydrous rhyolite, and thus lowers the supersaturation required for bubble nucleation. Fluorine was targeted because it, like H2O, changes melt properties and is highly soluble, unlike all other common magmatic volatiles. Rhyolite melts were saturated at Ps = 245 MPa with H2O fluid that contained F, generating rhyolite with 6.7 ± 0.4 wt.% H2O and 1.1-1.3 wt.% F. When these melts were decompressed rapidly to Pf = 149-202 MPa and quenched after 60 s, bubbles nucleated at supersaturations of ΔP = Ps - Pf ≥52 MPa, and reached bubble number densities of NB = 1012-13 m-3 at ΔP = 78-101 MPa. In comparison, rhyolite saturated with 6.34 ± 0.09 wt.% H2O, but only 0.25 wt.% F, did not nucleate bubbles until ΔP ≥ 100-116 MPa, and even then, at significantly lower NB (<1010 m-3). Numerical modeling of bubble nucleation and growth was used to estimate the values of surface tension required to generate the observed values of NB. Slight differences in melt compositions (i.e., alkalinity and H2O content), H2O diffusivity, or melt viscosity cannot explain the observed differences in NB. Instead, surface tension of F-rich rhyolite must be lower by approximately 4% than that of F-poor rhyolite. This difference in surface tension is significant and, for example, exceeds that found between hydrous basaltic andesite and hydrous rhyolite. These results suggest that is likely that surface tension for F-rich magmas, such as topaz rhyolite, is significantly lower than for F-poor magmas.

  18. Role of surface properties for the kinetics of bubble Ostwald ripening in saponin-stabilized foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tcholakova, Slavka; Mustan, Fatmegul; Pagureva, Nevena; Golemanov, Konstantin; Denkov, Nikolai D.; Pelan, Edward G.; Stoyanov, Simeon D.

    2017-01-01

    Bubble Ostwald ripening (OR) leads to a gradual increase of the mean bubble size in foams with time. The rate of OR can be reduced significantly or even arrested completely using appropriate solid particles and/or surfactants as foam stabilizers. In the current paper, we show that saponins, a

  19. Pendent_Drop: An ImageJ Plugin to Measure the Surface Tension from an Image of a Pendent Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Daerr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The pendent drop method for surface tension measurement consists in analysing the shape of an axisymmetric drop hanging from a capillary tube. This software is an add-on for the public domain image processing software ImageJ which matches a theoretical profile to the contour of a pendent drop, either interactively or by automatically minimising the mismatch. It provides an estimate of the surface tension, drop volume and surface area from the best matching parameters. It can be used in a headless setup. It is hosted on http://fiji.sc/List_of_update_sites with the source code on https://github.com/adaerr/pendent-drop

  20. Effect of temperature and composition on the surface tension and surface properties of binary mixtures containing DMSO and short chain alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri, Ahmad; Fazli, Mostafa; Bakhshaei, Malihe

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface tension of DMSO + alcohol (methanol, ethanol and isopropanol) at various temperatures was measured. • The surface tension data of binary mixtures were correlated with four equations. • Intermolecular interaction of DMSO with alcohol was discussed. • The surface mole fraction of alcohol increase with increasing the length of alcohol chain. - Abstract: Surface tension of binary mixtures of methanol, ethanol and isopropanol with DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) was measured over the whole range of composition at atmospheric pressure of 82.5 kPa within the temperatures between (298.15 and 328.15) K. The experimental measurements were used to calculate in surface tension deviations (Δσ). The sign of Δσ for all temperatures is negative (except of methanol/DMSO system) because of the factors of hydrogen bonding and dipole–dipole interactions in the DMSO-alcohol systems. Surface tension values of the binary systems were correlated with FLW, MS, RK and LWW models. The mean standard deviation obtained from the comparison of experimental and calculated surface tension values for binary systems with three models (FLW, MS and RK) at various temperatures is less than 0.83. Also, the results of the LWW model were used to account for the interaction energy between alcohols and DMSO in binary mixtures. The temperature dependence of σ (surface tension) at fixed composition of solutions was used to estimate surface enthalpy, H s , and surface entropy, S s . The results obtained show that the values of the thermodynamic parameters for alcohol/DMSO mixtures decrease with increasing alkyl chain length of alcohol. Finally, the results are discussed in terms of surface mole fraction and lyophobicity using the extended Langmuir (EL) isotherm.

  1. The dynamics of nucleation and growth of a particle in the ternary alloy melt with anisotropic surface tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Wen; Li, Lin-Yan; Guo, Hui-Min

    2017-08-28

    The dynamics of nucleation and growth of a particle affected by anisotropic surface tension in the ternary alloy melt is studied. The uniformly valid asymptotic solution for temperature field, concentration field, and interface evolution of nucleation and particle growth is obtained by means of the multiple variable expansion method. The asymptotic solution reveals the critical radius of nucleation in the ternary alloy melt and an inward melting mechanism of the particle induced by the anisotropic effect of surface tension. The critical radius of nucleation is dependent on isotropic surface tension, temperature undercooling, and constitutional undercooling in the ternary alloy melt, and the solute diffusion melt decreases the critical radius of nucleation. Immediately after a nucleus forms in the initial stage of solidification, the anisotropic effect of surface tension makes some parts of its interface grow inward while some parts grow outward. Until the inward melting attains a certain distance (which is defined as "the melting depth"), these parts of interface start to grow outward with other parts. The interface of the particle evolves into an ear-like deformation, whose inner diameter may be less than two times the critical radius of nucleation within a short time in the initial stage of solidification. The solute diffusion in the ternary alloy melt decreases the effect of anisotropic surface tension on the interface deformation.

  2. The Effect of Surface Tension on the Gravity-driven Thin Film Flow of Newtonian and Power-law Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Kieweg, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    Gravity-driven thin film flow is of importance in many fields, as well as for the design of polymeric drug delivery vehicles, such as anti-HIV topical microbicides. There have been many prior works on gravity-driven thin films. However, the incorporation of surface tension effect has not been well studied for non-Newtonian fluids. After surface tension effect was incorporated into our 2D (i.e. 1D spreading) power-law model, we found that surface tension effect not only impacted the spreading speed of the microbicide gel, but also had an influence on the shape of the 2D spreading profile. We observed a capillary ridge at the front of the fluid bolus. Previous literature shows that the emergence of a capillary ridge is strongly related to the contact line fingering instability. Fingering instabilities during epithelial coating may change the microbicide gel distribution and therefore impact how well it can protect the epithelium. In this study, we focused on the capillary ridge in 2D flow and performed a series of simulations and showed how the capillary ridge height varies with other parameters, such as surface tension coefficient, inclination angle, initial thickness, and power-law parameters. As shown in our results, we found that capillary ridge height increased with higher surface tension, steeper inclination angle, bigger initial thickness, and more Newtonian fluids. This study provides the initial insights of how to optimize the flow and prevent the appearance of a capillary ridge and fingering instability. PMID:23687391

  3. Dynamic surface tension measurement for the screening of biosurfactants produced by Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum PTCC 1896.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Nafiseh; Soleimanian-Zad, Sabihe; Sheikh-Zeinoddin, Mahmoud

    2017-06-01

    Currently, screening of microbial biosurfactants (BSs) is based on their equilibrium surface tension values obtained using static surface tension measurement. However, a good surfactant should not only have a low equilibrium surface tension, but its dynamic surface tension (DST) should also decrease rapidly with time. In this study, screening of BSs produced by Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum PTCC 1896 (probiotic) was performed based on their DST values measured by Wilhelmy plate tensiometry. The relationship between DST and structural and functional properties (anti-adhesive activity) of the BSs was investigated. The results showed that the changes in the yield, productivity and structure of the BSs were growth medium and incubation time dependent (p<0.05). Structurally different BSs produced exhibited identical equilibrium surface tension values. However, differences among the structure/yield of the BSs were observed through the measurement of their DST. The considerable dependence of DST on the concentration and composition of the BS proteins was observed (p<0.05). Moreover, the anti-adhesive activity of the BS was found to be positively correlated with its DST. The results suggest that the DST measurement could serve as an efficient method for the clever screening of BSs producer/production condition, and consequently, for the investigation of probiotic features of bacteria, since the anti-adhesive activity is an important criterion of probiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dynamics of two-phase interfaces and surface tensions: A density-functional theory perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsyshin, Petr; Sibley, David N.; Duran-Olivencia, Miguel A.; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2016-11-01

    Classical density functional theory (DFT) is a statistical mechanical framework for the description of fluids at the nanoscale, where the inhomogeneity of the fluid structure needs to be carefully accounted for. By expressing the grand free-energy of the fluid as a functional of the one-body density, DFT offers a theoretically consistent and computationally accessible way to obtain two-phase interfaces and respective interfacial tensions in a ternary solid-liquid-gas system. The dynamic version of DFT (DDFT) can be rigorously derived from the Smoluchowsky picture of the dynamics of colloidal particles in a solvent. It is generally agreed that DDFT can capture the diffusion-driven evolution of many soft-matter systems. In this context, we use DDFT to investigate the dynamic behaviour of two-phase interfaces in both equilibrium and dynamic wetting and discuss the possibility of defining a time-dependent surface tension, which still remains in debate. We acknowledge financial support from the European Research Council via Advanced Grant No. 247031 and from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council of the UK via Grants No. EP/L027186 and EP/L020564.

  5. Detachment of colloidal particles from collector surfaces with different electrostatic charge and hydrophobicity by attachment to air bubbles in a parallel plate flow chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez, CG; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    1999-01-01

    The detachment of polystyrene particles adhering to collector surfaces with different electrostatic charge and hydrophobicity by attachment to a passing air bubble has been studied in a parallel plate flow chamber. Particle detachment decreased linearly with increasing air bubble velocity and

  6. Air bubble-induced detachment of positively and negatively charged polystyrene particles from collector surfaces in a parallel-plate flow chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Suarez, C; Van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    2000-01-01

    Electrostatic interactions between colloidal particles and collector surfaces were found tcr be important in particle detachment as induced by the passage of air bubbles in a parallel-plate Row chamber. Electrostatic interactions between adhering particles and passing air bubbles, however, a-ere

  7. Modeling of a Curvilinear Planar Crack with a Curvature-Dependent Surface Tension

    KAUST Repository

    Zemlyanova, A. Y.; Walton, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    An approach to modeling fracture incorporating interfacial mechanics is applied to the example of a curvilinear plane strain crack. The classical Neumann boundary condition is augmented with curvature-dependent surface tension. It is shown that the considered model eliminates the integrable crack-tip stress and strain singularities of order 1/2 present in the classical linear fracture mechanics solutions, and also leads to the sharp crack opening that is consistent with empirical observations. Unlike for the case of a straight crack, for a general curvilinear crack some components of the stresses and the derivatives of the displacements may still possess weaker singularities of a logarithmic type. Generalizations of the present study that lead to complete removal of all crack-tip singularities, including logarithmic, are the subject of a future paper. © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  8. A multiscale method for compressible liquid-vapor flow with surface tension*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaegle Felix

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Discontinuous Galerkin methods have become a powerful tool for approximating the solution of compressible flow problems. Their direct use for two-phase flow problems with phase transformation is not straightforward because this type of flows requires a detailed tracking of the phase front. We consider the fronts in this contribution as sharp interfaces and propose a novel multiscale approach. It combines an efficient high-order Discontinuous Galerkin solver for the computation in the bulk phases on the macro-scale with the use of a generalized Riemann solver on the micro-scale. The Riemann solver takes into account the effects of moderate surface tension via the curvature of the sharp interface as well as phase transformation. First numerical experiments in three space dimensions underline the overall performance of the method.

  9. Measurement uncertainty evaluation of cellular spheroids surface tension in compressing tests using Young-Laplace equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatrici, Anderson; Santos Baptista, Leandra; Mauro Granjeiro, José

    2018-03-01

    Regenerative Medicine comprises the Biotechnology, Tissue Engineering and Biometrology for stem cell therapy. Starting from stem cells extracted from the patient, autologous implant, these cells are cultured and differentiated into other tissues, for example, articular cartilage. These cells are reorganized into microspheres (cell spheroids). Such tissue units are recombined into functional tissues constructs that can be implanted in the injured region for regeneration. It is necessary the biomechanical characterization of these constructed to determine if their properties are similar to native tissue. In this study was carried out the modeling of the calculation of uncertainty of the surface tension of cellular spheroids with the use of the Young-Laplace equation. We obtained relative uncertainties about 10%.

  10. Effect of surface tension on the behavior of adhesive contact based on Lennard-Jones potential law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinyao; Xu, Wei

    2018-02-01

    The present study explores the effect of surface tension on adhesive contact behavior where the adhesion is interpreted by long-range intermolecular forces. The adhesive contact is analyzed using the equivalent system of a rigid sphere and an elastic half space covered by a membrane with surface tension. The long-range intermolecular forces are modeled with the Lennard‒Jones (L‒J) potential law. The current adhesive contact issue can be represented by a nonlinear integral equation, which can be solved by Newton‒Raphson method. In contrast to previous studies which consider intermolecular forces as short-range, the present study reveals more details of the features of adhesive contact with surface tension, in terms of jump instabilities, pull-off forces, pressure distribution within the contact area, etc. The transition of the pull-off force is not only consistent with previous studies, but also presents some new interesting characteristics in the current situation.

  11. Effect of Surface Tension Anisotropy and Welding Parameters on Initial Instability Dynamics During Solidification: A Phase-Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fengyi; Wei, Yanhong

    2018-05-01

    The effects of surface tension anisotropy and welding parameters on initial instability dynamics during gas tungsten arc welding of an Al-alloy are investigated by a quantitative phase-field model. The results show that the surface tension anisotropy and welding parameters affect the initial instability dynamics in different ways during welding. The surface tension anisotropy does not influence the solute diffusion process but does affect the stability of the solid/liquid interface during solidification. The welding parameters affect the initial instability dynamics by varying the growth rate and thermal gradient. The incubation time decreases, and the initial wavelength remains stable as the welding speed increases. When welding power increases, the incubation time increases and the initial wavelength slightly increases. Experiments were performed for the same set of welding parameters used in modeling, and the results of the experiments and simulations were in good agreement.

  12. Computational approach for a pair of bubble coalescence process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Hasan; Zalinawati binti Zakaria

    2011-01-01

    The coalescence of bubbles has great value in mineral recovery and oil industry. In this paper, two co-axial bubbles rising in a cylinder is modelled to study the coalescence of bubbles for four computational experimental test cases. The Reynolds' (Re) number is chosen in between 8.50 and 10, Bond number, Bo ∼4.25-50, Morton number, M 0.0125-14.7. The viscosity ratio (μ r ) and density ratio (ρ r ) of liquid to bubble are kept constant (100 and 850 respectively). It was found that the Bo number has significant effect on the coalescence process for constant Re, μ r and ρ r . The bubble-bubble distance over time was validated against published experimental data. The results show that VOF approach can be used to model these phenomena accurately. The surface tension was changed to alter the Bo and density of the fluids to alter the Re and M, keeping the μ r and ρ r the same. It was found that for lower Bo, the bubble coalesce is slower and the pocket at the lower part of the leading bubble is less concave (towards downward) which is supported by the experimental data.

  13. Elastic-Plastic J-Integral Solutions or Surface Cracks in Tension Using an Interpolation Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, P. A.; Wells, D. N.

    2013-01-01

    No closed form solutions exist for the elastic-plastic J-integral for surface cracks due to the nonlinear, three-dimensional nature of the problem. Traditionally, each surface crack must be analyzed with a unique and time-consuming nonlinear finite element analysis. To overcome this shortcoming, the authors have developed and analyzed an array of 600 3D nonlinear finite element models for surface cracks in flat plates under tension loading. The solution space covers a wide range of crack shapes and depths (shape: 0.2 less than or equal to a/c less than or equal to 1, depth: 0.2 less than or equal to a/B less than or equal to 0.8) and material flow properties (elastic modulus-to-yield ratio: 100 less than or equal to E/ys less than or equal to 1,000, and hardening: 3 less than or equal to n less than or equal to 20). The authors have developed a methodology for interpolating between the goemetric and material property variables that allows the user to reliably evaluate the full elastic-plastic J-integral and force versus crack mouth opening displacement solution; thus, a solution can be obtained very rapidly by users without elastic-plastic fracture mechanics modeling experience. Complete solutions for the 600 models and 25 additional benchmark models are provided in tabular format.

  14. Effect of Solid Material and Surfactant Presence on Interactions of Bubbles with Horizontal Solid Surface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zedníková, Mária; Vobecká, Lucie; Vejražka, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 4 (2010), s. 473-481 ISSN 0008-4034 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/1110; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB200720801; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200720801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : bubble motion * surfactants * bubble-wall interaction Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.707, year: 2010

  15. Dynamics of the central entrapped bubble during drop impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Zhen; Channa, Murad Ali; Thoraval, Marie-Jean

    2017-11-01

    When a drop impacts onto a liquid surface, it entraps a thin central air disk. The air is then brought towards the axis of symmetry by surface tension. This contraction dynamics is very challenging to capture, due to the small length scales (a few micrometers thin air disk) and time scales (contracting in a few hundred microseconds). We use the open source two-phase flow codes Gerris and Basilisk to study this air entrapment phenomenon. The effects of liquid properties such as viscosity and surface tension, and of the impact velocity were investigated. We focus on the morphology of the contracting air disk. The bubble is expected to contract into a single spherical bubble. However, in some cases, the air can be stretched vertically by the liquid inertia and split into two smaller bubbles. The convergence of capillary waves on the air disk towards the axis of symmetry can also make it rupture at the center, thus forming a toroidal bubble. In other cases, vorticity shedding can deform the contracting bubble, leading to more complex structures. A parameter space analysis based on the Reynolds and Weber numbers was then done to classify the different regimes and explain the transitions. Full affiliation:State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures,Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Environment and Control for Flight Vehicle,International Center for Applied Mechanics,School of Aerospace,Xi'an Jiaotong University.

  16. Influence of additives on melt viscosity, surface tension, and film formation of dry powder coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Dorothea; McGinity, James W

    2009-06-01

    Limited information on thermally cured dry-powder coatings used for solid dosage forms has been available in the literature. The aim of this study was to characterize the film formation process of Eudragit L 100-55 dry-powder coatings and to investigate the influence of film additives on melt viscosity and surface tension. The coating process employed no liquids and the plasticizer was combined with the polymer using hot melt extrusion. Thermoanalytical methods including differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to investigate the thermal properties of the dry-coating formulations. The rheological behavior of the coating formulations were characterized with the extrusion torque, and the surface energy parameters were determined from contact angle measurements. The influence of the level of triethyl citrate (TEC) as plasticizer and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 in the polymer film on film formation was investigated using a digital force tester. TGA confirmed thermal stability of all coating excipients at the investigated curing conditions. Increasing TEC levels and the addition of PEG 3350 as a low melting excipient in the coating reduced the viscosity of the polymer. Plasticization of the polymer with TEC increased the surface free energy, whereas the admixture of 10% PEG 3350 did not affect the surface free energy of Eudragit L 100-55. The spreading coefficient of the polymers over two sample tablet formulations was reduced with increasing surface free energy. During the curing process, puncture strength, and elongation of powder-cast films increased. The effect of curing time on the mechanical properties was dependent on the plasticizer content. The incorporation of TEC and PEG 3350 into the Eudragit L 100-55 powder coating formulation improved film formation. Mechanical testing of powder-cast films showed an increase of both elongation and puncture strength over the curing process as criterion for polymer particle fusion

  17. Multiple bubbles in a Hele-Shaw cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    A new class of exact solutions is reported for an infinite stream of identical groups of bubbles moving with a constant velocity U in a Hele-Shaw cell when surface tension is neglected. It is suggested that the existence of these solutions might explain some of the complex behavior observed in recent experiments on rising bubbles in a Hele-Shaw cell. Solutions for a finite number of bubbles in a channel are also obtained. In this case, it is shown that solutions with an arbitrary bubble velocity U>V, where V is the fluid velocity at infinity, can in general be obtained from a simple transformation of the solutions for U=2V

  18. Ground-based PIV and numerical flow visualization results from the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pline, Alexander D.; Werner, Mark P.; Hsieh, Kwang-Chung

    1991-01-01

    The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE) is a Space Transportation System flight experiment to study both transient and steady thermocapillary fluid flows aboard the United States Microgravity Laboratory-1 (USML-1) Spacelab mission planned for June, 1992. One of the components of data collected during the experiment is a video record of the flow field. This qualitative data is then quantified using an all electric, two dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique called Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT), which uses a simple space domain particle tracking algorithm. Results using the ground based STDCE hardware, with a radiant flux heating mode, and the PDT system are compared to numerical solutions obtained by solving the axisymmetric Navier Stokes equations with a deformable free surface. The PDT technique is successful in producing a velocity vector field and corresponding stream function from the raw video data which satisfactorily represents the physical flow. A numerical program is used to compute the velocity field and corresponding stream function under identical conditions. Both the PDT system and numerical results were compared to a streak photograph, used as a benchmark, with good correlation.

  19. Bubble propagation in Hele-Shaw channels with centred constrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Gómez, Andrés; Thompson, Alice B.; Hazel, Andrew L.; Juel, Anne

    2018-04-01

    We study the propagation of finite bubbles in a Hele-Shaw channel, where a centred occlusion (termed a rail) is introduced to provide a small axially uniform depth constriction. For bubbles wide enough to span the channel, the system’s behaviour is similar to that of semi-infinite fingers and a symmetric static solution is stable. Here, we focus on smaller bubbles, in which case the symmetric static solution is unstable and the static bubble is displaced towards one of the deeper regions of the channel on either side of the rail. Using a combination of experiments and numerical simulations of a depth-averaged model, we show that a bubble propagating axially due to a small imposed flow rate can be stabilised in a steady symmetric mode centred on the rail through a subtle interaction between stabilising viscous forces and destabilising surface tension forces. However, for sufficiently large capillary numbers Ca, the ratio of viscous to surface tension forces, viscous forces in turn become destabilising thus returning the bubble to an off-centred propagation regime. With decreasing bubble size, the range of Ca for which steady centred propagation is stable decreases, and eventually vanishes through the coalescence of two supercritical pitchfork bifurcations. The depth-averaged model is found to accurately predict all the steady modes of propagation observed experimentally, and provides a comprehensive picture of the underlying steady bifurcation structure. However, for sufficiently large imposed flow rates, we find that initially centred bubbles do not converge onto a steady mode of propagation. Instead they transiently explore weakly unstable steady modes, an evolution which results in their break-up and eventual settling into a steady propagating state of changed topology.

  20. Surface tensions of binary mixtures of ionic liquids with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide as the common anion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.B.; Domínguez-Pérez, M.; Cabeza, O.; Lopes-da-Silva, J.A.; Freire, M.G.; Coutinho, J.A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel data for the surface tensions of mixtures [C 4 mim][NTf 2 ] + [C 4 C 1 mim]/[C 3 mpy]/[C 3 mpyr]/[C 3 mpip][NTf 2 ] are presented. • γ were determined at a fixed temperature, 298.2 K, and at atmospheric pressure, for the whole composition range. • Surface tension deviations showed the near ideal behavior of the selected mixtures. • Gibbs adsorption isotherms showed the surface preferential adsorption of one ionic liquid over the other. -- Abstract: While values for thermophysical properties of ionic liquids are becoming widely available, data for ionic liquid mixtures are still scarce. In an effort to overcome this limitation and understand the behavior of ionic liquid mixtures, novel data for the surface tension of mixtures composed of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [C 4 mim][NTf 2 ], with other ionic liquids with a common anion, namely 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium, [C 4 C 1 mim] + , 3-methyl-1-propylpyridinium, [C 3 mpy] + , 1-methyl-1-propylpyrrolidinium, [C 3 mpyr] + , and 1-methyl-1-propylpiperidinium, [C 3 mpip] + , were measured at T = 298.2 K and atmospheric pressure over the entire composition range. From the surface tension deviations derived from the experimental results, it was possible to infer that the cation alkyl chain length of the second ionic liquid constituting the mixture has a stronger influence in the ideal mixture behavior than the type of family the ionic liquid cation belongs to. The Gibbs adsorption isotherms, estimated from the experimental values, show that the composition of the vapor–liquid interface is not the same as that of the bulk and that the interface is richer in the ionic liquid with the lowest surface tension, [C 4 mim][NTf 2

  1. Reducing surface tension in endodontic chelator solutions has no effect on their ability to remove calcium from instrumented root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Matthias; Schicht, Olivier; Sener, Beatrice; Schmidlin, Patrick

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of reducing surface tension in endodontic chelator solutions on their ability to remove calcium from instrumented root canals. Aqueous solutions containing 15.5% EDTA, 10% citric acid, or 18% 1- hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate (HEBP) were prepared with and without 1% (wt/wt) polysorbate (Tween) 80 and 9% propylene glycol. Surface tension in these solutions was measured using the Wilhelmy method. Sixty-four extracted, single-rooted human teeth of similar length were instrumented and irrigated with a 1% sodium hypochlorite solution and then randomly assigned (n = 8 per group) to receive a final one-minute rinse with 5 ml of test solutions, water, or the pure aqueous Tween/propylene glycol solution. Calcium concentration in eluates was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. Incorporation of wetting agents resulted in a reduction of surface tension values by approximately 50% in all tested solutions. However, none of the solutions with reduced surface tension chelated more calcium from canals than their pure counterparts (p > 0.05).

  2. Determination of Surface Tension of Surfactant Solutions through Capillary Rise Measurements: An Image-Processing Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck-Iriart, Cristia´n; De-Candia, Ariel; Rodriguez, Javier; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we described an image processing procedure for the measurement of surface tension of the air-liquid interface using isothermal capillary action. The experiment, designed for an undergraduate course, is based on the analysis of a series of solutions with diverse surfactant concentrations at different ionic strengths. The objective of…

  3. Density, viscosity, and surface tension of synthesis grade imidazolium,pyridinium, and pyrrolidinium based room temperature ionic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galan Sanchez, L.M.; Espel, J.R.; Onink, S.A.F.; Meindersma, G.W.; Haan, de A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Density, viscosity, and surface tension data sets of 13 ionic liquids formed by imidazolium, pyridinium, or pyrrolidinium cations paired with dicyanamide (DCA), tetrafluoroborate (BF4¯), thiocyanate (SCN¯),methylsulfate (MeSO4¯), and trifluoroacetate (TFA) anions are reported. The properties were

  4. Studies on the interaction between nanodiamond and human hemoglobin by surface tension measurement and spectroscopy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishkar, Leila; Taheri, Saba; Makarem, Somayeh; Alizadeh Zeinabad, Hojjat; Rahimi, Arash; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Falahati, Mojtaba

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a novel method to probe molecular interactions and binding of human hemoglobin (Hb) with nanodiamond (ND) was introduced based on the surface tension measurement. This method complements conventional techniques, which are basically done by zeta potential and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements, near and far circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy. Addition of ND to Hb solution increased the surface tension value of Hb-ND complex relative to those of Hb and ND molecules. The zeta potential values reveled that Hb and ND provide identical charge distribution at pH 7.5. DLS measurements demonstrated that Hb, ND, and ND-Hb complex have hydrodynamic radiuses of 98.37 ± 4.57, 122.07 ± 7.88 nm and 62.27 ± 3.70 at pH of 7.5 respectively. Far and near UV-CD results indicated the loss of α-helix structure and conformational changes of Hb, respectively. Intrinsic fluorescence data demonstrated that the fluorescence quenching of Hb by ND was the result of the static quenching. The hydrophobic interaction plays a pivotal role in the interaction of ND with Hb. Fluorescence intensity changes over time revealed conformational change of Hb continues after the mixing of the components (Hb-ND) till 15 min, which is indicative of the denaturation of the Hb relative to the protein control. Extrinsic fluorescence data showed a considerable enhancement of the ANS fluorescence intensity of Hb-ND system relative to the Hb till 60 nM of ND, likely persuaded by greater exposure of nonpolar residues of Hb hydrophobic pocket. The remarkable decrease in T m value of Hb in Hb-ND complex exhibits interaction of Hb with ND conducts to conformational changes of Hb. This study offers consequential discrimination into the interaction of ND with proteins, which may be of significance for further appeal of these nanoparticles in biotechnology prosecution.

  5. Bubble coalescence in a Newtonian fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Vishrut; Basaran, Osman

    2017-11-01

    Bubble coalescence plays a central role in the hydrodynamics of gas-liquid systems such as bubble column reactors, spargers, and foams. Two bubbles approaching each other at velocity V coalesce when the thin film between them ruptures, which is often the rate-limiting step. Experimental studies of this system are difficult, and recent works provide conflicting results on the effect of V on coalescence times. We simulate the head-on approach of two bubbles of equal radii R in an incompressible Newtonian fluid (density ρ, viscosity μ, and surface tension σ) by solving numerically the free boundary problem comprised of the Navier Stokes and continuity equations. Simulations are made challenging by the existence of highly disparate lengthscales, i.e. film thickness and drop radii, which are resolved by using the method of elliptic mesh generation. For a given liquid, the bubbles are shown to coalesce for all velocities below a critical value. The effects of Ohnesorge number Oh = μ /√{ ρσR } on coalescence time and critical velocity are also investigated.

  6. Transient thermal driven bubble's surface and its potential ultrasound-induced damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahed, Pooya; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2017-11-01

    Ultrasound-induced bubble activity in soft tissues is well-known to be a potential injury mechanism in therapeutic ultrasound treatments. We consider damage by transient thermal effects, including a hypothetical mechanism based on transient thermal phenomena, including viscous dissipation. A spherically symmetric compressible Navier-Stokes discretization is developed to solve the full governing equations, both inside and outside of the bubble, without the usual simplifications in the Rayleigh-Plesset bubble dynamics approach. Equations are solved in the Lagrangian framework, which provides a sharp and accurate representation of the interface as well as the viscous dissipation and thermal transport effects, which preclude reduction to the usual Rayleigh-Plesset ordinary differential equation. This method is used to study transient thermal effects at different frequencies and pressure amplitudes relevant to therapeutic ultrasound treatments. High temperatures achieved in the surrounding medium during the violent bubble collapse phase due to the viscous dissipation in the surrounding medium and thermal conduction from the bubble are expected to cause damage. This work was supported by NIH NIDDK Grant P01-DK043881.

  7. Surface activity of lipid extract surfactant in relation to film area compression and collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürch, S; Schürch, D; Curstedt, T; Robertson, B

    1994-08-01

    The physical properties of modified porcine surfactant (Curosurf), isolated from minced lungs by extraction with chloroform-methanol and further purified by liquid-gel chromatography, were investigated with the captive bubble technique. Bubble size, and thus the surface tension of an insoluble film at the bubble surface, is altered by changing the pressure within the closed bubble chamber. The film surface tension and area are determined from the shape (height and diameter) of the bubble. Adsorption of fresh Curosurf is characterized by stepwise decreases in surface tension, which can easily be observed by sudden quick movements of the bubble apex. These "adsorption clicks" imply a cooperative movement of large collective units of molecules, approximately 10(14) (corresponding to approximately 120 ng of phospholipid) or approximately 10(18) molecules/m2, into the interface during adsorption. Films formed in this manner are already highly enriched in dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, as seen by the extremely low compressibility, close to that of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine. Near-zero minimum tensions are obtained, even at phospholipid concentrations as low as 50 micrograms/ml. During dynamic cycling (20-50 cycles/min), low minimum surface tensions, good film stability, low compressibility, and maximum surface tensions between 30 and 40 mN/m are possible only if the films are not overcompressed near zero surface tension; i.e., the overall film area compression should not substantially exceed 30%.

  8. Natural convection with evaporation in a vertical cylindrical cavity under the effect of temperature-dependent surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Danil A.; Sheremet, Mikhail A.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of surface tension on laminar natural convection in a vertical cylindrical cavity filled with a weak evaporating liquid has been analyzed numerically. The cylindrical enclosure is insulated at the bottom, heated by a constant heat flux from the side, and cooled by a non-uniform evaporative heat flux from the top free surface having temperature-dependent surface tension. Governing equations with corresponding boundary conditions formulated in dimensionless stream function, vorticity, and temperature have been solved by finite difference method of the second-order accuracy. The influence of Rayleigh number, Marangoni number, and aspect ratio on the liquid flow and heat transfer has been studied. Obtained results have revealed that the heat transfer rate at free surface decreases with Marangoni number and increases with Rayleigh number, while the average temperature inside the cavity has an opposite behavior; namely, it growths with Marangoni number and reduces with Rayleigh number.

  9. On the interfacial thermodynamics of nanoscale droplets and bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, David S.; Kerr, Karl J.; Torabi, Korosh

    2011-07-01

    We present a new self-consistent thermodynamic formalism for the interfacial properties of nanoscale embryos whose interiors do not exhibit bulklike behavior and are in complete equilibrium with the surrounding mother phase. In contrast to the standard Gibbsian analysis, whereby a bulk reference pressure based on the same temperature and chemical potentials of the mother phase is introduced, our approach naturally incorporates the normal pressure at the center of the embryo as an appropriate reference pressure. While the interfacial properties of small embryos that follow from the use of these two reference pressures are different, both methods yield by construction the same reversible work of embryo formation as well as consistency between their respective thermodynamic and mechanical routes to the surface tension. Hence, there is no a priori reason to select one method over another. Nevertheless, we argue, and demonstrate via a density-functional theory (with the local density approximation) analysis of embryo formation in the pure component Lennard-Jones fluid, that our new method generates more physically appealing trends. For example, within the new approach the surface tension at all locations of the dividing surface vanishes at the spinodal where the density profile spanning the embryo and mother phase becomes completely uniform (only the surface tension at the Gibbs surface of tension vanishes in the Gibbsian method at this same limit). Also, for bubbles, the location of the surface of tension now diverges at the spinodal, similar to the divergent behavior exhibited by the equimolar dividing surface (in the Gibbsian method, the location of the surface of tension vanishes instead). For droplets, the new method allows for the appearance of negative surface tensions (the Gibbsian method always yields positive tensions) when the normal pressures within the interior of the embryo become less than the bulk pressure of the surrounding vapor phase. Such a

  10. Pressure and surface tension of solid-liquid interface using Tara zona density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradi, M.; Kavosh Tehrani, M.

    2001-01-01

    The weighted density functional theory proposed by Tara zona is applied to study the solid-liquid interface. In the last two decades the weighted density functional became a useful tool to consider the properties of inhomogeneous liquids. In this theory, the role of the size of molecules or the particles of which the matter is composed, was found to be important. In this research we study a hard sphere fluid beside a hard wall. For this study the liquid is an inhomogeneous system. We use the definition of the direct correlation function as a second derivative of free energy with respect to the density. We use this definition and the definition of the weighting function, then we minimize the grand potential with respect to the density to get the Euler Lagrange equation and we obtain an integral equation to find the inhomogeneous density profile. The obtained density profile as a function of the distance from the wall, for different bulk density is pitted in three dimensions. We also calculate the pressure and compare it with the Carnahan-Starling results, and finally we obtained the surface tension at liquid-solid interface and compared it with the results of Monte Carlo simulation

  11. Theory of melt polyelectrolyte blends and block copolymers: Phase behavior, surface tension, and microphase periodicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sing, Charles E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Zwanikken, Jos W.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2015-01-21

    Polymer mixtures such as blends or block copolymers are of great interest in energy applications and functional materials, and often, one or more of these species contain charges. The traditional fashion in which such materials are studied uses Self-Consistent Field Theory (SCFT) methods that incorporate electrostatics using Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory. We adapt a new and rigorous approach that does not rely on the mean-field assumptions inherent in the PB theory and instead uses Liquid State (LS) integral equation theory to articulate charge correlations that are completely neglected in PB. We use this theory to calculate phase diagrams for both blends and block copolyelectrolytes using SCFT-LS and demonstrate how their phase behavior is highly dependent on chain length, charge fraction, charge size, and the strength of Coulombic interactions. Beyond providing phase behavior of blends and block copolyelectrolytes, we can use this theory to investigate the interfacial properties such as surface tension and block copolyelectrolyte lamellar spacing. Lamellar spacing provides a way to directly compare the SCFT-LS theory to the results of experiments. SCFT-LS will provide conceptual and mathematical clarification of the role of charge correlations in these systems and aid in the design of materials based on charge polymers.

  12. The Prediction of Surface Tension of Ternary Mixtures at Different Temperatures Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khazaei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, artificial neural network (ANN has been employed to propose a practical model for predicting the surface tension of multi-component mixtures. In order to develop a reliable model based on the ANN, a comprehensive experimental data set including 15 ternary liquid mixtures at different temperatures was employed. These systems consist of 777 data points generally containing hydrocarbon components. The ANN model has been developed as a function of temperature, critical properties, and acentric factor of the mixture according to conventional corresponding-state models. 80% of the data points were employed for training ANN and the remaining data were utilized for testing the generated model. The average absolute relative deviations (AARD% of the model for the training set, the testing set, and the total data points were obtained 1.69, 1.86, and 1.72 respectively. Comparing the results with Flory theory, Brok-Bird equation, and group contribution theory has proved the high prediction capability of the attained model.

  13. Theory of melt polyelectrolyte blends and block copolymers: Phase behavior, surface tension, and microphase periodicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sing, Charles E.; Zwanikken, Jos W.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Polymer mixtures such as blends or block copolymers are of great interest in energy applications and functional materials, and often, one or more of these species contain charges. The traditional fashion in which such materials are studied uses Self-Consistent Field Theory (SCFT) methods that incorporate electrostatics using Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory. We adapt a new and rigorous approach that does not rely on the mean-field assumptions inherent in the PB theory and instead uses Liquid State (LS) integral equation theory to articulate charge correlations that are completely neglected in PB. We use this theory to calculate phase diagrams for both blends and block copolyelectrolytes using SCFT-LS and demonstrate how their phase behavior is highly dependent on chain length, charge fraction, charge size, and the strength of Coulombic interactions. Beyond providing phase behavior of blends and block copolyelectrolytes, we can use this theory to investigate the interfacial properties such as surface tension and block copolyelectrolyte lamellar spacing. Lamellar spacing provides a way to directly compare the SCFT-LS theory to the results of experiments. SCFT-LS will provide conceptual and mathematical clarification of the role of charge correlations in these systems and aid in the design of materials based on charge polymers

  14. Pressure and surface tension of soild-liquid interface using Tarazona density functional theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available   The weighted density functional theory proposed by Tarazona is applied to study the solid-liquid interface. In the last two decades the weighted density functional became a useful tool to consider the properties of inhomogeneous liquids. In this theory, the role of the size of molecules or the particles of which the matter is composed, was found to be important. In this resarch we study a hard sphere fluid beside a hard wall. For this study the liquid is an inhomogeneous system. We use the definition of the direct correlation function as a second derivative of free energy with respect to the density. We use this definition and the definition of the weighting function, then we minimize the grand potential with respect to the density to get the Euler Lagrange equation and we obtain an integral equation to find the inhomogeneous density profile. The obtained density profile as a function of the distance from the wall, for different bulk density is plotted in three dimensions. We also calculate the pressure and compare it with the Carnahan-starling results, and finally we obtained the surface tension at liquid-solid interface and compared it with the results of Monte Carlo simulation.

  15. Lung ventilation injures areas with discrete alveolar flooding, in a surface tension-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, You; Kharge, Angana Banerjee; Perlman, Carrie E

    2014-10-01

    With proteinaceous-liquid flooding of discrete alveoli, a model of the edema pattern in the acute respiratory distress syndrome, lung inflation over expands aerated alveoli adjacent to flooded alveoli. Theoretical considerations suggest that the overexpansion may be proportional to surface tension, T. Yet recent evidence indicates proteinaceous edema liquid may not elevate T. Thus whether the overexpansion is injurious is not known. Here, working in the isolated, perfused rat lung, we quantify fluorescence movement from the vasculature to the alveolar liquid phase as a measure of overdistension injury to the alveolar-capillary barrier. We label the perfusate with fluorescence; micropuncture a surface alveolus and instill a controlled volume of nonfluorescent liquid to obtain a micropunctured-but-aerated region (control group) or a region with discrete alveolar flooding; image the region at a constant transpulmonary pressure of 5 cmH2O; apply five ventilation cycles with a positive end-expiratory pressure of 0-20 cmH2O and tidal volume of 6 or 12 ml/kg; return the lung to a constant transpulmonary pressure of 5 cmH2O; and image for an additional 10 min. In aerated areas, ventilation is not injurious. With discrete alveolar flooding, all ventilation protocols cause sustained injury. Greater positive end-expiratory pressure or tidal volume increases injury. Furthermore, we determine T and find injury increases with T. Inclusion of either plasma proteins or Survanta in the flooding liquid does not alter T or injury. Inclusion of 2.7-10% albumin and 1% Survanta together, however, lowers T and injury. Contrary to expectation, albumin inclusion in our model facilitates exogenous surfactant activity. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Free-Energy Barrier of Filling a Spherical Cavity in the Presence of Line Tension: Implication to the Energy Barrier between the Cassie and Wenzel States on a Superhydrophobic Surface with Spherical Cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamatsu, Masao

    2016-09-20

    The free-energy barrier of filling a spherical cavity having an inner wall of various wettabilities is studied. The morphology and free energy of a lens-shaped droplet are determined from the minimum of the free energy. The effect of line tension on the free energy is also studied. Then, the equilibrium contact angle of the droplet is determined from the generalized Young's equation. By increasing the droplet volume within the spherical cavity, the droplet morphology changes from spherical with an equilibrium contact angle of 180° to a lens with a convex meniscus, where the morphological complete drying transition occurs. By further increasing the droplet volume, the meniscus changes from convex to concave. Then, the lens-shaped droplet with concave meniscus spreads over the whole inner wall, resulting in an equilibrium contact angle of 0° to leave a spherical bubble, where the morphological complete wetting transition occurs. Finally, the whole cavity is filled with liquid. The free energy shows a barrier from complete drying to complete wetting as a function of droplet volume, which corresponds to the energy barrier between the Cassie and Wenzel states of the superhydrophobic surface with spherical cavities. The free-energy maximum occurs when the meniscus of the droplet becomes flat, and it is given by an analytic formula. The effect of line tension is expressed by the scaled line tension, and this effect is largest at the free-energy maximum. The positive line tension increases the free-energy maximum, which thus increases the stability of the Cassie superhydrophobic state, whereas the negative line tension destabilizes the superhydrophobic state.

  17. Mass transfer in fuel cells. [electron microscopy of components, thermal decomposition of Teflon, water transport, and surface tension of KOH solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. D., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Results of experiments on electron microscopy of fuel cell components, thermal decomposition of Teflon by thermogravimetry, surface area and pore size distribution measurements, water transport in fuel cells, and surface tension of KOH solutions are described.

  18. The effects of temperature and alkyl chain length on the density and surface tension of the imidazolium-based geminal dicationic ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosavi, Majid; Khashei, Fatemeh; Sharifi, Ali; Mirzaei, Mojtaba

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface tension and density of three GDILs were measured at different temperatures. • Surface entropy and surface enthalpy indicate the surface ordering in these GDILs. • Parachors and critical temperatures of these systems were estimated. • Results of GDILs were compared with the results of corresponding traditional MILs. • Relations between surface tension, density and viscosity of GDILs were demonstrated. - Abstract: Surface tensions and densities of three imidazolium-based geminal dicationic ionic liquids (GDILs) with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [NTf 2 ] − , as a common anion, have been measured at ambient pressure at different temperatures in the range from 296.00 to 353.15 K. The surface thermodynamic functions such as surface entropy and surface enthalpy were derived from the temperature dependence of surface tension which indicated the surface ordering in these GDILs. As well as the parachor, the critical temperatures of these systems have been estimated using the Guggenheim and Eotvos correlations. In each case, the results of GDILs have been compared with the results of corresponding traditional monocationic ILs (MILs). Also, the relations between the surface tension and density and also surface tension and viscosity data have been demonstrated and discussed.

  19. Science Bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Pedersen, David Budtz

    2013-01-01

    Much like the trade and trait sof bubbles in financial markets,similar bubbles appear on the science market. When economic bubbles burst, the drop in prices causes the crash of unsustainable investments leading to an investor confidence crisis possibly followed by a financial panic. But when...... bubbles appear in science, truth and reliability are the first victims. This paper explores how fashions in research funding and research management may turn science into something like a bubble economy....

  20. Evaluation of salivary surface tension in a cohort of young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglio-Bonda, P L; Laguini, E; Davoli, C; Pattarino, F; Foglio-Bonda, A

    2018-03-01

    To determine salivary pH, flow rate (FR) and surface tension (γs) in a cohort of 30 healthy young adults. To acquire cohort biological independent variables (age, gender, weight, height, medications, smoking, pathologies, and allergies) and to correlate them with pH, FR and γs obtained values. Evaluate the possible variation of the γs values during the time after the withdrawal and the influence of the operational abilities of the experimenting operators. Evaluate the relationship between γs, pH and FR  and the dependence between pH and FR. Non-stimulated saliva samples were taken in four different time span, for three days, with a drooling method for 15 minutes. The saliva sample was analyzed, in terms of γs, by two different operators (OP1 and OP2), twice consecutive (γs-1 and γs-2) for a total of 360 measurements. The γs was calculated using the du Noüy method. The FR was evaluated by weighing technique and pH by pH indicator papers. The measurements of γs performed by two different operators (OP1, OP2) showed respectively average values of 46.46 mN/m and 43.45 mN/m, while the mean FR was 0.29 ± 0.13 mL/min and the average pH was 7.1 ± 0.43. There were no significant correlations between γs and the biological variables analyzed. We can consider as reference values, in a sample of young adults, γs 45.56 ± 6.51 mN/m.

  1. Validity and Reliability of Surface Electromyography in the Assessment of Primary Muscle Tension Dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoddami, Seyyedeh Maryam; Talebian, Saeed; Izadi, Farzad; Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin

    2017-05-01

    The study aims to evaluate the reliability and the discriminative validity of surface electromyography (sEMG) in the assessment of patients with primary muscle tension dysphonia (MTD). The study design is cross-sectional. Fifteen patients with primary MTD (mean age: 34.07 ± 10.99 years) and 15 healthy volunteers (mean age: 34.53 ± 10.63 years) were included. All participants underwent evaluation of sEMG to record the electrical activity of the thyrohyoid and cricothyroid muscles. The outcome measures were the root mean square (RMS), activity peak, duration, and time to the peak activity, which were obtained during /a/ and /i/ prolongation for test-retest reliability. The test-retest reliability was good to excellent for the RMS and peak activity measures (intraclass correlation coefficient [agreement] [ICC agreement ] = 0.49-0.98). The reliability for the activity duration was poor to excellent (ICC agreement  = 0.19-0.9). Poor test-retest reliability was found for the time to peak measure (ICC agreement  = 0.15-0.37). The standard error of measurement for all sEMG measures was between 0.41 and 2.05. The smallest detectable change (SDC) was calculated between 1.13 and 5.66. The highest SDC values were obtained for the peak and the lowest SDCs were documented for the duration (5.66 and 1.13, respectively). All sEMG measures were not able to discriminate between the MTD patients and healthy subjects (P > 0.05). The sEMG is a reliable tool to measure the RMS, the peak activity, and the activity duration in primary MTD. However, it is not able to discriminate the patients with primary MTD from healthy subjects. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dynamic surface tension and adsorption mechanism of surfactin biosurfactant at the air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaizi, Sagheer A

    2018-03-01

    The dynamic adsorption of the anionic biosurfactant, surfactin, at the air-water interface has been investigated in this work and compared to those of two synthetic surfactants: the anionic sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) and the nonionic octaethylene glycol monotetradecyl ether (C 14 E 8 ). The results revealed that surfactin adsorption at the air-water interface is purely controlled by diffusion mechanism at the initial stage of the adsorption process (i.e., [Formula: see text]), but shifts towards a mixed diffusion-barrier mechanism when surface tension approaches equilibrium (i.e., [Formula: see text]) due to the development of an energy barrier for adsorption. Such energy barrier has been found to be a function of the surfactin bulk concentration (increases with increasing surfactin concentration) and it is estimated to be in the range of 1.8-9.5 kJ/mol. Interestingly, such a trend (pure diffusion-controlled mechanism at [Formula: see text] and mixed diffusion-barrier mechanism at [Formula: see text]) has been also observed for the nonionic C 14 E 8 surfactant. Unlike the pure diffusion-controlled mechanism of the initial surfactin adsorption, which was the case in the presence and the absence of the sodium ion (Na + ), SDBS showed a mixed diffusion-barrier controlled at both short and long time, with an energy barrier of 3.0-9.0 and 3.8-18.0 kJ/mol, respectively. Such finding highlights the nonionic-like adsorption mechanism of surfactin despite its negative charge.

  3. Silica-Assisted Nucleation of Polymer Foam Cells with Nanoscopic Dimensions: Impact of Particle Size, Line Tension, and Surface Functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shanqiu; Eijkelenkamp, Rik; Duvigneau, Joost; Vancso, G Julius

    2017-11-01

    Core-shell nanoparticles consisting of silica as core and surface-grafted poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as shell with different diameters were prepared and used as heterogeneous nucleation agents to obtain CO 2 -blown poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposite foams. PDMS was selected as the shell material as it possesses a low surface energy and high CO 2 -philicity. The successful synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The cell size and cell density of the PMMA micro- and nanocellular materials were determined by scanning electron microscopy. The cell nucleation efficiency using core-shell nanoparticles was significantly enhanced when compared to that of unmodified silica. The highest nucleation efficiency observed had a value of ∼0.5 for nanoparticles with a core diameter of 80 nm. The particle size dependence of cell nucleation efficiency is discussed taking into account line tension effects. Complete engulfment by the polymer matrix of particles with a core diameter below 40 nm at the cell wall interface was observed corresponding to line tension values of approximately 0.42 nN. This line tension significantly increases the energy barrier of heterogeneous nucleation and thus reduces the nucleation efficiency. The increase of the CO 2 saturation pressure to 300 bar prior to batch foaming resulted in an increased line tension length. We observed a decrease of the heterogeneous nucleation efficiency for foaming after saturation with CO 2 at 300 bar, which we attribute to homogenous nucleation becoming more favorable at the expense of heterogeneous nucleation in this case. Overall, it is shown that the contribution of line tension to the free energy barrier of heterogeneous foam cell nucleation must be considered to understand foaming of viscoelastic materials. This finding emphasizes the need for new strategies including the use of

  4. Theories of nucleation and growth of bubbles and voids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speight, M.V.

    1977-01-01

    The application of classical nucleation theory to the formation of voids from a supersaturated concentration of vacancies is reviewed. The effect of a dissolved concentration of barley soluble gas on the nucleation rate of voids is emphasized. Exposure to a damaging flux of irradiation is the most effective way of introducing a vacancy supersaturation, but interstitials are produced at an equal rate. The concentration of interstitials inhibits the nucleation of voids which can occur only in the presence of dislocations since they preferentially absorb interstitials. It is well known that a definite value of internal gas pressure is necessary to stabilize a bubble so that it shows no tendencies to either shrink or grow. The arguments are reviewed which conclude that this pressure is determined by the specific surface free energy of the solid rather than the surface tension. While the former property refers to the energy necessary to create new surface, the latter is a measure of the work done in elastically stretching a a given surface. The presence of an equilibrium gas bubble leaves the stresses in the surrounding solid unperturbed only when surface energy and surface tension are numerically equal. A bubble with internal pressure greater than the restraint offered by surface energy tends to grow to relieve the excess pressure. The mechanism of growth can involve the migration of vacancies from remote sources to the bubble surface or the plastic straining of the solid surrounding the bubble. The kinetics of both mechanisms are developed and compared. The theory of growth of grain-boundary voids by vacancy condensation under an applied stress is also considered. (author)

  5. Measurement of the surface tension of Santowax 'R', para-, meta-, and ortho-terphenyl, diphenyl, diphenyl ether and dowtherm 'A'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowring, R.W.; Garton, D.A.; Kinneir, J.H.

    1961-09-01

    Values of surface tension were obtained over the temperature range from near the melting point to near the normal boiling point of each substance. A capillary rise method was used employing a closed glass U-tube apparatus. The accuracy was ± 3% near the melting point falling to ± 5% near the normal boiling point. Values of the parachor calculated from the experimental data were in excellent agreement with those calculated from the molecular structure using the method proposed by Sugden. The surface tension in each case decreased with ascending temperature from near 30 to 40 dynes/cm close to the melting point to 13 to 15 dynes/cm near the normal boiling point. (author)

  6. The effect of a curvature-dependent surface tension on the singularities at the tips of a straight interface crack

    KAUST Repository

    Zemlyanova, A. Y.

    2013-03-08

    A problem of an interface crack between two semi-planes made out of different materials under an action of an in-plane loading of general tensile-shear type is treated in a semi-analytical manner with the help of Dirichlet-to-Neumann mappings. The boundaries of the crack and the interface between semi-planes are subjected to a curvature-dependent surface tension. The resulting system of six singular integro-differential equations is reduced to the system of three Fredholm equations. It is shown that the introduction of the curvature-dependent surface tension eliminates both classical integrable power singularity of the order 1/2 and an oscillating singularity present in a classical linear elasticity solutions. The numerical results are obtained by solving the original system of singular integro-differential equations by approximating unknown functions with Taylor polynomials. © 2013 The Author.

  7. Effect of Vegetable Oils on the Surface Tension, Diffusion and Efficiency of Sethoxydim to Control Wild oat (Avena ludoviciana Durieu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hammami

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During last century, population explosion has been pressing man to produce more supplies of food by consuming more energy in agroecosystems like applying chemical management strategies. herbicides have increasingly become a key component of weed management programs. In Iran, using herbicides led to increasing wheat yield about 20% and 22% in rainfed and irrigated farms respectively (20. Nonetheless, herbicides have also a negative impact on environment. A tool for reducing the herbicide usage which allows to decreasing their cost and side effects is the use of adjuvants. They increase the effectiveness of the post-emergence herbicides. Some adjuvants have toxic effects on living organisms such as Polyethoxylated tallowamine adjuvants that they are very toxic in fairy shrimp (Thamnocephalus platyurus (6. Vegetable oils are not phytotoxic and likely are degraded and metabolized quickly in the environment (8. Sethoxydim is an acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase inhibitor that is considered to be a key enzyme in lipid biosynthesis. Similar to other foliar applied herbicides, it need to be associated with an adjuvant for more effective control. Vegetable oils can be developed characteristics of sethoxydim solution such as surface tension and spry drop diffusion. Therefore, the objective of this research is to determine the effect of vegetable oils on the surface tension, diffusion and efficiency of sethoxydim to control wild oat (Avena ludoviciana Durieu.. Materials and Metods: To evaluate the effect of vegetable oils on properties of sethoxydim solution, a series of experiments were separately conducted at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Khorasan Science and Technology Park in 2012. For evaluating the effect of vegetable oils on surface tension of distilled water and sethoxydim solution and the sethoxydim efficiency on wild oat control, three experiments were conducted as factorial based on completely randomized design. In other

  8. What experiments on pinned nanobubbles can tell about the critical nucleus for bubble nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qianxiang; Liu, Yawei; Guo, Zhenjiang; Liu, Zhiping; Frenkel, Daan; Dobnikar, Jure; Zhang, Xianren

    2017-12-22

    The process of homogeneous bubble nucleation is almost impossible to probe experimentally, except near the critical point or for liquids under large negative tension. Elsewhere in the phase diagram, the bubble nucleation barrier is so high as to be effectively insurmountable. Consequently, there is a severe lack of experimental studies of homogenous bubble nucleation under conditions of practical importance (e.g., cavitation). Here we use a simple geometric relation to show that we can obtain information about the homogeneous nucleation process from Molecular Dynamics studies of bubble formation in solvophobic nanopores on a solid surface. The free energy of pinned nanobubbles has two extrema as a function of volume: one state corresponds to a free-energy maximum ("the critical nucleus"), the other corresponds to a free-energy minimum (the metastable, pinned nanobubble). Provided that the surface tension does not depend on nanobubble curvature, the radius of the curvature of the metastable surface nanobubble is independent of the radius of the pore and is equal to the radius of the critical nucleus in homogenous bubble nucleation. This observation opens the way to probe the parameters that determine homogeneous bubble nucleation under experimentally accessible conditions, e.g. with AFM studies of metastable nanobubbles. Our theoretical analysis also indicates that a surface with pores of different sizes can be used to determine the curvature corrections to the surface tension. Our conclusions are not limited to bubble nucleation but suggest that a similar approach could be used to probe the structure of critical nuclei in crystal nucleation.

  9. Efficient numerical methods for simulating surface tension of multi-component mixtures with the gradient theory of fluid interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2015-08-01

    Surface tension significantly impacts subsurface flow and transport, and it is the main cause of capillary effect, a major immiscible two-phase flow mechanism for systems with a strong wettability preference. In this paper, we consider the numerical simulation of the surface tension of multi-component mixtures with the gradient theory of fluid interfaces. Major numerical challenges include that the system of the Euler-Lagrange equations is solved on the infinite interval and the coefficient matrix is not positive definite. We construct a linear transformation to reduce the Euler-Lagrange equations, and naturally introduce a path function, which is proven to be a monotonic function of the spatial coordinate variable. By using the linear transformation and the path function, we overcome the above difficulties and develop the efficient methods for calculating the interface and its interior compositions. Moreover, the computation of the surface tension is also simplified. The proposed methods do not need to solve the differential equation system, and they are easy to be implemented in practical applications. Numerical examples are tested to verify the efficiency of the proposed methods. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Helium bubble bursting in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefta, Faiza; Juslin, Niklas; Wirth, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to systematically study the pressure evolution and bursting behavior of sub-surface helium bubbles and the resulting tungsten surface morphology. This study specifically investigates how bubble shape and size, temperature, tungsten surface orientation, and ligament thickness above the bubble influence bubble stability and surface evolution. The tungsten surface is roughened by a combination of adatom “islands,” craters, and pinholes. The present study provides insight into the mechanisms and conditions leading to various tungsten topology changes, which we believe are the initial stages of surface evolution leading to the formation of nanoscale fuzz

  11. Rotating bubble and toroidal nuclei and fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, G.; Haddad, F.; Jouault, B.

    1995-01-01

    The energy of rotating bubble and toroidal nuclei predicted to be formed in central heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies is calculated within the generalized rotating liquid drop model. The potential barriers standing in these exotic deformation paths are compared with the three dimensional and plane fragmentation barriers. In the toroidal deformation path of the heaviest systems exists a large potential pocket localised below the plane fragmentation barriers. This might allow the temporary survival of heavy nuclear toroids before the final clusterization induced by the surface and proximity tension. (author)

  12. Carboxymethylcellulose adsorption on molybdenite: the effect of electrolyte composition on adsorption, bubble-surface collisions, and flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kor, Mohammad; Korczyk, Piotr M; Addai-Mensah, Jonas; Krasowska, Marta; Beattie, David A

    2014-10-14

    The adsorption of carboxymethylcellulose polymers on molybdenite was studied using spectroscopic ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy imaging with two polymers of differing degrees of carboxyl group substitution and at three different electrolyte conditions: 1 × 10(-2) M KCl, 2.76 × 10(-2) M KCl, and simulated flotation process water of multicomponent electrolyte content, with an ionic strength close to 2.76 × 10(-2) M. A higher degree of carboxyl substitution in the adsorbing polymer resulted in adsorbed layers that were thinner and with more patchy coverage; increasing the ionic strength of the electrolyte resulted in increased polymer layer thickness and coverage. The use of simulated process water resulted in the largest layer thickness and coverage for both polymers. The effect of the adsorbed polymer layer on bubble-particle attachment was studied with single bubble-surface collision experiments recorded with high-speed video capture and image processing and also with single mineral molybdenite flotation tests. The carboxymethylcellulose polymer with a lower degree of substitution resulted in almost complete prevention of wetting film rupture at the molybdenite surface under all electrolyte conditions. The polymer with a higher degree of substitution prevented rupture only when adsorbed from simulated process water. Molecular kinetic theory was used to quantify the effect of the polymer on the dewetting dynamics for collisions that resulted in wetting film rupture. Flotation experiments confirmed that adsorbed polymer layer properties, through their effect on the dynamics of bubble-particle attachment, are critical to predicting the effectiveness of polymers used to prevent mineral recovery in flotation.

  13. The Mechanical of the Small Axisymmetric Oscillations of the Liquid with the Surface Tension Forces in Elastic Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Goncharov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate small axisymmetric oscillations of a liquid in an elastic tank. We also take into account the influence of surface tension forces. For this, we turn to the mechanical analogue of the considered mechanical system. To realize the transition to mechanical analogue we use the energy method: postulating the equality of kinetic and potential energy for the investigated mechanical system and the mechanical system analog. Due to this transition we can further investigate the oscillations of a mechanical analogue. As a mechanical analogue, we consider the oscillator in the spring. The mass of the oscillator is calculated as the weight of the fluid to make oscillations. The oscillator spring constant is calculated using the identity of equations, namely, equation of free small oscillations of the oscillator and equation of free small oscillations of the system under investigation: the fluid in the elastic tank. The identity of equations allows us to draw conclusion about the identity of the natural frequencies for the source mechanical system and the system of a mechanical analogue. Next, we take into consideration the action of the surface tension. We record the Laplace condition for excess pressure because of the forces of surface tension. Then we compile the expression for the generalized force, taking into account the phenomenon of the surface tension. Next, we write the equation of oscillations of a mechanical analogue. The surface tension, due to the introduction of the generalized force in the equation for small oscillations of the mechanical analogue will change the natural frequency of the mechanical analogue. The paper presents the appropriate dependencies. The abovementioned allows us to investigate the stability of small motions of fluid in microgravity or low gravity by studying the stability of small motions of mechanical analogue. The latter is especially important due to the design and development of advanced

  14. Variant of a volume-of-fluid method for surface tension-dominant two ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-12-27

    Dec 27, 2013 ... face tension-dominant two-phase flows are explained. ... for one particular fluid inside a cell as its material volume divided by the total ... the reconstructed interface and the velocity field, and the final part ..... Welch S W J and Wilson J 2000 A volume of fluid based method for fluid flows with phase change. J.

  15. The effect of a soap film on a catenary: measurement of surface tension from the triangular configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behroozi, F [Department of Physics, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA 50614 (United States); Behroozi, P S, E-mail: behroozi@uni.edu [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    A chain assumes the well-known shape known as a catenary when it hangs loosely from two points in a gravitational field. The correct solution of the catenary was one of the early triumphs of the newly invented calculus of variations at the end of the 17th century. Here we revisit the catenary and show that, for a chain hanging from a horizontal rod, three new and distinct configurations are possible if a soap film covers the area bounded by the chain and the rod. We first review the general problem and discuss the conditions under which the chain assumes a concave, triangular or convex configuration. The deciding factor is the strength of surface tension relative to the gravitational force per unit length of the chain. The conditions under which the chain assumes the shape of a perfect triangle are discussed in greater detail and analysed to obtain the tension along the chain. The triangular configuration is especially intriguing to undergraduates and may be used as a simple experiment to obtain the surface tension of the soap solution by measuring just one angle of the triangle.

  16. The effect of a soap film on a catenary: measurement of surface tension from the triangular configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behroozi, F; Behroozi, P S

    2011-01-01

    A chain assumes the well-known shape known as a catenary when it hangs loosely from two points in a gravitational field. The correct solution of the catenary was one of the early triumphs of the newly invented calculus of variations at the end of the 17th century. Here we revisit the catenary and show that, for a chain hanging from a horizontal rod, three new and distinct configurations are possible if a soap film covers the area bounded by the chain and the rod. We first review the general problem and discuss the conditions under which the chain assumes a concave, triangular or convex configuration. The deciding factor is the strength of surface tension relative to the gravitational force per unit length of the chain. The conditions under which the chain assumes the shape of a perfect triangle are discussed in greater detail and analysed to obtain the tension along the chain. The triangular configuration is especially intriguing to undergraduates and may be used as a simple experiment to obtain the surface tension of the soap solution by measuring just one angle of the triangle.

  17. Presence and absence of a water film between moving air bubbles and a plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remenyik, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    The thickness of water films between an inclined Lucite plate submerged in water and air bubbles moving beneath it was measured with a small impedance probe. The instrument was calibrated with a laser interferometer built for this purpose. The bubbles released beneath the plate varied in size from 10 cc to 100 cc. At a plate inclination angle of 0.98 degree, and in tap water, an uninterrupted water film covered most of the bubbles. Some bubbles, however, dewetted the plate, and the water film covered only a forward part of the bubble. When the film was uninterrupted, its thickness was very uniform from front to rear. When the bubble dewetted the plate, a large forward section of the film had the same uniform thickness, but this was followed by a hump on the film the rear slope of which ended at the plate surface. For some of the experiments, the surface tension of the water was reduced by admixing a detergent. In these experiments, dewetting was not observed. In a second set of experiments, a hand held transparent container filled with water and a 1.3 cm3 air bubble was used to observe visually the behavior of the moving bubble and its associated water film

  18. Simulation of bubble motion under gravity by lattice Boltzmann method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Naoki; Misawa, Masaki; Tomiyama, Akio; Hosokawa, Shigeo

    2001-01-01

    We describe the numerical simulation results of bubble motion under gravity by the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), which assumes that a fluid consists of mesoscopic fluid particles repeating collision and translation and a multiphase interface is reproduced in a self-organizing way by repulsive interaction between different kinds of particles. The purposes in this study are to examine the applicability of LBM to the numerical analysis of bubble motions, and to develop a three-dimensional version of the binary fluid model that introduces a free energy function. We included the buoyancy terms due to the density difference in the lattice Boltzmann equations, and simulated single-and two-bubble motions, setting flow conditions according to the Eoetvoes and Morton numbers. The two-dimensional results by LBM agree with those by the Volume of Fluid method based on the Navier-Stokes equations. The three-dimensional model possesses the surface tension satisfying the Laplace's law, and reproduces the motion of single bubble and the two-bubble interaction of their approach and coalescence in circular tube. There results prove that the buoyancy terms and the 3D model proposed here are suitable, and that LBM is useful for the numerical analysis of bubble motion under gravity. (author)

  19. Taylor bubbles at high viscosity ratios: experiments and numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewakandamby, Buddhika; Hasan, Abbas; Azzopardi, Barry; Xie, Zhihua; Pain, Chris; Matar, Omar

    2015-11-01

    The Taylor bubble is a single long bubble which nearly fills the entire cross section of a liquid-filled circular tube, often occurring in gas-liquid slug flows in many industrial applications, particularly oil and gas production. The objective of this study is to investigate the fluid dynamics of three-dimensional Taylor bubble rising in highly viscous silicone oil in a vertical pipe. An adaptive unstructured mesh modelling framework is adopted here which can modify and adapt anisotropic unstructured meshes to better represent the underlying physics of bubble rising and reduce computational effort without sacrificing accuracy. The numerical framework consists of a mixed control volume and finite element formulation, a `volume of fluid'-type method for the interface-capturing based on a compressive control volume advection method, and a force-balanced algorithm for the surface tension implementation. Experimental results for the Taylor bubble shape and rise velocity are presented, together with numerical results for the dynamics of the bubbles. A comparison of the simulation predictions with experimental data available in the literature is also presented to demonstrate the capabilities of our numerical method. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.

  20. Numerical study of Taylor bubbles with adaptive unstructured meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhihua; Pavlidis, Dimitrios; Percival, James; Pain, Chris; Matar, Omar; Hasan, Abbas; Azzopardi, Barry

    2014-11-01

    The Taylor bubble is a single long bubble which nearly fills the entire cross section of a liquid-filled circular tube. This type of bubble flow regime often occurs in gas-liquid slug flows in many industrial applications, including oil-and-gas production, chemical and nuclear reactors, and heat exchangers. The objective of this study is to investigate the fluid dynamics of Taylor bubbles rising in a vertical pipe filled with oils of extremely high viscosity (mimicking the ``heavy oils'' found in the oil-and-gas industry). A modelling and simulation framework is presented here which can modify and adapt anisotropic unstructured meshes to better represent the underlying physics of bubble rise and reduce the computational effort without sacrificing accuracy. The numerical framework consists of a mixed control-volume and finite-element formulation, a ``volume of fluid''-type method for the interface capturing based on a compressive control volume advection method, and a force-balanced algorithm for the surface tension implementation. Numerical examples of some benchmark tests and the dynamics of Taylor bubbles are presented to show the capability of this method. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.

  1. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Brent J.; Coomes, Edmund P.

    1988-12-06

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  2. Sticky bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniuk, O.; Bos, van der A.; Driessen, T.W.; Es, van B.; Jeurissen, R.J.M.; Michler, D.; Reinten, H.; Schenker, M.; Snoeijer, J.H.; Srivastava, S.; Toschi, F.; Wijshoff, H.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the physical forces that are required to remove an air bubble immersed in a liquid from a corner. This is relevant for inkjet printing technology, as the presence of air bubbles in the channels of a printhead perturbs the jetting of droplets. A simple strategy to remove the bubble is to

  3. Surface tension of decane binary and ternary mixtures with eicosane, docosane, and tetracosane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queimada, Antonio; Cao, A.I.; Marrucho, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    -C24H50 and the ternary n-C10H22 + n-C20H42 + n-C24H50 were measured from 293.15 K (or above the solution melting temperature) up to 343.15 K. An average absolute deviation of 1.3% was obtained in comparison with pure component literature data. No mixture information for the reported systems was found......A tensiometer operating on the Wilhelmy plate method was employed to measure liquid-vapor interfacial tensions of three binary mixtures and one ternary mixture of decane with eicosane, docosane, and tetracosane. Tensions of binary mixtures n-C10H22 + n-C20H42, n-C10H22 + n-C22H46, and n-C10H22 + n...

  4. Surface Tension of Supercooled Water Determined by Using a Counterpressure Capillary Rise Method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinš, Václav; Fransen, M. A. L. J.; Hykl, Jiří; Hrubý, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 17 (2015), s. 5567-5575 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG13056; GA ČR GJ15-07129Y Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : capillary tube * interfacial tension * metastable liquid * supercooled liquid Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 3.187, year: 2015 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jpcb.5b00545

  5. Escape jumping by three age-classes of water striders from smooth, wavy and bubbling water surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor Manuel; von Rabenau, Lisa; Dudley, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Surface roughness is a ubiquitous phenomenon in both oceanic and terrestrial waters. For insects that live at the air-water interface, such as water striders, non-linear and multi-scale perturbations produce dynamic surface deformations which may impair locomotion. We studied escape jumps of adults, juveniles and first-instar larvae of the water strider Aquarius remigis on smooth, wave-dominated and bubble-dominated water surfaces. Effects of substrate on takeoff jumps were substantial, with significant reductions in takeoff angles, peak translational speeds, attained heights and power expenditure on more perturbed water surfaces. Age effects were similarly pronounced, with the first-instar larvae experiencing the greatest degradation in performance; age-by-treatment effects were also significant for many kinematic variables. Although commonplace in nature, perturbed water surfaces thus have significant and age-dependent effects on water strider locomotion, and on behavior more generally of surface-dwelling insects. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Comparative simulations of microjetting using atomistic and continuous approaches in the presence of viscosity and surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, O.; Jaouen, S.; Soulard, L.; Heuzé, O.; Colombet, L.

    2017-10-01

    We compare, at similar scales, the processes of microjetting and ejecta production from shocked roughened metal surfaces by using atomistic and continuous approaches. The atomistic approach is based on very large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with systems containing up to 700 × 106 atoms. The continuous approach is based on Eulerian hydrodynamics simulations with adaptive mesh refinement; the simulations take into account the effects of viscosity and surface tension, and the equation of state is calculated from the MD simulations. The microjetting is generated by shock-loading above its fusion point a three-dimensional tin crystal with an initial sinusoidal free surface perturbation, the crystal being set in contact with a vacuum. Several samples with homothetic wavelengths and amplitudes of defect are simulated in order to investigate the influence of viscosity and surface tension of the metal. The simulations show that the hydrodynamic code reproduces with very good agreement the profiles, calculated from the MD simulations, of the ejected mass and velocity along the jet. Both codes also exhibit a similar fragmentation phenomenology of the metallic liquid sheets ejected, although the fragmentation seed is different. We show in particular, that it depends on the mesh size in the continuous approach.

  7. The effects of viscosity, surface tension, and flow rate on gasoil-water flow pattern in microchannels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boogar, Rahman Sadeghi; Gheshlaghi, Reza; Mahdavi, Mahmood Akhavan [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    A microchannel was fabricated with glass tubes to investigate the effect of viscosity, surface tension, and flow rate on the liquid-liquid two-phase flow regime. Water and gasoil were selected as aqueous and organic working fluids, respectively. The two fluids were injected into the microchannel and created either slug or parallel profile depending on the applied conditions. The range of Reynolds and capillary numbers was chosen in such a way that neither inertia nor interfacial tension forces were negligible. Xanthan gum was used to increase viscosity and Triton X-100 (TX-100) and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) were used to reduce the interfacial tension. The results demonstrated that higher value of viscosity and flow rate increased interfacial area, but slug flow regime remained unchanged. The two surfactants showed different effects on the flow regime and interfacial area. Addition of TX-100 did not change the slug flow but decreased the interfacial area. In contrast, addition of SDS increased interfacial area by decreasing the slug’s length in the low concentrations and by switching from slug to parallel regime at high concentrations.

  8. Equilibrium surface tension and the interaction energy of DMSO with tert-butyl alcohol or iso-amyl alcohol at various temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri, Ahmad; Moradian, Zohreh

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface tension of non-ideal binary systems of alcohol/DMSO determined. • The surface tension data of binary mixtures were correlated with five equations. • The interaction energy values were calculated by using LWW model. • The U 12 value shows different behavior for two systems with increasing temperature. - Abstract: Surface tension of binary mixtures of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and iso-amyl alcohol (IAA) with DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) were measured over the entire concentration range at pressure of 82.5 kPa at temperatures between (298.15 and 328.15) K. Correlating the surface tension and surface tension deviation of the above mentioned binary systems was performed with empirical and thermodynamic based models. The average relative error obtained from the comparison of experimental and calculated surface tension values for the two binary systems with five models at various temperatures is less than 2%. The effect of temperature on the interaction energy values in binary mixtures has been used to obtain information about solute structural effects on DMSO. Also, the experimental data were used to evaluate the nature and type of intermolecular interactions in binary mixtures

  9. Uncovering behavioural diversity amongst high-strength Pseudomonas spp. surfactants at the limit of liquid surface tension reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Kamaluddeen; Deeni, Yusuf Y; Hapca, Simona M; Moore, Luke; Spiers, Andrew J

    2018-02-01

    Bacterial biosurfactants have a wide range of biological functions and biotechnological applications. Previous analyses had suggested a limit to their reduction of aqueous liquid surface tensions (γMin), and here we confirm this in an analysis of 25 Pseudomonas spp. strains isolated from soil which produce high-strength surfactants that reduce surface tensions to 25.2 ± 0.1-26.5 ± 0.2 mN m-1 (the surface tension of sterile growth medium and pure water was 52.9 ± 0.4 mN m-1 and 72.1 ± 1.2 mN m-1, respectively). Comparisons of culture supernatants produced using different growth media and semi-purified samples indicate that the limit of 24.2-24.7 mN m-1 is not greatly influenced by culture conditions, pH or NaCl concentrations. We have used foam, emulsion and oil-displacement behavioural assays as a simple and cost-effective proxy for in-depth biochemical characterisation, and these suggest that there is significant structural diversity amongst these surfactants that may reflect different biological functions and offer new biotechnological opportunities. Finally, we obtained a draft genome for the strain producing the highest strength surfactant, and identified a cluster of non-ribosomal protein synthase genes that may produce a cyclic lipopeptide (CLP)-like surfactant. Further investigation of this group of related bacteria recovered from the same site will allow a better understanding of the significance of the great variety of surfactants produced by bacterial communities found in soil and elsewhere. © FEMS 2018. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Analysis of effect of temperature gradients on surface-tension phenomena in gas-tungsten-arc welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.A.; Chien, P.S.J.

    1982-10-01

    Fluid motion directed by surface tension is considered as a contributor to heat penetration in a weld pool. The potential phenomena at the gas-liquid interface were analyzed, and the dependence of surface motion on temperature in the gas-tungsten-arc (GTA) welding process was examined. An existing heat-transfer model was used and was able to predict weld size to +- 50% of the actual value. A momentum-transfer equation was derived by considering the contribution of Lorentz force. The momentum boundary condition was developed and was able to predict the Marangoni effect. The magnitude of surface-tension-driven force is comparable to the gravitational force on one gram. An empirical approach was proposed to couple heat-transfer and momentum-transfer phenomena. A dimensional analysis identified the pertinent dimensionless groups as Reynolds, Weber, Froude, Peclet, and Power numbers and a dimensionless velocity. A simplified form of the correction was developed by combining dimensionless groups to yield a correlation with the Bond, Prandtl, and modified power numbers. Future experimental work was proposed to test the functionality of the dimensionless groups

  11. An apparatus with a horizontal capillary tube intended for measurement of the surface tension of supercooled liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinš, Václav; Hošek, Jan; Hykl, Jiří; Hrubý, Jan

    2015-05-01

    New experimental apparatus for measurement of the surface tension of liquids under the metastable supercooled state has been designed and assembled in the study. The measuring technique is similar to the method employed by P.T. Hacker [NACA TN 2510] in 1951. A short liquid thread of the liquid sample was sucked inside a horizontal capillary tube partly placed in a temperature-controlled glass chamber. One end of the capillary tube was connected to a setup with inert gas which allowed for precise tuning of the gas overpressure in order of hundreds of Pa. The open end of the capillary tube was precisely grinded and polished before the measurement in order to assure planarity and perpendicularity of the outer surface. The liquid meniscus at the open end was illuminated by a laser beam and observed by a digital camera. Application of an increasing overpressure of the inert gas at the inner meniscus of the liquid thread caused variation of the outer meniscus such that it gradually changed from concave to flat and subsequently convex shape. The surface tension at the temperature of the inner meniscus could be evaluated from the overpressure corresponding to exactly planar outer meniscus. Detailed description of the new setup together with results of the preliminary tests is provided in the study.

  12. Effect of surface tension and coefficient of thermal expansion in 30 nm scale nanoimprinting with two flexible polymer molds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Kwan; Cho, Hye Sung; Jung, Ho-Sup; Suh, Kahp-Yang; Lim, Kipil; Kim, Ki-Bum; Choi, Dae-Geun; Jeong, Jun-Ho

    2012-01-01

    We report on nanoimprinting of polymer thin films at 30 nm scale resolution using two types of ultraviolet (UV)-curable, flexible polymer molds: perfluoropolyether (PFPE) and polyurethane acrylate (PUA). It was found that the quality of nanopatterning at the 30 nm scale is largely determined by the combined effects of surface tension and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the polymer mold. In particular, the polar component of surface tension may play a critical role in clean release of the mold, as evidenced by much reduced delamination or broken structures for the less polarized PFPE mold when patterning a relatively hydrophilic PMMA film. In contrast, such problems were not notably observed with a relatively hydrophobic PS film for both polymer molds. In addition, the demolding characteristic was also influenced by the coefficient of thermal expansion so that no delamination or uniformity problems were observed when patterning a UV-curable polymer film at room temperature. These results suggest that a proper polymeric mold material needs to be chosen for patterning polymer films under different surface properties and processing conditions, providing insights into how a clean demolding characteristic can be obtained at 30 nm scale nanopatterning. (paper)

  13. Bubbles and breaking waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    The physical processes which control the transfer of gases between the atmosphere and oceans or lakes are poorly understood. Clouds of micro-bubbles have been detected below the surface of Loch Ness when the wind is strong enough to cause the waves to break. The rate of transfer of gas into solution from these bubbles is estimated to be significant if repeated on a global scale. We present here further evidence that the bubbles are caused by breaking waves, and discuss the relationship between the mean frequency of wave breaking at a fixed point and the average distance between breaking waves, as might be estimated from an aerial photograph.

  14. Satellite formation during bubble transition through an interface between immiscible liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Erqiang

    2014-03-12

    When a bubble rises to an interface between two immiscible liquids, it can pass through the interface, if this is energetically favourable, i.e. The bubble preferring the side of the interface with the lower air-liquid surface tension. Once the intermediate film between the bubble and the interface has drained sufficiently, the bubble makes contact with the interface, forming a triple-line and producing strong capillary waves which travel around the bubble and can pinch off a satellite on the opposite side, akin to the dynamics in the coalescence cascade. We identify the critical Ohnesorge numbers where such satellites are produced and characterize their sizes. The total transition time scales with the bubble size and differential surface tension, while the satellite pinch-off time scales with the capillary-inertial time of the pool liquid, which originally surrounds the bubble. We also use high-speed video imaging to study the motion of the neck of the contact. For low viscosity we show that it grows in time with a power-law exponent between 0.44 and 0.50, with a prefactor modified by the net sum of the three interfacial tensions. Increasing the viscosity of the receiving liquid drop drastically slows down the motion of the triple-line, when the Ohnesorge number exceeds ${\\\\sim }$0.08. This differs qualitatively from the coalescence of two miscible drops of different viscosities, where the lower viscosity sets the coalescence speed. We thereby propose a strong resistance from the triple-line. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.

  15. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1 is present in hyaline membranes and modulates surface tension of surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griese Matthias

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1 is a secreted scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein that binds various bacteria and is thought to participate in innate pulmonary host defense. We hypothesized that pulmonary DMBT1 could contribute to respiratory distress syndrome in neonates by modulating surfactant function. Methods DMBT1 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry and mRNA in situ hybridization in post-mortem lungs of preterm and full-term neonates with pulmonary hyaline membranes. The effect of human recombinant DMBT1 on the function of bovine and porcine surfactant was measured by a capillary surfactometer. DMBT1-levels in tracheal aspirates of ventilated preterm and term infants were determined by ELISA. Results Pulmonary DMBT1 was localized in hyaline membranes during respiratory distress syndrome. In vitro addition of human recombinant DMBT1 to the surfactants increased surface tension in a dose-dependent manner. The DMBT1-mediated effect was reverted by the addition of calcium depending on the surfactant preparation. Conclusion Our data showed pulmonary DMBT1 expression in hyaline membranes during respiratory distress syndrome and demonstrated that DMBT1 increases lung surface tension in vitro. This raises the possibility that DMBT1 could antagonize surfactant supplementation in respiratory distress syndrome and could represent a candidate target molecule for therapeutic intervention in neonatal lung disease.

  16. The use of computational thermodynamics for the determination of surface tension and Gibbs-Thomson coefficient of multicomponent alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, D. J. S.; Bezerra, B. N.; Collyer, M. N.; Garcia, A.; Ferreira, I. L.

    2018-04-01

    The simulation of casting processes demands accurate information on the thermophysical properties of the alloy; however, such information is scarce in the literature for multicomponent alloys. Generally, metallic alloys applied in industry have more than three solute components. In the present study, a general solution of Butler's formulation for surface tension is presented for multicomponent alloys and is applied in quaternary Al-Cu-Si-Fe alloys, thus permitting the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient to be determined. Such coefficient is a determining factor to the reliability of predictions furnished by microstructure growth models and by numerical computations of solidification thermal parameters, which will depend on the thermophysical properties assumed in the calculations. The Gibbs-Thomson coefficient for ternary and quaternary alloys is seldom reported in the literature. A numerical model based on Powell's hybrid algorithm and a finite difference Jacobian approximation has been coupled to a Thermo-Calc TCAPI interface to assess the excess Gibbs energy of the liquid phase, permitting liquidus temperature, latent heat, alloy density, surface tension and Gibbs-Thomson coefficient for Al-Cu-Si-Fe hypoeutectic alloys to be calculated, as an example of calculation capabilities for multicomponent alloys of the proposed method. The computed results are compared with thermophysical properties of binary Al-Cu and ternary Al-Cu-Si alloys found in the literature and presented as a function of the Cu solute composition.

  17. Density, viscosity, surface tension, and spectroscopic properties for binary system of 1,2-ethanediamine + diethylene glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lihua; Zhang, Jianbin; Li, Qiang; Guo, Bo; Zhao, Tianxiang; Sha, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Excess property of the binary system 1,2-ethanediamine (EDA) + diethylene glycol (DEG). - Highlights: • Densities and viscosities of EDA + DEG at 298.15–318.150 K were listed. • Thermodynamics data of EDA + DEG at 298.15–318.15 K were calculated. • Surface tension of EDA + DEG at 298.15 K was measured. • Intermolecular interaction of EDA with DEG was discussed. - Abstract: This paper reports density and viscosity data at T = 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, and 318.15 K and surface tension data at 298.15 K for the binary system 1,2-ethanediamine (EDA) + diethylene glycol (DEG) as a function of composition under atmospheric pressure. From the experimental density and viscosity data, the excess molar volume and viscosity deviation were calculated, and the results were fitted to a Redlich–Kister equation to obtain the coefficients and to estimate the standard deviations between the experimental and calculated quantities. Based on the kinematic viscosity data, enthalpy of activation for viscous flow, entropy of activation for the viscous flow, and Gibbs energies of activation of viscous flow were calculated. In addition, based on Fourier transform infrared spectra, UV–vis spectra, and electrical conductivity for the system EDA + DEG with various concentrations, intermolecular interaction of EDA with DEG was discussed

  18. Surface Tension Flows inside Surfactant-Added Poly(dimethylsiloxane Microstructures with Velocity-Dependent Contact Angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh Jian Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Filling of liquid samples is realized in a microfluidic device with applications including analytical systems, biomedical devices, and systems for fundamental research. The filling of a disk-shaped polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchamber by liquid is analyzed with reference to microstructures with inlets and outlets. The microstructures are fabricated using a PDMS molding process with an SU-8 mold. During the filling, the motion of the gas-liquid interface is determined by the competition among inertia, adhesion, and surface tension. A single ramp model with velocity-dependent contact angles is implemented for the accurate calculation of surface tension forces in a three-dimensional volume-of-fluid based model. The effects of the parameters of this functional form are investigated. The influences of non-dimensional parameters, such as the Reynolds number and the Weber number, both determined by the inlet velocity, on the flow characteristics are also examined. An oxygen-plasma-treated PDMS substrate is utilized, and the microstructure is modified to be hydrophilic. Flow experiments are conducted into both hydrophilic and hydrophobic PDMS microstructures. Under a hydrophobic wall condition, numerical simulations with imposed boundary conditions of static and dynamic contact angles can successfully predict the moving of the meniscus compared with experimental measurements. However, for a hydrophilic wall, accurate agreement between numerical and experimental results is obvious as the dynamic contact angles were implemented.

  19. Measurement and study of density, surface tension, and viscosity of quaternary ammonium-based ionic liquids ([N222(n)]Tf2N)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghatee, Mohammad Hadi; Bahrami, Maryam; Khanjari, Neda

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterization of high purity synthesized alkyl quaternary ammonium ionic liquids. • Measurement of temperature dependent surface tension, density, viscosity and critical point. • Systematic increase of surface energy and surface entropy having plateau at high chain length. • Accurate application of VFT and fluidity equations to temperature dependent viscosities. • Particular variation of fluidity exponent with a plateau at high alkyl chain length. -- Abstract: In this work five quaternary ammonium-based ionic liquids with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion were synthesized and their density, viscosity and surface tensions were measured in the temperature range (298 to 373) K. Surface tensions were measured by capillary rise method using a homemade capillary apparatus, in which the liquid/vapor can be brought into equilibrium practically. Measurements of viscosities and surface tensions were performed under water–vapor free atmosphere. The surface tension of quaternary ammonium-based ILs decreases as the alkyl chain length increases. Also surface energy and surface entropy are found as increasing functions of alkyl chain length with a plateau at high lengths in the surface. The viscosities measured by capillary viscometer fit in VFT equation, indication of non-Arrhenius ionic liquids. Viscosities are also fitted quite accurately in the relation we have developed recently as the fluidity equation with the characteristics exponent ϕ. Values of ϕ for ionic liquids are close to one another and tend to the limiting value, almost 0.328, asymptotically as the alkyl chain length increases. The critical temperatures predicted via the temperature dependent surface tensions decrease with increasing alkyl chain length of the cation. The trend of predicted critical temperature of these ionic liquids conforms to those of imidazolium-based ILs

  20. Bubble systems

    CERN Document Server

    Avdeev, Alexander A

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a systematic analysis of bubble system mathematics, using the mechanics of two-phase systems in non-equilibrium as the scope of analysis. The author introduces the thermodynamic foundations of bubble systems, ranging from the fundamental starting points to current research challenges. This book addresses a range of topics, including description methods of multi-phase systems, boundary and initial conditions as well as coupling requirements at the phase boundary. Moreover, it presents a detailed study of the basic problems of bubble dynamics in a liquid mass: growth (dynamically and thermally controlled), collapse, bubble pulsations, bubble rise and breakup. Special emphasis is placed on bubble dynamics in turbulent flows. The analysis results are used to write integral equations governing the rate of vapor generation (condensation) in non-equilibrium flows, thus creating a basis for solving a number of practical problems. This book is the first to present a comprehensive theory of boil...

  1. Crystallization of hard spheres revisited. II. Thermodynamic modeling, nucleation work, and the surface of tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, David; Speck, Thomas

    2018-06-14

    Combining three numerical methods (forward flux sampling, seeding of droplets, and finite-size droplets), we probe the crystallization of hard spheres over the full range from close to coexistence to the spinodal regime. We show that all three methods allow us to sample different regimes and agree perfectly in the ranges where they overlap. By combining the nucleation work calculated from forward flux sampling of small droplets and the nucleation theorem, we show how to compute the nucleation work spanning three orders of magnitude. Using a variation of the nucleation theorem, we show how to extract the pressure difference between the solid droplet and ambient liquid. Moreover, combining the nucleation work with the pressure difference allows us to calculate the interfacial tension of small droplets. Our results demonstrate that employing bulk quantities yields inaccurate results for the nucleation rate.

  2. On Energy Inequality for the Problem on the Evolution of Two Fluids of Different Types Without Surface Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, Irina Vlad.

    2015-03-01

    The paper deals with the motion of two immiscible viscous fluids in a container, one of the fluids being compressible while another one being incompressible. The interface between the fluids is an unknown closed surface where surface tension is neglected. We assume the compressible fluid to be barotropic, the pressure being given by an arbitrary smooth increasing function. This problem is considered in anisotropic Sobolev-Slobodetskiǐ spaces. We show that the L 2-norms of the velocity and deviation of compressible fluid density from the mean value decay exponentially with respect to time. The proof is based on a local existence theorem (Denisova, Interfaces Free Bound 2:283-312, 2000) and on the idea of constructing a function of generalized energy, proposed by Padula (J Math Fluid Mech 1:62-77, 1999). In addition, we eliminate the restrictions for the viscosities which appeared in Denisova (Interfaces Free Bound 2:283-312, 2000).

  3. Ammonia in simulated Hanford double-shell tank wastes: Solubility and effects on surface tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, J.D.; Pederson, L.R.

    1994-09-01

    Radioactive and wastes left from defense materials production activities are temporarily stored in large underground tanks at the Hanford Site in south central Washington State (Tank Waste Science Panel 1991). Some of these wastes are in the form of a thick slurry (''double-shell slurry'') containing sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium aluminate, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, organic complexants and buffering agents, complexant fragments and other minor components (Herting et al. 1992a; Herting et al. 1992b; Campbell et al. 1994). As a result of thermal and radiolytic processes, a number of gases are known to be produced by some of these stored wastes, including ammonia, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, hydrogen, and methane (Babad et al. 1991; Ashby et al. 1992; Meisel et al. 1993; Ashby et al. 1993; Ashby et al. 1994; Bryan et al. 1993; US Department of Energy 1994). Before the emplacement of a mixer pump, these gases were retained in and periodically released from Tank 241-SY-101, a double-shell tank at the Hanford Site (Babad et al. 1992; US Department of Energy 1994). Gases are believed to be retained primarily in the form of bubbles attached to solid particles (Bryan, Pederson, and Scheele 1992), with very little actually dissolved in the liquid. Ammonia is an exception. The relation between the concentration of aqueous ammonia in such concentrated, caustic mixtures and the ammonia partial pressure is not well known, however

  4. Shear-induced Bubble Coalescence in Rhyolitic Melts with Low Vesicularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, S.; Nakamura, M.; Tsuchiyama, A.

    2006-12-01

    significant depth (low vesicularity) at least near the conduit wall. The bubble coalescence results in the formation of large bubbles that can be highly elongated because of small contribution from surface tension. Therefore, it is inferred that bubbles are continuously coalesced and elongated in the deep conduit and the highly permeable zones are formed near the conduit wall with high shear rate. The development of this permeable zone might facilitate the degassing in the magmas with low vesicularity, thereby controlling the eruption style, i.e. explosive or effusive.

  5. Modeling the dynamics of single-bubble sonoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignoli, Lucas L; De Barros, Ana L F; Thomé, Roberto C A; Nogueira, A L M A; Paschoal, Ricardo C; Rodrigues, Hilário

    2013-01-01

    Sonoluminescence (SL) is the phenomenon in which acoustic energy is (partially) transformed into light. It may occur by means of one bubble or many bubbles of gas inside a liquid medium, giving rise to the terms single-bubble and multi-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL and MBSL). In recent years some models have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, but there is still no complete theory for the light-emission mechanism (especially in the case of SBSL). In this paper, we do not address this more complicated specific issue, but only present a simple model describing the dynamical behavior of the sonoluminescent bubble in the SBSL case. Using simple numerical techniques within the Matlab software package, we discuss solutions that consider various possibilities for some of the parameters involved: liquid compressibility, surface tension, viscosity and type of gas. The model may be used for an introductory study of SL on undergraduate or graduate physics courses, and as a clarifying example of a physical system exhibiting large nonlinearity. (paper)

  6. Thermocapillary Bubble Migration: Thermal Boundary Layers for Large Marangoni Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Subramanian, R. S.

    1996-01-01

    The migration of an isolated gas bubble in an immiscible liquid possessing a temperature gradient is analyzed in the absence of gravity. The driving force for the bubble motion is the shear stress at the interface which is a consequence of the temperature dependence of the surface tension. The analysis is performed under conditions for which the Marangoni number is large, i.e. energy is transferred predominantly by convection. Velocity fields in the limit of both small and large Reynolds numbers are used. The thermal problem is treated by standard boundary layer theory. The outer temperature field is obtained in the vicinity of the bubble. A similarity solution is obtained for the inner temperature field. For both small and large Reynolds numbers, the asymptotic values of the scaled migration velocity of the bubble in the limit of large Marangoni numbers are calculated. The results show that the migration velocity has the same scaling for both low and large Reynolds numbers, but with a different coefficient. Higher order thermal boundary layers are analyzed for the large Reynolds number flow field and the higher order corrections to the migration velocity are obtained. Results are also presented for the momentum boundary layer and the thermal wake behind the bubble, for large Reynolds number conditions.

  7. Numerical analysis of the bubble detachment diameter in nucleate boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamas, M I; Sáiz Jabardo, J M; Arce, A; Fariñas, P

    2012-01-01

    The present paper presents a tri-dimensional CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model to investigate the fluid flow around bubbles attached to heated walls. Transient solutions of the governing field equations in a domain containing the bubbles and the surrounding liquid have been obtained. The nucleation, growing and detachment processes have been analyzed. Concerning the software, the open source OpenFOAM has been used. Special attention has been given to the bubble detachment diameter. Two mechanisms have been considered as physically related to the detachment: surface tension and buoyancy. As expected, it has been verified that the bubble detachment diameter depends on the contact angle, operating pressure and properties of the fluid. Several fluids have been considered (water, R134a, ammonia and R123), as well as several operating pressures (between 0.1 and 10 bar) and contact angles (between 10 and 80°). It has been concluded that the detachment diameter depends strongly on the contact angle and fluid properties and slightly on the pressure. A correlation for the bubble detachment diameter has been developed based on the obtained numerical results. Data from this expression compare reasonably well with those from other correlations from the literature.

  8. Application of the Eötvos and Guggenheim empirical rules for predicting the density and surface tension of ionic liquids analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjalli, Farouq S.; Vakili-Nezhaad, Gholamreza; Shahbaz, Kaveh; AlNashef, Inas M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Critical temperatures of eight common DES were calculated using two methods. • Density and surface tension were calculated using the Rackett and Guggenheim equations. • The Rackett method should be used in the low temperature range only. • The Eötvos and Guggenheim methods gave best density and surface tension predictions. - Abstract: The recent continuing interest in deep eutectic solvents (DES) as ionic liquids analogues and their successful applications in different areas of separation necessities the existence of reliable physical and thermodynamic properties database. The scarcity of data on the physical properties of such solvents, increases the need for their prediction using reliable methods. In this study, first the critical temperatures of eight DES systems have been calculated based on the Eötvos empirical equation using the experimental data of the density and surface tension at various temperatures, then the density and surface tension values of these systems were predicted from the calculated critical temperatures. For the density prediction the Eötvos and Guggenheim equations were combined to introduce a simple power law equation using the estimated critical temperatures from the Eötvos and the Modified Lydersen–Joback–Reid group contribution methods. Finally, the estimated critical temperatures by these two methods were used in the Guggenheim empirical equation to calculate the surface tension of the DES systems. The prediction quality of the two physical properties under investigation were compared and proper recommendations were postulated

  9. Application of the Eötvos and Guggenheim empirical rules for predicting the density and surface tension of ionic liquids analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mjalli, Farouq S., E-mail: farouqsm@yahoo.com [Petroleum and Chemical Engineering Department, Sultan Qaboos University, 123 Sultanate of Oman (Oman); Vakili-Nezhaad, Gholamreza; Shahbaz, Kaveh [School of Engineering, Taylor' s University, 47500 Selangor (Malaysia); AlNashef, Inas M. [Chemical Engineering Department, King Saud University, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: • Critical temperatures of eight common DES were calculated using two methods. • Density and surface tension were calculated using the Rackett and Guggenheim equations. • The Rackett method should be used in the low temperature range only. • The Eötvos and Guggenheim methods gave best density and surface tension predictions. - Abstract: The recent continuing interest in deep eutectic solvents (DES) as ionic liquids analogues and their successful applications in different areas of separation necessities the existence of reliable physical and thermodynamic properties database. The scarcity of data on the physical properties of such solvents, increases the need for their prediction using reliable methods. In this study, first the critical temperatures of eight DES systems have been calculated based on the Eötvos empirical equation using the experimental data of the density and surface tension at various temperatures, then the density and surface tension values of these systems were predicted from the calculated critical temperatures. For the density prediction the Eötvos and Guggenheim equations were combined to introduce a simple power law equation using the estimated critical temperatures from the Eötvos and the Modified Lydersen–Joback–Reid group contribution methods. Finally, the estimated critical temperatures by these two methods were used in the Guggenheim empirical equation to calculate the surface tension of the DES systems. The prediction quality of the two physical properties under investigation were compared and proper recommendations were postulated.

  10. Generation of a bubble universe using a negative energy bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Dong-il; Yeom, Dong-han

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests a model for a bubble universe using buildable false vacuum bubbles. We study the causal structures of collapsing false vacuum bubbles using double-null simulations. False vacuum bubbles violate the null energy condition and emit negative energy along the outgoing direction through semi-classical effects. If there are a few collapsing false vacuum bubbles and they emit negative energy to a certain region, then the region can be approximated by a negative energy bath, which means that the region is homogeneously filled by negative energy. If a false vacuum bubble is generated in the negative energy bath and the tension of the bubble effectively becomes negative in the bath, then the bubble can expand and form an inflating bubble universe. This scenario uses a set of assumptions different from those in previous studies because it does not require tunneling to unbuildable bubbles.

  11. Bubbles & Squat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre Larsen, Signe

    , a new concept called ‘Bubbles & Squat’, where fitness training is combined with Champagne and a live DJ. One of the invitations for this event describes how “we spice up your friday training with live DJ and lots of refreshing bubbles, to make sure that you are ready for the weekend (...).” Before New...

  12. New sensitive micro-measurements of dynamic surface tension and diffusion coefficients: Validated and tested for the adsorption of 1-Octanol at a microscopic air-water interface and its dissolution into water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Koji; Parra, Elisa; Needham, David

    2017-02-15

    Currently available dynamic surface tension (DST) measurement methods, such as Wilhelmy plate, droplet- or bubble-based methods, still have various experimental limitations such as the large size of the interface, convection in the solution, or a certain "dead time" at initial measurement. These limitations create inconsistencies for the kinetic analysis of surfactant adsorption/desorption, especially significant for ionic surfactants. Here, the "micropipette interfacial area-expansion method" was introduced and validated as a new DST measurement having a high enough sensitivity to detect diffusion controlled molecular adsorption at the air-water interfaces. To validate the new technique, the diffusion coefficient of 1-Octanol in water was investigated with existing models: the Ward Tordai model for the long time adsorption regime (1-100s), and the Langmuir and Frumkin adsorption isotherm models for surface excess concentration. We found that the measured diffusion coefficient of 1-Octanol, 7.2±0.8×10 -6 cm 2 /s, showed excellent agreement with the result from an alternative method, "single microdroplet catching method", to measure the diffusion coefficient from diffusion-controlled microdroplet dissolution, 7.3±0.1×10 -6 cm 2 /s. These new techniques for determining adsorption and diffusion coefficients can apply for a range of surface active molecules, especially the less-characterized ionic surfactants, and biological compounds such as lipids, peptides, and proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Single bubble dynamic behavior in AL{sub 2}O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O nanofluid on downward-facing heating surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yun; Wu, Junmei [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2016-08-15

    After a severe accident to the nuclear reactor, the in-vessel retention strategy is a key way to prevent the leakage of radioactive material. Nanofluid is a steady suspension used to improve heat-transfer characteristics of working fluids, formed by adding solid particles with diameters below 100 nm to the base fluids, and its thermal physical properties and heat-transfer characteristics are much different from the conventional working fluids. Thus, nanofluids with appropriate nanoparticle type and volume concentration can enhance the heat-transfer process. In this study, the moving particle semi-implicit method-meshless advection using flow-directional local grid method is used to simulate the bubble growth, departure, and sliding on the downward-facing heating surface in pure water and nanofluid (1.0 vol.% Al2O3/H2O) flow boiling processes; additionally, the bubble critical departure angle and sliding characteristics and their influence are also investigated. The results indicate that the bubble in nanofluid departs from the heating surface more easily and the critical departure inclined angle of nanofluid is greater than that of pure water. In addition, the influence of nanofluid on bubble sliding is not significant compared with pure water.

  14. Tension Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tight band around your head. A tension headache (tension-type headache) is the most common type of headache, and ... Headache after a head injury, especially if the headache gets worse ... tension or stress. But research suggests muscle contraction isn't the ...

  15. Influence of Contact Angle, Growth Angle and Melt Surface Tension on Detached Solidification of InSb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yazhen; Regel, Liya L.; Wilcox, William R.

    2000-01-01

    We extended the previous analysis of detached solidification of InSb based on the moving meniscus model. We found that for steady detached solidification to occur in a sealed ampoule in zero gravity, it is necessary for the growth angle to exceed a critical value, the contact angle for the melt on the ampoule wall to exceed a critical value, and the melt-gas surface tension to be below a critical value. These critical values would depend on the material properties and the growth parameters. For the conditions examined here, the sum of the growth angle and the contact angle must exceed approximately 130, which is significantly less than required if both ends of the ampoule are open.

  16. Effects of non-uniform temperature gradients on surface tension driven two component magneto convection in a porous- fluid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, N.; Sumithra, R.

    2018-04-01

    The problem of surface tension driven two component magnetoconvection is investigated in a Porous-Fluid system, consisting of anincompressible two component electrically conducting fluid saturatedporous layer above which lies a layer of the same fluid in the presence of a uniform vertical magnetic field. The lower boundary of the porous layeris rigid and the upper boundary of the fluid layer is free with surfacetension effects depending on both temperature and concentration, boththese boundaries are insulating to heat and mass. At the interface thevelocity, shear and normal stress, heat and heat flux, mass and mass fluxare assumed to be continuous suitable for Darcy-Brinkman model. Theeigenvalue problem is solved in linear, parabolic and inverted parabolictemperature profiles and the corresponding Thermal Marangoni Numberis obtained for different important physical parameters.

  17. Mean field diffusion models for precipitation in crystalline GaAs including surface tension and bulk stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, Wolfgang [Weierstrass-Institut fuer Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik (WIAS) im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (Germany); Kimmerle, Sven-Joachim [Humboldt-Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics

    2009-07-01

    Based on a thermodynamically consistent model for precipitation in gallium arsenide crystals including surface tension and bulk stresses by Dreyer and Duderstadt, we propose different mathematical models to describe the size evolution of liquid droplets in a crystalline solid. The first class of models treats the diffusion-controlled regime of interface motion, while the second class is concerned with the interface-controlled regime of interface motion. Our models take care of conservation of mass and substance. We consider homogenised models, where different length scales of the experimental situation have been exploited in order to simplify the equations. These homogenised models generalise the well-known Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner model for Ostwald ripening. Mean field models capture the main properties of our system and are well adapted for numerics and further analysis. Numerical evidence suggests in which case which one of the two regimes might be appropriate to the experimental situation. (orig.)

  18. Surface tension, density, and speed of sound for the ternary mixture {l_brace}diethyl carbonate + p-xylene + decane{r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosteiro, Laura; Casas, Lidia M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Legido, Jose L. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain)], E-mail: xllegido@uvigo.es

    2009-05-15

    This paper reports the results of a new experimental study of thermophysical properties for the ternary mixture of {l_brace}diethyl carbonate + p-xylene + decane{r_brace}. Surface tension has been measured at 298.15 K and, density and speed of sound have been measured in the temperature range T = (288.15 to 308.15) K. Excess molar volumes, excess isentropic compressibilities, and surface tension deviations, have been calculated from experimental data. Surface tension deviations have been correlated with Cibulka equation and Nagata and Tamura equation was used for the other excess properties. Good accuracy has been obtained. These excess magnitudes are discussed qualitatively in terms of the nature and type of intermolecular interactions of the components involved.

  19. A heat transfer model for evaporating micro-channel coalescing bubble flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consolini, L.; Thome, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The current study presents a one-dimensional model of confined coalescing bubble flow for the prediction of micro-channel convective boiling heat transfer. Coalescing bubble flow has recently been identified as one of the characteristic flow patterns to be found in micro-scale systems, occurring at intermediate vapor qualities between the isolated bubble and the fully annular regimes. As two or more bubbles bond under the action of inertia and surface tension, the passage frequency of the bubble liquid slug pair declines, with a redistribution of liquid among the remaining flow structures. Assuming heat transfer to occur only by conduction through the thin evaporating liquid film surrounding individual bubbles, the present model includes a simplified description of the dynamics of the thin film evaporation process that takes into account the added mass transfer by breakup of the bridging liquid slugs. The new model has been confronted against experimental data taken within the coalescing bubble flow mode that have been identified by a diabatic micro-scale flow pattern map. The comparisons for three different fluids (R-134a, R-236fa and R-245fa) gave encouraging results with 83% of the database predicted within a ± 30% error band. (author)

  20. Pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for cavitation bubble collapse with high density ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Ming-Lei; Zhu Chang-Ping; Yao Cheng; Yin Cheng; Jiang Xiao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of the cavitation bubble collapse is a fundamental issue for the bubble collapse application and prevention. In the present work, the modified forcing scheme for the pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model developed by Li Q et al. [Li Q, Luo K H and Li X J 2013 Phys. Rev. E 87 053301] is adopted to develop a cavitation bubble collapse model. In the respects of coexistence curves and Laplace law verification, the improved pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model is investigated. It is found that the thermodynamic consistency and surface tension are independent of kinematic viscosity. By homogeneous and heterogeneous cavitation simulation, the ability of the present model to describe the cavitation bubble development as well as the cavitation inception is verified. The bubble collapse between two parallel walls is simulated. The dynamic process of a collapsing bubble is consistent with the results from experiments and simulations by other numerical methods. It is demonstrated that the present pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model is applicable and efficient, and the lattice Boltzmann method is an alternative tool for collapsing bubble modeling. (paper)

  1. Topology of vortex Breakdown bubbles in a cylinder with rotating bottom and Free surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten; Voigt, Lars Peter Kølgaard; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2001-01-01

    The flow patterns in the steady, viscous flow in a cylinder with a rotating bottom and a free surface are investigated by a combination of topological and numerical methods. Assuming the flow is axisymmetric, we derive a list of possible bifurcations of streamline structures on varying two...

  2. Flow and Displacement of Non-Newtonian Fluid(Power-Law Model) by Surface Tension and Gravity Force in Inclined Circular Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moh, Jeong Hah; Cho, Y. I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical analysis of a flow driven by surface tension and gravity in an inclined circular tube. A governing equation is developed for describing the displacement of a non-Newtonian fluid(Power-law model) that continuously flows into a circular tube owing to surface tension, which represents a second-order, nonlinear, non-homogeneous, and ordinary differential form. It was found that quantitatively, the theoretical predictions of the governing equation were in excellent agreement with the solutions of the equation for horizontal tubes and the past experimental data. In addition, the predictions compared very well with the results of the force balance equation for steady

  3. Effect of temperature and chain length on the viscosity and surface tension of binary systems of N,N-dimethylformamide with 1-octanol, 1-nonanol and 1-decanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, Abubaker A.; Alkhaldi, Khaled H.A.E.; AlTuwaim, Mohammad S.; Al-Jimaz, Adel S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of temperature and chain length on η and σ of DMF + 1-alkanol binary systems. • Viscosity and surface tension were obtained. • Δη, Δσ and G ∗E were calculated using the experimental data. • H σ and S σ were determined using the surface tension data. • Semi-empirical relations were used to estimate the viscosity of liquid mixtures. - Abstract: Viscosity and surface tension of binary systems of N,N-dimethylformamide DMF with higher 1-alkanols (C 8 –C 10 ) were measured at atmospheric pressure and four different temperatures over the entire range of mole fraction. The experimental measurements were used to calculate the deviations in viscosity and surface tension. Furthermore, the excess Gibbs free energy of activation, surface enthalpy and surface entropy of the (DMF + 1-alkanols) binary mixtures were determined. In addition, the deviation and excess properties were fitted to the method of Redlich–Kister (R–K) polynomial. Viscosity data of the binary systems were correlated with three different expressions (Grunberg and Nissan, the three-body, and four-body McAllister). The effects of the chain length of the higher 1-alkanols and temperature were investigated

  4. The effect of surface tension on the contraction coefficient of a jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasmi, A; Mekias, H

    2003-01-01

    Two-dimensional free surface potential flow issued from an opening of a container is considered. The flow is assumed to be inviscid and incompressible. The mathematical problem, which is characterized by the nonlinear boundary condition on the free surface of an unknown equation, is solved via a series truncation. We computed solutions for all Weber numbers. Our problem is an extension of the work done by Ackerberg and Liu (1987 Phys. Fluids 30 289-96), the results confirm and extend their results

  5. Determination of enthalpy, temperature, surface tension and geometry of the material transfer in PGMAW for the system argon–iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siewert, E; Schein, J; Forster, G

    2013-01-01

    The metal transfer is a fundamental process in gas metal arc welding, which substantially determines the shape of the weld seam and strongly influences arc formation and stability. In this investigation the material transfer from the wire electrode (anode) to the workpiece (cathode) is analysed experimentally with high accuracy using various innovative diagnostic techniques for a pulsed gas metal arc welding (PGMAW) process. A high-speed two-colour pyrometer, a calorimeter, thermocouples, a stereo optical setup and a droplet oscillation technique are used to analyse a precisely defined PGMAW process. Thus, results obtained are verified by different measurement techniques and enable a comprehensive description of the material transfer procedure. The surface temperature of both electrodes as well as the droplet temperature, enthalpy and surface tension were determined. Furthermore, the geometry of the arc, wire, droplets and weld pool were extracted in three dimensions in order to describe the interaction between the material transfer and the formation of the weld seam. The experiments are performed using argon as shielding gas and pure iron as filler and base material to reduce complex chemical processes. It turned out that the wire feed rate has the biggest influence on droplet temperature and detachment. A correlation between weld pool formation and weld pool surface temperature gradient was observed, which is mainly a function of welding speed and wire feed rate. The experimental results obtained provide a detailed data pool for use in modelling. (paper)

  6. Numerical Simulation of Vapor Bubble Growth and Heat Transfer in a Thin Liquid Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Jia, Tao; Xiu-Lan, Huai; Zhi-Gang, Li

    2009-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to investigate the dynamics of vapor bubble growth in a thin liquid film, movement of the interface between two fluids and the surface heat transfer characteristics. The model takes into account the effects of phase change between the vapor and liquid, gravity, surface tension and viscosity. The details of the multiphase now and heat transfer are discussed for two cases: (1) when a water micro-droplet impacts a thin liquid film with a vapor bubble growing and (2) when the vapor bubble grows and merges with the vapor layer above the liquid film without the droplet impacting. The development trend of the interface between the vapor and liquid is coincident qualitatively with the available literature, mostly at the first stage. We also provide an important method to better understand the mechanism of nucleate spray cooling. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  7. KINEMATICAL FEATURES OF FORMATION OF A FLANGE WITH MINIMUM TENSION OF A TRANSIENT TOROIDAL SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Sidorenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The technology of plastic forming of wide flanges in tube billets with the predicted length of the transitional toroidal section between the outer plane of the flange and the internal cavity of the pipe is proposed. The procedure for calculating the length of this section is given. In order to eliminate the toroidal portion in the flange formed during the flanging of the pipe, it is proposed to perform its plastic shaping by depositing the cylindrical part of the workpiece. Equations for calculating the extent of the free surface on the toroidal part of the workpiece when it is shaped, depending on the coefficient of contact friction and the presence of a radial support of the flange are obtained. The variant of forming in the flange the toroidal section in the stamp with the compensation cavity is proposed. Equations for calculating the deformation force and the extent of the free surface are given.

  8. Bubbling away

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-10-15

    Bubble chambers may have almost vanished from the front line of physics research, but the vivid memory of their intricate and sometimes beautiful patterns of particle tracks lives on, and has greatly influenced the computer graphics of track reconstruction in today's big experiments. 'Seeing' an interaction makes it more understandable. Bubble chambers, with their big collaborations of physicists from many widely scattered research institutes, started another ball rolling. The groups formed are even now only surpassed in size by the big collaborations working on today's major detectors at colliding beam machines. From 14-16 July, about 130 physicists gathered at CERN to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the invention of the bubble chamber by Donald Glaser. The meeting, organized by Derek C. Colley from Birmingham, gave a comprehensive overview of bubble chamber contributions to physics, their challenging technology, and the usefulness of bubble chamber photographs in education, both for physics and the public at large. After opening remarks by CERN Director Carlo Rubbia, Donald Glaser began with a brief review of the work which led to his invention - there was much more to it than idly watching beer bubbles rise up the wall of the glass - before turning to his present line of research, biophysics, also very visually oriented.

  9. Bubbling away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Bubble chambers may have almost vanished from the front line of physics research, but the vivid memory of their intricate and sometimes beautiful patterns of particle tracks lives on, and has greatly influenced the computer graphics of track reconstruction in today's big experiments. 'Seeing' an interaction makes it more understandable. Bubble chambers, with their big collaborations of physicists from many widely scattered research institutes, started another ball rolling. The groups formed are even now only surpassed in size by the big collaborations working on today's major detectors at colliding beam machines. From 14-16 July, about 130 physicists gathered at CERN to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the invention of the bubble chamber by Donald Glaser. The meeting, organized by Derek C. Colley from Birmingham, gave a comprehensive overview of bubble chamber contributions to physics, their challenging technology, and the usefulness of bubble chamber photographs in education, both for physics and the public at large. After opening remarks by CERN Director Carlo Rubbia, Donald Glaser began with a brief review of the work which led to his invention - there was much more to it than idly watching beer bubbles rise up the wall of the glass - before turning to his present line of research, biophysics, also very visually oriented

  10. Non-equilibrium phase stabilization versus bubble nucleation at a nanoscale-curved Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffbauer, Jarrod; Luo, Tengfei

    Using continuum dynamic van der Waals theory in a radial 1D geometry with a Lennard-Jones fluid model, we investigate the nature of vapor bubble nucleation near a heated, nanoscale-curved convex interface. Vapor bubble nucleation and growth are observed for interfaces with sufficiently large radius of curvature while phase stabilization of a superheated fluid layer occurs at interfaces with smaller radius. The hypothesis that the high Laplace pressure required for stable equilibrium of very small bubbles is responsible for phase stability is tested by effectively varying the parameter which controls liquid-vapor surface tension. In doing so, the liquid-vapor surface tension- hence Laplace pressure-is shown to have limited effect on phase stabilization vs. bubble nucleation. However, the strong dependence of nucleation on leading-order momentum transport, i.e. viscous dissipation, near the heated inner surface is demonstrated. We gratefully acknowledge ND Energy for support through the ND Energy Postdoctoral Fellowship program and the Army Research Office, Grant No. W911NF-16-1-0267, managed by Dr. Chakrapani Venanasi.

  11. J-integral and limit load analysis of semi-elliptical surface cracks in plates under tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Systematic detailed non-linear finite element (FE) analyses are described for semi-elliptical surface cracks in plates under tension. Limit load solutions are obtained from the FE J results through the reference stress method. The results show that the type of the relationship between J and the limit load mainly depends on the ratio a/t, where a is the crack depth and t the thickness of the plate. For a/t≤0.5, J for any position along the crack front can be predicted by the reference stress method using a single limit load value, except for the points very close to the plate surface. For a/t=0.8, J can only be approximately estimated because no single limit load value can be found to satisfy all the FE J solutions along the crack front. However, for all cases considered, the maximum J value along the crack front can still be predicted by using the global limit load in the reference stress method. The limit load data obtained from this work can be well predicted by a global limit load equation developed by Goodall and Webster

  12. Marangoni instability in a thin film heated from below: Effect of nonmonotonic dependence of surface tension on temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Rajkumar; Mondal, Pranab Kumar

    2018-04-01

    We investigate Marangoni instability in a thin liquid film resting on a substrate of low thermal conductivity and separated from the surrounding gas phase by a deformable free surface. Considering a nonmonotonic variation of surface tension with temperature, here we analytically derive the neutral stability curve for the monotonic and oscillatory modes of instability (for both the long-wave and short-wave perturbations) under the framework of linear stability analysis. For the long-wave instability, we derive a set of amplitude equations using the scaling k ˜(Bi) 1 /2 , where k is the wave number and Bi is the Biot number. Through this investigation, we demonstrate that for such a fluid layer upon heating from below, both monotonic and oscillatory instability can appear for a certain range of the dimensionless parameters, viz., Biot number (Bi ) , Galileo number (Ga ) , and inverse capillary number (Σ ) . Moreover, we unveil, through this study, the influential role of the above-mentioned parameters on the stability of the system and identify the critical values of these parameters above which instability initiates in the liquid layer.

  13. Surface tensions of multi-component mixed inorganic/organic aqueous systems of atmospheric significance: measurements, model predictions and importance for cloud activation predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Topping

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict the physical properties of aerosol particles, it is necessary to adequately capture the behaviour of the ubiquitous complex organic components. One of the key properties which may affect this behaviour is the contribution of the organic components to the surface tension of aqueous particles in the moist atmosphere. Whilst the qualitative effect of organic compounds on solution surface tensions has been widely reported, our quantitative understanding on mixed organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems is limited. Furthermore, it is unclear whether models that exist in the literature can reproduce the surface tension variability for binary and higher order multi-component organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems of atmospheric significance. The current study aims to resolve both issues to some extent. Surface tensions of single and multiple solute aqueous solutions were measured and compared with predictions from a number of model treatments. On comparison with binary organic systems, two predictive models found in the literature provided a range of values resulting from sensitivity to calculations of pure component surface tensions. Results indicate that a fitted model can capture the variability of the measured data very well, producing the lowest average percentage deviation for all compounds studied. The performance of the other models varies with compound and choice of model parameters. The behaviour of ternary mixed inorganic/organic systems was unreliably captured by using a predictive scheme and this was dependent on the composition of the solutes present. For more atmospherically representative higher order systems, entirely predictive schemes performed poorly. It was found that use of the binary data in a relatively simple mixing rule, or modification of an existing thermodynamic model with parameters derived from binary data, was able to accurately capture the surface tension variation with concentration. Thus

  14. Soap bubbles their colors and forces which mold them

    CERN Document Server

    Boys, C V

    2012-01-01

    An excellent primer and the classic work on the topic of soap bubbles and films, this book employs simple experiments to establish a practical basis for the existence and function of surface tension and energy minimization. Dozens of experiments require nothing more than soap, straws, and bits of rubber, yet they impart profound and fundamental concepts relating to the science of fluids. Geared toward readers without much background in the subject, the book begins without difficult calculations and concludes with only the simplest equations. Lucid and concise experiments allow observers to for

  15. Group contribution and parachor analysis of experimental data on densities and surface tension for six ionic liquids with the [PF6] anion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klomfar, Jaroslav; Součková, Monika; Pátek, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 385, January (2015), s. 62-71 ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00145S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : ionic liquid * density * surface tension * odd-even effect Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.846, year: 2015

  16. Surface tension-induced PDMS micro-pillars with controllable tips and tilt angles

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei; Fan, Yiqiang; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Foulds, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a novel method to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro-pillars using a CO2 laser-machined poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) mold with through-holes. This method eliminates the requirements of expensive and complicated facilities to fabricate a 3D mold. The micro-pillars were formed by the capillary force that draws PDMS into the through-holes of the PMMA mold. The tilt angles of the micro-pillars depend on the tilt angles of the through-holes in the mold, and the concave and convex micro-lens tip shapes of the PDMS micro-pillars can be modified by changing the surface wettability of the PMMA through-holes.

  17. Surface tension-induced PDMS micro-pillars with controllable tips and tilt angles

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei

    2013-12-21

    This paper reports a novel method to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro-pillars using a CO2 laser-machined poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) mold with through-holes. This method eliminates the requirements of expensive and complicated facilities to fabricate a 3D mold. The micro-pillars were formed by the capillary force that draws PDMS into the through-holes of the PMMA mold. The tilt angles of the micro-pillars depend on the tilt angles of the through-holes in the mold, and the concave and convex micro-lens tip shapes of the PDMS micro-pillars can be modified by changing the surface wettability of the PMMA through-holes.

  18. Toroidal and rotating bubble nuclei and the nuclear fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, G.; Fauchard, C.; Haddad, F.; Jouault, B.

    1997-01-01

    The energy of rotating bubble and toroidal nuclei predicted to be formed in central heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies is calculated within the generalized rotating liquid drop model. Previously, a one-parameter shape sequence has been defined to describe the path leading to pumpkin-like configurations and toroidal shapes. New analytical expressions for the shape dependent functions have been obtained. The potential barriers standing in these exotic deformation paths are compared with the three-dimensional and plane-fragmentation barriers. Metastable bubble-like minima only appear at very high angular momentum and above the three dimensional fragmentation barriers. In the toroidal deformation path of the heaviest systems exists a large potential pocket localized below the plane-fragmentation barriers. This might allow the temporary survival of heavy nuclear toroids before the final clusterization induced by the surface and proximity tension

  19. Generation of nanobubbles by ceramic membrane filters: The dependence of bubble size and zeta potential on surface coating, pore size and injected gas pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed Khaled Abdella; Sun, Cuizhen; Hua, Likun; Zhang, Zhibin; Zhang, Yanhao; Zhang, Wen; Marhaba, Taha

    2018-07-01

    Generation of gaseous nanobubbles (NBs) by simple, efficient, and scalable methods is critical for industrialization and applications of nanobubbles. Traditional generation methods mainly rely on hydrodynamic, acoustic, particle, and optical cavitation. These generation processes render issues such as high energy consumption, non-flexibility, and complexity. This research investigated the use of tubular ceramic nanofiltration membranes to generate NBs in water with air, nitrogen and oxygen gases. This system injects pressurized gases through a tubular ceramic membrane with nanopores to create NBs. The effects of membrane pores size, surface energy, and the injected gas pressures on the bubble size and zeta potential were examined. The results show that the gas injection pressure had considerable effects on the bubble size, zeta potential, pH, and dissolved oxygen of the produced NBs. For example, increasing the injection air pressure from 69 kPa to 414 kPa, the air bubble size was reduced from 600 to 340 nm respectively. Membrane pores size and surface energy also had significant effects on sizes and zeta potentials of NBs. The results presented here aim to fill out the gaps of fundamental knowledge about NBs and development of efficient generation methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Study on Removal of Bubble on Polyimide Film Surface%聚酰亚胺薄膜表面气泡去除技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任小龙; 李雪明; 金城; 南洋; 莫志华

    2015-01-01

    通过分析气泡、杂质、色差等因素对聚酰亚胺薄膜表观质量的影响,从树脂合成和流涎液膜两过程对气泡去除工艺进行研究,对现有消泡釜及消泡工艺、流涎液膜处理装置及流涎工艺进行改进。结果表明:通过新型消泡釜和新型PAA液膜消泡装置均能有效的消除聚酰亚胺薄膜表面的微小气泡,使聚酰亚胺薄膜产品的色差减小,厚度公差降低,外观质量大幅提高。%Through analyzing the effect of bubble, impurity, and colour difference on the surface quality of polyimide film, we studied the bubble removal technology from resin synthesis and film casting process, and the existing defoaming kettle and defoaming process, casting equipment and casting process were improved. The results show that the micro-bubbles on the polyimide film surface could be removed by the new defoaming kettle and new PAA liquid film, the product’s colour difference and thickness tolerance decrease, and the appearance quality is improved significantly.

  1. Viscosity and surface tension effects during multiphase flow in propped fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzikowski, Michał; Dąbrowski, Marcin

    2017-04-01

    Geological sequestration of CO2 was proposed as an important mechanism to reduce its emission into atmosphere. CO2 exhibits a higher affinity to organic matter than methane molecules and, potentially, it could be pumped and stored in shale reservoirs while enhancing late stage shale gas production. A successful analysis of CO2 sequestration in low matrix permeability rocks such as shales requires a thorough understanding of multiphase flow in stimulated rock fractures, which provide most significant pathways for fluids in such systems. Multiphase fracture flows are also of great relevance to brine, oil and gas migration in petroleum systems, water and stream circulation in geothermal reservoirs, and chemical transport of non-aqueous phase liquids in shallow hydrogeological systems, particularly in partially saturated zones. There are various physical models that describe phenomena taking place during multiphase flow through porous media. One of key aspects that need to be considered are pore-scale effects related to capillarity. Unfortunately, detailed models that describe motion and evolution of phase or component boundary require direct numerical simulations and spatial resolutions that are hard to reach when considering industrial relevant systems. Main aim of the presented work was the development of reduced 2.5D models based on Brinkman approximation of thin domain flow that would be able to capture local scale phenomena without expensive 3D simulations. Presented approach was designed specifically to tackle incompressible and immiscible systems and is based on Continuous Surface Force approach presented by Brackbill et al., implemented using Lattice Boltzmann Method. Presented approach where firstly validated against standard test cases with known classical solution and known experimental data. In the second part, we present and discuss two component, immiscible permeability data for rough and propped fracture obtained with our code for a rage of proppants

  2. Investigation of wettability to evaluate the morphology and surface tension wood filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new scheme of a highly efficient line for preparing safflower grains for processing consisting of an air-sieve separator, a magnetic separator, an ovary, a puppet, and a stone picker. The new after vortex separator is a vibroseparator for separating the products close in physical properties, grinding Machine with a duo-aspirator, a photoseparator and a device for moisture-thermal treatment. Advantages of the proposed line for preparation of safflower grain for processing are that an additional plant in front of the photocarerator of the grinding machine and duo-espirator allows the crest to separate and remove or refine the shell of the seed in the form of a shell layer for more efficient subsequent spectral point analysis, which determines the grain composition for the purpose of sorting it On the basis of chemical composition and color in the photo separator, and sequential placement after the stone separator of a vibro separator for separation of products close in physical properties, a grinding machine with a duo-aspirator, a photoseparator and a device for moisture-thermal treatment, provides an intensification of the technological process of efficient separation of safflower from impurities and its preparation for further processing and Due to the rational layout of equipment.A highly efficient photocell separator is also provided, the advantages of which are that the installation of a storage and vibrating feeder in relation to the slanting tray from the back side and the execution of a smooth curved transition to the vibrating feeder in the upper part of the pitcher allows improving the separation of grain products by reducing the amplitude of grain oscillations, Caused by a rebound from the surface of the tray during the loading of the sorted material from the vibrating feeder.

  3. Nuttier bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astefanesei, Dumitru; Mann, Robert B.; Stelea, Cristian

    2006-01-01

    We construct new explicit solutions of general relativity from double analytic continuations of Taub-NUT spacetimes. This generalizes previous studies of 4-dimensional nutty bubbles. One 5-dimensional locally asymptotically AdS solution in particular has a special conformal boundary structure of AdS 3 x S 1 . We compute its boundary stress tensor and relate it to the properties of the dual field theory. Interestingly enough, we also find consistent 6-dimensional bubble solutions that have only one timelike direction. The existence of such spacetimes with non-trivial topology is closely related to the existence of the Taub-NUT(-AdS) solutions with more than one NUT charge. Finally, we begin an investigation of generating new solutions from Taub-NUT spacetimes and nuttier bubbles. Using the so-called Hopf duality, we provide new explicit time-dependent backgrounds in six dimensions

  4. Facile and rapid DNA extraction and purification from food matrices using IFAST (immiscible filtration assisted by surface tension).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotman, Lindsay N; Lin, Guangyun; Berry, Scott M; Johnson, Eric A; Beebe, David J

    2012-09-07

    Extraction and purification of DNA is a prerequisite to detection and analytical techniques. While DNA sample preparation methods have improved over the last few decades, current methods are still time consuming and labor intensive. Here we demonstrate a technology termed IFAST (Immiscible Filtration Assisted by Surface Tension), that relies on immiscible phase filtration to reduce the time and effort required to purify DNA. IFAST replaces the multiple wash and centrifugation steps required by traditional DNA sample preparation methods with a single step. To operate, DNA from lysed cells is bound to paramagnetic particles (PMPs) and drawn through an immiscible fluid phase barrier (i.e. oil) by an external handheld magnet. Purified DNA is then eluted from the PMPs. Here, detection of Clostridium botulinum type A (BoNT/A) in food matrices (milk, orange juice), a bioterrorism concern, was used as a model system to establish IFAST's utility in detection assays. Data validated that the DNA purified by IFAST was functional as a qPCR template to amplify the bont/A gene. The sensitivity limit of IFAST was comparable to the commercially available Invitrogen ChargeSwitch® method. Notably, pathogen detection via IFAST required only 8.5 μL of sample and was accomplished in five-fold less time. The simplicity, rapidity and portability of IFAST offer significant advantages when compared to existing DNA sample preparation methods.

  5. Bursting Bubbles and Bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven P. Wrenn, Stephen M. Dicker, Eleanor F. Small, Nily R. Dan, Michał Mleczko, Georg Schmitz, Peter A. Lewin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses various interactions between ultrasound, phospholipid monolayer-coated gas bubbles, phospholipid bilayer vesicles, and cells. The paper begins with a review of microbubble physics models, developed to describe microbubble dynamic behavior in the presence of ultrasound, and follows this with a discussion of how such models can be used to predict inertial cavitation profiles. Predicted sensitivities of inertial cavitation to changes in the values of membrane properties, including surface tension, surface dilatational viscosity, and area expansion modulus, indicate that area expansion modulus exerts the greatest relative influence on inertial cavitation. Accordingly, the theoretical dependence of area expansion modulus on chemical composition - in particular, poly (ethylene glyclol (PEG - is reviewed, and predictions of inertial cavitation for different PEG molecular weights and compositions are compared with experiment. Noteworthy is the predicted dependence, or lack thereof, of inertial cavitation on PEG molecular weight and mole fraction. Specifically, inertial cavitation is predicted to be independent of PEG molecular weight and mole fraction in the so-called mushroom regime. In the “brush” regime, however, inertial cavitation is predicted to increase with PEG mole fraction but to decrease (to the inverse 3/5 power with PEG molecular weight. While excellent agreement between experiment and theory can be achieved, it is shown that the calculated inertial cavitation profiles depend strongly on the criterion used to predict inertial cavitation. This is followed by a discussion of nesting microbubbles inside the aqueous core of microcapsules and how this significantly increases the inertial cavitation threshold. Nesting thus offers a means for avoiding unwanted inertial cavitation and cell death during imaging and other applications such as sonoporation. A review of putative sonoporation mechanisms is then presented

  6. High-density equation of state for helium and its application to bubbles in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfer, W.G.

    1980-06-01

    Helium, produced by transmutations or injected, causes bubble formation in solids at elevated temperatures. For small bubbles, the gas pressure required to balance the surface tension reaches values which far exceed those obtainable in experiments to measure the equation of state for helium gas. Therefore, empirical gas laws cannot be considered applicable to the fluid-like densities existing in small bubbles. In order to remedy this situation, an equation of state for helium was developed from the theory of the liquid state. At very low densities, this theoretically derived equation of state agrees with experimental results. For high densities, however, gas pressures are predicted which are significantly higher than those derived from the ideal gas law, but also significantly lower than pressures obtained with the van der Waals law. When applied to equilibrium bubbles in solids, it is found that the high-density equation of state leads to less bubble swelling than the van der Waals law, but more than the ideal gas law. Furthermore, the number of helium atoms in equilibrium bubbles is nearly independent of temperature

  7. Cavitation bubble nucleation induced by shock-bubble interaction in a gelatin gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Ryota; Ando, Keita

    2018-05-01

    An optical visualization technique is developed to study cavitation bubble nucleation that results from interaction between a laser-induced shock and a preexisting gas bubble in a 10 wt. % gelatin gel; images of the nucleated cavitation bubbles are captured and the cavitation inception pressure is determined based on Euler flow simulation. A spherical gas cavity is generated by focusing an infrared laser pulse into a gas-supersaturated gel and the size of the laser-generated bubble in mechanical equilibrium is tuned via mass transfer of the dissolved gas into the bubble. A spherical shock is then generated, through rapid expansion of plasma induced by the laser focusing, in the vicinity of the gas bubble. The shock-bubble interaction is recorded by a CCD camera with flash illumination of a nanosecond green laser pulse. The observation captures cavitation inception in the gel under tension that results from acoustic impedance mismatching at the bubble interface interacting with the shock. We measure the probability of cavitation inception from a series of the repeated experiments, by varying the bubble radius and the standoff distance. The threshold pressure is defined at the cavitation inception probability equal to one half and is calculated, through comparisons to Euler flow simulation, at -24.4 MPa. This threshold value is similar to that from shock-bubble interaction experiments using water, meaning that viscoelasticity of the 10 wt. % gelatin gel has a limited impact on bubble nucleation dynamics.

  8. Experimental study of vapor bubble dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquini, Maria-Elena

    2015-01-01

    The object of this thesis is an experimental study of vapor bubble dynamics in sub-cooled nucleate boiling. The test section is locally heated by focusing a laser beam: heat fluxes from 1 e4 to 1.5 e6 W/m 2 and water temperature between 100 and 88 C have been considered. Three boiling regimes have been observed. Under saturated conditions and with low heat fluxes a developed nucleate boiling regime has been observed. Under higher sub-cooling and still with low heat fluxes an equilibrium regime has been observed in which the liquid flowrate evaporating at the bubble base is compensated by the vapor condensing flowrate at bubble top. A third regime have been observed at high heat fluxes for all water conditions: it is characterized by the formation of a large dry spot on the heated surface that keeps the nucleation site dry after bubble detachment. The condensation phase starts after bubble detachment. Bubble equivalent radius at detachment varies between 1 and 2.5 mm. Bubble properties have been measured and non-dimensional groups have been used to characterize bubble dynamics. Capillary waves have been observed on the bubble surface thanks to high-speed images acquisition. Two main phenomena have been proposed to explain capillary waves effects on bubble condensation: increasing of the phases interface area and decreasing of vapor bubble translation velocity, because of the increased drag force on the deformed bubble. (author) [fr

  9. Leverage bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wanfeng; Woodard, Ryan; Sornette, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Leverage is strongly related to liquidity in a market and lack of liquidity is considered a cause and/or consequence of the recent financial crisis. A repurchase agreement is a financial instrument where a security is sold simultaneously with an agreement to buy it back at a later date. Repurchase agreement (repo) market size is a very important element in calculating the overall leverage in a financial market. Therefore, studying the behavior of repo market size can help to understand a process that can contribute to the birth of a financial crisis. We hypothesize that herding behavior among large investors led to massive over-leveraging through the use of repos, resulting in a bubble (built up over the previous years) and subsequent crash in this market in early 2008. We use the Johansen-Ledoit-Sornette (JLS) model of rational expectation bubbles and behavioral finance to study the dynamics of the repo market that led to the crash. The JLS model qualifies a bubble by the presence of characteristic patterns in the price dynamics, called log-periodic power law (LPPL) behavior. We show that there was significant LPPL behavior in the market before that crash and that the predicted range of times predicted by the model for the end of the bubble is consistent with the observations.

  10. The multiphase flow system used in exploiting depleted reservoirs: water-based Micro-bubble drilling fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Lihui; He Xiaoqing; Wang Xiangchun; Fu Lixia

    2009-01-01

    Water-based micro-bubble drilling fluid, which is used to exploit depleted reservoirs, is a complicated multiphase flow system that is composed of gas, water, oil, polymer, surfactants and solids. The gas phase is separate from bulk water by two layers and three membranes. They are 'surface tension reducing membrane', 'high viscosity layer', 'high viscosity fixing membrane', 'compatibility enhancing membrane' and 'concentration transition layer of liner high polymer (LHP) and surfactants' from every gas phase centre to the bulk water. 'Surface tension reducing membrane', 'high viscosity layer' and 'high viscosity fixing membrane' bond closely to pack air forming 'air-bag', 'compatibility enhancing membrane' and 'concentration transition layer of LHP and surfactants' absorb outside 'air-bag' to form 'incompact zone'. From another point of view, 'air-bag' and 'incompact zone' compose micro-bubble. Dynamic changes of 'incompact zone' enable micro-bubble to exist lonely or aggregate together, and lead the whole fluid, which can wet both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface, to possess very high viscosity at an extremely low shear rate but to possess good fluidity at a higher shear rate. When the water-based micro-bubble drilling fluid encounters leakage zones, it will automatically regulate the sizes and shapes of the bubbles according to the slot width of fracture, the height of cavern as well as the aperture of openings, or seal them by making use of high viscosity of the system at a very low shear rate. Measurements of the rheological parameters indicate that water-based micro-bubble drilling fluid has very high plastic viscosity, yield point, initial gel, final gel and high ratio of yield point and plastic viscosity. All of these properties make the multiphase flow system meet the requirements of petroleum drilling industry. Research on interface between gas and bulk water of this multiphase flow system can provide us with information of synthesizing effective

  11. Fluctuation effects on bubble growth in hot nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, A.J.; Chung, K.C.

    1991-01-01

    The evolution of bubbles with arbitrary density in an infinite nuclear system is studied in a simplified treatment. Kinetic pressure fluctuations on the bubble surface are considered. The critical radius, evolution time and probability for bubble expansion are shown to depend significantly on the initial bubble density. (author)

  12. Thermocapillary actuation by optimized resistor pattern: bubbles and droplets displacing, switching and trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva, Bertrand; Miralles, Vincent; Cantat, Isabelle; Jullien, Marie-Caroline

    2010-07-21

    We report a novel method for bubble or droplet displacement, capture and switching within a bifurcation channel for applications in digital microfluidics based on the Marangoni effect, i.e. the appearance of thermocapillary tangential interface stresses stemming from local surface tension variations. The specificity of the reported actuation is that heating is provided by an optimized resistor pattern (B. Selva, J. Marchalot and M.-C. Jullien, An optimized resistor pattern for temperature gradient control in microfluidics, J. Micromech. Microeng., 2009, 19, 065002) leading to a constant temperature gradient along a microfluidic cavity. In this context, bubbles or droplets to be actuated entail a surface force originating from the thermal Marangoni effect. This actuator has been characterized (B. Selva, I. Cantat, and M.-C. Jullien, Migration of a bubble towards a higher surface tension under the effect of thermocapillary stress, preprint, 2009) and it was found that the bubble/droplet (called further element) is driven toward a high surface tension region, i.e. toward cold region, and the element velocity increases while decreasing the cavity thickness. Taking advantage of these properties three applications are presented: (1) element displacement, (2) element switching, detailed in a given range of working, in which elements are redirected towards a specific evacuation, (3) a system able to trap, and consequently stop on demand, the elements on an alveolus structure while the continuous phase is still flowing. The strength of this method lies in its simplicity: single layer system, in situ heating leading to a high level of integration, low power consumption (P < 0.4 W), low applied voltage (about 10 V), and finally this system is able to manipulate elements within a flow velocity up to 1 cm s(-1).

  13. Fundamental Physics and Engineering of Nanosecond-Pulsed Nonequilibrium Microplasma in Liquid Phase without Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    the electrode, the value   coth0  a corresponds to an equipotential surface which coincides with the electrode;  is the ratio of the semiaxes...liquid when filled – see Figure 1. The liquid surface was left open to the air, subject to atmospheric pressure. Nanosecond pulse generators from...temperature T , k is the Boltzmann constant,  is the surface tension coefficient, J is the nucleation rate equal to the density of vapor bubbles of a

  14. Determination of the Critical Micelle Concentration of Neutral and Ionic Surfactants with Fluorometry, Conductometry, and Surface Tension-A Method Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Norman; Behnke, Thomas; Resch-Genger, Ute

    2018-01-01

    Micelles are of increasing importance as versatile carriers for hydrophobic substances and nanoprobes for a wide range of pharmaceutical, diagnostic, medical, and therapeutic applications. A key parameter indicating the formation and stability of micelles is the critical micelle concentration (CMC). In this respect, we determined the CMC of common anionic, cationic, and non-ionic surfactants fluorometrically using different fluorescent probes and fluorescence parameters for signal detection and compared the results with conductometric and surface tension measurements. Based upon these results, requirements, advantages, and pitfalls of each method are discussed. Our study underlines the versatility of fluorometric methods that do not impose specific requirements on surfactants and are especially suited for the quantification of very low CMC values. Conductivity and surface tension measurements yield smaller uncertainties particularly for high CMC values, yet are more time- and substance consuming and not suitable for every surfactant.

  15. A molecular dynamics investigation of the surface tension of water nanodroplets and a new technique for local pressure determination through density correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Kai-Yang; Wang, Feng

    2018-04-01

    The surface tension of nanoscale droplets of water was studied with molecular dynamics simulations using the BLYPSP-4F water potential. The internal pressure of the droplet was measured using an empirical correlation between the pressure and density, established through a series of bulk simulations performed at pressures from 1 to 1000 bars. Such a procedure allows for reliable determination of internal pressure without the need to calculate the local virial. The surface tension, estimated with the Young-Laplace relation, shows good agreement with the Tolman equation with a Tolman length of -0.48 Å. The interface of a liquid water droplet is shown to be around 1.1-1.3 nm thick depending on radii. The fairly thick interface region puts a lower limit on the size of droplets that still have a bulk-like interior.

  16. Temperature Dependence of the Surface Tension and Density at 0.1 MPa for 1-Ethyl- and 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Dicyanamide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klomfar, Jaroslav; Součková, Monika; Pátek, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 8 (2011), s. 3454-3462 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/0010; GA AV ČR IAA200760701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : surface tension * density * dicyanamide * experimental data Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.693, year: 2011 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/je200502j

  17. Surface tension and 0.1 MPa densities of imidazolium-, pyridinium-, pyrrolidinium-, and piperidinium-based tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ionic liquids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Součková, Monika; Klomfar, Jaroslav; Pátek, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 333, NOV 15 2012 (2012), s. 38-46 ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/0010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : ionic liquid * tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate * density * surface tension Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.379, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037838121200310X

  18. Surface tension and density for members of four ionic liquid homologous series containing a pyridinium based-cation and the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klomfar, Jaroslav; Součková, Monika; Pátek, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 431, January (2017), s. 24-33 ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00145S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : ionic liquid * pyridinium-based cation * bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion * density-temperature relation * surface tension-temperature relation * recommended property values Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics OBOR OECD: Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.473, year: 2016

  19. Determination of the enthalpy of vaporization and prediction of surface tension for ionic liquid 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium propionate [C(n)mim][Pro](n = 4, 5, 6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jing; Yang, Hong-Xu; Liu, Ru-Jing; Li, Chi; Xia, Li-Xin; Yang, Jia-Zhen

    2014-11-13

    With the use of isothermogravimetrical analysis, the enthalpies of vaporization, Δ(g)lH(o)m(T(av)), at the average temperature, T(av) = 445.65 K, for the ionic liquids (ILs) 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium propionate [C(n)mim][Pro](n = 4, 5, 6) were determined. Using Verevkin's method, the difference of heat capacities between the vapor phase and the liquid phase, Δ(g)lC(p)(o)m, for [C(n)mim][Pro](n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6), were calculated based on the statistical thermodynamics. Therefore, with the use of Δ(g)lC(p)(o)m, the values of Δ(g)lH(o)m(T(av)) were transformed into Δ(g)lH(o)m(298), 126.8, 130.3, and 136.5 for [C(n)mim][Pro](n = 4, 5, 6), respectively. In terms of the new scale of polarity for ILs, the order of the polarity of [C(n)mim][Pro](n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) was predicted, that is, the polarity decreases with increasing methylene. A new model of the relationship between the surface tension and the enthalpy of vaporization for aprotic ILs was put forward and used to predict the surface tension for [C(n)mim][Pro](n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) and others. The predicted surface tension for the ILs is in good agreement with the experimental one.

  20. The application of computational thermodynamics and a numerical model for the determination of surface tension and Gibbs-Thomson coefficient of aluminum based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacome, Paulo A.D.; Landim, Mariana C.; Garcia, Amauri; Furtado, Alexandre F.; Ferreira, Ivaldo L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Surface tension and the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient are computed for Al-based alloys. → Butler's scheme and ThermoCalc are used to compute the thermophysical properties. → Predictive cell/dendrite growth models depend on accurate thermophysical properties. → Mechanical properties can be related to the microstructural cell/dendrite spacing. - Abstract: In this paper, a solution for Butler's formulation is presented permitting the surface tension and the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient of Al-based binary alloys to be determined. The importance of Gibbs-Thomson coefficient for binary alloys is related to the reliability of predictions furnished by predictive cellular and dendritic growth models and of numerical computations of solidification thermal variables, which will be strongly dependent on the thermophysical properties assumed for the calculations. A numerical model based on Powell hybrid algorithm and a finite difference Jacobian approximation was coupled to a specific interface of a computational thermodynamics software in order to assess the excess Gibbs energy of the liquid phase, permitting the surface tension and Gibbs-Thomson coefficient for Al-Fe, Al-Ni, Al-Cu and Al-Si hypoeutectic alloys to be calculated. The computed results are presented as a function of the alloy composition.

  1. The application of computational thermodynamics and a numerical model for the determination of surface tension and Gibbs-Thomson coefficient of aluminum based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacome, Paulo A.D.; Landim, Mariana C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Fluminense Federal University, Av. dos Trabalhadores, 420-27255-125 Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Amauri, E-mail: amaurig@fem.unicamp.br [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, PO Box 6122, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Furtado, Alexandre F.; Ferreira, Ivaldo L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Fluminense Federal University, Av. dos Trabalhadores, 420-27255-125 Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-08-20

    Highlights: {yields} Surface tension and the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient are computed for Al-based alloys. {yields} Butler's scheme and ThermoCalc are used to compute the thermophysical properties. {yields} Predictive cell/dendrite growth models depend on accurate thermophysical properties. {yields} Mechanical properties can be related to the microstructural cell/dendrite spacing. - Abstract: In this paper, a solution for Butler's formulation is presented permitting the surface tension and the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient of Al-based binary alloys to be determined. The importance of Gibbs-Thomson coefficient for binary alloys is related to the reliability of predictions furnished by predictive cellular and dendritic growth models and of numerical computations of solidification thermal variables, which will be strongly dependent on the thermophysical properties assumed for the calculations. A numerical model based on Powell hybrid algorithm and a finite difference Jacobian approximation was coupled to a specific interface of a computational thermodynamics software in order to assess the excess Gibbs energy of the liquid phase, permitting the surface tension and Gibbs-Thomson coefficient for Al-Fe, Al-Ni, Al-Cu and Al-Si hypoeutectic alloys to be calculated. The computed results are presented as a function of the alloy composition.

  2. Modification of shape oscillations of an attached bubble by surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihon J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface-active agents (surfactants, e.g. washing agents strongly modifies properties of gas-liquid interface. We have carried out extensive experiments, in which we study effect of surfactants on the shape oscillations of a bubble, which is attached at a tip of a capillary. In the experiments, shape oscillations of a bubble are invoked by a motion of a capillary, to which the bubble is injected. Decaying oscillations are recorded and their frequency and damping are evaluated. By changing the excitation frequency, three lowest oscillation modes are studied. Experiments were repeated in aqueous solution of several surfactants (terpineol, SDS, CTAB, Triton X-100, Triton X-45 at various concentrations. Generally, these features are observed: Initially a surfactant addition leads to an increase of the oscillation frequency (though surface tension is decreasing; this effect can be attributed to the increasing interfacial elasticity. The decay time of oscillation is strongly decreasing, as a consequence of energy dissipation linked with Marangoni stresses. At a certain critical concentration, frequency decreases abruptly and the decay time passes by a minimum. With further addition of surfactant, frequency decreases, and the decay time slightly lengthens. Above critical micelle concentration, all these parameters stabilize. Interestingly, the critical concentration, at which frequency drop occurs, depends on mode order. This clearly shows that the frequency drop and minimum decay time are not a consequence of some abrupt change of interfacial properties, but are a consequence of some phenomena, which still need to be explained.

  3. Bubbles in a freshwater lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, S A; Stubbs, A R

    1979-05-31

    WHEN the wind is strong enough to produce whitecaps on Loch Ness, patchy 'clouds' of acoustic reflectors are detected well below the surface, the depth to which they penetrate increasing with wind speed (Fig. 1). No seasonal variation in the occurrence of the reflectors has been detected. A biological explanation is therefore discounted and we suggest here that they are bubbles caused by waves breaking and forming whitecaps in deep water. Similar bubble clouds may occur in other lakes and in the sea.

  4. Tension headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, D K

    1978-05-01

    Headache is an extremely common symptom, and many headaches undoubtedly have a relationship to stressful situations. The clear definition, however, of a "tension headache" complex and its differentiation from migraine in some patients is difficult. The problems are in the identification of a specific headache pattern induced by stress or "tension" and the relationship of the symptom to involuntary contraction of neck and scalp muscles. Treatment consists of analgesics and occasionally mild tranquilizers. Psychotherapy consists of reassurance and often other supportive measures, including modification of life styles. Various feedback techniques have been reported of value, but their superiority to suggestion and hypnosis is still problematic.

  5. Bidirectional cinematography of steam-bubble growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deason, V.A.; Reynolds, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    Single steam bubbles were generated in superheated water in an optical cell. The growth process of the bubbles was recorded with a high-speed motion picture camera at 5000 and 10,000 frames per second. A technique was developed to simultaneously image two orthogonal views of the bubbles on each frame of film. The vertical and horizontal diameters of the bubbles were measured on a frame-by-frame basis, and the data analyzed to determine oscillatory frequencies. The analysis also attempted to determine whether the bubbles were undergoing volumetric oscillations during early growth or whether simple surface wave/rotational behavior caused the observed periodic variations in bubble dimensions. For the bubbles studied, typical oscillation frequencies for the diameters were in the range of 100 to 500 Hz

  6. Bidirectional cinematography of steam-bubble growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, V.A.; Reynolds, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    Single steam bubbles were generated in superheated water in an optical cell. The growth process of the bubbles was recorded with a high-speed motion picture camera at 5000 and 10,000 frames per second. A technique was developed to simultaneously image two orthogonal views of the bubbles on each frame of film. The vertical and horizontal diameters of the bubbles were measured on a frame-by-frame basis, and the data analyzed to determine oscillatory frequencies. The analysis also attempted to determine whether the bubbles were undergoing volumetric oscillations during early growth or whether simple surface wave/rotational behavior caused the observed periodic variations in bubble dimensions. For the bubbles studied, typical oscillation frequencies for the diameters were in the range of 100 to 500 Hz.

  7. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  8. Dissolution without disappearing: multicomponent gas exchange for CO2 bubbles in a microfluidic channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Suin; Wan, Jiandi; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Panchal, Prathamesh D; Stone, Howard A

    2014-07-21

    We studied the dissolution dynamics of CO2 gas bubbles in a microfluidic channel, both experimentally and theoretically. In the experiments, spherical CO2 bubbles in a flow of a solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) first shrink rapidly before attaining an equilibrium size. In the rapid dissolution regime, the time to obtain a new equilibrium is 30 ms regardless of SDS concentration, and the equilibrium radius achieved varies with the SDS concentration. To explain the lack of complete dissolution, we interpret the results by considering the effects of other gases (O2, N2) that are already dissolved in the aqueous phase, and we develop a multicomponent dissolution model that includes the effect of surface tension and the liquid pressure drop along the channel. Solutions of the model for a stationary gas bubble show good agreement with the experimental results, which lead to our conclusion that the equilibrium regime is obtained by gas exchange between the bubbles and liquid phase. Also, our observations from experiments and model calculations suggest that SDS molecules on the gas-liquid interface form a diffusion barrier, which controls the dissolution behaviour and the eventual equilibrium radius of the bubble.

  9. Bubble Dynamics and Breakup in a T-junction at Moderate Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiols, Octavi; Rangel, Roger

    2017-11-01

    The deformation and breakup of droplets and bubbles in an immiscible carrier liquid in microchannels has been extensively investigated in the literature. In this study, we address the case of bubbles and drops in a centimeter-scale T-junction at moderate Reynolds numbers, a problem that is relevant for fluidics and emulsion processing applications. The main features include complex oscillating transients, recirculation stabilization, and drop stabilization against breakup. In particular, very elongated drop shapes are observed, which would be unstable in the unbounded case and can be explained in terms of wall-induced distortion of the flow field. We show that wall effects can be exploited to obtain nearly monodisperse emulsions in confined flows. Surface tension also plays an important role on the breakup of the dispersed phase. Different drop sizes can be obtained depending on the Capillary number as well as the bubble initial size. A mechanism for finding the non-breakup and break-up regions depending on bubble size is found. It is found with different initial flow rates of the matrix flow, the non-breakup regime allows for the bubble to remain attached to the bottom wall of the T-junction. In the breakup regime, the elongation of the drop results in a significant delay for breakup, allowing for the study of the breakup time and location. Results are presented for different Ca and Re numbers.

  10. The effect of bubble acceleration on the liquid film thickness in micro tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Youngbae, E-mail: bhan@feslab.t.u-tokyo.ac.j [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shikazono, Naoki, E-mail: shika@feslab.t.u-tokyo.ac.j [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    Liquid film thickness is an important parameter for predicting boiling heat transfer in micro tubes. In the previous study (), liquid film thickness under the steady condition was investigated and an empirical correlation for the initial liquid film thickness based on capillary number, Reynolds number and Weber number was proposed. However, under flow boiling conditions, bubble velocity is not constant but accelerated due to evaporation. It is necessary to consider this bubble acceleration effect on the liquid film thickness, since it affects viscous, surface tension and inertia forces in the momentum equation. In addition, viscous boundary layer develops, and it may also affect the liquid film thickness. In the present study, the effect of bubble acceleration is investigated. Laser focus displacement meter is used to measure the liquid film thickness. Ethanol, water and FC-40 are used as working fluids. Circular tubes with three different inner diameters, D = 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0 mm, are used. The increase of liquid film thickness with capillary number is restricted by the bubble acceleration. Finally, an empirical correlation is proposed for the liquid film thickness of accelerated flows in terms of capillary number and Bond number based on the bubble acceleration.

  11. The effect of bubble acceleration on the liquid film thickness in micro tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Youngbae; Shikazono, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    Liquid film thickness is an important parameter for predicting boiling heat transfer in micro tubes. In the previous study (), liquid film thickness under the steady condition was investigated and an empirical correlation for the initial liquid film thickness based on capillary number, Reynolds number and Weber number was proposed. However, under flow boiling conditions, bubble velocity is not constant but accelerated due to evaporation. It is necessary to consider this bubble acceleration effect on the liquid film thickness, since it affects viscous, surface tension and inertia forces in the momentum equation. In addition, viscous boundary layer develops, and it may also affect the liquid film thickness. In the present study, the effect of bubble acceleration is investigated. Laser focus displacement meter is used to measure the liquid film thickness. Ethanol, water and FC-40 are used as working fluids. Circular tubes with three different inner diameters, D = 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0 mm, are used. The increase of liquid film thickness with capillary number is restricted by the bubble acceleration. Finally, an empirical correlation is proposed for the liquid film thickness of accelerated flows in terms of capillary number and Bond number based on the bubble acceleration.

  12. Numerical investigation of the deformation mechanism of a bubble or a drop rising or falling in another fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Han; Yang Yongming; Hu Yüe; Zhang Huisheng; Zhang Zhenyu

    2008-01-01

    A numerical method for simulating the motion and deformation of an axisymmetric bubble or drop rising or falling in another infinite and initially stationary fluid is developed based on the volume of fluid (VOF) method in the frame of two incompressible and immiscible viscous fluids under the action of gravity, taking into consideration of surface tension effects. A comparison of the numerical results by this method with those by other works indicates the validity of the method. In the frame of inviscid and incompressible fluids without taking into consideration of surface tension effects, the mechanisms of the generation of the liquid jet and the transition from spherical shape to toroidal shape during the bubble or drop deformation, the increase of the ring diameter of the toroidal bubble or drop and the decrease of its cross-section area during its motion, and the effects of the density ratio of the two fluids on the deformation of the bubble or drop are analysed both theoretically and numerically. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  13. Slowing down bubbles with sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, Cedric; Dangla, Remie; Guinard, Marion

    2009-11-01

    We present experimental evidence that a bubble moving in a fluid in which a well-chosen acoustic noise is superimposed can be significantly slowed down even for moderate acoustic pressure. Through mean velocity measurements, we show that a condition for this effect to occur is for the acoustic noise spectrum to match or overlap the bubble's fundamental resonant mode. We render the bubble's oscillations and translational movements using high speed video. We show that radial oscillations (Rayleigh-Plesset type) have no effect on the mean velocity, while above a critical pressure, a parametric type instability (Faraday waves) is triggered and gives rise to nonlinear surface oscillations. We evidence that these surface waves are subharmonic and responsible for the bubble's drag increase. When the acoustic intensity is increased, Faraday modes interact and the strongly nonlinear oscillations behave randomly, leading to a random behavior of the bubble's trajectory and consequently to a higher slow down. Our observations may suggest new strategies for bubbly flow control, or two-phase microfluidic devices. It might also be applicable to other elastic objects, such as globules, cells or vesicles, for medical applications such as elasticity-based sorting.

  14. Bead-bead interaction parameters in dissipative particle dynamics: Relation to bead-size, solubility parameter, and surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Amitesh; McGrother, Simon

    2004-01-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) is a mesoscale modeling method for simulating equilibrium and dynamical properties of polymers in solution. The basic idea has been around for several decades in the form of bead-spring models. A few years ago, Groot and Warren [J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4423 (1997)] established an important link between DPD and the Flory-Huggins χ-parameter theory for polymer solutions. We revisit the Groot-Warren theory and investigate the DPD interaction parameters as a function of bead size. In particular, we show a consistent scheme of computing the interfacial tension in a segregated binary mixture. Results for three systems chosen for illustration are in excellent agreement with experimental results. This opens the door for determining DPD interactions using interfacial tension as a fitting parameter.

  15. A comment on "pH and the surface tension of water" (J. K. Beattie, A. M. Djerdjev, A. Gray-Weale, N. Kallay, J. Lutzenkirchen, T. Preocanin, A. Selmani, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 422 (2014) 54.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Pavel; Tobias, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 448, Jun 15 (2015), s. 593 ISSN 0021-9797 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : surface tension * Gibbs adsorption equation * hydroxide * water Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.782, year: 2015

  16. Do the contact angle and line tension of surface-attached droplets depend on the radius of curvature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subir K; Egorov, Sergei A; Virnau, Peter; Winter, David; Binder, Kurt

    2018-06-27

    Results from Monte Carlo simulations of wall-attached droplets in the three-dimensional Ising lattice gas model and in a symmetric binary Lennard-Jones fluid, confined by antisymmetric walls, are analyzed, with the aim to estimate the dependence of the contact angle [Formula: see text] on the droplet radius [Formula: see text] of curvature. Sphere-cap shape of the wall-attached droplets is assumed throughout. An approach, based purely on 'thermodynamic' observables, e.g. chemical potential, excess density due to the droplet, etc, is used, to avoid ambiguities in the decision which particles belong (or do not belong, respectively) to the droplet. It is found that the results are compatible with a variation [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] being the contact angle in the thermodynamic limit ([Formula: see text]). The possibility to use such results to estimate the excess free energy related to the contact line of the droplet, namely the line tension, at the wall, is discussed. Various problems that hamper this approach and were not fully recognized in previous attempts to extract the line tension are identified. It is also found that the dependence of wall tensions on the difference of chemical potential of the droplet from that at the bulk coexistence provides effectively a change of the contact angle of similar magnitude. The simulation approach yields precise estimates for the excess density due to wall-attached droplets and the corresponding free energy excess, relative to a system without a droplet at the same chemical potential. It is shown that this information suffices to estimate nucleation barriers, not affected by ambiguities on droplet shape, contact angle and line tension.

  17. Density and surface tension of high-temperature stratifying mixtures of alkali metal bromides and lithium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rukavishnikova, I.V.; Lokett, V.N.; Burukhin, A.S.; Stepanov, V.P.

    2006-01-01

    The density and interphase tension of molten mixtures of lithium fluoride with potassium, rubidium, and cesium bromides were measured over the temperature range 1120-1320 K in the region of limited mutual solubility by the hydrostatic weighing and meniscus weight methods. The dependences of properties on the size ratio between the mixed ions were determined. The critical order parameters for systems with the predominantly ionic character of interparticle interactions were estimated [ru

  18. Numerical model for the breakdown of a molecular F{sub 2} bubble in molten FLiBe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seto, K., E-mail: kelvin.seto@uoit.ca [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Tech., Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    A novel one-dimensional numerical model of the breakdown for a fluorine bubble due to break-up and chemical reactions with dissolved UF{sub 4} and PuF{sub 4} in the molten salt reactor (MSR) volatilization process was developed. The results show that an initial bubble diameter of 4.0 cm would be required in order for it to reach the top of the volatilization reactor. Chemical reactions were found to be the primary cause of bubble breakdown. Physical characteristics (density and surface tension) were found to have a negligible effect on the breakdown process, as determined by a sensitivity analysis comparing molten Li to FLiBe. (author)

  19. Liquid oxygen liquid acquisition device bubble point tests with high pressure lox at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurns, J. M.; Hartwig, J. W.

    2012-04-01

    When transferring propellant in space, it is most efficient to transfer single phase liquid from a propellant tank to an engine. In earth's gravity field or under acceleration, propellant transfer is fairly simple. However, in low gravity, withdrawing single-phase fluid becomes a challenge. A variety of propellant management devices (PMDs) are used to ensure single-phase flow. One type of PMD, a liquid acquisition device (LAD) takes advantage of capillary flow and surface tension to acquire liquid. The present work reports on testing with liquid oxygen (LOX) at elevated pressures (and thus temperatures) (maximum pressure 1724 kPa and maximum temperature 122 K) as part of NASA's continuing cryogenic LAD development program. These tests evaluate LAD performance for LOX stored in higher pressure vessels that may be used in propellant systems using pressure fed engines. Test data shows a significant drop in LAD bubble point values at higher liquid temperatures, consistent with lower liquid surface tension at those temperatures. Test data also indicates that there are no first order effects of helium solubility in LOX on LAD bubble point prediction. Test results here extend the range of data for LOX fluid conditions, and provide insight into factors affecting predicting LAD bubble point pressures.

  20. Some investigations on the mean and fluctuating velocities of an oscillating Taylor bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madani, Sara; Caballina, Ophelie; Souhar, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The unsteady motion of an oscillating Taylor bubble has been studied. ► A non-dimensionalized velocity differential equation is numerically solved. ► The role of dimensionless numbers on the dynamics of the bubble is highlighted. ► Mean and fluctuating velocities and the phase shift are experimentally investigated. ► Correlations allowing the prediction of these latter parameters are proposed. - Abstract: The slug flow characterized by large elongated bubbles also called Taylor bubbles is widely encountered in nuclear reactor steam generators, cooling plants, reboilers, etc. The analysis of slug flow is very important as the instability caused by such flows can affect the safety features of nuclear reactors and other two-phase flow equipments. In this paper, we study the motion of a Taylor bubble rising in stagnant fluids in a vertical oscillating pipe. The investigation is restricted to high Reynolds numbers and to an intermediate range of Bond numbers where the effects of surface tension can be considered. The Froude number ranged between 0.22 and 0.33. Firstly, detailed analysis of models proposed in the literature for the motion of a Taylor bubble in an unsteady acceleration field is realized. The velocity differential equation obtained in the case of potential and axisymmetric flow without surface tension given in the literature is first non-dimensionalized to highlight dimensionless numbers. Then, the instantaneous velocity of the bubble is numerically determined. Mean and fluctuating velocities as well as the phase shift (U ¯ b , U f and φ) are estimated by using a technique based on the nonlinear least squares method. Results enable a discussion on the role played by dimensionless numbers on the dynamics of the bubble. It is found that the two parameters, the relative acceleration and the Bond number (a and Bo) have a governing role on the evolution of mean and fluctuating velocities while the ratio of the oscillation amplitude to

  1. Comparison of rheological, mechanical, electrical properties of HDPE filled with BaTiO{sub 3} with different polar surface tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Jun [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); College of Mechanics Engineering, Nanjing Institute of Industry Technology, Nanjing, 210023 (China); Zhang, Jun, E-mail: zhangjun@njtech.edu.cn [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The non-polar and short vinyl groups can greatly reduce G′ of HDPE composites. • Long chains on BaTiO{sub 3} surface enhance the interaction of BaTiO{sub 3} with HDPE. • Polar amino groups on BaTiO{sub 3} surface raise the interaction of BaTiO{sub 3} with HDPE. • Polar amino groups can boost the dielectric constant of HDPE composites. • The potential use in electronic equipment of the KH550 composites is obtained. - Abstract: In this work, three types of coupling agents: isopropyl trioleic titanate (NDZ105), vinyltriethoxysilane (SG-Si151), 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (KH550) were applied to modify the surface tension of Barium titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) particles. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirm the chemical adherence of coupling agents to the particle surface. The long hydrocarbon chains in NDZ105 can cover the particle surface and reduce the polar surface tension of BaTiO{sub 3} from 37.53 mJ/m{sup 2} to 7.51 mJ/m{sup 2}, turning it from hydrophilic to oleophilic properties. The short and non-polar vinyl groups in SG-Si151 does not influence the surface tension of BaTiO{sub 3}, but make BaTiO{sub 3} have both hydrophilic and oleophilic properties. The polar amino in KH550 can keep BaTiO{sub 3} still with hydrophilic properties. It is found that SG-Si151 modified BaTiO{sub 3} has the lowest interaction with HDPE matrix, lowering the storage modulus of HDPE composites to the greatest extent. As for mechanical properties, the polar amino groups in KH550 on BaTiO{sub 3} surface can improve the adhesion of BaTiO{sub 3} with HDPE matrix, which increases the elongation at break of HDPE composites to the greatest extent. In terms of electrical properties, the polar amino groups on surface of BaTiO{sub 3} can boost the dielectric properties of HDPE/BaTiO{sub 3} composites and decrease the volume resistivity of HDPE/BaTiO{sub 3} composites. The aim of this study is to investigate how functional groups

  2. Cavitation propagation in water under tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblin, Xavier; Yip Cheung Sang, Yann; Pellegrin, Mathieu; Materials and Complex Fluids Team

    2012-11-01

    Cavitation appears when pressure decreases below vapor pressure, generating vapor bubbles. It can be obtain in dynamical ways (acoustic, hydraulic) but also in quasi-static conditions. This later case is often observed in nature, in trees, or during the ejection of ferns spores. We study the cavitation bubbles nucleation dynamics and its propagation in a confined microfabricated media. This later is an ordered array of microcavities made in hydrogel filled with water. When the system is put into dry air, it dehydrates, water leaves the cavities and tension (negative pressure) builds in the cavities. This can be sustained up to a critical pressure (of order -20 MPa), then cavitation bubbles appear. We follow the dynamics using ultra high speed imaging. Events with several bubbles cavitating in a few microseconds could be observed along neighboring cells, showing a propagation phenomenon that we discuss. ANR CAVISOFT 2010-JCJC-0407 01.

  3. Rise of an argon bubble in liquid steel in the presence of a transverse magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, K.; Kumar, P.; Vanka, S. P., E-mail: spvanka@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Thomas, B. G. [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Brown Hall W370-B, 1610 Illinois Street, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    The rise of gaseous bubbles in viscous liquids is a fundamental problem in fluid physics, and it is also a common phenomenon in many industrial applications such as materials processing, food processing, and fusion reactor cooling. In this work, the motion of a single argon gas bubble rising in quiescent liquid steel under an external magnetic field is studied numerically using a Volume-of-Fluid method. To mitigate spurious velocities normally generated during numerical simulation of multiphase flows with large density differences, an improved algorithm for surface tension modeling, originally proposed by Wang and Tong [“Deformation and oscillations of a single gas bubble rising in a narrow vertical tube,” Int. J. Therm. Sci. 47, 221–228 (2008)] is implemented, validated and used in the present computations. The governing equations are integrated by a second-order space and time accurate numerical scheme, and implemented on multiple Graphics Processing Units with high parallel efficiency. The motion and terminal velocities of the rising bubble under different magnetic fields are compared and a reduction in rise velocity is seen in cases with the magnetic field applied. The shape deformation and the path of the bubble are discussed. An elongation of the bubble along the field direction is seen, and the physics behind these phenomena is discussed. The wake structures behind the bubble are visualized and effects of the magnetic field on the wake structures are presented. A modified drag coefficient is obtained to include the additional resistance force caused by adding a transverse magnetic field.

  4. Rise of an argon bubble in liquid steel in the presence of a transverse magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, K.; Kumar, P.; Vanka, S. P.; Thomas, B. G.

    2016-01-01

    The rise of gaseous bubbles in viscous liquids is a fundamental problem in fluid physics, and it is also a common phenomenon in many industrial applications such as materials processing, food processing, and fusion reactor cooling. In this work, the motion of a single argon gas bubble rising in quiescent liquid steel under an external magnetic field is studied numerically using a Volume-of-Fluid method. To mitigate spurious velocities normally generated during numerical simulation of multiphase flows with large density differences, an improved algorithm for surface tension modeling, originally proposed by Wang and Tong [“Deformation and oscillations of a single gas bubble rising in a narrow vertical tube,” Int. J. Therm. Sci. 47, 221–228 (2008)] is implemented, validated and used in the present computations. The governing equations are integrated by a second-order space and time accurate numerical scheme, and implemented on multiple Graphics Processing Units with high parallel efficiency. The motion and terminal velocities of the rising bubble under different magnetic fields are compared and a reduction in rise velocity is seen in cases with the magnetic field applied. The shape deformation and the path of the bubble are discussed. An elongation of the bubble along the field direction is seen, and the physics behind these phenomena is discussed. The wake structures behind the bubble are visualized and effects of the magnetic field on the wake structures are presented. A modified drag coefficient is obtained to include the additional resistance force caused by adding a transverse magnetic field.

  5. Measurement and modeling on hydrodynamic forces and deformation of an air bubble approaching a solid sphere in liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahalami, Mansoureh; Wang, Louxiang; Wu, Chu; Masliyah, Jacob H; Xu, Zhenghe; Chan, Derek Y C

    2015-03-01

    The interaction between bubbles and solid surfaces is central to a broad range of industrial and biological processes. Various experimental techniques have been developed to measure the interactions of bubbles approaching solids in a liquid. A main challenge is to accurately and reliably control the relative motion over a wide range of hydrodynamic conditions and at the same time to determine the interaction forces, bubble-solid separation and bubble deformation. Existing experimental methods are able to focus only on one of the aspects of this problem, mostly for bubbles and particles with characteristic dimensions either below 100 μm or above 1 cm. As a result, either the interfacial deformations are measured directly with the forces being inferred from a model, or the forces are measured directly with the deformations to be deduced from the theory. The recently developed integrated thin film drainage apparatus (ITFDA) filled the gap of intermediate bubble/particle size ranges that are commonly encountered in mineral and oil recovery applications. Equipped with side-view digital cameras along with a bimorph cantilever as force sensor and speaker diaphragm as the driver for bubble to approach a solid sphere, the ITFDA has the capacity to measure simultaneously and independently the forces and interfacial deformations as a bubble approaches a solid sphere in a liquid. Coupled with the thin liquid film drainage modeling, the ITFDA measurement allows the critical role of surface tension, fluid viscosity and bubble approach speed in determining bubble deformation (profile) and hydrodynamic forces to be elucidated. Here we compare the available methods of studying bubble-solid interactions and demonstrate unique features and advantages of the ITFDA for measuring both forces and bubble deformations in systems of Reynolds numbers as high as 10. The consistency and accuracy of such measurement are tested against the well established Stokes-Reynolds-Young-Laplace model

  6. Bubbles in the self-accelerating universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Keisuke; Tanaka, Takahiro; Koyama, Kazuya; Pujolas, Oriol

    2007-01-01

    We revisit the issue of the stability in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model by considering the nucleation of bubbles of the conventional branch within the self-accelerating branch. We construct an instanton describing this process in the thin wall approximation. On one side of the bubble wall, the bulk consists of the exterior of the brane, while on the other side it is the interior. The solution requires the presence of a 2-brane (the bubble wall) which induces the transition. However, we show that this instanton cannot be realized as the thin wall limit of any smooth solution. Once the bubble thickness is resolved, the equations of motion do not allow O(4) symmetric solutions joining the two branches. We conclude that the thin wall instanton is unphysical, and that one cannot have processes connecting the two branches, unless negative tension bubble walls are introduced. This also suggests that the self-accelerating branch does not decay into the conventional branch nucleating bubbles. We comment on other kinds of bubbles that could interpolate between the two branches

  7. Surface-bubble-modulated liquid chromatography: a new approach for manipulation of chromatographic retention and investigation of solute distribution at water/hydrophobic interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Nakamura, Hiroki; Saito, Shingo; Shibukawa, Masami

    2015-01-20

    In this paper, we present a new chromatographic method termed surface-bubble-modulated liquid chromatography (SBMLC), that has a hybrid separation medium incorporated with surface nanobubbles. Nanobubbles or nanoscale gas phases can be fixed at the interface between water and a hydrophobic material by delivering water into a dry column packed with a nanoporous material. The incorporation of a gas phase at the hydrophobic surface leads to the formation of the hybrid separation system consisting of the gas phase, hydrophobic moieties, and the water/hydrophobic interface or the interfacial water. One can change the volume of the gas phase by pressure applied to the column, which in turn alters the area of water/hydrophobic interface or the volume of the interfacial water, while the amount of the hydrophobic moiety remains constant. Therefore, this strategy provides a novel technique not only for manipulating the separation selectivity by pressure but also for elucidating the mechanism of accumulation or retention of solute compounds in aqueous solutions by a hydrophobic material. We evaluate the contributions of the interfacial water at the surface of an octadecyl bonded silica and the bonded layer itself to the retention of various solute compounds in aqueous solutions on the column packed with the material by SBMLC. The results show that the interfacial water formed at the hydrophobic surface has a key role in retention even though its volume is rather small. The manipulation of the separation selectivity of SBMLC for some organic compounds by pressure is demonstrated.

  8. A Variational Reduction and the Existence of a Fully Localised Solitary Wave for the Three-Dimensional Water-Wave Problem with Weak Surface Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffoni, Boris; Groves, Mark D.; Wahlén, Erik

    2018-06-01

    Fully localised solitary waves are travelling-wave solutions of the three- dimensional gravity-capillary water wave problem which decay to zero in every horizontal spatial direction. Their existence has been predicted on the basis of numerical simulations and model equations (in which context they are usually referred to as `lumps'), and a mathematically rigorous existence theory for strong surface tension (Bond number {β} greater than {1/3}) has recently been given. In this article we present an existence theory for the physically more realistic case {0 point of the reduced functional is found by minimising it over its natural constraint set.

  9. Surface Tension of Binary Mixtures Including Polar Components Modeled by the Density Gradient Theory Combined with the PC-SAFT Equation of State

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinš, Václav; Planková, Barbora; Hrubý, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 5 (2013), s. 792-812 ISSN 0195-928X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760905; GA ČR(CZ) GPP101/11/P046; GA ČR GA101/09/1633 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : chemical polarity * gradient theory * surface tension Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.623, year: 2013 http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&id=doi:10.1007/s10765-012-1207-z

  10. Exploring inclusion complexes of ionic liquids with α- and β- cyclodextrin by NMR, IR, mass, density, viscosity, surface tension and conductance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Biraj Kumar; Rajbanshi, Biplab; Yasmin, Ananya; Roy, Mahendra Nath

    2018-05-01

    The formation of the host-guest inclusion complexes of ionic liquids namely [BMIm]Cl and [HMIm]Cl with α-CD and β-CD were studied by means of physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. Conductivity and surface tension study were in good agreement with the 1H NMR and FT-IR studies which confirm the formation of the inclusion complexes. The Density and viscosity study also supported the formation of the ICs. Further the stoichiometry was determined 1:1 for each case and the association constants and thermodynamic parameters derived supported the most feasible formation of the [BMIm]Cl- β-CD inclusion complex.

  11. Carbon dioxide induced bubble formation in a CH4-CO2-H2O ternary system: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujith, K S; Ramachandran, C N

    2016-02-07

    The extraction of methane from its hydrates using carbon dioxide involves the decomposition of the hydrate resulting in a CH4-CO2-H2O ternary solution. Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the evolution of dissolved gas molecules in the ternary system at different concentrations of CO2. Various compositions considered in the present study resemble the solution formed during the decomposition of methane hydrates at the initial stages of the extraction process. We find that the presence of CO2 aids the formation of CH4 bubbles by causing its early nucleation. Elucidation of the composition of the bubble revealed that in ternary solutions with high concentration of CO2, mixed gas bubbles composed of CO2 and CH4 are formed. To understand the role of CO2 in the nucleation of CH4 bubbles, the structure of the bubble formed was analyzed, which revealed that there is an accumulation of CO2 at the interface of the bubble and the surrounding water. The aggregation of CO2 at the bubble-water interface occurs predominantly when the concentration of CO2 is high. Radial distribution function for the CH4-CO2 pair indicates that there is an increasingly favorable direct contact between dissolved CH4 and CO2 molecules in the bubble-water interface. It is also observed that the presence of CO2 at the interface results in the decrease in surface tension. Thus, CO2 leads to greater stability of the bubble-water interface thereby bringing down the critical size of the bubble nuclei. The results suggest that a rise in concentration of CO2 helps in the removal of dissolved CH4 thereby preventing the accumulation of methane in the liquid phase. Thus, the presence of CO2 is predicted to assist the decomposition of methane hydrates in the initial stages of the replacement process.

  12. Turbulent water flow in a channel at Reτ = 400 laden with 0.25 mm diameter air-bubbles clustered near the wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakehal, D.; Métrailler, D.; Reboux, S.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) results of a turbulent water flow in a channel at Reτ = 400 laden with 0.25 mm diameter air bubbles clustered near the wall (maximum void fraction of α = 8% at y+ ˜ 20). The bubbles were fully resolved using the level set approach built within the CFD/CMFD code TransAT. The fluid properties (air and water) were kept real, including density, viscosity, and surface tension coefficient. The aim of this work is to understand the effects of the bubbles on near-wall turbulence, paving the way towards convective wall-boiling flow studies. The interactions between the gas bubbles and the water stream were studied through an in-depth analysis of the turbulence statistics. The near-wall flow is overall affected by the bubbles, which act like roughness elements during the early phase, prior to their departure from the wall. The average profiles are clearly altered by the bubbles dynamics near the wall, which somewhat contrasts with the findings from similar studies [J. Lu and G. Tryggvason, "Dynamics of nearly spherical bubbles in a turbulent channel upflow," J. Fluid Mech. 732, 166 (2013)], most probably because the bubbles were introduced uniformly in the flow and not concentrated at the wall. The shape of the bubbles measured as the apparent to initial diameter ratio is found to change by a factor of at least two, in particular at the later stages when the bubbles burst out from the boundary layer. The clustering of the bubbles seems to be primarily localized in the zone populated by high-speed streaks and independent of their size. More importantly, the bubbly flow seems to differ from the single-phase flow in terms of turbulent stress distribution and energy exchange, in which all the stress components seem to be increased in the region very close to the wall, by up to 40%. The decay in the energy spectra near the wall was found to be significantly slower for the bubbly flow than for a single-phase flow, which

  13. Measurement of the Surface Dilatational Viscosity of an Insoluble Surfactant Monolayer at the Air/Water Interface Using a Pendant Drop Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Jose; Couzis, Alex; Maldarelli, Charles; Singh, Bhim S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    When a fluid interface with surfactants is at rest, the interfacial stress is isotropic (as given by the equilibrium interfacial tension), and is described by the equation of state which relates the surface tension to the surfactant surface concentration. When surfactants are subjected to shear and dilatational flows, flow induced interaction of the surfactants; can create interfacial stresses apart from the equilibrium surface tension. The simplest relationship between surface strain rate and surface stress is the Boussinesq-Scriven constitutive equation completely characterized by three coefficients: equilibrium interfacial tension, surface shear viscosity, and surface dilatational viscosity Equilibrium interfacial tension and surface shear viscosity measurements are very well established. On the other hand, surface dilatational viscosity measurements are difficult because a flow which change the surface area also changes the surfactant surface concentration creating changes in the equilibrium interfacial tension that must be also taken into account. Surface dilatational viscosity measurements of existing techniques differ by five orders of magnitude and use spatially damped surface waves and rapidly expanding bubbles. In this presentation we introduce a new technique for measuring the surface dilatational viscosity by contracting an aqueous pendant drop attached to a needle tip and having and insoluble surfactant monolayer at the air-water interface. The isotropic total tension on the surface consists of the equilibrium surface tension and the tension due to the dilation. Compression rates are undertaken slow enough so that bulk hydrodynamic stresses are small compared to the surface tension force. Under these conditions we show that the total tension is uniform along the surface and that the Young-Laplace equation governs the drop shape with the equilibrium surface tension replaced by the constant surface isotropic stress. We illustrate this technique using

  14. On the theory and computation of surface tension: The elimination of parasitic currents through energy conservation in the second-gradient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamet, Didier; Torres, David; Brackbill, J.U.

    2002-01-01

    Errors in the computation of fluid flows with surface tension are examined. These errors cause large parasitic flows when the capillary number is large and have often been attributed to truncation error in underresolved interfacial regions. A study using the second-gradient method reveals that when truncation error is eliminated in the computation of energy exchanges between surface and kinetic energies so that energy is strictly conserved, the parasitic currents are reduced to round-off. The results are based on general thermodynamic arguments and can be used to guide improvements in other methods, such as the continuum-surface-force (CSF) method, which is commonly used with the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method

  15. On the theory and computation of surface tension: The elimination of parasitic currents through energy conservation in the second-gradient method

    CERN Document Server

    Jamet, D; Brackbill, J U

    2002-01-01

    Errors in the computation of fluid flows with surface tension are examined. These errors cause large parasitic flows when the capillary number is large and have often been attributed to truncation error in underresolved interfacial regions. A study using the second-gradient method reveals that when truncation error is eliminated in the computation of energy exchanges between surface and kinetic energies so that energy is strictly conserved, the parasitic currents are reduced to round-off. The results are based on general thermodynamic arguments and can be used to guide improvements in other methods, such as the continuum-surface-force (CSF) method, which is commonly used with the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method.

  16. Armoring confined bubbles in concentrated colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingxian; Khodaparast, Sepideh; Stone, Howard

    2016-11-01

    Encapsulation of a bubble with microparticles is known to significantly improve the stability of the bubble. This phenomenon has recently gained increasing attention due to its application in a variety of technologies such as foam stabilization, drug encapsulation and colloidosomes. Nevertheless, the production of such colloidal armored bubble with controlled size and particle coverage ratio is still a great challenge industrially. We study the coating process of a long air bubble by microparticles in a circular tube filled with a concentrated microparticles colloidal suspension. As the bubble proceeds in the suspension of particles, a monolayer of micro-particles forms on the interface of the bubble, which eventually results in a fully armored bubble. We investigate the phenomenon that triggers and controls the evolution of the particle accumulation on the bubble interface. Moreover, we examine the effects of the mean flow velocity, the size of the colloids and concentration of the suspension on the dynamics of the armored bubble. The results of this study can potentially be applied to production of particle-encapsulated bubbles, surface-cleaning techniques, and gas-assisted injection molding.

  17. Rational equity bubbles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Ge

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the existence of a bubble in the pricing of an asset that pays positive dividends. I show that rational bubbles can exist in a growing economy. The existence of bubbles depends on the relative magnitudes of risk aversion to consumption and to wealth. Furthermore, I examine how an exogenous shock in technology might trigger bubbles.

  18. Fama on Bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom

    2016-01-01

    While Eugene Fama has repeatedly expressed his discontent with the notion of an “irrational bubble,” he has never publicly expressed his opinion on “rational bubbles.” On empirical grounds Fama rejects bubbles by referring to the lack of reliable evidence that price declines are predictable....... However, this argument cannot be used to rule out rational bubbles because such bubbles do not necessarily imply return predictability, and return predictability of the kind documented by Fama does not rule out rational bubbles. On data samples that include the 1990s, there is evidence of an explosive...... component in stock market valuation ratios, consistent with a rational bubble....

  19. Mechanism of bubble detachment from vibrating walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongjun; Park, Jun Kwon, E-mail: junkeun@postech.ac.kr; Kang, Kwan Hyoung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, In Seok [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    We discovered a previously unobserved mechanism by which air bubbles detach from vibrating walls in glasses containing water. Chaotic oscillation and subsequent water jets appeared when a wall vibrated at greater than a critical level. Wave forms were developed at water-air interface of the bubble by the wall vibration, and water jets were formed when sufficiently grown wave-curvatures were collapsing. Droplets were pinched off from the tip of jets and fell to the surface of the glass. When the solid-air interface at the bubble-wall attachment point was completely covered with water, the bubble detached from the wall. The water jets were mainly generated by subharmonic waves and were generated most vigorously when the wall vibrated at the volume resonant frequency of the bubble. Bubbles of specific size can be removed by adjusting the frequency of the wall's vibration.

  20. The distribution of air bubble size in the pneumo-mechanical flotation machine . Rozkład wielkości pęcherzyków powietrza w pneumo-mechanicznej maszynie flotacyjnej

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brożek, Marian; Młynarczykowska, Anna

    2012-12-01

    The flotation rate constant is the value characterizing the kinetics of cyclic flotation. In the statistical theory of flotation its value is the function of probabilities of collision, adhesion and detachment of particle from the air bubble. The particle - air bubble collision plays a key role since there must be a prior collision before the particle - air bubble adhesion happens. The probability of such an event to occur is proportional to the ratio of the particle diameter to the bubble diameter. When the particle size is given, it is possible to control the value of collision probability by means of the size of air bubble. Consequently, it is significant to find the effect of physical and physicochemical factors upon the diameter of air bubbles in the form of a mathematical dependence. In the pneumo-mechanical flotation machine the air bubbles are generated by the blades of the rotor. The dispergation rate is affected by, among others, rotational speed of the rotor, the air flow rate and the liquid surface tension, depending on the type and concentration of applied flotation reagents. In the proposed paper the authors will present the distribution of air bubble diameters on the grounds of the above factors, according to the laws of thermodynamics. The correctness of the derived dependences will be verified empirically.

  1. Coalescence and movement of nanobubbles studied with tapping mode AFM and tip-bubble interaction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Wang Yuliang; Maali, Abdelhamid

    2008-01-01

    Imaging of a polystyrene (PS) coated silicon wafer immersed in deionized (DI) water was conducted using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the tapping mode (TMAFM). As reported earlier, spherical cap-like domains, referred to as nanobubbles, were observed to be distributed on the PS surface. Experiments reveal that, in addition to the well-known parameter of scan load, scan speed is also an important parameter which affects nanobubble coalescence. The process of nanobubble coalescence was studied. It was found that during coalescence, small nanobubbles were easily moved and merged into bigger ones. Based on the interaction between the AFM cantilever tip and a bubble in the so-called force modulation mode of TMAFM, bubble height and adhesive force information for a given bubble was extracted. A viscoelastic model is used to obtain the interaction stiffness and damping coefficient, which provides a method to obtain the mechanical properties of nanobubbles. The model was further used to study the effect of surface tension force on attractive interaction force and contact angle hysteresis on the changes of the interaction damping coefficient during tip-bubble interaction.

  2. Effect of Al_2O_3 Nanoparticles Additives on the Density, Saturated Vapor Pressure, Surface Tension and Viscosity of Isopropyl Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhelezny, Vitaly; Geller, Vladimir; Semenyuk, Yury; Nikulin, Artem; Lukianov, Nikolai; Lozovsky, Taras; Shymchuk, Mykola

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents results of an experimental study of the density, saturated vapor pressure, surface tension and viscosity of Al_2O_3 nanoparticle colloidal solutions in isopropyl alcohol. Studies of the thermophysical properties of nanofluids were performed at various temperatures and concentrations of Al_2O_3 nanoparticles. The paper gives considerable attention to a turbidimetric analysis of the stability of nanofluid samples. Samples of nanofluids remained stable over the range of parameters of the experiments, ensuring the reliability of the thermophysical property data for the Al_2O_3 nanoparticle colloidal solutions in isopropyl alcohol. The studies show that the addition of Al_2O_3 nanoparticles leads to an increase of the density, saturated vapor pressure and viscosity, as well as a decrease for the surface tension of isopropyl alcohol. The information reported in this paper on the various thermophysical properties for the isopropyl alcohol/Al_2O_3 nanoparticle model system is useful for the development of thermodynamically consistent models for predicting properties of nanofluids and correct modeling of the heat exchange processes.

  3. Force Field Benchmark of the TraPPE_UA for Polar Liquids: Density, Heat of Vaporization, Dielectric Constant, Surface Tension, Volumetric Expansion Coefficient, and Isothermal Compressibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Rojas, Edgar; Aguilar-Pineda, Jorge Alberto; Pérez de la Luz, Alexander; de Jesús González, Edith Nadir; Alejandre, José

    2018-02-08

    The transferable potential for a phase equilibria force field in its united-atom version, TraPPE_UA, is evaluated for 41 polar liquids that include alcohols, thiols, ethers, sulfides, aldehydes, ketones, and esters to determine its ability to reproduce experimental properties that were not included in the parametrization procedure. The intermolecular force field parameters for pure components were fit to reproduce experimental boiling temperature, vapor-liquid coexisting densities, and critical point (temperature, density, and pressure) using Monte Carlo simulations in different ensembles. The properties calculated in this work are liquid density, heat of vaporization, dielectric constant, surface tension, volumetric expansion coefficient, and isothermal compressibility. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed in the gas and liquid phases, and also at the liquid-vapor interface. We found that relative error between calculated and experimental data is 1.2% for density, 6% for heat of vaporization, and 6.2% for surface tension, in good agreement with the experimental data. The dielectric constant is systematically underestimated, and the relative error is 37%. Evaluating the performance of the force field to reproduce the volumetric expansion coefficient and isothermal compressibility requires more experimental data.

  4. Effects of reduced surface tension on two-phase diversion cross-flow between subchannels simplifying triangle tight lattice rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Akimaro; Sadatomi, Michio; Higuchi, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    Two-phase diversion cross-flow between tight lattice subchannels has been investigated experimentally and analytically. For hydraulically non-equilibrium flows with the pressure difference between the subchannels, experiments were conducted using a vertical multiple-channel with two subchannels simplifying a triangle tight lattice rod bundle. To know the effects of the reduced surface tension on the diversion cross-flow, water and water with a surfactant were used as the test liquids. Data were obtained on the axial variations in the pressure difference between the subchannels, gas and liquid flow rates and void fraction in each subchannel for slug-churn and annular flows. In the analysis, flow redistribution processes due to the diversion cross-flow have been calculated by our subchannel analysis code based on a two-fluid model. From a comparison between the experiment and the code calculation, the code was found to be valid against the present data if the improved constitutive equations of wall and interfacial friction reported in our previous paper were incorporated to account for the reduced surface tension effects. (author)

  5. The Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN properties of 2-methyltetrols and C3-C6 polyols from osmolality and surface tension measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ekström

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A significant fraction of the organic material in aerosols is made of highly soluble compounds such as sugars (mono- and polysaccharides and polyols such as the 2-methyltetrols, methylerythritol and methyltreitol. Because of their high solubility these compounds are considered as potentially efficient CCN material. For the 2-methyltetrols, this would have important implications for cloud formation at global scale because they are thought to be produced by the atmospheric oxidation of isoprene. To investigate this question, the complete Köhler curves for C3-C6 polyols and the 2-methyltetrols have been determined experimentally from osmolality and surface tension measurements. Contrary to what was expected, none of these compounds displayed a higher CCN efficiency than organic acids. Their Raoult terms show that this limited CCN efficiency is due to their absence of dissociation in water, this in spite of slight surface-tension effects for the 2-methyltetrols. Thus, compounds such as saccharides and polyols would not contribute more to cloud formation than other organic compounds studied so far. In particular, the presence of 2-methyltetrols in aerosols would not particularly enhance cloud formation in the atmosphere, in contrary to recently suggested.

  6. Hamiltonian description of bubble dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimov, A. O.

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of a nonspherical bubble in a liquid is described within the Hamiltonian formalism. Primary attention is focused on the introduction of the canonical variables into the computational algorithm. The expansion of the Dirichlet-Neumann operator in powers of the displacement of a bubble wall from an equilibrium position is obtained in the explicit form. The first three terms (more specifically, the second-, third-, and fourth-order terms) in the expansion of the Hamiltonian in powers of the canonical variables are determined. These terms describe the spectrum and interaction of three essentially different modes, i.e., monopole oscillations (pulsations), dipole oscillations (translational motions), and surface oscillations. The cubic nonlinearity is analyzed for the problem associated with the generation of Faraday ripples on the wall of a bubble in an acoustic field. The possibility of decay processes occurring in the course of interaction of surface oscillations for the first fifteen (experimentally observed) modes is investigated.

  7. Adsorção e propriedades de volume de misturas binárias água álcool: um experimento didático com base em medidas de tensão superficial An undergraduate experiment in physical chemistry: adsorption and bulk properties of alcohol-water mixtures based on surface tension measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelly C. dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An undergraduate physical chemistry experiment based on the drop counting method for surface tension measurements is proposed to demonstrate adsorption isotherms of binary aqueous solutions of ethanol, n-propanol, and n-butanol. Excess surface is obtained by the derivative of surface tension taken with respect to alcohol activity, after this activity calculation using van Laar equation. Laboratory class contents are surface tension, excess surface, percolation of hydrogen bonds, micelle, activity, and ideal solution.

  8. A study of the rates of heat transfer and bubble site density for nucleate boiling on an inclined heating surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonamy, S.E.; Symons, J.G.

    1974-08-01

    Nucleate pool boiling of distilled water from an electrically heated surface at atmospheric pressure is studied for varying heating surface inclinations. The constants of the accepted boiling equation phi = K Tsup(B) and the Rohsenow Correlation Coefficient are found to be dependent on surface orientation. Convection cooling is observed to play a major role in pool boiling phenomena and causes large changes in the heat transfer rates for a given excess of temperature of the heated surface. Active nucleation site density is studied and found to be independent of surface inclination. Empirical relations are presented to provide an understanding of the effects of inclination on other boiling parameters. (author)

  9. RESUS: A code for low volatile radio-nuclide release from liquids due to vapor bubble burst induced liquid jet formation and disintegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.K.; Starflinger, J.; Linnemann, Th.; Brockmeier, U.; Unger, H.; Schuetz, W.

    1995-01-01

    and particle release. Consequently, the RESUS code system consists of three modules: First BUBGROW (BUBble GROWth) calculates the growth of bubbles rising to the surface, the 2nd module BUBSHAPE (BUBble SHAPE) determines the characteristic profile of a bubble resting at the liquid surface as well as the mechanical energy available for droplet formation and consequently droplet- and particle release. The 3rd one, BUBBURST (BUBble BURST) performs the calculation of liquid jet formation, causing the droplet release, based on a SOLA-MAC algorithm. The detachment of droplets is generated by the breaking up of the rising liquid jet. Knowing the jet dimensions, size and number of droplets, which are generated by jet instabilities (break up), caused by surface tension forces and existing disturbances, can be calculated. (author)

  10. Thin concentrator photovoltaic module with micro-solar cells which are mounted by self-align method using surface tension of melted solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Terauchi, Masaharu; Aya, Youichirou; Kanayama, Shutetsu; Nishitani, Hikaru; Nakagawa, Tohru; Takase, Michihiko

    2017-09-01

    We are developing a thin and lightweight CPV module using small size lens system made from poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) with a short focal length and micro-solar cells to decrease the transporting and the installing costs of CPV systems. In order to achieve high conversion efficiency in CPV modules using micro-solar cells, the micro-solar cells need to be mounted accurately to the irradiated region of the concentrated sunlight. In this study, we have successfully developed self-align method thanks to the surface tension of the melted solder even utilizing commercially available surface-mounting technology (SMT). Solar cells were self-aligned to the specified positions of the circuit board by this self-align method with accuracy within ±10 µm. We actually fabricated CPV modules using this self-align method and demonstrated high conversion efficiency of our CPV module.

  11. Diffusive intergranular cavity growth in creep in tension and torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanzl, S.E.; Argon, A.S.; Tschegg, E.K.

    1983-01-01

    Creep experiments were performed at 500 C in tension and torsion on high conductivity copper tubes with a uniform initial coverage of implanted water vapor bubbles on all grain boundaries. No significant differences were found in the times to fracture over a wide stress range when the results were correlated according to the maximum principal tensile stress in the two fields. The results indicate that the cavities grow in a crack-like mode but at one tenth the rate predicted from the theoretical model of Pharr and Nix. This difference is attributed partly to load shedding from boundaries normal to the maximum principal tensile stress to slanted boundaries, and partly to a lack of knowledge about th surface diffusion constant. The results indicate further that the contribution to intergranular cavity growth by power-law creep in negligible in comparison to the contribution by diffusional flow. Complementary tension and torsion experiments performed in initially uncavitated samples results in shorter creep lives in torsion than in tension due to more effective cavity nucleation in the former. The times to fracture in both of these cases obey Monkman and Grant's law, indicating the presence of constraints on growth by the lagging deformations by power-law creep in the surroundings of the cavitating isolated grain facets

  12. Gas pressure in bubble attached to tube circular outlet

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, A; Gay, Cyprien; Maestro, A; Drenckhan, W; Rio, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    In the present Supplementary notes to our work ``Arresting bubble coarsening: A two-bubble experiment to investigate grain growth in presence of surface elasticity'' (accepted in EPL), we derive the expression of the gas pressure inside a bubble located above and attached to the circular outlet of a vertical tube.

  13. Study of homogeneous bubble nucleation in liquid carbon dioxide by a hybrid approach combining molecular dynamics simulation and density gradient theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbach, K; Heilig, M; Horsch, M; Hasse, H

    2018-03-28

    A new method for predicting homogeneous bubble nucleation rates of pure compounds from vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data is presented. It combines molecular dynamics simulation on the one side with density gradient theory using an equation of state (EOS) on the other. The new method is applied here to predict bubble nucleation rates in metastable liquid carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The molecular model of CO 2 is taken from previous work of our group. PC-SAFT is used as an EOS. The consistency between the molecular model and the EOS is achieved by adjusting the PC-SAFT parameters to VLE data obtained from the molecular model. The influence parameter of density gradient theory is fitted to the surface tension of the molecular model. Massively parallel molecular dynamics simulations are performed close to the spinodal to compute bubble nucleation rates. From these simulations, the kinetic prefactor of the hybrid nucleation theory is estimated, whereas the nucleation barrier is calculated from density gradient theory. This enables the extrapolation of molecular simulation data to the whole metastable range including technically relevant densities. The results are tested against available experimental data and found to be in good agreement. The new method does not suffer from typical deficiencies of classical nucleation theory concerning the thermodynamic barrier at the spinodal and the bubble size dependence of surface tension, which is typically neglected in classical nucleation theory. In addition, the density in the center of critical bubbles and their surface tension is determined as a function of their radius. The usual linear Tolman correction to the capillarity approximation is found to be invalid.

  14. Study of homogeneous bubble nucleation in liquid carbon dioxide by a hybrid approach combining molecular dynamics simulation and density gradient theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbach, K.; Heilig, M.; Horsch, M.; Hasse, H.

    2018-03-01

    A new method for predicting homogeneous bubble nucleation rates of pure compounds from vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data is presented. It combines molecular dynamics simulation on the one side with density gradient theory using an equation of state (EOS) on the other. The new method is applied here to predict bubble nucleation rates in metastable liquid carbon dioxide (CO2). The molecular model of CO2 is taken from previous work of our group. PC-SAFT is used as an EOS. The consistency between the molecular model and the EOS is achieved by adjusting the PC-SAFT parameters to VLE data obtained from the molecular model. The influence parameter of density gradient theory is fitted to the surface tension of the molecular model. Massively parallel molecular dynamics simulations are performed close to the spinodal to compute bubble nucleation rates. From these simulations, the kinetic prefactor of the hybrid nucleation theory is estimated, whereas the nucleation barrier is calculated from density gradient theory. This enables the extrapolation of molecular simulation data to the whole metastable range including technically relevant densities. The results are tested against available experimental data and found to be in good agreement. The new method does not suffer from typical deficiencies of classical nucleation theory concerning the thermodynamic barrier at the spinodal and the bubble size dependence of surface tension, which is typically neglected in classical nucleation theory. In addition, the density in the center of critical bubbles and their surface tension is determined as a function of their radius. The usual linear Tolman correction to the capillarity approximation is found to be invalid.

  15. Drag of a growing bubble at rectilinear accelerated ascension in pure liquids and binary solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ašković Radomir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of predicting the drag coefficient of a growing bubble at rectilinear accelerated ascension in uniformly super­heated pure liquids and in binary solutions with a non-volatile solute at large Reynolds and Peclet numbers is discussed. In the case of pure liquids, the general solution for the drag coefficient of an accelerated growing bubble from its inception at the critical radius and through the surface-tension-, inertia-, and heat-diffusion-controlled regimes is established, as well as some necessary adaptations in the case of binary solutions with a non-volatile solute. Two particular limiting regimes in the case of pure liquids, inertia-controlled and heat-diffusion-controlled regimes, respectively, are analyzed in details, with satisfactory results. .

  16. An algorithm for predicting the hydrodynamic and mass transfer parameters in bubble column and slurry bubble column reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemoine, Romain; Behkish, Arsam; Sehabiague, Laurent; Heintz, Yannick J.; Morsi, Badie I. [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Oukaci, Rachid [Energy Technology Partners, Pittsburgh, PA 15238 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    A large number of experimental data points obtained in our laboratory as well as from the literature, covering wide ranges of reactor geometry (column diameter, gas distributor type/open area), physicochemical properties (liquid and gas densities and molecular weights, liquid viscosity and surface tension, gas diffusivity, solid particles size/density), and operating variables (superficial gas velocity, temperature and pressure, solid loading, impurities concentration, mixtures) were used to develop empirical as well as Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) correlations in order to predict the hydrodynamic and mass transfer parameters in bubble column reactors (BCRs) and slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs). The empirical and BPNN correlations developed were incorporated in an algorithm for predicting gas holdups ({epsilon}{sub G}, {epsilon}{sub G-Small}, {epsilon}{sub G-Large}); volumetric liquid-side mass transfer coefficients (k{sub L}a, k{sub L}a{sub -Small,} k{sub L}a{sub -Large}); Sauter mean bubble diameters (d{sub S}, d{sub S-Small}, d{sub S-Large}){sub ;} gas-liquid interfacial areas (a, a{sub Small}, a{sub Large}); and liquid-side mass transfer coefficients (k{sub L}, k{sub L-Large}, k{sub L-Small}) for total, small and large gas bubbles in BCRs and SBCRs. The developed algorithm was used to predict the effects of reactor diameter and solid (alumina) loading on the hydrodynamic and mass transfer parameters in the Fisher-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide in a SBCR, and to predict the effects of presence of organic impurities (which decrease the liquid surface tension) and air superficial mass velocity in the Loprox process for the wet air oxidation of organic pollutants in a BCR. In the F-T process, the predictions showed that increasing the reactor diameter from 0.1 to 7.0 m and/or increasing the alumina loading from 25 to 50 wt.% significantly decreased {epsilon}{sub G,} k{sub L}a{sub H2} and k{sub L}a{sub CO} and

  17. Cavitation inception from bubble nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Knud Aage

    2015-01-01

    , and experimental investigations of bubbles and cavitation inception have been presented. These results suggest that cavitation nuclei in equilibrium are gaseous voids in the water, stabilized by a skin which allows diffusion balance between gas inside the void and gas in solution in the surrounding liquid....... The cavitation nuclei may be free gas bubbles in the bulk of water, or interfacial gaseous voids located on the surface of particles in the water, or on bounding walls. The tensile strength of these nuclei depends not only on the water quality but also on the pressure-time history of the water. A recent model...

  18. Diffusive counter dispersion of mass in bubbly media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldobin, Denis S; Brilliantov, Nikolai V

    2011-11-01

    We consider a liquid bearing gas bubbles in a porous medium. When gas bubbles are immovably trapped in a porous matrix by surface-tension forces, the dominant mechanism of transfer of gas mass becomes the diffusion of gas molecules through the liquid. Essentially, the gas solution is in local thermodynamic equilibrium with vapor phase all over the system, i.e., the solute concentration equals the solubility. When temperature and/or pressure gradients are applied, diffusion fluxes appear and these fluxes are faithfully determined by the temperature and pressure fields, not by the local solute concentration, which is enslaved by the former. We derive the equations governing such systems, accounting for thermodiffusion and gravitational segregation effects, which are shown not to be neglected for geological systems-marine sediments, terrestrial aquifers, etc. The results are applied for the treatment of non-high-pressure systems and real geological systems bearing methane or carbon dioxide, where we find a potential possibility of the formation of gaseous horizons deep below a porous medium surface. The reported effects are of particular importance for natural methane hydrate deposits and the problem of burial of industrial production of carbon dioxide in deep aquifers.

  19. Numerical Study on Bubble Dynamics and Two-Phase Frictional Pressure Drop of Slug Flow Regime in Adiabatic T-junction Square Microchannel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kishor

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bubble dynamics and frictional pressure drop associated with gas liquid two-phase slug flow regime in adiabatic T-junction square microchannel has been investigated using CFD. A comprehensive study on the mechanism of bubble formation via squeezing and shearing regime is performed. The randomness and recirculation profiles observed in the squeezing regime are significantly higher as compared to the shearing regime during formation of the slug. Further, effects of increasing gas velocity on bubble length are obtained at fixed liquid velocities and simulated data displayed good agreement with available correlations in literature. The frictional pressure drop for slug flow regime from simulations are also obtained and evaluated against existing separated flow models. A regression correlation has also been developed by modifying C-parameter using separated flow model, which improves the prediction of two-phase frictional pressure drop data within slug flow region, with mean absolute error of 10 %. The influences of fluid properties such as liquid viscosity and surface tension on the two-phase frictional pressure drop are also investigated and compared with developed correlation. The higher liquid viscosity and lower surface tension value resulted in bubble formation via shearing regime.

  20. Adsorption properties of biologically active derivatives of quaternary ammonium surfactants and their mixtures at aqueous/air interface. I. Equilibrium surface tension, surfactant aggregation and wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojewska, Monika; Biadasz, Andrzej; Kotkowiak, Michał; Olejnik, Anna; Rychlik, Joanna; Dudkowiak, Alina; Prochaska, Krystyna

    2013-10-01

    The adsorption properties of surfactant mixtures containing two types of quaternary derivatives of lysosomotropic substances: alkyl N,N-dimethylalaninates methobromides and alkyl N,N-dimethylglycinates methobromides were studied. Quantitative and qualitative description of the adsorption process was carried out on the basis of experimentally obtained equilibrium surface tension isotherms. The results indicated that most of the systems studied revealed synergistic effect both in adsorption and wetting properties. In vitro studies on human cancer cells were undertaken and the data obtained showed that the mixtures suppressed the cancer cells' proliferation more effectively than individual components. Results of preliminary research on the interaction of catanionic mixtures with phospholipids suggested a possibility of a strong penetration of cell membranes by the mixtures investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Surface Tension Guided Hanging-Drop: Producing Controllable 3D Spheroid of High-Passaged Human Dermal Papilla Cells and Forming Inductive Microtissues for Hair-Follicle Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bojie; Miao, Yong; Wang, Jin; Fan, Zhexiang; Du, Lijuan; Su, Yongsheng; Liu, Bingcheng; Hu, Zhiqi; Xing, Malcolm

    2016-03-09

    Human dermal papilla (DP) cells have been studied extensively when grown in the conventional monolayer. However, because of great deviation from the real in vivo three-dimensional (3D) environment, these two-dimensional (2D) grown cells tend to lose the hair-inducible capability during passaging. Hence, these 2D caused concerns have motivated the development of novel 3D culture techniques to produce cellular microtissues with suitable mimics. The hanging-drop approach is based on surface tension-based technique and the interaction between surface tension and gravity field that makes a convergence of liquid drops. This study used this technique in a converged drop to form cellular spheroids of dermal papilla cells. It leads to a controllable 3Dspheroid model for scalable fabrication of inductive DP microtissues. The optimal conditions for culturing high-passaged (P8) DP spheroids were determined first. Then, the morphological, histological and functional studies were performed. In addition, expressions of hair-inductive markers including alkaline phosphatase, α-smooth muscle actin and neural cell adhesion molecule were also analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunostaining and immunoblotting. Finally, P8-DP microtissues were coimplanted with newborn mouse epidermal cells (EPCs) into nude mice. Our results indicated that the formation of 3D microtissues not only endowed P8-DP microtissues many similarities to primary DP, but also confer these microtissues an enhanced ability to induce hair-follicle (HF) neogenesis in vivo. This model provides a potential to elucidate the native biology of human DP, and also shows the promising for the controllable and scalable production of inductive DP cells applied in future follicle regeneration.

  2. Improvement of the free-surface tension model in shallow water basin by using in-situ bottom-friction measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, Elena; Kuznetsov, Konstantin; Roux, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Wind stress on the free surface is the main driving force behind the circulation of the upper part of the ocean, which in hydrodynamic models are usually defined in terms of the coefficient of surface tension (Zhang et al., 2009, Davies et al., 2003). Moreover, wave motion impacts local currents and changes sea level, impacts the transport and the stratification of the entire water column. Influence of surface waves at the bottom currents is particularly pronounced in the shallow coastal systems. However, existing methods of parameterization of the surface tension have significant limits, especially in strong wind waves (Young et al., 2001, Jones et al., 2004) due to the difficulties of measuring the characteristics of surface waves in stormy conditions. Thus, the formula for calculating the coefficient of surface tension in our day is the actual problem in modeling fluid dynamics, particularly in the context of strong surface waves. In the hydrodynamic models usually a coefficient of surface tension is calculated once at the beginning of computation as a constant that depends on the averaged wind waves characteristic. Usually cases of strongly nonlinear wind waves are not taken into account, what significantly reduces the accuracy of the calculation of the flow structures and further calculation of the other processes in water basins, such as the spread of suspended matter and pollutants. Thus, wave motion influencing the pressure on the free surface and at the bottom must be considered in hydrodynamic models particularly in shallow coastal systems. A method of reconstruction of a free-surface drag coefficient based on the measured in-situ bottom pressure fluctuations is developed and applied in a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model MARS3D, developed by the French laboratory of IFREMER (IFREMER - French Research Institute for Marine Dynamics). MARS3D solves the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluid in the Boussinesq approximation and with the

  3. Fama on bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom

    Eugene Fama has repeatedly expressed his discontent with the notion of an irrational bubble. However, he has never publicly expressed his opinion on rational bubbles. This is peculiar since such bubbles build naturally from the rational efficient markets paradigm that Fama strongly adheres to...

  4. Bubble pump for integrated nanofluidics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, Niels Roelof; Berenschot, Johan W.; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; van den Berg, Albert

    2001-01-01

    A new concept for liquid manipulation has been developed and implemented in surface micromachined fluid channels. It is based on the surface tension directed injection of a gas into the liquid flow through micron sized holes in the microchannel wall. The injected gas is directed to an exhaust by a

  5. Sea Surface Micro-Structure: Relation to Air-Sea Fluxes, Bubble Transport and Electromagnetic Wave Radiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, Charles

    2001-01-01

    .... The camera responds to radiation in the three to five micrometer wavelength range. This is a useful range because the intensity of black body radiation from the water surface in this range is highly sensitive to the temperature of the source...

  6. Blistering and bubble formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.

    1976-01-01

    Blister formation in metals has been observed during bombardment with inert-gas ions in the energy range between 1 and 2000 keV at doses of about 10 17 to 10 19 cm -2 . The changes in surface topography and the erosion yields were mainly studied in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Additionally the release of the implanted gas during blister formation was observed. Recently measurements on single crystals were performed determining simultaneously the implantation profile, the total amount of trapped ions, the depth distribution of the induced lattice damage and the thickness of the covers of the blisters. In several stages of the formation process of blisters the implanted layer was observed in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) showing the formation of gas bubbles. Using the results of all these measurements in this review an attempt is made to develop a model of blister formation combining the effects of hydrostatic pressure in the gas bubbles and lateral stress due to volume swelling. (author)

  7. Unexpected finite size effects in interfacial systems: Why bigger is not always better—Increase in uncertainty of surface tension with bulk phase width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longford, Francis G. J.; Essex, Jonathan W.; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton; Frey, Jeremy G.

    2018-06-01

    We present an unexpected finite size effect affecting interfacial molecular simulations that is proportional to the width-to-surface-area ratio of the bulk phase Ll/A. This finite size effect has a significant impact on the variance of surface tension values calculated using the virial summation method. A theoretical derivation of the origin of the effect is proposed, giving a new insight into the importance of optimising system dimensions in interfacial simulations. We demonstrate the consequences of this finite size effect via a new way to estimate the surface energetic and entropic properties of simulated air-liquid interfaces. Our method is based on macroscopic thermodynamic theory and involves comparing the internal energies of systems with varying dimensions. We present the testing of these methods using simulations of the TIP4P/2005 water forcefield and a Lennard-Jones fluid model of argon. Finally, we provide suggestions of additional situations, in which this finite size effect is expected to be significant, as well as possible ways to avoid its impact.

  8. Simple improvements to classical bubble nucleation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kyoko K; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Angélil, Raymond; Diemand, Jürg

    2015-08-01

    We revisit classical nucleation theory (CNT) for the homogeneous bubble nucleation rate and improve the classical formula using a correct prefactor in the nucleation rate. Most of the previous theoretical studies have used the constant prefactor determined by the bubble growth due to the evaporation process from the bubble surface. However, the growth of bubbles is also regulated by the thermal conduction, the viscosity, and the inertia of liquid motion. These effects can decrease the prefactor significantly, especially when the liquid pressure is much smaller than the equilibrium one. The deviation in the nucleation rate between the improved formula and the CNT can be as large as several orders of magnitude. Our improved, accurate prefactor and recent advances in molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory experiments for argon bubble nucleation enable us to precisely constrain the free energy barrier for bubble nucleation. Assuming the correction to the CNT free energy is of the functional form suggested by Tolman, the precise evaluations of the free energy barriers suggest the Tolman length is ≃0.3σ independently of the temperature for argon bubble nucleation, where σ is the unit length of the Lennard-Jones potential. With this Tolman correction and our prefactor one gets accurate bubble nucleation rate predictions in the parameter range probed by current experiments and molecular dynamics simulations.

  9. Silica-Assisted Nucleation of Polymer Foam Cells with Nanoscopic Dimensions : Impact of Particle Size, Line Tension, and Surface Functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shanqiu; Eijkelenkamp, Rik; Duvigneau, Joost; Vancso, G. Julius

    2017-01-01

    Core-shell nanoparticles consisting of silica as core and surface-grafted poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as shell with different diameters were prepared and used as heterogeneous nucleation agents to obtain CO2-blown poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposite foams. PDMS was selected as the shell

  10. Surface tension and 0.1 MPa density of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborates in a homologous series perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Součková, Monika; Klomfar, Jaroslav; Pátek, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 100, September (2016), s. 79-88 ISSN 0021-9614 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00145S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : 1-Cn-3-methylimidazolium cation * tetrafluoroborate anion * density–temperature relation * surface tension–temperature relation * recommended property values Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2016

  11. Neutron Imaging study of bubble behaviors in Nanofluid Through Engineered Orifices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Seok Bin; Bang, In Cheol; Kim, Tae Joo

    2014-01-01

    Most studies focused on the change of surface parameters through deposited nanoparticles, while Vafaei and Wen firstly discussed modification of bubble dynamics by dispersed nanoparticles in fluid as well as deposited ones. The boiling mechanism, as an effective heat transfer mode, includes bubble generation, growth, departure, and coalescence. Therefore the change of bubble dynamics can lead to the change of boiling heat transfer condition. That is, not only surface characteristics but the dispersed nanoparticles would be the essential parameters of boiling mechanism in terms of bubble dynamics. For advanced visualization of opaque fluids, the neutron imaging technique is introduced. In the present study, the bubble dynamics in nanofluid through engineered orifices was studied. The main parameters of engineered orifices are size and geometry. Photographic analysis of bubble departure frequency and averaged bubble departure volume provides as follows: With increasing orifice diameter, averaged bubble departure volume increases, while bubble departure frequency decreases. The results are attributed to enhanced capillary force by increasing contact perimeter. Averaged bubble departure volume and bubble departure frequency remain similar for three different types of orifices. But edges of the triangle and square orifice produce small bubbles which interrupts bubble generation. The converged triple contact line due to the edge may be a reason for the emerged baby bubbles. Nanofluid shows less averaged bubble departure volume and higher bubble departure frequency. Considering little change in physical properties of the fluid, interaction between bubble interface and nanoparticles may be in charge of the results

  12. Bubble entrapment through topological change

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2010-05-03

    When a viscousdrop impacts onto a solid surface, it entraps a myriad of microbubbles at the interface between liquid and solid. We present direct high-speed video observations of this entrapment. For viscousdrops, the tip of the spreading lamella is separated from the surface and levitated on a cushion of air. We show that the primary mechanism for the bubble entrapment is contact between this precursor sheet of liquid with the solid and not air pulled directly through cusps in the contact line. The sheet makes contact with the solid surface,forming a wetted patch, which grows in size, but only entraps a bubble when it meets the advancing contact line. The leading front of this wet patch can also lead to the localized thinning and puncturing of the liquid film producing strong splashing of droplets.

  13. Bubble entrapment through topological change

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Takehara, K.; Etoh, T. G.

    2010-01-01

    When a viscousdrop impacts onto a solid surface, it entraps a myriad of microbubbles at the interface between liquid and solid. We present direct high-speed video observations of this entrapment. For viscousdrops, the tip of the spreading lamella is separated from the surface and levitated on a cushion of air. We show that the primary mechanism for the bubble entrapment is contact between this precursor sheet of liquid with the solid and not air pulled directly through cusps in the contact line. The sheet makes contact with the solid surface,forming a wetted patch, which grows in size, but only entraps a bubble when it meets the advancing contact line. The leading front of this wet patch can also lead to the localized thinning and puncturing of the liquid film producing strong splashing of droplets.

  14. Energy quantization for approximate H-surfaces and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenzhou Zheng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider weakly convergent sequences of approximate H-surface maps defined in the plane with their tension fields bounded in $L^p$ for p> 4/3, and establish an energy quantization that accounts for the loss of their energies by the sum of energies over finitely many nontrivial bubbles maps on $mathbb{R}^2$. As a direct consequence, we establish the energy identity at finite singular time to their H-surface flows.

  15. A systematic study on the influence of nuclear surface tension and temperature upon the parameterization of the fusion dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharaei, R.; Hadikhani, A. [Hakim Sabzevari University, Department of Physics, Sciences Faculty, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    For the first time the influence of the surface energy coefficient γ and temperature T on the parameterization of the fusion barriers is systematically analyzed within the framework of the proximity formalism, namely proximity 1977, proximity 1988 and proximity 2010 models. A total of 114 fusion reactions with the condition 39 ≤ Z{sub 1}Z{sub 2} ≤ 1520 for the charge product of their participant nuclei have been studied. We present γ-dependent and T -dependent pocket formulas which reproduce the theoretical and empirical data of the fusion barrier height and position for our considered reactions with good accuracy. It is shown that the quality of the γ-dependent formula enhances by increasing the strength of the surface energy coefficient. Moreover, the obtained results confirm that imposing the thermal effects improves the agreement between the parameterized and empirical data of the barrier characteristics. (orig.)

  16. Bursting of a bubble confined in between two plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murano, Mayuko; Kimono, Natsuki; Okumura, Ko

    2015-11-01

    Rupture of liquid thin films, driven by surface tension, has attracted interests of scientists for many years. It is also a daily phenomenon familiar to everyone in the form of the bursting of soap films. In recent years, many studies in confined geometries (e.g. in a Hele-Shaw cell) have revealed physical mechanisms of the dynamics of bubbles and drops. As for a liquid film sandwiched in between another liquid immiscible to the film liquid in the Hele-Shaw cell, it is reported that the thin film bursts at a constant speed and the speed depends on the viscosity of the surrounding liquid when the film is less viscous, although a rim is not formed at the bursting tip; this is because the circular symmetry of the hole in the bursting film is lost. Here, we study the bursting speed of a thin film sandwiched between air instead of the surrounding liquid in the Hele-Shaw cell to seek different scaling regimes. By measuring the bursting velocity and the film thickness of an air bubble with a high speed camera, we have found a new scaling law in viscous regime. This research was partly supported by ImPACT Program of Council for Science, Technology and Innovation (Cabinet Office, Government of Japan).

  17. Hygroscopic properties of Amazonian biomass burning and European background HULIS and investigation of their effects on surface tension with two models linking H-TDMA to CCNC data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Fors

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available HUmic-LIke Substances (HULIS have been identified as major contributors to the organic carbon in atmospheric aerosol. The term "HULIS" is used to describe the organic material found in aerosol particles that resembles the humic organic material in rivers and sea water and in soils. In this study, two sets of filter samples from atmospheric aerosols were collected at different sites. One set of samples was collected at the K-puszta rural site in Hungary, about 80 km SE of Budapest, and a second was collected at a site in Rondônia, Amazonia, Brazil, during the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia – Smoke Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climate (LBA-SMOCC biomass burning season experiment. HULIS were extracted from the samples and their hygroscopic properties were studied using a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA at relative humidity (RH <100%, and a cloud condensation nucleus counter (CCNC at RH >100%. The H-TDMA measurements were carried out at a dry diameter of 100 nm and for RH ranging from 30 to 98%. At 90% RH the HULIS samples showed diameter growth factors between 1.04 and 1.07, reaching values of 1.4 at 98% RH. The cloud nucleating properties of the two sets of aerosol samples were analysed using two types of thermal static cloud condensation nucleus counters. Two different parameterization models were applied to investigate the potential effect of HULIS surface activity, both yielding similar results. For the K-puszta winter HULIS sample, the surface tension at the point of activation was estimated to be lowered by between 34% (47.7 mN/m and 31% (50.3 mN/m for dry sizes between 50 and 120 nm in comparison to pure water. A moderate lowering was also observed for the entire water soluble aerosol sample, including both organic and inorganic compounds, where the surface tension was decreased by between 2% (71.2 mN/m and 13% (63.3 mN/m.

  18. Bubbles with shock waves and ultrasound: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Siew-Wan; Klaseboer, Evert; Khoo, Boo Cheong

    2015-10-06

    The study of the interaction of bubbles with shock waves and ultrasound is sometimes termed 'acoustic cavitation'. It is of importance in many biomedical applications where sound waves are applied. The use of shock waves and ultrasound in medical treatments is appealing because of their non-invasiveness. In this review, we present a variety of acoustics-bubble interactions, with a focus on shock wave-bubble interaction and bubble cloud phenomena. The dynamics of a single spherically oscillating bubble is rather well understood. However, when there is a nearby surface, the bubble often collapses non-spherically with a high-speed jet. The direction of the jet depends on the 'resistance' of the boundary: the bubble jets towards a rigid boundary, splits up near an elastic boundary, and jets away from a free surface. The presence of a shock wave complicates the bubble dynamics further. We shall discuss both experimental studies using high-speed photography and numerical simulations involving shock wave-bubble interaction. In biomedical applications, instead of a single bubble, often clouds of bubbles appear (consisting of many individual bubbles). The dynamics of such a bubble cloud is even more complex. We shall show some of the phenomena observed in a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) field. The nonlinear nature of the sound field and the complex inter-bubble interaction in a cloud present challenges to a comprehensive understanding of the physics of the bubble cloud in HIFU. We conclude the article with some comments on the challenges ahead.

  19. Lifetime of Bubble Rafts: Cooperativity and Avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritacco, Hernán; Kiefer, Flavien; Langevin, Dominique

    2007-06-01

    We have studied the collapse of pseudo-bi-dimensional foams. These foams are made of uniformly sized soap bubbles packed in an hexagonal lattice sitting at the top of a liquid surface. The collapse process follows the sequence: (1) rupture of a first bubble, driven by thermal fluctuations and (2) a cascade of bursting bubbles. We present a simple numerical model which captures the main characteristics of the dynamics of foam collapse. We show that in a certain range of viscosities of the foaming solutions, the size distribution of the avalanches follows power laws as in self-organized criticality processes.

  20. Experimental investigation of shock wave - bubble interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Mohsen

    2010-04-09

    In this work, the dynamics of laser-generated single cavitation bubbles exposed to lithotripter shock waves has been investigated experimentally. The energy of the impinging shock wave is varied in several steps. High-speed photography and pressure field measurements simultaneously with image acquisition provide the possibility of capturing the fast bubble dynamics under the effect of the shock wave impact. The pressure measurement is performed using a fiber optic probe hydrophone (FOPH) which operates based on optical diagnostics of the shock wave propagating medium. After a short introduction in chapter 1 an overview of the previous studies in chapter 2 is presented. The reported literatures include theoretical and experimental investigations of several configurations of physical problems in the field of bubble dynamics. In chapter 3 a theoretical description of propagation of a shock wave in a liquid like water has been discussed. Different kinds of reflection of a shock wave at an interface are taken into account. Undisturbed bubble dynamics as well as interaction between a planar shock wave and an initially spherical bubble are explored theoretically. Some physical parameters which are important in this issue such as the velocity of the shock-induced liquid jet, Kelvin impulse and kinetic energy are explained. The shock waves are generated in a water filled container by a focusing piezoelectric generator. The shock wave profile has a positive part with pulse duration of ∼1 μs followed by a longer tension tail (i.e. ∼3 μs). In chapter 4 high-speed images depict the propagation of a shock wave in the water filled tank. The maximum pressure is also derived for different intensity levels of the shock wave generator. The measurement is performed in the free field (i.e. in the absence of laser-generated single bubbles). In chapter 5 the interaction between lithotripter shock waves and laserinduced single cavitation bubbles is investigated experimentally. An