WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface temperature water

  1. Modelling global fresh surface water temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, L.P.H. van; Eikelboom, T.; Vliet, M.T.H. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Temperature directly determines a range of water physical properties including vapour pressure, surface tension, density and viscosity, and the solubility of oxygen and other gases. Indirectly water temperature acts as a strong control on fresh water biogeochemistry, influencing sediment

  2. Modelling global fresh surface water temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, L.P.H. van; Eikelboom, T.; Vliet, M.T.H. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Temperature directly determines a range of water physical properties including vapour pressure, surface tension, density and viscosity, and the solubility of oxygen and other gases. Indirectly water temperature acts as a strong control on fresh water biogeochemistry, influencing sediment concentrati

  3. Temperature-driven switching of water adhesion on organogel surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xi; Ju, Jie; Yang, Shuai; Wang, Jianjun; Jiang, Lei

    2014-03-26

    Temperature-driven switching of water adhesion is realized on a novel n-paraffinswollen organogel by thermally controlling the transition of air/liquid/solid (ALS/ALLS) systems via the phasechange process of n-paraffin. The thermal control of both the water-drop sliding motion and the switching of the optical transparency shows potential applications in scientific research and daily life.

  4. Investigating the effect of surface water - groundwater interactions on stream temperature using Distributed temperature sensing and instream temperature model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karthikeyan, Matheswaran; Blemmer, Morten; Mortensen, Julie Flor;

    2011-01-01

    Surface water–groundwater interactions at the stream interface influences, and at times controls the stream temperature, a critical water property driving biogeochemical processes. This study investigates the effects of these interactions on temperature of Stream Elverdamsåen in Denmark using...... the Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) system and instream temperature modelling. Locations of surface water–groundwater interactions were identified from the temperature data collected over a 2-km stream reach using a DTS system with 1-m spatial and 5-min temporal resolution. The stream under consideration...... exhibits three distinct thermal regimes within a 2 km reach length due to two major interactions. An energy balance model is used to simulate the instream temperature and to quantify the effect of these interactions on the stream temperature. This research demonstrates the effect of reach level small scale...

  5. Improving a pavement-watering method on the basis of pavement surface temperature measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Hendel, Martin; Diab, Youssef; Royon, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Pavement-watering has been studied since the 1990's and is currently considered a promising tool for urban heat island reduction and climate change adaptation. However, possible future water resource availability problems require that water consumption be optimized. Although pavement heat flux can be studied to improve pavement-watering methods (frequency and water consumption), these measurements are costly and require invasive construction work to install appropriate sensors in a dense urban environment. Therefore, we analyzed measurements of pavement surface temperatures in search of alternative information relevant to this goal. It was found that high frequency surface temperature measurements (more than every 5 minutes) made by an infrared camera can provide enough information to optimize the watering frequency. Furthermore, if the water retaining capacity of the studied pavement is known, optimization of total water consumption is possible on the sole basis of surface temperature measurements.

  6. Seasonal Spatial Patterns of Surface Water Temperature, Surface Heat Fluxes and Meteorological Forcing Over Lake Geneva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani Rahaghi, A.; Lemmin, U.; Bouffard, D.; Riffler, M.; Wunderle, S.; Barry, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    In many lakes, surface heat flux (SHF) is the most important component controlling the lake's energy content. Accurate methods for the determination of SHF are valuable for water management, and for use in hydrological and meteorological models. Large lakes, not surprisingly, are subject to spatially and temporally varying meteorological conditions, and hence SHF. Here, we report on an investigation for estimating the SHF of a large European lake, Lake Geneva. We evaluated several bulk formulas to estimate Lake Geneva's SHF based on different data sources. A total of 64 different surface heat flux models were realized using existing representations for different heat flux components. Data sources to run the models included meteorological data (from an operational numerical weather prediction model, COSMO-2) and lake surface water temperature (LSWT, from satellite imagery). Models were calibrated at two points in the lake for which regular depth profiles of temperature are available, and which enabled computation of the total heat content variation. The latter, computed for 03.2008-12.2012, was the metric used to rank the different models. The best calibrated model was then selected to calculate the spatial distribution of SHF. Analysis of the model results shows that evaporative and convective heat fluxes are the dominant terms controlling the spatial pattern of SHF. The former is significant in all seasons while the latter plays a role only in fall and winter. Meteorological observations illustrate that wind-sheltering, and to some extent relative humidity variability, are the main reasons for the observed large-scale spatial variability. In addition, both modeling and satellite observations indicate that, on average, the eastern part of the lake is warmer than the western part, with a greater temperature contrast in spring and summer than in fall and winter whereas the SHF spatial splitting is stronger in fall and winter. This is mainly due to negative heat flux

  7. A statistical method to get surface level air-temperature from satellite observations of precipitable water

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Shikauchi, A.; Sugimori, Y.; Kubota, M.

    Vol. 49, pp. 551 to 558. 1993 A Statistical Method to Get Surface Level Air-Temperature from Satellite Observations of Precipitable Water PANKAJAKSHAN THADATHIL*, AKIRA SHIKAUCHI, YASUHIRO SUGIMORI and MASAHISA KUBOTA School of Marine Science... observations for getting the estimates of heat flux across the air-sea boundary (Miller, 1981; Liu, 1988). Bulk method has widely been used for this purpose and the parameters required are: sea surface temperature, and wind speed, air-temperature and specific...

  8. Low temperature heating and high temperature cooling embedded water based surface heating and cooling systems

    CERN Document Server

    Babiak, Jan; Petras, Dusan

    2009-01-01

    This Guidebook describes the systems that use water as heat-carrier and when the heat exchange within the conditioned space is more than 50% radiant. Embedded systems insulated from the main building structure (floor, wall and ceiling) are used in all types of buildings and work with heat carriers at low temperatures for heating and relatively high temperature for cooling.

  9. Validation of sea surface temperature, wind speed and integrated water vapour from MSMR measurements. Project report

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.

    and autonomous weather station) were utilized for measuring sea truth parameters such as sea surface temperature (SST), Sea Surface Wind Speed (WS) and Columnar Water Vapor (WV). Total match-ups for SST and WS measured from various platforms exceeded 1400 (2 hrs...

  10. Structure and stability of pyrophyllite edge surfaces: Effect of temperature and water chemical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kideok D.; Newton, Aric G.

    2016-10-01

    The surfaces of clay minerals, which are abundant in atmospheric mineral dust, serve as an important medium to catalyze ice nucleation. The lateral edge surface of 2:1 clay minerals is postulated to be a potential site for ice nucleation. However, experimental investigations of the edge surface structure itself have been limited compared to the basal planes of clay minerals. Density functional theory (DFT) computational studies have provided insights into the pyrophyllite edge surface. Pyrophyllite is an ideal surrogate mineral for the edge surfaces of 2:1 clay minerals as it possesses no or little structural charge. Of the two most-common hydrated edge surfaces, the AC edge, (1 1 0) surface in the monoclinic polytype notation, is predicted to be more stable than the B edge, (0 1 0) surface. These stabilities, however, were determined based on the total energies calculated at 0 K and did not consider environmental effects such as temperature and humidity. In this study, atomistic thermodynamics based on periodic DFT electronic calculations was applied to examine the effects of environmental variables on the structure and thermodynamic stability of the common edge surfaces in equilibrium with bulk pyrophyllite and water vapor. We demonstrate that the temperature-dependent vibrational energy of sorbed water molecules at the edge surface is a significant component of the surface free energy and cannot be neglected when determining the surface stability of pyrophyllite. The surface free energies were calculated as a function of temperature from 240 to 600 K and water chemical potential corresponding to conditions from ultrahigh vacuum to the saturation vapor pressure of water. We show that at lower water chemical potentials (dry conditions), the AC and B edge surfaces possessed similar stabilities; at higher chemical potentials (humid conditions) the AC edge surface was more stable than the B edge surface. At high temperatures, both surfaces showed similar stabilities

  11. Electron density and electron temperature measurements in nanosecond pulse discharges over liquid water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeni Simeni, M.; Roettgen, A.; Petrishchev, V.; Frederickson, K.; Adamovich, I. V.

    2016-12-01

    Time-resolved electron density, electron temperature, and gas temperature in nanosecond pulse discharges in helium and O2-He mixtures near liquid water surface are measured using Thomson/pure rotational Raman scattering, in two different geometries, (a) ‘diffuse filament’ discharge between a spherical high-voltage electrode and a grounded pin electrode placed in a reservoir filled with distilled water, with the tip exposed, and (b) dielectric barrier discharge between the high-voltage electrode and the liquid water surface. A diffuse plasma filament generated between the electrodes in helium during the primary discharge pulse exhibits noticeable constriction during the secondary discharge pulse several hundred ns later. Adding oxygen to the mixture reduces the plasma filament diameter and enhances constriction during the secondary pulse. In the dielectric barrier discharge, diffuse volumetric plasma occupies nearly the entire space between the high voltage electrode and the liquid surface, and extends radially along the surface. In the filament discharge in helium, adding water to the container results in considerable reduction of plasma lifetime compared to the discharge in dry helium, by about an order of magnitude, indicating rapid electron recombination with water cluster ions. Peak electron density during the pulse is also reduced, by about a factor of two, likely due to dissociative attachment to water vapor during the discharge pulse. These trends become more pronounced as oxygen is added to the mixture, which increases net rate of dissociative attachment. Gas temperature during the primary discharge pulse remains near room temperature, after which it increases up to T ~ 500 K over 5 µs and decays back to near room temperature before the next discharge pulse several tens of ms later. As expected, electron density and electron temperature in diffuse DBD plasmas are considerably lower compared to peak values in the filament discharge. Use of Thomson

  12. Limitations of fibre optic distributed temperature sensing for quantifying surface water groundwater interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Roshan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of surface water–groundwater interactions using fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS has increased in recent years. However, only a few studies to date have explored the limitations of FO-DTS in detecting groundwater discharge to streams. A FO_DTS system was therefore tested in a flume under controlled laboratory conditions for its ability to accurately measure the discharge of hot or cold groundwater into a simulated surface water flow. In the experiment the surface water (SW and groundwater (GW velocities, expressed as ratios (vgw/vsw, were varied from 0.21% to 61.7%; temperature difference between SW-GW were varied from 2 to 10 °C; the direction of temperature gradient were varied with both cold and-hot water injection; and two different bed materials were used to investigate their effects on FO_DTS's detection limit of groundwater discharge. The ability of the FO_DTS system to detect the discharge of groundwater of a different temperature in the laboratory environment was found to be mainly dependent upon the surface and groundwater flow velocities and their temperature difference. A correlation was proposed to estimate the groundwater discharge from temperature. The correlation is valid when the ratio of the apparent temperature response to the source temperature difference is above 0.02.

  13. Wetting hysteresis induced by temperature changes: Supercooled water on hydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Golrokh; Sedighi Moghaddam, Maziar; Tuominen, Mikko; Fielden, Matthew; Haapanen, Janne; Mäkelä, Jyrki M; Claesson, Per M

    2016-04-15

    The state and stability of supercooled water on (super)hydrophobic surfaces is crucial for low temperature applications and it will affect anti-icing and de-icing properties. Surface characteristics such as topography and chemistry are expected to affect wetting hysteresis during temperature cycling experiments, and also the freezing delay of supercooled water. We utilized stochastically rough wood surfaces that were further modified to render them hydrophobic or superhydrophobic. Liquid flame spraying (LFS) was utilized to create a multi-scale roughness by depositing titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The coating was subsequently made non-polar by applying a thin plasma polymer layer. As flat reference samples modified silica surfaces with similar chemistries were utilized. With these substrates we test the hypothesis that superhydrophobic surfaces also should retard ice formation. Wetting hysteresis was evaluated using contact angle measurements during a freeze-thaw cycle from room temperature to freezing occurrence at -7°C, and then back to room temperature. Further, the delay in freezing of supercooled water droplets was studied at temperatures of -4°C and -7°C. The hysteresis in contact angle observed during a cooling-heating cycle is found to be small on flat hydrophobic surfaces. However, significant changes in contact angles during a cooling-heating cycle are observed on the rough surfaces, with a higher contact angle observed on cooling compared to during the subsequent heating. Condensation and subsequent frost formation at sub-zero temperatures induce the hysteresis. The freezing delay data show that the flat surface is more efficient in enhancing the freezing delay than the rougher surfaces, which can be rationalized considering heterogeneous nucleation theory. Thus, our data suggests that molecular flat surfaces, rather than rough superhydrophobic surfaces, are beneficial for retarding ice formation under conditions that allow condensation and frost

  14. Regional change in snow water equivalent-surface air temperature relationship over Eurasia during boreal spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Renguang; Chen, Shangfeng

    2016-10-01

    Present study investigates local relationship between surface air temperature and snow water equivalent (SWE) change over mid- and high-latitudes of Eurasia during boreal spring. Positive correlation is generally observed around the periphery of snow covered region, indicative of an effect of snow on surface temperature change. In contrast, negative correlation is usually found over large snow amount area, implying a response of snow change to wind-induced surface temperature anomalies. With the seasonal retreat of snow covered region, region of positive correlation between SWE and surface air temperature shifts northeastward from March to May. A diagnosis of surface heat flux anomalies in April suggests that the snow impact on surface air temperature is dominant in east Europe and west Siberia through modulating surface shortwave radiation. In contrast, atmospheric effect on SWE is important in Siberia and Russia Far East through wind-induced surface sensible heat flux change. Further analysis reveals that atmospheric circulation anomalies in association with snowmelt over east Siberia may be partly attributed to sea surface temperature anomalies in the North Atlantic and the atmospheric circulation anomaly pattern associated with snowmelt over Russia Far East has a close association with the Arctic Oscillation.

  15. Surface Transformations and Water Uptake on Liquid and Solid Butanol near the Melting Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Papagiannakopoulos, Panos; Thomson, Erik S; Markovic, Nikola; Pettersson, Jan B C

    2013-01-01

    Water interactions with organic surfaces are of central importance in biological systems and many Earth system processes. Here we describe experimental studies of water collisions and uptake kinetics on liquid and solid butanol from 160 to 200 K. Hyperthermal D2O molecules (0.32 eV) undergo efficient trapping on both solid and liquid butanol, and only a minor fraction scatters inelastically after an 80% loss of kinetic energy to surface modes. Trapped molecules either desorb within a few ms, or are taken up by the butanol phase during longer times. The water uptake and surface residence time increase with temperature above 180 K indicating melting of the butanol surface 4.5 K below the bulk melting temperature. Water uptake changes gradually across the melting point and trapped molecules are rapidly lost by diffusion into the liquid above 190 K. This indicates that liquid butanol maintains a surface phase with limited water permeability up to 5.5 K above the melting point. These surface observations are indic...

  16. Comparison of temperature effects on E. coli, Salmonella, and Enterococcus survival in surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare the dependencies of survival rates on temperature for indicator organisms E. coli and Enterococcus and the pathogen Salmonella in surface waters. A database consisting of 86 survival datasets from peer-reviewed papers on inactivation of E. coli, Salmonella...

  17. Comparing Temperature Effects on E. Coli, Salmonella, and Enterococcus Survival in Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare dependency of survival rates on temperature for indicator organisms E. coli and Enterococcus and the pathogen Salmonella in surface waters. A database of 86 survival datasets from peer-reviewed papers on inactivation of E. coli, Salmonel...

  18. Investigat ing the effect of surface water – groundwater interactions on stream temperature using D istributed Temperature Sensing and instream temperature model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matheswaran, K.; Blemmer, M.; Mortensen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Surface water–groundwater interactions at the stream interface influences, and at times controls the stream temperature, a critical water property driving biogeochemical processes. This study investigates the effects of these interactions on temperature of Stream Elverdamsåen in Denmark using the...

  19. Investigat ing the effect of surface water – groundwater interactions on stream temperature using D istributed Temperature Sensing and instream temperature model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matheswaran, K.; Blemmer, M.; Mortensen, J.;

    2011-01-01

    Surface water–groundwater interactions at the stream interface influences, and at times controls the stream temperature, a critical water property driving biogeochemical processes. This study investigates the effects of these interactions on temperature of Stream Elverdamsåen in Denmark using the...

  20. Bioinspired Smart Peristome Surface for Temperature-Controlled Unidirectional Water Spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Chen, Huawei; Li, Li; Liu, Hongliang; Liu, Guang; Zhang, Liwen; Zhang, Deyuan; Jiang, Lei

    2017-02-15

    Unidirectional liquid spreading without energy input has attracted considerable attention due to various potential applications such as biofluidics devices and self-lubrication. Introducing a surface wettable gradient or asymmetric nanostructures onto the surface has successfully harnessed the liquid to spread unidirectionally. However, these surfaces are still plagued with problems that restrict their practical applications: fixed spreading state for a fixed surface, and spreading slowly over a short distance. Herein, bioinspired from the fast continuous unidirectional water transport on the peristome of Nepenthes alata, we report a smart peristome with temperature-controlled unidirectional water spreading. The smart artificial peristome was fabricated by grafting the thermoresponsive material PNIPAAm onto the artificial PDMS peristome. Unidirectional water spreading on the smart peristome can be dynamically regulated by changing the surface temperature. Besides, the water spreading is demonstrated with a remarkable reversibility and stability. By investigating the relationship between liquid spreading distance and wettability, the underlying mechanism was revealed. This work gives a new way to achieve the control of unidirectional liquid spreading available for controllable microfluidics and medical devices.

  1. An Active-Distributed Temperature Sensing method to quantify groundwater - surface water exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Nataline; Bour, Olivier; Lavenant, Nicolas; Faucheux, Mickaël; Fovet, Ophélie; Longuevergne, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    Understanding and quantifying groundwater and surface water interactions are key elements for the management of water quality and quantity, but also for the preservation of groundwater dependent ecosystems and riparian habitat. We developed a methodology to quantify groundwater and surface water interactions, by setting up an active heat tracer experiment using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS). The experimental setup consists in heating an armoured fiber-optic cable that has been previously deployed along the streambed within the sediments. Then, the increase in temperature along the heated cable is a function of the thermal properties of the sediments and of the fluid flow velocity within the sediments. The cable is heated electrically through the steel armouring of the cable while the elevations in temperature are continuously monitored. We tested this methodology on the Kerbernez catchment, located in south-western Brittany (France) and which is part of the AgrHys hydrological observatory. We deploy the cable in a first-order stream within this small agricultural catchment (0.12 km2). Temperature was monitored along 60 meters of stream with a spatial and temporal resolution respectively equal to 29 cm and 30 s. To interpret the data, we used an analytical solution developed for geothermal energy that considers advection and conduction of temperature in porous media. To validate the use of the analytical solution and to define the limits of the method, a 2D numerical model has been developed. This model simulates heat transport and conduction with steady state fluid flow using the Conjugate Heat Transfer module of COMSOL Multiphysics ®. During heating and cooling, the measured temperature was particularly variable along the section with temperature increases that range between 16 to 36°C. This variability can directly be associated with local variations of water fluxes by applying the appropriate analytical solution. Henceforth, it is

  2. Surface temperature measurements of a levitated water drop during laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Cody; Tracey, Timothy

    2016-11-01

    Simulation of high energy laser propagation and scattering in the maritime environment is problematic, due to the high liklihood of turbulence, fog, and rain or sea spray within the beam path. Laser interactions with large water drops (diameters of approximately 1-mm), such as those found in a light rain, have received relatively less attention. In this regime a high energy laser will rapidly heat and vaporize a water drop as it traverses the beam path, but the exact heating / vaporization rate, its dependence on impurities, and ancillary effects on the drop or surroundings are unclear. In this work we present surface temperature measurements of a water drop obtained using a FLIR IR camera. The drop is acoustically levitated, and subject to a continuous wave laser with a wavelength of 1070-nm and a mean irradiance of approximately 500 W/cm2. These measurements show that the steady-state surface temperature of the drop is well below the saturation temperature, yet based on the time history of the drop volume vaporization begins almost immediately upon laser strike. Inferences on the turbulence characteristics within the drop are also made from measurements of the fluctuations in the surface temperature. Supported by ONR, HEL-JTO, and USNA Trident Scholar Program.

  3. Pliocene-Pleistocene evolution of sea surface and intermediate water temperatures from the southwest Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClymont, Erin L.; Elmore, Aurora C.; Kender, Sev; Leng, Melanie J.; Greaves, Mervyn; Elderfield, Henry

    2016-06-01

    Over the last 5 million years, the global climate system has evolved toward a colder mean state, marked by large-amplitude oscillations in continental ice volume. Equatorward expansion of polar waters and strengthening temperature gradients have been detected. However, the response of the mid latitudes and high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere is not well documented, despite the potential importance for climate feedbacks including sea ice distribution and low-high latitude heat transport. Here we reconstruct the Pliocene-Pleistocene history of both sea surface and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) temperatures on orbital time scales from Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 593 in the Tasman Sea, southwest Pacific. We confirm overall Pliocene-Pleistocene cooling trends in both the surface ocean and AAIW, although the patterns are complex. The Pliocene is warmer than modern, but our data suggest an equatorward displacement of the subtropical front relative to present and a poleward displacement of the subantarctic front of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Two main intervals of cooling, from ~3 Ma and ~1.5 Ma, are coeval with cooling and ice sheet expansion noted elsewhere and suggest that equatorward expansion of polar water masses also characterized the southwest Pacific through the Pliocene-Pleistocene. However, the observed trends in sea surface temperature and AAIW temperature are not identical despite an underlying link to the ACC, and intervals of unusual surface ocean warmth (~2 Ma) and large-amplitude variability in AAIW temperatures (from ~1 Ma) highlight complex interactions between equatorward displacements of fronts associated with the ACC and/or varying poleward heat transport from the subtropics.

  4. Emissivity Measurements of Foam-Covered Water Surface at L-Band for Low Water Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Bo Wei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For a foam-covered sea surface, it is difficult to retrieve sea surface salinity (SSS with L-band brightness temperature (1.4 GHz because of the effect of a foam layer with wind speeds stronger than 7 m/s, especially at low sea surface temperature (SST. With foam-controlled experiments, emissivities of a foam-covered water surface at low SST (−1.4 °C to 1.7 °C are measured for varying SSS, foam thickness, incidence angle, and polarization. Furthermore, a theoretical model of emissivity is introduced by combining wave approach theory with the effective medium approximation method. Good agreement is obtained upon comparing theoretical emissivities with those of experiments. The results indicate that foam parameters have a strong influence on increasing emissivity of a foam-covered water surface. Increments of experimental emissivities caused by foam thickness of 1 cm increase from about 0.014 to 0.131 for horizontal polarization and 0.022 to 0.150 for vertical polarization with SSS increase and SST decrease. Contributions of the interface between the foam layer and water surface to the foam layer emissivity increments are discussed for frequencies between 1 and 37 GHz.

  5. Development of MODIS data-based algorithm for retrieving sea surface temperature in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiao; Deng, Zhiqiang

    2017-06-01

    A new algorithm was developed for retrieving sea surface temperature (SST) in coastal waters using satellite remote sensing data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard Aqua platform. The new SST algorithm was trained using the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method and tested using 8 years of remote sensing data from MODIS Aqua sensor and in situ sensing data from the US coastal waters in Louisiana, Texas, Florida, California, and New Jersey. The ANN algorithm could be utilized to map SST in both deep offshore and particularly shallow nearshore waters at the high spatial resolution of 1 km, greatly expanding the coverage of remote sensing-based SST data from offshore waters to nearshore waters. Applications of the ANN algorithm require only the remotely sensed reflectance values from the two MODIS Aqua thermal bands 31 and 32 as input data. Application results indicated that the ANN algorithm was able to explaining 82-90% variations in observed SST in US coastal waters. While the algorithm is generally applicable to the retrieval of SST, it works best for nearshore waters where important coastal resources are located and existing algorithms are either not applicable or do not work well, making the new ANN-based SST algorithm unique and particularly useful to coastal resource management.

  6. Surface Water & Surface Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  7. Long-Term Variability of Satellite Lake Surface Water Temperatures in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierach, M. M.; Matsumoto, K.; Holt, B.; McKinney, P. J.; Tokos, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Great Lakes are the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth that approximately 37 million people depend upon for fresh drinking water, food, flood and drought mitigation, and natural resources that support industry, jobs, shipping and tourism. Recent reports have stated (e.g., the National Climate Assessment) that climate change can impact and exacerbate a range of risks to the Great Lakes, including changes in the range and distribution of certain fish species, increased invasive species and harmful algal blooms, declining beach health, and lengthened commercial navigation season. In this study, we will examine the impact of climate change on the Laurentian Great Lakes through investigation of long-term lake surface water temperatures (LSWT). We will use the ATSR Reprocessing for Climate: Lake Surface Water Temperature & Ice Cover (ARC-Lake) product over the period 1995-2012 to investigate individual and interlake variability. Specifically, we will quantify the seasonal amplitude of LSWTs, the first and last appearances of the 4°C isotherm (i.e., an important identifier of the seasonal evolution of the lakes denoting winter and summer stratification), and interpret these quantities in the context of global interannual climate variability such as ENSO.

  8. Assimilation of lake water surface temperature observations using an extended Kalman filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Kourzeneva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A new extended Kalman filter (EKF-based algorithm to assimilate lake water surface temperature (LWST observations into the lake model/parameterisation scheme Freshwater Lake (FLake has been developed. The data assimilation algorithm has been implemented into the stand-alone offline version of FLake. The mixed and non-mixed regimes in lakes are treated separately by the EKF algorithm. The timing of the ice period is indicated implicitly: no ice if water surface temperature is measured. Numerical experiments are performed using operational in-situ observations for 27 lakes and merged observations (in-situ plus satellite for 4 lakes in Finland. Experiments are analysed, potential problems are discussed, and the role of early spring observations is studied. In general, results of experiments are promising: (1 the impact of observations (calculated as the normalised reduction of the LWST root mean square error comparing to the free model run is more than 90% and (2 in cross-validation (when observations are partly assimilated, partly used for validation the normalised reduction of the LWST error standard deviation is more than 65%. The new data assimilation algorithm will allow prognostic variables in the lake parameterisation scheme to be initialised in operational numerical weather prediction models and the effects of model errors to be corrected by using LWST observations.

  9. Prediction of lake surface temperature using the air2water model: guidelines, challenges, and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Piccolroaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water temperature plays a primary role in controlling a wide range of physical, geochemical and ecological processes in lakes, with considerable influences on lake water quality and ecosystem functioning. Being able to reliably predict water temperature is therefore a desired goal, which stimulated the development of models of different type and complexity, ranging from simple regression-based models to more sophisticated process-based numerical models. However, both types of models suffer of some limitations: the first are not able to address some fundamental physical processes as e.g., thermal stratification, while the latter generally require a large amount of data in input, which are not always available. In this work, lake surface temperature is simulated by means of air2water, a hybrid physically-based/statistical model, which is able to provide a robust, predictive understanding of LST dynamics knowing air temperature only. This model showed performances that are comparable with those obtained by using process based models (a root mean square error on the order of 1°C, at daily scale, while retaining the simplicity and parsimony of regression-based models, thus making it a good candidate for long-term applications.The aim of the present work is to provide the reader with useful and practical guidelines for proper use of the air2water model and for critical analysis of results. Two case studies have been selected for the analysis: Lake Superior and Lake Erie. These are clear and emblematic examples of a deep and a shallow temperate lake characterized by markedly different thermal responses to external forcing, thus are ideal for making the results of the analysis the most general and comprehensive. Particular attention is paid to assessing the influence of missing data on model performance, and to evaluating when an observed time series is sufficiently informative for proper model calibration or, conversely, data are too scarce thus

  10. A Multiscale Surface Water Temperature Data Acquisition Platform: Tests on Lake Geneva, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, D. A.; Irani Rahaghi, A.; Lemmin, U.; Riffler, M.; Wunderle, S.

    2015-12-01

    An improved understanding of surface transport processes is necessary to predict sediment, pollutant and phytoplankton patterns in large lakes. Lake surface water temperature (LSWT), which varies in space and time, reflects meteorological and climatological forcing more than any other physical lake parameter. There are different data sources for LSWT mapping, including remote sensing and in situ measurements. Satellite data can be suitable for detecting large-scale thermal patterns, but not meso- or small scale processes. Lake surface thermography, investigated in this study, has finer resolution compared to satellite images. Thermography at the meso-scale provides the ability to ground-truth satellite imagery over scales of one to several satellite image pixels. On the other hand, thermography data can be used as a control in schemes to upscale local measurements that account for surface energy fluxes and the vertical energy budget. Independently, since such data can be collected at high frequency, they can be also useful in capturing changes in the surface signatures of meso-scale eddies and thus to quantify mixing processes. In the present study, we report results from a Balloon Launched Imaging and Monitoring Platform (BLIMP), which was developed in order to measure the LSWT at meso-scale. The BLIMP consists of a small balloon that is tethered to a boat and equipped with thermal and RGB cameras, as well as other instrumentation for location and communication. Several deployments were carried out on Lake Geneva. In a typical deployment, the BLIMP is towed by a boat, and collects high frequency data from different heights (i.e., spatial resolutions) and locations. Simultaneous ground-truthing of the BLIMP data is achieved using an autonomous craft that collects a variety of data, including in situ surface/near surface temperatures, radiation and meteorological data in the area covered by the BLIMP images. With suitable scaling, our results show good consistency

  11. Lake Surface Water Temperature of European Lakes retrieved from AVHRR Data - Time Series and Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderle, S.; Lieberherr, G.; Riffler, M.

    2016-12-01

    Data analysis of the recent years showed an increase of lake surface water temperature for many lakes around the world. But due to sparse in-situ measurements, which are often not well documented, only satellite data can provide the needed information of the last decades. The importance of lakes for climate research was also highlighted by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) defining lakes as Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). Within the frame of a research project funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation a procedure was developed to retrieve lake surface water temperature with high accuracy based on our archived AVHRR data at the University of Bern, Switzerland. The data archive starts in 1985 and is continuously filled with NOAA-/MetOp-AVHRR data received by our antenna resulting in a time series of more than 30 years (WMO definition of a climate period). The data set covering Europe is also used by other teams for climate related studies resulting in improved pre-processing to guarantee precise calibration and geocoding. The first part of our presentation will be dedicated to the quality of the LSWT retrieval comparing various in-situ measurements from lakes in Switzerland with varying sizes (150km2 - 9km2). The quality of the used split-window approach is sensitive to the derived split-window coefficients. The influence of water vapor, view angle, temporal and spatial validity and day vs. night data will be shown. In addition, some information will be presented about the influence of topography and climatic regions (e.g. Scandinavia vs. Greece) on the quality of the LSWT product. Based on these findings compiling time series for different lakes in Europe will be the focus of the second part of our presentation with details of the applied quality assessment to avoid erroneous signals. Hence, some information is given about hierarchical quality checks which are needed to guarantee a dataset without artefacts. Finally, some results of time series

  12. Validation of Satellite-Derived Sea Surface Temperatures for Waters around Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-An Lee

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to validate the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR-derived sea surface temperatures (SST of the waters around Taiwan, we generated a match-up data set of 961 pairs, which included in situ SSTs and concurrent AVHRR measurements for the period of 1998 to 2002. Availability of cloud-free images, i.e., images with more than 85% of cloud-free area in their coverage, was about 2.23% of all AVHRR images during the study period. The range of in situ SSTs was from _ to _ The satellite derived-SSTs through MCSST and NLSST algorithms were linearly related to the in situ SSTs with correlation coefficients of 0.985 and 0.98, respectively. The MCSSTs and NLSSTs had small biases of 0.009 _ and 0.256 _ with root mean square deviations of 0.64 _ and 0.801 _ respectively, therefore the AVHRR-based MCSSTs and NLSSTs had high accuracy in the seas around Taiwan.

  13. A Note on the Relationship Between Temperature and Water Vapor over Oceans, Including Sea Surface Temperature Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An ideal and simple formulation is successfully derived that well represents a quasi-linear relationship found between the domain-averaged water vapor, Q (mm), and temperature, T (K), fields for the three tropical oceans (i.e., the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans) based on eleven GEOS-3 [Goddard Earth Observing System (EOS) Version-3] global re-analysis monthly products. A Q - T distribution analysis is also performed for the tropical and extra-tropical regions based on in-situ sounding data and numerical simulations [GEOS-3 and the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model]. A similar positively correlated Q - T distribution is found over the entire oceanic and tropical regions; however, Q increases faster with T for the former region. It is suspected that the tropical oceans may possess a moister boundary layer than the Tropics. The oceanic regime falls within the lower bound of the tropical regime embedded in a global, curvilinear Q - T relationship. A positive correlation is also found between T and sea surface temperature (SST); however, for one degree of increase in T, SST is found to increase 1.1 degrees for a warmer ocean, which is slightly less than an increase of 1.25 degrees for a colder ocean. This seemingly indicates that more (less) heat is needed for an open ocean to maintain an air mass above it with a same degree of temperature rise during a colder (warmer) season [or in a colder (warmer) region]. Q and SST are also found to be positively correlated. Relative humidity (RH) exhibits similar behaviors for oceanic and tropical regions. RH increases with increasing SST and T over oceans, while it increases with increasing T in the Tropics. RH, however, decreases with increasing temperature in the extratropics. It is suspected that the tropical and oceanic regions may possess a moister local boundary layer than the extratropics so that a faster moisture increase than a saturated moisture increase is favored for the former regions.T, Q, saturated water

  14. Past surface temperatures at the NorthGRIP drill site from the difference in firn diffusion of water isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard; Johnsen, S. J.; Popp, T. J.

    2011-01-01

    in the surface temperatures. It results in a diffusion length longer than if the firn was isothermal. The longer diffusion length can be explained by the strong nonlinearly behaviour of the saturation pressure over ice in the range of the surface temperature fluctuations. The method has been tested on d18O and d......A new ice core paleothermometer is introduced based on the temperature dependent diffusion of the stable water isotopes in the firn. A new parameter called differential diffusion length is defined as the difference between the diffusion length of the two stable water isotopologues 2H1H16O and 1H218......O. A model treatment of the diffusion process of the firn and the ice is presented along with a method of retrieving the diffusion signal from the ice core record of water isotopes using spectral methods. The model shows how the diffusion process is highly dependent on the inter-annual variations...

  15. Holocene Sea Surface and Subsurface Water Mass Variability Reconstructed from Temperature and Sea-ice Proxies in Fram Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Kirstin; Spielhagen, Robert F.; Müller, Juliane; Husum, Katrine; Kandiano, Evgenia S.; Polyak, Leonid

    2016-04-01

    In two high-resolution sediment cores from the West Spitsbergen continental margin we investigated planktic foraminiferal, biomarker and dinocyst proxy data in order to reconstruct surface and subsurface water mass variability during the Holocene. The two study sites are today influenced by northward flowing warm and saline Atlantic Water. Both foraminiferal and dinocyst (de Vernal et al., 2013) temperature reconstructions indicate a less-stratified, ice-free, nutrient-rich summer surface ocean with strong Atlantic Water advection between 10.6 and 8.5 cal ka BP, likely related to maximum July insolation during the early Holocene. Sea surface to subsurface water temperatures of up to 6°C prevailed until ca 5 cal ka BP. A weakened contribution of Atlantic Water is found when subsurface temperatures strongly decreased with minimum values between ca 4 and 3 cal ka BP. High planktic foraminifer shell fragmentation and increased oxygen isotope values of the subpolar planktic foraminifer species Turborotalita quinqueloba as well as increasing concentrations of the sea ice biomarker IP25 further indicate cool conditions. Indices associated with IP25 as well as dinocyst data suggest a sustained cooling and consequently sea-ice increase during the late Holocene. However, planktic foraminiferal data indicate a slight return of stronger subsurface influx of Atlantic Water since ca 3 cal ka BP. The observed decoupling of cooling surface and warming subsurface waters during the later Holocene might be attributed to a strong pycnocline layer separating cold sea-ice fed surface waters from enhanced subsurface Atlantic Water advection. Reference: de Vernal, A., Hillaire-Marcel, C., Rochon, A., Fréchette, B., Henry, M., Solignac, S., Bonnet, S., 2013. Dinocyst-based reconstructions of sea ice cover concentration during the Holocene in the Arctic Ocean, the northern North Atlantic Ocean and its adjacent seas. Quaternary Science Reviews 79, 111-121.

  16. Forecasting terrestrial water storage changes in the Amazon Basin using Atlantic and Pacific sea surface temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. de Linage

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Floods and droughts frequently affect the Amazon River basin, impacting transportation, river navigation, agriculture, and ecosystem processes within several South American countries. Here we examined how sea surface temperatures (SSTs influence interannual variability of terrestrial water storage anomalies (TWSAs in different regions within the Amazon basin and propose a modeling framework for inter-seasonal flood and drought forecasting. Three simple statistical models forced by a linear combination of lagged spatial averages of central Pacific (Niño 4 index and tropical North Atlantic (TNAI index SSTs were calibrated against a decade-long record of 3°, monthly TWSAs observed by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE satellite mission. Niño 4 was the primary external forcing in the northeastern region of the Amazon basin whereas TNAI was dominant in central and western regions. A combined model using the two indices improved the fit significantly (p < 0.05 for at least 64% of the grid cells within the basin, compared to models forced solely with Niño 4 or TNAI. The combined model explained 66% of the observed variance in the northeastern region, 39% in the central and western regions, and 43% for the Amazon basin as a whole with a 3 month lead time between the SST indices and TWSAs. Model performance varied seasonally: it was higher than average during the rainfall wet season in the northeastern Amazon and during the dry season in the central and western regions. The predictive capability of the combined model was degraded with increasing lead times. Degradation was smaller in the northeastern Amazon (where 49% of the variance was explained using an 8 month lead time vs. 69% for a 1 month lead time compared to the central and western Amazon (where 22% of the variance was explained at 8 months vs. 43% at 1 month. These relationships may enable the development of an early warning system for flood and drought risk. This work also

  17. Electrical resistivity dynamics beneath a fractured sedimentary bedrock riverbed in response to temperature and groundwater-surface water exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Colby M.; Kennedy, Celia S.; Capes, Donovan C.; Parker, Beth L.

    2017-06-01

    Bedrock rivers occur where surface water flows along an exposed rock surface. Fractured sedimentary bedrock can exhibit variable groundwater residence times, anisotropic flow paths, and heterogeneity, along with diffusive exchange between fractures and rock matrix. These properties of the rock will affect thermal transients in the riverbed and groundwater-surface water exchange. In this study, surface electrical methods were used as a non-invasive technique to assess the scale and temporal variability of riverbed temperature and groundwater-surface water interaction beneath a sedimentary bedrock riverbed. Conditions were monitored at a semi-daily to semi-weekly interval over a full annual period that included a seasonal freeze-thaw cycle. Surface electromagnetic induction (EMI) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) methods captured conditions beneath the riverbed along a pool-riffle sequence of the Eramosa River in Canada. Geophysical datasets were accompanied by continuous measurements of aqueous specific conductance, temperature, and river stage. Time-lapse vertical temperature trolling within a lined borehole adjacent to the river revealed active groundwater flow zones along fracture networks within the upper 10 m of rock. EMI measurements collected during cooler high-flow and warmer low-flow periods identified a spatiotemporal riverbed response that was largely dependent upon riverbed morphology and seasonal groundwater temperature. Time-lapse ERT profiles across the pool and riffle sequence identified seasonal transients within the upper 2 and 3 m of rock, respectively, with spatial variations controlled by riverbed morphology (pool versus riffle) and dominant surficial rock properties (competent versus weathered rock rubble surface). While the pool and riffle both exhibited a dynamic resistivity through seasonal cooling and warming cycles, conditions beneath the pool were more variable, largely due to the formation of river ice during the winter season

  18. Modeling the influence of open water surfaces on summertime temperatures and thermal comfort in the city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeuwes, N.E.; Solcerova, A.; Steeneveld, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    [1] Due to the combination of rapid global urbanization and climate change, urban climate issues are becoming relatively more important and are gaining interest. Compared to rural areas, the temperature in cities is higher (the urban heat island effect ) due to the modifications in the surface radia

  19. Modeling the influence of open water surfaces on summertime temperatures and thermal comfort in the city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeuwes, N.E.; Solcerova, A.; Steeneveld, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    [1] Due to the combination of rapid global urbanization and climate change, urban climate issues are becoming relatively more important and are gaining interest. Compared to rural areas, the temperature in cities is higher (the urban heat island effect ) due to the modifications in the surface radia

  20. Functionalization of graphene and grafting of temperature-responsive surfaces from graphene by ATRP 'on water'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren Lulu; Huang Shu; Zhang Chao; Wang Ruiyu [Fudan University, State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Department of Macromolecular Science (China); Tjiu, Weng Weei [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR) (Singapore); Liu Tianxi, E-mail: txliu@fudan.edu.cn [Fudan University, State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Department of Macromolecular Science (China)

    2012-06-15

    Water-dispersible graphene with temperature-responsive surfaces has successfully been synthesized by grafting poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) from graphene via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). First, graphene surfaces are functionalized with aminophenol groups by diazonium reaction on water. Subsequently, bromoisobutyrate groups are covalently attached to the phenol-functionalized graphene (G-OH) surface by esterification of 2-bromoisobutyrate with the hydroxyl groups, forming bromoisobutyrate-functionalized graphene (G-Br). Finally, PNIPAM is then grafted from G-Br via ATRP. Data from Raman spectroscopy, {sup 1}H NMR, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirm that PNIPAM chains grow from graphene by ATRP. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that the amount of PNIPAM grown from the graphene increases with the increase of monomer ratios. TEM images also show that functionalized polymer structures (PNIPAM cluster or agglutination) on graphene sheets can be well tuned by controlled polymerization. The obtained graphene-PNIPAM (G-PNIPAM) composite has PNIPAM surface which is highly sensitive to the temperature change. This temperature-responsive and water-dispersible G-PNIPAM composite may find potential applications in environmental devices as well as controlled release drug delivery.

  1. Surface wave effects on water temperature in the Baltic Sea: simulations with the coupled NEMO-WAM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alari, Victor; Staneva, Joanna; Breivik, Øyvind; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Mogensen, Kristian; Janssen, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Coupled circulation (NEMO) and wave model (WAM) system was used to study the effects of surface ocean waves on water temperature distribution and heat exchange at regional scale (the Baltic Sea). Four scenarios—including Stokes-Coriolis force, sea-state dependent energy flux (additional turbulent kinetic energy due to breaking waves), sea-state dependent momentum flux and the combination these forcings—were simulated to test the impact of different terms on simulated temperature distribution. The scenario simulations were compared to a control simulation, which included a constant wave-breaking coefficient, but otherwise was without any wave effects. The results indicate a pronounced effect of waves on surface temperature, on the distribution of vertical temperature and on upwelling's. Overall, when all three wave effects were accounted for, did the estimates of temperature improve compared to control simulation. During the summer, the wave-induced water temperature changes were up to 1 °C. In northern parts of the Baltic Sea, a warming of the surface layer occurs in the wave included simulations in summer months. This in turn reduces the cold bias between simulated and measured data, e.g. the control simulation was too cold compared to measurements. The warming is related to sea-state dependent energy flux. This implies that a spatio-temporally varying wave-breaking coefficient is necessary, because it depends on actual sea state. Wave-induced cooling is mostly observed in near-coastal areas and is the result of intensified upwelling in the scenario, when Stokes-Coriolis forcing is accounted for. Accounting for sea-state dependent momentum flux results in modified heat exchange at the water-air boundary which consequently leads to warming of surface water compared to control simulation.

  2. Holocene sea subsurface and surface water masses in the Fram Strait - Comparisons of temperature and sea-ice reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Kirstin; Müller, Juliane; Husum, Katrine; Spielhagen, Robert F.; Kandiano, Evgenia S.; Polyak, Leonid

    2016-09-01

    Two high-resolution sediment cores from eastern Fram Strait have been investigated for sea subsurface and surface temperature variability during the Holocene (the past ca 12,000 years). The transfer function developed by Husum and Hald (2012) has been applied to sediment cores in order to reconstruct fluctuations of sea subsurface temperatures throughout the period. Additional biomarker and foraminiferal proxy data are used to elucidate variability between surface and subsurface water mass conditions, and to conclude on the Holocene climate and oceanographic variability on the West Spitsbergen continental margin. Results consistently reveal warm sea surface to subsurface temperatures of up to 6 °C until ca 5 cal ka BP, with maximum seawater temperatures around 10 cal ka BP, likely related to maximum July insolation occurring at that time. Maximum Atlantic Water (AW) advection occurred at surface and subsurface between 10.6 and 8.5 cal ka BP based on both foraminiferal and dinocyst temperature reconstructions. Probably, a less-stratified, ice-free, nutrient-rich surface ocean with strong AW advection prevailed in the eastern Fram Strait between 10 and 9 cal ka BP. Weakened AW contribution is found after ca 5 cal ka BP when subsurface temperatures strongly decrease with minimum values between ca 4 and 3 cal ka BP. Cold late Holocene conditions are furthermore supported by high planktic foraminifer shell fragmentation and high δ18O values of the subpolar planktic foraminifer species Turborotalita quinqueloba. While IP25-associated indices as well as dinocyst data suggest a sustained cooling due to a decrease in early summer insolation and consequently sea-ice increase since about 7 cal ka BP in surface waters, planktic foraminiferal data including stable isotopes indicate a slight return of stronger subsurface AW influx since ca 3 cal ka BP. The observed decoupling of surface and subsurface waters during the later Holocene is most likely attributed to a strong

  3. Analysis of temperature time series to estimate direction and magnitude of water fluxes in near-surface sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, Matthias; Oswald, Sascha E.; Schmidt, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The application of heat as a hydrological tracer has become a standard method for quantifying water fluxes between groundwater and surface water. Typically, time series of temperatures in the surface water and in the sediment are observed and are subsequently evaluated by a vertical 1D representation of heat transport by advection and dispersion. Several analytical solutions as well as their implementation into user-friendly software exist in order to estimate water fluxes from the observed temperatures. The underlying assumption of a stationary, one-dimensional vertical flow field is frequently violated in natural systems. Here subsurface water flow often has a significant horizontal component. We developed a methodology for identifying the geometry of the subsurface flow field based on the variations of diurnal temperature amplitudes with depths. For instance: Purely vertical heat transport is characterized by an exponential decline of temperature amplitudes with increasing depth. Pure horizontal flow would be indicated by a constant, depth independent vertical amplitude profile. The decline of temperature amplitudes with depths could be fitted by polynomials of different order whereby the best fit was defined by the highest Akaike Information Criterion. The stepwise model optimization and selection, evaluating the shape of vertical amplitude ratio profiles was used to determine the predominant subsurface flow field, which could be systematically categorized in purely vertical and horizontal (hyporheic, parafluvial) components. Analytical solutions to estimate water fluxes from the observed temperatures are restricted to specific boundary conditions such as a sinusoidal upper temperature boundary. In contrast numerical solutions offer higher flexibility and can handle temperature data which is characterized by irregular variations such as storm-event induced temperature changes and thus cannot readily be incorporated in analytical solutions. There are several

  4. Water Drop Evaporation on Mushroom-like Superhydrophobic Surfaces: Temperature Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Rodney Marcelo; Cottin-Bizonne, Cécile; Pirat, Christophe; Ramos, Stella M M

    2016-03-01

    We report on experiments of drop evaporation on heated superhydrophobic surfaces decorated with micrometer-sized mushroom-like pillars. We analyze the influence of two parameters on the evaporation dynamics: the solid-liquid fraction and the substrate temperature, ranging between 30 and 80 °C. In the different configurations investigated, the drop evaporation appears to be controlled by the contact line dynamics (pinned or moving). The experimental results show that (i) in the pinned regime, the depinning angles increase with decreasing contact fraction and the substrate heating promotes the contact line depinning and (ii) in the moving regime, the droplet motion is described by periodic stick-slip events and contact-angle oscillations. These features are highly smoothed at the highest temperatures, with two possible mechanisms suggested to explain such a behavior, a reduction in the elasticity of the triple line and a decrease in the depinning energy barriers. For all surfaces, the observed remarkable stability of the "fakir" state to the temperature is attributed to the re-entrant micropillar curvature that prevents surface imbibition.

  5. BOILING OF WATER AND ORGANIC LIQUIDS ON LOW-TEMPERATURE POROUS SURFACES OF HEAT PIPES

    OpenAIRE

    Шаповал, Андрій Андрійович; Панов, Євген Миколайович; Сауліна, Юлія Валеріївна; Романчук, Борис Васильович; Трубійчук, Р. П.

    2015-01-01

    The experimental study results of the influence of porous metal fiber structures on the intensity of two-phase heat transfer of water and acetone boiling on porous surfaces in conditions of free movement and capillary transport of liquids are presented in the article. The experiments were realized using specially designed experimental installation simulated the operating conditions of heat pipes and thermosyphons. Such conditions are typical for two-phase heat transfer devices – heat pipes an...

  6. Past surface temperatures at the NorthGRIP drill site from the difference in firn diffusion of water isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Simonsen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new ice core paleothermometer is introduced based on the temperature dependent diffusion of the stable water isotopes in the firn. A new parameter called differential diffusion length is defined as the difference between the diffusion length of the two stable water isotopes 18O and deuterium. A model treatment of the diffusion process of the firn and the ice is presented along with a method of retrieving the diffusion signal from the ice core record of water isotopes using spectral methods. The model shows how the diffusion process is highly dependent on the inter-annual variations in the surface temperatures resulting in a longer diffusion length than by assuming an isothermal firn. The longer diffusion length can be explained by the strong non-linearly behavior of the saturation pressure over ice in the range of the surface temperature fluctuations.

    The method has been tested on δ18O and δD measurements, spanning the transition from the last glacial to the holocene, from the NorthGRIP ice core. The surface temperature reconstruction based on the differential diffusion resembles other temperature reconstructions for the NorthGRIP ice core. However, the Allerød warming is seen to be significantly warmer than observed in other ice core based temperature reconstructions. The mechanisms behind this behavior are not fully understood.

    The method shows the need of an expansion of high resolution stable water isotopes data sets from ice cores. However, the new ice core paleothermometer presented here will give valuable insight in past climate, through the physical process of isotope diffusion in the firn column of ice sheets.

  7. Past surface temperatures at the NorthGRIP drill site from the difference in firn diffusion of water isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Simonsen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A new ice core paleothermometer is introduced based on the temperature dependent diffusion of the stable water isotopes in the firn. A new parameter called differential diffusion length is defined as the difference between the diffusion length of the two stable water isotopologues 2H1H16O and 1H218O. A model treatment of the diffusion process of the firn and the ice is presented along with a method of retrieving the diffusion signal from the ice core record of water isotopes using spectral methods. The model shows how the diffusion process is highly dependent on the inter-annual variations in the surface temperatures. It results in a diffusion length longer than if the firn was isothermal. The longer diffusion length can be explained by the strong nonlinearly behaviour of the saturation pressure over ice in the range of the surface temperature fluctuations.

    The method has been tested on δ18O and δD measurements, spanning the transition from the last glacial to the holocene, from the NorthGRIP ice core. The surface temperature reconstruction based on the differential diffusion resembles other temperature reconstructions for the NorthGRIP ice core. However, the Allerød warming is seen to be significantly warmer than observed in other ice core based temperature reconstructions. The mechanisms behind this behaviour are not fully understood.

    The method shows the need of an expansion of high resolution stable water isotope datasets from ice cores. However, the new ice core paleothermometer presented here will give valuable insight into past climate, through the physical process of isotope diffusion in the firn column of ice sheets.

  8. Response of water temperature to surface wave effects in the Baltic Sea: simulations with the coupled NEMO-WAM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alari, Victor; Staneva, Joanna; Breivik, Øyvind; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Mogensen, Kristian; Janssen, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The effects of wind waves on the Baltic Sea water temperature has been studied by coupling the hydrodynamical model NEMO with the wave model WAM. The wave forcing terms that have been taken into consideration are: Stokes-Coriolis force, seastate dependent energy flux and sea-state dependent momentum flux. The combined role of these processes as well as their individual contributions on simulated temperature is analysed. The results indicate a pronounced effect of waves on surface temperature, on the distribution of vertical temperature and on upwellinǵs. In northern parts of the Baltic Sea a warming of the surface layer occurs in the wave included simulations. This in turn reduces the cold bias between simulated and measured data. The warming is primarily caused by sea-state dependent energy flux. Wave induced cooling is mostly observed in near coastal areas and is mainly due to Stokes-Coriolis forcing. The latter triggers effect of intensifying upwellings near the coasts, depending on the direction of the wind. The effect of sea-state dependent momentum flux is predominantly to warm the surface layer. During the summer the wave induced water temperature changes were up to 1 °C.

  9. Electrical resistivity dynamics beneath a fractured sedimentary bedrock riverbed in response to temperature and groundwater–surface water exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Steelman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bedrock rivers occur where surface water flows along an exposed rock surface. Fractured sedimentary bedrock can exhibit variable groundwater residence times, anisotropic flow paths, and heterogeneity, along with diffusive exchange between fractures and rock matrix. These properties of the rock will affect thermal transients in the riverbed and groundwater–surface water exchange. In this study, surface electrical methods were used as a non-invasive technique to assess the scale and temporal variability of riverbed temperature and groundwater–surface water interaction beneath a sedimentary bedrock riverbed. Conditions were monitored at a semi-daily to semi-weekly interval over a full annual period that included a seasonal freeze–thaw cycle. Surface electromagnetic induction (EMI and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT methods captured conditions beneath the riverbed along a pool–riffle sequence of the Eramosa River in Canada. Geophysical datasets were accompanied by continuous measurements of aqueous specific conductance, temperature, and river stage. Time-lapse vertical temperature trolling within a lined borehole adjacent to the river revealed active groundwater flow zones along fracture networks within the upper 10 m of rock. EMI measurements collected during cooler high-flow and warmer low-flow periods identified a spatiotemporal riverbed response that was largely dependent upon riverbed morphology and seasonal groundwater temperature. Time-lapse ERT profiles across the pool and riffle sequence identified seasonal transients within the upper 2 and 3 m of rock, respectively, with spatial variations controlled by riverbed morphology (pool versus riffle and dominant surficial rock properties (competent versus weathered rock rubble surface. While the pool and riffle both exhibited a dynamic resistivity through seasonal cooling and warming cycles, conditions beneath the pool were more variable, largely due to the formation of river

  10. Modelling water temperature in TOXSWA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, C.M.J.; Deneer, J.W.; Adriaanse, P.I.

    2010-01-01

    A reasonably accurate estimate of the water temperature is necessary for a good description of the degradation of plant protection products in water which is used in the surface water model TOXSWA. Based on a consideration of basic physical processes that describe the influence of weather on the

  11. Evaluating the impact of irrigation on surface water – groundwater interaction and stream temperature in an agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaid, Hedeff I.; Caldwell, Rodney R.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in groundwater discharge to streams caused by irrigation practices can influence stream temperature. Observations along two currently flood-irrigated reaches in the 640-square-kilometer upper Smith River watershed, an important agricultural and recreational fishing area in west-central Montana, showed a downstream temperature decrease resulting from groundwater discharge to the stream. A watershed-scale coupled surface water and groundwater flow model was used to examine changes in streamflow, groundwater discharge to the stream and stream temperature resulting from irrigation practices. The upper Smith River watershed was used to develop the model framework including watershed climate, topography, hydrography, vegetation, soil properties and current irrigation practices. Model results were used to compare watershed streamflow, groundwater recharge, and groundwater discharge to the stream for three scenarios: natural, pre-irrigation conditions (PreIrr); current irrigation practices involving mainly stream diversion for flood and sprinkler irrigation (IrrCurrent); and a hypothetical scenario with only groundwater supplying sprinkler irrigation (IrrGW). Irrigation increased groundwater recharge relative to natural PreIrr conditions because not all applied water was removed by crop evapotranspiration. Groundwater storage and groundwater discharge to the stream increased relative to natural PreIrr conditions when the source of irrigation water was mainly stream diversion as in the IrrCurrent scenario. The hypothetical IrrGW scenario, in which groundwater withdrawals were the sole source of irrigation water, resulted in widespread lowering of the water table and associated decreases in groundwater storage and groundwater discharge to the stream. A mixing analysis using model predicted groundwater discharge along the reaches suggests that stream diversion and flood irrigation, represented in the IrrCurrent scenario, has led to cooling of stream temperatures

  12. 水温—冰盖模式对大湖水面温度的模拟%SPATIALLY DISTRIBUTED WATER SURFACE TEMPERATURE MODELING FOR THE GREAT LAKES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a water temperature model for the Great Lakes.This model is keyed to simulate horizontally and temporally varying surface temperature.An ice cover model is coupled with the water temper ature model,forming a spatially distributed thermodynamic model for the Great La kes.This model can be used to give long-term or short-term simulations of wate r surface temperature and ice cover for the Great Lakes.

  13. The role of large-scale atmospheric circulation in the formation of temperature anomalies in surface waters as illustrated by the northern part of the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkina, A. I.

    1975-01-01

    One important reason for thermal anomalies in the ocean is the dynamic action of anomalous wind systems that set masses of surface water in motion; predominant longitudinal transport of water and air leads to a significant redistribution of cold and warm waters. Heat exchange between the ocean and atmosphere plays an additional role in the formation of water temperature anomalies.

  14. Capturing medium scale heterogeneity in surface water-groundwater interactions: challenges and advantages of high resolution temperature data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanafield, M.; Cook, P. G.; McCallum, J.; Noorduijn, S.

    2013-12-01

    Although heat is now a commonly-used tracer for quantifying the movement of water between streams and streambed sediments, the measurements are commonly collected as vertical profiles. This results in point measurements that are often difficult to scale up. However, for understanding contaminant transport, nutrient cycling, and ecosystem use, it is important to capture streambed dynamics at a larger scale. In this study, over 1000 meters of fiber optic cable was installed at three depths in five parallel, longitudinal transects within the shallow subsurface of a large, intermittent channel in southeastern Australia. A fiber optic distributed temperature system was then used to collected time variable temperature measurements at each meter along the cable, giving high spatial resolution within the 20 meter by 20 meter by 0.5 meter deep study plot. At this resolution, the raw temperature data itself was useful for examining preferential flow pathways beneath the subsurface. While some areas responded to daily fluctuations in water temperature from the surface, other areas retained the initial temperature, allowing the observation of regions of increased and decreased flux, respectively. Complementing the temperature data, Guelph permeameter measurements for a range of depths at the study site also revealed a highly heterogeneous subsurface, with measured field saturation hydraulic conductivity values ranging from less than 0.006 to 3.1 meters per day. Given a limited amount of head information to parameterize the boundary conditions, the objective was to see how well the patterns observed in the raw data could be quantified using numerical models. Using inverse methods, we therefore used the temperature data to parameterize both one-dimensional and a three-dimensional heat and temperature transport models to quantify differences in flux rates within the study plot. Comparison of the advantages and limitations of these models provides insight into the challenges of

  15. Effect of Water Vapor and Surface Morphology on the Low Temperature Response of Metal Oxide Semiconductor Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Maier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work the low temperature response of metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors is analyzed. Important characteristics of this low-temperature response are a pronounced selectivity to acid- and base-forming gases and a large disparity of response and recovery time constants which often leads to an integrator-type of gas response. We show that this kind of sensor performance is related to the trend of semiconductor gas sensors to adsorb water vapor in multi-layer form and that this ability is sensitively influenced by the surface morphology. In particular we show that surface roughness in the nanometer range enhances desorption of water from multi-layer adsorbates, enabling them to respond more swiftly to changes in the ambient humidity. Further experiments reveal that reactive gases, such as NO2 and NH3, which are easily absorbed in the water adsorbate layers, are more easily exchanged across the liquid/air interface when the humidity in the ambient air is high.

  16. A new temperature profiling probe for investigating groundwater-surface water interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Ramon C.; Robert Turcotte,

    2015-01-01

    Measuring vertically nested temperatures at the streambed interface poses practical challenges that are addressed here with a new discrete subsurface temperature profiling probe. We describe a new temperature probe and its application for heat as a tracer investigations to demonstrate the probe's utility. Accuracy and response time of temperature measurements made at 6 discrete depths in the probe were analyzed in the laboratory using temperature bath experiments. We find the temperature probe to be an accurate and robust instrument that allows for easily installation and long-term monitoring in highly variable environments. Because the probe is inexpensive and versatile, it is useful for many environmental applications that require temperature data collection for periods of several months in environments that are difficult to access or require minimal disturbance.

  17. Recent Inland Water Temperature Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Simon; Healey, Nathan; Lenters, John; O'Reilly, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    We are using thermal infrared satellite data in conjunction with in situ measurements to produce water temperatures for all the large inland water bodies in North America and the rest of the world for potential use as climate indicator. Recent studies have revealed significant warming of inland waters throughout the world. The observed rate of warming is - in many cases - greater than that of the ambient air temperature. These rapid, unprecedented changes in inland water temperatures have profound implications for lake hydrodynamics, productivity, and biotic communities. Scientists are just beginning to understand the global extent, regional patterns, physical mechanisms, and ecological consequences of lake warming. As part of our work we have collected thermal infrared satellite data from those satellite sensors that provide long-term and frequent spaceborne thermal infrared measurements of inland waters including ATSR, AVHRR, and MODIS and used these to examine trends in water surface temperature for approximately 169 of the largest inland water bodies in the world. We are now extending this work to generate temperature time-series of all North American inland water bodies that are sufficiently large to be studied using 1km resolution satellite data for the last 3 decades, approximately 268 lakes. These data are then being related to changes in the surface air temperature and compared with regional trends in water surface temperature derived from CMIP5/IPCC model simulations/projections to better predict future temperature changes. We will discuss the available datasets and processing methodologies together with the patterns they reveal based on recent changes in the global warming, with a particular focus on the inland waters of the southwestern USA.

  18. Statistical mapping of zones of focused groundwater/surface-water exchange using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakanyamale, Kisa; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Slater, Lee D.

    2013-01-01

    Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) increasingly is used to map zones of focused groundwater/surface-water exchange (GWSWE). Previous studies of GWSWE using FO-DTS involved identification of zones of focused GWSWE based on arbitrary cutoffs of FO-DTS time-series statistics (e.g., variance, cross-correlation between temperature and stage, or spectral power). New approaches are needed to extract more quantitative information from large, complex FO-DTS data sets while concurrently providing an assessment of uncertainty associated with mapping zones of focused GSWSE. Toward this end, we present a strategy combining discriminant analysis (DA) and spectral analysis (SA). We demonstrate the approach using field experimental data from a reach of the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford 300 Area site. Results of the combined SA/DA approach are shown to be superior to previous results from qualitative interpretation of FO-DTS spectra alone.

  19. Evaluating the impact of irrigation on surface water - groundwater interaction and stream temperature in an agricultural watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaid, Hedeff I; Caldwell, Rodney R

    2017-12-01

    Changes in groundwater discharge to streams caused by irrigation practices can influence stream temperature. Observations along two currently flood-irrigated reaches in the 640-square-kilometer upper Smith River watershed, an important agricultural and recreational fishing area in west-central Montana, showed a downstream temperature decrease resulting from groundwater discharge to the stream. A watershed-scale coupled surface water and groundwater flow model was used to examine changes in streamflow, groundwater discharge to the stream and stream temperature resulting from irrigation practices. The upper Smith River watershed was used to develop the model framework including watershed climate, topography, hydrography, vegetation, soil properties and current irrigation practices. Model results were used to compare watershed streamflow, groundwater recharge, and groundwater discharge to the stream for three scenarios: natural, pre-irrigation conditions (PreIrr); current irrigation practices involving mainly stream diversion for flood and sprinkler irrigation (IrrCurrent); and a hypothetical scenario with only groundwater supplying sprinkler irrigation (IrrGW). Irrigation increased groundwater recharge relative to natural PreIrr conditions because not all applied water was removed by crop evapotranspiration. Groundwater storage and groundwater discharge to the stream increased relative to natural PreIrr conditions when the source of irrigation water was mainly stream diversion as in the IrrCurrent scenario. The hypothetical IrrGW scenario, in which groundwater withdrawals were the sole source of irrigation water, resulted in widespread lowering of the water table and associated decreases in groundwater storage and groundwater discharge to the stream. A mixing analysis using model predicted groundwater discharge along the reaches suggests that stream diversion and flood irrigation, represented in the IrrCurrent scenario, has led to cooling of stream temperatures

  20. Surface Temperature Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Ruedy, Reto

    2012-01-01

    Small global mean temperature changes may have significant to disastrous consequences for the Earth's climate if they persist for an extended period. Obtaining global means from local weather reports is hampered by the uneven spatial distribution of the reliably reporting weather stations. Methods had to be developed that minimize as far as possible the impact of that situation. This software is a method of combining temperature data of individual stations to obtain a global mean trend, overcoming/estimating the uncertainty introduced by the spatial and temporal gaps in the available data. Useful estimates were obtained by the introduction of a special grid, subdividing the Earth's surface into 8,000 equal-area boxes, using the existing data to create virtual stations at the center of each of these boxes, and combining temperature anomalies (after assessing the radius of high correlation) rather than temperatures.

  1. Heterogeneous chemical reaction of chlorine nitrate and water on sulfuric-acid surfaces at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Michel J.; Malhotra, Ripudaman; Golden, David M.

    1987-01-01

    The use of H2SO4 as a catalyst for aerosol production of chlorine compounds in the chemistry of the antarctic stratosphere was investigated in laboratory trials. The experiments involved the gas surface collision rate of a molecule on a given surface during its residence time in a Knudsen cell in molecular flow conditions. Chlorine nitrate gas was made to flow through a chamber exposed to a container holding a 95.6 pct H2SO4 solution. Gas leaving the cell was scanned with a mass spectrometer. A sticking coefficient of 0.00032 was found for the chlorine nitrate, a value five times that previously reported.

  2. New insights into saline water evaporation from porous media: Complex interaction between evaporation rates, precipitation, and surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri-Kuehni, Salomé M. S.; Vetter, Thomas; Webb, Colin; Shokri, Nima

    2017-06-01

    Understanding salt transport and deposition patterns during evaporation from porous media is important in many engineering and hydrological processes such as soil salinization, ecosystem functioning, and land-atmosphere interaction. As evaporation proceeds, salt concentration increases until it exceeds solubility limits, locally, and crystals precipitate. The interplay between transport processes, crystallization, and evaporation influences where crystallization occurs. During early stages, the precipitated salt creates an evolving porous structure affecting the evaporation kinetics. We conducted a comprehensive series of experiments to investigate how the salt concentration and precipitation influence evaporation dynamics. Our results illustrate the contribution of the evolving salt crust to the evaporative mass losses. High-resolution thermal imaging enabled us to investigate the complex temperature dynamics at the surface of precipitated salt, providing further confirmation of salt crust contribution to the evaporation. We identify different phases of saline water evaporation from porous media with the corresponding dominant mechanisms in each phase and extend the physical understanding of such processes.

  3. High concentration powdered activated carbon-membrane bioreactor (PAC-MBR) for slightly polluted surface water treatment at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Cong; Yu, Shuili; Shi, Wenxin; Tian, Wende; Heijman, S G J; Rietveld, L C

    2012-06-01

    In this study, different concentrations of PAC combined with MBR were carried out to treat slightly polluted surface water (SPSW) at low temperature (10°C). Effects of PAC on the efficiencies of operation, treatment, and the performance of the process were investigated. It was found that the effluent quality, performance efficiency, resistance of shock load were all enhanced and chemical irreversible membrane fouling was reduced with increasing dosage of PAC in MBR. Only when the concentration of PAC which acted as biological carriers was high enough (i.g., 50 g/L), nitrification without initial inoculation in the filtration tank could start within 19 days and be completed within 35 days at 10°C. Fifty grams per liter PAC was the optimal dosage in MBR for stable and extended operation. Under this condition, mean removal efficiencies of ammonia nitrogen (NH(3)-N), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and UV(254) were 93%, 75%, and 85%, respectively.

  4. Impact of satellite-based lake surface observations on the initial state of HIRLAM. Part I: evaluation of remotely-sensed lake surface water temperature observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Kheyrollah Pour

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lake Surface Water Temperature (LSWT observations are used to improve the lake surface state in the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM, a three-dimensional numerical weather prediction (NWP model. In this paper, satellite-derived LSWT observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR are evaluated against in-situ measurements collected by the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE for a selection of large- to medium-size lakes during the open-water season. Data assimilation of these LSWT observations into the HIRLAM is in the paper Part II. Results show a good agreement between MODIS and in-situ measurements from 22 Finnish lakes, with a mean bias of −1.13°C determined over five open-water seasons (2007–2011. Evaluation of MODIS during an overlapping period (2007–2009 with the AATSR-L2 product currently distributed by the European Space Agency (ESA shows a mean (cold bias error of −0.93°C for MODIS and a warm mean bias of 1.08°C for AATSR-L2. Two additional LSWT retrieval algorithms were applied to produce more accurate AATSR products. The algorithms use ESA's AATSR-L1B brightness temperature product to generate new L2 products: one based on Key et al. (1997 and the other on Prata (2002 with a finer resolution water mask than used in the creation of the AATSR-L2 product distributed by ESA. The accuracies of LSWT retrievals are improved with the Key and Prata algorithms with biases of 0.78°C and −0.11°C, respectively, compared to the original AATSR-L2 product (3.18°C.

  5. Effect of Aluminum Substrate Surface Modification on Wettability and Freezing Delay of Water Droplet at Subzero Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maral; Afshari, Alireza; Thormann, Esben

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated the freezing delay of a water droplet on precooled substrates of an aluminum alloy that is commonly used for heat-exchanger fins. The surfaces of the substrates were modified to obtain surfaces with different hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and different surface...... hydrophobic substrates. We suggest that this is because this particular surface chemistry prevents ice formation at the interface of the substrate, prior to the deposition of the water droplet. On the basis of our results, we suggest that not only wettability and topography but also the concrete surface...

  6. Improvements of a COMS Land Surface Temperature Retrieval Algorithm Based on the Temperature Lapse Rate and Water Vapor/Aerosol Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A-Ra Cho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The National Meteorological Satellite Center in Korea retrieves land surface temperature (LST by applying the split-window LST algorithm (CSW_v1.0 to Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS data. Considerable errors were detected under conditions of high water vapor content or temperature lapse rates during validation with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS LST because of the too simplified LST algorithm. In this study, six types of LST retrieval equations (CSW_v2.0 were developed to upgrade the CSW_v1.0. These methods were developed by classifying “dry,” “normal,” and “wet” cases for day and night and considering the relative sizes of brightness temperature difference (BTD values. Similar to CSW_v1.0, the LST retrieved by CSW_v2.0 had a correlation coefficient of 0.99 with the prescribed LST and a slightly larger bias of −0.03 K from 0.00K; the root mean square error (RMSE improved from 1.41 K to 1.39 K. In general, CSW_v2.0 improved the retrieval accuracy compared to CSW_v1.0, especially when the lapse rate was high (mid-day and dawn and the water vapor content was high. The spatial distributions of LST retrieved by CSW_v2.0 were found to be similar to the MODIS LST independently of the season, day/night, and geographic locations. The validation using one year’s MODIS LST data showed that CSW_v2.0 improved the retrieval accuracy of LST in terms of correlations (from 0.988 to 0.989, bias (from −1.009 K to 0.292 K, and RMSEs (from 2.613 K to 2.237 K.

  7. The effect of water turbidity on the near-surface water temperature of larval habitats of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paaijmans, K. P.; Takken, W.; Githeko, A. K.; Jacobs, A. F. G.

    2008-11-01

    Water temperature is an important determinant in many aquatic biological processes, including the growth and development of malaria mosquito ( Anopheles arabiensis and A. gambiae) immatures. Water turbidity affects water temperature, as suspended particles in a water column absorb and scatter sunlight and hence determine the extinction of solar radiation. To get a better understanding of the relationship between water turbidity and water temperature, a series of semi-natural larval habitats (diameter 0.32 m, water depth 0.16 m) with increasing water turbidity was created. Here we show that at midday (1300 hours) the upper water layer (thickness of 10 mm) of the water pool with the highest turbidity was on average 2.8°C warmer than the same layer of the clearest water pool. Suspended soil particles increase the water temperature and furthermore change the temperature dynamics of small water collections during daytime, exposing malaria mosquito larvae, which live in the top water layer, longer to higher temperatures.

  8. GODAE, SFCOBS - Surface Temperature Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GODAE, SFCOBS - Surface Temperature Observations: Ship, fixed/drifting buoy, and CMAN in-situ surface temperature. Global Telecommunication System (GTS) Data. The...

  9. A satellite-based climatology (1989-2012) of lake surface water temperature from AVHRR 1-km for Central European water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffler, Michael; Wunderle, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The temperature of lakes is an important parameter for lake ecosystems influencing the speed of physio-chemical reactions, the concentration of dissolved gazes (e.g. oxygen), and vertical mixing. Even small temperature changes might have irreversible effects on the lacustrine system due to the high specific heat capacity of water. These effects could alter the quality of lake water depending on parameters like lake size and volume. Numerous studies mention lake water temperature as an indicator of climate change and in the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) requirements it is listed as an essential climate variable. In contrast to in situ observations, satellite imagery offers the possibility to derive spatial patterns of lake surface water temperature (LSWT) and their variability. Moreover, although for some European lakes long in situ time series are available, the temperatures of many lakes are not measured or only on a non-regular basis making these observations insufficient for climate monitoring. However, only few satellite sensors offer the possibility to analyze time series which cover more than 20 years. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is among these and has been flown on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and on the Meteorological Operational Satellites (MetOp) from the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) as a heritage instrument for almost 35 years. It will be carried on for at least ten more years finally offering a unique opportunity for satellite-based climate studies. Herein we present the results from a study initiated by the Swiss GCOS office to generate a satellite-based LSWT climatology for the pre-alpine water bodies in Switzerland. It relies on the extensive AVHRR 1-km data record (1985-2012) of the Remote Sensing Research Group at the University of Bern (RSGB) and has been derived from the AVHRR/2

  10. Groundwater–Surface Water Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karan, Sachin

    The exchange of groundwater-surface water has been invetigated in the western part of Denmark. Holtum AA provides the framework for all the performed investigations. Several methods are used, primarily eld based measurements ombined with numerical models to achieve insight to the governing...... processes of interaction between groundwater and surface water. By using heat as a tracer it has been possible to use temperature directly as calibrationtargets in a groundwater and heat transport model. Thus, it is possible to use heat investigate the change in groundwater discharge in dynamic conditions...... by using simple temperature devices along a stream to delineate the areas of interest in regard to GW{SW exchange. Thus, at several locations in a stream a temperature data logger was placed in the water column and right at the streambed-water interface. By looking at the correlation of streambed...

  11. Groundwater–Surface Water Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karan, Sachin

    The exchange of groundwater-surface water has been invetigated in the western part of Denmark. Holtum AA provides the framework for all the performed investigations. Several methods are used, primarily eld based measurements ombined with numerical models to achieve insight to the governing...... processes of interaction between groundwater and surface water. By using heat as a tracer it has been possible to use temperature directly as calibrationtargets in a groundwater and heat transport model. Thus, it is possible to use heat investigate the change in groundwater discharge in dynamic conditions...... by using simple temperature devices along a stream to delineate the areas of interest in regard to GW{SW exchange. Thus, at several locations in a stream a temperature data logger was placed in the water column and right at the streambed-water interface. By looking at the correlation of streambed...

  12. GISS Surface Temperature Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GISTEMP dataset is a global 2x2 gridded temperature anomaly dataset. Temperature data is updated around the middle of every month using current data files from...

  13. Contribution of the Yellow Sea bottom cold water to the abnormal cooling of sea surface temperature in the summer of 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon-ho; Pang, Ig-Chan; Moon, Jae-Hong

    2016-06-01

    Satellite-based sea surface temperature (SST) measurements revealed an abnormal cooling anomaly over the Yellow Sea (YS) in the summer of 2011. Using in situ hydrographic profiles, meteorological fields, and an ocean circulation model with a passive tracer experiment, we identified the cold SST anomaly and its connection with the YS Bottom Cold Water (YSBCW), which occupies the central part of the YS below the thermocline in the summer. The summer SST anomalies in the YS showed three cold peaks in 1993, 2003, and 2011 over the past 20 years, but the reasons for the cooling events were different, as one was due to weakened surface heating and the other was attributed to mixing with the YSBCW. In 1993 and 2003, relatively weak surface heating made the surface water cooler compared with that during the other years, whereas in 2011, a strong vertical mixing of water was induced by a typhoon that passed through the central YS, causing the surface water to cool by ˜8°C and the bottom water to warm up by ˜4°C. A tracer experiment further confirmed that the vertical heat transfers between the warm surface and the cold bottom water masses when the typhoon passed through the YS interior.

  14. Modeling of global surface air temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakova, M. A.; Karlin, L. N.

    2012-04-01

    A model to assess a number of factors, such as total solar irradiance, albedo, greenhouse gases and water vapor, affecting climate change has been developed on the basis of Earth's radiation balance principle. To develop the model solar energy transformation in the atmosphere was investigated. It's a common knowledge, that part of the incoming radiation is reflected into space from the atmosphere, land and water surfaces, and another part is absorbed by the Earth's surface. Some part of outdoing terrestrial radiation is retained in the atmosphere by greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide) and water vapor. Making use of the regression analysis a correlation between concentration of greenhouse gases, water vapor and global surface air temperature was obtained which, it is turn, made it possible to develop the proposed model. The model showed that even smallest fluctuations of total solar irradiance intensify both positive and negative feedback which give rise to considerable changes in global surface air temperature. The model was used both to reconstruct the global surface air temperature for the 1981-2005 period and to predict global surface air temperature until 2030. The reconstructions of global surface air temperature for 1981-2005 showed the models validity. The model makes it possible to assess contribution of the factors listed above in climate change.

  15. Surface-water surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  16. Assessing regional crop water demand using a satellite-based combination equation with a land surface temperature componen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyano, Carmen; Garcia, Monica; Tornos, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    consumption trends in the area. The results showed that the thermal-PT-JPL model is a suitable and simple tool requiring only air temperature and incoming solar radiation apart from standard satellites-products freely available. Our results show that in comparison with the hydrological model conceptual...... to estimate soil surface conductance based on an apparent thermal inertia index. A process-based model was applied to estimate surface energy fluxes including daily ET based on a modified version of the Priestley-Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL) model at 1km pixel resolution during a chrono......-sequence spanning for more than a decade (2002-2013). The thermal-PT-JPL model was forced with vegetation, albedo, reflectance and temperature products from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) from both Aqua and Terra satellites. The study region, B-XII Irrigation District of the Lower...

  17. Surface Water in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    2003-01-01

    Surface water in Hawaii is a valued resource as well as a potential threat to human lives and property. The surface-water resources of Hawaii are of significant economic, ecologic, cultural, and aesthetic importance. Streams supply more than 50 percent of the irrigation water in Hawaii, and although streams supply only a few percent of the drinking water statewide, surface water is the main source of drinking water in some places. Streams also are a source of hydroelectric power, provide important riparian and instream habitats for many unique native species, support traditional and customary Hawaiian gathering rights and the practice of taro cultivation, and possess valued aesthetic qualities. Streams affect the physical, chemical, and aesthetic quality of receiving waters, such as estuaries, bays, and nearshore waters, which are critical to the tourism-based economy of the islands. Streams in Hawaii pose a danger because of their flashy nature; a stream's stage, or water level, can rise several feet in less than an hour during periods of intense rainfall. Streams in Hawaii are flashy because rainfall is intense, drainage basins are small, basins and streams are steep, and channel storage is limited. Streamflow generated during periods of heavy rainfall has led to loss of property and human lives in Hawaii. Most Hawaiian streams originate in the mountainous interiors of the islands and terminate at the coast. Streams are significant sculptors of the Hawaiian landscape because of the erosive power of the water they convey. In geologically young areas, such as much of the southern part of the island of Hawaii, well-defined stream channels have not developed because the permeability of the surface rocks generally is so high that rainfall infiltrates before flowing for significant distances on the surface. In geologically older areas that have received significant rainfall, streams and mass wasting have carved out large valleys.

  18. Determining lake surface water temperatures (LSWTs worldwide using a tuned 1-dimensional lake model (FLake, v1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Layden

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available FLake, a 1-dimensional freshwater lake model, is tuned for 244 globally distributed large lakes using lake surface water temperatures (LSWTs derived from Along-Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSRs. The model, tuned using only 3 lake properties; lake depth, albedo (snow and ice and light extinction co-efficient, substantially improves the measured biases in various features of the LSWT annual cycle, including the LSWTs of saline and high altitude lakes. The daily mean absolute differences (MAD and the spread of differences (±2 standard deviations across the trial seasonally ice covered lakes (lakes with a lake-mean LSWT remaining below 1 °C for part of the annual cycle is reduced from 3.01± 2.25 °C (pre-tuning to 0.84 ± 0.51 °C (post-tuning. For non-seasonally ice-covered trial lakes (lakes with a lake-mean LSWT remaining above 1 °C throughout its annual cycle, the average daily mean absolute difference (MAD is reduced from 3.55 ± 3.20 °C to 0.96 ± 0.63 °C. The post tuning results for the trial lakes (35 lakes are highly representative of the post tuning results of the 244 lakes. The sensitivity of the summer LSWTs of deeper lakes to changes in the timing of ice-off is demonstrated. The modelled summer LSWT response to changes in ice-off timing is found to be strongly affected by lake depth and latitude, explaining 0.50 (R2adj, p = 0.001 of the inter-lake variance in summer LSWTs. Lake depth alone explains 0.35 (p =0.003 of the variance. The tuning approach undertaken in this study, overcomes the obstacle of the lack of available lake characteristic information (snow and ice albedo and light extinction co-efficient for individual lakes. Furthermore, the tuned values for lake depth, snow and ice albedo and light extinction co-efficient for the 244 lakes provide guidance for improving LSWTs modelling in FLake.

  19. Temperature dependence of surface nanobubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkelaar, R.P.; Seddon, James Richard Thorley; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Lohse, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    The temperature dependence of nanobubbles was investigated experimentally using atomic force microscopy. By scanning the same area of the surface at temperatures from 51 °C to 25 °C it was possible to track geometrical changes of individual nanobubbles as the temperature was decreased.

  20. In situ Raman spectroscopic analysis of surface oxide films on Ni-base alloy/low alloy steel dissimilar metal weld interfaces in high-temperature water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongjin; Choi, Kyung Joon; Bahn, Chi Bum; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2014-06-01

    In situ Raman spectroscopy has been applied to analyze the surface oxide films formed on dissimilar metal weld (DMW) interfaces of nickel-base alloy/low alloy steel under hydrogenated high-temperature water condition. For the analysis of the oxide films under high temperature/pressure aqueous conditions, an in situ Raman spectroscopy system was developed by constructing a hydrothermal cell where the entire optics including the excitation laser and the Raman light collection system were located at the nearest position to the specimen by means of immersion optics. In situ Raman spectra of the DMW interfaces were collected in hydrogenated water condition at different temperatures up to 300 °C. The measured in situ Raman spectra showed peaks of Cr2O3, NiCr2O4 and Fe3O4 at the DMW interface. It is considered that differences in the oxide chemistry originated from the chemical element distribution inside of the DMW interface region.

  1. Barremian-Aptian rudist shells record dramatic shallow-water sea-surface temperature changes in the Tethyan Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Stefan; Heimhofer, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    The dramatic and stepwise emplacement of large igneous provinces is generally accepted as primary driver of Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs). Although excess output of volcanically induced greenhouse gases should have promoted "super greenhouse phases", several studies provide evidence for transient Cretaceous "cold snaps", particularly during the Barremian-Aptian stage. To date, reconstructions of Cretaceous sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are predominantly based either on δ18O analyses of pristine foraminiferal calcite or on crenarchaeotal membrane lipid distributions (TEX86) in pelagic deposits. Both types of proxies provide at best estimates of mean annual SSTs of open ocean settings. In order to better understand the dynamics of Cretaceous global warmth and the impact of fluctuating SSTs on carbonate platform ecosystems, the current study aims at reconstructing the stratigraphic and spatial evolution of subtropical shallow-marine sea-surface temperatures. Well-preserved low-Mg calcite rudist shells hold a strong potential to act as archives for the reconstruction of Cretaceous palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental conditions, as ontogenetic isotopic and trace element variability of these shells also resolve sub-annual (seasonal) temperature fluctuations (Steuber et al., 2005). In the context of the current study, high-resolution sclerochemistry (δ18O, Mg contents) has been performed on rudists derived from chemostratigraphically (87Sr/86Sr, δ13C) well-constrained Barremian-Aptian carbonate platform settings in the subtropical Tethyan realm (France, Croatia, Spain, Portugal). The outcome of this work will be of significance both for those studying the triggering factors of oceanic anoxic events and the palaeoecology of rudist bivalves. Steuber, T., Rauch, M., Masse, J.-P., Graaf, J., Malkoc, M. (2005) Low-latitude seasonality of Cretaceous temperatures in warm and cold episodes. Nature 437: 1341-1344.

  2. Validation of JAXA/MODIS Sea Surface Temperature in Water around Taiwan Using the Terra and Aqua Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-An Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The research vessel-based Conductivity Temperature Depth profiler (CTD provides underwater measurements of the bulk sea surface temperature (SST at the depths of shallower than 5 m. The CTD observations of the seas around Taiwan provide useful data for comparison with SST of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers aboard Aqua and Terra satellites archived by JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. We produce a high-resolution (1 km MODIS SST by using Multi-Channel SST (MCSST algorithm. There were 1516 cloud-free match-up data pairs of MODIS SST and in situ measurements during the period from 2003 - 2005. The difference of the root mean square error (RMSE of satellite observations from each platform during the day and at night was: _ in Aqua daytime, _ in Aqua nighttime, _ in Terra daytime, and _ in Terra nighttime. The total analysis of MODIS-derived SST shows good agreement with a bias of _ and RMSE of _ The analyses indicate that the bias of Aqua daytime was always positive throughout the year and the large RMSE should be attributed to the large positive bias _ under diurnal warming. It was also found that the bias of Terra daytime was usually negative with a mean bias of _ its large RMSE should be treated with care because of low solar radiation in the morning.

  3. In-flight validation and recovery of water surface temperature with Landsat-5 thermal infrared data using an automated high-altitude lake validation site at Lake Tahoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, S.J.; Chander, G.; Barsi, J.A.; Alley, R.E.; Abtahi, A.; Palluconi, Frank Don; Markham, B.L.; Richards, R.C.; Schladow, S.G.; Helder, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    The absolute radiometric accuracy of the thermal infrared band (B6) of the Thematic Mapper (TM) instrument on the Landsat-5 (L5) satellite was assessed over a period of approximately four years using data from the Lake Tahoe automated validation site (California-Nevada). The Lake Tahoe site was established in July 1999, and measurements of the skin and bulk temperature have been made approximately every 2 min from four permanently moored buoys since mid-1999. Assessment involved using a radiative transfer model to propagate surface skin temperature measurements made at the time of the L5 overpass to predict the at-sensor radiance. The predicted radiance was then convolved with the L5B6 system response function to obtain the predicted L5B6 radiance, which was then compared with the radiance measured by L5B6. Twenty-four cloud-free scenes acquired between 1999 and 2003 were used in the analysis with scene temperatures ranging between 4??C and 22??C. The results indicate LSB6 had a radiance bias of 2.5% (1.6??C) in late 1999, which gradually decreased to 0.8% (0.5??C) in mid-2002. Since that time, the bias has remained positive (predicted minus measured) and between 0.3% (0.2??C) and 1.4% (0.9??C). The cause for the cold bias (L5 radiances are lower than expected) is unresolved, but likely related to changes in instrument temperature associated with changes in instrument usage. The in situ data were then used to develop algorithms to recover the skin and bulk temperature of the water by regressing the L5B6 radiance and the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) total column water data to either the skin or bulk temperature. Use of the NCEP data provides an alternative approach to the split-window approach used with instruments that have two thermal infrared bands. The results indicate the surface skin and bulk temperature can be recovered with a standard error of 0.6??C. This error is larger than errors obtained with other instruments due, in part, to the

  4. Water on graphene surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordillo, M C [Departamento de Sistemas Fisicos, Quimicos y Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Carretera de Utrera, km 1, E-41013 Sevilla (Spain); Marti, J, E-mail: cgorbar@upo.e, E-mail: jordi.marti@upc.ed [Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, B4-B5 Campus Nord, E-08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2010-07-21

    In this paper, we summarize the main results obtained in our group about the behavior of water confined inside or close to different graphene surfaces by means of molecular dynamics simulations. These include the inside and outside of carbon nanotubes, and the confinement inside a slit pore or a single graphene sheet. We paid special attention to some thermodynamical (binding energies), structural (hydrogen-bond distributions) and dynamic (infrared spectra) properties, and their comparison to their bulk counterparts.

  5. Effect of hydrolyzed whey protein on surface morphology, water sorption, and glass transition temperature of a model infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Grace M; O'Mahony, James A; Kelly, Alan L; O'Callaghan, Donal J

    2016-09-01

    Physical properties of spray-dried dairy powders depend on their composition and physical characteristics. This study investigated the effect of hydrolyzed whey protein on the microstructure and physical stability of dried model infant formula. Model infant formulas were produced containing either intact (DH 0) or hydrolyzed (DH 12) whey protein, where DH=degree of hydrolysis (%). Before spray drying, apparent viscosities of liquid feeds (at 55°C) at a shear rate of 500 s(-1) were 3.02 and 3.85 mPa·s for intact and hydrolyzed infant formulas, respectively. On reconstitution, powders with hydrolyzed whey protein had a significantly higher fat globule size and lower emulsion stability than intact whey protein powder. Lactose crystallization in powders occurred at higher relative humidity for hydrolyzed formula. The Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer equation, fitted to sorption isotherms, showed increased monolayer moisture when intact protein was present. As expected, glass transition decreased significantly with increasing water content. Partial hydrolysis of whey protein in model infant formula resulted in altered powder particle surface morphology, lactose crystallization properties, and storage stability.

  6. An assessment of the Sr/Ca ratio in shallow water hermatypic corals as a proxy for sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John F.; McCulloch, Malcolm T.

    2002-09-01

    The high precision measurement of the Sr/Ca ratio in corals has the potential for measuring past sea surface temperatures at very high accuracy. However, the veracity of the technique has been questioned on the basis that there is both a spatial and temporal variation in the Sr/Ca ratio of seawater, and that kinetic effects, such as the calcification rate, can affect the Sr/Ca ratio of corals, and produce inaccuracies of the order of 2-4 °C. In the present study, a number of cores of the massive hermatypic scleractinian coral Porites, from the central Great Barrier Reef, have been analyzed for Sr/Ca at weekly to monthly resolution. Results from a 24 year record from Myrmidon Reef show an overall variation from 22.7 °C to 30.4 °C. The record shows a warming/cooling trend with maximum warming centred on the 1986-1987 summer. While some bleaching was reported to have occurred at Myrmidon Reef in 1982, the Sr/Ca record indicates that subsequent summer temperatures were much higher. The 4.5 year record from Stanley Reef shows a maximum SST of 30 °C during the 1997-1998 El Niño event. The calibrations from Myrmidon and Stanley Reefs are in excellent agreement with previously published calibrations from nearby reefs. While corals do not calcify in equilibrium with seawater due to physiological control on the uptake of Sr and Ca into the lattice of coralline aragonite, it can be argued that, provided only a single genus such as Porites sp. is used, and that the coral is sampled along a major vertical growth axis, then the Sr/Ca ratio should vary uniformly with temperature. Similarly, objections based on the spatial and temporal variability of the Sr/Ca activity ratio of seawater can be countered on the basis that in most areas where coral reefs grow there is a uniformity in the Sr/Ca activity ratio, and there does not appear to be a change in this ratio over the growth period of the coral. Evidence from several corals in this study suggest that stress can be a major

  7. Homogenised daily lake surface water temperature data generated from multiple satellite sensors: A long-term case study of a large sub-Alpine lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareeth, Sajid; Salmaso, Nico; Adrian, Rita; Neteler, Markus

    2016-08-01

    Availability of remotely sensed multi-spectral images since the 1980’s, which cover three decades of voluminous data could help researchers to study the changing dynamics of bio-physical characteristics of land and water. In this study, we introduce a new methodology to develop homogenised Lake Surface Water Temperature (LSWT) from multiple polar orbiting satellites. Precisely, we developed homogenised 1 km daily LSWT maps covering the last 30 years (1986 to 2015) combining data from 13 satellites. We used a split-window technique to derive LSWT from brightness temperatures and a modified diurnal temperature cycle model to homogenise data which were acquired between 8:00 to 17:00 UTC. Gaps in the temporal LSWT data due to the presence of clouds were filled by applying Harmonic ANalysis of Time Series (HANTS). The satellite derived LSWT maps were validated based on long-term monthly in-situ bulk temperature measurements in Lake Garda, the largest lake in Italy. We found the satellite derived homogenised LSWT being significantly correlated to in-situ data. The new LSWT time series showed a significant annual rate of increase of 0.020 °C yr-1 (*P summer.

  8. The surface temperature of Europa

    CERN Document Server

    Ashkenazy, Yosef

    2016-01-01

    Previous estimates of the surface temperature of Jupiter's moon, Europa, neglected the effect of the eccentricity of Jupiter's orbit around the Sun, the effect of the eclipse of Europa (i.e., the relative time that Europa is within the shadow of Jupiter), and the effect of Europa's internal heating. Here we estimate the surface temperature of Europa, when Europa's obliquity, eclipse and internal heating, as well as the eccentricity of Jupiter, are all taken into account. For a typical internal heating rate of 0.05 W/m$^2$ (corresponding to an ice thickness of about 10 kms), the equator, pole, and global mean surface temperatures are 101.7 K, 45.26 K, and 94.75 K, respectively. We found that the temperature at the high latitudes is significantly affected by the internal heating. We also studied the effect of the internal heating on the mean thickness of Europa's icy shell and conclude that the polar region temperature can be used to constrain the internal heating and the depth of the ice. Our approach and form...

  9. Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, D

    2005-01-01

    The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil-water potential, and soil moisture as a function of depth below the ground surface at hourly intervals. The temperature profiles are measured directly by in situ sensors at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the SGP climate research site. The soil-water potential and soil moisture profiles are derived from measurements of soil temperature rise in response to small inputs of heat. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil.

  10. In situ Raman spectroscopic analysis of surface oxide films on Ni-base alloy/low alloy steel dissimilar metal weld interfaces in high-temperature water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongjin; Choi, Kyung Joon [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Bahn, Chi Bum [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University 2, 63-gil, Geumjeong-Gu, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hyun, E-mail: kimjh@unist.ac.kr [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    In situ Raman spectroscopy has been applied to analyze the surface oxide films formed on dissimilar metal weld (DMW) interfaces of nickel-base alloy/low alloy steel under hydrogenated high-temperature water condition. For the analysis of the oxide films under high temperature/pressure aqueous conditions, an in situ Raman spectroscopy system was developed by constructing a hydrothermal cell where the entire optics including the excitation laser and the Raman light collection system were located at the nearest position to the specimen by means of immersion optics. In situ Raman spectra of the DMW interfaces were collected in hydrogenated water condition at different temperatures up to 300 °C. The measured in situ Raman spectra showed peaks of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} at the DMW interface. It is considered that differences in the oxide chemistry originated from the chemical element distribution inside of the DMW interface region.

  11. Transient heat transfer behavior of water spray evaporative cooling on a stainless steel cylinder with structured surface for safety design application in high temperature scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Hong, Wang; Xun, Zhu; Song, Sihong; Sajid, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    High heat transfer performance of spray cooling on structured surface might be an additional measure to increase the safety of an installation against any threat caused by rapid increase in the temperature. The purpose of present experimental study is to explore heat transfer performance of structured surface under different spray conditions and surface temperatures. Two cylindrical stainless steel samples were used, one with pyramid pins structured surface and other with smooth surface. Surface heat flux of 3.60, 3.46, 3.93 and 4.91 MW/m2 are estimated for sample initial average temperature of 600, 700, 800 and 900 °C, respectively for an inlet pressure of 1.0 MPa. A maximum cooling rate of 507 °C/s was estimated for an inlet pressure of 0.7 MPa at 900 °C for structured surface while for smooth surface maximum cooling rate of 356 °C/s was attained at 1.0 MPa for 700 °C. Structured surface performed better to exchange heat during spray cooling at initial sample temperature of 900 °C with a relative increase in surface heat flux by factor of 1.9, 1.56, 1.66 and 1.74 relative to smooth surface, for inlet pressure of 0.4, 0.7, 1.0 and 1.3 MPa, respectively. For smooth surface, a decreasing trend in estimated heat flux is observed, when initial sample temperature was increased from 600 to 900 °C. Temperature-based function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Limited published work is available about the application of structured surface spray cooling techniques for safety of stainless steel structures at very high temperature scenario such as nuclear safety vessel and liquid natural gas storage tanks.

  12. Transient heat transfer behavior of water spray evaporative cooling on a stainless steel cylinder with structured surface for safety design application in high temperature scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Hong, Wang; Xun, Zhu; Song, Sihong; Sajid, Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    High heat transfer performance of spray cooling on structured surface might be an additional measure to increase the safety of an installation against any threat caused by rapid increase in the temperature. The purpose of present experimental study is to explore heat transfer performance of structured surface under different spray conditions and surface temperatures. Two cylindrical stainless steel samples were used, one with pyramid pins structured surface and other with smooth surface. Surface heat flux of 3.60, 3.46, 3.93 and 4.91 MW/m2 are estimated for sample initial average temperature of 600, 700, 800 and 900 °C, respectively for an inlet pressure of 1.0 MPa. A maximum cooling rate of 507 °C/s was estimated for an inlet pressure of 0.7 MPa at 900 °C for structured surface while for smooth surface maximum cooling rate of 356 °C/s was attained at 1.0 MPa for 700 °C. Structured surface performed better to exchange heat during spray cooling at initial sample temperature of 900 °C with a relative increase in surface heat flux by factor of 1.9, 1.56, 1.66 and 1.74 relative to smooth surface, for inlet pressure of 0.4, 0.7, 1.0 and 1.3 MPa, respectively. For smooth surface, a decreasing trend in estimated heat flux is observed, when initial sample temperature was increased from 600 to 900 °C. Temperature-based function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Limited published work is available about the application of structured surface spray cooling techniques for safety of stainless steel structures at very high temperature scenario such as nuclear safety vessel and liquid natural gas storage tanks.

  13. Mixing height over water and its role on the correlation between temperature and humidity fluctuations in the unstable surface layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sempreviva, A.M.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2000-01-01

    Results from an experimental investigation of the mixing height over inner Danish waters carried out from September 1990 to October 1992, are discussed. The statistical analysis of the mixed-layer height (z(i)) over the sea does not exhibit the daily variation that is characteristic of the mixed ...

  14. Predictive Model of Supercooled Water Droplet Pinning/Repulsion Impacting a Superhydrophobic Surface: The Role of the Gas-Liquid Interface Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Morteza; Tembely, Moussa; Dolatabadi, Ali

    2017-02-28

    Dynamical analysis of an impacting liquid drop on superhydrophobic surfaces is mostly carried out by evaluating the droplet contact time and maximum spreading diameter. In this study, we present a general transient model of the droplet spreading diameter developed from the previously defined mass-spring model for bouncing drops. The effect of viscosity was also considered in the model by definition of a dash-pot term extracted from experiments on various viscous liquid droplets on a superhydrophobic surface. Furthermore, the resultant shear force of the stagnation air flow was also considered with the help of the classical Homann flow approach. It was clearly shown that the proposed model predicts the maximum spreading diameter and droplet contact time very well. On the other hand, where stagnation air flow is present in contradiction to the theoretical model, the droplet contact time was reduced as a function of both droplet Weber numbers and incoming air velocities. Indeed, the reduction in the droplet contact time (e.g., 35% at a droplet Weber number of up to 140) was justified by the presence of a formed thin air layer underneath the impacting drop on the superhydrophobic surface (i.e., full slip condition). Finally, the droplet wetting model was also further developed to account for low temperature through the incorporation of classical nucleation theory. Homogeneous ice nucleation was integrated into the model through the concept of the reduction of the supercooled water drop surface tension as a function of the gas-liquid interface temperature, which was directly correlated with the Nusselt number of incoming air flow. It was shown that the experimental results was qualitatively predicted by the proposed model under all supercooling conditions (i.e., from -10 to -30 °C).

  15. Estimation of the Total Atmospheric Water Vapor Content and Land Surface Temperature Based on AATSR Thermal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The total atmospheric water vapor content (TAWV and land surfacetemperature (LST play important roles in meteorology, hydrology, ecology and some otherdisciplines. In this paper, the ENVISAT/AATSR (The Advanced Along-Track ScanningRadiometer thermal data are used to estimate the TAWV and LST over the Loess Plateauin China by using a practical split window algorithm. The distribution of the TAWV isaccord with that of the MODIS TAWV products, which indicates that the estimation of thetotal atmospheric water vapor content is reliable. Validations of the LST by comparingwith the ground measurements indicate that the maximum absolute derivation, themaximum relative error and the average relative error is 4.0K, 11.8% and 5.0%respectively, which shows that the retrievals are believable; this algorithm can provide anew way to estimate the LST from AATSR data.

  16. Relationship Between Sea Surface Temperature Variation Obtained from AVHRR Imagery and Lobster Catching (Panulirus argus in Cuban Waters (1997-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Kampel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal variability of sea surface temperature (SST for the Cuban shelf waters was obtained, and the relationship of these with lobster catches in the period from January/1997-December/2004 was analyzed. The data from this environmental variable sensor were obtained from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR. The periodicity of the images and data capture by fishing was monthly. Ocean waters and shelf have a seasonal pattern to the SST, reaching the highest in August (29.5 ° C and the lowest in February (26 ° C. The extreme values recorded were recorded in August 1998 with anomalies of 1.9 ° C and -0.9 ° C in February 2001. During the winter period (Nov-Mar it was possible to find a general pattern of water circulation in the area by observing the images; during the summer (May-October this is not observed. Low correlation between SST anomalies and the catch of lobsters by fishing was observed. The best correlation coefficients (0.48 were found to the west of the island, with four years of time lag.

  17. Sustaining dry surfaces under water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Paul R.; Hao, Xiuqing; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo R.

    2015-01-01

    Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional...... mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have...... not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water.In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale, below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys – thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical...

  18. Sustaining dry surfaces under water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Paul R.; Hao, Xiuqing; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo R.; Rykaczewski, Konrad; Nandy, Krishanu; Schutzius, Thomas M.; Varanasi, Kripa K.; Megaridis, Constantine M.; Walther, Jens H.; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Espinosa, Horacio D.; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2015-08-01

    Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water. In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale, below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys - thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical predictions are consistent with molecular dynamics simulations and experiments.

  19. Artificial Ground Water Recharge with Surface Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heviánková, Silvie; Marschalko, Marian; Chromíková, Jitka; Kyncl, Miroslav; Korabík, Michal

    2016-10-01

    With regard to the adverse manifestations of the recent climatic conditions, Europe as well as the world have been facing the problem of dry periods that reduce the possibility of drawing drinking water from the underground sources. The paper aims to describe artificial ground water recharge (infiltration) that may be used to restock underground sources with surface water from natural streams. Among many conditions, it aims to specify the boundary and operational conditions of the individual aspects of the artificial ground water recharge technology. The principle of artificial infiltration lies in the design of a technical system, by means of which it is possible to conduct surplus water from one place (in this case a natural stream) into another place (an infiltration basin in this case). This way, the water begins to infiltrate into the underground resources of drinking water, while the mixed water composition corresponds to the water parameters required for drinking water.

  20. Radiolarian artificial neural network based paleo sea surface water temperature and salinity changes during the last glacial cycle in the Timor Sea, Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S. M.; Malmgren, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    The western Pacific water enters into the Timor Sea (tropical Indian Ocean) by the thermohaline conveyor belt, and this region is under the influence of the SW monsoon. The higher precipitation during the monsoon rains lower the surface salinity in the north-eastern Indian Ocean towards the Bay of Bengal; whereas, the Arabian Sea remains highly saline due to higher evaporation in the region surrounding Arabian deserts. The salinity contrast in the northern Indian Ocean is very unique, and the radiolarian micro-zooplanktons living in the surface water serve a very good proxy for the monsoonal changes in the surface sea-water temperature (SST) and salinity in the geological past. We studied radiolarian faunal variation in the core MD01-2378, located at ~13oS and ~121oE (1783 m water depth), at the inlet of the thermohaline circulation into the Timor Sea. We applied the modern radiolarian based artificial neural networks (ANNs) (Gupta and Malmgren, 2009) to derive the SST and salinity during August-October for the last 140 ka (the full last glacial cycle). Based on the mean estimates of the 10 ANNs, the root mean square error in prediction (RMSEP) for SST is ~1.4oC with correlation between observed and estimated values r=0.98 (Gupta and Malmgren, 2009). Similarly, the RMSEP is 0.3 psu (r=0.94) for the salinity estimates. We derived paleo-SSTs and salinity values using modern radiolarian ANNs and the fossil radiolarian data generated from the core for the last 140-ka (Fig.1). The age model of the core is based on δ18O benthic oxygen isotope stratigraphy and 21 AMS 14C ages up to ~30-ka (Holbourn et al., 2005). Paleo SST-summer varied between 22-28.5oC, and it is in very good agreement with the δ18O benthic record of Holbourn et al. (2005) defining the Last Glacial Maximum (~24 ka) and the Eemian (~125 ka) stages. The salinity fluctuated between 34-35 psu, and compared well with oxygen isotope record representing the LGM and Eemian periods. We gratefully acknowledge

  1. Groundwater-surface water interaction along the Upper Biebrza River, Poland: a spatial-temporal approach with temperature, head and seepage measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anibas, C.; Batelaan, O.; Verbeiren, B.; Buis, K.; Chormanski, J.; de Doncker, L.

    2010-12-01

    The knowledge of mechanisms of interaction of surface and groundwater in the hyporheic zone in rivers is essential for conserving, managing and restoring river adjacent wetlands and its habitats. Reliable estimation of groundwater-surface water exchange challenges hydrological sciences. A promising approach, overcoming limitations of individual methods, is the combination of different methodologies including flux estimates based on thermal measurements, piezometer nests, slug tests and seepage meters. In this contribution such a multi-methodology approach is tested for the Upper Biebrza River, Poland. Time series of thermal profiles are obtained for a period of 9 months. The thermal and physical soil properties show strong spatial and vertical heterogeneities typical for the peat soils of the area. Transient simulations with the numerical 1D heat transport model STRIVE were used to quantify the vertical advective fluxes in the riverbed allowing a first level investigation of groundwater-surface water exchange. The net exchange along the examined section during the 9 month is estimated as a 10.4 mm/d upward flux, which is evaluated as a relatively low intensity of groundwater seepage. Time series of both temperature and hydraulic head gradients were used to calculate hydraulic conductivities and to quantify transient groundwater-surface water exchanges for three locations. They indicated an exchange flux relatively relative stable in time only interrupted by peak values during flood events. Seepage meter measurements provided independent verification results. Interpolating calculated fluxes along the river with GIS techniques resulted in spatially distributed interaction maps. Sections of higher fluxes are statistically correlated to the proximity of the river to the morainic plateaus, which border the river alluvium. In sections where the river is central in the alluvium and relatively far away from the upland low or infiltrating conditions are obtained. This

  2. Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) dataset is a global monthly sea surface temperature analysis derived from the International Comprehensive...

  3. NOAA Global Surface Temperature (NOAAGlobalTemp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Global Surface Temperature Dataset (NOAAGlobalTemp) is a merged land–ocean surface temperature analysis (formerly known as MLOST) (link is external). It is...

  4. Evaluation of ASTER-Like Daily Land Surface Temperature by Fusing ASTER and MODIS Data during the HiWATER-MUSOEXE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guijun Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST is an important parameter that is highly responsive to surface energy fluxes and has become valuable to many disciplines. However, it is difficult to acquire satellite LSTs with both high spatial and temporal resolutions due to tradeoffs between them. Thus, various algorithms/models have been developed to enhance the spatial or the temporal resolution of thermal infrared (TIR data or LST, but rarely both. The Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM is the widely-used data fusion algorithm for Landsat and MODIS imagery to produce Landsat-like surface reflectance. In order to extend the STARFM application over heterogeneous areas, an enhanced STARFM (ESTARFM approach was proposed by introducing a conversion coefficient and the spectral unmixing theory. The aim of this study is to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the ESTARFM algorithm for generating ASTER-like daily LST by three approaches: simulated data, ground measurements and remote sensing products, respectively. The datasets of LST ground measurements, MODIS, and ASTER images were collected in an arid region of Northwest China during the first thematic HiWATER-Multi-Scale Observation Experiment on Evapotranspiration (MUSOEXE over heterogeneous land surfaces in 2012 from May to September. Firstly, the results of the simulation test indicated that ESTARFM could accurately predict background with temperature variations, even coordinating with small ground objects and linear ground objects. Secondly, four temporal ASTER and MODIS data fusion LSTs (i.e., predicted ASTER-like LST products were highly consistent with ASTER LST products. Here, the four correlation coefficients were greater than 0.92, root mean square error (RMSE reached about 2 K and mean absolute error (MAE ranged from 1.32 K to 1.73 K. Finally, the results of the ground measurement validation indicated that the overall accuracy was high (R2 = 0.92, RMSE = 0.77 K, and the

  5. Temperature dependent droplet impact dynamics on flat and textured surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azar Alizadeh; Vaibhav Bahadur; Sheng Zhong; Wen Shang; Ri Li; James Ruud; Masako Yamada; Liehi Ge; Ali Dhinojwala; Manohar S Sohal (047160)

    2012-03-01

    Droplet impact dynamics determines the performance of surfaces used in many applications such as anti-icing, condensation, boiling and heat transfer. We study impact dynamics of water droplets on surfaces with chemistry/texture ranging from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic and across a temperature range spanning below freezing to near boiling conditions. Droplet retraction shows very strong temperature dependence especially for hydrophilic surfaces; it is seen that lower substrate temperatures lead to lesser retraction. Physics-based analyses show that the increased viscosity associated with lower temperatures can explain the decreased retraction. The present findings serve to guide further studies of dynamic fluid-structure interaction at various temperatures.

  6. Evaluation of ESTARFM based algorithm for generating land surface temperature products by fusing ASTER and MODIS data during the HiWATER-MUSOEXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land surface temperature (LST) is an important parameter that is highly responsive to surface energy fluxes and has become valuable to many disciplines. However, it is difficult to acquire satellite LSTs with both high spatial and temporal resolutions due to tradeoffs between them. Thus, various alg...

  7. The Pacific sea surface temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglass, David H., E-mail: douglass@pas.rochester.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States)

    2011-12-05

    The Pacific sea surface temperature data contains two components: N{sub L}, a signal that exhibits the familiar El Niño/La Niña phenomenon and N{sub H}, a signal of one-year period. Analysis reveals: (1) The existence of an annual solar forcing F{sub S}; (2) N{sub H} is phase locked directly to F{sub S} while N{sub L} is frequently phase locked to the 2nd or 3rd subharmonic of F{sub S}. At least ten distinct subharmonic time segments of N{sub L} since 1870 are found. The beginning or end dates of these segments have a near one-to-one correspondence with the abrupt climate changes previously reported. Limited predictability is possible. -- Highlights: ► El Niño/La Niña consists of 2 components phase-locked to annual solar cycle. ► The first component N{sub L} is the familiar El Niño/La Niña effect. ► The second N{sub H} component has a period of 1 cycle/year. ► N{sub L} can be phase-locked to 2nd or 3rd subharmonic of annual cycle. ► Ends of phase-locked segments correspond to abrupt previously reported climate changes.

  8. MODIS Surface Temperatures for Cryosphere Studies (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D. K.; Comiso, J. C.; DiGirolamo, N. E.; Shuman, C. A.; Riggs, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    We have used Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land-surface temperature (LST) and ice-surface temperature (IST) products for several applications in studies of the cryosphere. A climate-quality climate data record (CDR) of the IST of the Greenland ice sheet has been developed and was one of the data sources used to monitor the extreme melt event covering nearly the entire Greenland ice sheet on 11 - 12 July 2012. The IST CDR is available online for users to employ in models, and to study temperature distributions and melt trends on the ice sheet. We continue to assess accuracy of the IST product through comparative analysis with air temperature data from the NOAA Logan temperature sensor at Summit Station, Greenland. We find a small offset between the air temperature and the IST with the IST being slightly lower which is consistent with findings of other studies. The LST data product has been applied in studies of snow melt in regions where snow is a significant water resource. We have used LST data in seasonally snow-covered areas such as the Wind River Range, Wyoming, to monitor the relationship between LST and seasonal streamflow. A close association between a sudden and sustained increase in LST and complete snowmelt, and between melt-season maximum LST and maximum daily streamflow has been documented. Use of LST and MODIS snow-cover and products in hydrological models increases the accuracy of the modeled prediction of runoff. The IST and LST products have also been applied to study of sea ice, e.g. extent and concentration, and lake ice, such as determining ice-out dates, and these efforts will also be described.

  9. Lake surface water temperatures of European Alpine lakes (1989–2013 based on the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR 1 km data set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Riffler

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lake water temperature (LWT is an important driver of lake ecosystems and it has been identified as an indicator of climate change. Thus, the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS lists LWT as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV. Although for some European lakes long in situ time series of LWT do exist, many lakes are not observed or only on a non-regular basis making these observations insufficient for climate monitoring. Satellite data can provide the information needed. However, only few satellite sensors offer the possibility to analyse time series which cover 25 years or more. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR is among these and has been flown as a heritage instrument for almost 35 years. It will be carried on for at least ten more years finally offering a unique opportunity for satellite-based climate studies. Herein we present a satellite-based lake surface water temperature (LSWT data set for European (pre-alpine water bodies based on the extensive AVHRR 1 km data record (1989–2013 of the Remote Sensing Research Group at the University of Bern. It has been compiled out of AVHRR/2 (NOAA-07, -09, -11, -14 and AVHRR/3 (NOAA-16, -17, -18, -19 and Metop-A data. The high accuracy needed for climate related studies requires careful pre-processing and consideration of the atmospheric state. Especially data from NOAA-16 and prior satellites were prone to noise, e.g., due to transmission errors or fluctuations in the instrument's thermal state. This has resulted in partly corrupted thermal calibration data and may cause errors of up to several Kelvin in the final resulting LSWT. Thus, a multi-stage correction scheme has been applied to the data to minimize these artefacts. The LSWT retrieval is based on a simulation-based scheme making use of the Radiative Transfer for TOVS (RTTOV Version 10 together with operational analysis and reanalysis data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. The resulting LSWTs

  10. Three perceptions of the evapotranspiration landscape: comparing spatial patterns from a distributed hydrological model, remotely sensed surface temperatures, and sub-basin water balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Conradt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A problem encountered by many distributed hydrological modelling studies is high simulation errors at interior gauges when the model is only globally calibrated at the outlet. We simulated river runoff in the Elbe River basin in Central Europe (148 268 km2 with the semi-distributed eco-hydrological model SWIM. While global parameter optimisation led to Nash–Sutcliffe efficiencies of 0.9 at the main outlet gauge, comparisons with measured runoff series at interior points revealed large deviations. Therefore, we compared three different stategies for deriving sub-basin evapotranspiration: (1 modelled by SWIM without any spatial calibration, (2 derived from remotely sensed surface temperatures, and (3 calculated from long-term precipitation and discharge data. The results show certain consistencies between the modelled and the remote sensing based evapotranspiration rates, but there seems to be no correlation between remote sensing and water balance based estimations. Subsequent analyses for single sub-basins identify input weather data and systematic error amplification in inter-gauge discharge calculations as sources of uncertainty. Further probable causes for epistemic uncertainties could be pinpointed. The results encourage careful utilisation of different data sources for calibration and validation procedures in distributed hydrological modelling.

  11. Water pressure head and temperature impact on isoxaflutole degradation in crop residues and loamy surface soil under conventional and conservation tillage management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alletto, Lionel; Coquet, Yves; Bergheaud, Valérie; Benoit, Pierre

    2012-08-01

    Laboratory incubations were performed in order to evaluate the dissipation of the proherbicide isoxaflutole in seedbed layer soil samples from conventional and conservation tillage systems and in maize and oat residues left at the soil surface under conservation tillage. The effects of temperature and water pressure head on radiolabelled isoxaflutole degradation were studied for each sample for 21d. Mineralisation of isoxaflutole was low for all samples and ranged from 0.0% to 0.9% of applied (14)C in soil samples and from 0.0% to 2.4% of applied (14)C in residue samples. In soil samples, degradation half-life of isoxaflutole ranged from 9 to 26h, with significantly higher values under conservation tillage. In residue samples, degradation half-life ranged from 3 to 31h, with significantly higher values in maize residues, despite a higher mineralisation and bound residue formation than in oat residues. Whatever the sample, most of the applied (14)C remained extractable during the experiment and, after 21d, less than 15% of applied (14)C were unextractable. This extractable fraction was composed of diketonitrile, benzoic acid derivative and several unidentified metabolites, with one of them accounting for more than 17% of applied (14)C. This study showed that tillage system design, including crop residues management, could help reducing the environmental impacts of isoxaflutole.

  12. Assessing the Impacts of the 2009/2010 Drought on Vegetation Indices, Normalized Difference Water Index, and Land Surface Temperature in Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Droughts are projected to increase in severity and frequency on both regional and global scales. Despite the increasing occurrence and intensity of the 2009/2010 drought in southwestern China, the impacts of drought on vegetation in this region remain unclear. We examined the impacts of the 2009/2010 drought in southwestern China on vegetation by calculating the standardized anomalies of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI, and Land Surface Temperature (LST. The standardized anomalies of NDVI, EVI, and NDWI exhibited positively skewed frequency distributions, while the standardized anomalies of LST exhibited a negatively skewed frequency distribution. These results implied that the NDVI, EVI, and NDWI declined, while LST increased in the 2009/2010 drought-stricken vegetated areas during the drought period. The responses of vegetation to the 2009/2010 drought differed substantially among biomes. Savannas, croplands, and mixed forests were more vulnerable to the 2009/2010 drought than deciduous forest and grasslands, while evergreen forest was resistant to the 2009/2010 drought in southwestern China. We concluded that the 2009/2010 drought had negative impacts on vegetation in southwestern China. The resulting assessment on the impacts of drought assists in evaluating and mitigating its adverse effects in southwestern China.

  13. Up-cycling waste glass to minimal water adsorption/absorption lightweight aggregate by rapid low temperature sintering: optimization by dual process-mixture response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velis, Costas A; Franco-Salinas, Claudia; O'Sullivan, Catherine; Najorka, Jens; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2014-07-01

    Mixed color waste glass extracted from municipal solid waste is either not recycled, in which case it is an environmental and financial liability, or it is used in relatively low value applications such as normal weight aggregate. Here, we report on converting it into a novel glass-ceramic lightweight aggregate (LWA), potentially suitable for high added value applications in structural concrete (upcycling). The artificial LWA particles were formed by rapidly sintering (waste glass powder with clay mixes using sodium silicate as binder and borate salt as flux. Composition and processing were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) modeling, and specifically (i) a combined process-mixture dual RSM, and (ii) multiobjective optimization functions. The optimization considered raw materials and energy costs. Mineralogical and physical transformations occur during sintering and a cellular vesicular glass-ceramic composite microstructure is formed, with strong correlations existing between bloating/shrinkage during sintering, density and water adsorption/absorption. The diametrical expansion could be effectively modeled via the RSM and controlled to meet a wide range of specifications; here we optimized for LWA structural concrete. The optimally designed LWA is sintered in comparatively low temperatures (825-835 °C), thus potentially saving costs and lowering emissions; it had exceptionally low water adsorption/absorption (6.1-7.2% w/wd; optimization target: 1.5-7.5% w/wd); while remaining substantially lightweight (density: 1.24-1.28 g.cm(-3); target: 0.9-1.3 g.cm(-3)). This is a considerable advancement for designing effective environmentally friendly lightweight concrete constructions, and boosting resource efficiency of waste glass flows.

  14. Total Phosphorus in Surface Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Excess phosphorus in surface water can result in eutrophication. TOTALP is reported in kilograms/hectare/year. More information about these resources, including the...

  15. Total Nitrogen in Surface Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Excess nitrogen in surface water can result in eutrophication. TOTALN is reported in kilograms/hectare/year. More information about these resources, including the...

  16. Free Surface Water Tunnel (FSWT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Free Surface Water Tunnel consists of the intake plenum, the test section and the exit plenum. The intake plenum starts with a perforated pipe that...

  17. Surface temperature measurements of diamond

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masina, BN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available ) and the waist position (z0) 3. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS There are many methods to measure the temperature of a body. Here we used a thermocou- ple and a pyrometer, while future plans involve emission spectroscopy. A thermocouple is a temperature... sensor that consists of two wires con- nected together made from different metals, which produces an electrical voltage that is dependant on tem- perature. A Newport electronic thermocou- ple was used to meas- ured temperature. It can measure...

  18. The effects of pressure and temperature on the energetics and pivotal surface in a monoacylglycerol/water gyroid inverse bicontinuous cubic phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, T-Y Dora; Seddon, Annela M; Jeworrek, Christoph; Winter, Roland; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M; Templer, Richard H

    2014-05-07

    We have studied the effect of pressure and temperature on the location of the pivotal surface in a lipid inverse bicontinuous gyroid cubic phase (Q(G)(II)), described by the area at the pivotal surface (An), the volume between the pivotal surface and the bilayer midplane (Vn), and the molecular volume of the lipid (V). Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was used to measure the swelling behaviour of the lipid, monolinolein, as a function of pressure and temperature, and the data were fitted to two different geometric models: the parallel interface model (PIM), and the constant mean curvature model (CMCM). The results show that an increase in temperature leads to a shift in the location of the pivotal surface towards the bilayer midplane, whilst an increase in pressure causes the pivotal surface to move towards the interfacial region. In addition, we describe the relevance of An, Vn and V for modeling the energetics of curved mesophases with specific reference to the mean curvature at the pivotal surface and discuss the significance of this parameter for modelling the energetics of curved mesophases.

  19. Water desorption from nanostructured graphite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Anna; Hellberg, Lars; Grönbeck, Henrik; Chakarov, Dinko

    2013-12-21

    Water interaction with nanostructured graphite surfaces is strongly dependent on the surface morphology. In this work, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) in combination with quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) has been used to study water ice desorption from a nanostructured graphite surface. This model surface was fabricated by hole-mask colloidal lithography (HCL) along with oxygen plasma etching and consists of a rough carbon surface covered by well defined structures of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). The results are compared with those from pristine HOPG and a rough (oxygen plasma etched) carbon surface without graphite nanostructures. The samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The TPD experiments were conducted for H2O coverages obtained after exposures between 0.2 and 55 langmuir (L) and reveal a complex desorption behaviour. The spectra from the nanostructured surface show additional, coverage dependent desorption peaks. They are assigned to water bound in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) hydrogen-bonded networks, defect-bound water, and to water intercalated into the graphite structures. The intercalation is more pronounced for the nanostructured graphite surface in comparison to HOPG surfaces because of a higher concentration of intersheet openings. From the TPD spectra, the desorption energies for water bound in 2D and 3D (multilayer) networks were determined to be 0.32 ± 0.06 and 0.41 ± 0.03 eV per molecule, respectively. An upper limit for the desorption energy for defect-bound water was estimated to be 1 eV per molecule.

  20. Water at surfaces with tunable surface chemistries and the chiral imprint of water around DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Poul

    Aqueous interfaces are ubiquitous in atmospheric chemistry and biological systems but are notoriously hard to probe experimentally. Surface-specific vibrational spectroscopy offers an avenue to directly probe the vibrational modes of the water OH stretching band but this method is challenging to implement to buried surfaces. Here we present results from sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy probing the buried interface between a functionalized surface and aqueous solutions. Studying such buried surfaces offers the advantage of being able to systematically tune the surface chemistry using self-assembled monolayers, i.e. the hydrophobic and hydrophilic character, and examine the effect on the interfacial water. In addition to water at these controlled surfaces, we have initiated studying water at biological surfaces. This includes the solvation structure around DNA. X-ray experiments at cryogenic temperatures have found crystallographic water in the minor grove of DNA giving rise to the notion of a spine of hydration surrounding DNA. Such structured water should exhibit a chiral structure adapted from DNA. We investigate if such a chiral water structure exist around DNA at room temperature using chiral SFG. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under a NSF CAREER Grant (CHE-1151079).

  1. High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

  2. A physically based model of global freshwater surface temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van L.P.H.; Eikelboom, T.; Vliet, van M.T.H.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2012-01-01

    Temperature determines a range of physical properties of water and exerts a strong control on surface water biogeochemistry. Thus, in freshwater ecosystems the thermal regime directly affects the geographical distribution of aquatic species through their growth and metabolism and indirectly through

  3. A physically based model of global freshwater surface temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van L.P.H.; Eikelboom, T.; Vliet, van M.T.H.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2012-01-01

    Temperature determines a range of physical properties of water and exerts a strong control on surface water biogeochemistry. Thus, in freshwater ecosystems the thermal regime directly affects the geographical distribution of aquatic species through their growth and metabolism and indirectly through

  4. Role of surface temperature in fluorocarbon plasma-surface interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Caleb T.; Overzet, Lawrence J.; Goeckner, Matthew J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, PO Box 830688, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    This article examines plasma-surface reaction channels and the effect of surface temperature on the magnitude of those channels. Neutral species CF{sub 4}, C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, and C{sub 3}F{sub 8} are produced on surfaces. The magnitude of the production channel increases with surface temperature for all species, but favors higher mass species as the temperature is elevated. Additionally, the production rate of CF{sub 2} increases by a factor of 5 as the surface temperature is raised from 25 Degree-Sign C to 200 Degree-Sign C. Fluorine density, on the other hand, does not change as a function of either surface temperature or position outside of the plasma glow. This indicates that fluorine addition in the gas-phase is not a dominant reaction. Heating reactors can result in higher densities of depositing radical species, resulting in increased deposition rates on cooled substrates. Finally, the sticking probability of the depositing free radical species does not change as a function of surface temperature. Instead, the surface temperature acts together with an etchant species (possibly fluorine) to elevate desorption rates on that surface at temperatures lower than those required for unassisted thermal desorption.

  5. How to repel hot water from a superhydrophobic surface?

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Zhejun

    2014-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces, with water contact angles greater than 150° and slide angles less than 10°, have attracted a great deal of attention due to their self-cleaning ability and excellent water-repellency. It is commonly accepted that a superhydrophobic surface loses its superhydrophobicity in contact with water hotter than 50 °C. Such a phenomenon was recently demonstrated by Liu et al. [J. Mater. Chem., 2009, 19, 5602], using both natural lotus leaf and artificial leaf-like surfaces. However, our work has shown that superhydrophobic surfaces maintained their superhydrophobicity, even in water at 80 °C, provided that the leaf temperature is greater than that of the water droplet. In this paper, we report on the wettability of water droplets on superhydrophobic thin films, as a function of both their temperatures. The results have shown that both the water contact and slide angles on the surfaces will remain unchanged when the temperature of the water droplet is greater than that of the surface. The water contact angle, or the slide angle, will decrease or increase, however, with droplet temperatures increasingly greater than that of the surfaces. We propose that, in such cases, the loss of superhydrophobicity of the surfaces is caused by evaporation of the hot water molecules and their condensation on the cooler surface. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  6. Water vapor interactions with polycrystalline titanium surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoulay, A.; Shamir, N.; Volterra, V.; Mintz, M. H.

    1999-02-01

    The initial interactions of water vapor with polycrystalline titanium surfaces were studied at room temperature. Measurements of water vapor surface accumulation were performed in a combined surface analysis system incorporating direct recoils spectrometry (DRS), Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The kinetics of accommodation of the water dissociation fragments (H, O and OH) displayed a complex behavior depending not only on the exposure dose but also on the exposure pressure. For a given exposure dose the efficiency of chemisorption increased with increasing exposure pressure. DRS measurements indicated the occurrence of clustered hydroxyl moieties with tilted O-H bonds formed even at very low surface coverage. A model which assumes two parallel routes of chemisorption, by direct collisions (Langmuir type) and by a precursor state is proposed to account for the observed behavior. The oxidation efficiency of water seemed to be much lower than that of oxygen. No Ti 4+ states were detected even at high water exposure values. It is likely that hydroxyl species play an important role in the reduced oxidation efficiency of water.

  7. Comparison of MTI and Ground Truth Sea Surface Temperatures at Nauru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurzeja, R.

    2002-09-05

    This report evaluates MTI-derived surface water temperature near the tropical Pacific island of Nauru. The MTI sea-surface temperatures were determined by the Los Alamos National Laboratory based on the robust retrieval.

  8. The glass-liquid transition of water on hydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souda, Ryutaro

    2008-09-28

    Interactions of thin water films with surfaces of graphite and vitrified room-temperature ionic liquid [1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF(6)])] were investigated using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry as a function of temperature and annealing time to elucidate the glass-liquid transition of water at the molecular level. Surface diffusion of water occurs at temperatures higher than 120 K, thereby forming three-dimensional clusters (a two-dimensional layer) on the [bmim][PF(6)] (graphite) surface. The hydrophobic effect of the surface decreases with increasing coverage of water; the bulklike properties evolve up to 40 ML, as evidenced by the occurrence of film dewetting at around the conventional glass transition temperature (140 K). Results also showed that aging is necessary for the water monolayer (a 40 ML water film) to dewet the graphite ([bmim][PF(6)]) surface. The occurrence of aging is explainable by the successive evolution of two distinct liquids during the glass-liquid transition: low density liquid is followed by supercooled liquid water. The water monolayer on graphite is characterized by the preferred orientation of unpaired OH groups toward the surface; this structure is arrested during the aging time despite the occurrence of surface diffusion. However, the water monolayer formed on the [bmim][PF(6)] surface agglomerates immediately after the commencement of surface diffusion. The structure of low density liquid tends to be arrested by the attractive interaction with the neighbors.

  9. Mobile surface water filtration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aashish Vatsyayan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To design a mobile system for surface water filtrationMethodology: the filtration of surface impurities begins with their retraction to concentrated thickness using non ionising surfactants, then isolation using surface tension property and sedimentation of impurities in process chamber using electrocoagulation. Result:following studies done to determine the rate of spreading of crude oil on water a method for retraction of spread crude oil to concentrated volumes is developed involving addition of non -ionising surfactants in contrast to use of dispersants. Electrocoagulation process involves multiple processes taking place to lead to depositionof impurities such as oil, grease, metals. Studies of experiments conducted reveals parameters necessary for design of electrocoagulation process chamber though a holistic approach towards system designing is still required. Propeller theory is used in determining the required design of propeller and the desired thrust, the overall structure will finally contribute in deciding the choice of propeller.

  10. Gravity increased by lunar surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, James

    2013-04-01

    Quantitatively large effects of lunar surface temperature on apparent gravitational force measured by lunar laser ranging (LLR) and lunar perigee may challenge widely accepted theories of gravity. LLR data grouped by days from full moon shows the moon is about 5 percent closer to earth at full moon compared to 8 days before or after full moon. In a second, related result, moon perigees were least distant in days closer to full moon. Moon phase was used as proxy independent variable for lunar surface temperature. The results support the prediction by binary mechanics that gravitational force increases with object surface temperature.

  11. Drinking Water Temperature Modelling in Domestic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerman, A.; Blokker, M.; Vreeburg, J.; Van der Hoek, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Domestic water supply systems are the final stage of the transport process to deliver potable water to the customers’ tap. Under the influence of temperature, residence time and pipe materials the drinking water quality can change while the water passes the domestic drinking water system. According

  12. Similarity Theory of Withdrawn Water Temperature Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective withdrawal from a thermal stratified reservoir has been widely utilized in managing reservoir water withdrawal. Besides theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, model test was also necessary in studying the temperature of withdrawn water. However, information on the similarity theory of the withdrawn water temperature model remains lacking. Considering flow features of selective withdrawal, the similarity theory of the withdrawn water temperature model was analyzed theoretically based on the modification of governing equations, the Boussinesq approximation, and some simplifications. The similarity conditions between the model and the prototype were suggested. The conversion of withdrawn water temperature between the model and the prototype was proposed. Meanwhile, the fundamental theory of temperature distribution conversion was firstly proposed, which could significantly improve the experiment efficiency when the basic temperature of the model was different from the prototype. Based on the similarity theory, an experiment was performed on the withdrawn water temperature which was verified by numerical method.

  13. Water Temperature Dependence of Single Bubble Sonoluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Lohse, Detlef; Moss, William C.

    1998-01-01

    The strong dependence of the intensity of single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) on water temperature observed in experiment can be accounted for by the temperature dependence of the material constants of water, most essentially of the viscosity, of the argon solubility in water, and of the vapor

  14. Sea Surface Temperature Average_SST_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea surface temperature collected via satellite imagery from http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.noaa.ersst.html and averaged for each region using ArcGIS...

  15. OW NOAA GOES Sea-Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains satellite-derived sea-surface temperature measurements collected by means of the Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellite. The data is...

  16. evaluation of land surface temperature parameterization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1 DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS, ADEYEMI COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, ONDO, ... Surface temperature (Ts) is vital to the study of land-atmosphere interactions and climate variabilities. .... value = 0.167 m3m-3), and very low for dry days (mean.

  17. Monthly Near-Surface Air Temperature Averages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global surface temperatures in 2010 tied 2005 as the warmest on record. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) was established in 1982 as part...

  18. Sea Surface Temperature (14 KM North America)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Product shows local sea surface temperatures (degrees C). It is a composite gridded-image derived from 8-km resolution SST Observations. It is generated every 48...

  19. Analysed foundation sea surface temperature, global

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The through-cloud capabilities of microwave radiometers provide a valuable picture of global sea surface temperature (SST). To utilize this, scientists at Remote...

  20. Surface-Water Conditions in Georgia, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Jaime A.; Landers, Mark N.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Georgia Water Science Center-in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies-collected surface-water streamflow, water-quality, and ecological data during the 2005 Water Year (October 1, 2004-September 30, 2005). These data were compiled into layers of an interactive ArcReaderTM published map document (pmf). ArcReaderTM is a product of Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc (ESRI?). Datasets represented on the interactive map are * continuous daily mean streamflow * continuous daily mean water levels * continuous daily total precipitation * continuous daily water quality (water temperature, specific conductance dissolved oxygen, pH, and turbidity) * noncontinuous peak streamflow * miscellaneous streamflow measurements * lake or reservoir elevation * periodic surface-water quality * periodic ecological data * historical continuous daily mean streamflow discontinued prior to the 2005 water year The map interface provides the ability to identify a station in spatial reference to the political boundaries of the State of Georgia and other features-such as major streams, major roads, and other collection stations. Each station is hyperlinked to a station summary showing seasonal and annual stream characteristics for the current year and for the period of record. For continuous discharge stations, the station summary includes a one page graphical summary page containing five graphs, a station map, and a photograph of the station. The graphs provide a quick overview of the current and period-of-record hydrologic conditions of the station by providing a daily mean discharge graph for the water year, monthly statistics graph for the water year and period of record, an annual mean streamflow graph for the period of record, an annual minimum 7-day average streamflow graph for the period of record, and an annual peak streamflow graph for the period of record. Additionally, data can be accessed through the layer's link

  1. Urban aerosol effects on surface insolation and surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, M.; Burian, S. J.; Remer, L. A.; Shepherd, M. J.

    2007-12-01

    Urban aerosol particulates may play a fundamental role in urban microclimates and city-generated mesoscale circulations via its effects on energy balance of the surface. Key questions that need to be addressed include: (1) How do these particles affect the amount of solar energy reaching the surface and resulting surface temperature? (2) Is the effect the same in all cities? and (3) How does it vary from city to city? Using NASA AERONET in-situ observations, a radiative transfer model, and a regional climate mode (MM5), we assess aerosol effects on surface insolation and surf ace temperature for dense urban-polluted regions. Two big cities, one in a developing country (Beijing, P.R. China) and another in developed country (New York City, USA), are selected for inter-comparison. The study reveals that aerosol effects on surface temperature depends largely on aerosols' optical and chemical properties as well as atmosphere and land surface conditions, such as humidity and land cover. Therefore, the actual magnitudes of aerosol effects differ from city to city. Aerosol measurements from AERONET show both average and extreme cases for aerosol impacts on surface insolation. In general, aerosols reduce surface insolation by 30Wm-2. Nevertheless, in extreme cases, such reduction can exceed 100 Wm-2. Consequently, this reduces surface skin temperature 2-10C in an urban environment.

  2. Temperature Distribution Measurement of The Wing Surface under Icing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isokawa, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Takeshi; Kimura, Shigeo; Sakaue, Hirotaka; Morita, Katsuaki; Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Collaboration; Univ of Notre Dame Collaboration; Kanagawa Institute of Technology Collaboration; Univ of Electro-(UEC) Team, Comm

    2016-11-01

    De- or anti-icing system of an aircraft is necessary for a safe flight operation. Icing is a phenomenon which is caused by a collision of supercooled water frozen to an object. For the in-flight icing, it may cause a change in the wing cross section that causes stall, and in the worst case, the aircraft would fall. Therefore it is important to know the surface temperature of the wing for de- or anti-icing system. In aerospace field, temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) has been widely used for obtaining the surface temperature distribution on a testing article. The luminescent image from the TSP can be related to the temperature distribution. (TSP measurement system) In icing wind tunnel, we measured the surface temperature distribution of the wing model using the TSP measurement system. The effect of icing conditions on the TSP measurement system is discussed.

  3. Free energies of (Co, Fe, Ni, Zn)Fe₂O₄ spinels and oxides in water at high temperatures and pressure from density functional theory: results for stoichiometric NiO and NiFe₂O₄ surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, C J; Rák, Z; Brenner, D W

    2013-11-06

    A set of effective chemical potentials (ECPs) are derived that connect energies of (Co, Fe, Ni, Zn)Fe2O4 spinels and oxides calculated at 0 K from density functional theory (DFT) to free energies in high temperature and pressure water. The ECPs are derived and validated by solving a system of linear equations that combine DFT and experimental free energies for NiO, ZnO, Fe2O3, Fe3O4, FeO(OH), CoFe2O4, ZnFe2O4, NiFe2O4 and H2O. To connect to solution phase chemistry, a set of ECPs are also derived for solvated Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) ions using an analogous set of linear equations and the solid ECPs. The ECPs are used to calculate free energies of low index stoichiometric surfaces of nickel oxide (NiO) and nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) in water as a function of temperature from 300 to 600 K at a pressure of 155 bar. Surface denuding at high temperatures is predicted, the implications of which for the formation of oxide corrosion products on heat transfer surfaces in light-water nuclear reactors are discussed.

  4. Sea Surface Temperature from EUMETSAT Including Sentinel-3 SLSTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, Anne; Bonekamp, Hans; Montagner, Francois; Santacesaria, Vincenzo; Tomazic, Igor

    2015-12-01

    The paper gives an overview of sea surface temperature (SST) activities at EUMETSAT including information on SST planned from the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR). Operational oceanography activities within the Marine Applications group at EUMETSAT continue with a focus on SST, sea surface winds, sea-ice products, radiative fluxes, significant wave height and sea surface topography. These are achieved through the mandatory, optional and third-party programmes, and for some products with the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea-Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI SAF). Progress towards products from sea-ice surface temperature, ocean colour products, turbidity and aerosol optical depth over water continue. Information on oceanography products from EUMETSAT can be found through the product navigator (http://navigator.eumetsat.int). EUMETSAT have been collaborating with ESA for a number of years on the development of SST for SLSTR.

  5. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thadathil, Pankajakshan; Gopalakrishna, V. V.; Muraleedharan, P. M.; Reddy, G. V.; Araligidad, Nilesh; Shenoy, Shrikant

    2002-10-01

    Surface layer temperature inversion occurring in the Bay of Bengal has been addressed. Hydrographic data archived in the Indian Oceanographic Data Center are used to understand various aspects of the temperature inversion of surface layer in the Bay of Bengal, such as occurrence time, characteristics, stability, inter-annual variability and generating mechanisms. Spatially organized temperature inversion occurs in the coastal waters of the western and northeastern Bay during winter (November-February). Although the inversion in the northeastern Bay is sustained until February (with remnants seen even in March), in the western Bay it becomes less organized in January and almost disappears by February. Inversion is confined to the fresh water induced seasonal halocline of the surface layer. Inversions of large temperature difference (of the order of 1.6-2.4°C) and thin layer thickness (10-20 m) are located adjacent to major fresh water inputs from the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, Krishna and Godavari rivers. The inversion is stable with a mean stability of 3600×10 -8 m -1. Inter-annual variability of the inversion is significantly high and it is caused by the inter-annual variability of fresh water flux and surface cooling in the northern Bay. Fresh water flux leads the occurrence process in association with surface heat flux and advection. The leading role of fresh water flux is understood from the observation that the two occurrence regions of inversion (the western and northeastern Bay) have proximity to the two low salinity (with values about 28-29‰) zones. In the western Bay, the East India Coastal Current brings less saline and cold water from the head of the Bay to the south-west Bay, where it advects over warm, saline water, promoting temperature inversion in this region in association with the surface heat loss. For inversion occurring in the northeastern Bay (where the surface water gains heat from atmosphere), surface advection of the less saline

  6. Inland Water Temperature and the recent Global Warming Hiatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, S. J.; Healey, N.; Lenters, J. D.; O'Reilly, C.

    2015-12-01

    We are using thermal infrared satellite data in conjunction with in situ measurements to produce water temperatures for all the large inland water bodies in North America and the rest of the world for potential use as climate indicator. Recent studies have revealed significant warming of inland waters throughout the world. The observed rate of warming is - in many cases - greater than that of the ambient air temperature. These rapid, unprecedented changes in inland water temperatures have profound implications for lake hydrodynamics, productivity, and biotic communities. Scientists are just beginning to understand the global extent, regional patterns, physical mechanisms, and ecological consequences of lake warming. As part of our earlier studies we have collected thermal infrared satellite data from those satellite sensors that provide long-term and frequent spaceborne thermal infrared measurements of inland waters including ATSR, AVHRR, and MODIS and used these to examine trends in water surface temperature for approximately 169 of the largest inland water bodies in the world. We are now extending this work to generate temperature time-series of all North American inland water bodies that are sufficiently large to be studied using 1km resolution satellite data for the last 3 decades, approximately 268 lakes. These data are then being related to changes in the surface air temperature and compared with regional trends in water surface temperature derived from CMIP5/IPCC model simulations/projections to better predict future temperature changes. We will discuss the available datasets and processing methodologies together with the patterns they reveal based on recent changes in the global warming, with a particular focus on the inland waters of the southwestern USA.

  7. International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) Global Land Surface Temperature Databank - Stage 2 Monthly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global land surface temperature databank contains monthly timescale mean, max, and min temperature for approximately 40,000 stations globally. It was developed...

  8. International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) Global Land Surface Temperature Databank - Stage 2 Daily

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global land surface temperature databank contains monthly timescale mean, max, and min temperature for approximately 40,000 stations globally. It was developed...

  9. International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) Global Land Surface Temperature Databank - Stage 3 Monthly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Land Surface Temperature Databank contains monthly timescale mean, maximum, and minimum temperature for approximately 40,000 stations globally. It was...

  10. International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) Global Land Surface Temperature Databank - Stage 1 Daily

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global land surface temperature databank contains monthly timescale mean, max, and min temperature for approximately 40,000 stations globally. It was developed...

  11. International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) Global Land Surface Temperature Databank - Stage 1 Monthly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global land surface temperature databank contains monthly timescale mean, max, and min temperature for approximately 40,000 stations globally. It was developed...

  12. Calibration of surface temperature on rocky exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap Jagadeesh, Madhu

    2016-07-01

    Study of exoplanets and the search for life elsewhere has been a very fascinating area in recent years. Presently, lots of efforts have been channelled in this direction in the form of space exploration and the ultimate search for the habitable planet. One of the parametric methods to analyse the data available from the missions such as Kepler, CoRoT, etc, is the Earth Similarity Index (ESI), defined as a number between zero (no similarity) and one (identical to Earth), introduced to assess the Earth likeness of exoplanets. A multi-parameter ESI scale depends on the radius, density, escape velocity and surface temperature of exoplanets. Our objective is to establish how exactly the individual parameters, entering the interior ESI and surface ESI, are contributing to the global ESI, using the graphical analysis. Presently, the surface temperature estimates are following a correction factor of 30 K, based on the Earth's green-house effect. The main objective of this work in calculations of the global ESI using the HabCat data is to introduce a new method to better estimate the surface temperature of exoplanets, from theoretical formula with fixed albedo factor and emissivity (Earth values). From the graphical analysis of the known data for the Solar System objects, we established the calibration relation between surface and equilibrium temperatures for the Solar System objects. Using extrapolation we found that the power function is the closest description of the trend to attain surface temperature. From this we conclude that the correction term becomes very effective way to calculate the accurate value of the surface temperature, for further analysis with our graphical methodology.

  13. Integrative inversion of land surface component temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Wenjie; XU Xiru

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the row winter wheat was selected as the example to study the component temperature inversion method of land surface target in detail. The result showed that the structural pattern of row crop can affect the inversion precision of component temperature evidently. Choosing appropriate structural pattern of row crop can improve the inversion precision significantly. The iterative method combining inverse matrix was a stable method that was fit for inversing component temperature of land surface target. The result of simulation and field experiment showed that the integrative method could remarkably improve the inversion accuracy of the lighted soil surface temperature and the top layer canopy temperature, and enhance inversion stability of components temperature. Just two parameters were sufficient for accurate atmospheric correction of multi-angle and multi-spectral thermal infrared data: atmospheric transmittance and the atmospheric upwelling radiance. If the atmospheric parameters and component temperature can be inversed synchronously, the really and truly accurate atmospheric correction can be achieved. The validation using ATSRII data showed that the method was useful.

  14. Streamers sliding on a water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akishev, Yuri Semenov; Karalnik, Vladimir; Medvedev, Mikhail; Petryakov, Alexander; Trushkin, Nikolay; Shafikov, Airat

    2017-06-01

    The features of an electrical interaction between surface streamers (thin current filaments) sliding on a liquid and liquid itself are still unknown in many details. This paper presents the experimental results on properties of the surface streamers sliding on water with different conductivity (distilled and tap water). The streamers were initiated with a sharpened thin metallic needle placed above the liquid and stressed with a periodical or pulsed high voltage. Two electrode systems were used and tested. The first of them provides in advance the existence of the longitudinal electric field above the water. The second one imitates the electrode geometry of a pin-to-plane dielectric barrier discharge in which the barrier is a thick layer of liquid. The electrical and optical characteristics of streamers were complemented with data on the spectroscopic measurements. It was revealed that surface streamers on water have no spatial memory. Contribution to the topical issue "The 15th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi and Tomáš Hoder

  15. A molecular dynamics study on surface properties of supercooled water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Yongjun; WEI Bingbo

    2006-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the surface properties of water in a temperature range from 228 to 293 K by using the extended simple point charge (SPC/E) and four-site TIP4P potentials. The calculated surface tension increases with the decrease of temperature, and moreover the slopes of the surface tension-temperature curves show a weak rise below 273 K, whereas no obvious anomalies appear near 228 K, which accords with the previous experiments. Compared with the measured values, the SPC/E potential shows a good agreement, and the TIP4P potential scription of the surface structure of supercooled water for the SPC/E. When simulating the orientational distributions of water molecules near the surface, the SPC/E potential produces higher ordering and larger surface potentials than the TIP4P potential.

  16. Global modelling of Cryptosporidium in surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Lucie; Hofstra, Nynke

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Waterborne pathogens that cause diarrhoea, such as Cryptosporidium, pose a health risk all over the world. In many regions quantitative information on pathogens in surface water is unavailable. Our main objective is to model Cryptosporidium concentrations in surface waters worldwide. We present the GloWPa-Crypto model and use the model in a scenario analysis. A first exploration of global Cryptosporidium emissions to surface waters has been published by Hofstra et al. (2013). Further work has focused on modelling emissions of Cryptosporidium and Rotavirus to surface waters from human sources (Vermeulen et al 2015, Kiulia et al 2015). A global waterborne pathogen model can provide valuable insights by (1) providing quantitative information on pathogen levels in data-sparse regions, (2) identifying pathogen hotspots, (3) enabling future projections under global change scenarios and (4) supporting decision making. Material and Methods GloWPa-Crypto runs on a monthly time step and represents conditions for approximately the year 2010. The spatial resolution is a 0.5 x 0.5 degree latitude x longitude grid for the world. We use livestock maps (http://livestock.geo-wiki.org/) combined with literature estimates to calculate spatially explicit livestock Cryptosporidium emissions. For human Cryptosporidium emissions, we use UN population estimates, the WHO/UNICEF JMP sanitation country data and literature estimates of wastewater treatment. We combine our emissions model with a river routing model and data from the VIC hydrological model (http://vic.readthedocs.org/en/master/) to calculate concentrations in surface water. Cryptosporidium survival during transport depends on UV radiation and water temperature. We explore pathogen emissions and concentrations in 2050 with the new Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) 1 and 3. These scenarios describe plausible future trends in demographics, economic development and the degree of global integration. Results and

  17. Water molecules orientation in surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingo, V. V.

    2000-08-01

    The water molecules orientation has been investigated theoretically in the water surface layer. The surface molecule orientation is determined by the direction of a molecule dipole moment in relation to outward normal to the water surface. Entropy expressions of the superficial molecules in statistical meaning and from thermodynamical approach to a liquid surface tension have been found. The molecules share directed opposite to the outward normal that is hydrogen protons inside is equal 51.6%. 48.4% water molecules are directed along to surface outward normal that is by oxygen inside. A potential jump at the water surface layer amounts about 0.2 volts.

  18. Adsorbed water on iron surface by molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, F.W.; Campos, T.M.B.; Cividanes, L.S., E-mail: flaviano@ita.br; Simonetti, E.A.N.; Thim, G.P.

    2016-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We developed a new force field to describe the Fe–H{sub 2}O interaction. • We developed a new force field to describe the flexible water model at low temperature. • We analyze the orientation of water along the iron surface. • We calculate the vibrational spectra of water near the iron surface. • We found a complex relationship between water orientation and the atomic vibrational spectra at different sites of adsorption along the iron surface. - Abstract: The adsorption of H{sub 2}O molecules on metal surfaces is important to understand the early process of water corrosion. This process can be described by computational simulation using molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo. However, this simulation demands an efficient description of the surface interactions between the water molecule and the metallic surface. In this study, an effective force field to describe the iron-water surface interactions was developed and it was used in a molecular dynamics simulation. The results showed a very good agreement between the simulated vibrational-DOS spectrum and the experimental vibrational spectrum of the iron–water interface. The water density profile revealed the presence of a water double layer in the metal interface. Furthermore, the horizontal mapping combined with the angular distribution of the molecular plane allowed the analysis of the water structure above the surface, which in turn agrees with the model of the double layer on metal surfaces.

  19. Determination of sea surface temperatures from microwave and IR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, S.; Grover, J.

    1982-01-01

    Microwave measurements from the Nimbus 7 SMMR were used to derive the atmospheric precipitable water, which was then used to obtain the atmospheric correction for use with AVHRR thermal IR measurements to obtain sea surface temperature (SST). The resulting SST's were compared with the NOAA operational sea surface temperature measurements, and the two sets of measurements were found to be in reasonable agreement. The average residuals between the two sets of measurements was 0.15 K with the NOAA operational SST's being slightly greater.

  20. Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, David R [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil-water potential, and soil moisture as a function of depth below the ground surface at hourly intervals. The temperature profiles are measured directly by in situ sensors at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The soil-water potential and soil moisture profiles are derived from measurements of soil temperature rise in response to small inputs of heat. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil.

  1. The Land Surface Temperature Impact to Land Cover Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, I.; Abu Samah, A.; Fauzi, R.; Noor, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Land cover type is an important signature that is usually used to understand the interaction between the ground surfaces with the local temperature. Various land cover types such as high density built up areas, vegetation, bare land and water bodies are areas where heat signature are measured using remote sensing image. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of land surface temperature on land cover types. The objectives are 1) to analyse the mean temperature for each land cover types and 2) to analyse the relationship of temperature variation within land cover types: built up area, green area, forest, water bodies and bare land. The method used in this research was supervised classification for land cover map and mono window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) extraction. The statistical analysis of post hoc Tukey test was used on an image captured on five available images. A pixel-based change detection was applied to the temperature and land cover images. The result of post hoc Tukey test for the images showed that these land cover types: built up-green, built up-forest, built up-water bodies have caused significant difference in the temperature variation. However, built up-bare land did not show significant impact at p<0.05. These findings show that green areas appears to have a lower temperature difference, which is between 2° to 3° Celsius compared to urban areas. The findings also show that the average temperature and the built up percentage has a moderate correlation with R2 = 0.53. The environmental implications of these interactions can provide some insights for future land use planning in the region.

  2. Temperature limit values for gripping cold surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malchaire, J.; Geng, Q.; Den Hartog, E.; Havenith, G.; Holmer, I.; Piette, A.; Powell, S.L.; Rintamäki, H.; Rissanen, S.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. At the request of the European Commission and in the framework of the European Machinery Directive, research was conducted jointly in five different laboratories to develop specifications for surface temperature limit values for the gripping and handling of cold items. Methods. Four

  3. Temperature limit values for gripping cold surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malchaire, J.; Geng, Q.; Den Hartog, E.; Havenith, G.; Holmer, I.; Piette, A.; Powell, S.L.; Rintamäki, H.; Rissanen, S.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. At the request of the European Commission and in the framework of the European Machinery Directive, research was conducted jointly in five different laboratories to develop specifications for surface temperature limit values for the gripping and handling of cold items. Methods. Four hund

  4. Surface temperature excess in heterogeneous catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, L.

    2005-01-01

    In this dissertation we study the surface temperature excess in heterogeneous catalysis. For heterogeneous reactions, such as gas-solid catalytic reactions, the reactions take place at the interfaces between the two phases: the gas and the solid catalyst. Large amount of reaction heats are released

  5. Surface temperature excess in heterogeneous catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, L.

    2005-01-01

    In this dissertation we study the surface temperature excess in heterogeneous catalysis. For heterogeneous reactions, such as gas-solid catalytic reactions, the reactions take place at the interfaces between the two phases: the gas and the solid catalyst. Large amount of reaction heats are released

  6. Trend patterns in global sea surface temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, S.M.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2009-01-01

    Isolating long-term trend in sea surface temperature (SST) from El Nino southern oscillation (ENSO) variability is fundamental for climate studies. In the present study, trend-empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, a robust space-time method for extracting trend patterns, is applied...

  7. Rocky Mountain Arsenal surface water management plan : water year 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Surface Water Management Plan (SWMP) for Water Year 2003 (WY 2003) (October I, 2002 to September 30, 2003) is an assessment of the nonpotable water demands at...

  8. Rocky Mountain Arsenal surface water management plan : water year 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Surface Water Management Plan for Water Year (WY) 2005 (October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2005) is an assessment of the nonpotable water demands at the Rocky...

  9. Rocky Mountain Arsenal surface water management plan : water year 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Surface Water Management Plan for Water Year (WY) 2006 (October 1, 2005 to September 30, 2006) is an assessment of the nonpotable water demands at the Rocky...

  10. DISAGGREGATION OF GOES LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURES USING SURFACE EMISSIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate temporal and spatial estimation of land surface temperatures (LST) is important for modeling the hydrological cycle at field to global scales because LSTs can improve estimates of soil moisture and evapotranspiration. Using remote sensing satellites, accurate LSTs could be routine, but unfo...

  11. Surface defects and temperature on atomic friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajardo, O Y; Mazo, J J, E-mail: yovany@unizar.es [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-09-07

    We present a theoretical study of the effect of surface defects on atomic friction in the stick-slip dynamical regime of a minimalistic model. We focus on how the presence of defects and temperature change the average properties of the system. We have identified two main mechanisms which modify the mean friction force of the system when defects are considered. As expected, defects change the potential profile locally and thus affect the friction force. But the presence of defects also changes the probability distribution function of the tip slip length and thus the mean friction force. We corroborated both effects for different values of temperature, external load, dragging velocity and damping. We also show a comparison of the effects of surface defects and surface disorder on the dynamics of the system. (paper)

  12. Surface water discharges from onshore stripper wells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-01-16

    Under current US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules, small onshore oil producers are allowed to discharge produced water to surface waters with approval from state agencies; but small onshore gas producers, however, are prohibited from discharging produced water to surface waters. The purpose of this report is to identify those states that allow surface water discharges from small onshore oil operations and to summarize the types of permitting controls they use. It is intended that the findings of this report will serve as a rationale to encourage the EPA to revise its rules and to remove the prohibition on surface water discharges from small gas operations.

  13. Surface temperature distribution in broiler houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Baracho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Brazilian meat production scenario broiler production is the most dynamic segment. Despite of the knowledge generated in the poultry production chain, there are still important gaps on Brazilian rearing conditions as housing is different from other countries. This research study aimed at analyzing the variation in bird skin surface as function of heat distribution inside broiler houses. A broiler house was virtually divided into nine sectors and measurements were made during the first four weeks of the grow-out in a commercial broiler farm in the region of Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brazil. Rearing ambient temperature and relative humidity, as well as light intensity and air velocity, were recorded in the geometric center of each virtual sector to evaluate the homogeneity of these parameters. Broiler surface temperatures were recorded using infrared thermography. Differences both in surface temperature (Ts and dry bulb temperature (DBT were significant (p<0.05 as a function of week of rearing. Ts was different between the first and fourth weeks (p<0.05 in both flocks. Results showed important variations in rearing environment parameters (temperature and relative humidity and in skin surface temperature as a function of week and house sector. Air velocity data were outside the limits in the first and third weeks in several sectors. Average light intensity values presented low variation relative to week and house sector. The obtained values were outside the recommended ranges, indicating that broilers suffered thermal distress. This study points out the need to record rearing environment data in order to provide better environmental control during broiler grow-out.

  14. Near–surface air temperature and snow skin temperature comparison from CREST-SAFE station data with MODIS land surface temperature data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Pérez Díaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is a key variable (commonly studied to understand the hydrological cycle that helps drive the energy balance and water exchange between the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. One observable constituent of much importance in the land surface water balance model is snow. Snow cover plays a critical role in the regional to global scale hydrological cycle because rain-on-snow with warm air temperatures accelerates rapid snow-melt, which is responsible for the majority of the spring floods. Accurate information on near-surface air temperature (T-air and snow skin temperature (T-skin helps us comprehend the energy and water balances in the Earth's hydrological cycle. T-skin is critical in estimating latent and sensible heat fluxes over snow covered areas because incoming and outgoing radiation fluxes from the snow mass and the air temperature above make it different from the average snowpack temperature. This study investigates the correlation between MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS LST data and observed T-air and T-skin data from NOAA-CREST-Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE for the winters of 2013 and 2014. LST satellite validation is imperative because high-latitude regions are significantly affected by climate warming and there is a need to aid existing meteorological station networks with the spatially continuous measurements provided by satellites. Results indicate that near-surface air temperature correlates better than snow skin temperature with MODIS LST data. Additional findings show that there is a negative trend demonstrating that the air minus snow skin temperature difference is inversely proportional to cloud cover. To a lesser extent, it will be examined whether the surface properties at the site are representative for the LST properties within the instrument field of view.

  15. Near-surface air temperature and snow skin temperature comparison from CREST-SAFE station data with MODIS land surface temperature data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Díaz, C. L.; Lakhankar, T.; Romanov, P.; Muñoz, J.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Yu, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a key variable (commonly studied to understand the hydrological cycle) that helps drive the energy balance and water exchange between the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. One observable constituent of much importance in the land surface water balance model is snow. Snow cover plays a critical role in the regional to global scale hydrological cycle because rain-on-snow with warm air temperatures accelerates rapid snow-melt, which is responsible for the majority of the spring floods. Accurate information on near-surface air temperature (T-air) and snow skin temperature (T-skin) helps us comprehend the energy and water balances in the Earth's hydrological cycle. T-skin is critical in estimating latent and sensible heat fluxes over snow covered areas because incoming and outgoing radiation fluxes from the snow mass and the air temperature above make it different from the average snowpack temperature. This study investigates the correlation between MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data and observed T-air and T-skin data from NOAA-CREST-Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE) for the winters of 2013 and 2014. LST satellite validation is imperative because high-latitude regions are significantly affected by climate warming and there is a need to aid existing meteorological station networks with the spatially continuous measurements provided by satellites. Results indicate that near-surface air temperature correlates better than snow skin temperature with MODIS LST data. Additional findings show that there is a negative trend demonstrating that the air minus snow skin temperature difference is inversely proportional to cloud cover. To a lesser extent, it will be examined whether the surface properties at the site are representative for the LST properties within the instrument field of view.

  16. Titanium Dioxide Volatility in High Temperature Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, QynhGiao N.

    2008-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) containing materials are of high interest to the aerospace industry due to its high temperature capability, strength, and light weight. As with most metals an exterior oxide layer naturally exists in environments that contain oxygen (i.e. air). At high temperatures, water vapor plays a key role in the volatility of materials including oxide surfaces. This study will evaluate cold pressed titanium dioxide (TiO2) powder pellets at a temperature range of 1400 C - 1200 C in water containing environments to determine the volatile hydroxyl species using the transpiration method. The water content ranged from 0-76 mole% and the oxygen content range was 0-100 mole % during the 20-250 hour exposure times. Preliminary results indicate that oxygen is not a key contributor at these temperatures and the following reaction is the primary volatile equation for all three temperatures: TiO2 (s) + H2O (g) = TiO(OH)2 (g).

  17. Water Recycling removal using temperature-sensitive hydronen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana B. Gupta

    2002-10-30

    The overall objective of this project was to study the proposed Water Recycling/Removal Using Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogels. The main element of this technology is the design of a suitable hydrogel that can perform needed water separation for pulp and paper industry. The specific topics studied are to answer following questions: (a) Can water be removed using hydrogel from large molecules such as lignin? (b) Can the rate of separation be made faster? (c) What are the molecular interactions with hydrogel surface? (d) Can a hydrogel be designed for a high ionic strength and high temperature? Summary of the specific results are given.

  18. Geomagnetic effects on the average surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballatore, P.

    Several results have previously shown as the solar activity can be related to the cloudiness and the surface solar radiation intensity (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 59, 1225, 1997; Veretenenkoand Pudovkin, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 61, 521, 1999). Here, the possible relationships between the averaged surface temperature and the solar wind parameters or geomagnetic activity indices are investigated. The temperature data used are the monthly SST maps (generated at RAL and available from the related ESRIN/ESA database) that represent the averaged surface temperature with a spatial resolution of 0.5°x0.5° and cover the entire globe. The interplanetary data and the geomagnetic data are from the USA National Space Science Data Center. The time interval considered is 1995-2000. Specifically, possible associations and/or correlations of the average temperature with the interplanetary magnetic field Bz component and with the Kp index are considered and differentiated taking into account separate geographic and geomagnetic planetary regions.

  19. NOAA NDBC SOS - sea_water_temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NDBC SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have sea_water_temperature data. Because of the nature of SOS requests,...

  20. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Water Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have water temperature data. *These services are for testing and evaluation...

  1. Comparison of MTI Water Temperatures with Ground Truth Measurements at Crater Lake, OR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurzeja, R.J.

    2002-12-09

    Water surface temperatures calculated with the Los Alamos National Laboratory Robust algorithm were compared with ground truth water temperature measurements near the Oregon State University buoy in Crater Lake, OR. Bulk water measurements at the OSU buoy were corrected for the skin temperature depression and temperature gradient in the top 10 cm of the water to find the water surface temperature for 18 MTI images for June 2000 to Feb 2002. The MTI robust temperatures were found to be biased by 0.1C, with an RMS error of 1.9C compared with the ground truth water surface temperatures. When corrected for the errors in the buoy temperatures the RMS was reduced to 1.3C. This RMS difference is greater than the 1C found at the Pacific Island of Nauru because of the greater variability in the lake temperature and the atmosphere at Crater Lake and the much smaller target area used in the comparison.

  2. Remote Sensing and Synchronous Land Surface Measurements of Soil Moisture and Soil Temperature in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolev, N. V.; Penev, K. P.; Kirkova, Y. M.; Krustanov, B. S.; Nazarsky, T. G.; Dimitrov, G. K.; Levchev, C. P.; Prodanov, H. I.; Kraleva, L. H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents the results of remote sensing and synchronous land surface measurements for estimation of soil (surface and profile) water content and soil temperature for different soil types in Bulgaria. The relationship between radiometric temperature and soil surface water content is shown. The research is illustrated by some results from aircraft and land surface measurements carried out over three test areas near Pleven, Sofia and Plovdiv, respectively, during the period 1988-1990.

  3. Water surface capturing by image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alternative means of measuring the water surface interface during laboratory experiments is processing a series of sequentially captured images. Image processing can provide a continuous, non-intrusive record of the water surface profile whose accuracy is not dependent on water depth. More trad...

  4. Effect of treatment temperature on surface wettability of methylcyclosiloxane layer formed by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Takahiro; Sasagawa, Keisuke; Furukawa, Takuya; Kumagai, Sou; Yamamoto, Erina; Chiba, Satoshi; Kamiyama, Naosumi; Kiguchi, Takayoshi

    2016-08-01

    The surface wettability of the native Si oxide surfaces were tuned by chemical adsorption of 1,3,5,7-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (TMCTS) molecules through thermal CVD method at different temperature. Water contact angle measurements revealed that the water contact angles of the TMCTS-modified Si oxide surfaces at the temperature of 333-373 K were found to be in the range of 92 ± 2-102 ± 2°. The advancing and receding water contact angle of the surface prepared at 333 K were found to be 97 ± 2/92 ± 2°, showing low contact angle hysteresis surface. The water contact angles of the surfaces prepared at the temperature of 373-413 K increased with an increase in the treatment temperature. When the treatment temperature was more than 423 K, the water contact angles of TMCTS-modified surfaces were found to become more than 150°, showing superhydrophobic surface. AFM study revealed that the surface roughness of the TMCTS-modified surface increased with an increase in the treatment temperature. This geometric morphology enhanced the surface hydrophobicity. The surface roughness could be fabricated due to the hydrolysis/condensation reactions in the gas phase during CVD process. The effect of the treatment temperature on the reactivity of the TMCTS molecules were also investigated using a thermogravimetric analyzer.

  5. Second Inflection Point of the Surface Tension of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalova, Jana; Mares, Radim

    2012-06-01

    The theme of a second inflection point of the temperature dependence of the surface tension of water remains a subject of controversy. Using data above 273 K, it is difficult to get a proof of existence of the second inflection point, because of experimental uncertainties. Data for the surface tension of supercooled water and results of a molecular dynamics study were included into the exploration of existence of an inflection point. A new term was included into the IAPWS equation to describe the surface tension in the supercooled water region. The new equation describes the surface tension values of ordinary water between 228 K and 647 K and leads to the inflection point value at a temperature of about 1.5 °C.

  6. Actual evaporation estimation from infrared measurement of soil surface temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Pognant

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the hydrological cycle, actual evaporation represents the second most important process in terms of volumes of water transported, second only to the precipitation phenomena. Several methods for the estimation of the Ea were proposed by researchers in scientific literature, but the estimation of the Ea from potential evapotranspiration often requires the knowledge of hard-to-find parameters (e.g.: vegetation morphology, vegetation cover, interception of rainfall by the canopy, evaporation from the canopy surface and uptake of water by plant roots and many existing database are characterized by missing or incomplete information that leads to a rough estimation of the actual evaporation amount. Starting from the above considerations, the aim of this study is to develop and validate a method for the estimation of the Ea based on two steps: i the potential evaporation estimation by using the meteorological data (i.e. Penman-Monteith; ii application of a correction factor based on the infrared soil surface temperature measurements. The dataset used in this study were collected during two measurement campaigns conducted both in a plain testing site (Grugliasco, Italy, and in a mountain South-East facing slope (Cogne, Italy. During those periods, hourly measurement of air temperature, wind speed, infrared surface temperature, soil heat flux, and soil water content were collected. Results from the dataset collected in the two testing sites show a good agreement between the proposed method and reference methods used for the Ea estimation.

  7. Water temperature impacts water consumption by range cattle in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water consumption and DMI have been found to be positively correlated, which may interact with ingestion of cold water or grazed frozen forage due to transitory reductions in temperature of ruminal contents. The hypothesis underpinning the study explores the potential that cows provided warm drinkin...

  8. Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) Surface Water Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a point feature dataset showing the locations of surface water intakes. These intake locations are part of the safe drinking water information system...

  9. Biological control of surface temperature in the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyendranath, Shubha; Gouveia, Albert D.; Shetye, Satish R.; Ravindran, P.; Platt, Trevor

    1991-01-01

    In the Arabian Sea, the southwest monsoon promotes seasonal upwelling of deep water, which supplies nutrients to the surface layer and leads to a marked increase in phytoplankton growth. Remotely sensed data on ocean color are used here to show that the resulting distribution of phytoplankton exerts a controlling influence on the seasonal evolution of sea surface temperature. This results in a corresponding modification of ocean-atmosphere heat exchange on regional and seasonal scales. It is shown that this biological mechanism may provide an important regulating influence on ocean-atmosphere interactions.

  10. Water temperature modeling in the Garonne River (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larnier K.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Stream water temperature is one of the most important parameters for water quality and ecosystem studies. Temperature can influence many chemical and biological processes and therefore impacts on the living conditions and distribution of aquatic ecosystems. Simplified models such as statistical models can be very useful for practitioners and water resource management. The present study assessed two statistical models – an equilibrium-based model and stochastic autoregressive model with exogenous inputs – in modeling daily mean water temperatures in the Garonne River from 1988 to 2005. The equilibrium temperature-based model is an approach where net heat flux at the water surface is expressed as a simpler form than in traditional deterministic models. The stochastic autoregressive model with exogenous inputs consists of decomposing the water temperature time series into a seasonal component and a short-term component (residual component. The seasonal component was modeled by Fourier series and residuals by a second-order autoregressive process (Markov chain with use of short-term air temperatures as exogenous input. The models were calibrated using data of the first half of the period 1988–2005 and validated on the second half. Calibration of the models was done using temperatures above 20 °C only to ensure better prediction of high temperatures that are currently at stake for the aquatic conditions of the Garonne River, and particularly for freshwater migrating fishes such as Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.. The results obtained for both approaches indicated that both models performed well with an average root mean square error for observed temperatures above 20 °C that varied on an annual basis from 0.55 °C to 1.72 °C on validation, and good predictions of temporal occurrences and durations of three temperature threshold crossings linked to the conditions of migration and survival of Atlantic Salmon.

  11. Temperature, salinity, and extracted chlorophyll_a surface data collected at discrete stations during shipboard surveys conducted between January 1998 and August 2012 in South Florida coastal waters.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Sea-Bird Electronics Conductivity, Temperature, Depth (CTD) instrument and a Sea-Bird Electronics Thermosalinograph (TSG) flow-through system were utilized during...

  12. Spatial and temporal Teleconnections of Sea Surface Temperature and Ocean Indices to regional Climate Variations across Thailand - a Pathway to understanding the Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejranonda, Werapol; Koch, Manfred

    2010-05-01

    (ENSO) events in the Pacific Ocean, if such teleconnections exist, one would have would have a powerful tool at hand to forecast extreme seasonal climate pattern across Thailand over a limited time period. Eventually, such a predictive tool would help to better manage the availability and adequate supply of surface water resources to the various water users in this country. In the present study the spatial and temporal relationships between the global climate circulation system and the regional weather in Thailand are assessed by various techniques of stochastic time series analysis. More specifically, the time series of the sea surface temperature (SST) and various ocean indices of the Pacific and the Indian Oceans, as well as the time series of 121 meteorological stations from 5 regions across Thailand which include humidity, evaporation, temperature and rainfall during 1950-2007 are examined using autocorrelation, ARIMA, Wavelet Transform methods. Possible teleconnections between the behaviour of the ocean states and the climate variations at meteorological stations in eastern Thailand which frequently suffers from water shortage problems are analyzed using regression, cross-correlation and the Wavelet cross-correlation method. In addition to the time series of the observed ocean and meteorological variables, 1961-2000 CGCM3 predictors of the macro-scale regional climate variations for this study area are analyzed by the methods above and correlated with the ocean indices as well. Rainfall and temperatures at selected stations are forecasted up to year 2007 using the teleconnection- relationships found by multiple linear regression with the CGCM3 predictors. In addition, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models of these climate variable are set up that are eventually extended to include the ocean indices as external regressors. The results of these various statistical techniques show that the El-Niño 1.2 SST anomaly indice of the Pacific Ocean, which

  13. Anti-Aliased Rendering of Water Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Ying Qin; Eihachiro Nakamae; Wei Hua; Yasuo Nagai; Qun-Sheng Peng

    2004-01-01

    Water surface is one of the most important components of landscape scenes. When rendering spacious far from the viewpoint. This is because water surface consists of stochastic water waves which are usually modeled by periodic bump mapping. The incident rays on the water surface are actually scattered by the bumped waves,pattern, we estimate this solid angle of reflected rays and trace these rays. An image-based accelerating method is adopted so that the contribution of each reflected ray can be quickly obtained without elaborate intersection calculation. We also demonstrate anti-aliased shadows of sunlight and skylight on the water surface. Both the rendered images and animations show excellent effects on the water surface of a reservoir.

  14. Temperature, salinity, and nutrients from near surface shallow water samples of Mamala Bay Project MB-9, Ecosystem Response Study, (1993-1994) on Oahu, Hawaii (NODC Accession 9900064)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water quality at 10 recreational beaches in Mamala Bay and in the nearshore ocean were monitored over a period of 12 months in 1993-1994 to determine the impact of...

  15. The international surface temperature initiative's global land surface databank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrimore, J. H.; Rennie, J.; Gambi de Almeida, W.; Christy, J.; Flannery, M.; Gleason, B.; Klein-Tank, A.; Mhanda, A.; Ishihara, K.; Lister, D.; Menne, M. J.; Razuvaev, V.; Renom, M.; Rusticucci, M.; Tandy, J.; Thorne, P. W.; Worley, S.

    2013-09-01

    The International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) consists of an end-to-end process for land surface air temperature analyses. The foundation is the establishment of a global land surface Databank. This builds upon the groundbreaking efforts of scientists in the 1980s and 1990s. While using many of their principles, a primary aim is to improve aspects including data provenance, version control, openness and transparency, temporal and spatial coverage, and improved methods for merging disparate sources. The initial focus is on daily and monthly timescales. A Databank Working Group is focused on establishing Stage-0 (original observation forms) through Stage-3 data (merged dataset without quality control). More than 35 sources of data have already been added and efforts have now turned to development of the initial version of the merged dataset. Methods have been established for ensuring to the extent possible the provenance of all data from the point of observation through all intermediate steps to final archive and access. Databank submission procedures were designed to make the process of contributing data as easy as possible. All data are provided openly and without charge. We encourage the use of these data and feedback from interested users.

  16. Nonzero Ideal Gas Contribution to the Surface Tension of Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sega, Marcello; Fábián, Balázs; Jedlovszky, Pál

    2017-06-15

    Surface tension, the tendency of fluid interfaces to behave elastically and minimize their surface, is routinely calculated as the difference between the lateral and normal components of the pressure or, invoking isotropy in momentum space, of the virial tensor. Here we show that the anisotropy of the kinetic energy tensor close to a liquid-vapor interface can be responsible for a large part of its surface tension (about 15% for water, independent from temperature).

  17. Low Temperature Surface Carburization of Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Sunniva R; Heuer, Arthur H; Sikka, Vinod K

    2007-12-07

    Low-temperature colossal supersaturation (LTCSS) is a novel surface hardening method for carburization of austenitic stainless steels (SS) without the precipitation of carbides. The formation of carbides is kinetically suppressed, enabling extremely high or colossal carbon supersaturation. As a result, surface carbon concentrations in excess of 12 at. % are routinely achieved. This treatment increases the surface hardness by a factor of four to five, improving resistance to wear, corrosion, and fatigue, with significant retained ductility. LTCSS is a diffusional surface hardening process that provides a uniform and conformal hardened gradient surface with no risk of delamination or peeling. The treatment retains the austenitic phase and is completely non-magnetic. In addition, because parts are treated at low temperature, they do not distort or change dimensions. During this treatment, carbon diffusion proceeds into the metal at temperatures that constrain substitutional diffusion or mobility between the metal alloy elements. Though immobilized and unable to assemble to form carbides, chromium and similar alloying elements nonetheless draw enormous amounts of carbon into their interstitial spaces. The carbon in the interstitial spaces of the alloy crystals makes the surface harder than ever achieved before by more conventional heat treating or diffusion process. The carbon solid solution manifests a Vickers hardness often exceeding 1000 HV (equivalent to 70 HRC). This project objective was to extend the LTCSS treatment to other austenitic alloys, and to quantify improvements in fatigue, corrosion, and wear resistance. Highlights from the research include the following: • Extension of the applicability of the LTCSS process to a broad range of austenitic and duplex grades of steels • Demonstration of LTCSS ability for a variety of different component shapes and sizes • Detailed microstructural characterization of LTCSS-treated samples of 316L and other alloys

  18. The surface temperature of free evaporating drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodulin, V. Y.; Letushko, V. N.; Nizovtsev, M. I.; Sterlyagov, A. N.

    2016-10-01

    Complex experimental and theoretical investigation of heat and mass transfer processes was performed at evaporation of free liquid drops. For theoretical calculation the emission-diffusion model was proposed. This allowed taking into account the characteristics of evaporation of small droplets, for which heat and mass transfer processes are not described in the conventional diffusion model. The calculation results of evaporation of droplets of different sizes were compared using two models: the conventional diffusion and emission-diffusion models. To verify the proposed physical model, the evaporation of droplets suspended on a polypropylene fiber was experimentally investigated. The form of droplets in the evaporation process was determined using microphotographing. The temperature was measured on the surfaces of evaporating drops using infrared thermography. The experimental results have showed good agreement with the numerical data for the time of evaporation and the temperature of evaporating drops.

  19. Low temperature surface conductivity of hydrogenated diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerer, C.; Ertl, F.; Nebel, C.E.; Stutzmann, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Walter-Schottky-Inst. fuer Physikalische Grundlagen der Halbleiterelektronik; Bergonzo, P. [LIST(CEA-Recherche Technology)/DIMIR/SIAR/Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Williams, O.A.; Jackman, R.A. [University Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    2001-07-23

    Conductivity and Hall experiments are performed on hydrogenated poly-CVD, atomically flat homoepitaxially grown Ib and natural type IIa diamond layers in the regime 0.34 to 400 K. For all experiments hole transport is detected with sheet resistivities at room temperature in the range 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} {omega}/{radical}. We introduce a transport model where a disorder induced tail of localized states traps holes at very low temperatures (T < 70 K). The characteristic energy of the tail is in the range of 6 meV. Towards higher temperatures (T > 70 K) the hole density is approximately constant and the hole mobility {mu} is increasing two orders of magnitude. In the regime 70 K < T < 200 K, {mu} is exponentially activated with 22 meV, above it follows a {proportional_to}T{sup 3/2} law. The activation energy of the hole density at T < 70 K is governed by the energy gap between holes trapped in the tail and the mobility edge which they can propagate. In the temperature regime T < 25 K an increasing hole mobility is detected which is attributed to transport in delocalized states at the surface. (orig.)

  20. Enzyme surface rigidity tunes the temperature dependence of catalytic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, Geir Villy; Åqvist, Johan; Brandsdal, Bjørn Olav

    2016-07-12

    The structural origin of enzyme adaptation to low temperature, allowing efficient catalysis of chemical reactions even near the freezing point of water, remains a fundamental puzzle in biocatalysis. A remarkable universal fingerprint shared by all cold-active enzymes is a reduction of the activation enthalpy accompanied by a more negative entropy, which alleviates the exponential decrease in chemical reaction rates caused by lowering of the temperature. Herein, we explore the role of protein surface mobility in determining this enthalpy-entropy balance. The effects of modifying surface rigidity in cold- and warm-active trypsins are demonstrated here by calculation of high-precision Arrhenius plots and thermodynamic activation parameters for the peptide hydrolysis reaction, using extensive computer simulations. The protein surface flexibility is systematically varied by applying positional restraints, causing the remarkable effect of turning the cold-active trypsin into a variant with mesophilic characteristics without changing the amino acid sequence. Furthermore, we show that just restraining a key surface loop causes the same effect as a point mutation in that loop between the cold- and warm-active trypsin. Importantly, changes in the activation enthalpy-entropy balance of up to 10 kcal/mol are almost perfectly balanced at room temperature, whereas they yield significantly higher rates at low temperatures for the cold-adapted enzyme.

  1. Modeling Apple Surface Temperature Dynamics Based on Weather Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed was recorded for seven hours between 11:00–18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of “Fuji” apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.

  2. SURFACE WATER QUALITY IN THE RIVER PRUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA DUMITRAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Water is an increasingly important and why it is important to surfacewater quality, which is given by the analysis of physical - chemical, biological andobserving the investigation of water, biota, environments investigation. Analysis ofthe Prut river in terms of biological and physical elements - chemical. Evaluationof ecological and chemical status of water was done according to order of approvalof the standard classification nr.161/2006 surface water to determine the ecologicalstatus of water bodies

  3. Interactive Effect of Air-Water Ratio and Temperature on the Air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    KEYWORDS: Interactive effect, air-water ratio, temperature, volatile organic ... VOCs removal from wastewater by increasing the surface ... surface area (m2). ... where α and n are constants, DL is liquid diffusion coefficient .... Packing volume.

  4. Ambient-temperature trap/release of arsenic by dielectric barrier discharge and its application to ultratrace arsenic determination in surface water followed by atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel dielectric barrier discharge reactor (DBDR) was utilized to trap/release arsenic coupled to hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HGAFS). On the DBD principle, the precise and accurate control of trap/release procedures was fulfilled at ambient temperature, and an analytical m...

  5. Electron bombardment of water adsorbed on Zr(0001) surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ankrah, S; Ramsier, R D

    2003-01-01

    A study of the effects of electron bombardment on water adsorbed on Zr(0001) is reported. Zirconium surfaces are dosed with isotopic water mixtures at 160 K followed by electron bombardment (485 eV). The system is then probed by low energy electron diffraction, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). No evidence is found that would indicate preferential mixing of hydrogen from the bulk with isotopic water dissociation products during TPD. However, electron bombardment results in the sharpening of a hydrogen/deuterium desorption peak near 320 K and the production of water near 730 K at low water exposures. In addition, although water does not oxidize Zr(0001) thermally, electron bombardment of adsorbed water induces a shift of about 2 eV in the Zr AES features indicating that the surface is partially oxidized by electron bombardment.

  6. Investigating aftergrowth potential of polymers in drinking water – the effect of water replacement and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    no significant effect on the aftergrowth potential of the water. The background biomass production could be affected by the choice of caps for the test bottles, since ‘blue caps’ of polyethylene leached significant amounts of AOCP17 compared to ‘red caps’ containing teflon inlayers. There was no or only slightly......The aftergrowth potential of polymers used in drinking water distribution was investigated by a batch set-up, where test pieces were incubated in biostable, inorganic nutrient amended drinking water inoculated with surface water. Biomass production was measured as ATP and followed over 16 weeks...... in the water phase and on the material surface. Supplementary measurements of HPC and NVOC were applied when investigating the biostability within the test system, and the effect of water replacement and temperature. Addition of inorganic nutrients and inoculum to the biostable drinking water had...

  7. Ground-Water Temperature Data, Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye, Clark, and Lincoln Counties, Nevada, 2000-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R. Reiner

    2007-08-07

    Ground-water temperature data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in wells at and in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site during the years 2000–2006. Periodic ground-water temperatures were collected in 166 wells. In general, periodic ground-water temperatures were measured annually in each well at 5 and 55 feet below the water surface. Ground-water temperature profiles were collected in 73 wells. Temperatures were measured at multiple depths below the water surface to produce these profiles. Databases were constructed to present the ground-water temperature data.

  8. Ground-Water Temperature Data, Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye, Clark, and Lincoln Counties, Nevada, 2000-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water temperature data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in wells at and in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site during the years 2000-2006. Periodic ground-water temperatures were collected in 166 wells. In general, periodic ground-water temperatures were measured annually in each well at 5 and 55 feet below the water surface. Ground-water temperature profiles were collected in 73 wells. Temperatures were measured at multiple depths below the water surface to produce these profiles. Databases were constructed to present the ground-water temperature data.

  9. E. coli survival in waters: temperature dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important for evaluating microbial contamination and in making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature; this dependency is routinely expressed using an analog of the Q10 model. This suggestion...

  10. Escherichia coli survival in waters: Temperature dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q10 mo...

  11. Manufacturing and characterisation of water repellent surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Botija, Pablo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2006-01-01

    design criteria for such surfaces. The problem of adapting this behaviour to artificially roughened surfaces is addressed by providing design criteria for superhydrophobic, water-repellent and self-cleaning surfaces according to the concrete performance desired for them. Different kind of manufacturing...

  12. Surface Water Quality Monitoring Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The MN Department of Agriculture (MDA) is charged with periodically collecting and analyzing water samples from selected locations throughout the state to determine...

  13. MODELING THE EFFECT OF WATER VAPOR ON THE INTERFACIAL BEHAVIOR OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE AIR IN CONTACT WITH Fe20Cr SURFACES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chialvo, Ariel A [ORNL; Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to provide an atomistic view, via molecular dynamic simulation, of the contrasting interfacial behavior between high temperature dry- and (10-40 vol%) wet-air in contact with stainless steels as represented by Fe20Cr. It was found that H2O preferentially adsorbs and displaces oxygen at the metal/fluid interface. Comparison of these findings with experimental studies reported in the literature is discussed. Keywords: Fe-Cr alloys, metal-fluid interfacial behavior, wet-air, molecular simulation

  14. Satellite Sensed Skin Sea Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlon, Craig

    1997-01-01

    Quantitative predictions of spatial and temporal changes the global climate rely heavily on the use of computer models. Unfortunately, such models cannot provide the basis for climate prediction because key physical processes are inadequately treated. Consequently, fine tuning procedures are often used to optimize the fit between model output and observational data and the validation of climate models using observations is essential if model based predictions of climate change are to be treated with any degree of confidence. Satellite Sea Surface Temperature (SST) observations provide high spatial and temporal resolution data which is extremely well suited to the initialization, definition of boundary conditions and, validation of climate models. In the case of coupled ocean-atmosphere models, the SST (or more correctly the 'Skin' SST (SSST)) is a fundamental diagnostic variable to consider in the validation process. Daily global SST maps derived from satellite sensors also provide adequate data for the detection of global patterns of change which, unlike any other SST data set, repeatedly extend into the southern hemisphere extra-tropical regions. Such data are essential to the success of the spatial 'fingerprint' technique, which seeks to establish a north-south asymmetry where warming is suppressed in the high latitude Southern Ocean. Some estimates suggest that there is a greater than 80% chance of directly detecting significant change (97.5 % confidence level) after 10-12 years of consistent global observations of mean sea surface temperature. However, these latter statements should be qualified with the assumption that a negligible drift in the observing system exists and that biases between individual instruments required to derive a long term data set are small. Given that current estimates for the magnitude of global warming of 0.015 K yr(sup -1) - 0.025 K yr(sup -1), satellite SST data sets need to be both accurate and stable if such a warming trend is to

  15. Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST), Version 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) dataset is a global monthly sea surface temperature analysis on a 2x2 degree grid derived from the...

  16. NOAA Global Surface Temperature Dataset, Version 4.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Global Surface Temperature Dataset (NOAAGlobalTemp) is derived from two independent analyses: the Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST)...

  17. HTPro: Low-temperature Surface Hardening of Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Low-temperature surface hardening of stainless steel provides the required performance properties without affecting corrosion resistance.......Low-temperature surface hardening of stainless steel provides the required performance properties without affecting corrosion resistance....

  18. Merged Land and Ocean Surface Temperature, Version 3.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The historical Merged Land-Ocean Surface Temperature Analysis (MLOST) is derived from two independent analyses, an Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature...

  19. Surface Water Resources Response to Climate Changes in Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The response of surface water resources on climate changes was studied.[Method] By dint of monthly average temperature and precipitation in 45 meteorological stations in Jilin Province from 1960 to 2000,monthly runoff in 56 hydrological stations in Songhuajiang and Liaohe region,the surface runoff change and the response of surface water resources to climate change in 41 years were expounded.[Result] The runoff of Songliao region was limited during 1960s and 1970s.It began to increase slowly in ...

  20. Surface temperature of wooden window frames under influence of solar radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castenmiller, C.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Under influence of solar radiation the surface temperature of wooden window frames can reach values above 60 0C. High temperature can cause considerable tensions within the window frame; as a result joints can be cracked and rain water can penetrate into these joints. This penetration of rain water

  1. Souring in low-temperature surface facilities of two high-temperature Argentinian oil fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Akhil; An, Dongshan; Cavallaro, Adriana; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2014-09-01

    Produced waters from the Barrancas and Chihuido de la Salina (CHLS) fields in Argentina had higher concentrations of sulfate than were found in the injection waters, suggesting that the formation waters in these reservoirs had a high sulfate concentration and that sulfate-reducing bacteria were inactive downhole. Incubation of produced waters with produced oil gave rapid reduction of sulfate to sulfide (souring) at 37 °C, some at 60 °C, but none at 80 °C. Alkylbenzenes and alkanes served as electron donor, especially in incubations with CHLS oil. Dilution with water to decrease the ionic strength or addition of inorganic phosphate did not increase souring at 37 or 60 °C. These results indicate that souring in these reservoirs is limited by the reservoir temperature (80 °C for the Barrancas and 65-70 °C for the CHLS field) and that souring may accelerate in surface facilities where the oil-water mixture cools. As a result, significant sulfide concentrations are present in these surface facilities. The activity and presence of chemolithotrophic Gammaproteobacteria of the genus Thiomicrospira, which represented 85% of the microbial community in a water plant in the Barrancas field, indicated reoxidation of sulfide and sulfur to sulfate. The presence of these bacteria offers potential for souring control by microbial oxidation in aboveground facilities, provided that formation of corrosive sulfur can be avoided.

  2. Middle Pliocene sea surface temperature variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, H.J.; Chandler, M.A.; Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    Estimates of sea surface temperature (SST) based upon foraminifer, diatom, and ostracod assemblages from ocean cores reveal a warm phase of the Pliocene between about 3.3 and 3.0 Ma. Pollen records and plant megafossils, although not as well dated, show evidence for a warmer climate at about the same time. Increased greenhouse forcing and altered ocean heat transport are the leading candidates for the underlying cause of Pliocene global warmth. Despite being a period of global warmth, this interval encompasses considerable variability. Two new SST reconstructions are presented that are designed to provide a climatological error bar for warm peak phases of the Pliocene and to document the spatial distribution and magnitude of SST variability within the mid-Pliocene warm period. These data suggest long-term stability of low-latitude SST and document greater variability in regions of maximum warming. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Impact of Atlantic sea surface temperatures on the warmest global surface air temperature of 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Riyu

    2005-03-01

    The year 1998 is the warmest year in the record of instrumental measurements. In this study, an atmospheric general circulation model is used to investigate the role of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in this warmth, with a focus on the role of the Atlantic Ocean. The model forced with the observed global SSTs captures the main features of land surface air temperature anomalies in 1998. A sensitivity experiment shows that in comparison with the global SST anomalies, the Atlantic SST anomalies can explain 35% of the global mean surface air temperature (GMAT) anomaly, and 57% of the land surface air temperature anomaly in 1998. The mechanisms through which the Atlantic Ocean influences the GMAT are likely different from season to season. Possible detailed mechanisms involve the impact of SST anomalies on local convection in the tropical Atlantic region, the consequent excitation of a Rossby wave response that propagates into the North Atlantic and the Eurasian continent in winter and spring, and the consequent changes in tropical Walker circulation in summer and autumn that induce changes in convection over the tropical Pacific. This in turn affects climate in Asia and Australia. The important role of the Atlantic Ocean suggests that attention should be paid not only to the tropical Pacific Ocean, but also to the tropical Atlantic Ocean in understanding the GMAT variability and its predictability.

  4. Low Temperature Surface Carburization of Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Sunniva R; Heuer, Arthur H; Sikka, Vinod K

    2007-12-07

    Low-temperature colossal supersaturation (LTCSS) is a novel surface hardening method for carburization of austenitic stainless steels (SS) without the precipitation of carbides. The formation of carbides is kinetically suppressed, enabling extremely high or colossal carbon supersaturation. As a result, surface carbon concentrations in excess of 12 at. % are routinely achieved. This treatment increases the surface hardness by a factor of four to five, improving resistance to wear, corrosion, and fatigue, with significant retained ductility. LTCSS is a diffusional surface hardening process that provides a uniform and conformal hardened gradient surface with no risk of delamination or peeling. The treatment retains the austenitic phase and is completely non-magnetic. In addition, because parts are treated at low temperature, they do not distort or change dimensions. During this treatment, carbon diffusion proceeds into the metal at temperatures that constrain substitutional diffusion or mobility between the metal alloy elements. Though immobilized and unable to assemble to form carbides, chromium and similar alloying elements nonetheless draw enormous amounts of carbon into their interstitial spaces. The carbon in the interstitial spaces of the alloy crystals makes the surface harder than ever achieved before by more conventional heat treating or diffusion process. The carbon solid solution manifests a Vickers hardness often exceeding 1000 HV (equivalent to 70 HRC). This project objective was to extend the LTCSS treatment to other austenitic alloys, and to quantify improvements in fatigue, corrosion, and wear resistance. Highlights from the research include the following: • Extension of the applicability of the LTCSS process to a broad range of austenitic and duplex grades of steels • Demonstration of LTCSS ability for a variety of different component shapes and sizes • Detailed microstructural characterization of LTCSS-treated samples of 316L and other alloys

  5. Using IR Imaging of Water Surfaces for Estimating Piston Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gålfalk, M.; Bastviken, D.; Arneborg, L.

    2013-12-01

    The transport of gasses dissolved in surface waters across the water-atmosphere interface is controlled by the piston velocity (k). This coefficient has large implications for, e.g., greenhouse gas fluxes but is challenging to quantify in situ. At present, empirical k-wind speed relationships from a small number of studies and systems are often extrapolated without knowledge of model performance. It is therefore of interest to search for new methods for estimating k, and to compare the pros and cons of existing and new methods. Wind speeds in such models are often measured at a height of 10 meters. In smaller bodies of water such as lakes, wind speeds can vary dramatically across the surface through varying degrees of wind shadow from e.g. trees at the shoreline. More local measurements of the water surface, through wave heights or surface motion mapping, could give improved k-estimates over a surface, also taking into account wind fetch. At thermal infrared (IR) wavelengths water has very low reflectivity (depending on viewing angle) than can go below 1%, meaning that more than 99% is heat radiation giving a direct measurement of surface temperature variations. Using an IR camera at about 100 frames/s one could map surface temperature structures at a fraction of a mm depth even with waves present. In this presentation I will focus on IR imaging as a possible tool for estimating piston velocities. Results will be presented from IR field measurements, relating the motions of surface temperature structures to k calculated from other simultaneous measurements (flux chamber and ADV-Based Dissipation Rate), but also attempting to calculate k directly from the IR surface divergence. A relation between wave height and k will also be presented.

  6. Turbulent Flow past High Temperature Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmedagic, Igbal; Thangam, Siva; Carlucci, Pasquale; Buckley, Liam; Carlucci, Donald

    2014-11-01

    Flow over high-temperature surfaces subject to wall heating is analyzed with applications to projectile design. In this study, computations are performed using an anisotropic Reynolds-stress model to study flow past surfaces that are subject to radiative flux. The model utilizes a phenomenological treatment of the energy spectrum and diffusivities of momentum and heat to include the effects of wall heat transfer and radiative exchange. The radiative transport is modeled using Eddington approximation including the weighted effect of nongrayness of the fluid. The time-averaged equations of motion and energy are solved using the modeled form of transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy and the scalar form of turbulence dissipation with an efficient finite-volume algorithm. The model is applied for available test cases to validate its predictive capabilities for capturing the effects of wall heat transfer. Computational results are compared with experimental data available in the literature. Applications involving the design of projectiles are summarized. Funded in part by U.S. Army, ARDEC.

  7. Operational efficiency of ballast water biocides at low water temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Sneekes, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    In the period 2013-2015 the effect of two biocides used for the treatment of ballast water has been evaluated at low ambient temperatures. Peraclean® Ocean and sodium hypochlorite were used as biocides. Most of the tests were conducted during winter and early spring at the laboratories of IMARES in

  8. Surface Water Treatment Workshop Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to increase the knowledge of experienced water treatment plant operators. Each of the fourteen lessons in this document has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in this manual include: basic water…

  9. Use of satellite land surface temperatures in the EUSTACE global surface air temperature analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghent, D.; Good, E.; Rayner, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    EUSTACE (EU Surface Temperatures for All Corners of Earth) is a Horizon2020 project that will produce a spatially complete, near-surface air temperature (NSAT) analysis for the globe for every day since 1850. The analysis will be based on both satellite and in situ surface temperature observations over land, sea, ice and lakes, which will be combined using state-of-the-art statistical methods. The use of satellite data will enable the EUSTACE analysis to offer improved estimates of NSAT in regions that are poorly observed in situ, compared with existing in-situ based analyses. This presentation illustrates how satellite land surface temperature (LST) data - sourced from the European Space Agency (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) GlobTemperature project - will be used in EUSTACE. Satellite LSTs represent the temperature of the Earth's skin, which can differ from the corresponding NSAT by several degrees or more, particularly during the hottest part of the day. Therefore the first challenge is to develop an approach to estimate global NSAT from satellite observations. Two methods will be trialled in EUSTACE, both of which are summarised here: an established empirical regression-based approach for predicting NSAT from satellite data, and a new method whereby NSAT is calculated from LST and other parameters using a physics-based model. The second challenge is in estimating the uncertainties for the satellite NSAT estimates, which will determine how these data are used in the final blended satellite-in situ analysis. This is also important as a key component of EUSTACE is in delivering accurate uncertainty information to users. An overview of the methods to estimate the satellite NSATs is also included in this presentation.

  10. Evidence for water structuring forces between surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, Christopher B [ORNL; Rau, Dr. Donald [National Institutes of Health

    2011-01-01

    Structured water on apposing surfaces can generate significant energies due to reorganization and displacement as the surfaces encounter each other. Force measurements on a multitude of biological structures using the osmotic stress technique have elucidated commonalities that point toward an underlying hydration force. In this review, the forces of two contrasting systems are considered in detail: highly charged DNA and nonpolar, uncharged hydroxypropyl cellulose. Conditions for both net repulsion and attraction, along with the measured exclusion of chemically different solutes from these macromolecular surfaces, are explored and demonstrate features consistent with a hydration force origin. Specifically, the observed interaction forces can be reduced to the effects of perturbing structured surface water.

  11. The EUSTACE project: delivering global, daily information on surface air temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018, https://www.eustaceproject.eu) we are developing an understanding of the relationships between traditional (land and marine) surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. Here we discuss the science needed to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types. Information contained in the satellite retrievals is used to create globally-complete fields in the past, using statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. As the data volumes involved are considerable, such work needs to include development of new "Big Data" analysis methods. We will present recent progress along this road in the EUSTACE project: 1. providing new, consistent, multi-component estimates of uncertainty in surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; 2. identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; 3. estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; 4. using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras. Information will also be given on how interested users can become involved.

  12. The EUSTACE project: delivering global, daily information on surface air temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, C. P.; Rayner, N. A.; Auchmann, R.; Bessembinder, J.; Bronnimann, S.; Brugnara, Y.; Conway, E. A.; Ghent, D.; Good, E.; Herring, K.; Kennedy, J.; Lindgren, F.; Madsen, K. S.; Merchant, C. J.; van der Schrier, G.; Stephens, A.; Tonboe, R. T.; Waterfall, A. M.; Mitchelson, J.; Woolway, I.

    2015-12-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, we must develop an understanding of the relationships between traditional (land and marine) surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. These relationships can be derived either empirically or with the help of a physical model.Here we discuss the science needed to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types. Information contained in the satellite retrievals would be used to create globally-complete fields in the past, using statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. As the data volumes involved are considerable, such work needs to include development of new "Big Data" analysis methods.We will present plans and progress along this road in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018), i.e.: • providing new, consistent, multi-component estimates of uncertainty in surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; • identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; • estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; • using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras.Information will also be given on how interested users can become

  13. Removal of Cr(VI) from low-temperature micro-polluted surface water by tannic acid immobilized powdered activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiguang; Gong, Xujin; Li, Xin; Zhang, Duoying; Gong, Hainan

    2012-06-01

    In this study, food-grade tannic acid-immobilized powdered activated carbon (TA-PAC) was prepared, and adsorption of Cr(VI) (0.500 mg/L) onto TA-PAC as a function of pH, contact time, adsorption capacities and adsorption isotherms at 280 K was investigated. The results indicated that the immobilization process introduced abundant acid functional groups. The adsorption capacity of TA-PAC was found to be pH-dependent, and the optimal pH value was found to be 4.0. The equilibrium time was 240 min for TA-PAC. Adsorption data for total chromium were modeled using both two-parameter and three-parameter isotherm models. Freundlich and linear forms of three-parameter models yielded the best results for all of the data. Desorption studies of immobilized material suggested that the immobilization of food-grade tannic acid is steady. The adsorption mechanism of Cr(VI) on TA-PAC was assumed to be a comprehensive process consisting of surface reduction of Cr(VI), esterification between catechol and chromate, and ion exchange.

  14. [Temperature measurements during abrasive water jet osteotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmolke, S; Pude, F; Kirsch, L; Honl, M; Schwieger, K; Krömer, S

    2004-01-01

    Working on bone is a major aspect of orthopaedic surgery. Despite its well-known appreciable thermal effects on the edges of the bone cut, the oscillating bone saw blade the oscillating saw remains the standard instrument both for cutting long bones and creating a bed for an endoprosthesis. The application of abrasive water jets offers the possibility of achieving an extremely precise curved cut in bone with no accompanying thermal effect. The thermographically measured absolute temperature increase at the cut edges seen with the water jet was 13 K maximum. The small process forces permit the application in automated handling systems.

  15. Dropwise condensation rate of water breath figures on polymer surfaces having similar surface free energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Ikrime O.; Erbil, H. Yildirim

    2012-10-01

    This study investigates the effect of surface roughness, wettability, water contact angle hysteresis (CAH) and wetting hysteresis (WH) of polymeric substrates to the water drop condensation rate. We used five polyolefin coatings whose surface free energies were in a close range of 30-37 mJ/m2 but having different surface roughness and CAH. The formation of water breath figures was monitored at a temperature just below the dew point. The initial number of the condensed droplets per unit area (N0) and droplet surface coverage were determined during the early stage of drop condensation where the droplet coalescence was negligible. It was found that the mean drop diameter of condensed droplets on these polymer surfaces grow according to a power law with exponent 1/3 of time, similar to the previous reports given in the literature. It was determined that surface roughness and corresponding CAH and WH properties of polymers have important effects on the number of nucleation sites and growth rate of the condensed water droplets. N0 values and the surface coverage increased with the increase in surface roughness, CAH and WH of the polymer surfaces. The total condensed water drop volume also increased with the increase in surface roughness in accordance with the increase of the number of nucleated droplets.

  16. Total Phosphorus in Surface Water (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Excess phosphorus in surface water can result in eutrophication. TOTALPFuture is reported in kilograms/hectare/year. More information about these resources,...

  17. Surface processing using water cluster ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Gikan H.; Ryuto, Hiromichi; Takeuchi, Mitsuaki; Ichihashi, Gaku

    2013-07-01

    Vaporized water clusters were produced by an adiabatic expansion phenomenon, and various substrates such as Si(1 0 0), SiO2, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polycarbonate (PC) were irradiated by water cluster ion beams. The sputtered depth increased with increasing acceleration voltage, and the sputtering rate was much larger than that obtained using Ar monomer ion irradiation. The sputtering yield for PMMA was approximately 200 molecules per ion, at an acceleration voltage of 9 kV. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements showed that high-rate sputtering for the PMMA surface can be ascribed to the surface erosion by the water cluster ion irradiation. Furthermore, the micropatterning was demonstrated on the PMMA substrate. Thus, the surface irradiation by water cluster ion beams exhibited a chemical reaction based on OH radicals, as well as excited hydrogen atoms, which resulted in a high sputtering rate and low irradiation damage of the substrate surfaces.

  18. Surface processing using water cluster ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaoka, Gikan H., E-mail: gtakaoka@kuee.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Photonics and Electronics Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Ryuto, Hiromichi; Takeuchi, Mitsuaki; Ichihashi, Gaku [Photonics and Electronics Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    Vaporized water clusters were produced by an adiabatic expansion phenomenon, and various substrates such as Si(1 0 0), SiO{sub 2}, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polycarbonate (PC) were irradiated by water cluster ion beams. The sputtered depth increased with increasing acceleration voltage, and the sputtering rate was much larger than that obtained using Ar monomer ion irradiation. The sputtering yield for PMMA was approximately 200 molecules per ion, at an acceleration voltage of 9 kV. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements showed that high-rate sputtering for the PMMA surface can be ascribed to the surface erosion by the water cluster ion irradiation. Furthermore, the micropatterning was demonstrated on the PMMA substrate. Thus, the surface irradiation by water cluster ion beams exhibited a chemical reaction based on OH radicals, as well as excited hydrogen atoms, which resulted in a high sputtering rate and low irradiation damage of the substrate surfaces.

  19. Exit Creek Water Surface Survey, June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of survey data from a longitudinal profile of water surface surveyed June 23-24, 2013 at Exit Creek, a stream draining Exit Glacier in Kenai...

  20. US Forest Service Surface Drinking Water Importance

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting watershed indexes to help identify areas of interest for protecting surface drinking water quality. The dataset depicted in this...

  1. Total Nitrogen in Surface Water (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Excess nitrogen in surface water can result in eutrophication. TOTALNFuture is reported in kilograms/hectare/year. More information about these resources, including...

  2. Surface Waters Information Management System (SWIMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Surface Waters Information Management System (SWIMS) has been designed to meet multi-agency hydrologic database needs for Kansas. The SWIMS project was supported...

  3. ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE WATER QUALITY IN AN ARSENIC CONTAMINATED VILLAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumud C. Saikia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of ground water has occurred in various parts of the world, becoming a menace in the Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra basin (West Bengal and Assam in India and Bangladesh. Recently arsenic has been detected in Cachar and Karimganj districts of barak valley, Assam, bordering Bangladesh. In this area coli form contamination comprises the major constraint towards utilization of its otherwise ample surface water resources. The local water management exploited ground water sources using a centralized piped water delivery scheme without taking into account the geologically arsenic-prone nature of the sediments and aquifers in this area. Thus surface water was the suggestive alternative for drinking water in this area. The present study investigated surface water quality and availability in a village of Karimganj district, Assam, India contaminated with arsenic for identifying the potential problems of surface water quality maintenance so that with effective management safe drinking water could be provided. The study revealed that the area was rich in freshwater ecosystems which had all physico-chemical variables such as water temperature, pH, DO, total alkalinity, free CO2, heavy metals like lead, chromium and cadmium within WHO standards. In contrast, coli form bacteria count was found far beyond permissible limit in all the sources. Around 60% people of the village preferred ground water for drinking and only 6% were aware of arsenic related problems. The problem of bacterial contamination could be controlled by implementing some ameliorative measures so that people can safely use surface water. Inhabitants of the two districts should be given proper education regarding arsenic contamination and associated health risk. Effluents should be treated to acceptable levels and standards before discharging them into natural streams.

  4. The Dynamic Surface Tension of Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauner, Ines M; Deblais, Antoine; Beattie, James K; Kellay, Hamid; Bonn, Daniel

    2017-03-23

    The surface tension of water is an important parameter for many biological or industrial processes, and roughly a factor of 3 higher than that of nonpolar liquids such as oils, which is usually attributed to hydrogen bonding and dipolar interactions. Here we show by studying the formation of water drops that the surface tension of a freshly created water surface is even higher (∼90 mN m(-1)) than under equilibrium conditions (∼72 mN m(-1)) with a relaxation process occurring on a long time scale (∼1 ms). Dynamic adsorption effects of protons or hydroxides may be at the origin of this dynamic surface tension. However, changing the pH does not significantly change the dynamic surface tension. It also seems unlikely that hydrogen bonding or dipole orientation effects play any role at the relatively long time scale probed in the experiments.

  5. A comparison of Argo nominal surface and near-surface temperature for validation of AMSR-E SST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zenghong; Chen, Xingrong; Sun, Chaohui; Wu, Xiaofen; Lu, Shaolei

    2017-05-01

    Satellite SST (sea surface temperature) from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) is compared with in situ temperature observations from Argo profiling floats over the global oceans to evaluate the advantages of Argo NST (near-surface temperature: water temperature less than 1 m from the surface). By comparing Argo nominal surface temperature ( 5 m) with its NST, a diurnal cycle caused by daytime warming and nighttime cooling was found, along with a maximum warming of 0.08±0.36°C during 14:00-15:00 local time. Further comparisons between Argo 5-m temperature/Argo NST and AMSR-E SST retrievals related to wind speed, columnar water vapor, and columnar cloud water indicate warming biases at low wind speed (28 mm during daytime. The warming tendency is more remarkable for AMSR-E SST/Argo 5-m temperature compared with AMSR-E SST/Argo NST, owing to the effect of diurnal warming. This effect of diurnal warming events should be excluded before validation for microwave SST retrievals. Both AMSR-E nighttime SST/Argo 5-m temperature and nighttime SST/Argo NST show generally good agreement, independent of wind speed and columnar water vapor. From our analysis, Argo NST data demonstrated their advantages for validation of satellite-retrieved SST.

  6. Effect of floor surface temperature on blood flow and skin temperature in the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, G-S

    2008-12-01

    A total of 16 healthy college students participated as subjects to elucidate the hypothesis that blood flow and skin temperature in foot are affected by the floor surface temperature. The floor surface temperature was controlled by varying the temperature of water (tw) flowing underneath the floor, and it ranged from tw 15 to 40 degrees C at 5 degrees C intervals. The blood flow rate was measured in the dorsal right toe, and skin temperatures were measured for 60 min at 8 points: the neck, right scapular, left hand, right shin, left bottom of the toe, right instep, left finger, and rectum. The blood flow rate in the foot tissue was increased until the foot skin temperature warmed up to 34 degrees C (P = 0.000). The final skin temperatures on the bottom of the toe were 19.4 +/- 2.44 degrees C for tw 15 degrees C, 22.4 +/- 2.45 degrees C for tw 20 degrees C, 24.8 +/- 2.80 degrees C for tw 25 degrees C, 27.7 +/- 2.13 degrees C for tw 30 degrees C, 30.6 +/- 2.06 degrees C for tw 35 degrees C, 33.2 +/- 1.45 degrees C for tw 40 degrees C, 34.2 +/- 1.55 degrees C for tw 45 degrees C, and 35.2 +/- 1.65 degrees C for tw 50 degrees C. Considering blood flow and comfort, the partial floor heating system is suggested and the recommended floor surface temperature range is 27-33 degrees C. A warm floor surface can serve to satisfy occupants when the ambient temperature maintained at 20 degrees C which represents an energy conscious temperature. A warm floor can induce high blood perfusion in the feet and consequently improve an occupant's health by treating many vascular-related disorders. Even in a well-insulated residential building, a partially heated floor system could prevent overheating while providing surface warmth.

  7. Polyfluorinated chemicals in European surface waters, ground- and drinking waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschauzier, C.; de Voogt, P.; Brauch, H.-J.; Lange, F.T.; Knepper, T.P.; Lange, F.T.

    2012-01-01

    Polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), especially short chain fluorinated alkyl sulfonates and carboxylates, are ubiquitously found in the environment. This chapter aims at giving an overview of PFC concentrations found in European surface, ground- and drinking waters and their behavior during convention

  8. Polyfluorinated chemicals in European surface waters, ground- and drinking waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschauzier, C.; de Voogt, P.; Brauch, H.-J.; Lange, F.T.; Knepper, T.P.; Lange, F.T.

    2012-01-01

    Polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), especially short chain fluorinated alkyl sulfonates and carboxylates, are ubiquitously found in the environment. This chapter aims at giving an overview of PFC concentrations found in European surface, ground- and drinking waters and their behavior during

  9. Simulating future water temperatures in the North Santiam River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman; Risley, John C.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2016-01-01

    A previously calibrated two-dimensional hydrodynamic and water-quality model (CE-QUAL-W2) of Detroit Lake in western Oregon was used in conjunction with inflows derived from Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) hydrologic models to examine in-lake and downstream water temperature effects under future climate conditions. Current and hypothetical operations and structures at Detroit Dam were imposed on boundary conditions derived from downscaled General Circulation Models in base (1990–1999) and future (2059–2068) periods. Compared with the base period, future air temperatures were about 2 °C warmer year-round. Higher air temperature and lower precipitation under the future period resulted in a 23% reduction in mean annual PRMS-simulated discharge and a 1 °C increase in mean annual estimated stream temperatures flowing into the lake compared to the base period. Simulations incorporating current operational rules and minimum release rates at Detroit Dam to support downstream habitat, irrigation, and water supply during key times of year resulted in lower future lake levels. That scenario results in a lake level that is above the dam’s spillway crest only about half as many days in the future compared to historical frequencies. Managing temperature downstream of Detroit Dam depends on the ability to blend warmer water from the lake’s surface with cooler water from deep in the lake, and the spillway is an important release point near the lake’s surface. Annual average in-lake and release temperatures from Detroit Lake warmed 1.1 °C and 1.5 °C from base to future periods under present-day dam operational rules and fill schedules. Simulated dam operations such as beginning refill of the lake 30 days earlier or reducing minimum release rates (to keep more water in the lake to retain the use of the spillway) mitigated future warming to 0.4 and 0.9 °C below existing operational scenarios during the critical autumn spawning period for endangered

  10. Simulating future water temperatures in the North Santiam River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.; Risley, John C.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2016-04-01

    A previously calibrated two-dimensional hydrodynamic and water-quality model (CE-QUAL-W2) of Detroit Lake in western Oregon was used in conjunction with inflows derived from Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) hydrologic models to examine in-lake and downstream water temperature effects under future climate conditions. Current and hypothetical operations and structures at Detroit Dam were imposed on boundary conditions derived from downscaled General Circulation Models in base (1990-1999) and future (2059-2068) periods. Compared with the base period, future air temperatures were about 2 °C warmer year-round. Higher air temperature and lower precipitation under the future period resulted in a 23% reduction in mean annual PRMS-simulated discharge and a 1 °C increase in mean annual estimated stream temperatures flowing into the lake compared to the base period. Simulations incorporating current operational rules and minimum release rates at Detroit Dam to support downstream habitat, irrigation, and water supply during key times of year resulted in lower future lake levels. That scenario results in a lake level that is above the dam's spillway crest only about half as many days in the future compared to historical frequencies. Managing temperature downstream of Detroit Dam depends on the ability to blend warmer water from the lake's surface with cooler water from deep in the lake, and the spillway is an important release point near the lake's surface. Annual average in-lake and release temperatures from Detroit Lake warmed 1.1 °C and 1.5 °C from base to future periods under present-day dam operational rules and fill schedules. Simulated dam operations such as beginning refill of the lake 30 days earlier or reducing minimum release rates (to keep more water in the lake to retain the use of the spillway) mitigated future warming to 0.4 and 0.9 °C below existing operational scenarios during the critical autumn spawning period for endangered salmonids. A

  11. Monitoring temperature and pressure over surfaces using sensitive paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Viramontes, J. Ascención; Moreno Hernández, David; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; Morán Loza, José Miguel; García Arreola, Alicia

    2007-03-01

    Two techniques for monitoring temperature and pressure variations over surfaces using sensitive paints are presented. The analysis is done by the acquisition of a set of images of the surface under analysis. The surface is painted by a paint called Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) for pressure measurements and Temperature Sensitive Paints (TSP) for temperature measurements. These kinds of paints are deposited over the surface under analysis. The recent experimental advances in calibration process are presented in this paper.

  12. Stable water layers on solid surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ying-Jhan; Tai, Lin-Ai; Chen, Hung-Jen; Chang, Pin; Yang, Chung-Shi; Yew, Tri-Rung

    2016-02-17

    Liquid layers adhered to solid surfaces and that are in equilibrium with the vapor phase are common in printing, coating, and washing processes as well as in alveoli in lungs and in stomata in leaves. For such a liquid layer in equilibrium with the vapor it faces, it has been generally believed that, aside from liquid lumps, only a very thin layer of the liquid, i.e., with a thickness of only a few nanometers, is held onto the surface of the solid, and that this adhesion is due to van der Waals forces. A similar layer of water can remain on the surface of a wall of a microchannel after evaporation of bulk water creates a void in the channel, but the thickness of such a water layer has not yet been well characterized. Herein we showed such a water layer adhered to a microchannel wall to be 100 to 170 nm thick and stable against surface tension. The water layer thickness was measured using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and the water layer structure was characterized by using a quantitative nanoparticle counting technique. This thickness was found for channel gap heights ranging from 1 to 5 μm. Once formed, the water layers in the microchannel, when sealed, were stable for at least one week without any special care. Our results indicate that the water layer forms naturally and is closely associated only with the surface to which it adheres. Our study of naturally formed, stable water layers may shed light on topics from gas exchange in alveoli in biology to the post-wet-process control in the semiconductor industry. We anticipate our report to be a starting point for more detailed research and understanding of the microfluidics, mechanisms and applications of gas-liquid-solid systems.

  13. Estimation of sea surface temperature (SST) using marine seismic data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sinha, S.K.; Dewangan, P.; Sain, K.

    .g. Wu et al. [1999]). However, due to the skin effect, sea surface temperatures as measured by satellites can be very different from temperatures a few centimeters below the sea surface (i.e. in-situ temperatures) [Emery et al., 1994]. Therefore...

  14. Noncontact Monitoring of Surface Temperature Distribution by Laser Ultrasound Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Kosugi, Akira; Ihara, Ikuo

    2011-07-01

    A laser ultrasound scanning method for measuring a surface temperature distribution of a heated material is presented. An experiment using an aluminum plate heated up to 120 °C is carried out to verify the feasibility of the proposed method. A series of one-dimensional surface acoustic wave (SAW) measurements within an area of a square on the aluminum surface are performed by scanning a pulsed laser for generating SAW using a galvanometer system, where the SAWs are detected at a fixed location on the surface. An inverse analysis is then applied to SAW data to determine the surface temperature distribution in a certain direction. The two-dimensional distribution of the surface temperature in the square is constructed by combining the one-dimensional surface temperature distributions obtained within the square. The surface temperature distributions obtained by the proposed method almost agrees with those obtained using an infrared radiation camera.

  15. Droplet impinging behavior on surfaces: Part II - Water on aluminium and cast iron surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangavi, S.; Balaji, S.; Mithran, N.; Venkatesan, M.

    2016-09-01

    Droplet cooling of metal surfaces is an important area of research in industrial applications such as material quenching, nozzle spraying, etc. Fluids (water) act as an excellent agent in heat transfer to remove excess heat in various processes by convection and conduction. Such cooling process varies the material properties. The bubbles formed during droplet impinging on the surface act as heat sink and causes variation of height and spreading radius of the droplet with increase in temperature. In the present work, an experimental study of the droplet impinging behavior on Aluminium and Cast iron surfaces is reported. The water droplets are made to fall on the surface of the specimens from a specific height, which also influences the spreading radius. The effect of temperature on droplet height and droplet spreading radius is detailed.

  16. Water-temperature data acquisition activities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauszek, F.H.

    1972-01-01

    Along with the growing interest in water quality during the last decade, the need for data on all types of water-quality parameters has also increased. One parameter of particular interest, because of its many ramifications, is temperature. It influences many of the chemical and physical processes that take place in water. The solubility of gases--for example, oxygen and carbon dioxide--and the solution of mineral matter in water are functions of temperature. Such physical properties as density and viscosity vary with temperature. Oxidation of organic materials, as well as algal and bacterial growth, is promoted or retarded by favorable or unfavorable temperatures. Further, temperature bears on the utility of water: as a source of public water supplies; for industrial use, particularly if the water is used for cooling; and in the field of recreation involving contact sports, fishing, and fish culture. In recent years, temperature changes resulting from inflow of heated industrial waste, particularly effluent from power generating plants, have increased the need for temperature data to determine the degree of change, its effect on ecology, and the effect of any remedial action. Thus, because of the many extensive and intensive effects, a large amount of temperature data is collected on surface and ground waters by many agencies throughout the country. Moreover, because of its importance, there is a widespread interest in temperature even by those who are not active collectors of the data themselves. The industrialist, the manager, the public official, and others at one time or another may have need for temperature data and may well raise the questions: Who is collecting temperature data? What is the extent of the activity? Where are the data being collected? The purpose of this report is to answer these questions. The information in the report is confined to the activities of Federal and non-Federal agencies. It is based on information furnished to the Office of

  17. Measuring temperature of the ice surface during its formation by using infrared instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karev, Anatolij R.; Farzaneh, Masoud; Kollar, Laszlo E. [NSERC/Hydro-Quebec/UQAC Industrial Chair on Atmospheric Icing of Power Network Equipment (CIGELE) and Canada Research Chair on Engineering of Power Network Atmospheric Icing (INGIVRE), Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, Que. (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    A non-destructive remote sensing technique was used to measure the surface temperature of a thin macroscopic water film flowing on a growing asymmetric ice accretion during its formation inside an icing research wind tunnel. Given the underlying thermodynamic conditions of this experimental series, the recorded surface temperature was always below the temperature of water fusion, T{sub m}=273.15K, even when water shedding from growing ice accretions was observed visually. The surface temperature of ice accretions, T{sub s}, ranged from -1{sup o}C, for angular positions near the stagnation line, down to a certain minimum above the ambient temperature, T{sub a}, for the greater angular positions, i.e. T{sub m}>T{sub s}>T{sub a}. (author)

  18. Radiolysis of water with aluminum oxide surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, Sarah C.; LaVerne, Jay A.

    2017-02-01

    Aluminum oxide, Al2O3, nanoparticles with water were irradiated with γ-rays and 5 MeV He ions followed by the determination of the production of molecular hydrogen, H2, and characterization of changes in the particle surface. Surface analysis techniques included: diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), nitrogen absorption with the Brunauer - Emmett - Teller (BET) methodology for surface area determination, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Production of H2 by γ-ray radiolysis was determined for samples with adsorbed water and for Al2O3 - water slurries. For Al2O3 samples with adsorbed water, the radiation chemical yield of H2 was measured as 80±20 molecules/100 eV (1 molecule/100 eV=1.04×10-7 mol/J). The yield of H2 was observed to decrease as the amount of water present in the Al2O3 - water slurries increased. Surface studies indicated that the α-phase Al2O3 samples changed phase following irradiation by He ions, and that the oxyhydroxide layer, present on the pristine sample, is removed by γ-ray and He ion irradiation.

  19. Surface properties of a single perfluoroalkyl group on water surfaces studied by surface potential measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoaka, Takafumi; Tanaka, Yuki; Shioya, Nobutaka; Morita, Kohei; Sonoyama, Masashi; Amii, Hideki; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Kanamori, Toshiyuki; Hasegawa, Takeshi

    2016-12-01

    A discriminative study of a single perfluoroalkyl (Rf) group from a bulk material is recently recognized to be necessary toward the total understanding of Rf compounds based on a primary chemical structure. The single molecule and the bulk matter have an interrelationship via an intrinsic two-dimensional (2D) aggregation property of an Rf group, which is theorized by the stratified dipole-arrays (SDA) theory. Since an Rf group has dipole moments along many C-F bonds, a single Rf group would possess a hydrophilic-like character on the surface. To reveal the hydration character of a single Rf group, in the present study, surface potential (ΔV) measurements are performed for Langmuir monolayers of Rf-containing compounds. From a comparative study with a monolayer of a normal hydrocarbon compound, the hydration/dehydration dynamics of a lying Rf group on water has first been monitored by ΔV measurements, through which a single Rf group has been revealed to have a unique "dipole-interactive" character, which enables the Rf group interacted with the water 'surface.' In addition, the SDA theory proves to be useful to predict the 2D aggregation property across the phase transition temperature of 19°C by use of the ΔV measurements.

  20. A Water Rich Mars Surface Mission Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen; Andrews, Alida; Joosten, Kent; Watts, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The surface of Mars once had abundant water flowing on its surface, but now there is a general perception that this surface is completely dry. Several lines of research have shown that there are sources of potentially large quantities of water at many locations on the surface, including regions considered as candidates for future human missions. Traditionally, system designs for these human missions are constrained to tightly recycle water and oxygen, and current resource utilization strategies involve ascent vehicle oxidizer production only. But the assumption of relatively abundant extant water may change this. Several scenarios were constructed to evaluate water requirements for human Mars expeditions to assess the impact to system design if locally produced water is available. Specifically, we have assessed water resources needed for 1) ascent vehicle oxidizer and fuel production, 2) open-loop water and oxygen life support requirements along with more robust usage scenarios, and 3) crew radiation protection augmentation. In this assessment, production techniques and the associated chemistry to transform Martian water and atmosphere into these useful commodities are identified, but production mass and power requirements are left to future analyses. The figure below illustrates the type of water need assessment performed and that will be discussed. There have been several sources of feedstock material discussed in recent literature that could be used to produce these quantities of water. This paper will focus on Mars surface features that resemble glacier-like forms on Earth. Several lines of evidence indicate that some of these features are in fact buried ice, likely remnants from an earlier ice age on Mars. This paper examines techniques and hardware systems used in the polar regions of Earth to access this buried ice and withdraw water from it. These techniques and systems will be described to illustrate options available. A technique known as a Rodriguez Well

  1. Technique for the estimation of surface temperatures from embedded temperature sensing for rapid, high energy surface deposition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Tyson R.; Schunk, Peter Randall; Roberts, Scott Alan

    2014-07-01

    Temperature histories on the surface of a body that has been subjected to a rapid, highenergy surface deposition process can be di cult to determine, especially if it is impossible to directly observe the surface or attach a temperature sensor to it. In this report, we explore two methods for estimating the temperature history of the surface through the use of a sensor embedded within the body very near to the surface. First, the maximum sensor temperature is directly correlated with the peak surface temperature. However, it is observed that the sensor data is both delayed in time and greatly attenuated in magnitude, making this approach unfeasible. Secondly, we propose an algorithm that involves tting the solution to a one-dimensional instantaneous energy solution problem to both the sensor data and to the results of a one-dimensional CVFEM code. This algorithm is shown to be able to estimate the surface temperature 20 C.

  2. Surface water - groundwater interactions at different spatial and temporal scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebök, Éva

    in lowland catchments, mainly exploring and assessing Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) which by detecting variability in temperatures at the Sediment-Water Interface (SWI) can indirectly map variability in groundwater discharge at several spatial and temporal scales. On the small-scale (...As there is a growing demand for the protection and optimal management of both the surface water and groundwater resources, the understanding of their exchange processes is of great importance. This PhD study aimed at describing the natural spatial and temporal variability of these interactions...... detected large spatial variability in SWI temperatures with scattered high-discharge sites in a stream and also in a lake where discharge fluxes were estimated by vertical temperature profiles and seepage meter measurements. On the kilometre scale DTS indicated less spatial variability in streambed...

  3. Primary collector wall local temperature fluctuations in the area of water-steam phase boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O.; Klinga, J.; Simo, T. [Energovyzkum Ltd., Brno (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    A limited number of temperature sensors could be installed at the primary collector surface in the area of water - steam phase boundary. The surface temperatures as well WWER 440 steam generator process data were measured and stored for a long time and off-line evaluated. Selected results are presented in the paper. (orig.). 2 refs.

  4. Determination of Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Potential Urban Heat Island Effect in Parts of Lagos State using Satellite ... Changes in temperature appear to be closely related to concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  5. Electrolysis of water on (oxidized) metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Logadottir, Ashildur; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2005-01-01

    directly from the electronic structure calculations. We consider electrodes of Pt(111) and Au(111) in detail and then discuss trends for a series of different metals. We show that the difficult step in the water splitting process is the formation of superoxy-type (OOH) species on the surface...... by the splitting of a water molecule on top an adsorbed oxygen atom. One conclusion is that this is only possible on metal surfaces that are (partly) oxidized. We show that the binding energies of the different intermediates are linearly correlated for a number of metals. In a simple analysis, where the linear...... relations are assumed to be obeyed exactly, this leads to a universal relationship between the catalytic rate and the oxygen binding energy. Finally, we conclude that for systems obeying these relations, there is a limit to how good a water splitting catalyst an oxidized metal surface can become. (c) 2005...

  6. Eddy-Induced Ekman Pumping from Sea-Surface Temperature and Surface Current Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaube, P.; Chelton, D. B.; O'Neill, L. W.

    2011-12-01

    Numerous past studies have discussed the biological importance of upwelling of nutrients into the interiors of nonlinear eddies. Such upwelling can occur during the transient stages of formation of cyclones from shoaling of the thermocline. In their mature stages, upwelling can occur from Ekman pumping driven by eddy-induced wind stress curl. Previous investigations of ocean-atmosphere interaction in regions of persistent sea-surface temperature (SST) frontal features have shown that the wind field is locally stronger over warm water and weaker over cold water. Spatial variability of the SST field thus results in a wind stress curl and an associated Ekman pumping in regions of crosswind temperature gradients. It can therefore be anticipated that any SST anomalies associated with eddies can generate Ekman pumping in the eddy interiors. Another mechanism for eddy-induced Ekman pumping is the curl of the stress on the sea surface that arises from the difference between the surface wind velocity and the surface ocean velocity. While SST-induced Ekman upwelling can occur over eddies of either polarity surface current effects on Ekman upwelling occur only over anticyclonic eddies The objective of this study is to determine the spatial structures and relative magnitudes of the two mechanisms for eddy-induced Ekman pumping within the interiors of mesoscale eddies. This is achieved by collocating satellite-based measurements of SST, surface winds and wind stress curl to the interiors of eddies identified and tracked with an automated procedure applied to the sea-surface height (SSH) fields in the Reference Series constructed by AVISO from the combined measurements by two simultaneously operating altimeters. It is shown that, on average, the wind stress curl from eddy-induced surface currents is largest at the eddy center, resulting in Ekman pumping velocities of order 10 cm day-1. While this surface current-induced Ekman pumping depends only weakly on the wind direction

  7. A Mechanism for Near-Surface Water Ice on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, B. J.; Feldman, W. C.; Maurice, S.

    2009-12-01

    Recent findings (e.g., Byrne et al, 2009) indicate that water ice lies very close to the surface at mid-latitudes on Mars. Re-interpretation of neutron and gamma-ray data is consistent with water ice buried less than a meter or two below the surface. Hydrothermal convection of brines provides a mechanism for delivering water to the near-surface. Previous numerical and experimental studies with pure water have indicated that hydrothermal circulation of pore water should be possible, given reasonable estimates of geothermal heat flux and regolith permeability. For pure water convection, the upper limit of the liquid zone would lie at some depth, but in the case of salt solutions, the boundary between liquid and frozen pore water could reach virtually to the surface. The principal drivers for hydrothermal circulation are regolith permeability, geothermal heat flux, surface temperature and salt composition. Both the Clifford and the Hanna-Phillips models of Martian regolith permeability predict sufficiently high permeabilities to sustain hydrothermal convection. Salts in solution will concentrate in upwelling plumes as the cold surface is approached. As water ice is excluded upon freezing, the remaining solution becomes a more concentrated brine, reaching its eutectic concentration before freezing. Numerical simulations considering several salts (NaCl, CaCl2, MgSO4), and a range of heat fluxes (20 - 100 mW/m2) covering the range of estimated present day heat flux (20 to 40 mW/m2) to moderately elevated conditions (60 to 100 mW/m2) such as might exist in the vicinity of volcanoes and craters, all indicate the same qualitative behavior. A completely liquid, convective regime occurs at depth, overlain by a partially frozen "mushy" layer (but still convecting despite the increased viscosity), overlain by a thin frozen layer at the surface. The thicknesses of these layers depend on the heat flux, surface temperature and the salt. As heat flux increases, the mushy region

  8. Simulation of water temperature distribution in Fenhe Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-fang FAN; Min-quan FENG; Zhao LIU

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate the need of controlling the temperature of water discharged from the Fenhe Reservoir, the reservoir water temperature distribution was examined. A three-dimensional mathematical model was used to simulate the in-plane and vertical distribution of water temperature. The parameters of the model were calibrated with field data of the temperature distribution in the Fenhe Reservoir. The simulated temperature of discharged water is consistent with the measured data. The difference in temperature between the discharged water and the natural river channel is less than 3℃ under the current operating conditions. This will not significantly impact the environment of downstream areas.

  9. Simulation of water temperature distribution in Fenhe Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-fang FAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In order to evaluate the need of controlling the temperature of water discharged from the Fenhe Reservoir, the reservoir water temperature distribution was examined. A three-dimensional mathematical model was used to simulate the in-plane and vertical distribution of water temperature. The parameters of the model were calibrated with field data of the temperature distribution in the Fenhe Reservoir. The simulated temperature of discharged water is consistent with the measured data. The difference in temperature between the discharged water and the natural river channel is less than 3℃ under the current operating conditions. This will not significantly impact the environment of downstream areas.

  10. Study on the method of maintaining bathtub water temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan

    2017-05-01

    In order to make the water temperature constant and the spillage to its minimum, we use finite element method and grid transformation and have established an optimized model for people in the bathtub both in time and space, which is based on theories of heat convection and heat conduction and three-dimensional second-order equation. For the first question, we have worked out partial differential equations for three-dimensional heat convection. In the meantime, we also create an optimized temperature model in time and space by using initial conditions and boundary conditions. For the second question we have simulated the shape and volume of the tub and the human gestures in the tub based on the first question. As for the shape and volume of the tub, we draw conclusion that the tub whose surface area is little contains water with higher temperature. Thus, when we are designing bathtubs we can decrease the area so that we'll have less loss heat. For different gestures when people are bathing, we have found that gestures have no obvious influence on variations of water temperature. Finally, we did some simulating calculations, and did some analysis on precision and sensitivity

  11. Room temperature synthesis of water-repellent polystyrene nanocomposite coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Yonggang; Jiang Dong [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang Xia; Zhang Zhijun [Laboratory of Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001 (China); Wang Qihua, E-mail: wangqh@lzb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2010-09-15

    A stable superhydrophobic polystyrene nanocomposite coating was fabricated by means of a very simple and easy method. The coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectrum. The wettability of the products was also investigated. By adding the surface-modified SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, the wettability of the coating changed to water-repellent superhydrophobic, not only for pure water, but also for a wide pH range of corrosive liquids. The influence of the drying temperature and SiO{sub 2} content on the wettability of the nanocomposite coating was also investigated. It was found that both factors had little or no significant effect on the wetting behavior of the coating surface.

  12. Surface Modification of Water Purification Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel J; Dreyer, Daniel R; Bielawski, Christopher W; Paul, Donald R; Freeman, Benny D

    2017-04-18

    Polymeric membranes are an energy-efficient means of purifying water, but they suffer from fouling during filtration. Modification of the membrane surface is one route to mitigating membrane fouling, as it helps to maintain high levels of water productivity. Here, a series of common techniques for modification of the membrane surface are reviewed, including surface coating, grafting, and various treatment techniques such as chemical treatment, UV irradiation, and plasma treatment. Historical background on membrane development and surface modification is also provided. Finally, polydopamine, an emerging material that can be easily deposited onto a wide variety of substrates, is discussed within the context of membrane modification. A brief summary of the chemistry of polydopamine, particularly as it may pertain to membrane development, is also described. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Surface Water Protection by Productive Buffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christen, Benjamin

    Vegetated riparian buffer zones are a widely recommended best management practice in agriculture for protecting surface and coastal waters from diffuse nutrient pollution. On the background of the EU funded research project NitroEurope (NEU; www.NitroEurope.eu), this study concentrates...... on the mitigation of nitrogen pollution in surface and groundwater, using riparian buffer zones for biomass production. The objectives are to map suitable areas for buffer implementation across the six NEU study landscapes, model tentative N-loss mitigation, calculate biomass production potential and economic...... designed for local conditions could be a way of protecting water quality attractive to many stakeholders....

  14. Properties of water surface discharge at different pulse repetition rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruma,; Yoshihara, K. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Hosseini, S. H. R., E-mail: hosseini@kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Sakugawa, T.; Akiyama, H. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Akiyama, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Lukeš, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, Prague, Prague 18200 (Czech Republic)

    2014-09-28

    The properties of water surface discharge plasma for variety of pulse repetition rates are investigated. A magnetic pulse compression (MPC) pulsed power modulator able to deliver pulse repetition rates up to 1000 Hz, with 0.5 J per pulse energy output at 25 kV, was used as the pulsed power source. Positive pulse with a point-to-plane electrode configuration was used for the experiments. The concentration and production yield of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) were quantitatively measured and orange II organic dye was treated, to evaluate the chemical properties of the discharge reactor. Experimental results show that the physical and chemical properties of water surface discharge are not influenced by pulse repetition rate, very different from those observed for under water discharge. The production yield of H₂O₂ and degradation rate per pulse of the dye did not significantly vary at different pulse repetition rates under a constant discharge mode on water surface. In addition, the solution temperature, pH, and conductivity for both water surface and underwater discharge reactors were measured to compare their plasma properties for different pulse repetition rates. The results confirm that surface discharge can be employed at high pulse repetition rates as a reliable and advantageous method for industrial and environmental decontamination applications.

  15. Ultra Water Repellent Polypropylene Surfaces with Tunable Water Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tang; Cai, Chao; Guo, Jing; Wang, Rong; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Jian

    2017-03-22

    Polypropylene (PP), including isotactic PP (i-PP) and atactic PP (a-PP) with distinct tacticity, is one of the most widely used general plastics. Herein, ultra water repellent PP coatings with tunable adhesion to water were prepared via a simple casting method. The pure i-PP coating shows a hierarchical morphology with micro/nanobinary structures, exhibiting a water contact angle (CA) larger than 150° and a sliding angle less than 5° (for 5 μL water droplet). In contrast, the pure a-PP coating has a less rough morphology with a water contact angle of about 130°, and the water droplets stick on the coating at any tilted angles. For the composite i-PP/a-PP coatings, however, ultra water repellency with CA > 150° but water adhesion tailorable from slippery to sticky can be realized, depending on the contents of a-PP and i-PP. The different wetting behaviors are due to the various microstructures of the composite coatings resulting from the distinct crystallization ability of a-PP and i-PP. Furthermore, the existence of a-PP in the composite coatings enhances the mechanical properties compared to the i-PP coating. The proposed method is feasible to modify various substrates and potential applications in no-loss liquid transportation, slippery surfaces, and patterned superhydrophobic surfaces are demonstrated.

  16. 21 CFR 880.5560 - Temperature regulated water mattress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temperature regulated water mattress. 880.5560... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5560 Temperature regulated water mattress. (a) Identification. A temperature regulated water mattress is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a mattress of suitable...

  17. Influence of temperature and pressure on quartz-water-CO₂ contact angle and CO₂-water interfacial tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmadivaleh, Mohammad; Al-Yaseri, Ahmed Z; Iglauer, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    We measured water-CO2 contact angles on a smooth quartz surface (RMS surface roughness ∼40 nm) as a function of pressure and temperature. The advancing water contact angle θ was 0° at 0.1 MPa CO2 pressure and all temperatures tested (296-343 K); θ increased significantly with increasing pressure and temperature (θ=35° at 296 K and θ=56° at 343 K at 20 MPa). A larger θ implies less structural and residual trapping and thus lower CO2 storage capacities at higher pressures and temperatures. Furthermore we did not identify any significant influence of CO2-water equilibration on θ. Moreover, we measured the CO2-water interfacial tension γ and found that γ strongly decreased with increasing pressure up to ∼10 MPa, and then decreased with a smaller slope with further increasing pressure. γ also increased with increasing temperature.

  18. Influence of Participating Media on the Radiation Thermometry for Surface Temperature Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuying LIU; Xinxin ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    A temperature measurement model of radiation thermometry for the surface covered by participating media was developed. The model was based on the radiation heat transfer of participating media and principles of radiation pyrometers, and solved by integral formulation of discrete ordinate method on spectral waveband. The influence of water mist on the indicated temperature of Raytek MR1SB one/two color pyrometer was discussed. Mie theory was used to calculate the radiative properties of water mist. In order to verify the model, a laboratory temperature measurement experiment was executed. The result shows that temperature of radiation thermometry is sensitive to the spectral response wavelength of pyrometer, and the simulated temperature of pyrometer agrees well with the experimental measurements on a suitable wavelength. The simulated temperature was lower than the real temperature of surface for one-color pyrometer, and it could be higher or lower than the real one for two-color pyrometer with the influence of participating media.

  19. Investigation of the impact of extreme air temperature on river water temperature: case study of the heat episode 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihs, Philipp; Trimmel, Heidelinde; Goler, Robert; Formayer, Herbert; Holzapfel, Gerda; Rauch, Hans Peter

    2014-05-01

    Water stream temperature is a relevant factor for water quality since it is an important driver of water oxygen content and in turn also reduces or increases stress on the aquatic fauna. The water temperature of streams is determined by the source and inflow water temperature, by the energy balance at the stream surface and by the hydrological regime of the stream. Main factors driving the energy balance of streams are radiation balance and air temperature which influences the sensitive and latent heat flux. The present study investigates the impact of the heat episode of summer 2013 on water temperature of two lowland rivers in south eastern Austria. Within the scope of the project BIO_CLIC routine measurements of water temperature at 33 locations alongside the rivers Pinka and Lafnitz have been performed since spring 2012. In addition meteorological measurements of global shortwave and longwave radiation, air temperature, wind and air humidity have been carried out during this time. For the same time period, data of discharge and water levels of both rivers were provided by the public hydrological office. The heat episode of summer 2013 started, according to the Kysely- definition, on 18 July and lasted until 14 August. The highest air temperature ever recorded in Austria was reported on 8 August at 40.5°C. In Güssing, which is located within the project area, 40.0 °C were recorded. In the lower reaches of the river Pinka, at the station Burg the monthly mean water temperature of August 2013 was with more than 22°C, 1°C higher than the mean water temperature of the same period of the previous years. At the same station, the maximum water temperature of 27.1°C was recorded on 29 July, 9 days prior to the air temperature record. Analysis shows that at the downstream stations the main driving parameter is solar radiation whereas at the upstream stations a better correlation between air temperature and water temperature is obtained. Using the extensive data set

  20. Effects of Satellite Spectral Resolution and Atmospheric Water Vapor on Retrieval of Near-Ground Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-28

    alternate low-level water vapor profile was considered. This " dry " water vapor profile (dashed in Fig. I) was specified to be equal to the "basic...the dry water vapor profile for the night situation. As expected, the unresolvable perturbations of surface temperature were smaller for the dry

  1. [Anomalous Properties of Water and Aqueous Solutions at Low Temperatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masakazu

    2015-01-01

    Water has many anomalous properties below the room temperature. The temperature range overlaps with that of the Earth's atmosphere and also with that natural life forms favor. We review the origin of the anomalous properties of water and aqueous solutions in association with the hypothetical second critical point and liquid-liquid phase separation of water hidden in the supercooled state of liquid water.

  2. Comparison of satellite and airborne sensor data on sea surface temperature and suspended solid distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Y.; Saito, K.; Hayakawa, S.; Narigasawa, K.

    1992-07-01

    Sea surface temperature and suspended solid were observed simultaneously by LANDSAT TM, NOAA AVHRR and airborne MSS. The authors compared the following items through the data, i.e., 1) Sea surface temperature, 2) Suspended solid in the sea water, 3) Monitoring ability on ocean environment. It was found that distribution patterns of sea surface temperature and suspended solid in the Ariake Sea obtained from LANDSAT TM are similar with those from airborne MSS in a scale of 1:300,000. Sea surface temperature estimated from NOAA AVHRR data indicates a fact of an ocean environment of the Ariake Sea and the around sea area. It is concluded that the TM data can be used for the monitoring of sea environment. The NOAA AVHRR data is useful for the estimation of sea surface temperature with the airborne MSS data.

  3. Room Temperature Characteristics of Polymer-Based Low Ice Adhesion Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiwei; Vågenes, Elisabeth T.; Delabahan, Chrisrosemarie; He, Jianying; Zhang, Zhiliang

    2017-02-01

    Ice adhesion is mainly dictated by surface properties, and water wettability is frequently correlated with ice adhesion strength. However, these established correlations are limited to high ice adhesion and become invalid when the ice adhesion strength is low. Here we carried out an experimental study to explore the relationships between low ice adhesion strength and room temperature surface properties. A variety of room temperature properties of 22 polymer-based hydrophilic and hydrophobic samples consisting of both low and high ice adhesion surfaces were analysed. The properties investigated include water adhesion force, water wettability, roughness, elastic modulus and hardness. Our results show that low ice adhesion strength does not correlate well with water contact angle and its variants, surface roughness and hardness. Low elastic modulus does not guarantee low ice adhesion, however, surfaces with low ice adhesion always show low elastic modulus. Low ice adhesion (below 60 kPa) of tested surfaces may be determinative of small water adhesion force (from 180 to 270 μN). Therefore, measurement of water adhesion force may provide an effective strategy for screening anti-icing or icephobic surfaces, and surfaces within specific values of water adhesion force will possibly lead to a low ice adhesion.

  4. Experimental Study of Water Droplet Vaporization on Nanostructured Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Jorge, Jr.

    This dissertation summarizes results of an experimental exploration of heat transfer during vaporization of a water droplet deposited on a nanostructured surface at a temperature approaching and exceeding the Leidenfrost point for the surface and at lower surface temperatures 10-40 degrees C above the saturated temperature of the water droplet at approximately 101 kPa. The results of these experiments were compared to those performed on bare smooth copper and aluminum surfaces in this and other studies. The nanostructured surfaces were composed of a vast array of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals grown by hydrothermal synthesis on a smooth copper substrate having an average surface roughness of approximately 0.06 micrometer. Various nanostructured surface array geometries were produced on the copper substrate by performing the hydrothermal synthesis for 4, 10 and 24 hours. The individual nanostructures were randomly-oriented and, depending on hydrothermal synthesis time, had a mean diameter of about 500-700 nm, a mean length of 1.7-3.3 micrometers,and porosities of approximately 0.04-0.58. Surface wetting was characterized by macroscopic measurements of contact angle based on the droplet profile and calculations based on measurements of liquid film spread area. Scanning electron microscope imaging was used to document the nanoscale features of the surface before and after the experiments. The nanostructured surfaces grown by hydrothermal synthesis for 4 and 24 hours exhibited contact angles of approximately 10, whereas the surfaces grown for 10 hours were superhydrophilic, exhibiting contact angles typically less than 3 degrees. In single droplet deposition experiments at 101 kPa, a high-speed video camera was used to document the droplet-surface interaction. Distilled and degassed water droplets ranging in size from 2.5-4.0 mm were deposited onto the surface from heights ranging from approximately 0.2-8.1 cm, such that Weber numbers spanned a range of approximately 0

  5. Using radiometric surface temperature for surface energy flux estimation in Mediterranean drylands from a two-source perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morillas, L.; Garcia Garcia, Monica; Nieto Solana, Hector;

    2013-01-01

    A two-source model (TSM) for surface energy balance, considering explicitly soil and vegetation components, was tested under water stress conditions. The TSM evaluated estimates the sensible heat flux (H) using the surface-air thermal gradient and the latent heat flux (LE) as a residual from...... and parallel; as well as the iterative algorithm included in the TSM to disaggregate the soil-surface composite temperature into its separate components. Continuous field measurements of composite soil-vegetation surface temperature (T) and bare soil temperature (T) from thermal infrared sensors were used...... T and the simplified version that uses separate inputs of T and T' were minor. This demonstrates the robustness of the iterative procedure to disaggregate a composite soil-vegetation temperature into separate soil and vegetation components in semiarid environments with good prospects for image...

  6. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Kostik; Biljana Bauer; Zoran Kavrakovski

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupl...

  7. Thermodynamic properties of water solvating biomolecular surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyden, Matthias

    Changes in the potential energy and entropy of water molecules hydrating biomolecular interfaces play a significant role for biomolecular solubility and association. Free energy perturbation and thermodynamic integration methods allow calculations of free energy differences between two states from simulations. However, these methods are computationally demanding and do not provide insights into individual thermodynamic contributions, i.e. changes in the solvent energy or entropy. Here, we employ methods to spatially resolve distributions of hydration water thermodynamic properties in the vicinity of biomolecular surfaces. This allows direct insights into thermodynamic signatures of the hydration of hydrophobic and hydrophilic solvent accessible sites of proteins and small molecules and comparisons to ideal model surfaces. We correlate dynamic properties of hydration water molecules, i.e. translational and rotational mobility, to their thermodynamics. The latter can be used as a guide to extract thermodynamic information from experimental measurements of site-resolved water dynamics. Further, we study energy-entropy compensations of water at different hydration sites of biomolecular surfaces. This work is supported by the Cluster of Excellence RESOLV (EXC 1069) funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  8. Impinging Water Droplets on Inclined Glass Surfaces.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Lance, Blake; Ho, Clifford K.

    2017-09-01

    Multiphase computational models and tests of falling water droplets on inclined glass surfaces were developed to investigate the physics of impingement and potential of these droplets to self-clean glass surfaces for photovoltaic modules and heliostats. A multiphase volume-of-fluid model was developed in ANSYS Fluent to simulate the impinging droplets. The simulations considered different droplet sizes (1 mm and 3 mm), tilt angles (0deg, 10deg, and 45deg), droplet velocities (1 m/s and 3 m/s), and wetting characteristics (wetting=47deg contact angle and non-wetting = 93deg contact angle). Results showed that the spread factor (maximum droplet diameter during impact divided by the initial droplet diameter) decreased with increasing inclination angle due to the reduced normal force on the surface. The hydrophilic surface yielded greater spread factors than the hydrophobic surface in all cases. With regard to impact forces, the greater surface tilt angles yielded lower normal forces, but higher shear forces. Experiments showed that the experimentally observed spread factor (maximum droplet diameter during impact divided by the initial droplet diameter) was significantly larger than the simulated spread factor. Observed spread factors were on the order of 5 - 6 for droplet velocities of %7E3 m/s, whereas the simulated spread factors were on the order of 2. Droplets were observed to be mobile following impact only for the cases with 45deg tilt angle, which matched the simulations. An interesting phenomenon that was observed was that shortly after being released from the nozzle, the water droplet oscillated (like a trampoline) due to the "snapback" caused by the surface tension of the water droplet being released from the nozzle. This oscillation impacted the velocity immediately after the release. Future work should evaluate the impact of parameters such as tilt angle and surface wettability on the impact of particle/soiling uptake and removal to investigate ways that

  9. Estimation of Surface Heat Flux and Surface Temperature during Inverse Heat Conduction under Varying Spray Parameters and Sample Initial Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aamir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27 mm and thickness (mm 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 1.8 MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600°C to 900°C. Beck’s sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024 MW/m2 was estimated for a thickness of 8.5 mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900°C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8 MPa.

  10. Estimation of surface heat flux and surface temperature during inverse heat conduction under varying spray parameters and sample initial temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Aqeel-ur-Rehman; Wang, Hong; Zubair, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27 mm and thickness (mm) 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 1.8 MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600°C to 900°C. Beck's sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF) within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024 MW/m(2) was estimated for a thickness of 8.5 mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900°C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8 MPa.

  11. Predicting monsoon rainfall and pressure indices from sea surface temperature

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.

    The relationship between the sea surface temperature (SST) in the Indian Ocean and monsoon rainfall has been examined by using 21 years data set (1967-87) of MOHSST.6 (Met. Office Historical Sea Surface Temperature data set, obtained from U.K. Met...

  12. Metal surface temperature induced by moving laser beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, G.R.B.E.; Meijer, J.

    1995-01-01

    Whenever a metal is irradiated with a laser beam, electromagnetic energy is transformed into heat in a thin surface layer. The maximum surface temperature is the most important quantity which determines the processing result. Expressions for this maximum temperature are provided by the literature fo

  13. Recent trends in sea surface temperature off Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lluch-Cota, S.E.; Tripp-Valdéz, M.; Lluch-Cota, D.B.; Lluch-Belda, D.; Verbesselt, J.; Herrera-Cervantes, H.; Bautista-Romero, J.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in global mean sea surface temperature may have potential negative implications for natural and socioeconomic systems; however, measurements to predict trends in different regions have been limited and sometimes contradictory. In this study, an assessment of sea surface temperature change si

  14. Recent trends in sea surface temperature off Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lluch-Cota, S.E.; Tripp-Valdéz, M.; Lluch-Cota, D.B.; Lluch-Belda, D.; Verbesselt, J.; Herrera-Cervantes, H.; Bautista-Romero, J.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in global mean sea surface temperature may have potential negative implications for natural and socioeconomic systems; however, measurements to predict trends in different regions have been limited and sometimes contradictory. In this study, an assessment of sea surface temperature change

  15. Reintroducing radiometric surface temperature into the Penman-Monteith formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallick, Kaniska; Bøgh, Eva; Trebs, Ivonne;

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate a novel method to physically integrate radiometric surface temperature (TR) into the Penman-Monteith (PM) formulation for estimating the terrestrial sensible and latent heat fluxes (H and λE) in the framework of a modified Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC). It combi...

  16. Research of measurement errors caused by salt solution temperature drift in surface plasmon resonance sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingcai Wu; Zhengtian Gu; YifangYuan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Influence of temperature on measurement of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor was investigated.Samples with various concentrations of NaCI were tested at different temperatures. It was shown that if the affection of temperature could be neglected, measurement precision of salt solution was 0.028 wt.-%.But measurement error of salinity caused by temperature was 0.53 wt.-% in average when the temperature drift was 1 ℃. To reduce the error, a double-cell SPR sensor with salt solution and distilled water flowing respectively and at the same temperature was implemented.

  17. Interferometric measurements of sea surface temperature and emissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Lars; Bakan, Stephan

    1997-09-01

    A new multispectral method to derive sea surface emissivity and temperature by using interferometer measurements of the near surface upwelling radiation in the infrared window region is presented. As reflected sky radiation adds substantial spectral variability to the otherwise spectrally smooth surface radiation, an appropriate estimate of surface emissivity allows the measured upwelling radiation to be corrected for the reflected sky component. The remaining radiation, together with the estimated surface emissivity, yields an estimate of the sea surface temperature. Measurements from an ocean pier in the Baltic Sea in October 1995 indicate an accuracy of about 0.1 K for the sea surface temperature thus derived. A strong sea surface skin effect of about 0.6 K is found in that particular case.

  18. Alumina Volatility in Water Vapor at Elevated Temperatures: Application to Combustion Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Myers, Dwight L.

    2003-01-01

    The volatility of alumina in high temperature water vapor was determined by measuring weight loss of sapphire coupons at temperatures between 1250 and 1500 C, water vapor partial pressures between 0.15 and 0.68 atm in oxygen, at one atmosphere total pressure, and a gas velocity of 4.4 centimeters per second. The variation of the volatility with water vapor partial pressure was consistent with Al(OH)3(g) formation. The enthalpy of reaction to form Al(OH)3(g) from alumina and water vapor was found to be 210 plus or minus 20 kJ/mol. Surface rearrangement of ground sapphire surfaces increased with water vapor partial pressure, temperature and volatility rate. Recession rates of alumina due to volatility were determined as a function of water vapor partial pressure and temperature to evaluate limits for use of alumina in long term applications in combustion environments.

  19. Spring and surface water quality of the Cyprus ophiolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of surface, spring and borehole waters associated with the ophiolite rocks of Cyprus shows five broad water types (1 Mg-HCO3, (2 Na-SO4-Cl-HCO3, (3 Na-Ca-Cl-SO4-OH-CO3, (4 Na-Cl-SO4 and (5 Ca-SO4. The waters represent a progression in chemical reactivity from surface waters that evolve within a groundwater setting due to hydrolysis of the basic/ultrabasic rock as modified by CO2-weathering. An increase in salinity is also observed which is due to mixing with a saline end-member (modified sea-water and dissolution of gypsum/anhydrite. In some cases, the waters have pH values greater than 11. Such high values are associated with low temperature serpentinisation reactions. The system is a net sink for CO2. This feature is related not only to the hydrolysis of the primary minerals in the rock, but also to CaCO3 or Ca-Mg-CO3 solubility controls. Under hyperalkaline conditions, virtually all the carbon dioxide is lost from the water due to the sufficiently high calcium levels and carbonate buffering is then insignificant. Calcium sulphate solubility controls may also be operative when calcium and sulphate concentrations are particularly high. Keywords: Cyprus, Troodos, ophiolite, serpentinisation, spring, stream, water quality, bromide, iodine, boron, trace elements, hyperalkaline.

  20. Ground-water temperature of the Wyoming quadrangle in central Delaware : with application to ground-water-source heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Arthur L.

    1982-01-01

    Ground-water temperature was measured during a one-year period (1980-81) in 20 wells in the Wyoming Quadrangle in central Delaware. Data from thermistors set at fixed depths in two wells were collected twice each week, and vertical temperature profiles of the remaining 18 wells were made monthly. Ground-water temperature at 8 feet below land surface in well Jc55-1 ranged from 45.0 degrees F in February to 70.1 degrees F in September. Temperature at 35 feet below land surface in the same well reached a minimum of 56.0 degrees F in August, and a maximum of 57.8 degrees F in February. Average annual temperature of ground water at 25 feet below land surface in all wells ranged from 54.6 degrees F to 57.8 degrees F. Variations of average temperature probably reflect the presence or absence of forestation in the recharge areas of the wells. Ground-water-source heat pumps supplied with water from wells 30 or more feet below land surface will operate more efficiently in both heating and cooling modes than those supplied with water from shallower depths. (USGS)

  1. Physical, chemical, current profile, water pressure, sea surface temperature, meteorological, and other data from current meters, bottle casts, pressure gauges, meteorological sensors, current meters, and other instruments from the ANDRE NIZERY and other platforms from the TOGA Area - Atlantic as part of the Seasonal Response of the Equatorial Atlantic Experiment/Francais Ocean Et Climat Dans L'Atlantique Equatorial (SEQUAL/FOCAL) project from 01 January 1964 to 31 December 1985 (NODC Accession 8700150)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, chemical, current profile, water pressure, sea surface temperature, meteorological, and other data were collected from the ANDRE NIZERY and other platforms...

  2. Embedded water-based surface heating part 2: experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    : hybrid 3D numerical model. Journal of Building Physics 33: 357-391). The thermal response of the system is tested in both long (16 h) and short (30 min) cycle experiments where the water flow alters between on and off. Temperature distribution, within the floor construction, and the heat exchange process...... are studied throughout the test cycles. The model underestimates the steady-state heat exchange from the pipe loop by 16% when boundary conditions and thermal properties according to the reference case are applied. Temperatures at the floor surface are assessed with good precision while temperatures......The transient operation of an embedded water-based floor heating system has been studied by means of a numerical simulation tool. Prior to this study, Caccavelli and Richard (Caccavelli D, Richard P (1994) Etude portant sur le dimensionnement d'un plancher chauffant a eau chaude en CIC. Rapport n...

  3. Age-surface temperature estimation model: When will oil palm plantation reach the same surface temperature as natural forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushayati, S. B.; Hermawan, R.; Meilani, R.

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm plantation has often been accused as the cause of global warming. However, along with its growth, it would be able to decrease surface temperature. The question is ‘when will the plantation be able to reach the same surface temperature as natural forest’. This research aimed to estimate the age of oil palm plantation that create similar surface temperature to those in natural forest (land cover before the opening and planting of oil palm). The method used in this research was spatial analysis of land cover and surface temperature distribution. Based on the spatial analysis of surface temperature, five points was randomly taken from each planting age (age 1 15 years). Linear regression was then employed in the analysis. The linear regression formula between surface temperature and age of oil palm plantation was Y = 26.002 – 0.1237X. Surface temperature will decrease as much as 0.1237 ° C with one year age growth oil palm. Surface temperature that was similar to the initial temperature, when the land cover was natural forest (23.04 °C), was estimated to occur when the oil palm plantation reach the age 24 year.

  4. A Water Rich Mars Surface Mission Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Andrews, Alida; Joosten, B. Kent; Watts, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    In an on-going effort to make human Mars missions more affordable and sustainable, NASA continues to investigate the innovative leveraging of technological advances in conjunction with the use of accessible Martian resources directly applicable to these missions. One of the resources with the broadest utility for human missions is water. Many past studies of human Mars missions assumed a complete lack of water derivable from local sources. However, recent advances in our understanding of the Martian environment provides growing evidence that Mars may be more "water rich" than previously suspected. This is based on data indicating that substantial quantities of water are mixed with surface regolith, bound in minerals located at or near the surface, and buried in large glacier-like forms. This paper describes an assessment of what could be done in a "water rich" human Mars mission scenario. A description of what is meant by "water rich" in this context is provided, including a quantification of the water that would be used by crews in this scenario. The different types of potential feedstock that could be used to generate these quantities of water are described, drawing on the most recently available assessments of data being returned from Mars. This paper specifically focuses on sources that appear to be buried quantities of water ice. (An assessment of other potential feedstock materials is documented in another paper.) Technologies and processes currently used in terrestrial Polar Regions are reviewed. One process with a long history of use on Earth and with potential application on Mars - the Rodriguez Well - is described and results of an analysis simulating the performance of such a well on Mars are presented. These results indicate that a Rodriguez Well capable of producing the quantities of water identified for a "water rich" human mission are within the capabilities assumed to be available on the Martian surface, as envisioned in other comparable Evolvable

  5. Seasonal variation of surface temperature based on land cover in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Çiçek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the seasonal variation of the surface temperature of Ankara urban area and its enviroment have been analyzed by using Landsat 7 image. The Landsat 7 images of each month from 2007 to 2011 have been used to analyze the annually changes of the surface temperature. The land cover of the research area was defined with supervised classification method on the basis of the satellite image belonging to 2008 July. After determining the surface temperatures from 6-1 bands of satellite images, the monthly mean surface temperatures were calculated for land cover classification for the period between 2007 and 2011. Accordşng to the results obtained, the surface temperatures are high in summer and low in winter from the air temperatures. all satellite images were taken at 10:00 am, it is found that urban areas are cooler than rural areas at 10:00 am. Regarding the land cover classification, the water surfaces are the coolest surfaces during the whole year. The warmest areas are the grasslands and dry farming areas. While the parks are warmer than the urban areas during the winter, during the summer they are cooler than artificial land covers. The urban areas with higher building density are the cooler surfaces after water bodies.

  6. Molecular dynamics simulation study of water adsorption on hydroxylated graphite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picaud, Sylvain; Collignon, B; Hoang, Paul N M; Rayez, J C

    2006-04-27

    In this paper, we present results from molecular dynamic simulations devoted to the characterization of the interaction between water molecules and hydroxylated graphite surfaces considered as models for surfaces of soot emitted by aircraft. The hydroxylated graphite surfaces are modeled by anchoring several OH groups on an infinite graphite plane. The molecular dynamics simulations are based on a classical potential issued from quantum chemical calculations. They are performed at three temperatures (100, 200, and 250 K) to provide a view of the structure and dynamics of water clusters on the model soot surface. These simulations show that the water-OH sites interaction is quite weak compared to the water-water interaction. This leads to the clustering of the water molecules above the surface, and the corresponding water aggregate can only be trapped by the OH sites when the temperature is sufficiently low, or when the density of OH sites is sufficiently high.

  7. Analysis of water microdroplet condensation on silicon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Takuya; Fujimoto, Kenya; Yoshimoto, Yuta; Mogi, Katsuo; Kinefuchi, Ikuya; Sugii, Yasuhiko; Takagi, Shu; Univ. of Tokyo Team; Tokyo Inst. of Tech. Team

    2016-11-01

    We observed the condensation process of water microdroplets on flat silicon (100) surfaces by means of the sequential visualization of the droplets using an environmental scanning electron microscope. As previously reported for nanostructured surfaces, the condensation process of water microdroplets on the flat silicon surfaces also exhibits two modes: the constant base (CB) area mode and the constant contact angle (CCA) mode. In the CB mode, the contact angle increases with time while the base diameter is constant. Subsequently, in the CCA mode, the base diameter increases with time while the contact angle remains constant. The dropwise condensation model regulated by subcooling temperature does not reproduce the experimental results. Because the subcooling temperature is not constant in the case of a slow condensation rate, this model is not applicable to the condensation of the long time scale ( several tens of minutes). The contact angle of water microdroplets ( several μm) tended to be smaller than the macro contact angle. Two hypotheses are proposed as the cause of small contact angles: electrowetting and the coalescence of sub- μm water droplets.

  8. Uncertainty in surface water flood risk modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J. B.; Martin, D. N.; Roberts, E.; Domuah, R.

    2009-04-01

    Two thirds of the flooding that occurred in the UK during summer 2007 was as a result of surface water (otherwise known as ‘pluvial') rather than river or coastal flooding. In response, the Environment Agency and Interim Pitt Reviews have highlighted the need for surface water risk mapping and warning tools to identify, and prepare for, flooding induced by heavy rainfall events. This need is compounded by the likely increase in rainfall intensities due to climate change. The Association of British Insurers has called for the Environment Agency to commission nationwide flood risk maps showing the relative risk of flooding from all sources. At the wider European scale, the recently-published EC Directive on the assessment and management of flood risks will require Member States to evaluate, map and model flood risk from a variety of sources. As such, there is now a clear and immediate requirement for the development of techniques for assessing and managing surface water flood risk across large areas. This paper describes an approach for integrating rainfall, drainage network and high-resolution topographic data using Flowroute™, a high-resolution flood mapping and modelling platform, to produce deterministic surface water flood risk maps. Information is provided from UK case studies to enable assessment and validation of modelled results using historical flood information and insurance claims data. Flowroute was co-developed with flood scientists at Cambridge University specifically to simulate river dynamics and floodplain inundation in complex, congested urban areas in a highly computationally efficient manner. It utilises high-resolution topographic information to route flows around individual buildings so as to enable the prediction of flood depths, extents, durations and velocities. As such, the model forms an ideal platform for the development of surface water flood risk modelling and mapping capabilities. The 2-dimensional component of Flowroute employs

  9. How water meets a hydrophobic surface: Reluctantly and with flucuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynor Torigoe, Adele Nichole

    By definition hydrophobic substances hate water. Water placed on a hydrophobic surface will form a drop in order to minimize its contact area. What happens when water is forced into contact with a hydrophobic surface? One theory is that an ultra-thin low density region forms near the surface. This depleted region would have implications in such diverse areas as colloidal self-assembly, and the boundary conditions of fluid flow. However, the literature still remains divided as to whether or not such a depleted region exists. To investigate the existence of this layer, we have employed three surface-sensitive techniques, time-resolved phase-modulated ellipsometry, surface plasmon resonance, and X-ray reflectivity. Both ellipsometry and X-ray reflectivity provide strong evidence for the low-density layer and illuminate unexpected temporal behavior. Using all three techniques, we found surprising fluctuations at the interface with a non-Gaussian distribution and a single characteristic time on the order of tenths of seconds. This information supports the idea that the boundary fluctuates with something akin to capillary waves. We have also investigated the dependence of the static and dynamic properties of the hydrophobic/water interface on variables such as temperature, contact angle, pH, dissolved gasses, and sample quality, among others, in a hope to discover the root of the controversy in the literature. We found that the depletion layer is highly dependent on temperature, contact angle and sample quality. This dependence might explain some of the discrepancies in the literature as different groups often use hydrophobic surfaces with different properties.

  10. Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog Input/Output Module Ambient Temperature Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark D. McKay

    2011-02-01

    Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog input/output Module Ambient Temperature Testing A series of three ambient temperature tests were conducted for the Water Power Calculator development using the INL Calibration Laboratory’s Tenney Environmental Chamber. The ambient temperature test results demonstrate that the Moore Industries Temperature Input Modules, Analog Input Module and Analog Output Module, ambient temperature response meet or exceed the manufactures specifications

  11. Reconnoitering the effect of shallow groundwater on land surface temperature and surface energy balance using MODIS and SEBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Alkhaier

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of observing shallow groundwater depth and areal extent using satellite measurements can support groundwater models and vast irrigation systems management. Moreover, these measurements can help to include the effect of shallow groundwater on surface energy balance within land surface models and climate studies, which broadens the methods that yield more reliable and informative results. To examine the capacity of MODIS in detecting the effect of shallow groundwater on land surface temperature and the surface energy balance in an area within Al-Balikh River basin in northern Syria, we studied the interrelationship between in-situ measured water table depths and land surface temperatures measured by MODIS. We, also, used the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS to calculate surface energy fluxes, evaporative fraction and daily evaporation, and inspected their relationships with water table depths. We found out that the daytime temperature increased while the nighttime temperature decreased when the depth of the water table increased. And, when the water table depth increased, net radiation, latent and ground heat fluxes, evaporative fraction and daily evaporation decreased, while sensible heat flux increased. This concords with the findings of a companion paper (Alkhaier et al., 2012. The observed clear relationships were the result of meeting both conditions that were concluded in the companion paper, i.e. high potential evaporation and big contrast in day-night temperature. Moreover, the prevailing conditions in this study area helped SEBS to yield accurate estimates. Under bare soil conditions and under the prevailing weather conditions, we conclude that MODIS is suitable for detecting the effect of shallow groundwater because it has proper imaging times and adequate sensor accuracy; nevertheless, its coarse spatial resolution is disadvantageous.

  12. In hot water: effects of temperature-dependent interiors on the radii of water-rich super-Earths

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Scott W

    2016-01-01

    Observational advancements are leading to increasingly precise measurements of super-Earth masses and radii. Such measurements are used in internal structure models to constrain interior compositions of super-Earths. It is now critically important to quantify the effect of various model assumptions on the predicted radii. In particular, models often neglect thermal effects, a choice justified by noting that the thermal expansion of a solid Earth-like planet is small. However, the thermal effects for water-rich interiors may be significant. We have systematically explored the extent to which thermal effects can influence the radii of water-rich super-Earths over a wide range of masses, surface temperatures, surface pressures and water mass fractions. We developed temperature-dependent internal structure models of water-rich super-Earths that include a comprehensive temperature-dependent water equation of state. We found that thermal effects induce significant changes in their radii. For example, for super-Eart...

  13. Source Water Assessment for the Las Vegas Valley Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, S. P.; Piechota, T. C.

    2003-12-01

    The 1996 amendment to the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 created the Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) with an objective to evaluate potential sources of contamination to drinking water intakes. The development of a Source Water Assessment Plan for Las Vegas Valley surface water runoff into Lake Mead is important since it will guide future work on source water protection of the main source of water. The first step was the identification of the watershed boundary and source water protection area. Two protection zones were delineated. Zone A extends 500 ft around water bodies, and Zone B extends 3000 ft from the boundaries of Zone A. These Zones extend upstream to the limits of dry weather flows in the storm channels within the Las Vegas Valley. After the protection areas were identified, the potential sources of contamination in the protection area were inventoried. Field work was conducted to identify possible sources of contamination. A GIS coverage obtained from local data sources was used to identify the septic tank locations. Finally, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits were obtained from the State of Nevada, and included in the inventory. After the inventory was completed, a level of risk was assigned to each potential contaminating activity (PCA). The contaminants of concern were grouped into five categories: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), synthetic organic compounds (SOCs), inorganic compounds (IOCs), microbiological, and radionuclides. The vulnerability of the water intake to each of the PCAs was assigned based on these five categories, and also on three other factors: the physical barrier effectiveness, the risk potential, and the time of travel. The vulnerability analysis shows that the PCAs with the highest vulnerability rating include septic systems, golf courses/parks, storm channels, gas stations, auto repair shops, construction, and the wastewater treatment plant discharges. Based on the current water quality

  14. Polymer functionalized nanostructured porous silicon for selective water vapor sensing at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Priyanka; Das, Samaresh; Dhanekar, Saakshi

    2017-04-01

    This paper highlights the surface treatment of porous silicon (PSi) for enhancing the sensitivity of water vapors at room temperature. A simple and low cost technique was used for fabrication and functionalization of PSi. Spin coated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was used for functionalizing PSi surface. Morphological and structural studies were conducted to analyze samples using SEM and XRD/Raman spectroscopy respectively. Contact angle measurements were performed for assessing the wettability of the surfaces. PSi and functionalized PSi samples were tested as sensors in presence of different analytes like ethanol, acetone, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and water vapors in the range of 50-500 ppm. Electrical measurements were taken from parallel aluminium electrodes fabricated on the functionalized surface, using metal mask and thermal evaporation. Functionalized PSi sensors in comparison to non-functionalized sensors depicted selective and enhanced response to water vapor at room temperature. The results portray an efficient and selective water vapor detection at room temperature.

  15. A protocol for validating Land Surface Temperature from Sentinel-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghent, D.

    2015-12-01

    One of the main objectives of the Sentinel-3 mission is to measure sea- and land-surface temperature with high-end accuracy and reliability in support of environmental and climate monitoring in an operational context. Calibration and validation are thus key criteria for operationalization within the framework of the Sentinel-3 Mission Performance Centre (S3MPC).Land surface temperature (LST) has a long heritage of satellite observations which have facilitated our understanding of land surface and climate change processes, such as desertification, urbanization, deforestation and land/atmosphere coupling. These observations have been acquired from a variety of satellite instruments on platforms in both low-earth orbit and in geostationary orbit. Retrieval accuracy can be a challenge though; surface emissivities can be highly variable owing to the heterogeneity of the land, and atmospheric effects caused by the presence of aerosols and by water vapour absorption can give a bias to the underlying LST. As such, a rigorous validation is critical in order to assess the quality of the data and the associated uncertainties. The Sentinel-3 Cal-Val Plan for evaluating the level-2 SL_2_LST product builds on an established validation protocol for satellite-based LST. This set of guidelines provides a standardized framework for structuring LST validation activities, and is rapidly gaining international recognition. The protocol introduces a four-pronged approach which can be summarised thus: i) in situ validation where ground-based observations are available; ii) radiance-based validation over sites that are homogeneous in emissivity; iii) intercomparison with retrievals from other satellite sensors; iv) time-series analysis to identify artefacts on an interannual time-scale. This multi-dimensional approach is a necessary requirement for assessing the performance of the LST algorithm for SLSTR which is designed around biome-based coefficients, thus emphasizing the importance of

  16. Evaluation of MODIS Land Surface Temperature with In Situ Snow Surface Temperature from CREST-SAFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Diaz, C. L.; Lakhankar, T.; Romanov, P.; Munoz, J.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Yu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the procedure and results of a temperature-based validation approach for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Land Surface Temperature (LST) product provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Terra and Aqua Earth Observing System satellites using in situ LST observations recorded at the Cooperative Remote Sensing Science and Technology Center - Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE) during the years of 2013 (January-April) and 2014 (February-April). A total of 314 day and night clear-sky thermal images, acquired by the Terra and Aqua satellites, were processed and compared to ground-truth data from CREST-SAFE with a frequency of one measurement every 3 min. Additionally, this investigation incorporated supplementary analyses using meteorological CREST-SAFE in situ variables (i.e. wind speed, cloud cover, incoming solar radiation) to study their effects on in situ snow surface temperature (T-skin) and T-air. Furthermore, a single pixel (1km2) and several spatially averaged pixels were used for satellite LST validation by increasing the MODIS window size to 5x5, 9x9, and 25x25 windows for comparison. Several trends in the MODIS LST data were observed, including the underestimation of daytime values and nighttime values. Results indicate that, although all the data sets (Terra and Aqua, diurnal and nocturnal) showed high correlation with ground measurements, day values yielded slightly higher accuracy ( 1°C), both suggesting that MODIS LST retrievals are reliable for similar land cover classes and atmospheric conditions. Results from the CREST-SAFE in situ variables' analyses indicate that T-air is commonly higher than T-skin, and that a lack of cloud cover results in: lower T-skin and higher T-air minus T-skin difference (T-diff). Additionally, the study revealed that T-diff is inversely proportional to cloud cover, wind speed, and incoming solar radiation. Increasing the MODIS window size

  17. Estimation of minimum surface temperature at stage ll (Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Dimri

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting minimum surface temperature at a station, Stage II, located in mountainous region requires information on the meteorological fields. An attempt has been made to develop a statistical model for forecasting minimum temperature at ground level using previous years' data. Surface data were collected at StageII (longitude 73 oB, latitude 34 oN, and altitude 2650 m. Atmospheric variables are influenced by complex orography and surface features to a great extent. In the present study, statistical relationship between atmosphere parameters and minimum temperature at the site has been established. Multivariate linear regression analysis has been used to establish the relationship to predict the minimum surface temperature for the following day. A comparison between the observed and the calculated forecast minimum temperature has been made. Most of the cases are well predicted (multiple correlation coefficient of 0.94.

  18. Refined Modeling of Water Temperature and Salinity in Coastal Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yongming; ZHENG Yonghong; QIU Dahong

    2000-01-01

    The prediction of water temperature and salinity in coastal areas is one of the essential tasks in water quality control and management. This paper takes a refined forecasting model of water temperature and salinity in coastal areas as a basic target. Based on the Navier-Stokes equation and k- turbulence model, taking the characteristics of coastal areas into account, a refined model for water temperatureand salinity in coastal areas has been developed to simulate the seasonal variations of water temperatureand salinity fields in the Hakata Bay, Japan. The model takes into account the effects of a variety ofhydrodynamic and meteorological factors on water temperature and salinity. It predicts daily fluctuations in water temperature and salinity at different depths throughout the year. The model has been calibrated well against the data set of historical water temperature and salinity observations in the Hakata Bay,Japan.

  19. Moisture Absorption Model of Composites Considering Water Temperature Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUI Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of water temperature on composite moisture absorption parameters was investigated in temperature-controlled water bath. Experiments of carbon fiber/bismaleimide resin composites immersed in water of 60℃, 70℃and 80℃ were developed respectively. According to the moisture content-time curves obtained from the experimental results, the diffusion coefficient and the balanced moisture content of the composites immersed in different water temperature could be calculated. What's more, the effect of water temperature on the diffusion coefficient and the balanced moisture content were discussed too. According to the Arrhenius equation and the law of Fick, a moisture absorption model was proposed to simulate the hygroscopic behaviour of the composite laminates immersed in different water temperature which can predict the absorption rate of water of the composites immersed in distilled water of 95℃ at any time precisely and can calculate how long it will take to reach the specific absorption rate.

  20. North American regional climate reconstruction from ground surface temperature histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaume-Santero, Fernando; Pickler, Carolyne; Beltrami, Hugo; Mareschal, Jean-Claude

    2016-12-01

    Within the framework of the PAGES NAm2k project, 510 North American borehole temperature-depth profiles were analyzed to infer recent climate changes. To facilitate comparisons and to study the same time period, the profiles were truncated at 300 m. Ground surface temperature histories for the last 500 years were obtained for a model describing temperature changes at the surface for several climate-differentiated regions in North America. The evaluation of the model is done by inversion of temperature perturbations using singular value decomposition and its solutions are assessed using a Monte Carlo approach. The results within 95 % confidence interval suggest a warming between 1.0 and 2.5 K during the last two centuries. A regional analysis, composed of mean temperature changes over the last 500 years and geographical maps of ground surface temperatures, show that all regions experienced warming, but this warming is not spatially uniform and is more marked in northern regions.

  1. Index of surface-water stations in Texas, January 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Jack; Carrillo, E.R.; Buckner, H.D.

    1988-01-01

    As of January 1, 1988, the surface-water data-collection network in Texas included 368 continuous streamflow, 12 continuous or daily reservoir-content, 38 gage height, 15 crest-stage partia 1-record, 4 periodic discharge through range, 32 floodhydrocjraph partial-record, 9 flood-profile partial-record, 36 low-flow partial-record 45 daily chemical-quality, 19 continuous-recording water-quality, 83 periodic biological, 19 lake surveys, 160 periodic organic and (or) nutrient, 3 periodic insecticide, 33 periodic pesticide, 20 automatic sampler, 137 periodic minor elements, 125 periodic chemical-quality, 74 periodic physica1-organic, 24 continuous-recording three- or four-parameter water-quality, 34 periodic sediment, 21 continuous-recording temperature, and 30 national stream-quality accounting network stations. Plate 1 shows the location of surface-water streamflow or reservoir-content and chemicalquality or sediment stations in Texas. Plate 2 shows the location of partial-record surface-water stations.

  2. Ground-based measurement of surface temperature and thermal emissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owe, M.; Van De Griend, A. A.

    1994-01-01

    Motorized cable systems for transporting infrared thermometers have been used successfully during several international field campaigns. Systems may be configured with as many as four thermal sensors up to 9 m above the surface, and traverse a 30 m transect. Ground and canopy temperatures are important for solving the surface energy balance. The spatial variability of surface temperature is often great, so that averaged point measurements result in highly inaccurate areal estimates. The cable systems are ideal for quantifying both temporal and spatial variabilities. Thermal emissivity is also necessary for deriving the absolute physical temperature, and measurements may be made with a portable measuring box.

  3. Effects of drying temperature and surface characteristics of vegetable on the survival of salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaree, N; Chiewchan, N; Devahastin, S

    2009-01-01

    The heat resistance of Salmonella Anatum inoculated on the surface of a model vegetable as affected by hot-air drying temperature (50 to 70 degrees C) and surface characteristics was determined in this study. Cabbage was selected as a model vegetable to demonstrate the effect of topographical feature of vegetable surface on the Salmonella attachment ability. An image analysis technique was developed to monitor the change of cabbage surface during drying and the specific surface characteristics were described in terms of the roughness factor (R). It was found that the water activity of the vegetable decreased while R-value increased with longer drying time and higher drying temperature. However, the changes of both parameters during drying did not show a significant effect on the susceptibility of Salmonella attached on the cabbage surface. Drying temperature was found to be a major factor influencing the heat resistance of Salmonella during drying.

  4. Effect of milling temperatures on surface area, surface energy and cohesion of pharmaceutical powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Umang V; Wang, Zihua; Olusanmi, Dolapo; Narang, Ajit S; Hussain, Munir A; Tobyn, Michael J; Heng, Jerry Y Y

    2015-11-10

    Particle bulk and surface properties are influenced by the powder processing routes. This study demonstrates the effect of milling temperatures on the particle surface properties, particularly surface energy and surface area, and ultimately on powder cohesion. An active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of industrial relevance (brivanib alaninate, BA) was used to demonstrate the effect of two different, but most commonly used milling temperatures (cryogenic vs. ambient). The surface energy of powders milled at both cryogenic and room temperatures increased with increasing milling cycles. The increase in surface energy could be related to the generation of surface amorphous regions. Cohesion for both cryogenic and room temperature milled powders was measured and found to increase with increasing milling cycles. For cryogenic milling, BA had a surface area ∼ 5× higher than the one obtained at room temperature. This was due to the brittle nature of this compound at cryogenic temperature. By decoupling average contributions of surface area and surface energy on cohesion by salinization post-milling, the average contribution of surface energy on cohesion for powders milled at room temperature was 83% and 55% at cryogenic temperature.

  5. How Water Advances on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, Frank; Encinas, Noemí; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Superliquid repellency can be achieved by nano- and microstructuring surfaces in such a way that protrusions entrap air underneath the liquid. It is still not known how the three-phase contact line advances on such structured surfaces. In contrast to a smooth surface, where the contact line can advance continuously, on a superliquid-repellent surface, the contact line has to overcome an air gap between protrusions. Here, we apply laser scanning confocal microscopy to get the first microscopic videos of water drops advancing on a superhydrophobic array of micropillars. In contrast to common belief, the liquid surface gradually bends down until it touches the top face of the next micropillars. The apparent advancing contact angle is 180°. On the receding side, pinning to the top faces of the micropillars determines the apparent receding contact angle. Based on these observations, we propose that the apparent receding contact angle should be used for characterizing superliquid-repellent surfaces rather than the apparent advancing contact angle and hysteresis.

  6. No inter-gyre pathway for sea-surface temperature anomalies in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foukal, Nicholas P.; Lozier, M. Susan

    2016-04-01

    Recent Lagrangian analyses of surface drifters have questioned the existence of a surface current connecting the Gulf Stream (GS) to the subpolar gyre (SPG) and have cast doubt on the mechanism underlying an apparent pathway for sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies between the two regions. Here we use modelled Lagrangian trajectories to determine the fate of surface GS water and satellite SST data to analyse pathways of GS SST anomalies. Our results show that only a small fraction of the surface GS water reaches the SPG, the water that does so mainly travels below the surface mixed layer, and GS SST anomalies do not propagate into the SPG on interannual timescales. Instead, the inter-gyre heat transport as part of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation must be accomplished via subsurface pathways. We conclude that the SST in the SPG cannot be predicted by tracking SST anomalies along the GS.

  7. Convergent surface water distributions in U.S. cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.K. Steele; J.B. Heffernan; N. Bettez; J. Cavender-Bares; P.M. Groffman; J.M. Grove; S. Hall; S.E. Hobbie; K. Larson; J.L. Morse; C. Neill; K.C. Nelson; J. O' Neil-Dunne; L. Ogden; D.E. Pataki; C. Polsky; R. Roy Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Earth's surface is rapidly urbanizing, resulting in dramatic changes in the abundance, distribution and character of surface water features in urban landscapes. However, the scope and consequences of surface water redistribution at broad spatial scales are not well understood. We hypothesized that urbanization would lead to convergent surface water abundance and...

  8. A Novel Energy efficient Surface water Wireless Sensor Network Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining the energy of sensors in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is important in critical applications. It has been a challenge to design wireless sensor networks to enable applications for oceanographicdata collection, pollution monitoring, offshore exploration, disaster prevention, assisted navigation and tactical surveillance applications. WSN consists of sensor nodes which sense the physical parameters such as temperature, humidity, pressure and light etc and send them to a fusion center namely Base Station (BS from where one can get the value of physical parameters at any time. Requirement of monitoring the environment might be anywhere, like middle of the sea or under the earth where man cannot go often to recharge the batterieswhich supplies the sensing device, transceiver and memory unit in the sensor node. So the usage of the battery power must be judicious in WSN. Earlier attempts have been made to prolong the network lifetime, but still it is a challenging task. In this paper we propose a Novel Energy efficient Surface water Wireless Sensor Network Algorithm (NES-WSN to optimize the energy consumption by WSN. The present work concentrates on energy saving of sensor nodes when they are deployed in the surface of the sea water. Whenever the sea surface temperature increases there will be a power loss which is reduced by clustering the nodes and by transferring data through multihop routing. Experimental results show that due to increase in temperature there is a definite power loss and it can be minimized by using NES-WSN algorithm definitely.

  9. TEMPERATURE CONTROL CIRCUIT FOR SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE (SAW RESONATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Mohamad Ashari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW resonators are key components in oscillators, frequency synthesizers and transceivers. One of the drawbacks of SAW resonators are that its piezoelectric substrates are highly sensitive to ambient temperature resulting in performance degradation. This work propose a simple circuit design which stabalizes the temperature of the SAW resonator, making it independet of temperature change. This circuit is based on the oven control method which elevates the temperature of the resonator to a high temperature, making it tolerant to minor changes in ambient temperature.This circuit consist of a temperature sensor, heaters and a comparator which turn the heater on or off depending on the ambient temperature. Several SAW resonator were tested using this circuit. Experimental results indicate the temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF decreases from maximum of 130.44/°C to a minimum of -1.11/°C. 

  10. Mapping the body surface temperature of cattle by infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Marcia Saladini Vieira; da Silva, Suelen Corrêa; Salles, Fernando André; Roma, Luiz Carlos; El Faro, Lenira; Bustos Mac Lean, Priscilla Ayleen; Lins de Oliveira, Celso Eduardo; Martello, Luciane Silva

    2016-12-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) is an alternative non-invasive method that has been studied as a tool for identifying many physiological and pathological processes related to changes in body temperature. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the body surface temperature of Jersey dairy cattle in a thermoneutral environment in order to contribute to the determination of a body surface temperature pattern for animals of this breed in a situation of thermal comfort. Twenty-four Jersey heifers were used over a period of 35 days at APTA Brazil. Measurements were performed on all animals, starting with the physiological parameters. Body surface temperature was measured by IRT collecting images in different body regions: left and right eye area, right and left eye, caudal left foreleg, cranial left foreleg, right and left flank, and forehead. High correlations were observed between temperature and humidity index (THI) and right flank, left flank and forehead temperatures (0.85, 0.81, and 0.81, respectively). The IRT variables that exhibited the five highest correlation coefficients in principal component 1 were, in decreasing order: forehead (0.90), right flank (0.87), left flank (0.84), marker 1 caudal left foreleg (0.83), marker 2 caudal left foreleg (0.74). The THI showed a high correlation coefficient (0.88) and moderate to low correlations were observed for the physiological variables rectal temperature (0.43), and respiratory frequency (0.42). The thermal profile obtained indicates a surface temperature pattern for each region studied in a situation of thermal comfort and may contribute to studies investigating body surface temperature. Among the body regions studied, IRT forehead temperature showed the highest association with rectal temperature, and forehead and right and left flank temperatures are strongly associated with THI and may be adopted in future studies on thermoregulation and body heat production.

  11. eMODIS Global Land Surface Temperature Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The EROS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (eMODIS) Aqua Land Surface Temperature (LST) product is similar to the Land Processes Distributed Active...

  12. 2002 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...

  13. 2003 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...

  14. Sea surface temperature anomalies in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.

    . Further analysis has shown that the sea surface anomalies are well correlated to the anomalies of air temperature and latent heat flux values; whereas they are least correlated to the anomalies of wind stress and net radiation values, except over...

  15. An Estimation of Land Surface Temperatures from Landsat ETM+ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr-Adeline

    2 National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences, Cairo, Egypt. 3University of ... Keywords: Urban growth, urban heat Island, land surface temperatures, satellite remote sensing .... observed target includes green vegetation or not.

  16. Global 1-km Sea Surface Temperature (G1SST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — JPL OurOcean Portal: A daily, global Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data set is produced at 1-km (also known as ultra-high resolution) by the JPL ROMS (Regional Ocean...

  17. COBE-SST2 Sea Surface Temperature and Ice

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A new sea surface temperature (SST) analysis on a centennial time scale is presented. The dataset starts in 1850 with monthly 1x1 means and is periodically updated....

  18. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Arabian Sea during winter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Ghosh, A.K.

    Surface layer temperature inversion in the south eastern Arabian Sea, during winter has been studied using Bathythermograph data collected from 1132 stations. It is found that the inversion in this area is a stable seasonal feature...

  19. Seasonal Sea Surface Temperature Averages, 1985-2001 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of four images showing seasonal sea surface temperature (SST) averages for the entire earth. Data for the years 1985-2001 are averaged to...

  20. 1996 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...

  1. 2000 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...

  2. OW NOAA Pathfinder/GAC Sea-Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains satellite-derived sea-surface temperature measurements collected by means of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer - Global Area Coverage...

  3. OW NOAA AVHRR-GAC Sea-Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains satellite-derived sea-surface temperature measurements collected by means of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer - Global Area Coverage...

  4. NOAA High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Analysis Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archive covers two high resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis products developed using an optimum interpolation (OI) technique. The analyses have a...

  5. Tropical sea surface temperatures and the earth's orbital eccentricity cycles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, S.M.; Fernandes, A.A.; Mohan, R.

    The tropical oceanic warm pools are climatologically important regions because their sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are positively related to atmospheric greenhouse effect and the cumulonimbus-cirrus cloud anvil. Such a warm pool is also present...

  6. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Miya N.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams and springs throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2012 water year (October 1, 2011, through September 30, 2012), data were collected at 81 stations—73 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, 6 alternate Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, and 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 78 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and 7-day low flow is presented.

  7. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Miya N.; Schneider, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams and springs throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2013 water year (October 1, 2012, through September 30, 2013), data were collected at 79 stations—73 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, 4 alternate Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, and 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, Escherichia coli bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 76 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and 7-day low flow is presented.

  8. Impact of intake water temperatures on reticular temperatures of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewley, J M; Grott, M W; Einstein, M E; Schutz, M M

    2008-10-01

    Automatic temperature recording may allow early detection of disease, estrus, heat stress, and the onset of calving. The phase IV Cattle Temperature Monitoring System (MaGiiX Inc., Post Falls, ID) utilizes a passive bolus equipped with a temperature sensor, a stationary panel reader to query the bolus, and software to collect, analyze, and display data. One potential limitation to collection of reticular temperatures is the effect of water temperature and consumption on recorded temperatures. Two replicated 3 x 3 Latin square experiments were conducted at the Purdue Dairy Research and Education Center to assess the impact of water intake on reticular temperatures using the Cattle Temperature Monitoring System. Nine high-producing, mid-lactation, second-parity cows with low somatic cell counts were selected. Before administering a water treatment, access to feed and water was restricted for at least 2 h. Baseline reticular temperatures were established from measurements before water intake. In experiment 1, treatments were 25.2 kg of hot water (34.3 degrees C +/- 1.0), warm water (18.2 degrees C +/- 0.4), or cold water (7.6 degrees C +/- 0.4). In experiment 2, treatments were 18.9 kg of body-temperature water (38.9 degrees C +/- 0.2), cold water (5.1 degrees C +/- 0.4), or control (no water). Following water intake, reticular temperatures were collected for 3 h. In experiment 1, an initial dramatic decrease in reticular temperature was observed followed by a gradual increase toward baseline. Least squares means for maximum drop in temperature were 8.5 +/- 0.5, 6.9 +/- 0.5, and 2.2 +/- 0.5 degrees C for cold, warm, and hot water treatments, respectively. Yet at 3 h, reticular temperatures did not return to the baseline. In experiment 2, control cows remained within the baseline confidence interval through the observation period, and cows receiving body temperature water experienced an initial decrease in temperature (0.4 +/- 0.2 degrees C) with a return to within the

  9. High temperature photoelectron emission and surface photovoltage in semiconducting diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. T.; Cooil, S. P.; Roberts, O. R.; Evans, S.; Langstaff, D. P.; Evans, D. A.

    2014-08-01

    A non-equilibrium photovoltage is generated in semiconducting diamond at above-ambient temperatures during x-ray and UV illumination that is sensitive to surface conductivity. The H-termination of a moderately doped p-type diamond (111) surface sustains a surface photovoltage up to 700 K, while the clean (2 × 1) reconstructed surface is not as severely affected. The flat-band C 1s binding energy is determined from 300 K measurement to be 283.87 eV. The true value for the H-terminated surface, determined from high temperature measurement, is (285.2 ± 0.1) eV, corresponding to a valence band maximum lying 1.6 eV below the Fermi level. This is similar to that of the reconstructed (2 × 1) surface, although this surface shows a wider spread of binding energy between 285.2 and 285.4 eV. Photovoltage quantification and correction are enabled by real-time photoelectron spectroscopy applied during annealing cycles between 300 K and 1200 K. A model is presented that accounts for the measured surface photovoltage in terms of a temperature-dependent resistance. A large, high-temperature photovoltage that is sensitive to surface conductivity and photon flux suggests a new way to use moderately B-doped diamond in voltage-based sensing devices.

  10. Temperature Compensation of Surface Acoustic Waves on Berlinite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, David Michael Marshall

    The surface acoustic wave properties of Berlinite (a-AlPO4) have been investigated theoretically and experimentally, for a variety of crystallographic orientations, to evaluate its possible use as a substrate material for temperature compensated surface acoustic wave devices. A computer program has been developed to calculate the surface wave properties of a material from its elastic, piezoelectric, dielectric and lattice constants and their temperature derivatives. The program calculates the temperature coefficient of delay, the velocity of the surface wave, the direction of power flow and a measure of the electro-mechanical coupling. These calculations have been performed for a large number of orientations using a modified form of the data given by Chang and Barsch for Berlinite and predict several new temperature compensated directions. Experimental measurements have been made of the frequency-temperature response of a surface acoustic wave oscillator on an 80° X axis boule cut which show it to be temperature compensated in qualitative agreement with the theoretical predictions. This orientation shows a cubic frequency-temperature dependence instead of the expected parabolic response. Measurements of the electro-mechanical coupling coefficient k gave a value lower than predicted. Similar measurements on a Y cut plate gave a value which is approximately twice that of ST cut quartz, but again lower than predicted. The surface wave velocity on both these cuts was measured to be slightly higher than predicted by the computer program. Experimental measurements of the lattice parameters a and c are also presented for a range of temperatures from 25°C to just above the alpha-beta transition at 584°C. These results are compared with the values obtained by Chang and Barsch. The results of this work indicate that Berlinite should become a useful substrate material for the construction of temperature compensated surface acoustic wave devices.

  11. SURFACE TEMPERATURES ON TITAN DURING NORTHERN WINTER AND SPRING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Romani, P. N.; Samuelson, R. E. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Mamoutkine, A. [ADNET Systems, Inc., Bethesda, MD 20817 (United States); Gorius, N. J. P. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Coustenis, A. [Laboratoire d’Etudes Spatiales et d’Instrumentation en Astrophysique (LESIA), Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, 5, place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon Cedex (France); Tokano, T., E-mail: donald.e.jennings@nasa.gov [Universität zu Köln, Albertus-Magnus-Platz, D-50923 Köln (Germany)

    2016-01-01

    Meridional brightness temperatures were measured on the surface of Titan during the 2004–2014 portion of the Cassini mission by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer. Temperatures mapped from pole to pole during five two-year periods show a marked seasonal dependence. The surface temperature near the south pole over this time decreased by 2 K from 91.7 ± 0.3 to 89.7 ± 0.5 K while at the north pole the temperature increased by 1 K from 90.7 ± 0.5 to 91.5 ± 0.2 K. The latitude of maximum temperature moved from 19 S to 16 N, tracking the sub-solar latitude. As the latitude changed, the maximum temperature remained constant at 93.65 ± 0.15 K. In 2010 our temperatures repeated the north–south symmetry seen by Voyager one Titan year earlier in 1980. Early in the mission, temperatures at all latitudes had agreed with GCM predictions, but by 2014 temperatures in the north were lower than modeled by 1 K. The temperature rise in the north may be delayed by cooling of sea surfaces and moist ground brought on by seasonal methane precipitation and evaporation.

  12. Temperature dependence of surface enhanced Raman scattering on C70

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ying; Zhang Zhenlong; DU Yinxiao; DONG Hua; MO Yujun

    2005-01-01

    The temperature dependence of surface enhanced Raman scattering of the C70 molecule is reported.The Raman scattering of C70 molecules adsorbed on the surface of a silver mirror was measured at different temperatures. The experimental results indicate that the relative intensities of the Raman features vary with the temperature of the sample. When the temperature decreases from room temperature to 0℃, the relative intensities of certain Raman bands decrease abruptly. If we take the strongest band 1565cm-1 as a standard value 100, the greatest decrease approaches to 43%. However, with the further decrease in the temperature these relative intensities increase and resume the value at room temperature. And such a temperature dependence is reversible. Our results show that the adsorption state of the C70 molecules on the silver surface around 0℃changes greatly with the temperature, resulting in a decrease in relative intensities for some main Raman features of C70molecule. When the temperature is lower than 0℃, the adsorption state changes continually and more slowly. Synchronously, eight new Raman featu res, which have not ever been reported in literature, are observed in our experiment and this enriches the basic information of the vibrational modes for C70 molecule.

  13. Bacteriophages as surface and ground water tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rossi

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages are increasingly used as tracers for quantitative analysis in both hydrology and hydrogeology. The biological particles are neither toxic nor pathogenic for other living organisms as they penetrate only a specific bacterial host. They have many advantages over classical fluorescent tracers and offer the additional possibility of multi-point injection for tracer tests. Several years of research make them suitable for quantitative transport analysis and flow boundary delineation in both surface and ground waters, including karst, fractured and porous media aquifers. This article presents the effective application of bacteriophages based on their use in differing Swiss hydrological environments and compares their behaviour to conventional coloured dye or salt-type tracers. In surface water and karst aquifers, bacteriophages travel at about the same speed as the typically referenced fluorescent tracers (uranine, sulphurhodamine G extra. In aquifers of interstitial porosity, however, they appear to migrate more rapidly than fluorescent tracers, albeit with a significant reduction in their numbers within the porous media. This faster travel time implies that a modified rationale is needed for defining some ground water protection area boundaries. Further developments of other bacteriophages and their documentation as tracer methods should result in an accurate and efficient tracer tool that will be a proven alternative to conventional fluorescent dyes.

  14. Bacteriophages as surface and ground water tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, P.; Dörfliger, N.; Kennedy, K.; Müller, I.; Aragno, M.

    Bacteriophages are increasingly used as tracers for quantitative analysis in both hydrology and hydrogeology. The biological particles are neither toxic nor pathogenic for other living organisms as they penetrate only a specific bacterial host. They have many advantages over classical fluorescent tracers and offer the additional possibility of multi-point injection for tracer tests. Several years of research make them suitable for quantitative transport analysis and flow boundary delineation in both surface and ground waters, including karst, fractured and porous media aquifers. This article presents the effective application of bacteriophages based on their use in differing Swiss hydrological environments and compares their behaviour to conventional coloured dye or salt-type tracers. In surface water and karst aquifers, bacteriophages travel at about the same speed as the typically referenced fluorescent tracers (uranine, sulphurhodamine G extra). In aquifers of interstitial porosity, however, they appear to migrate more rapidly than fluorescent tracers, albeit with a significant reduction in their numbers within the porous media. This faster travel time implies that a modified rationale is needed for defining some ground water protection area boundaries. Further developments of other bacteriophages and their documentation as tracer methods should result in an accurate and efficient tracer tool that will be a proven alternative to conventional fluorescent dyes.

  15. Water droplet evaporation from sticky superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonchan; Kim, Wuseok; Lee, Sanghee; Baek, Seunghyeon; Yong, Kijung; Jeon, Sangmin

    2017-07-01

    The evaporation dynamics of water from sticky superhydrophobic surfaces was investigated using a quartz crystal microresonator and an optical microscope. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) layers with different pore sizes were directly fabricated onto quartz crystal substrates and hydrophobized via chemical modification. The resulting AAO layers exhibited hydrophobic or superhydrophobic characteristics with strong adhesion to water due to the presence of sealed air pockets inside the nanopores. After placing a water droplet on the AAO membranes, variations in the resonance frequency and Q-factor were measured throughout the evaporation process, which were related to changes in mass and viscous damping, respectively. It was found that droplet evaporation from a sticky superhydrophobic surface followed a constant contact radius (CCR) mode in the early stage of evaporation and a combination of CCR and constant contact angle modes without a Cassie-Wenzel transition in the final stage. Furthermore, AAO membranes with larger pore sizes exhibited longer evaporation times, which were attributed to evaporative cooling at the droplet interface.

  16. Impact of river restoration on groundwater - surface water - interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Anne-Marie; Schirmer, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Since the end of the 19th century, flood protection was increasingly based on the construction of impermeable dams and side walls (BWG, 2003). In spite of providing flood protection, these measures also limited the connectivity between the river and the land, restricted the area available for flooding, and hampered the natural flow dynamics of the river. Apart from the debilitating effect on riverine ecosystems due to loss of habitats, these measures also limited bank filtration, inhibited the infiltration of storm water, and affected groundwater-surface water-interactions. This in turn had a profound effect on ecosystem health, as a lack of groundwater-surface water interactions led to decreased cycling of pollutants and nutrients in the hyporheic zone and limited the moderation of the water temperature (EA, 2009). In recent decades, it has become apparent that further damages to riverine ecosystems must be prohibited, as the damages to ecology, economy and society surmount any benefits gained from exploiting them. Nowadays, the restoration of rivers is a globally accepted means to restore ecosystem functioning, protect water resources and amend flood protection (Andrea et al., 2012; Palmer et al., 2005; Wortley et al., 2013). In spite of huge efforts regarding the restoration of rivers over the last 30 years, the question of its effectiveness remains, as river restorations often reconstruct a naturally looking rather than a naturally functioning stream (EA, 2009). We therefore focussed our research on the effectiveness of river restorations, represented by the groundwater-surface water-interactions. Given a sufficiently high groundwater level, a lack of groundwater-surface water-interactions after restoration may indicate that the vertical connectivity in the stream was not fully restored. In order to investigate groundwater-surface water-interactions we determined the thermal signature on the stream bed and in +/- 40 cm depth by using Distributed Temperature

  17. A model of the ground surface temperature for micrometeorological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Julian S.; Erell, Evyatar

    2017-07-01

    Micrometeorological models at various scales require ground surface temperature, which may not always be measured in sufficient spatial or temporal detail. There is thus a need for a model that can calculate the surface temperature using only widely available weather data, thermal properties of the ground, and surface properties. The vegetated/permeable surface energy balance (VP-SEB) model introduced here requires no a priori knowledge of soil temperature or moisture at any depth. It combines a two-layer characterization of the soil column following the heat conservation law with a sinusoidal function to estimate deep soil temperature, and a simplified procedure for calculating moisture content. A physically based solution is used for each of the energy balance components allowing VP-SEB to be highly portable. VP-SEB was tested using field data measuring bare loess desert soil in dry weather and following rain events. Modeled hourly surface temperature correlated well with the measured data (r 2 = 0.95 for a whole year), with a root-mean-square error of 2.77 K. The model was used to generate input for a pedestrian thermal comfort study using the Index of Thermal Stress (ITS). The simulation shows that the thermal stress on a pedestrian standing in the sun on a fully paved surface, which may be over 500 W on a warm summer day, may be as much as 100 W lower on a grass surface exposed to the same meteorological conditions.

  18. Determination of temperature of moving surface by sensitivity analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Farhanieh, B

    2002-01-01

    In this paper sensitivity analysis in inverse problem solutions is employed to estimate the temperature of a moving surface. Moving finite element method is used for spatial discretization. Time derivatives are approximated using Crank-Nicklson method. The accuracy of the solution is assessed by simulation method. The convergence domain is investigated for the determination of the temperature of a solid fuel.

  19. A new interpolation method for Antarctic surface temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yetang Wang; Shugui Hou

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new methodology for the spatial interpolation of annual mean temperature into a regular grid with a geographic resolution of 0.01° for Antarctica by applying a recent compilation of the Antarctic temperature data.A multiple linear regression model of the dependence of temperature on some geographic parameters (i.e.,latitude,longitude,and elevation) is proposed empirically,and the kriging method is used to determine the spatial distribution of regional and local deviations from the temperature calculated from the multiple linear regression model.The modeled value and residual grids are combined to derive a high-resolution map of surface air temperature.The performance of our new methodology is superior to a variety of benchmark methods (e.g.,inverse distance weighting,kriging,and spline methods) via cross-validation techniques.Our simulation resembles well with those distinct spatial features of surface temperature,such as the decrease in annual mean surface temperature with increasing latitude and the distance away from the coast line;and it also reveals the complex topographic effects on the spatial distribution of surface temperature.

  20. Thin Water and Ice Films at Mineral Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilbaş, Merve; Boily, Jean-François

    2016-04-01

    Mineral-water and ice interactions play important roles in atmospheric cloud formation. They also affect soil biogeochemistry as well as outer-space processes. In this study, thin water and ice films formed on minerals of varied bulk and surface structure, shape, size and surface roughness were probed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and by Dynamic Vapor Adsorption (DVA). Measurements on several types of iron (oxyhydr)oxides, phyllosilicates, orthosilicates, tectosilicates as well as Arizona Test Dust (ATD) and Icelandic volcanic ash constrained our understanding of the molecular-level nature of mineral surface-water and ice interactions. DVA experiments showed that particle size is the key feature controlling water loadings at 25 ° C. Under this condition, nano-sized particles stabilized the equivalence of no more than ˜6 monolayers of water at the near saturation of water vapor while sub-micron sized particles stabilized several thousand layers. This result can be explained by the greater ability of larger sized particles at driving water condensation reactions. Cryogenic FTIR measurements at -10 and -50 ° C revealed that most minerals acquired the thin ice films with similar hydrogen bonding environments as those formed at room temperature.[1,2] These thin ice films have weaker hydrogen bond environments than hexagonal ice (νOH ≈ 3130 cm-1), a result seen by FTIR through predominant O-H stretching modes at νOH ≈ 3408-3425 cm-1. The water bending region (˜1630 cm-1) also reveals that most thin ice films are rather supercooled forms of water. Only the materials with greatest levels of heterogeneity, namely ATD and volcanic ash, stabilized solid forms of water reminiscent to hexagonal ice. This work thus constrains further our understanding of how interfacial ice is stabilized at mineral surfaces, and opens possibilities for future studies focused on atmospheric gas uptake on mineral- water and ice admixtures. [1] Song, X. and Boily, J

  1. Understanding the surface temperature cold bias in CMIP5 AGCMs over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Liu, Y.; Wu, G. X.

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the majority of the Phase-5 Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) models underestimate annual and seasonal mean surface air temperatures (Ta) over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). In addition, half of the models underestimate annual and seasonal mean surface temperatures (Ts) over the TP. These cold biases are larger over the western TP. By decomposing the Ts bias using the surface energy budget equation, this study investigates the contributions to the cold surface temperature bias on the Tibetan Plateau from various factors, including the surface albedo-induced bias (SAF), surface cloud radiative forcing (CRF), clear-sky shortwave (SW) radiation, downward clear-sky longwave radiation (DLR), surface sensible heat flux and latent heat flux, and heat storage. The results suggest that SAF and DLR are the main factors causing the cold surface temperature bias. Because SAF and DLR are respectively affected by the snow coverage fraction and water vapor distribution produced by the models, these results then imply that the snow coverage fraction parameterization and water vapor distribution over the TP require further improvements.

  2. Analysis of Anomaly in Land Surface Temperature Using MODIS Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorozu, K.; Kodama, T.; Kim, S.; Tachikawa, Y.; Shiiba, M.

    2011-12-01

    Atmosphere-land surface interaction plays a dominant role on the hydrologic cycle. Atmospheric phenomena cause variation of land surface state and land surface state can affect on atmosphereic conditions. Widely-known article related in atmospheric-land interaction was published by Koster et al. in 2004. The context of this article is that seasonal anomaly in soil moisture or soil surface temperature can affect summer precipitation generation and other atmospheric processes especially in middle North America, Sahel and south Asia. From not only above example but other previous research works, it is assumed that anomaly of surface state has a key factor. To investigate atmospheric-land surface interaction, it is necessary to analyze anomaly field in land surface state. In this study, soil surface temperature should be focused because it can be globally and continuously observed by satellite launched sensor. To land surface temperature product, MOD11C1 and MYD11C1 products which are kinds of MODIS products are applied. Both of them have 0.05 degree spatial resolution and daily temporal resolution. The difference of them is launched satellite, MOD11C1 is Terra and MYD11C1 is Aqua. MOD11C1 covers the latter of 2000 to present and MYD11C1 covers the early 2002 to present. There are unrealistic values on provided products even if daily product was already calibrated or corrected. For pre-analyzing, daily data is aggregated into 8-days data to remove irregular values for stable analysis. It was found that there are spatial and temporal distribution of 10-years average and standard deviation for each 8-days term. In order to point out extreme anomaly in land surface temperature, standard score for each 8-days term is applied. From the analysis of standard score, it is found there are large anomaly in land surface temperature around north China plain in early April 2005 and around Bangladesh in early May 2009.

  3. STRATOSPHERIC TEMPERATURES AND WATER LOSS FROM MOIST GREENHOUSE ATMOSPHERES OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasting, James F.; Kopparapu, Ravi K. [Department of Geosciences, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA 16801 (United States); Chen, Howard, E-mail: jfk4@psu.edu, E-mail: hwchen@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    A radiative-convective climate model is used to calculate stratospheric temperatures and water vapor concentrations for ozone-free atmospheres warmer than that of modern Earth. Cold, dry stratospheres are predicted at low surface temperatures, in agreement with recent 3D calculations. However, at surface temperatures above 350 K, the stratosphere warms and water vapor becomes a major upper atmospheric constituent, allowing water to be lost by photodissociation and hydrogen escape. Hence, a moist greenhouse explanation for loss of water from Venus, or some exoplanet receiving a comparable amount of stellar radiation, remains a viable hypothesis. Temperatures in the upper parts of such atmospheres are well below those estimated for a gray atmosphere, and this factor should be taken into account when performing inverse climate calculations to determine habitable zone boundaries using 1D models.

  4. Stratospheric Temperatures and Water Loss from Moist Greenhouse Atmospheres of Earth-like Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Kasting, James F; Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A radiative-convective climate model is used to calculate stratospheric temperatures and water vapor concentrations for ozone-free atmospheres warmer than that of modern Earth. Cold, dry stratospheres are predicted at low surface temperatures, in agreement with recent 3-D calculations. However, at surface temperatures above 350 K, the stratosphere warms and water vapor becomes a major upper atmospheric constituent, allowing water to be lost by photodissociation and hydrogen escape. Hence, a 'moist greenhouse' explanation for loss of water from Venus, or some exoplanet receiving a comparable amount of stellar radiation, remains a viable hypothesis. Temperatures in the upper parts of such atmospheres are well below those estimated for a gray atmosphere, and this factor should be taken into account when performing 'inverse' climate calculations to determine habitable zone boundaries using 1-D models.

  5. Radar Backscatter Across the Gulf Stream Sea Surface Temperature Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Li, F. K.; Walsh, E. J.; Lou, S. H.

    1998-01-01

    Ocean backscatter signatures were measured by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne NUSCAT K(sub u)-band scatterometer across the Gulf Stream sea surface temperature front. The measurements were made during the Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment (SWADE) off the coast of Virginia and Maryland in the winter of 1991.

  6. estimation of land surface temperature of kaduna metropolis, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zaharaddeen et. al

    Understanding the spatial variation of Land Surface Temperature. (LST), will be ... positive correlation between mean of surface emissivity with date and ... deviation of 1.92 of LST and coefficient determinant R2 (0.46) show a ... (LST), as the prime and basic physical parameter of the earth's ..... thorough review of the paper.

  7. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Miya N.

    2015-12-18

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams and springs throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2014 water year (October 1, 2013, through September 30, 2014), data were collected at 74 stations—72 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations and 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Assessment Network stations. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, Escherichia coli bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 71 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and 7-day low flow is presented.

  8. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Miya N.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designs and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2010 water year (October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2010), data were collected at 75 stations-72 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations, and 1 spring sampled in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 72 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and 7-day low flow is presented.

  9. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Miya N.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designs and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2009 water year (October 1, 2008, through September 30, 2009), data were collected at 75 stations-69 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations, 1 spring sampled in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, and 3 stations sampled in cooperation with the Elk River Watershed Improvement Association. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 72 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and seven-day low flow is presented.

  10. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Miya N.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2011 water year (October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2011), data were collected at 75 stations—72 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations, and 1 spring sampled in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 72 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and 7-day low flow is presented.

  11. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Miya N.; Heimann, David C.

    2016-11-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams and springs throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During water year 2015 (October 1, 2014, through September 30, 2015), data were collected at 74 stations—72 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations and 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Assessment Network stations. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, Escherichia coli bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 71 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak streamflows, monthly mean streamflows, and 7-day low flows is presented.

  12. Assessment of MTI Water Temperature Thermal Discharge Retrievals with Ground Truth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurzeja, R.J.

    2002-12-06

    Surface water temperatures calculated from Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) brightness temperatures and the robust retrieval algorithm, developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), are compared with ground truth measurements at a mid-latitude cold-water site along the Atlantic coast near Plymouth, MA. In contrast to the relative uniformity of the sea-surface temperature in the open ocean the water temperature near Pilgrim exhibits strong spatial gradients and temporal variability. This made it critical that all images be accurately registered in order to extract temperature values at the six buoy locations. Sixteen images during a one-year period from August 2000 to July 2001 were selected for the study. The RMS error of Pilgrim water temperature is about 3.5 C for the 4 buoys located in open water. The RMS error of the combined temperatures from 3 of the open-water buoys is 2.8 C. The RMS error includes errors in the ground truth. The magnitude of this error is estimated to range between 0.8 and 2.3 C. The two main components of this error are warm-layer effect and spatial variability. The actual error in the MTI retrievals for Pilgrim daytime conditions is estimated to be between 2.7 and 3.4 C for individual buoys and between 1.7 and 2.7 C for the combined open-water buoys.

  13. Nitrate reducing activity pervades surface waters during upwelling.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, S.O.; Halarnekar, R.; Malik, A.; Vijayan, V.; Varik, S.; RituKumari; Jineesh V.K.; Gauns, M.U.; Nair, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Nitrate reducing activity (NRA) is known to be mediated by microaerophilic to anaerobic bacteria and generally occurs in the sub-surface waters. However, we hypothesize that NRA could become prominent in the surface waters during upwelling. Hence...

  14. ESTIMATION OF PV MODULE SURFACE TEMPERATURE USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Coskun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to use the artificial neural network (ANN method to estimate the surface temperature of a photovoltaic (PV panel. Using the experimentally obtained PV data, the accuracy of the ANN model was evaluated. To train the artificial neural network (ANN, outer temperature solar radiation and wind speed values were inputs and surface temperature was an output. The ANN was used to estimate PV panel surface temperature. Using the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM algorithm the feed forward artificial neural network was trained. Two back propagation type ANN algorithms were used and their performance was compared with the estimate from the LM algorithm. To train the artificial neural network, experimental data were used for two thirds with the remaining third used for testing. Additionally scaled conjugate gradient (SCG back propagation and resilient back propagation (RB type ANN algorithms were used for comparison with the LM algorithm. The performances of these three types of artificial neural network were compared and mean error rates of between 0.005962 and 0.012177% were obtained. The best estimate was produced by the LM algorithm. Estimation of PV surface temperature with artificial neural networks provides better results than conventional correlation methods. This study showed that artificial neural networks may be effectively used to estimate PV surface temperature.

  15. Wettability and water uptake of holm oak leaf surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Plant trichomes play important protective functions and may have a major influence on leaf surface wettability. With the aim of gaining insight into trichome structure, composition and function in relation to water-plant surface interactions, we analyzed the adaxial and abaxial leaf surface of Quercus ilex L. (holm oak) as model. By measuring the leaf water potential 24 h after the deposition of water drops on to abaxial and adaxial surfaces, evidence for water penetration through the upper l...

  16. Water Loss Under Hot Ambient Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Basu

    1978-07-01

    Full Text Available Male 4 rates were ambient temperature (40 degree,42 degree, and 44 degree calcius for different durations of time upto a maximum of 3 hours. It was observed that there was a rapid loss in body weight accompanied by considerable increase in body temperature of the animals during the first hour of exposure. Thereafter the rate of body weight loss and increase in body temperature were slow till the end of observation period. Intolerance to heat appears to be more correlated with critical body temperature rather than the extent of dehydration.

  17. Mathematical model of the metal mould surface temperature optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mlynek, Jaroslav, E-mail: jaroslav.mlynek@tul.cz; Knobloch, Roman, E-mail: roman.knobloch@tul.cz [Department of Mathematics, FP Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 2, 461 17 Liberec, The Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Srb, Radek, E-mail: radek.srb@tul.cz [Institute of Mechatronics and Computer Engineering Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 2, 461 17 Liberec, The Czech Republic (Czech Republic)

    2015-11-30

    The article is focused on the problem of generating a uniform temperature field on the inner surface of shell metal moulds. Such moulds are used e.g. in the automotive industry for artificial leather production. To produce artificial leather with uniform surface structure and colour shade the temperature on the inner surface of the mould has to be as homogeneous as possible. The heating of the mould is realized by infrared heaters located above the outer mould surface. The conceived mathematical model allows us to optimize the locations of infrared heaters over the mould, so that approximately uniform heat radiation intensity is generated. A version of differential evolution algorithm programmed in Matlab development environment was created by the authors for the optimization process. For temperate calculations software system ANSYS was used. A practical example of optimization of heaters locations and calculation of the temperature of the mould is included at the end of the article.

  18. Groundwater–surface water interactions in wetlands for integrated water resources management (preface)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schot, P.P.; Winter, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    Groundwater–surface water interactions constitute an important link between wetlands and the surrounding catchment. Wetlands may develop in topographic lows where groundwater exfiltrates. This water has its functions for ecological processes within the wetland, while surface water outflow from

  19. Discharge, water temperature, and water quality of Warm Mineral Springs, Sarasota County, Florida: A retrospective analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Patricia A.

    2016-09-27

    in inland areas, and upward flow toward the surface in coastal areas, such as at Warm Mineral Springs. Warm Mineral Springs is located in a discharge area. Changes in water use in the region have affected the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Historical increase in groundwater withdrawals resulted in a 10- to 20-foot regional decline in the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer by May 1975 relative to predevelopment levels and remained at approximately that level in May 2007 in the area of Warm Mineral Springs. Discharge measurements at Warm Mineral Springs (1942–2014) decreased from about 11–12 cubic feet per second in the 1940s to about 6–9 cubic feet per second in the 1970s and remained at about that level for the remainder of the period of record. Similarity of changes in regional water use and discharge at Warm Mineral Springs indicates that basin-scale changes to the groundwater system have affected discharge at Warm Mineral Springs. Water temperature had no significant trend in temperature over the period of record, 1943–2015, and outliers were identified in the data that might indicate inconsistencies in measurement methods or locations.Within the regional groundwater basin, Warm Mineral Springs is influenced by deep Upper Floridan aquifer flow paths that discharge toward the coast. Associated with these flow paths, the groundwater temperatures increase with depth and toward the coast. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that a source of warm groundwater to Warm Mineral Springs is likely the permeable zone of the Avon Park Formation within the Upper Floridan aquifer at a depth of about 1,400 to 1,600 feet, or deeper sources. The permeable zone contains saline groundwater with water temperatures of at least 95 degrees Fahrenheit.The water quality of Warm Mineral Springs, when compared with other springs in Florida had the highest temperature and the greatest mineralized content. Warm Mineral Springs water is

  20. Low temperature barrier wellbores formed using water flushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinzie, II; John, Billy [Houston, TX; Keltner, Thomas Joseph [Spring, TX

    2009-03-10

    A method of forming an opening for a low temperature well is described. The method includes drilling an opening in a formation. Water is introduced into the opening to displace drilling fluid or indigenous gas in the formation adjacent to a portion of the opening. Water is produced from the opening. A low temperature fluid is applied to the opening.

  1. General survey and conclusions with regard to the connection of water quantity and water quality studies of surface waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijtema, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Publikatie die bestaat uit twee delen: 1. General survey of the relation between water quantity and water quality; 2. Conclusions with regard to the connection of water quantity and water quality studies of surface waters

  2. Influence of Annealing Temperature on CZTS Thin Film Surface Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenmei; Han, Junfeng; Ge, Jun; Peng, Xianglin; Liu, Yunong; Jian, Yu; Yuan, Lin; Xiong, Xiaolu; Cha, Limei; Liao, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    In this work, copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) films were deposited by direct current sputtering and the samples were annealed in different oven-set temperatures and atmosphere (Ar and H2S). The surface evolution was investigated carefully by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface of the as-sputtered precursor contained little Cu and large amounts of Zn and Sn. The metallic precursor was continuous and compact without pinholes or cracks. With the increase of the temperature from room temperature to 250°C, Cu atoms diffused to the film surface to form Cu1- x S and covered other compounds. Some small platelets were smaller than 500 nm spreading randomly in the holes of the film surfaces. When the temperature reached 350°C, Zn and Sn atoms began to diffuse to the surface and react with S or Cu1- x S. At 400°C, SEM showed the melting of large particles and small particles with a size from 100 nm to 200 nm in the background of the film surface. Excess Zn segregated towards the surface regions and formed ZnS phase on the surface. In addition, the signal of sodium in the CZTS surface was observed above 400°C. At 600°C, a large amount of regular structures with clear edges and corners were observed in the film surface in SEM images. A clear recrystallized process on the surface was assumed from those observations.

  3. Climate Change Signal Analysis for Northeast Asian Surface Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeong-Hyeong LEE; Byungsoo KIM; Keon-Tae SOHN; Won-Tae KOWN; Seung-Ki MIN

    2005-01-01

    Climate change detection, attribution, and prediction were studied for the surface temperature in the Northeast Asian region using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and three coupled-model simulations from ECHAM4/OPYC3, HadCM3, and CCCma GCMs (Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis general circulation model). The Bayesian fingerprint approach was used to perform the detection and attribution test for the anthropogenic climate change signal associated with changes in anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfate aerosol (SO42-) concentrations for the Northeast Asian temperature. It was shown that there was a weak anthropogenic climate change signal in the Northeast Asian temperature change. The relative contribution of CO2 and SOl- effects to total temperature change in Northeast Asia was quantified from ECHAM4/OPYC3 and CCCma GCM simulations using analysis of variance. For the observed temperature change for the period of 1959-1998, the CO2 effect contributed 10%-21% of the total variance and the direct cooling effect of SO42- played a less important role (0% 7%) than the CO2effect. The prediction of surface temperature change was estimated from the second CO2+SO24- scenario run of ECHAM4/OPYC3 which has the least error in the simulation of the present-day temperature field near the Korean Peninsula. The result shows that the area-mean surface temperature near the Korean Peninsula will increase by about 1.1° by the 2040s relative to the 1990s.

  4. Impact of Water Withdrawals from Groundwater and Surface Water on Continental Water Storage Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doell, Petra; Hoffmann-Dobrev, Heike; Portmann, Felix T.; Siebert, Stefan; Eicker, Annette; Rodell, Matthew; Strassberg, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Humans have strongly impacted the global water cycle, not only water flows but also water storage. We have performed a first global-scale analysis of the impact of water withdrawals on water storage variations, using the global water resources and use model WaterGAP. This required estimation of fractions of total water withdrawals from groundwater, considering five water use sectors. According to our assessment, the source of 35% of the water withdrawn worldwide (4300 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002) is groundwater. Groundwater contributes 42%, 36% and 27% of water used for irrigation, households and manufacturing, respectively, while we assume that only surface water is used for livestock and for cooling of thermal power plants. Consumptive water use was 1400 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002. It is the sum of the net abstraction of 250 cubic km/yr of groundwater (taking into account evapotranspiration and return flows of withdrawn surface water and groundwater) and the net abstraction of 1150 km3/yr of surface water. Computed net abstractions indicate, for the first time at the global scale, where and when human water withdrawals decrease or increase groundwater or surface water storage. In regions with extensive surface water irrigation, such as Southern China, net abstractions from groundwater are negative, i.e. groundwater is recharged by irrigation. The opposite is true for areas dominated by groundwater irrigation, such as in the High Plains aquifer of the central USA, where net abstraction of surface water is negative because return flow of withdrawn groundwater recharges the surface water compartments. In intensively irrigated areas, the amplitude of seasonal total water storage variations is generally increased due to human water use; however, in some areas, it is decreased. For the High Plains aquifer and the whole Mississippi basin, modeled groundwater and total water storage variations were compared with estimates of groundwater storage variations based on

  5. Recovery from acidification in European surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Evans

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Water quality data for 56 long-term monitoring sites in eight European countries are used to assess freshwater responses to reductions in acid deposition at a large spatial scale. In a consistent analysis of trends from 1980 onwards, the majority of surface waters (38 of 56 showed significant (p ≤0.05 decreasing trends in pollution-derived sulphate. Only two sites showed a significant increase. Nitrate, on the other hand, had a much weaker and more varied pattern, with no significant trend at 35 of 56 sites, decreases at some sites in Scandinavia and Central Europe, and increases at some sites in Italy and the UK. The general reduction in surface water acid anion concentrations has led to increases in acid neutralising capacity (significant at 27 of 56 sites but has also been offset in part by decreases in base cations, particularly calcium (significant at 26 of 56 sites, indicating that much of the improvement in runoff quality to date has been the result of decreasing ionic strength. Increases in acid neutralising capacity have been accompanied by increases in pH and decreases in aluminium, although fewer trends were significant (pH 19 of 56, aluminium 13 of 53. Increases in pH appear to have been limited in some areas by rising concentrations of organic acids. Within a general trend towards recovery, some inter-regional variation is evident, with recovery strongest in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, moderate in Scandinavia and the United Kingdom, and apparently weakest in Germany. Keywords: acidification, recovery, European trends, sulphate, nitrate, acid neutralising capacity

  6. Comparison of MODIS Land Surface Temperature and Air Temperature over the Continental USA Meteorological Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Thome, Kurtis

    2014-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Impervious Surface Area (ISA) and MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) are used in a spatial analysis to assess the surface-temperature-based urban heat island's (UHIS) signature on LST amplitude over the continental USA and to make comparisons to local air temperatures. Air-temperature-based UHIs (UHIA), calculated using the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) daily air temperatures, are compared with UHIS for urban areas in different biomes during different seasons. NLCD ISA is used to define urban and rural temperatures and to stratify the sampling for LST and air temperatures. We find that the MODIS LST agrees well with observed air temperature during the nighttime, but tends to overestimate it during the daytime, especially during summer and in nonforested areas. The minimum air temperature analyses show that UHIs in forests have an average UHIA of 1 C during the summer. The UHIS, calculated from nighttime LST, has similar magnitude of 1-2 C. By contrast, the LSTs show a midday summer UHIS of 3-4 C for cities in forests, whereas the average summer UHIA calculated from maximum air temperature is close to 0 C. In addition, the LSTs and air temperatures difference between 2006 and 2011 are in agreement, albeit with different magnitude.

  7. Fiber-Optic Surface Temperature Sensor Based on Modal Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Musin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatially-integrated surface temperature sensing is highly useful when it comes to controlling processes, detecting hazardous conditions or monitoring the health and safety of equipment and people. Fiber-optic sensing based on modal interference has shown great sensitivity to temperature variation, by means of cost-effective image-processing of few-mode interference patterns. New developments in the field of sensor configuration, as described in this paper, include an innovative cooling and heating phase discrimination functionality and more precise measurements, based entirely on the image processing of interference patterns. The proposed technique was applied to the measurement of the integrated surface temperature of a hollow cylinder and compared with a conventional measurement system, consisting of an infrared camera and precision temperature probe. As a result, the optical technique is in line with the reference system. Compared with conventional surface temperature probes, the optical technique has the following advantages: low heat capacity temperature measurement errors, easier spatial deployment, and replacement of multiple angle infrared camera shooting and the continuous monitoring of surfaces that are not visually accessible.

  8. Effect of Water Vapour to Temperature Inside Sonoluminescing Bubble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安宇; 谢崇国; 应崇福

    2003-01-01

    Using the model based on the homo-pressure approximation, we explain why the maximum temperature is sensitive to the ambient temperature in the single bubble sonoluminescence. The numerical simulation shows that the maximum temperature inside a sonoluminescing bubble depends on how much water vapour evaporates or coagulates at the bubble wall during the bubble shrinking to its minimum size. While the amount of water vapour inside the bubble at the initial and the final state of the compression depends on the saturated water vapour pressure which is sensitive to the ambient temperature. The lower the saturated vapour pressure is, the higher the maximum temperature is. This may lead to more general conclusion that those liquids with lower saturated vapour pressure are more favourable for the single bubble sonoluminescence. We also compare those bubbles with different noble gases, the result shows that the maximum temperatures in the different gas bubbles are almost the same for those with the same ambient temperature.

  9. Assessment of broiler surface temperature variation when exposed to different air temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR Nascimento

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of the air temperature variation on the mean surface temperature (MST of 7- to 35-day-old broiler chickens using infrared thermometry to estimate MST, and to study surface temperature variation of the wings, head, legs, back and comb as affected by air temperature and broiler age. One hundred Cobb® broilers were used in the experiment. Starting on day 7, 10 birds were weekly selected at random, housed in an environmental chamber and reared under three distinct temperatures (18, 25 and 32 ºC to record their thermal profile using an infrared thermal camera. The recorded images were processed to estimate MST by selecting the whole area of the bird within the picture and comparing it with the values obtained using selected equations in literature, and to record the surface temperatures of the body parts. The MST estimated by infrared images were not statistically different (p > 0.05 from the values obtained by the equations. MST values significantly increased (p < 0.05 when the air temperature increased, but were not affected by bird age. However, age influenced the difference between MST and air temperature, which was highest on day 14. The technique of infrared thermal image analysis was useful to estimate the mean surface temperature of broiler chickens.

  10. Water Protects Graphitic Surface from Airborne Hydrocarbon Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiting; Kozbial, Andrew; Nioradze, Nikoloz; Parobek, David; Shenoy, Ganesh Jagadeesh; Salim, Muhammad; Amemiya, Shigeru; Li, Lei; Liu, Haitao

    2016-01-26

    The intrinsic wettability of graphitic materials, such as graphene and graphite, can be readily obscured by airborne hydrocarbon within 5-20 min of ambient air exposure. We report a convenient method to effectively preserve a freshly prepared graphitic surface simply through a water treatment technique. This approach significantly inhibits the hydrocarbon adsorption rate by a factor of ca. 20×, thus maintaining the intrinsic wetting behavior for many hours upon air exposure. Follow-up characterization shows that a nanometer-thick ice-like water forms on the graphitic surface, which remains stabilized at room temperature for at least 2-3 h and thus significantly decreases the adsorption of airborne hydrocarbon on the graphitic surface. This method has potential implications in minimizing hydrocarbon contamination during manufacturing, characterization, processing, and storage of graphene/graphite-based devices. As an example, we show that a water-treated graphite electrode maintains a high level of electrochemical activity in air for up to 1 day.

  11. Recovery of energetically overexploited urban aquifers using surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gil, Alejandro; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Sánchez-Navarro, José Ángel; Mateo Lázaro, Jesús

    2015-12-01

    Shallow aquifers have an important role in reducing greenhouse gases through helping manage the temperature of urban environments. Nevertheless, the uncontrolled rapid use of shallow groundwater resources to heat or cool urban environments can cause thermal pollution that will limit the long term sustainability of the resource. Therefore, there is a need for appropriate mitigation/remediation strategies capable of recovering energetically overexploited aquifers. In this work, a novel remediation strategy based on surface water recharge into aquifers is presented. To evaluate the capabilities of such measures for effective remediation, this strategy is optimized for a management problem raised in the overheated "Urban Alluvial Aquifer of Zaragoza" (Spain). The application of a transient groundwater flow and heat transport model under 512 different mitigation scenarios has enabled to quantify and discuss the magnitude of the remediation effect as a respond to injection rates of surface water, seasonal schedule of the injection and location of injection. The quantification of the relationship between these variables together with the evaluation of the amount of surface water injected per year in each scenario proposed have provided a better understanding of the system processes and an optimal management alternative. This work also makes awareness of the magnitude of the remediation procedure which is in an order of magnitude of tenths of years.

  12. Biodegradation of Toluene Under Seasonal and Diurnal Fluctuations of Soil-Water Temperature.

    KAUST Repository

    Yadav, Brijesh K

    2012-05-12

    An increasing interest in bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites raises the question of the influence of seasonal and diurnal changes on soil-water temperature on biodegradation of BTEX, a widespread group of (sub)-surface contaminants. Therefore, we investigated the impact of a wide range of varying soil-water temperature on biodegradation of toluene under aerobic conditions. To see the seasonal impact of temperature, three sets of batch experiments were conducted at three different constant temperatures: 10°C, 21°C, and 30°C. These conditions were considered to represent (1) winter, (2) spring and/or autumn, and (3) summer seasons, respectively, at many polluted sites. Three additional sets of batch experiments were performed under fluctuating soil-water temperature cases (21<>10°C, 30<>21°C, and 10<>30°C) to mimic the day-night temperature patterns expected during the year. The batches were put at two different temperatures alternatively to represent the day (high-temperature) and night (low-temperature) times. The results of constant- and fluctuating-temperature experiments show that toluene degradation is strongly dependent on soil-water temperature level. An almost two-fold increase in toluene degradation time was observed for every 10°C decrease in temperature for constant-temperature cases. Under fluctuating-temperature conditions, toluene degraders were able to overcome the temperature stress and continued thriving during all considered weather scenarios. However, a slightly longer time was taken compared to the corresponding time at daily mean temperature conditions. The findings of this study are directly useful for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted sites having significant diurnal and seasonal variations of soil-water temperature.

  13. Biodegradation of Toluene Under Seasonal and Diurnal Fluctuations of Soil-Water Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Brijesh K; Shrestha, Shristi R; Hassanizadeh, S Majid

    2012-09-01

    An increasing interest in bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites raises the question of the influence of seasonal and diurnal changes on soil-water temperature on biodegradation of BTEX, a widespread group of (sub)-surface contaminants. Therefore, we investigated the impact of a wide range of varying soil-water temperature on biodegradation of toluene under aerobic conditions. To see the seasonal impact of temperature, three sets of batch experiments were conducted at three different constant temperatures: 10°C, 21°C, and 30°C. These conditions were considered to represent (1) winter, (2) spring and/or autumn, and (3) summer seasons, respectively, at many polluted sites. Three additional sets of batch experiments were performed under fluctuating soil-water temperature cases (2110°C, 3021°C, and 1030°C) to mimic the day-night temperature patterns expected during the year. The batches were put at two different temperatures alternatively to represent the day (high-temperature) and night (low-temperature) times. The results of constant- and fluctuating-temperature experiments show that toluene degradation is strongly dependent on soil-water temperature level. An almost two-fold increase in toluene degradation time was observed for every 10°C decrease in temperature for constant-temperature cases. Under fluctuating-temperature conditions, toluene degraders were able to overcome the temperature stress and continued thriving during all considered weather scenarios. However, a slightly longer time was taken compared to the corresponding time at daily mean temperature conditions. The findings of this study are directly useful for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted sites having significant diurnal and seasonal variations of soil-water temperature.

  14. Analysis of weighted mean temperature of Algeria for GNSS water vapor sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, DongSeob; Boutiouta, Seddik

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric water vapour is important for the climate system and a key to understand the hydrological cycle. The hydrological cycle describes the transfer of water in solid, liquid and gaseous form through these phases as well as the physical movement of water within the ecosystem of the earth and between its atmospheres; oceans and continents. Nowadays the accuracy of water vapour estimates based on GNSS observations is comparable to radiosonde and radiometer data. On the other hand, the solution of GNSS precipitable water vapour can be quantified the radiosonde humidity errors and biases with the role of radiosonde observations in the climate studies. The weighted mean temperature in troposphere is a critical parameter in the conversion of wet zenith delay to perceptible water vapour in GNSS Meteorology. In the retrieval of integrated water vapour from GNSS zenith wet delay, effect of temperature is to be taken into account. However, effect of temperature and water vapour partial pressure are interrelated. Therefore, the vertical profiles of temperature are taken into account through a term called weighted mean temperature. In this study, we processed the radiosonde data which are provided by World Meteorological Observation network and surface temperature data at 5 stations in Algeria from 2006 to 2007 to determine weighted mean temperature equation. The coefficients a and b are of weighted mean temperature linear equation were determined by a least square regression method of the 4,944 data pairs after outlier data, which are over 3σ of differences between mean temperature in troposphere and surface temperature, were eliminated. Finally, we determined the Algerian weighted mean temperature model (AWMTM) that the relationship between mean temperature as function of surface temperature for the entire Algerian area, with the RMSE and the correlation coefficient of AWMTM are represented about 6.80 K and 0.75, respectively. The stations which are located in desert

  15. Constant delivery temperature solar water heater - an integrated approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. [C.A.S. Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India); Kumar, N. [D.C.E. Muzaffarpur Institute of Technology, Bihar (India)

    1997-05-01

    An integrated model of a constant delivery temperature solar water heat-cum-active regenerative distillation system has been developed. The water used for the regenerative effect in the distiller of the proposed system is subsequently fed to the basin-cum-storage tank of the still through the heat exchanger (connected to the collector). The model varies the water mass flow rate in order to maintain a constant outlet temperature. With minor modifications in the solar water heater, the extra energy stored in the water mass due to non-utilization of capacity and/or non-linear utilization of capacity can be efficiently utilized for distillation purposes. In this process, the latent heat of vaporization is used for preheating the inlet water supply to the heat exchanger. The effect of insulation on maintaining the hot water temperature and distillate output is also presented. (Author)

  16. Impact of sea surface temperature on satellite retrieval of sea surface salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xuchen; Zhu, Qiankun; He, Xianqiang; Chen, Peng; Wang, Difeng; Hao, Zengzhou; Huang, Haiqing

    2016-10-01

    Currently, global sea surface salinity (SSS) can be retrieved by the satellite microwave radiometer onboard the satellite, such as the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity(SMOS) and the Aqurius. SMOS is an Earth Explorer Opportunity Mission from the European Space Agency(ESA). It was launched at a sun-synchronous orbit in 2009 and one of the payloads is called MIRAS(Microwave Imaging Radiometer using Aperture Synthesis), which is the first interferometric microwave radiometer designed for observing SSS at L-band(1.41 GHz).The foundation of the salinity retrieval by microwave radiometer is that the sea surface radiance at L-band has the most suitable sensitivity with the variation of the salinity. It is well known that the sensitivity of brightness temperatures(TB) to SSS depends on the sea surface temperature (SST), but the quantitative impact of the SST on the satellite retrieval of the SSS is still poorly known. In this study, we investigate the impact of the SST on the accuracy of salinity retrieval from the SMOS. First of all, The dielectric constant model proposed by Klein and Swift has been used to estimate the vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures(TV and TH) of a smooth sea water surface at L-band and derive the derivatives of TV and TH as a function of SSS to show the relative sensitivity at 45° incident angle. Then, we use the GAM(generalized additive model) method to evaluate the association between the satellite-measured brightness temperature and in-situ SSS at different SST. Moreover, the satellite-derived SSS from the SMOS is validated using the ARGO data to assess the RMSE(root mean squared error). We compare the SMOS SSS and ARGO SSS over two regions of Pacific ocean far from land and ice under different SST. The RMSE of retrieved SSS at different SST have been estimated. Our results showed that SST is one of the most significant factors affecting the accuracy of SSS retrieval. The satellite-measured brightness temperature has a

  17. Structured free-water clusters near lubricating surfaces are essential in water-based lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jiapeng; Veeregowda, Deepak H; de Vries, Joop; Van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J

    2016-10-01

    Water-based lubrication provides cheap and environmentally friendly lubrication and, although hydrophilic surfaces are preferred in water-based lubrication, often lubricating surfaces do not retain water molecules during shear. We show here that hydrophilic (42° water contact angle) quartz surfaces facilitate water-based lubrication to the same extent as more hydrophobic Si crystal surfaces (61°), while lubrication by hydrophilic Ge crystal surfaces (44°) is best. Thus surface hydrophilicity is not sufficient for water-based lubrication. Surface-thermodynamic analyses demonstrated that all surfaces, regardless of their water-based lubrication, were predominantly electron donating, implying water binding with their hydrogen groups. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that Ge crystal surfaces providing optimal lubrication consisted of a mixture of -O and =O functionalities, while Si crystal and quartz surfaces solely possessed -O functionalities. Comparison of infrared absorption bands of the crystals in water indicated fewer bound-water layers on hydrophilic Ge than on hydrophobic Si crystal surfaces, while absorption bands for free water on the Ge crystal surface indicated a much more pronounced presence of structured, free-water clusters near the Ge crystal than near Si crystal surfaces. Accordingly, we conclude that the presence of structured, free-water clusters is essential for water-based lubrication. The prevalence of structured water clusters can be regulated by adjusting the ratio between surface electron-donating and electron-accepting groups and between -O and =O functionalities.

  18. Index of surface-water stations in Texas, January 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Jack; Carrillo, E.R.; Buckner, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    As of January 1, 1987, the surface-water data-collection network in Texas included 376 continuous streamflow, 76 continuous or daily reservoir-content, 34 gage height, 16 crest-stage partial-record, 8 periodic discharge through range, 33 floodhydrograph partial-record, 9 flood-profile partial-record, 36 low-flow partial-record, 46 daily chemical-quality, 19 continuous-recording water-quality, 84 periodic biological, 17 lake surveys, 162 periodic organic and (or) nutrient, 3 periodic insecticide, 42 periodic pesticide, 19 automatic sampler, 141 periodic minor elements, 130 periodic chemical-quality, 78 periodic physical-organic, 22 continuous-recording three- or four-parameter water-quality, 34 periodic sediment, 22 continuous-recording temperature, and 30 national stream-quality accounting network stations. Plate 1 shows the location of surface-water streamflow or reservoir-content and chemical-quality or sediment'stations in Texas. Plate 2 shows the location of partial-record surfacewater stations.

  19. Potentially hazardous substances in surface waters. II. Cholinesterase inhibitors in Dutch surface waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greve, P.A.; Freudenthal, J.; Wit, S.L.

    1972-01-01

    Several analytical methods were employed to determine the concentrations of cholinesterase inhibitors in several Dutch surface waters. An Auto-Analyzer method was used for screening purposes; thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for identification and q

  20. Sauna, shower, and ice water immersion. Physiological responses to brief exposures to heat, cool, and cold. Part III. Body temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, K

    1989-04-01

    Nine active winter swimmer men were subjected to four exposures each imitating a form of hot or cold exposures or their combination practiced among the Finns: (A) sauna and head-out ice water immersion; (B) sauna and 15 degrees C shower; (C) sauna and room temperature; (D) head-out ice water immersion and room temperature. All exposures were repeated and ended with recovery at room temperature. Body core and surface temperatures were recorded. One surface probe was placed between the scapulae to detect any signs of thermogenic activity by brown adipose tissue upon cold exposures. In the sauna control of core temperature was lost at esophageal temperature Tes 38 degrees C where the mean skin temperature exceeded the Tes. The brief ice water immersions did not disturb the thermal balance of the body core. The interscapular surface temperature recording provided circumstantial evidence of functioning thermogenic tissue in the area.

  1. Uncertainties and shortcomings of ground surface temperature histories derived from inversion of temperature logs

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Andreas; Rath, Volker

    2008-01-01

    Analysing borehole temperature data in terms of ground surface history can add useful information to reconstructions of past climates. Therefore, a rigorous assessment of uncertainties and error sources is a necessary prerequisite for the meaningful interpretation of such ground surface temperature histories. This study analyses the most prominent sources of uncertainty. The diffusive nature of the process makes the inversion relatively robust against incomplete knowledge of the thermal diffu...

  2. Electrochemical removal of segregated silicon dioxide impurities from yttria stabilized zirconia surfaces at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Hansen, Karin Vels; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg;

    2011-01-01

    Here we report on the electrochemical removal of segregated silicon dioxide impurities from Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) surfaces at elevated temperatures studied under Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) conditions. YSZ single crystals were heated in vacuum by an applied 18kHz a.c. voltage using the ionic...... and XPS analysis. Silicon enrichment of the surface was only observed at oxygen and water vapor partial pressures above 25mbar and 10mbar, respectively. No silicon was observed on crystals annealed in vacuum and at oxygen and water vapor partial pressures below 10mbar. The YSZ seems to get partially...... electrochemically reduced by the a.c. voltage when no oxidation substances are present. The absence of silicon on the surfaces annealed in vacuum or at low oxygen or water vapor partial pressures was attributed to electrochemical reduction of silicon dioxide to volatile silicon monoxide on the YSZ surface...

  3. Field experiment on coalmine heat disaster governance using cold source from surface water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Pingye; Zhu Guolong; Liu Yuqing; Duan Mengmeng; Wu Junyin

    2014-01-01

    Regarding the lack of cold source for underground cooling systems from either mine inflow or return air, field experiments were taken in a high temperature deep coal mine with abundant cold source from surface water. Taking Sanhejian coal mine as an example, this paper introduced the technology scheme of heat disaster governance using surface water cold source. The paper presents the basics of this field experiment at the beginning, following by the design and site layout of the cooling system including the analysis and calculation of cold source. Numerical calculation method is also applied based on the operation parameters to simulate the influence to the surface river ecosystem. The results suggest that the temperature of surface water shall be lower than 34 ?C after heat exchange, and when more cooling capacities are needed in the future, increasing the water flow is more favorable than increasing the cooling range of water, which is better for the ecological environment protection.

  4. Theoretical investigation of water formation on Rh and Pt Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Steffen; Natoli, Vincent; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2000-06-01

    Catalytic water formation from adsorbed H and O adatoms is a fundamental reaction step in a variety of technologically important reactions involving organic molecules. In particular, the water-formation rate determines the selectivity of the catalytic partial oxidation of methane to syngas. In this report we present a theoretical investigation of the potential-energy diagram for water formation from adsorbed O and H species on Rh(111) and Pt(111) surfaces. The study is based on accurate first-principles calculations applying density-functional theory. Our results are compared to the potential-energy diagram for this reaction inferred from experimental data by Hickman and Schmidt [AIChE. J. 39, 1164 (1993)]. The calculations essentially reproduce the scheme of Hickman and Schmidt for water formation on Rh(111) with the important difference that the OH molecule is significantly more stable than assumed by Hickman and Schmidt. On Pt(111) surfaces, however, the calculations predict a barrier to OH formation very similar to that found on Rh(111). In particular, the calculated barrier to OH formation of about 20 kcal/mol seems to contradict the small 2.5 kcal/mol barrier assumed in the Hickman-Schmidt scheme and the observed large rate of water formation on Pt. A possible explanation for the apparent discrepancy between the large calculated barrier for OH formation on Pt and the experimentally observed rapid formation of water even at low temperatures is that the active sites for water formation on Pt are at "defect" sites and not on the ideally flat terraces. A similar conclusion has been reached by Verheij and co-workers [Surf. Sci. 371, 100 (1997); Chem. Phys. Lett. 174, 449 (1990); Surf. Sci. 272, 276 (1991)], who did detailed experimental work on water formation on Pt surfaces. Analyzing our results, we develop an explicit picture of the interaction processes governing the formation of OH groups. This picture rationalizes the calculated weak dependence of OH

  5. Identifying (subsurface) anthropogenic heat sources that influence temperature in the drinking water distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Vera, Claudia M.; Blokker, Mirjam; de Kater, Henk; Lafort, Rob

    2017-09-01

    The water temperature in the drinking water distribution system and at customers' taps approaches the surrounding soil temperature at a depth of 1 m. Water temperature is an important determinant of water quality. In the Netherlands drinking water is distributed without additional residual disinfectant and the temperature of drinking water at customers' taps is not allowed to exceed 25 °C. In recent decades, the urban (sub)surface has been getting more occupied by various types of infrastructures, and some of these can be heat sources. Only recently have the anthropogenic sources and their influence on the underground been studied on coarse spatial scales. Little is known about the urban shallow underground heat profile on small spatial scales, of the order of 10 m × 10 m. Routine water quality samples at the tap in urban areas have shown up locations - so-called hotspots - in the city, with relatively high soil temperatures - up to 7 °C warmer - compared to the soil temperatures in the surrounding rural areas. Yet the sources and the locations of these hotspots have not been identified. It is expected that with climate change during a warm summer the soil temperature in the hotspots can be above 25 °C. The objective of this paper is to find a method to identify heat sources and urban characteristics that locally influence the soil temperature. The proposed method combines mapping of urban anthropogenic heat sources, retrospective modelling of the soil temperature, analysis of water temperature measurements at the tap, and extensive soil temperature measurements. This approach provided insight into the typical range of the variation of the urban soil temperature, and it is a first step to identifying areas with potential underground heat stress towards thermal underground management in cities.

  6. Automatic control system of brain temperature by air-surface cooling for therapeutic hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsuki, T

    2013-01-01

    An automatic control system of brain temperature by air-surface cooling was developed for therapeutic hypothermia, which is increasingly recommended for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy after cardiac arrest and neonatal asphyxia in several guidelines pertinent to resuscitation. Currently, water-surface cooling is the most widespread cooling method in therapeutic hypothermia. However, it requires large electric power for precise control and also needs water-cooling blankets which have potential for compression of patients by its own weight and for water leakage in ICU. Air-surface cooling does not have such problems and is more suitable for clinical use than water-surface cooling, because air has lower specific heat and density as well as the impossibility of the contamination in ICU by its leakage. In the present system, brain temperature of patients is automatically controlled by suitable adjustment of the temperature of the air blowing into the cooling blankets. This adjustment is carried out by the regulation of mixing cool and warm air using proportional control valves. The computer in the developed control apparatus suitably calculates the air temperature and rotation angle of the valves every sampling time on the basis of the optimal-adaptive control algorithm. Thus, the proposed system actualizes automatic control of brain temperature by the inputting only the clinically desired temperature of brain. The control performance of the suggested system was verified by the examination using the mannequin in substitution for an adult patient. In the result, the control error of the head temperature of the mannequin was 0.12 °C on average in spite of the lack of the production capacity of warm air after the re-warming period. Thus, this system serves as a model for the clinically applied system.

  7. Effect of surface-mantle water exchange parameterizations on exoplanet ocean depths

    CERN Document Server

    Komacek, Thaddeus D

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial exoplanets in the canonical habitable zone may have a variety of initial water fractions due to random volatile delivery by planetesimals. If the total planetary water complement is high, the entire surface may be covered in water, forming a "waterworld." On a planet with active tectonics, competing mechanisms act to regulate the abundance of water on the surface by determining the partitioning of water between interior and surface. Here we explore how the incorporation of different mechanisms for the degassing and regassing of water changes the volatile evolution of a planet. For all of the models considered, volatile cycling reaches an approximate steady-state after $\\sim 2 \\ \\mathrm{Gyr}$. Using these steady-states, we find that if volatile cycling is either solely dependent on temperature or seafloor pressure, exoplanets require a high abundance ($\\gtrsim 0.3\\%$ of total mass) of water to have fully inundated surfaces. However, if degassing is more dependent on seafloor pressure and regassing ...

  8. Ciguatera fish poisoning and sea surface temperatures in the Caribbean Sea and the West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, Patricia A; Feldman, Rebecca L; Nau, Amy W; Kibler, Steven R; Wayne Litaker, R

    2010-10-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a circumtropical disease caused by ingestion of a variety of reef fish that bioaccumulate algal toxins. Distribution and abundance of the organisms that produce these toxins, chiefly dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus, are reported to correlate positively with water temperature. Consequently, there is growing concern that increasing temperatures associated with climate change could increase the incidence of CFP. This concern prompted experiments on the growth rates of six Gambierdiscus species at temperatures between 18 degrees C and 33 degrees C and the examination of sea surface temperatures in the Caribbean and West Indies for areas that could sustain rapid Gambierdiscus growth rates year-round. The thermal optimum for five of six Gambierdiscus species tested was >/=29 degrees C. Long-term SST data from the southern Gulf of Mexico indicate the number of days with sea surface temperatures >/=29 degrees C has nearly doubled (44 to 86) in the last three decades. To determine how the sea surface temperatures and Gambierdiscus growth data correlate with CFP incidences in the Caribbean, a literature review and a uniform, region-wide survey (1996-2006) of CFP cases were conducted. The highest CFP incidence rates were in the eastern Caribbean where water temperatures are warmest and least variable.

  9. High-Temperature Surface-Acoustic-Wave Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoliang; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft-engine rotating equipment usually operates at high temperature and stress. Non-invasive inspection of microcracks in those components poses a challenge for the non-destructive evaluation community. A low-profile ultrasonic guided wave sensor can detect cracks in situ. The key feature of the sensor is that it should withstand high temperatures and excite strong surface wave energy to inspect surface/subsurface cracks. As far as the innovators know at the time of this reporting, there is no existing sensor that is mounted to the rotor disks for crack inspection; the most often used technology includes fluorescent penetrant inspection or eddy-current probes for disassembled part inspection. An efficient, high-temperature, low-profile surface acoustic wave transducer design has been identified and tested for nondestructive evaluation of structures or materials. The development is a Sol-Gel bismuth titanate-based surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) sensor that can generate efficient surface acoustic waves for crack inspection. The produced sensor is very thin (submillimeter), and can generate surface waves up to 540 C. Finite element analysis of the SAW transducer design was performed to predict the sensor behavior, and experimental studies confirmed the results. One major uniqueness of the Sol-Gel bismuth titanate SAW sensor is that it is easy to implement to structures of various shapes. With a spray coating process, the sensor can be applied to surfaces of large curvatures. Second, the sensor is very thin (as a coating) and has very minimal effect on airflow or rotating equipment imbalance. Third, it can withstand temperatures up to 530 C, which is very useful for engine applications where high temperature is an issue.

  10. Snow water content estimation from measured snow temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The vertical temperature profiles of snow and sea ice have been measured in the Arctic during the 2nd Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition in 2003 (CHINARE2003). The high-resolution temperature profile in snow is solved by one-dimensional heat transfer equation. The effective heat diffusivity, internal heat sources are identified. The internal heat source refers to the penetrated solar radiation which usually warms the lower part of the snow layer in summer. By temperature gradient analysis, the zero level can be clarified quantitatively as the boundary of the dry and wet snow. According to the in situ time series of vertical temperature profile, the time series of water content in snow is obtained based on an evaluation method of snow water content associated with the snow and ice physical parameters. The relationship of snow water content and snow temperature and temporal-spatial distribution of snow water content are presented

  11. FORECAST OF WATER TEMPERATURE IN RESERVOIR BASED ON ANALYTICAL SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Shun-wen; ZHU Yue-ming; QIANG Sheng; ZENG Deng-feng

    2008-01-01

    The water temperature in reservoirs is difficult to be predicted by numerical simulations. In this article, a statistical model of forecasting the water temperature was proposed. In this model, the 3-D thermal conduction-diffusion equations were converted into a system consisting of 2-D equations with the Fourier expansion and some hypotheses. Then the statistical model of forecasting the water temperature was developed based on the analytical solution to the 2-D thermal equations. The simplified statistical model can elucidate the main physical mechanism of the temperature variation much more clearly than the numerical simulation with the Navier-Stokes equations. Finally, with the presented statistical model, the distribution of water temperature in the Shangyoujiang reservoir was determined.

  12. Hiatus in global warming - example of water temperature of the Danube River at Bogojevo gauge (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducić Vladan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research included trends in water temperature of the Danube River at Bogojevo gauge and surface air temperature at the nearby meteorological station Sombor, as well as an analysis of the results obtained in relation to the claims of the existence of the hiatus in global air temperature increase in the period 1998-2012. In the period 1961-2013, there was a statistically significant increase in the mean annual water temperature (0.039°C/year, as well as all the average monthly values. However, with annual values for the period 1998-2013, there was a decrease. The longest periods of negative trend (27 years were recorded for January and February. A high correlation was found between the surface air temperature and water temperature for all monthly and seasonal values. In the mean annual air temperature the presence of the hiatus is not observed, but a negative trend is recorded in March (32 years, December (43 years and February (49 years. The highest correlations between water temperature and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO, Arctic Oscillation (AO and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO were obtained for the NAO in January (0.60, the AMO in autumn (0.52 and the NAO in winter (0.51. For surface air temperature, the highest correlations were registered for the AMO in summer (0.49 and the NAO in winter (0.42. The results indicate the dominant role of natural factors in the decrease of winter air temperature and water temperature of the Danube. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III47007

  13. Investigation of surface properties of high temperature nitrided titanium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Koyuncu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of paper is to investigate surface properties of high temperature nitrided titanium alloys.Design/methodology/approach: In this study, surface modification of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy was made at various temperatures by plasma nitriding process. Plasma nitriding treatment was performed in 80% N2-20% H2 gas mixture, for treatment times of 2-15 h at the temperatures of 700-1000°C. Surface properties of plasma nitrided Ti6Al4V alloy were examined by metallographic inspection, X-Ray diffraction and Vickers hardness.Findings: Two layers were determined by optic inspection on the samples that were called the compound and diffusion layers. Compound layer contain TiN and Ti2N nitrides, XRD results support in this formations. Maximum hardness was obtained at 10h treatment time and 1000°C treatment temperature. Micro hardness tests showed that hardness properties of the nitrided samples depend on treatment time and temperature.Practical implications: Titanium and its alloys have very attractive properties for many industries. But using of titanium and its alloys is of very low in mechanical engineering applications because of poor tribological properties.Originality/value: The nitriding of titanium alloy surfaces using plasma processes has already reached the industrial application stage in the biomedical field.

  14. Surface Intermediates on Metal Electrodes at High Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Jacobsen, Torben; Bay, Lasse

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms widely suggested for the O2-reduc-tion or H2-oxidation SOFC reactions involve inter-mediate O/H species adsorbed on the electrode surface. The presence of these intermediates is investigated by linear sweep voltammetry. In airat moderate temperatures (500øC) Pt in contact with YSZ ...... is covered with adsorbed oxygen which vanishes at high temperature (1000øC). On Ni (YSZ) a specific layer of NiO is observed abovethe equilibrium potential while no surface species can identified at SOFC anode conditions....

  15. Surface intermediates on metal electrodes at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Jacobsen, Torben; Bay, Lasse;

    1998-01-01

    in contact with YSZ is covered with adsorbed oxygen which vanishes at high temperature (1000 degrees C). On Ni (YSZ) a specific layer of NiO is observed above the equilibrium potential while no surface species involving hydrogen can be identified at SOFC anode conditions. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier......The mechanisms widely conceived for the O(2)-reduction or H(2)-oxidation reactions in SOFC's involve intermediate O/H species adsorbed on the electrode surface. The presence of these intermediates is investigated by linear sweep voltammetry. In air at moderate temperatures (500 degrees C) Pt...

  16. Surface air temperature variability in global climate models

    CERN Document Server

    Davy, Richard

    2012-01-01

    New results from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) and multiple global reanalysis datasets are used to investigate the relationship between the mean and standard deviation in the surface air temperature. A combination of a land-sea mask and orographic filter were used to investigate the geographic region with the strongest correlation and in all cases this was found to be for low-lying over-land locations. This result is consistent with the expectation that differences in the effective heat capacity of the atmosphere are an important factor in determining the surface air temperature response to forcing.

  17. Room temperature synthesis of water repellent silica coatings by the dip coat technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Sharad D.; Kim, Yong-Ha; Ahn, Young-Soo

    2006-12-01

    The present paper describes the room temperature synthesis of dip coated water repellent silica coatings onto stainless steel substrates using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexamethyldisilazane as a surface modifying agent. The hydrophobic property of the silica coating was enhanced by increasing its surface roughness, which was achieved by a proper control over the MeOH/TMOS molar ratio ( S) during the synthesis. The contact angle of a water droplet (10 μl) increased from 72° to 145° with an increase in the S value from 9.1 to 36.4. The silica coating showed a minimum sliding angle of 15° for a water droplet of 10 μl. The water repellent silica coatings are thermally stable up to a temperature of 340 °C. The results have been discussed by taking into consideration the contact angle measurements, surface morphology and sol-gel parameters.

  18. [Distribution of perfluorinated compounds in surface water of Shenzhen reservoir groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Xuan; Zhang, Hong; He, Long; Shen, Jin-Can; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yan-Ping

    2014-06-01

    In order to study the concentrations of 14 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in 25 surface water samples collected from 12 Shenzhen reservoirs in November of 2012 and January of 2013, high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was combined with solid phase extraction enrichment in this research. The results indicated that perfluorohexane sulfonate and long-chain (C > or = 11) PFCs were below the detection limit in all samples and perfluorooctane acid was the primary species. No significant difference in concentration was found between samples from the center of the reservoir and the outlet. Heavy precipitations diluted PFCs concentrations in surface water, but also led to PFOA input. PFCs concentrations in surface water of the reservoir were mainly affected by water inlet, source environment and geography. Although the water temperature had positive correlations with sigma PFCs concentration, the influence of heavy precipitations was stronger than that of water temperature.

  19. Water vapor feedback in the tropics deduced from SSM/T-2 water vapor and MSU temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, R.W. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (United States); Braswell, W.D. [Nichols Research Corp., Huntsville, AL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In simulations of the atmospheric response to increases in surface temperature or radiative forcing by CO{sub 2}, water vapor is usually found to produce a large positive feedback. In studies using the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM2), it was found that the dependence of clear sky outgoing longwave radiation on sea surface temperature (SST) was almost a factor of two less with water vapor feedback included. However, other studies have provided negative vapor feedback results. Because the outgoing longwave radiation can be computed given tropospheric temperature and water vapor profiles and surface temperature, it is proposed to use satellite measurements that are primarily sensitive to these quantities. This paper discusses the method and preliminary results obtains from four satellite instrument types used to gather data on tropical SSTs between 1992 and 1995. So far, evidence from the new microwave water vapor retrievals indicates that most of the tropical upper troposphere is quite dry, with the most frequently occurring relative humidity near 10%. The hypersensitivity of clear sky outgoing longwave radiation to humidity changes at low relative humidity suggests that the tropical subsidence zones could have a controlling influence on water vapor feedback. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Grooved organogel surfaces towards anisotropic sliding of water droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengchao; Liu, Hongliang; Meng, Jingxin; Yang, Gao; Liu, Xueli; Wang, Shutao; Jiang, Lei

    2014-05-21

    Periodic micro-grooved organogel surfaces can easily realize the anisotropic sliding of water droplets attributing to the formed slippery water/oil/solid interface. Different from the existing anisotropic surfaces, this novel surface provides a versatile candidate for the anisotropic sliding of water droplets and might present a promising way for the easy manipulation of liquid droplets for water collection, liquid-directional transportation, and microfluidics.

  1. Physiological responses of Chinese longsnout catfish to water temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong; Xie, Shouqi; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia

    2011-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of water temperature on the growth and physiology of the Chinese longsnout catfish ( Leiocassis longirostris Günther). The fish were reared at four temperatures (20, 25, 30, and 35°C) and sampled on days 7, 20, and 30. We measured plasma levels of insulin, free thyroxine (FT4), free 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (FT3), lysozyme and leukocyte phagocytic activity. The optimum water temperature for growth was 27.7°C. The plasma levels of insulin and FT4 declined significantly ( P<0.05) on day 30 at temperatures above 20°C. Lysozyme activity was significantly ( P<0.05) lower at 25°C than at other temperatures. We conclude that final weight, insulin, FT4, and lysozyme were significantly affected by water temperature.

  2. Observing the Agulhas Current with sea surface temperature and altimetry data: challenges and perspectives

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Krug, Marjolaine, J

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available -Red Sea Surface Temperature datasets still suffer from inadequate cloud masking algorithms, particularly in regions of strong temperature gradient. Despite both Sea Surface Height and Sea Surface Temperature observations being severely compromised...

  3. Temperature-based and radiance-based validations of the V5 MODIS land surface temperature product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, CéSar; Wan, Zhengming; Galve, Joan M.

    2009-10-01

    The V5 level 2 land surface temperature (LST) product of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was validated over homogeneous rice fields in Valencia, Spain, and the Hainich forest in Germany. For the Valencia site, ground LST measurements were compared with the MOD11_L2 product in the conventional temperature-based (T-based) method. We also applied the alternative radiance-based (R-based) method, with in situ LSTs calculated from brightness temperatures in band 31 through radiative transfer simulations using temperature and water vapor profiles and surface emissivity data. At the Valencia site, profiles were obtained from local radiosonde measurements and from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) data. The R-based method was applied at the Hainich site using radiosonde profiles from a nearby sounding station and NCEP profiles. The T-based validation showed average bias (MODIS minus ground) of -0.3 K, standard deviation of 0.6 K and root mean square error (RMSE) of ±0.7 K. For the R-based method, the quality of the atmospheric profiles was assessed through the difference δ(T31-T32) between the actual MODIS and the profile-based calculated brightness temperature difference in bands 31 and 32. For the cases where -0.3 K studied. The good performance of the R-based method opens the possibility for a more complete validation including heterogeneous surfaces where the T-based method is not feasible.

  4. Influence of temperature on the structure of liquid water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾健德; 田安民; 鄢国森

    1996-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out for liquid water at 7 different temperatures to understand the nature of hydrogen bonding at molecular level through the investigation of the effects of temperature on the geometry of water molecules. The changes in bond length and bond angle of water molecules from gaseous state to liquid state have been observed, and the change in the bond angle of water molecules in liquid against temperature has been revealed, which has not been seen in literature so far. The analysis of the radial distribution functions and the coordinate numbers shows that, on an average, each water molecule in liquid acts as both receptor and donor, and forms at least two hydrogen bonds with its neigbors. The analysis of the results also indicates that the water molecules form clusters in liquid.

  5. Daytime sensible heat flux estimation over heterogeneous surfaces using multitemporal land-surface temperature observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellví, F.; Cammalleri, C.; Ciraolo, G.; Maltese, A.; Rossi, F.

    2016-05-01

    Equations based on surface renewal (SR) analysis to estimate the sensible heat flux (H) require as input the mean ramp amplitude and period observed in the ramp-like pattern of the air temperature measured at high frequency. A SR-based method to estimate sensible heat flux (HSR-LST) requiring only low-frequency measurements of the air temperature, horizontal mean wind speed, and land-surface temperature as input was derived and tested under unstable conditions over a heterogeneous canopy (olive grove). HSR-LST assumes that the mean ramp amplitude can be inferred from the difference between land-surface temperature and mean air temperature through a linear relationship and that the ramp frequency is related to a wind shear scale characteristic of the canopy flow. The land-surface temperature was retrieved by integrating in situ sensing measures of thermal infrared energy emitted by the surface. The performance of HSR-LST was analyzed against flux tower measurements collected at two heights (close to and well above the canopy top). Crucial parameters involved in HSR-LST, which define the above mentioned linear relationship, were explained using the canopy height and the land surface temperature observed at sunrise and sunset. Although the olive grove can behave as either an isothermal or anisothermal surface, HSR-LST performed close to H measured using the eddy covariance and the Bowen ratio energy balance methods. Root mean square differences between HSR-LST and measured H were of about 55 W m-2. Thus, by using multitemporal thermal acquisitions, HSR-LST appears to bypass inconsistency between land surface temperature and the mean aerodynamic temperature. The one-source bulk transfer formulation for estimating H performed reliable after calibration against the eddy covariance method. After calibration, the latter performed similar to the proposed SR-LST method.

  6. New indexing and surface temperature analysis of exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Kashyap, J M; Safonova, M

    2016-01-01

    Study of exoplanets is the holy grail of present research in planetary sciences and astrobiology. Analysis of huge planetary data from space missions such as CoRoT and Kepler is directed ultimately at finding a planet similar to Earth\\-the Earth's twin, and answering the question of potential exo-habitability. The Earth Similarity Index (ESI) is a first step in this quest, ranging from 1 (Earth) to 0 (totally dissimilar to Earth). It was defined for the four physical parameters of a planet: radius, density, escape velocity and surface temperature. The ESI is further sub-divided into interior ESI (geometrical mean of radius and density) and surface ESI (geometrical mean of escape velocity and surface temperature). The challenge here is to determine which exoplanet parameter(s) is important in finding this similarity; how exactly the individual parameters entering the interior ESI and surface ESI are contributing to the global ESI. Since the surface temperature entering surface ESI is a non-observable quantity,...

  7. INVESTIGATION OF SURFACE TEMPERATURE IN HIGH-EFFICIENCY DEEP GRINDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Henghua; Cai Guangqi; Jin Tan

    2005-01-01

    A new thermal model with triangular heat flux distribution is given in high-efficiency deep grinding. The mathematical expressions are driven to calculate the surface temperature. The transient behavior of the maximum temperature on contact area is investigated in different grinding conditions with a J-type thermocouple. The maximum contact temperatures measured in different conditions are found to be between 1 000 ℃ and 1 500 ℃ in burn-out conditions. The experiment results show good agreement with the new thermal model.

  8. HadISDH land surface multi-variable humidity and temperature record for climate monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Willett

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available HadISDH.2.0.0 is the first gridded, multi-variable humidity and temperature climate-data product that is homogenised and annually updated. It provides physically consistent estimates for specific humidity, vapour pressure, relative humidity, dew point temperature, wet bulb temperature, dew point depression and temperature. It is a monthly-mean gridded (5° by 5° product with uncertainty estimates that account for spatio-temporal sampling, climatology calculation, homogenisation and irreducible random measurement effects. It provides a unique tool for the monitoring of a variety of humidity-related variables which have different impacts and implications for society. HadISDH.2.0.0 is shown to be in good agreement both with other estimates where they are available, and with theoretical understanding. The dataset is available from 1973 to the present. The theme common to all variables is of a warming world with more water vapour present in the atmosphere. The largest increases in water vapour are found over the tropics and Mediterranean. Over the tropics and high northern latitudes the surface air over land is becoming more saturated. However, despite increasing water vapour over the mid-latitudes and Mediterranean, the surface air over land is becoming less saturated. These observed features may be due to atmospheric circulation changes, land–sea warming disparities and reduced water availability or changed land surface properties.

  9. Integrating remotely sensed surface water extent into continental scale hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Wanders, Niko; Burek, Peter; Salamon, Peter; de Roo, Ad

    2016-12-01

    In hydrological forecasting, data assimilation techniques are employed to improve estimates of initial conditions to update incorrect model states with observational data. However, the limited availability of continuous and up-to-date ground streamflow data is one of the main constraints for large-scale flood forecasting models. This is the first study that assess the impact of assimilating daily remotely sensed surface water extent at a 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution derived from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS) into a global rainfall-runoff including large ungauged areas at the continental spatial scale in Africa and South America. Surface water extent is observed using a range of passive microwave remote sensors. The methodology uses the brightness temperature as water bodies have a lower emissivity. In a time series, the satellite signal is expected to vary with changes in water surface, and anomalies can be correlated with flood events. The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) is a Monte-Carlo implementation of data assimilation and used here by applying random sampling perturbations to the precipitation inputs to account for uncertainty obtaining ensemble streamflow simulations from the LISFLOOD model. Results of the updated streamflow simulation are compared to baseline simulations, without assimilation of the satellite-derived surface water extent. Validation is done in over 100 in situ river gauges using daily streamflow observations in the African and South American continent over a one year period. Some of the more commonly used metrics in hydrology were calculated: KGE', NSE, PBIAS%, R(2), RMSE, and VE. Results show that, for example, NSE score improved on 61 out of 101 stations obtaining significant improvements in both the timing and volume of the flow peaks. Whereas the validation at gauges located in lowland jungle obtained poorest performance mainly due to the closed forest influence on the satellite signal retrieval. The conclusion is that

  10. Integrating remotely sensed surface water extent into continental scale hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Wanders, Niko; Burek, Peter; Salamon, Peter; de Roo, Ad

    2016-12-01

    In hydrological forecasting, data assimilation techniques are employed to improve estimates of initial conditions to update incorrect model states with observational data. However, the limited availability of continuous and up-to-date ground streamflow data is one of the main constraints for large-scale flood forecasting models. This is the first study that assess the impact of assimilating daily remotely sensed surface water extent at a 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution derived from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS) into a global rainfall-runoff including large ungauged areas at the continental spatial scale in Africa and South America. Surface water extent is observed using a range of passive microwave remote sensors. The methodology uses the brightness temperature as water bodies have a lower emissivity. In a time series, the satellite signal is expected to vary with changes in water surface, and anomalies can be correlated with flood events. The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) is a Monte-Carlo implementation of data assimilation and used here by applying random sampling perturbations to the precipitation inputs to account for uncertainty obtaining ensemble streamflow simulations from the LISFLOOD model. Results of the updated streamflow simulation are compared to baseline simulations, without assimilation of the satellite-derived surface water extent. Validation is done in over 100 in situ river gauges using daily streamflow observations in the African and South American continent over a one year period. Some of the more commonly used metrics in hydrology were calculated: KGE', NSE, PBIAS%, R2, RMSE, and VE. Results show that, for example, NSE score improved on 61 out of 101 stations obtaining significant improvements in both the timing and volume of the flow peaks. Whereas the validation at gauges located in lowland jungle obtained poorest performance mainly due to the closed forest influence on the satellite signal retrieval. The conclusion is that

  11. Eco-hydrological process simulations within an integrated surface water-groundwater model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butts, Michael; Loinaz, Maria Christina; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2014-01-01

    . In the second, we examine ecological impacts related to the flows and temperatures in the Silver Creek ecosystem that are important for the fish habitat. The Silver Creek ecosystem is controlled by large-scale interactions of surface water and groundwater systems in the Lower Wood River Valley, USA......Integrated water resources management requires tools that can quantify changes in groundwater, surface water, water quality and ecosystem health, as a result of changes in catchment management. To address these requirements we have developed an integrated eco-hydrological modelling framework...... water and ground water are important for the ecosystem. In the first, simulations are performed to understand the importance of surface water-groundwater interactions for a restored riparian wetland on the Odense River in Denmark as part of a larger investigation of water quality and nitrate retention...

  12. Petroleum pollutant degradation by surface water microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antić, Malisa P; Jovancićević, Branimir S; Ilić, Mila; Vrvić, Miroslav M; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2006-09-01

    It is well known that the composition of petroleum or some of its processing products changes in the environment mostly under the influence of microorganisms. A series of experiments was conducted in order to define the optimum conditions for an efficient biodegradation of petroleum pollutant, or bioremediation of different segments of the environment. The aim of these investigations was to show to what extent the hydrocarbons of a petroleum pollutant are degraded by microbial cultures which were isolated as dominant microorganisms from a surface water of a wastewater canal of an oil refinery and a nitrogen plant. Biodegradation experiments were conducted on one paraffinic, and one naphthenic type of petroleum during a three month period under aerobic conditions, varying the following parameters: Inorganic (Kp) or an organic medium (Bh) with or without exposition to light. Microorganisms were analyzed in a surface water sample from a canal (Pancevo, Serbia), into which wastewater from an oil refinery and a nitrogen plant is released. The consortia of microorganisms were isolated from the water sample (most abundant species: Phormidium foveolarum--filamentous Cyanobacteria, blue-green algae and Achanthes minutissima, diatoms, algae). The simulation experiments of biodegradation were conducted with the biomass suspension and crude oils Sirakovo (Sir, paraffinic type) and Velebit (Ve, naphthenic type). After a three month period, organic substance was extracted by means of chloroform. In the extracts, the content of saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols and fatty acids was determined (the group composition). n-Alkanes and isoprenoid aliphatic alkanes, pristane and phytane, in the aliphatic fractions, were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC). Total isoprenoid aliphatic alkanes and polycyclic alkanes of sterane and triterpane types were analyzed by GC-MS. Paraffinic type petroleums have a significant loss of saturated hydrocarbons. For naphthenic

  13. Characteristics of meter-scale surface electrical discharge propagating along water surface at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Petr; Sugiyama, Yuki; Hosseini, S. Hamid R.; Akiyama, Hidenori; Lukes, Petr; Akiyama, Masahiro

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports physical characteristics of water surface discharges. Discharges were produced by metal needle-to-water surface geometry, with the needle electrode driven by 47 kV (FWHM) positive voltage pulses of 2 µs duration. Propagation of discharges along the water surface was confined between glass plates with 2 mm separation. This allowed generation of highly reproducible 634 mm-long plasma filaments. Experiments were performed using different atmospheres: air, N2, and O2, each at atmospheric pressure. Time- and spatially-resolved spectroscopic measurements revealed that early spectra of discharges in air and nitrogen atmospheres were dominated by N2 2nd positive system. N2 radiation disappeared after approx. 150 ns, replaced by emissions from atomic hydrogen. Spectra of discharges in O2 atmosphere were dominated by emissions from atomic oxygen. Time- and spatially-resolved emission spectra were used to determine temperatures in plasma. Atomic hydrogen emissions showed excitation temperature of discharges in air to be about 2  ×  104 K. Electron number densities determined by Stark broadening of the hydrogen H β line reached a maximum value of ~1018 cm-3 just after plasma initiation. Electron number densities and temperatures depended only slightly on distance from needle electrode, indicating formation of high conductivity leader channels. Direct observation of discharges by high speed camera showed that the average leader head propagation speed was 412 km · s-1, which is substantially higher value than that observed in experiments with shorter streamers driven by lower voltages.

  14. Variational assimilation of land surface temperature within the ORCHIDEE Land Surface Model Version 1.2.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides Pinjosovsky, Hector Simon; Thiria, Sylvie; Ottlé, Catherine; Brajard, Julien; Badran, Fouad; Maugis, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    The SECHIBA module of the ORCHIDEE land surface model describes the exchanges of water and energy between the surface and the atmosphere. In the present paper, the adjoint semi-generator software called YAO was used as a framework to implement a 4D-VAR assimilation scheme of observations in SECHIBA. The objective was to deliver the adjoint model of SECHIBA (SECHIBA-YAO) obtained with YAO to provide an opportunity for scientists and end users to perform their own assimilation. SECHIBA-YAO allows the control of the 11 most influential internal parameters of the soil water content, by observing the land surface temperature or remote sensing data such as the brightness temperature. The paper presents the fundamental principles of the 4D-VAR assimilation, the semi-generator software YAO and a large number of experiments showing the accuracy of the adjoint code in different conditions (sites, PFTs, seasons). In addition, a distributed version is available in the case for which only the land surface temperature is observed.

  15. The Remote Sensing of Surface Radiative Temperature over Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    remote sensing of surface radiative temperature over Barbados was undertaken using a PRT-5 attached to a light aircraft. Traverses across the centre of the island, over the rugged east coast area, and the urban area of Bridgetown were undertaken at different times of day and night in the last week of June and the first week of December, 1969. These traverses show that surface variations in long-wave radiation emission lie within plus or minus 5% of the observations over grass at a representative site. The quick response of the surface to sunset and sunrise was

  16. Temperature influence on water transport in hardened cement pastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouet, Emeline [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, Laboratoire d' Etude du Comportement des Bétons et des Argiles, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Poyet, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.poyet@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, Laboratoire d' Etude du Comportement des Bétons et des Argiles, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Torrenti, Jean-Michel [Université Paris-Est, IFSTTAR, Département Matériaux & Structures, 14-52 boulevard Newton, F-77447 Marne la Vallée cedex 2 (France)

    2015-10-15

    Describing water transport in concrete is an important issue for the durability assessment of radioactive waste management reinforced concrete structures. Due to the waste thermal output such structures would be submitted to moderate temperatures (up to 80 °C). We have then studied the influence of temperature on water transport within hardened cement pastes of four different formulations. Using a simplified approach (describing only the permeation of liquid water) we characterized the properties needed to describe water transport (up to 80 °C) using dedicated experiments. For each hardened cement paste the results are presented and discussed.

  17. A comparison of all-weather land surface temperature products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Joao; Trigo, Isabel F.; Ghilain, Nicolas; Goettche, Frank-M.; Ermida, Sofia; Olesen, Folke-S.; Gellens-Meulenberghs, Françoise; Arboleda, Alirio

    2017-04-01

    The Satellite Application Facility on Land Surface Analysis (LSA-SAF, http://landsaf.ipma.pt) has been providing land surface temperature (LST) estimates using SEVIRI/MSG on an operational basis since 2006. The LSA-SAF service has since been extended to provide a wide range of satellite-based quantities over land surfaces, such as emissivity, albedo, radiative fluxes, vegetation state, evapotranspiration, and fire-related variables. Being based on infra-red measurements, the SEVIRI/MSG LST product is limited to clear-sky pixels only. Several all-weather LST products have been proposed by the scientific community either based on microwave observations or using Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer models to fill the gaps caused by clouds. The goal of this work is to provide a nearly gap-free operational all-weather LST product and compare these approaches. In order to estimate evapotranspiration and turbulent energy fluxes, the LSA-SAF solves the surface energy budget for each SEVIRI pixel, taking into account the physical and physiological processes occurring in vegetation canopies. This task is accomplished with an adapted SVAT model, which adopts some formulations and parameters of the Tiled ECMWF Scheme for Surface Exchanges over Land (TESSEL) model operated at the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), and using: 1) radiative inputs also derived by LSA-SAF, which includes surface albedo, down-welling fluxes and fire radiative power; 2) a land-surface characterization obtained by combining the ECOCLIMAP database with both LSA-SAF vegetation products and the H(ydrology)-SAF snow mask; 3) meteorological fields from ECMWF forecasts interpolated to SEVIRI pixels, and 4) soil moisture derived by the H-SAF and LST from LSA-SAF. A byproduct of the SVAT model is surface skin temperature, which is needed to close the surface energy balance. The model skin temperature corresponds to the radiative temperature of the interface between soil and atmosphere

  18. The Sensitivity of African Easterly Waves to Eastern Tropical Atlantic Sea-Surface Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The results of two regional atmospheric model simulations are compared to assess the influence of the eastern tropical Atlantic sea-surface temperature maximum on local precipitation, transient easterly waves and the West African summer monsoon. Both model simulations were initialized with reanalysis 2 data (US National Center for Environmental Prediction and Department of Energy) on 15 May 2006 and extended through 6 October 2006, forced by synchronous reanalysis 2 lateral boundary conditions introduced four times daily. One simulation uses 2006 reanalysis 2 sea-surface temperatures, also updated four times daily, while the second simulation considers ocean forcing absent the sea-surface temperature maximum, achieved here by subtracting 3 K at every ocean grid point between 0 and 15 N during the entire simulation. The simulation with 2006 sea-surface temperature forcing produces a realistic distribution of June-September mean precipitation and realistic westward propagating swaths of maximum rainfall, based on validation against Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) estimates. The simulation without the sea-surface temperature maximum produces only 57% of the control June-September total precipitation over the eastern tropical Atlantic and about 83% of the Sahel precipitation. The simulation with warmer ocean temperatures generates generally stronger circulation, which in turn enhances precipitation by increasing moisture convergence. Some local precipitation enhancement is also attributed to lower vertical thermal stability above the warm water. The study shows that the eastern tropical Atlantic sea-surface temperature maximum enhances the strength of transient easterly waves and broadens the spatial extent of associated precipitation. However, large-scale circulation and its interaction with the African continent, and not sea-surface temperatures, control the timing and trajectories of the waves.

  19. Implant Surface Temperature Changes during Er:YAG Laser Irradiation with Different Cooling Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Monzavi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Peri-implantitis is one of the most common reasons for implant failure. Decontamination of infected implant surfaces can be achieved effectively by laser irradiation; although the associated thermal rise may cause irreversible bone damage and lead to implant loss. Temperature increments of over 10ºC during laser application may suffice for irreversible bone damage.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature increment of implant surface during Er:YAG laser irradiation with different cooling systems.Three implants were placed in a resected block of sheep mandible and irradiated with Er:YAG laser with 3 different cooling systems namely water and air spray, air spray alone and no water or air spray. Temperature changes of the implant surface were monitored during laser irradiation with a K-type thermocouple at the apical area of the fixture.In all 3 groups, the maximum temperature rise was lower than 10°C. Temperature changes were significantly different with different cooling systems used (P<0.001.Based on the results, no thermal damage was observed during implant surface decontamination by Er:YAG laser with and without refrigeration. Thus, Er:YAG laser irradiation can be a safe method for treatment of periimplantitis.

  20. Effect of temperature and concentration on the surface tension of chia seed mucilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuting; Arye, Gilboa

    2017-04-01

    The production of mucilage by the seed coat during hydration is a common adaptation of many different plant species. The mucilage may play many ecological roles in adaptation and seed germination in diverse environments, especially in extreme desert conditions. The major compound of the seed mucilage is polysaccharides (e.g. pectins and hemicelluloses), which makes it highly hydrophilic. Consequently, it can hydrate quickly in the presence of water; forming a gel like coating surrounding the seed. However, the seed mucilage also reported to contain small amounts of protein and lipid which may exhibit surface activity at the water-air interface. As a result, decay in the surface tension of water can be occur and consequently a reduction in soil capillary pressure. This in turn may affect the water retention and transport during seed germination. The physical properties of the seeds mucilage have been studied mainly in conjunction with its rheological properties. To the best of our knowledge, its surface activity at the water-air interface has been reported mainly in the realms of food engineering, using a robust method of extraction. The main objective of this study was to quantify the effect of temperature and concentration on the surface tension of seed mucilage. The mucilage in this study was extracted from chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds, using distilled water (1:20 w/w) by shaking for 12 h at 4°C. The extracts were freeze dried after centrifuge (5000rpm for 20min). Fresh samples of different concentrations, ranging from 0.5 to 6 mg/ml, were prepared before each surface tension measurements. The equilibrium surface tension was measured by the Wilhelmy plate method using a tensiometer (DCAT 11, Data Physics) with temperature control unit. For a given mucilage concentration, surface tension measurements carried out at 5, 15, 25, 35, 45 °C. The quantitative and thermodynamic analysis of the results will be presented and discussed.

  1. Temperature limit values for touching cold surfaces with the fingertip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geng, Q.; Holme, I.; Hartog, E.A. den; Havenith, G.; Jay, O.; Malchaires, J.; Piette, A.; Rintama, H.; Rissanen, S.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: At the request of the European Commission and in the framework of the European Machinery Directive, research was performed in five different laboratories to develop specifications for surface temperature limit values for the short-term accidental touching of the fingertip with cold

  2. Temperature limit values for touching cold surfaces with the fingertip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geng, Q.; Holme, I.; Hartog, E.A. den; Havenith, G.; Jay, O.; Malchaires, J.; Piette, A.; Rintama, H.; Rissanen, S.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: At the request of the European Commission and in the framework of the European Machinery Directive, research was performed in five different laboratories to develop specifications for surface temperature limit values for the short-term accidental touching of the fingertip with cold surfa

  3. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Global Land Surface Air Temperature Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A station observation-based global land monthly mean surface air temperature dataset at 0.5 x 0.5 latitude-longitude resolution for the period from 1948 to the...

  4. Quantifying and specifying the solar influence on terrestrial surface temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, C.; Duhau, S.; van Geel, B.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation is a follow-up of a paper in which we showed that both major magnetic components of the solar dynamo, viz. the toroidal and the poloidal ones, are correlated with average terrestrial surface temperatures. Here, we quantify, improve and specify that result and search for their caus

  5. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Global Land Surface Air Temperature Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A station observation-based global land monthly mean surface air temperature dataset at 0.5 0.5 latitude-longitude resolution for the period from 1948 to the present...

  6. Processes of India's offshore summer intraseasonal sea surface temperature variability

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kurian, N.; Lengaigne, M.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Vialard, J.; Pous, S.; Peter, A-C.; Durand; Naik, Shweta

    ., vol.63; 2013; 329-346 Processes of India’s offshore summer intraseasonal sea surface temperature variability K. Nisha1, M. Lengaigne1,2, V.V. Gopalakrishna,1 J. Vialard2, S. Pous2, A.-C. Peter2, F. Durand3, S.Naik1 1. NIO, CSIR, Goa, India 2...

  7. Surface temperature maps for II Peg during 1999-2002

    CERN Document Server

    Lindborg, M; Tuominen, I; Hackman, T; Ilyin, I; Piskunov, N

    2009-01-01

    The active RS CVn star II Peg has been spectroscopically monitored for almost 18 years with the SOFIN spectrograph at NOT, La Palma, Spain. In this paper we present five new surface temperature maps of the object for the years 1999 (two maps), 2001 (one map) and 2002 (two maps).

  8. Atmospheric Water Harvesting: Role of Surface Wettability and Edge Effect

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Yong

    2017-06-23

    Atmospheric water is emerging as an important potable water source. The present work experimentally and theoretically investigates water condensation and collection on flat surfaces with contrasting contact angles and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) to elucidate their roles on water mass collection efficiency. The experimental results indicate that a hydrophilic surface promotes nucleation and individual droplets growth, and a surface with a low CAH tends to let a smaller droplet to slide down, but the overall water mass collection efficiency is independent of both surface contact angle and CAH. The experimental results agree well with our theoretical calculations. During water condensation, a balance has to be struck between single droplet growth and droplet density on a surface so as to maintain a constant water droplet surface coverage ratio, which renders the role of both surface wettability and hysteresis insignificant to the ultimate water mass collection. Moreover, water droplets on the edges of a surface grow much faster than those on the non-edge areas and thus dominate the contribution to the water mass collection by the entire surface, directly pointing out the very important role of edge effect on water condensation and collection.

  9. PEM Water Electrolysis at Elevated Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Kalmar

    Global warming and the accelerating depletion of fossil based fuels have catalysed a tremendous surge in the development of alternative and sustainable energy sources e.g. wind-, solar- and hydropower. Common for most of these alternative energy sources is that they at times provide more power than...... needed and hence it has become acute to be able to store the energy. Hydrogen has been identified as a suitable energy carrier and water electrolysis is one way to produce it in a sustainable and environmentally friendly way. In this thesis an introduction to the subject (chapter 1) is given followed...... by a literature review of the field of water electrolysis (chapter 2), with a focus on proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis. In chapter 3 a short description of the experimental techniques used for synthesis of catalyst and characterisation of the components in the electrolysis cell is given...

  10. A Microring Temperature Sensor Based on the Surface Plasmon Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A structure of microring sensor suitable for temperature measurement based on the surface plasmon wave is put forward in this paper. The sensor uses surface plasmon multilayer waveguiding structure in the vertical direction and U-shaped microring structure in the horizontal direction and utilizes SOI as the thermal material. The transfer function derivation of the structure of surface plasmon microring sensor is according to the transfer matrix method. While the change of refractive index of Si is caused by the change of ambient temperature, the effective refractive index of the multilayer waveguiding structure is changed, resulting in the drifting of the sensor output spectrum. This paper focuses on the transmission characteristics of multilayer waveguide structure and the impact on the output spectrum caused by refractive index changes in temperature parts. According to the calculation and simulation, the transmission performance of the structure is stable and the sensitivity is good. The resonance wavelength shift can reach 0.007 μm when the temperature is increased by 100 k and FSR can reach about 60 nm. This structure achieves a high sensitivity in the temperature sense taking into account a wide range of filter frequency selections, providing a theoretical basis for the preparation of microoptics.

  11. 40 CFR 258.27 - Surface water requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface water requirements. 258.27... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.27 Surface water requirements. MSWLF... wetlands, that violates any requirements of the Clean Water Act, including, but not limited to,...

  12. Floating Vegetated Mats For Improving Surface Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of surface and ground waters is an environmental concern. Pollution from both point and nonpoint sources can render water unsuitable for use. Surface waters of concern include streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, canals, and wastewater lagoons. Lagooned wastewater from confined animal feedi...

  13. Light-induced deformation of photoresponsive liquid crystals on a water surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Kunihiko; Shinohara, Masato; Yamashita, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Photodeformation: Azobenzene derivatives showing a room-temperature liquid crystal (LC) phase exhibit photoinduced deformation on a water surface. While a droplet of a LC sample floating on the surface expands upon UV irradiation, a LC sample containing a solvent is condensed towards the center of the illuminated regions (see figure).

  14. Modeling the surface temperature of Earth-like planets

    CERN Document Server

    Vladilo, G; Murante, G; Filippi, L; Provenzale, A

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a novel Earth-like planet surface temperature model (ESTM) for habitability studies based on the spatial-temporal distribution of planetary surface temperatures. The ESTM adopts a surface Energy Balance Model complemented by: radiative-convective atmospheric column calculations, a set of physically-based parameterizations of meridional transport, and descriptions of surface and cloud properties more refined than in standard EBMs. The parameterization is valid for rotating terrestrial planets with shallow atmospheres and moderate values of axis obliquity (epsilon >= 45^o). Comparison with a 3D model of atmospheric dynamics from the literature shows that the equator-to-pole temperature differences predicted by the two models agree within ~5K when the rotation rate, insolation, surface pressure and planet radius are varied in the intervals 0.5 <= Omega/Omega_o <= 2, 0.75 <= S/S_o <= 1.25, 0.3 <= p/(1 bar) <= 10, and 0.5 <= R/R_o <= 2, respectively. The ESTM has an extremely l...

  15. A model of the tropical Pacific sea surface temperature climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Richard; Zebiak, Stephen E.; Cane, Mark A.

    1988-01-01

    A model for the climatological mean sea surface temperature (SST) of the tropical Pacific Ocean is developed. The upper ocean response is computed using a time dependent, linear, reduced gravity model, with the addition of a constant depth frictional surface layer. The full three-dimensional temperature equation and a surface heat flux parameterization that requires specification of only wind speed and total cloud cover are used to evaluate the SST. Specification of atmospheric parameters, such as air temperature and humidity, over which the ocean has direct influence, is avoided. The model simulates the major features of the observed tropical Pacific SST. The seasonal evolution of these features is generally captured by the model. Analysis of the results demonstrates the control the ocean has over the surface heat flux from ocean to atmosphere and the crucial role that dynamics play in determining the mean SST in the equatorial Pacific. The sensitivity of the model to perturbations in the surface heat flux, cloud cover specification, diffusivity, and mixed layer depth is discussed.

  16. Miyaura Borylations of Aryl Bromides in Water at Room Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Lipshutz, Bruce H.; Moser, Ralph; Voigtritter, Karl R.

    2010-01-01

    New technology for palladium-catalyzed cross-couplings between B2pin2 and aryl bromides leading to arylboronates is described. Micellar catalysis serves to enable borylations to take place in water as the only medium at ambient temperatures.

  17. NOS CO-OPS Meteorological Data, Water Temperature, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has Water Temperature data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). WARNING: These preliminary data have not...

  18. Temperature maps measurements on 3D surfaces with infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardone, Gennaro; Ianiro, Andrea [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Aerospace Engineering (DIAS), Naples (Italy); Ioio, Gennaro dello [University of Cambridge, BP Institute for Multiphase Flow, Cambridge, England (United Kingdom); Passaro, Andrea [Alta SpA, Ospedaletto, PI (Italy)

    2012-02-15

    The use of the infrared camera as a temperature transducer in wind tunnel applications is convenient and widespread. Nevertheless, the infrared data are available in the form of 2D images while the observed surfaces are often not planar and the reconstruction of temperature maps over them is a critical task. In this work, after recalling the principles of IR thermography, a methodology to rebuild temperature maps on the surfaces of 3D object is proposed. In particular, an optical calibration is applied to the IR camera by means of a novel target plate with control points. The proposed procedure takes also into account the directional emissivity by estimating the viewing angle. All the needed steps are described and analyzed. The advantages given by the proposed method are shown with an experiment in a hypersonic wind tunnel. (orig.)

  19. EFFECTS OF PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE ON ULTRAFILTRATION HOLLOW FIBER MEMBRANE IN MOBILE WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSDIANAH RAMLI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Sabah, Malaysia, there are still high probability of limited clean water access in rural area and disaster site. Few villages had been affected in Pitas due to improper road access, thus building a water treatment plant there might not be feasible. Recently, Kundasang area had been affected by earthquake that caused water disruption to its people due to the damage in the underground pipes and water tanks. It has been known that membrane technology brought ease in making mobile water treatment system that can be transported to rural or disaster area. In this study, hollow fiber membrane used in a mobile water treatment system due to compact and ease setup. Hollow fiber membrane was fabricated into small module at 15 and 30 fibers to suit the mobile water treatment system for potable water production of at least 80 L/day per operation. The effects of transmembrane pressure (TMP and feed water temperature were investigated. It was found that permeate flux increases by more than 96% for both 15 and 30 fiber bundles with increasing pressure in the range of 0.25 to 3.0 bar but dropped when the pressure reached maximum. Lower temperature of 17 to 18˚C increase the water viscosity by 15% from normal temperature of water at 24˚C, making the permeate flux decreases. The fabricated modules effectively removed 96% turbidity of the surface water sample tested.

  20. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Kostik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, while in ground water samples from wells boreholes and mineral waters with the technique of ion chromatography. The research shows that lithium concentration in potable water ranging from 0.1 to 5.2 μg/L; in surface water from 0.5 to 15.0 μg/L; ground water from wells boreholes from 16.0 to 49.1 μg/L and mineral water from 125.2 to 484.9 μg/L. Obtained values are in accordance with the relevant international values for the lithium content in water.

  1. A physics-based statistical algorithm for retrieving land surface temperature from AMSR-E passive microwave data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO KeBiao; SHI JianCheng; LI ZhaoLiang; QIN ZhiHao; LI ManChun; XU Bin

    2007-01-01

    AMSR-E and MODIS are two EOS (Earth Observing System) instruments on board the Aqua satellite. A regression analysis between the brightness of all AMSR-E bands and the MODIS land surface temperature product indicated that the 89 GHz vertical polarization is the best single band to retrieve land surface temperature. According to simulation analysis with AIEM, the difference of different frequencies can eliminate the influence of water in soil and atmosphere, and also the surface roughness partly. The analysis results indicate that the radiation mechanism of surface covered snow is different from others. In order to retrieve land surface temperature more accurately, the land surface should be at least classified into three types: water covered surface, snow covered surface, and non-water and non-snow covered land surface. In order to improve the practicality and accuracy of the algorithm, we built different equations for different ranges of temperature. The average land surface temperature error is about 2-3℃ relative to the MODIS LST product.

  2. A physics-based statistical algorithm for retrieving land surface temperature from AMSR-E passive microwave data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AMSR-E and MODIS are two EOS (Earth Observing System) instruments on board the Aqua satellite. A regression analysis between the brightness of all AMSR-E bands and the MODIS land surface tem-perature product indicated that the 89 GHz vertical polarization is the best single band to retrieve land surface temperature. According to simulation analysis with AIEM,the difference of different frequen-cies can eliminate the influence of water in soil and atmosphere,and also the surface roughness partly. The analysis results indicate that the radiation mechanism of surface covered snow is different from others. In order to retrieve land surface temperature more accurately,the land surface should be at least classified into three types:water covered surface,snow covered surface,and non-water and non-snow covered land surface. In order to improve the practicality and accuracy of the algorithm,we built different equations for different ranges of temperature. The average land surface temperature er-ror is about 2―3℃ relative to the MODIS LST product.

  3. Sea surface temperature mapping using a thermal infrared scanner

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Pandya, R.M.; Mathur, K.M.; Charyulu, R.J.K.; Rao, L.V.G.

    1 metre water column below the sea surface. A thermal infrared scanner developed by the Space Applications Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad was operated on board R.V. Gaveshani in April/May 1984 for mapping SST over the eastern Arabian Sea. SST values...

  4. Temperature influences on water permeability and chlorpyrifos uptake in aquatic insects with differing respiratory strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwalter, D.B.; Jenkins, J.J.; Curtis, L.R.

    2003-01-01

    Aquatic insects have evolved diverse respiratory strategies that range from breathing atmospheric air to breathing dissolved oxygen. These strategies result in vast morphological differences among taxa in terms of exchange epithelial surface areas that are in direct contact with the surrounding water that, in turn, affect physiological processes. This paper examines the effects of acute temperature shifts on water permeability and chlorpyrifos uptake in aquatic insects with different respiratory strategies. While considerable differences existed in water permeability among the species tested, acute temperature shifts raised water influx rates similarly in air-breathing and gill-bearing taxa. This contrasts significantly with temperature-shift effects on chlorpyrifos uptake. Temperature shifts of 4.5??C increased 14C-chlorpyrifos accumulation rates in the gill-bearing mayfly Cinygma sp. and in the air-breathing hemipteran Sigara washingtonensis. However, the temperature-induced increase in 14C-chlorpyrifos uptake after 8 h of exposure was 2.75-fold higher in Cinygma than in Sigara. Uptake of 14C-chlorpyrifos was uniformly higher in Cinygma than in Sigara in all experiments. These findings suggest that organisms with relatively large exchange epithelial surface areas are potentially more vulnerable to both osmoregulatory distress as well as contaminant accumulation. Temperature increases appear more likely to impact organisms that have relatively large exchange epithelial surface areas, both as an individual stressor and in combination with additional stressors such as contaminants.

  5. A Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC) for surface energy balance fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallick, Kaniska; Jarvis, Andrew J.; Boegh, Eva;

    2014-01-01

    of four state equations. Taking advantage of the psychrometric relationship between temperature and vapor pressure, the present method also estimates the near surface moisture availability (M) from TS, air temperature (TA) and relative humidity (RH), thereby being capable of decomposing λ...

  6. Historical underway surface temperature data collected aboard the ship Skelton Castle on a voyage from England to India, 28 February 1800 to 3 June 1800 (NODC Accession 0095925)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Underway surface air temperature and sea water temperature were collected aboard the Skelton Castle while in route from England to Bombay India as part of the East...

  7. Miniaturized Temperature-Controlled Planar Chromatography (Micro-TLC) as a Versatile Technique for Fast Screening of Micropollutants and Biomarkers Derived from Surface Water Ecosystems and During Technological Processes of Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ślączka-Wilk, Magdalena M; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Kaleniecka, Aleksandra; Zarzycki, Paweł K

    2017-07-01

    There is increasing interest in the development of simple analytical systems enabling the fast screening of target components in complex samples. A number of newly invented protocols are based on quasi separation techniques involving microfluidic paper-based analytical devices and/or micro total analysis systems. Under such conditions, the quantification of target components can be performed mainly due to selective detection. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate that miniaturized planar chromatography has the capability to work as an efficient separation and quantification tool for the analysis of multiple targets within complex environmental samples isolated and concentrated using an optimized SPE method. In particular, we analyzed various samples collected from surface water ecosystems (lakes, rivers, and the Baltic Sea of Middle Pomerania in the northern part of Poland) in different seasons, as well as samples collected during key wastewater technological processes (originating from the "Jamno" wastewater treatment plant in Koszalin, Poland). We documented that the multiple detection of chromatographic spots on RP-18W microplates-under visible light, fluorescence, and fluorescence quenching conditions, and using the visualization reagent phosphomolybdic acid-enables fast and robust sample classification. The presented data reveal that the proposed micro-TLC system is useful, inexpensive, and can be considered as a complementary method for the fast control of treated sewage water discharged by a municipal wastewater treatment plant, particularly for the detection of low-molecular mass micropollutants with polarity ranging from estetrol to progesterone, as well as chlorophyll-related dyes. Due to the low consumption of mobile phases composed of water-alcohol binary mixtures (less than 1 mL/run for the simultaneous separation of up to nine samples), this method can be considered an environmentally friendly and green chemistry analytical tool. The described

  8. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C. A.; Giorgino, M. J.; Rasmussen, R. B.

    2014-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2008 through September 2009. Major findings for this period include: - Annual precipitation was approximately 20 percent below the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation. - Streamflow was below the long-term mean at the 10 project streamgages during most of the year. - More than 7,000 individual measurements of water quality were made at a total of 26 sites—15 in the Neuse River Basin and 11 in the Cape Fear River Basin. Forty-seven water-quality properties and constituents were measured. - All observations met North Carolina water-quality standards for water temperature, pH, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. - North Carolina water-quality standards were exceeded one or more times for dissolved oxygen, dissolved oxygen percent saturation, chlorophyll a, mercury, copper, iron, manganese, silver, and zinc. Exceedances occurred at 23 sites—13 in the Neuse River Basin and 10 in the Cape Fear River Basin. - Stream samples collected during storm events contained elevated concentrations of 18 water-quality constituents compared to samples collected during non-storm events. - Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were within ranges observed during previous years. - Five reservoirs had chlorophyll a concentrations in excess of 40 micrograms per liter at least once during 2009: Little River Reservoir, Falls Lake, Cane Creek Reservoir, University Lake, and Jordan Lake.

  9. Structure and reactivity of water at biomaterial surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, E A

    1998-02-01

    Molecular self association in liquids is a physical process that can dominate cohesion (interfacial tension) and miscibility. In water, self association is a powerful organizational force leading to a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network (water structure). Localized perturbations in the chemical potential of water as by, for example, contact with a solid surface, induces compensating changes in water structure that can be sensed tens of nanometers from the point of origin using the surface force apparatus (SFA) and ancillary techniques. These instruments reveal attractive or repulsive forces between opposing surfaces immersed in water, over and above that anticipated by continuum theory (DLVO), that are attributed to a variable density (partial molar volume) of a more-or-less ordered water structure, depending on the water wettability (surface energy) of the water-contacting surfaces. Water structure at surfaces is thus found to be a manifestation of hydrophobicity and, while mechanistic/theoretical interpretation of experimental results remain the subject of some debate in the literature, convergence of experimental observations permit, for the first time, quantitative definition of the relative terms 'hydrophobic' and 'hydrophilic'. In particular, long-range attractive forces are detected only between surfaces exhibiting a water contact angle theta > 65 degrees (herein defined as hydrophobic surfaces with pure water adhesion tension tau O = gamma O cos theta 30 dyn/cm). These findings suggest at least two distinct kinds of water structure and reactivity: a relatively less-dense water region against hydrophobic surfaces with an open hydrogen-bonded network and a relatively more-dense water region against hydrophilic surfaces with a collapsed hydrogen-bonded network. Importantly, membrane and SFA studies reveal a discrimination between biologically-important ions that preferentially solubilizes divalent ions in more-dense water regions relative to less

  10. Distribution of {sup 129}I in terrestrial surface water environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xuegao [State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Gong, Meng [College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Yi, Peng, E-mail: pengyi1915@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Aldahan, Ala [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Geology, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Yu, Zhongbo [State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Possnert, Göran [Tandem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Chen, Li [State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China)

    2015-10-15

    The global distribution of the radioactive isotope iodine-129 in surface waters (lakes and rivers) is presented here and compared with the atmospheric deposition and distribution in surface marine waters. The results indicate relatively high concentrations in surface water systems in close vicinity of the anthropogenic release sources as well as in parts of Western Europe, North America and Central Asia. {sup 129}I level is generally higher in the terrestrial surface water of the Northern hemisphere compared to the southern hemisphere. The highest values of {sup 129}I appear around 50°N and 40°S in the northern and southern hemisphere, separately. Direct gaseous and marine atmospheric emissions are the most likely avenues for the transport of {sup 129}I from the sources to the terrestrial surface waters. To apply iodine-129 as process tracer in terrestrial surface water environment, more data are needed on {sup 129}I distribution patterns both locally and globally.

  11. Water content distribution in the surface layer of Maoping slope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yuewu; CHEN Huixin; LIU Qingquan; GONG Xin; ZHANG Dawei; LI Lianxiang

    2005-01-01

    The water content distribution in the surface layer of Maoping slope has been studied by testing the water content at 31 control sites. The water content profiles at these sites have also been determined. The water content distributions at different segments have been obtained by using the Kriging method of geostatistics. By comparing the water content distributions with the landform of the slope, it was shown that the water content is closely dependent on the landform of the slope. The water content distribution in the surface layer provided a fundamental basis for landslide predication and treatment.

  12. Designing high-temperature steels via surface science and thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Cameron T.; Jiang, Zilin; Mathai, Allan; Chung, Yip-Wah

    2016-06-01

    Electricity in many countries such as the US and China is produced by burning fossil fuels in steam-turbine-driven power plants. The efficiency of these power plants can be improved by increasing the operating temperature of the steam generator. In this work, we adopted a combined surface science and computational thermodynamics approach to the design of high-temperature, corrosion-resistant steels for this application. The result is a low-carbon ferritic steel with nanosized transition metal monocarbide precipitates that are thermally stable, as verified by atom probe tomography. High-temperature Vickers hardness measurements demonstrated that these steels maintain their strength for extended periods at 700 °C. We hypothesize that the improved strength of these steels is derived from the semi-coherent interfaces of these thermally stable, nanosized precipitates exerting drag forces on impinging dislocations, thus maintaining strength at elevated temperatures.

  13. Effect of climate change on water temperature and attainment of water temperature criteria in the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cheryl A.; Sharp, Darrin; Mochon Collura, T. Chris

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that our planet is warming and this warming is also resulting in rising sea levels. Estuaries which are located at the interface between land and ocean are impacted by these changes. We used CE-QUAL-W2 water quality model to predict changes in water temperature as a function of increasing air temperatures and rising sea level for the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA). Annual average air temperature in the Yaquina watershed is expected to increase about 0.3 °C per decade by 2040-2069. An air temperature increase of 3 °C in the Yaquina watershed is likely to result in estuarine water temperature increasing by 0.7-1.6 °C. Largest water temperature increases are expected in the upper portion of the estuary, while sea level rise may mitigate some of the warming in the lower portion of the estuary. Smallest changes in water temperature are predicted to occur in the summer, and maximum changes during the winter and spring. Increases in air temperature may result in an increase in the number of days per year that the 7-day maximum average temperature exceeds 18 °C (criterion for protection of rearing and migration of salmonids and trout) as well as other water quality concerns. In the upstream portion of the estuary, a 4 °C increase in air temperature is predicted to cause an increase of 40 days not meeting the temperature criterion, while in the lower estuary the increase will depend upon rate of sea level rise (ranging from 31 to 19 days).

  14. Temperature stratification in a hot water tank with circulation pipe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the project is to investigate the change in temperature stratification due to the operation of a circulation pipe. Further, putting forward rules for design of pipe inlet in order not to disturb the temperature stratification in the hot water tank. A validated computer model based...

  15. New Measurements from Old Boreholes: A Look at Interaction Between Surface Air Temperature and Ground Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinle, S. M.; Gosnold, W. D.

    2007-12-01

    We recently logged new field measurements of several boreholes throughout the Midwest, including North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska. We then compared these new measurements against measurements previously obtained. Our comparisons included inverse modeling of past and recent measurements as well as climate modeling based on past surface air temperatures obtained from the weather stations. The data show a good correlation between climate warming in the last century and ground surface warming. Of particular importance is that cooling of air temperatures beginning in the mid 1990s reflects in the ground surface temperatures. The boreholes included in the study consist of three boreholes located in north central North Dakota, including two deeper than 200 meters. Two boreholes in the southwestern part of South Dakota, and two from southeastern South Dakota, all approximately 180 meters deep. Also included, were two boreholes (135 meters and over 200 meters deep) located in southwestern Nebraska, and two boreholes in the panhandle of Nebraska, each over 100 meters deep. We obtained historical surface air temperature from climate stations located near the boreholes, both from the United States Historical Climatology Network and from the Western Regional Climate Center.

  16. [Correlative analysis of the diversity patterns of regional surface water, NDVI and thermal environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jin-Long; Zhang, Xue-Lei

    2012-10-01

    Taking Zhengzhou City, the capital of Henan Province in Central China, as the study area, and by using the theories and methodologies of diversity, a discreteness evaluation on the regional surface water, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and land surface temperature (LST) distribution was conducted in a 2 km x 2 km grid scale. Both the NDVI and the LST were divided into 4 levels, their spatial distribution diversity indices were calculated, and their connections were explored. The results showed that it was of operability and practical significance to use the theories and methodologies of diversity in the discreteness evaluation of the spatial distribution of regional thermal environment. There was a higher overlap of location between the distributions of surface water and the lowest temperature region, and the high vegetation coverage was often accompanied by low land surface temperature. In 1988-2009, the discreteness of the surface water distribution in the City had an obvious decreasing trend. The discreteness of the surface water distribution had a close correlation with the discreteness of the temperature region distribution, while the discreteness of the NDVI classification distribution had a more complicated correlation with the discreteness of the temperature region distribution. Therefore, more environmental factors were needed to be included for a better evaluation.

  17. Safety assessment of greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes irrigated with reclaimed and surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Galvez, Francisco; Allende, Ana; Pedrero-Salcedo, Francisco; Alarcon, Juan Jose; Gil, Maria Isabel

    2014-11-17

    The impact of reclaimed and surface water on the microbiological safety of hydroponic tomatoes was assessed. Greenhouse tomatoes were irrigated with reclaimed and surface water and grown on two hydroponic substrates (coconut fiber and rock wool). Water samples (n=208) were taken from irrigation water, with and without the addition of fertilizers and drainage water, and hydroponic tomatoes (n=72). Samples were analyzed for indicator microorganisms, generic Escherichia coli and Listeria spp., and pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp. and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC), using multiplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR) after enrichment. The correlation between climatological parameters such as temperature and the levels of microorganisms in water samples was also determined. In irrigation water, generic E. coli counts were higher in reclaimed than in surface water whereas Listeria spp. numbers increased after adding the fertilizers in both water sources. In drainage water, no clear differences in E. coli and Listeria numbers were observed between reclaimed and surface water. No positive samples for STEC were found in irrigation water. Presumptive positives for Salmonella spp. were found in 7.7% of the water samples and 62.5% of these samples were reclaimed water. Salmonella-positive samples by RT-PCR could not be confirmed by conventional methods. Higher concentrations of E. coli were associated with Salmonella-presumptive positive samples. Climatological parameters, such as temperature, were not correlated with the E. coli and Listeria spp. counts. Tomato samples were negative for bacterial pathogens, while generic E. coli and Listeria spp. counts were below the detection limit. The prevalence of presumptive Salmonella spp. found in irrigation water (reclaimed and surface water) was high, which might present a risk of contamination. The absence of pathogens on greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes indicates that good agricultural practices (GAP) were in place, avoiding the

  18. Temperature impacts on the water year 2014 drought in California

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, S; Safeeq, M.; A. AghaKouchak; Guan, K; Funk, C.

    2015-01-01

    ©2015. American Geophysical Union. California is experiencing one of the worst droughts on record. We use a hydrological model and risk assessment framework to understand the influence of temperature on the water year (WY) 2014 drought in California and examine the probability that this drought would have been less severe if temperatures resembled the historical climatology. Our results indicate that temperature played an important role in exacerbating the WY 2014 drought severity. We found t...

  19. Surface emissivity and temperature retrieval for a hyperspectral sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borel, C.C.

    1998-12-01

    With the growing use of hyper-spectral imagers, e.g., AVIRIS in the visible and short-wave infrared there is hope of using such instruments in the mid-wave and thermal IR (TIR) some day. The author believes that this will enable him to get around using the present temperature-emissivity separation algorithms using methods which take advantage of the many channels available in hyper-spectral imagers. A simple fact used in coming up with a novel algorithm is that a typical surface emissivity spectrum are rather smooth compared to spectral features introduced by the atmosphere. Thus, a iterative solution technique can be devised which retrieves emissivity spectra based on spectral smoothness. To make the emissivities realistic, atmospheric parameters are varied using approximations, look-up tables derived from a radiative transfer code and spectral libraries. One such iterative algorithm solves the radiative transfer equation for the radiance at the sensor for the unknown emissivity and uses the blackbody temperature computed in an atmospheric window to get a guess for the unknown surface temperature. By varying the surface temperature over a small range a series of emissivity spectra are calculated. The one with the smoothest characteristic is chosen. The algorithm was tested on synthetic data using MODTRAN and the Salisbury emissivity database.

  20. Experimental study on the relation between the water content of surface soil and the acoustic wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to investigate the relation between the water content changing of surface soil and micro-quake recorded before earthquakes, we carried out a simulation experiment in laboratory. Its purpose is to explore whether the acoustic wave generated by micro-fracturing before earthquake are able to change water content of surface soil, so as to understand the relation between thermal anomaly in the remote sensing image got from the seismogenic area and the coming earthquake. The result of the experiment shows that when the acoustic wave enters into the surface soil the water content here increases on the background of decreasing due to natural evaporation. In the meantime, temperature here decreases.

  1. Sea-surface temperature and salinity mapping from remote microwave radiometric measurements of brightness temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans-Juergen, C. B.; Kendall, B. M.; Fedors, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    A technique to measure remotely sea surface temperature and salinity was demonstrated with a dual frequency microwave radiometer system. Accuracies in temperature of 1 C and in salinity of part thousand for salinity greater than 5 parts per thousand were attained after correcting for the influence of extraterrestrial background radiation, atmospheric radiation and attenuation, sea-surface roughness, and antenna beamwidth. The radiometers, operating at 1.43 and 2.65 GHz, comprise a third-generation system using null balancing and feedback noise injection. Flight measurements from an aircraft at an altitude of 1.4 km over the lower Chesapeake Bay and coastal areas of the Atlantic Ocean resulted in contour maps of sea-surface temperature and salinity with a spatial resolution of 0.5 km.

  2. Section 11: Surface Water Pathway - Likelihood of Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface water releases can include the threat to targets from overland flow of hazardous substances and from flooding or the threat from the release of hazardous substances to ground water and the subsequent discharge of contaminated ground w

  3. Ultraviolet surface plasmon-mediated low temperature hydrazine decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Siying; Sheldon, Matthew T.; Atwater, Harry A. [Thomas J. Watson Laboratories of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Liu, Wei-Guang; Jaramillo-Botero, Andres; Goddard, William Andrew [Materials and Process Simulation Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2015-01-12

    Conventional methods require elevated temperatures in order to dissociate high-energy nitrogen bonds in precursor molecules such as ammonia or hydrazine used for nitride film growth. We report enhanced photodissociation of surface-absorbed hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) molecules at low temperature by using ultraviolet surface plasmons to concentrate the exciting radiation. Plasmonic nanostructured aluminum substrates were designed to provide resonant near field concentration at λ = 248 nm (5 eV), corresponding to the maximum optical cross section for hydrogen abstraction from N{sub 2}H{sub 4}. We employed nanoimprint lithography to fabricate 1 mm × 1 mm arrays of the resonant plasmonic structures, and ultraviolet reflectance spectroscopy confirmed resonant extinction at 248 nm. Hydrazine was cryogenically adsorbed to the plasmonic substrate in a low-pressure ambient, and 5 eV surface plasmons were resonantly excited using a pulsed KrF laser. Mass spectrometry was used to characterize the photodissociation products and indicated a 6.2× overall enhancement in photodissociation yield for hydrazine adsorbed on plasmonic substrates compared with control substrates. The ultraviolet surface plasmon enhanced photodissociation demonstrated here may provide a valuable method to generate reactive precursors for deposition of nitride thin film materials at low temperatures.

  4. The dependence of surface temperature on IGBTs load and ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Čaja; Marek, Patsch

    2015-05-01

    Currently, older power electronics and electrotechnics are improvement and at the same time developing new and more efficient devices. These devices produce in their activities a significant part of the heat which, if not effectively drained, causing damage to these elements. In this case, it is important to develop new and more efficient cooling system. The most widespread of modern methods of cooling is the cooling by heat pipe. This contribution is aimed at cooling the insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) elements by loop heat pipe (LHP). IGBTs are very prone to damage due to high temperatures, and therefore is the important that the surface temperature was below 100°C. It was therefore created a model that examined what impact of surface temperature on the IGBT element and heat removal at different load and constant ambient temperature.

  5. The dependence of surface temperature on IGBTs load and ambient temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Čaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, older power electronics and electrotechnics are improvement and at the same time developing new and more efficient devices. These devices produce in their activities a significant part of the heat which, if not effectively drained, causing damage to these elements. In this case, it is important to develop new and more efficient cooling system. The most widespread of modern methods of cooling is the cooling by heat pipe. This contribution is aimed at cooling the insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT elements by loop heat pipe (LHP. IGBTs are very prone to damage due to high temperatures, and therefore is the important that the surface temperature was below 100°C. It was therefore created a model that examined what impact of surface temperature on the IGBT element and heat removal at different load and constant ambient temperature.

  6. Influence of fine water droplets to temperature and humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafidzal, M. H. M.; Hamzah, A.; Manaf, M. Z. A.; Saadun, M. N. A.; Zakaria, M. S.; Roslizar, A.; Jumaidin, R.

    2015-05-01

    Excessively dry air can cause dry skin, dry eyes and exacerbation of medical conditions. Therefore, many researches have been done in order to increase humidity in our environment. One of the ways is by using water droplets. Nowadays, it is well known in market stand fan equipped with water mister in order to increase the humidity of certain area. In this study, the same concept is applied to the ceiling fan. This study uses a model that combines a humidifier which functions as cooler, ceiling fan and scaled down model of house. The objective of this study is to analyze the influence of ceiling fan humidifier to the temperature and humidity in a house. The mechanism of this small model uses batteries as the power source, connected to the fan and the humidifier. The small water tank's function is to store and supply water to the humidifier. The humidifier is used to cool the room by changing water phase to fine water droplets. Fine water droplets are created from mechanism of the humidifier, which is by increasing the kinetic energy of water molecule using high frequency vibration that overcome the holding force between water molecules. Thus, the molecule of water will change to state of gas or mist. The fan is used to spread out the mist of water to surrounding of the room in order to enhance the humidity. Thermocouple and humidity meter are used to measure temperature and humidity in some period of times. The result shows that humidity increases and temperature decreases with time. This application of water droplet can be applied in the vehicles and engine in order to decrease the temperature.

  7. Reconstruction of MODIS daily land surface temperature under clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Gao, F.; Chen, Z.; Song, L.; Xie, D.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST), generally defined as the skin temperature of the Earth's surface, controls the process of evapotranspiration, surface energy balance, soil moisture change and climate change. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) is equipped with 1km resolution thermal sensor andcapable of observing the earth surface at least once per day.Thermal infrared bands cannot penetrate cloud, which means we cannot get consistency drought monitoring condition at one area. However, the cloudy-sky conditions represent more than half of the actual day-to-day weather around the global. In this study, we developed an LST filled model based on the assumption that under good weather condition, LST difference between two nearby pixels are similar among the closest 8 days. We used all the valid pixels covered by a 9*9 window to reconstruct the gap LST. Each valid pixel is assigned a weight which is determined by the spatial distance and the spectral similarity. This model is applied in the Middle-East of China including Gansu, Ningxia, Shaanxi province. The terrain is complicated in this area including plain and hill. The MODIS daily LST product (MOD11A3) from 2000 to 2004 is tested. Almost all the gap pixels are filled, and the terrain information is reconstructed well and smoothly. We masked two areas in order to validate the model, one located in the plain, another located in the hill. The correlation coefficient is greater than 0.8, even up to 0.92 in a few days. We also used ground measured day maximum and mean surface temperature to valid our model. Although both the temporal and spatial scale are different between ground measured temperature and MODIS LST, they agreed well in all the stations. This LST filled model is operational because it only needs LST and reflectance, and does not need other auxiliary information such as climate factors. We will apply this model to more regions in the future.

  8. Biofilm development on metal surfaces in tropical marine waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, F.P.; Bhosle, N.B.

    environments. However, little is known about biofilm bacteria developed on metal surfaces, especially immersed in tropical marine waters. Similarly, not much is known about the nature of organic matter deposited on the surfaces over the period of immersion...

  9. Piglets’ Surface Temperature Change at Different Weights at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; dos Santos, Luan Sousa; Machado, Sivanilza Teixeira; Moi, Marta; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Foppa, Luciana; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Kássia Silva dos Santos, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets’ weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST) after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW): T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorded (TFS). Images of piglets’ surface by thermal imaging camera were recorded at birth (STB) and 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after birth. The air temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 30 min and the indexes of temperature and humidity (THI) were calculated. A ST drop after 15 min from birth was observed, increasing again after sixty minutes. Positive correlations were found between the PBW and the ST at 30 and 45 min after birth. The PBW was negatively correlated with the TFS. The THI showed high negative correlations (−0.824 and −0.815) with STB and after 15 min from birth. The piglet’s surface temperature at birth was positively correlated with temperature thereof to 15 min, influencing therefore the temperatures in the interval of 45 to 120 min. The birth weight contributes significantly to postnatal hypothermia and consequently to the time it takes for piglets ingest colostrum, requiring special attention to those of low birth weight. PMID:25049971

  10. Piglets' surface temperature change at different weights at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Luan Sousa; Machado, Sivanilza Teixeira; Moi, Marta; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Foppa, Luciana; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Kássia Silva Dos Santos, Rita

    2014-03-01

    The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets' weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST) after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW): T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorded (TFS). Images of piglets' surface by thermal imaging camera were recorded at birth (STB) and 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after birth. The air temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 30 min and the indexes of temperature and humidity (THI) were calculated. A ST drop after 15 min from birth was observed, increasing again after sixty minutes. Positive correlations were found between the PBW and the ST at 30 and 45 min after birth. The PBW was negatively correlated with the TFS. The THI showed high negative correlations (-0.824 and -0.815) with STB and after 15 min from birth. The piglet's surface temperature at birth was positively correlated with temperature thereof to 15 min, influencing therefore the temperatures in the interval of 45 to 120 min. The birth weight contributes significantly to postnatal hypothermia and consequently to the time it takes for piglets ingest colostrum, requiring special attention to those of low birth weight.

  11. Piglets’ Surface Temperature Change at Different Weights at Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Ribeiro Caldara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets’ weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW: T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorded (TFS. Images of piglets’ surface by thermal imaging camera were recorded at birth (STB and 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after birth. The air temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 30 min and the indexes of temperature and humidity (THI were calculated. A ST drop after 15 min from birth was observed, increasing again after sixty minutes. Positive correlations were found between the PBW and the ST at 30 and 45 min after birth. The PBW was negatively correlated with the TFS. The THI showed high negative correlations (−0.824 and −0.815 with STB and after 15 min from birth. The piglet’s surface temperature at birth was positively correlated with temperature thereof to 15 min, influencing therefore the temperatures in the interval of 45 to 120 min. The birth weight contributes significantly to postnatal hypothermia and consequently to the time it takes for piglets ingest colostrum, requiring special attention to those of low birth weight.

  12. Possible Evidence for a New Form of Liquid Buried in the Surface Tension of Supercooled Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, T. Ryan; Leong, Kai-Yang; Wang, Feng

    2016-09-01

    Contrary to the historical data, several recent experiments indicate that the surface tension of supercooled water follows a smooth extrapolation of the IAPWS equation in the supercooled regime. It can be seen, however, that a small deviation from the IAPWS equation is present in the recent experimental measurements. It is shown with simulations using the WAIL water potential that the small deviation in the experimental data is consistent with the tail of an exponential growth in surface tension as temperature decreases. The emergence temperature, Te, of a substantial deviation from the IAPWS equation is shown to be 227 K for the WAIL water and 235 K for real water. Since the 227 K Te is close to the Widom line in WAIL water, we argue that real water at 235 K approaches a similar crossover line at one atmospheric pressure.

  13. Historical Change of Equilibrium Water Temperature in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, H.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in freshwater ecosystems due to a climate change have been great concern for sustainable river basin management both for water resources utilization and ecological conservation. However, their impact seems to be difficult to evaluate because of wide variety of basin characteristics along a river network both in nature and social environment. This presentation uses equilibrium water temperature as a simple criterion index for evaluating the long-term changes of stream thermal environment due to the historical climate change in Japan. It examines, at first, the relationship between the equilibrium water temperature and the stream temperature observed for 7 years at a lower reach in the Ibo River, Japan. It analyzes, then, the seasonal and regional trends of the equilibrium water temperature change for the last 50 years at 133 meteorological station sites throughout Japan, discussing their rising or falling characteristics. The correlation analysis at the local reach of the Ibo River shows that the equilibrium water temperature has similar trend of change as the stream temperature. However, its value tends to be higher than the stream temperature in summer, while lower in winter. The onset of the higher equilibrium water temperature fluctuates annually from mid February to early April. This onset fluctuation at each spring could be influenced by the different amount of snow at the antecedent winter. The rising or falling trends of the equilibrium water temperature are analyzed both annually and seasonally through the regression analysis of the 133 sites in Japan. Consequently, the trends of the temperature change could be categorized by 12 patterns. As for the seasonal analysis, the results shows that there are many sites indicating the falling trend in spring and summer, and rising trends in autumn and winter. In particular, winter has the strong rising tendency throughout Japan. As for the regional analysis, the result illustrates the precise rationality; e

  14. Spatially and temporally resolved measurements of the temperature inside droplets impinging on a hot solid surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaze, William; Caballina, Ophélie; Castanet, Guillaume; Lemoine, Fabrice

    2017-08-01

    Heat transfers at the impact of a droplet on a hot solid surface are investigated experimentally. Millimeter-sized water droplets impinge a flat sapphire window heated at 600 °C. The time evolution of the droplet temperature is characterized using the two-color laser-induced fluorescence technique. For that, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is used for the excitation of the fluorescence to obtain instantaneous images of the droplet temperature. Water is seeded with two fluorescent dyes, one sensitive to temperature (fluorescein disodium) and the other not (sulforhodamine 640). Owing to a wavelength shift between the dyes' emissions, the fluorescence signal of the dyes can be detected separately by two cameras. The liquid temperature is determined with a good accuracy by doing the ratio of the images of the dyes' fluorescence. A critical feature of the method is that the image ratio is not disturbed by the deformation of the impacting droplet, which affects the signals of the dyes almost identically. Experiments are performed in the conditions of film boiling. A thin vapor film at the interface between the droplet and the solid surface prevents the deposition of liquid on the hot solid surface. Measurements highlight some differences in the rate of heat transfers and in the temperature distribution within the droplet between the bouncing and splashing regimes of impact.

  15. Implant Surface Temperature Changes during Er:YAG Laser Irradiation with Different Cooling Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzavi, Abbas; Shahabi, Sima; Fekrazad, Reza; Behruzi, Roohollah; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2014-03-01

    Peri-implantitis is one of the most common reasons for implant failure. Decontamination of infected implant surfaces can be achieved effectively by laser irradiation; although the associated thermal rise may cause irreversible bone damage and lead to implant loss. Temperature increments of over 10ºC during laser application may suffice for irreversible bone damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature increment of implant surface during Er:YAG laser irradiation with different cooling systems. Three implants were placed in a resected block of sheep mandible and irradiated with Er:YAG laser with 3 different cooling systems namely water and air spray, air spray alone and no water or air spray. Temperature changes of the implant surface were monitored during laser irradiation with a K-type thermocouple at the apical area of the fixture. In all 3 groups, the maximum temperature rise was lower than 10°C. Temperature changes were significantly different with different cooling systems used (Plaser with and without refrigeration. Thus, Er:YAG laser irradiation can be a safe method for treatment of periimplantitis.

  16. Conjunctive Surface Water and Groundwater Management under Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong eZhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change can result in significant impacts on regional and global surface water and groundwater resources. Using groundwater as a complimentary source of water has provided an effective means to satisfy the ever-increasing water demands and deal with surface water shortages problems due to robust capability of groundwater in responding to climate change. Conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater is crucial for integrated water resources management. It is helpful to reduce vulnerabilities of water supply systems and mitigate the water supply stress in responding to climate change. Some critical challenges and perspectives are discussed to help decision/policy makers develop more effective management and adaptation strategies for conjunctive water resources use in facing climate change under complex uncertainties.

  17. Biodegradation of Toluene under seasonal and diurnal fluctuations of soil-water temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yadav, B.K.; Shrestha, S.R.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    An increasing interest in bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites raises the question of the influence of seasonal and diurnal changes on soil-water temperature on biodegradation of BTEX, a widespread group of (sub)-surface contaminants. Therefore, we investigated the impact of a wide range of

  18. Biodegradation of Toluene under seasonal and diurnal fluctuations of soil-water temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yadav, B.K.; Shrestha, S.R.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    An increasing interest in bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites raises the question of the influence of seasonal and diurnal changes on soil-water temperature on biodegradation of BTEX, a widespread group of (sub)-surface contaminants. Therefore, we investigated the impact of a wide range of

  19. UAS Observations of Polynya Wave Height and Surface Temperature During the September 2012 Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A. C.; Palo, S. E.; Knuth, S. L.; Cassano, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    A 2012 campaign flew Aerosonde unmanned aerial systems (UASs) over the Terra Nova Bay polynya in Antarctica to study air-sea fluxes in this environment. Sea ice forms over the open water of the polynya and is pushed out from the coast by strong offshore winds, resulting in significant heat and moisture flux out of the area. The Aerosonde UAS payloads contained a number of instruments, including the Everest IR surface temperature sensor and the CULPIS LIDAR profilometer system, for the purpose of measuring these fluxes. Wave heights were extracted from the CULPIS data and compared to wind speed measurements collected onboard the Aerosonde and to wind speed measurements from AWS stations upwind. Wave height showed minimal correlation to the co-located UAS wind speed measurements, but high geographic predictability. High moisture flux out of polynyas often results in cloud formation, limiting the utility of satellite-based IR measurement of surface temperatures and ice extent. This study compares sea surface temperature measurements from the Everest instrument to the MODIS sea ice surface temperature data product. Surface temperature measurements from the Everest system show high agreement with concurrent MODIS data over a variety of ice surface conditions. The sample time of the UAV instrument relative to the time of the MODIS data provides an estimate of the time rate of change of the surface temperatures of different ice surface types (thin ice, thick ice, open water), which is related to air temperature.

  20. Spreading of Cholera through Surface Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzo, E.; Casagrandi, R.; Gatto, M.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

    2009-12-01

    Cholera epidemics are still a major public health concern to date in many areas of the world. In order to understand and forecast cholera outbreaks, one of the most important factors is the role played by the environmental matrix in which the disease spreads. We study how river networks, acting as environmental corridors for pathogens, affect the spreading of cholera epidemics. The environmental matrix in which the disease spreads is constituted by different human communities and their hydrologic interconnections. Each community is characterized by its spatial position, population size, water resources availability and hygiene conditions. By implementing a spatially explicit cholera model we seek the effects on epidemic dynamics of: i) the topology and metrics of the pathogens pathways that connect different communities; ii) the spatial distribution of the population size; and iii) the spatial distributions and quality of surface water resources and public health conditions, and how they vary with population size. The model has been applied to study the space-time evolution of a well documented cholera epidemic occurred in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The epidemic lasted for two years and involved about 140,000 confirmed cholera cases. The model does well in reproducing the distribution of the cholera cases during the two outbreaks as well as their spatial spreading. We further extend the model by deriving the speed of propagation of traveling fronts in the case of uniformly distributed systems for different topologies: one and two dimensional lattices and river networks. The derivation of the spreading celerity proves instrumental in establishing the overall conditions for the relevance of spatially explicit models. The conditions are sought by comparison between spreading and disease timescales. Consider a cholera epidemic that starts from a point and spreads throughout a finite size system, it is possible to identify two different timescales: i