WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface temperature retrieval

  1. Surface temperature retrieval in a temperate grassland with multiresolution sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, S. J.; Halthore, R. N.; Hall, F. G.; Markham, B. L.

    1995-12-01

    Radiometric surface temperatures retrieved at various spatial resolutions from aircraft and satellite measurements at the FIFE site in eastern Kansas were compared with near-surface temperature measurements to determine the accuracy of the retrieval techniques and consistency between the various sensors. Atmospheric characterizations based on local radiosonde profiles of temperature, pressure, and water vapor were used with the LOWTRAN-7 and MODTRAN atmospheric radiance models to correct measured thermal radiances of water and grassland targets for atmospheric attenuation. Comparison of retrieved surface temperatures from a helicopter-mounted modular multispectral radiometer (MMR) (˜5-m "pixel"), C-130 mounted thematic mapper simulator (TMS) (NS001, ˜20-m pixel), and the Landsat 5 thematic mapper (TM) (120-m pixel) was done. Differences between atmospherically corrected radiative temperatures and near-surface measurements ranged from less than 1°C to more than 8°C. Corrected temperatures from helicopter-MMR and NS001-TMS were in general agreement with near-surface infrared radiative thermometer (IRT) measurements collected from automated meteorological stations, with mean differences of 3.2°C and 1.7°C for grassland targets. Much better agreement (within 1°C) was found between the retrieved aircraft surface temperatures and near-surface measurements acquired with a hand-held mast equipped with a MMR and IRT. The NS001-TMS was also in good agreement with near-surface temperatures acquired over water targets. In contrast, the Landsat 5 TM systematically overestimated surface temperature in all cases. This result has been noted previously but not consistently. On the basis of the results reported here, surface measurements were used to provide a calibration of the TM thermal channel. Further evaluation of the in-flight radiometric calibration of the TM thermal channel is recommended.

  2. Improving Land Surface Temperature Retrievals over Mountainous Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgílio A. Bento

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms for Land Surface Temperature (LST retrieval from infrared measurements are usually sensitive to the amount of water vapor present in the atmosphere. The Satellite Application Facilities on Climate Monitoring and Land Surface Analysis (CM SAF and LSA SAF are currently compiling a 25 year LST Climate data record (CDR, which uses water vapor information from ERA-Int reanalysis. However, its relatively coarse spatial resolution may lead to systematic errors in the humidity profiles with implications in LST, particularly over mountainous areas. The present study compares LST estimated with three different retrieval algorithms: a radiative transfer-based physical mono-window (PMW, a statistical mono-window (SMW, and a generalized split-windows (GSW. The algorithms were tested over the Alpine region using ERA-Int reanalysis data and relied on the finer spatial scale Consortium for Small-Scale Modelling (COSMO model data as a reference. Two methods were developed to correct ERA-Int water vapor misestimation: (1 an exponential parametrization of total precipitable water (TPW appropriate for SMW/GSW; and (2 a level reduction method to be used in PMW. When ERA-Int TPW was used, the algorithm missed the right TPW class in 87% of the cases. When the exponential parametrization was used, the missing class rate decreased to 9%, and when the level reduction method was applied, the LST corrections went up to 1.7 K over the study region. Overall, the correction for pixel orography in TPW leads to corrections in LST estimations, which are relevant to ensure that long-term LST records meet climate requirements, particularly over mountainous regions.

  3. An algorithm to retrieve Land Surface Temperature using Landsat-8 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ayodeji Ogunode;Mulemwa Akombelwa

    The results show temperature variation over a long period of time can be ... Remote sensing of LST using infrared radiation gives the average surface temperature of the scene ... advantage over previous Landsat series. ..... Li, F., Jackson, T. J., Kustas, W. P., Schmugge, T. J., French, A. N., Cosh, M. H. & Bindlish, R. 2004.

  4. Land surface temperature retrieval from MODIS and VIRR data in northwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L J; Zuo, H C; Ren, P C; Qiang, B

    2014-01-01

    By using the Gulang Heterogeneous Underlying Surface Layer Experiment (GHUSLE) data, the accuracy of land surface temperature (LST) in Northwest China retrieved by the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer(MODIS) and Visible and InfraRed Radiometer(VIRR) data is verified. Furthermore, a new LST algorithm for heterogeneous underlying surface is developed and the LST retrieved by the two remote sensing data using three algorithms are compared with the observed data. Results suggest that the new algorithm is the best one in the case of heterogeneous underlying surface, Kerr algorithm accuracy is not satisfying and Becker algorithm is ranked just ahead Kerr algorithm. Especially, the differences in retrieval accuracy among them are more obvious when using the VIRR data. Compared with the observed LST, the root mean square errors of the LST retrieved by MODIS and VIRR data are the least when using the new algorithm, the specific values are 2.55 K and 3.78 K, respectively. The LST retrieved by MODIS data are closer to observed values and higher than its counterpart retrieved by VIRR data. When the new LST retrieval algorithm used, the LST retrieved by MODIS and VIRR data are the closest

  5. A radiative transfer model for sea surface temperature retrieval for the along-track scanning radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZáVody, A. M.; Mutlow, C. T.; Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.

    1995-01-01

    The measurements made by the along-track scanning radiometer are now converted routinely into sea surface temperature (SST). The details of the atmospheric model which had been used for deriving the SST algorithms are given, together with tables of the coefficients in the algorithms for the different SST products. The accuracy of the retrieval under normal conditions and the effect of errors in the model on the retrieved SST are briefly discussed.

  6. An Algorithm for Retrieving Land Surface Temperatures Using VIIRS Data in Combination with Multi-Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lang; Mao, Kebiao; Ma, Ying; Zhao, Fen; Jiang, Lipeng; Shen, Xinyi; Qin, Zhihao

    2014-01-01

    A practical algorithm was proposed to retrieve land surface temperature (LST) from Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data in mid-latitude regions. The key parameter transmittance is generally computed from water vapor content, while water vapor channel is absent in VIIRS data. In order to overcome this shortcoming, the water vapor content was obtained from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data in this study. The analyses on the estimation errors of vapor content and emissivity indicate that when the water vapor errors are within the range of ±0.5 g/cm2, the mean retrieval error of the present algorithm is 0.634 K; while the land surface emissivity errors range from −0.005 to +0.005, the mean retrieval error is less than 1.0 K. Validation with the standard atmospheric simulation shows the average LST retrieval error for the twenty-three land types is 0.734 K, with a standard deviation value of 0.575 K. The comparison between the ground station LST data indicates the retrieval mean accuracy is −0.395 K, and the standard deviation value is 1.490 K in the regions with vegetation and water cover. Besides, the retrieval results of the test data have also been compared with the results measured by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) VIIRS LST products, and the results indicate that 82.63% of the difference values are within the range of −1 to 1 K, and 17.37% of the difference values are within the range of ±2 to ±1 K. In a conclusion, with the advantages of multi-sensors taken fully exploited, more accurate results can be achieved in the retrieval of land surface temperature. PMID:25397919

  7. Evaluation of Land Surface Temperature Operationally Retrieved from Korean Geostationary Satellite (COMS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A-Ra Cho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the precision of land surface temperature (LST operationally retrieved from the Korean multipurpose geostationary satellite, Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS. The split-window (SW-type retrieval algorithm was developed through radiative transfer model simulations under various atmospheric profiles, satellite zenith angles, surface emissivity values and surface lapse rate conditions using Moderate Resolution Atmospheric Transmission version 4 (MODTRAN4. The estimation capabilities of the COMS SW (CSW LST algorithm were evaluated for various impacting factors, and the retrieval accuracy of COMS LST data was evaluated with collocated Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS LST data. The surface emissivity values for two SW channels were generated using a vegetation cover method. The CSW algorithm estimated the LST distribution reasonably well (averaged bias = 0.00 K, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE = 1.41 K, correlation coefficient = 0.99; however, the estimation capabilities of the CSW algorithm were significantly impacted by large brightness temperature differences and surface lapse rates. The CSW algorithm reproduced spatiotemporal variations of LST comparing well to MODIS LST data, irrespective of what month or time of day the data were collected from. The one-year evaluation results with MODIS LST data showed that the annual mean bias, RMSE and correlation coefficient for the CSW algorithm were −1.009 K, 2.613 K and 0.988, respectively.

  8. Optimisation of sea surface current retrieval using a maximum cross correlation technique on modelled sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuzé, Céline; Eriksson, Leif; Carvajal, Gisela

    2017-04-01

    Using sea surface temperature from satellite images to retrieve sea surface currents is not a new idea, but so far its operational near-real time implementation has not been possible. Validation studies are too region-specific or uncertain, due to the errors induced by the images themselves. Moreover, the sensitivity of the most common retrieval method, the maximum cross correlation, to the three parameters that have to be set is unknown. Using model outputs instead of satellite images, biases induced by this method are assessed here, for four different seas of Western Europe, and the best of nine settings and eight temporal resolutions are determined. For all regions, tracking a small 5 km pattern from the first image over a large 30 km region around its original location on a second image, separated from the first image by 6 to 9 hours returned the most accurate results. Moreover, for all regions, the problem is not inaccurate results but missing results, where the velocity is too low to be picked by the retrieval. The results are consistent both with limitations caused by ocean surface current dynamics and with the available satellite technology, indicating that automated sea surface current retrieval from sea surface temperature images is feasible now, for search and rescue operations, pollution confinement or even for more energy efficient and comfortable ship navigation.

  9. Assimilation of SMOS Brightness Temperatures or Soil Moisture Retrievals into a Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Reichle, Rolf H.

    2016-01-01

    Three different data products from the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission are assimilated separately into the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5) to improve estimates of surface and root-zone soil moisture. The first product consists of multi-angle, dual-polarization brightness temperature (Tb) observations at the bottom of the atmosphere extracted from Level 1 data. The second product is a derived SMOS Tb product that mimics the data at a 40 degree incidence angle from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. The third product is the operational SMOS Level 2 surface soil moisture (SM) retrieval product. The assimilation system uses a spatially distributed ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) with seasonally varying climatological bias mitigation for Tb assimilation, whereas a time-invariant cumulative density function matching is used for SM retrieval assimilation. All assimilation experiments improve the soil moisture estimates compared to model-only simulations in terms of unbiased root-mean-square differences and anomaly correlations during the period from 1 July 2010 to 1 May 2015 and for 187 sites across the US. Especially in areas where the satellite data are most sensitive to surface soil moisture, large skill improvements (e.g., an increase in the anomaly correlation by 0.1) are found in the surface soil moisture. The domain-average surface and root-zone skill metrics are similar among the various assimilation experiments, but large differences in skill are found locally. The observation-minus-forecast residuals and analysis increments reveal large differences in how the observations add value in the Tb and SM retrieval assimilation systems. The distinct patterns of these diagnostics in the two systems reflect observation and model errors patterns that are not well captured in the assigned EnKF error parameters. Consequently, a localized optimization of the EnKF error parameters is needed to further improve Tb or SM retrieval

  10. Recent Improvements in Retrieving Near-Surface Air Temperature and Humidity Using Microwave Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. Brent

    2010-01-01

    Detailed studies of the energy and water cycles require accurate estimation of the turbulent fluxes of moisture and heat across the atmosphere-ocean interface at regional to basin scale. Providing estimates of these latent and sensible heat fluxes over the global ocean necessitates the use of satellite or reanalysis-based estimates of near surface variables. Recent studies have shown that errors in the surface (10 meter)estimates of humidity and temperature are currently the largest sources of uncertainty in the production of turbulent fluxes from satellite observations. Therefore, emphasis has been placed on reducing the systematic errors in the retrieval of these parameters from microwave radiometers. This study discusses recent improvements in the retrieval of air temperature and humidity through improvements in the choice of algorithms (linear vs. nonlinear) and the choice of microwave sensors. Particular focus is placed on improvements using a neural network approach with a single sensor (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) and the use of combined sensors from the NASA AQUA satellite platform. The latter algorithm utilizes the unique sampling available on AQUA from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A). Current estimates of uncertainty in the near-surface humidity and temperature from single and multi-sensor approaches are discussed and used to estimate errors in the turbulent fluxes.

  11. Improving Satellite Retrieved Infrared Sea Surface Temperatures in Aerosol-Contaminated Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, B.; Minnett, P. J.; Szczodrak, G.; Kilpatrick, K. A.

    2017-12-01

    Infrared satellite observations of sea surface temperature (SST) have become essential for many applications in meteorology, climatology, and oceanography. Applications often require high accuracy SST data: for climate research and monitoring an absolute uncertainty of 0.1K and stability of better than 0.04K per decade are required. Tropospheric aerosol concentrations increase infrared signal attenuation and prevent the retrieval of accurate satellite SST. We compare satellite-derived skin SST with measurements from the Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (M-AERI) deployed on ships during the Aerosols and Ocean Science Expeditions (AEROSE) and with quality-controlled drifter temperatures. After match-up with in-situ SST and filtering of cloud contaminated data, the results indicate that SST retrieved from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites have negative (cool) biases compared to shipboard radiometric measurements. There is also a pronounced negative bias in the Saharan outflow area that can introduce SST errors >1 K at aerosol optical depths > 0.5. In this study, we present a new method to derive night-time Saharan Dust Index (SDI) algorithms based on simulated brightness temperatures at infrared wavelengths of 3.9, 10.8 and 12.0 μm, derived using RTTOV. We derived correction coefficients for Aqua MODIS measurements by regression of the SST errors against the SDI. The biases and standard deviations are reduced by 0.25K and 0.19K after the SDI correction. The goal of this study is to understand better the characteristics and physical mechanisms of aerosol effects on satellite retrieved infrared SST, as well as to derive empirical formulae for improved accuracies in aerosol-contaminated regions.

  12. An Improved Single-Channel Method to Retrieve Land Surface Temperature from the Landsat-8 Thermal Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Cristóbal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST is one of the sources of input data for modeling land surface processes. The Landsat satellite series is the only operational mission with more than 30 years of archived thermal infrared imagery from which we can retrieve LST. Unfortunately, stray light artifacts were observed in Landsat-8 TIRS data, mostly affecting Band 11, currently making the split-window technique impractical for retrieving surface temperature without requiring atmospheric data. In this study, a single-channel methodology to retrieve surface temperature from Landsat TM and ETM+ was improved to retrieve LST from Landsat-8 TIRS Band 10 using near-surface air temperature (Ta and integrated atmospheric column water vapor (w as input data. This improved methodology was parameterized and successfully evaluated with simulated data from a global and robust radiosonde database and validated with in situ data from four flux tower sites under different types of vegetation and snow cover in 44 Landsat-8 scenes. Evaluation results using simulated data showed that the inclusion of Ta together with w within a single-channel scheme improves LST retrieval, yielding lower errors and less bias than models based only on w. The new proposed LST retrieval model, developed with both w and Ta, yielded overall errors on the order of 1 K and a bias of −0.5 K validated against in situ data, providing a better performance than other models parameterized using w and Ta or only w models that yielded higher error and bias.

  13. Retrievals of Surface Air Temperature Using Multiple Satellite Data Combinations over Complex Terrain in the Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, K.; Won, M.; Yoon, S.; Lim, J.

    2016-12-01

    Surface air temperature (Tair) is a fundamental factor for terrestrial environments and plays a major role in the fields of applied meteorology, climatology, and ecology. The satellite remotely sensed data offers the opportunity to estimate Tair on the earth's surface with high spatial and temporal resolutions. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides effective Tair retrievals although restricted to clear sky condition. MODIS Tair over complex terrain can result in significant retrieval errors due to the retrieval height mismatch to the elevation of local weather stations. In this study, we propose the methodology to estimate Tair over complex terrain for all sky conditions using multiple satellite data fusion based on the pixel-wise regression method. The combination of synergistic information from MODIS Tair and the brightness temperature (Tb) retrievals at 37 GHz frequency from the satellite microwave sensor were used for analysis. The air temperature lapse rate was applied to estimate the near-surface Tair considering the complex terrain such as mountainous regions. The retrieval results produced from this study showed a good agreement (RMSE Administration (KMA). The gaps in the MODIS Tair data due to cloud contamination were successfully filled using the proposed method which yielded similar accuracy as retrievals of clear sky. The results of this study indicate that the satellite data fusion can continuously produce Tair retrievals with reasonable accuracy and that the application of the temperature lapse rate can lead to improvement of the reliability over complex terrains such as the Korean Peninsula.

  14. A physics-based algorithm for retrieving land-surface emissivity and temperature from EOS/MODIS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Z.; Li, Z.L.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have developed a physics-based land-surface temperature (LST) algorithm for simultaneously retrieving surface band-averaged emissivities and temperatures from day/night pairs of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data in seven thermal infrared bands. The set of 14 nonlinear equations in the algorithm is solved with the statistical regression method and the least-squares fit method. This new LST algorithm was tested with simulated MODIS data for 80 sets of band-averaged emissivities calculated from published spectral data of terrestrial materials in wide ranges of atmospheric and surface temperature conditions. Comprehensive sensitivity and error analysis has been made to evaluate the performance of the new LST algorithm and its dependence on variations in surface emissivity and temperature, upon atmospheric conditions, as well as the noise-equivalent temperature difference (NEΔT) and calibration accuracy specifications of the MODIS instrument. In cases with a systematic calibration error of 0.5%, the standard deviations of errors in retrieved surface daytime and nighttime temperatures fall between 0.4--0.5 K over a wide range of surface temperatures for mid-latitude summer conditions. The standard deviations of errors in retrieved emissivities in bands 31 and 32 (in the 10--12.5 microm IR spectral window region) are 0.009, and the maximum error in retrieved LST values falls between 2--3 K

  15. Development of MODIS data-based algorithm for retrieving sea surface temperature in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiao; Deng, Zhiqiang

    2017-06-01

    A new algorithm was developed for retrieving sea surface temperature (SST) in coastal waters using satellite remote sensing data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard Aqua platform. The new SST algorithm was trained using the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method and tested using 8 years of remote sensing data from MODIS Aqua sensor and in situ sensing data from the US coastal waters in Louisiana, Texas, Florida, California, and New Jersey. The ANN algorithm could be utilized to map SST in both deep offshore and particularly shallow nearshore waters at the high spatial resolution of 1 km, greatly expanding the coverage of remote sensing-based SST data from offshore waters to nearshore waters. Applications of the ANN algorithm require only the remotely sensed reflectance values from the two MODIS Aqua thermal bands 31 and 32 as input data. Application results indicated that the ANN algorithm was able to explaining 82-90% variations in observed SST in US coastal waters. While the algorithm is generally applicable to the retrieval of SST, it works best for nearshore waters where important coastal resources are located and existing algorithms are either not applicable or do not work well, making the new ANN-based SST algorithm unique and particularly useful to coastal resource management.

  16. Quantifying Uncertainty in Satellite-Retrieved Land Surface Temperature from Cloud Detection Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E. Bulgin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Clouds remain one of the largest sources of uncertainty in remote sensing of surface temperature in the infrared, but this uncertainty has not generally been quantified. We present a new approach to do so, applied here to the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR. We use an ensemble of cloud masks based on independent methodologies to investigate the magnitude of cloud detection uncertainties in area-average Land Surface Temperature (LST retrieval. We find that at a grid resolution of 625 km 2 (commensurate with a 0.25 ∘ grid size at the tropics, cloud detection uncertainties are positively correlated with cloud-cover fraction in the cell and are larger during the day than at night. Daytime cloud detection uncertainties range between 2.5 K for clear-sky fractions of 10–20% and 1.03 K for clear-sky fractions of 90–100%. Corresponding night-time uncertainties are 1.6 K and 0.38 K, respectively. Cloud detection uncertainty shows a weaker positive correlation with the number of biomes present within a grid cell, used as a measure of heterogeneity in the background against which the cloud detection must operate (e.g., surface temperature, emissivity and reflectance. Uncertainty due to cloud detection errors is strongly dependent on the dominant land cover classification. We find cloud detection uncertainties of a magnitude of 1.95 K over permanent snow and ice, 1.2 K over open forest, 0.9–1 K over bare soils and 0.09 K over mosaic cropland, for a standardised clear-sky fraction of 74.2%. As the uncertainties arising from cloud detection errors are of a significant magnitude for many surface types and spatially heterogeneous where land classification varies rapidly, LST data producers are encouraged to quantify cloud-related uncertainties in gridded products.

  17. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF LANDSAT-8 IMAGERY FOR RETRIEVING SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE (CASE STUDY PERSIAN GULF

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    F. Bayat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface temperature (SST is one of the critical parameters in marine meteorology and oceanography. The SST datasets are incorporated as conditions for ocean and atmosphere models. The SST needs to be investigated for various scientific phenomenon such as salinity, potential fishing zone, sea level rise, upwelling, eddies, cyclone predictions. On the other hands, high spatial resolution SST maps can illustrate eddies and sea surface currents. Also, near real time producing of SST map is suitable for weather forecasting and fishery applications. Therefore satellite remote sensing with wide coverage of data acquisition capability can use as real time tools for producing SST dataset. Satellite sensor such as AVHRR, MODIS and SeaWIFS are capable of extracting brightness values at different thermal spectral bands. These brightness temperatures are the sole input for the SST retrieval algorithms. Recently, Landsat-8 successfully launched and accessible with two instruments on-board: (1 the Operational Land Imager (OLI with nine spectral bands in the visual, near infrared, and the shortwave infrared spectral regions; and (2 the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS with two spectral bands in the long wavelength infrared. The two TIRS bands were selected to enable the atmospheric correction of the thermal data using a split window algorithm (SWA. The TIRS instrument is one of the major payloads aboard this satellite which can observe the sea surface by using the split-window thermal infrared channels (CH10: 10.6 μm to 11.2 μm; CH11: 11.5 μm to 12.5 μm at a resolution of 30 m. The TIRS sensors have three main advantages comparing with other previous sensors. First, the TIRS has two thermal bands in the atmospheric window that provide a new SST retrieval opportunity using the widely used split-window (SW algorithm rather than the single channel method. Second, the spectral filters of TIRS two bands present narrower bandwidth than that of the thermal band

  18. Validation of S-NPP VIIRS Sea Surface Temperature Retrieved from NAVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianguang Tu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The validation of sea surface temperature (SST retrieved from the new sensor Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS onboard the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP Satellite is essential for the interpretation, use, and improvement of the new generation SST product. In this study, the magnitude and characteristics of uncertainties in S-NPP VIIRS SST produced by the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVO are investigated. The NAVO S-NPP VIIRS SST and eight types of quality-controlled in situ SST from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in situ Quality Monitor (iQuam are condensed into a Taylor diagram. Considering these comparisons and their spatial coverage, the NAVO S-NPP VIIRS SST is then validated using collocated drifters measured SST via a three-way error analysis which also includes SST derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS onboard AQUA. The analysis shows that the NAVO S-NPP VIIRS SST is of high accuracy, which lies between the drifters measured SST and AQUA MODIS SST. The histogram of NAVO S-NPP VIIRS SST root-mean-square error (RMSE shows normality in the range of 0–0.6 °C with a median of ~0.31 °C. Global distribution of NAVO VIIRS SST shows pronounced warm biases up to 0.5 °C in the Southern Hemisphere at high latitudes with respect to the drifters measured SST, while near-zero biases are observed in AQUA MODIS. It means that these biases may be caused by the NAVO S-NPP VIIRS SST retrieval algorithm rather than the nature of the SST. The reasons and correction for this bias need to be further studied.

  19. Comparison of two split-window methods for retrieving land surface temperature from MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shaohua; Qin, Qiming; Yang, Yonghui; Xiong, Yujiu; Qiu, Guoyu

    2009-08-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a key parameter in environment and earth science study, especially for monitoring drought. The objective of this work is a comparison of two split-window methods: Mao method and Sobrino method, for retrieving LST using MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data in North China Plain. The results show that the max, min and mean errors of Mao method are 1.33K, 1.54K and 0.13K lower than the standard LST product respectively; while those of Sobrino method are 0.73K, 1.46K and 1.50K higher than the standard respectively. Validation of the two methods using LST product based on weather stations shows a good agreement between the standard and Sobrino method, with RMSE of 1.17K, whereas RMSE of Mao method is 1.85K. Finally, the study introduces the Sobmao method, which is based on Sobrino method but simplifies the estimation of atmospheric water vapour content using Mao method. The Sobmao method has almost the same accuracy with Sobrino method. With high accuracy and simplification of water vapour content estimation, the Sobmao method is recommendable in LST inversion for good application in Ningxia region, the northwest China, with mean error of 0.33K and the RMSE value of 0.91K.

  20. A Study of Land Surface Temperature Retrieval and Thermal Environment Distribution Based on Landsat-8 in Jinan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fang; Chen, Jian; Yang, Fan

    2018-01-01

    Based on the medium resolution Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS, the temperature distribution in four seasons of urban area in Jinan City was obtained by using atmospheric correction method for the retrieval of land surface temperature. Quantitative analysis of the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics, development trend of urban thermal environment, the seasonal variation and the relationship between surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was studied. The results show that the distribution of high temperature areas is concentrated in Jinan, and there is a tendency to expand from east to west, revealing a negative correlation between land surface temperature distribution and NDVI. So as to provide theoretical references and scientific basis of improving the ecological environment of Jinan City, strengthening scientific planning and making overall plan addressing climate change.

  1. Retrieval of sea surface air temperature from satellite data over Indian Ocean: An empirical approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe, P.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.

    the sea surface air temperature from satellite derived sea surface humidity in the Indian Ocean. Using the insitu data on surface met parameters collected on board O.R.V. Sagar Kanya in the Indian Ocean over a period of 15 years, the relationship between...

  2. Assessing the Regional/Diurnal Bias between Satellite Retrievals and GEOS-5/MERRA Model Estimates of Land Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarino, B. R.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Minnis, P.; Bedka, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric models rely on high-accuracy, high-resolution initial radiometric and surface conditions for better short-term meteorological forecasts, as well as improved evaluation of global climate models. Continuous remote sensing of the Earth's energy budget, as conducted by the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project, allows for near-realtime evaluation of cloud and surface radiation properties. It is unfortunately common for there to be bias between atmospheric/surface radiation models and Earth-observations. For example, satellite-observed surface skin temperature (Ts), an important parameter for characterizing the energy exchange at the ground/water-atmosphere interface, can be biased due to atmospheric adjustment assumptions and anisotropy effects. Similarly, models are potentially biased by errors in initial conditions and regional forcing assumptions, which can be mitigated through assimilation with true measurements. As such, when frequent, broad-coverage, and accurate retrievals of satellite Ts are available, important insights into model estimates of Ts can be gained. The Satellite ClOud and Radiation Property retrieval System (SatCORPS) employs a single-channel thermal-infrared method to produce anisotropy-corrected Ts over clear-sky land and ocean surfaces from data taken by geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) satellite imagers. Regional and diurnal changes in model land surface temperature (LST) performance can be assessed owing to the somewhat continuous measurements of the LST offered by GEO satellites - measurements which are accurate to within 0.2 K. A seasonal, hourly comparison of satellite-observed LST with the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Version 5 (GEOS-5) and the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) LST estimates is conducted to reveal regional and diurnal biases. This assessment is an important first step for evaluating the effectiveness of Ts assimilation, as well for determining the

  3. Improvements of a COMS Land Surface Temperature Retrieval Algorithm Based on the Temperature Lapse Rate and Water Vapor/Aerosol Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A-Ra Cho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The National Meteorological Satellite Center in Korea retrieves land surface temperature (LST by applying the split-window LST algorithm (CSW_v1.0 to Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS data. Considerable errors were detected under conditions of high water vapor content or temperature lapse rates during validation with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS LST because of the too simplified LST algorithm. In this study, six types of LST retrieval equations (CSW_v2.0 were developed to upgrade the CSW_v1.0. These methods were developed by classifying “dry,” “normal,” and “wet” cases for day and night and considering the relative sizes of brightness temperature difference (BTD values. Similar to CSW_v1.0, the LST retrieved by CSW_v2.0 had a correlation coefficient of 0.99 with the prescribed LST and a slightly larger bias of −0.03 K from 0.00K; the root mean square error (RMSE improved from 1.41 K to 1.39 K. In general, CSW_v2.0 improved the retrieval accuracy compared to CSW_v1.0, especially when the lapse rate was high (mid-day and dawn and the water vapor content was high. The spatial distributions of LST retrieved by CSW_v2.0 were found to be similar to the MODIS LST independently of the season, day/night, and geographic locations. The validation using one year’s MODIS LST data showed that CSW_v2.0 improved the retrieval accuracy of LST in terms of correlations (from 0.988 to 0.989, bias (from −1.009 K to 0.292 K, and RMSEs (from 2.613 K to 2.237 K.

  4. An Improved Mono-Window Algorithm for Land Surface Temperature Retrieval from Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The successful launch of the Landsat 8 satellite with two thermal infrared bands on February 11, 2013, for continuous Earth observation provided another opportunity for remote sensing of land surface temperature (LST. However, calibration notices issued by the United States Geological Survey (USGS indicated that data from the Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS Band 11 have large uncertainty and suggested using TIRS Band 10 data as a single spectral band for LST estimation. In this study, we presented an improved mono-window (IMW algorithm for LST retrieval from the Landsat 8 TIRS Band 10 data. Three essential parameters (ground emissivity, atmospheric transmittance and effective mean atmospheric temperature were required for the IMW algorithm to retrieve LST. A new method was proposed to estimate the parameter of effective mean atmospheric temperature from local meteorological data. The other two essential parameters could be both estimated through the so-called land cover approach. Sensitivity analysis conducted for the IMW algorithm revealed that the possible error in estimating the required atmospheric water vapor content has the most significant impact on the probable LST estimation error. Under moderate errors in both water vapor content and ground emissivity, the algorithm had an accuracy of ~1.4 K for LST retrieval. Validation of the IMW algorithm using the simulated datasets for various situations indicated that the LST difference between the retrieved and the simulated ones was 0.67 K on average, with an RMSE of 0.43 K. Comparison of our IMW algorithm with the single-channel (SC algorithm for three main atmosphere profiles indicated that the average error and RMSE of the IMW algorithm were −0.05 K and 0.84 K, respectively, which were less than the −2.86 K and 1.05 K of the SC algorithm. Application of the IMW algorithm to Nanjing and its vicinity in east China resulted in a reasonable LST estimation for the region. Spatial

  5. A new method for retrieving land surface temperature from HJ-1B data and the temporal influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F; Zhao, X F

    2014-01-01

    According to radiation transfer equation (RTE), it is an ill-conditioned problem to obtain land surface temperature (LST) accurately from the HJ-1B thermal infrared channel. Several algorithms have been proposed to resolve this problem. However, some accurate inputs (e.g. atmospheric parameters and land surface emissivity) always inaccessible to common users are indispensable to their applications. An innovative approach (named MTSC method) based on multi-temporal data was described in this paper, by means of which the LSTs are able to be estimated readily and directly from the radiometrically corrected thermal images, even without any other accurate information. To demonstrate its capability, four HJ-1B images (acquired on Nov 28, Dec 10, Dec 18 and Dec 22, 2011, respectively) mainly covering the Pearl River Delta region were selected for LSTs estimation. The LSTs retrieved by the MTSC method were then compared with the near time MODIS surface temperature products, and the samples were collected through a proper procedure. The preliminary assessments demonstrated that accurate results were obtained by using this new method. For example, for the retrieved results of Dec 22, the systematic errors for land cover and sea area were approximate to 1K and 0.5K, respectively. Further comparisons show that the temporal influence was negligible in this experiment, mainly because of the moderate impacts arisen from the atmospheric variation on the surface thermal property, which was acceptable for the MTSC method. However, modifications and improvements are still necessary to enable the full usage of this new approach

  6. Long Term Validation of Land Surface Temperature Retrieved from MSG/SEVIRI with Continuous in-Situ Measurements in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank-M. Göttsche

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005, the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Application Facility (LSA SAF operationally retrieves Land Surface Temperature (LST for the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI on board Meteosat Second Generation (MSG. The high temporal resolution of the Meteosat satellites and their long term availability since 1977 make their data highly valuable for climate studies. In order to ensure that the LSA SAF LST product continuously meets its target accuracy of 2 °C, it is validated with in-situ measurements from four dedicated LST validation stations. Three stations are located in highly homogenous areas in Africa (semiarid bush, desert, and Kalahari semi-desert and typically provide thousands of monthly match-ups with LSA SAF LST, which are used to perform seasonally resolved validations. An uncertainty analysis performed for desert station Gobabeb yielded an estimate of total in-situ LST uncertainty of 0.8 ± 0.12 °C. Ignoring rainy seasons, the results for the period 2009–2014 show that LSA SAF LST consistently meets its target accuracy: the highest mean root-mean-square error (RMSE for LSA SAF LST over the African stations was 1.6 °C while mean absolute bias was 0.1 °C. Nighttime and daytime biases were up to 0.7 °C but had opposite signs: when evaluated together, these partially compensated each other.

  7. Advancing of Land Surface Temperature Retrieval Using Extreme Learning Machine and Spatio-Temporal Adaptive Data Fusion Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As a critical variable to characterize the biophysical processes in ecological environment, and as a key indicator in the surface energy balance, evapotranspiration and urban heat islands, Land Surface Temperature (LST retrieved from Thermal Infra-Red (TIR images at both high temporal and spatial resolution is in urgent need. However, due to the limitations of the existing satellite sensors, there is no earth observation which can obtain TIR at detailed spatial- and temporal-resolution simultaneously. Thus, several attempts of image fusion by blending the TIR data from high temporal resolution sensor with data from high spatial resolution sensor have been studied. This paper presents a novel data fusion method by integrating image fusion and spatio-temporal fusion techniques, for deriving LST datasets at 30 m spatial resolution from daily MODIS image and Landsat ETM+ images. The Landsat ETM+ TIR data were firstly enhanced based on extreme learning machine (ELM algorithm using neural network regression model, from 60 m to 30 m resolution. Then, the MODIS LST and enhanced Landsat ETM+ TIR data were fused by Spatio-temporal Adaptive Data Fusion Algorithm for Temperature mapping (SADFAT in order to derive high resolution synthetic data. The synthetic images were evaluated for both testing and simulated satellite images. The average difference (AD and absolute average difference (AAD are smaller than 1.7 K, where the correlation coefficient (CC and root-mean-square error (RMSE are 0.755 and 1.824, respectively, showing that the proposed method enhances the spatial resolution of the predicted LST images and preserves the spectral information at the same time.

  8. Land Surface Temperature Retrieval from MODIS Data by Integrating Regression Models and the Genetic Algorithm in an Arid Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zhou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The land surface temperature (LST is one of the most important parameters of surface-atmosphere interactions. Methods for retrieving LSTs from satellite remote sensing data are beneficial for modeling hydrological, ecological, agricultural and meteorological processes on Earth’s surface. Many split-window (SW algorithms, which can be applied to satellite sensors with two adjacent thermal channels located in the atmospheric window between 10 μm and 12 μm, require auxiliary atmospheric parameters (e.g., water vapor content. In this research, the Heihe River basin, which is one of the most arid regions in China, is selected as the study area. The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS is selected as a test case. The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS atmospheric profiles of the study area are used to generate the training dataset through radiative transfer simulation. Significant correlations between the atmospheric upwelling radiance in MODIS channel 31 and the other three atmospheric parameters, including the transmittance in channel 31 and the transmittance and upwelling radiance in channel 32, are trained based on the simulation dataset and formulated with three regression models. Next, the genetic algorithm is used to estimate the LST. Validations of the RM-GA method are based on the simulation dataset generated from in situ measured radiosonde profiles and GDAS atmospheric profiles, the in situ measured LSTs, and a pair of daytime and nighttime MOD11A1 products in the study area. The results demonstrate that RM-GA has a good ability to estimate the LSTs directly from the MODIS data without any auxiliary atmospheric parameters. Although this research is for local application in the Heihe River basin, the findings and proposed method can easily be extended to other satellite sensors and regions with arid climates and high elevations.

  9. Retrieval of Land Surface Temperature over the Heihe River Basin Using HJ-1B Thermal Infrared Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Ouyang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The reliable estimation of spatially distributed Land Surface Temperature (LST is useful for monitoring regional land surface heat fluxes. A single-channel method is developed to derive the LST over the Heihe River Basin in China using data from the infrared sensor (IRS onboard the Chinese “Environmental and Disaster Monitoring and Forecasting with a Small Satellite Constellation” (HJ-1B for short for one of the satellites, with ancillary water vapor information from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS products (MOD05 and in situ automatic sun tracking photometer CE318 data for the first time. In situ LST data for the period from mid-June to mid-September 2012 were acquired from automatic meteorological stations (AMS that are part of Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER project. MOD05-based LST and CE318-based LST are compared with in situ measurements at 16 AMS sites with land cover types of vegetable, maize and orchards. The results show that the use of the MOD05 product could achieve a comparable accuracy in LST retrieval with that achieved using the CE318 data. The largest difference between the MOD05-based LST and CE318-based LST is 0.84 K throughout the study period over the Heihe River Basin. The standard deviation (STD, root mean square error (RMSE, and correlation coefficient (R of HJ-1B/IRS vs. the in situ measurements are 2.45 K, 2.78 K, and 0.67, respectively, whereas those for the MODIS 1 km LST product vs. the in situ measurements are 4.07 K, 2.98 K, and 0.79, respectively. The spatial pattern of the HJ-1B/LST over the study area in the Heihe River Basin generally agreed well with the MODIS 1 km LST product and contained more detailed spatial textures.

  10. Sensitivity of Satellite-Based Skin Temperature to Different Surface Emissivity and NWP Reanalysis Sources Demonstrated Using a Single-Channel, Viewing-Angle-Corrected Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarino, B. R.; Minnis, P.; Yost, C. R.; Chee, T.; Palikonda, R.

    2015-12-01

    Single-channel algorithms for satellite thermal-infrared- (TIR-) derived land and sea surface skin temperature (LST and SST) are advantageous in that they can be easily applied to a variety of satellite sensors. They can also accommodate decade-spanning instrument series, particularly for periods when split-window capabilities are not available. However, the benefit of one unified retrieval methodology for all sensors comes at the cost of critical sensitivity to surface emissivity (ɛs) and atmospheric transmittance estimation. It has been demonstrated that as little as 0.01 variance in ɛs can amount to more than a 0.5-K adjustment in retrieved LST values. Atmospheric transmittance requires calculations that employ vertical profiles of temperature and humidity from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Selection of a given NWP model can significantly affect LST and SST agreement relative to their respective validation sources. Thus, it is necessary to understand the accuracies of the retrievals for various NWP models to ensure the best LST/SST retrievals. The sensitivities of the single-channel retrievals to surface emittance and NWP profiles are investigated using NASA Langley historic land and ocean clear-sky skin temperature (Ts) values derived from high-resolution 11-μm TIR brightness temperature measured from geostationary satellites (GEOSat) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR). It is shown that mean GEOSat-derived, anisotropy-corrected LST can vary by up to ±0.8 K depending on whether CERES or MODIS ɛs sources are used. Furthermore, the use of either NOAA Global Forecast System (GFS) or NASA Goddard Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) for the radiative transfer model initial atmospheric state can account for more than 0.5-K variation in mean Ts. The results are compared to measurements from the Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD), an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program ground

  11. The influence of topography on the forest surface temperature retrieved from Landsat TM, ETM C and ASTER thermal channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hais, M.; Kučera, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 6 (2009), s. 585-591 ISSN 0924-2716 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Landsat * surface temperature * topography Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.308, year: 2009

  12. Associating Land Surface Temperature Retrieved From Satellite and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data With Urban Cover and Topography in Aburrá Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, G.; Hoyos Ortiz, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    Urban heat island effect commonly refers to temperature differences between urban areas and their countrysides due to urbanization. These temperature differences are evident at surface, and within the canopy and the boundary layer. This effect is heterogeneous within the city, and responds to urban morphology, prevailing materials, amount of vegetation, among others, which are also important in the urban balance of energy. In order to study the relationship between land surface temperature (LST) and urban coverage over Aburrá Valley, which is a narrow valley locate at tropical Andes in northern South America, Landsat 8 mission products of LST, density of vegetation (normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI), and a proxy of soil humidity are derived and used. The results are analyzed from the point of view of dominant urban form and settlement density at scale of neighborhoods, and also from potential downward solar radiation received at the surface. Besides, specific sites were chosen to obtain LST from thermal imaging using an unmanned aerial vehicle to characterize micro-scale patterns and to validate Landast retrievals. Direct relationships between LST, NDVI, soil humidity, and duration of insolation are found, showing the impact of the current spatial distribution of land uses on surface temperature over Aburrá Valley. In general, the highest temperatures correspond to neighborhoods with large, flat-topped buildings in commercial and industrial areas, and low-rise building in residential areas with scarce vegetation, all on the valley bottom. Landsat images are in the morning for the Aburrá Valley, for that reason the coldest temperatures are prevalent at certain orientation of the hillslope, according with the amount of radiation received from sunrise to time of data.

  13. Retrieval of land surface temperature (LST) from landsat TM6 and TIRS data by single channel radiative transfer algorithm using satellite and ground-based inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, R. S.; Singh, Narendra; Thapa, Shailaja; Sharma, Dravneeta; Kumar, Dheeraj

    2017-06-01

    The present study proposes land surface temperature (LST) retrieval from satellite-based thermal IR data by single channel radiative transfer algorithm using atmospheric correction parameters derived from satellite-based and in-situ data and land surface emissivity (LSE) derived by a hybrid LSE model. For example, atmospheric transmittance (τ) was derived from Terra MODIS spectral radiance in atmospheric window and absorption bands, whereas the atmospheric path radiance and sky radiance were estimated using satellite- and ground-based in-situ solar radiation, geographic location and observation conditions. The hybrid LSE model which is coupled with ground-based emissivity measurements is more versatile than the previous LSE models and yields improved emissivity values by knowledge-based approach. It uses NDVI-based and NDVI Threshold method (NDVITHM) based algorithms and field-measured emissivity values. The model is applicable for dense vegetation cover, mixed vegetation cover, bare earth including coal mining related land surface classes. The study was conducted in a coalfield of India badly affected by coal fire for decades. In a coal fire affected coalfield, LST would provide precise temperature difference between thermally anomalous coal fire pixels and background pixels to facilitate coal fire detection and monitoring. The derived LST products of the present study were compared with radiant temperature images across some of the prominent coal fire locations in the study area by graphical means and by some standard mathematical dispersion coefficients such as coefficient of variation, coefficient of quartile deviation, coefficient of quartile deviation for 3rd quartile vs. maximum temperature, coefficient of mean deviation (about median) indicating significant increase in the temperature difference among the pixels. The average temperature slope between adjacent pixels, which increases the potential of coal fire pixel detection from background pixels, is

  14. Water vapor retrieval over many surface types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.C.; Johnson, J.

    1996-04-01

    In this paper we present a study of of the water vapor retrieval for many natural surface types which would be valuable for multi-spectral instruments using the existing Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio (CIBR) for the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature. An atmospheric code (6S) and 562 spectra were used to compute the top of the atmosphere radiance near the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature in steps of 2.5 nm as a function of precipitable water (PW). We derive a novel technique called ``Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption`` (APDA) and show that APDA performs better than the CIBR over many surface types.

  15. Retrieval of air temperatures from crowd-sourced battery temperatures of cell phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, Aart; Robinson, James; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Horn, Berthold K. P.

    2013-04-01

    Accurate air temperature observations are important for urban meteorology, for example to study the urban heat island and adverse effects of high temperatures on human health. The number of available temperature observations is often relatively limited. A new development is presented to derive temperature information for the urban canopy from an alternative source: cell phones. Battery temperature data were collected by users of an Android application for cell phones (opensignal.com). The application automatically sends battery temperature data to a server for storage. In this study, battery temperatures are averaged in space and time to obtain daily averaged battery temperatures for each city separately. A regression model, which can be related to a physical model, is employed to retrieve daily air temperatures from battery temperatures. The model is calibrated with observed air temperatures from a meteorological station of an airport located in or near the city. Time series of air temperatures are obtained for each city for a period of several months, where 50% of the data is for independent verification. Results are presented for Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Mexico City, Moscow, Rome, and Sao Paulo. The evolution of the retrieved air temperatures often correspond well with the observed ones. The mean absolute error of daily air temperatures is less than 2 degrees Celsius, and the bias is within 1 degree Celsius. This shows that monitoring air temperatures employing an Android application holds great promise. Since 75% of the world's population has a cell phone, 20% of the land surface of the earth has cellular telephone coverage, and 500 million devices use the Android operating system, there is a huge potential for measuring air temperatures employing cell phones. This could eventually lead to real-time world-wide temperature maps.

  16. A Multisensor Approach to Global Retrievals of Land Surface Albedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aku Riihelä

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based retrievals offer the most cost-effective way to comprehensively map the surface albedo of the Earth, a key variable for understanding the dynamics of radiative energy interactions in the atmosphere-surface system. Surface albedo retrievals have commonly been designed separately for each different spaceborne optical imager. Here, we introduce a novel type of processing framework that combines the data from two polar-orbiting optical imager families, the Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. The goal of the paper is to demonstrate that multisensor albedo retrievals can provide a significant reduction in the sampling time required for a robust and comprehensive surface albedo retrieval, without a major degradation in retrieval accuracy, as compared to state-of-the-art single-sensor retrievals. We evaluated the multisensor retrievals against reference in situ albedo measurements and compare them with existing datasets. The results show that global land surface albedo retrievals with a sampling period of 10 days can offer near-complete spatial coverage, with a retrieval bias mostly comparable to existing single sensor datasets, except for bright surfaces (deserts and snow where the retrieval framework shows degraded performance because of atmospheric correction design compromises. A level difference is found between the single sensor datasets and the demonstrator developed here, pointing towards a need for further work in the atmospheric correction, particularly over bright surfaces, and inter-sensor radiance homogenization. The introduced framework is expandable to include other sensors in the future.

  17. Day-night variation in operationally retrieved TOVS temperature biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, Stanley Q.; Achtemeier, Gary L.

    1986-01-01

    Several authors have reported that operationally retrieved TOVS (TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder) temperatures are biased with respect to rawinsonde temperatures or temperature analyses. This note reports a case study from which it is concluded that, at least for the time period Mar. 26 through Apr. 8, 1979, there was a significant day-night variation in TOVS mean layer virtual temperature biases with respect to objective analyses of rawinsonde data over the U.S.

  18. Assessment of methods for land surface temperature retrieval from Landsat-5 TM images applicable to multiscale tree-grass ecosystem modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlassova, Lidia; Perez-Cabello, Fernando; Nieto Solana, Hector

    2014-01-01

    and assess water and carbon balance in ecologically fragile heterogeneous ecosystem of Mediterranean wooded grassland (dehesa). Thus, three methods based on the Radiative Transfer Equation were used to extract LST from a series of 2009–2011 Landsat-5 TM images to assess the applicability for temperature...

  19. Surface Temperature Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Ruedy, Reto

    2012-01-01

    Small global mean temperature changes may have significant to disastrous consequences for the Earth's climate if they persist for an extended period. Obtaining global means from local weather reports is hampered by the uneven spatial distribution of the reliably reporting weather stations. Methods had to be developed that minimize as far as possible the impact of that situation. This software is a method of combining temperature data of individual stations to obtain a global mean trend, overcoming/estimating the uncertainty introduced by the spatial and temporal gaps in the available data. Useful estimates were obtained by the introduction of a special grid, subdividing the Earth's surface into 8,000 equal-area boxes, using the existing data to create virtual stations at the center of each of these boxes, and combining temperature anomalies (after assessing the radius of high correlation) rather than temperatures.

  20. Comparison of the Retrieval of Sea Surface Salinity Using Different Instrument Configurations of MICAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanjie Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Microwave Imager Combined Active/Passive (MICAP has been designed to simultaneously retrieve sea surface salinity (SSS, sea surface temperature (SST and wind speed (WS, and its performance has also been preliminarily analyzed. To determine the influence of the first guess values uncertainties on the retrieved parameters of MICAP, the retrieval accuracies of SSS, SST, and WS are estimated at various noise levels. The results suggest that the errors on the retrieved SSS have not increased dues poorly known initial values of SST and WS, since the MICAP can simultaneously acquire SST information and correct ocean surface roughness. The main objective of this paper is to obtain the simplified instrument configuration of MICAP without loss of the SSS, SST, and WS retrieval accuracies. Comparisons are conducted between three different instrument configurations in retrieval mode, based on the simulation measurements of MICAP. The retrieval results tend to prove that, without the 23.8 GHz channel, the errors on the retrieved SSS, SST, and WS for MICAP could also satisfy the accuracy requirements well globally during only one satellite pass. By contrast, without the 1.26 GHz scatterometer, there are relatively large increases in the SSS, SST, and WS errors at middle/low latitudes.

  1. Single-footprint retrievals of temperature, water vapor and cloud properties from AIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irion, Fredrick W.; Kahn, Brian H.; Schreier, Mathias M.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Fishbein, Evan; Fu, Dejian; Kalmus, Peter; Wilson, R. Chris; Wong, Sun; Yue, Qing

    2018-02-01

    Single-footprint Atmospheric Infrared Sounder spectra are used in an optimal estimation-based algorithm (AIRS-OE) for simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric temperature, water vapor, surface temperature, cloud-top temperature, effective cloud optical depth and effective cloud particle radius. In a departure from currently operational AIRS retrievals (AIRS V6), cloud scattering and absorption are in the radiative transfer forward model and AIRS single-footprint thermal infrared data are used directly rather than cloud-cleared spectra (which are calculated using nine adjacent AIRS infrared footprints). Coincident MODIS cloud data are used for cloud a priori data. Using single-footprint spectra improves the horizontal resolution of the AIRS retrieval from ˜ 45 to ˜ 13.5 km at nadir, but as microwave data are not used, the retrieval is not made at altitudes below thick clouds. An outline of the AIRS-OE retrieval procedure and information content analysis is presented. Initial comparisons of AIRS-OE to AIRS V6 results show increased horizontal detail in the water vapor and relative humidity fields in the free troposphere above the clouds. Initial comparisons of temperature, water vapor and relative humidity profiles with coincident radiosondes show good agreement. Future improvements to the retrieval algorithm, and to the forward model in particular, are discussed.

  2. Retrieving Single Scattering Albedos and Temperatures from CRISM Hyperspectral Data Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L.; Arvidson, R. E.; O'Sullivan, J. A.

    2018-04-01

    We use a neural network (NN) approach to simultaneously retrieve surface single scattering albedos and temperature maps for CRISM data from 1.40 to 3.85 µm. It approximates the inverse of DISORT which simulates solar and emission radiative streams.

  3. GPM Mission Gridded Text Products Providing Surface Precipitation Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Erich Franz; Kelley, Owen; Huffman, George; Kummerow, Christian

    2015-04-01

    In February 2015, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission core satellite will complete its first year in space. The core satellite carries a conically scanning microwave imager called the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI), which also has 166 GHz and 183 GHz frequency channels. The GPM core satellite also carries a dual frequency radar (DPR) which operates at Ku frequency, similar to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar), and a new Ka frequency. The precipitation processing system (PPS) is producing swath-based instantaneous precipitation retrievals from GMI, both radars including a dual-frequency product, and a combined GMI/DPR precipitation retrieval. These level 2 products are written in the HDF5 format and have many additional parameters beyond surface precipitation that are organized into appropriate groups. While these retrieval algorithms were developed prior to launch and are not optimal, these algorithms are producing very creditable retrievals. It is appropriate for a wide group of users to have access to the GPM retrievals. However, for reseachers requiring only surface precipitation, these L2 swath products can appear to be very intimidating and they certainly do contain many more variables than the average researcher needs. Some researchers desire only surface retrievals stored in a simple easily accessible format. In response, PPS has begun to produce gridded text based products that contain just the most widely used variables for each instrument (surface rainfall rate, fraction liquid, fraction convective) in a single line for each grid box that contains one or more observations. This paper will describe the gridded data products that are being produced and provide an overview of their content. Currently two types of gridded products are being produced: (1) surface precipitation retrievals from the core satellite instruments - GMI, DPR, and combined GMI/DPR (2) surface precipitation retrievals for the partner

  4. Titan Coupled Surface/Atmosphere Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R. A.; Pitman, K. M.

    2009-05-01

    Titan's thick haze obscures its surface at visible wavelengths and hinders surface photometric studies in the near-infrared. The large vertical extent of the haze produces two effects which require radiative transfer analysis beyond the capability of plane-parallel multi-scatter models. Haze aerosols extend to altitudes above 500 km and require a spherical-shell RT algorithm close to the limb or terminator. Even near nadir viewing, horizontal scattering at spatial scales less than a few hundred km requires a code capable of simulating the adjacency effect. The adjacency effect will reduce contrast more for small spatial scales than for large spatial scales, and the amount of contrast reduction depends on many factors (haze optical thickness, vertical distribution, single scattering albedo, scattering geometry, spatial scale). Titan's haze is strongly forward scattering even near 1-µm wavelength and many RT codes do a poor job. Fortunately the problem is more tractable at longer wavelengths. We show how data from the Cassini VIMS and ISS instruments can be used to understand surface contrast and atmospheric haze properties.

  5. Assessment of MTI Water Temperature Retrievals with Ground Truth from the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station Cooling Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurzeja, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Surface water temperatures calculated from Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) brightness temperatures and the robust retrieval algorithm, developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), are compared with ground truth measurements at the Squaw Creek reservoir at the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station near Granbury Texas. Temperatures calculated for thirty-four images covering the period May 2000 to March 2002 are compared with water temperatures measured at 10 instrumented buoy locations supplied by the Savannah River Technology Center. The data set was used to examine the effect of image quality on temperature retrieval as well as to document any bias between the sensor chip arrays (SCA's). A portion of the data set was used to evaluate the influence of proximity to shoreline on the water temperature retrievals. This study found errors in daytime water temperature retrievals of 1.8 C for SCA 2 and 4.0 C for SCA 1. The errors in nighttime water temperature retrievals were 3.8 C for SCA 1. Water temperature retrievals for nighttime appear to be related to image quality with the largest positive bias for the highest quality images and the largest negative bias for the lowest quality images. The daytime data show no apparent relationship between water temperature retrieval error and image quality. The average temperature retrieval error near open water buoys was less than corresponding values for the near-shore buoys. After subtraction of the estimated error in the ground truth data, the water temperature retrieval error was 1.2 C for the open-water buoys compared to 1.8 C for the near-shore buoys. The open-water error is comparable to that found at Nauru

  6. The international surface temperature initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, P. W.; Lawrimore, J. H.; Willett, K. M.; Allan, R.; Chandler, R. E.; Mhanda, A.; de Podesta, M.; Possolo, A.; Revadekar, J.; Rusticucci, M.; Stott, P. A.; Strouse, G. F.; Trewin, B.; Wang, X. L.; Yatagai, A.; Merchant, C.; Merlone, A.; Peterson, T. C.; Scott, E. M.

    2013-09-01

    The aim of International Surface Temperature Initiative is to create an end-to-end process for analysis of air temperature data taken over the land surface of the Earth. The foundation of any analysis is the source data. Land surface air temperature records have traditionally been stored in local, organizational, national and international holdings, some of which have been available digitally but many of which are available solely on paper or as imaged files. Further, economic and geopolitical realities have often precluded open sharing of these data. The necessary first step therefore is to collate readily available holdings and augment these over time either through gaining access to previously unavailable digital data or through data rescue and digitization activities. Next, it must be recognized that these historical measurements were made primarily in support of real-time weather applications where timeliness and coverage are key. At almost every long-term station it is virtually certain that changes in instrumentation, siting or observing practices have occurred. Because none of the historical measures were made in a metrologically traceable manner there is no unambiguous way to retrieve the true climate evolution from the heterogeneous raw data holdings. Therefore it is desirable for multiple independent groups to produce adjusted data sets (so-called homogenized data) to adequately understand the data characteristics and estimate uncertainties. Then it is necessary to benchmark the performance of the contributed algorithms (equivalent to metrological software validation) through development of realistic benchmark datasets. In support of this, a series of successive benchmarking and assessment cycles are envisaged, allowing continual improvement while avoiding over-tuning of algorithms. Finally, a portal is proposed giving access to related data-products, utilizing the assessment results to provide guidance to end-users on which product is the most suited to

  7. Retrieving Temperature Anomaly in the Global Subsurface and Deeper Ocean From Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hua; Li, Wene; Yan, Xiao-Hai

    2018-01-01

    Retrieving the subsurface and deeper ocean (SDO) dynamic parameters from satellite observations is crucial for effectively understanding ocean interior anomalies and dynamic processes, but it is challenging to accurately estimate the subsurface thermal structure over the global scale from sea surface parameters. This study proposes a new approach based on Random Forest (RF) machine learning to retrieve subsurface temperature anomaly (STA) in the global ocean from multisource satellite observations including sea surface height anomaly (SSHA), sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA), sea surface salinity anomaly (SSSA), and sea surface wind anomaly (SSWA) via in situ Argo data for RF training and testing. RF machine-learning approach can accurately retrieve the STA in the global ocean from satellite observations of sea surface parameters (SSHA, SSTA, SSSA, SSWA). The Argo STA data were used to validate the accuracy and reliability of the results from the RF model. The results indicated that SSHA, SSTA, SSSA, and SSWA together are useful parameters for detecting SDO thermal information and obtaining accurate STA estimations. The proposed method also outperformed support vector regression (SVR) in global STA estimation. It will be a useful technique for studying SDO thermal variability and its role in global climate system from global-scale satellite observations.

  8. GISS Surface Temperature Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GISTEMP dataset is a global 2x2 gridded temperature anomaly dataset. Temperature data is updated around the middle of every month using current data files from...

  9. Hyper fast radiative transfer for the physical retrieval of surface parameters from SEVIRI observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liuzzi, G; Masiello, G; Serio, C; Blasi, M G; Venafra, S

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the theoretical aspects of a fast scheme for the physical retrieval of surface temperature and emissivity from SEVIRI data, their implementation and some sample results obtained. The scheme is based on a Kalman Filter approach, which effectively exploits the temporal continuity in the observations of the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) platform, on which SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager) operates. Such scheme embodies in its core a physical retrieval algorithm, which employs an hyper fast radiative transfer code highly customized for this retrieval task. Radiative transfer and its customizations are described in detail. Fastness, accuracy and stability of the code are fully documented for a variety of surface features, showing a peculiar application to the massive Greek forest fires in August 2007. (paper)

  10. Temperature profile retrievals with extended Kalman-Bucy filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledsham, W. H.; Staelin, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    The Extended Kalman-Bucy Filter is a powerful technique for estimating non-stationary random parameters in situations where the received signal is a noisy non-linear function of those parameters. A practical causal filter for retrieving atmospheric temperature profiles from radiances observed at a single scan angle by the Scanning Microwave Spectrometer (SCAMS) carried on the Nimbus 6 satellite typically shows approximately a 10-30% reduction in rms error about the mean at almost all levels below 70 mb when compared with a regression inversion.

  11. Storage fee analysis for a retrievable surface storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, B.B.; Rosnick, C.K.

    1973-12-01

    Conceptual design studies are in progress for a Water Basin Concept (WBC) and an alternative Sealed Storage Cask Concept (SSCC) of a Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF) intended as a Federal government facility for storing high-level radioactive wastes until a permanent disposal method is established. The RSSF will be a man-made facility with a design life of at least 100 y, and will have capacity to store all of the high-level waste from the reprocessing of nuclear power plant spent fuels generated by the industry through the year 2000. This report is a basic version of ARH-2746, ''Retrievable Surface Storage Facility, Water Basin Concept, User Charge Analysis.'' It is concerned with the issue of establishing a fee to cover the cost of storing nuclear wastes both in the RSSF and at the subsequent disposal facility. (U.S.)

  12. Retrieval and Validation of aerosol optical properties from AHI measurements: impact of surface reflectance assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H.; Choi, M.; Kim, J.; Go, S.; Chan, P.; Kasai, Y.

    2017-12-01

    This study attempts to retrieve the aerosol optical properties (AOPs) based on the spectral matching method, with using three visible and one near infrared channels (470, 510, 640, 860nm). This method requires the preparation of look-up table (LUT) approach based on the radiative transfer modeling. Cloud detection is one of the most important processes for guaranteed quality of AOPs. Since the AHI has several infrared channels, which are very advantageous for cloud detection, clouds can be removed by using brightness temperature difference (BTD) and spatial variability test. The Yonsei Aerosol Retrieval (YAER) algorithm is basically utilized on a dark surface, therefore a bright surface (e.g., desert, snow) should be removed first. Then we consider the characteristics of the reflectance of land and ocean surface using three visible channels. The known surface reflectivity problem in high latitude area can be solved in this algorithm by selecting appropriate channels through improving tests. On the other hand, we retrieved the AOPs by obtaining the visible surface reflectance using NIR to normalized difference vegetation index short wave infrared (NDVIswir) relationship. ESR tends to underestimate urban and cropland area, we improved the visible surface reflectance considering urban effect. In this version, ocean surface reflectance is using the new cox and munk method which considers ocean bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). Input of this method has wind speed, chlorophyll, salinity and so on. Based on validation results with the sun-photometer measurement in AErosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET), we confirm that the quality of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from the YAER algorithm is comparable to the product from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) retrieval algorithm. Our future update includes a consideration of improvement land surface reflectance by hybrid approach, and non-spherical aerosols. This will improve the quality of YAER

  13. Temperature dependence of surface nanobubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkelaar, R.P.; Seddon, James Richard Thorley; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Lohse, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    The temperature dependence of nanobubbles was investigated experimentally using atomic force microscopy. By scanning the same area of the surface at temperatures from 51 °C to 25 °C it was possible to track geometrical changes of individual nanobubbles as the temperature was decreased.

  14. A TEMPERATURE AND ABUNDANCE RETRIEVAL METHOD FOR EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhusudhan, N.; Seager, S.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new method to retrieve molecular abundances and temperature profiles from exoplanet atmosphere photometry and spectroscopy. We run millions of one-dimensional (1D) atmosphere models in order to cover the large range of allowed parameter space. In order to run such a large number of models, we have developed a parametric pressure-temperature (P-T) profile coupled with line-by-line radiative transfer, hydrostatic equilibrium, and energy balance, along with prescriptions for non-equilibrium molecular composition and energy redistribution. The major difference from traditional 1D radiative transfer models is the parametric P-T profile, which essentially means adopting energy balance only at the top of the atmosphere and not in each layer. We see the parametric P-T model as a parallel approach to the traditional exoplanet atmosphere models that rely on several free parameters to encompass unknown absorbers and energy redistribution. The parametric P-T profile captures the basic physical features of temperature structures in planetary atmospheres (including temperature inversions), and fits a wide range of published P-T profiles, including those of solar system planets. We apply our temperature and abundance retrieval method to the atmospheres of two transiting exoplanets, HD 189733b and HD 209458b, which have the best Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescope data available. For HD 189733b, we find efficient day-night redistribution of energy in the atmosphere, and molecular abundance constraints confirming the presence of H 2 O, CO, CH 4 , and CO 2 . For HD 209458b, we confirm and constrain the dayside thermal inversion in an average 1D temperature profile. We also report independent detections of H 2 O, CO, CH 4 , and CO 2 on the dayside of HD 209458b, based on six-channel Spitzer photometry. We report constraints for HD 189733b due to individual data sets separately; a few key observations are variable in different data sets at similar wavelengths. Moreover, a

  15. Retrievable surface storage facility conceptual system design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-03-01

    The studies evaluated several potentially attractive methods for processing and retrievably storing high-level radioactive waste after delivery to the Federal repository. These studies indicated that several systems could be engineered to safely store the waste, but that the simplest and most attractive concept from a technical standpoint would be to store the waste in a sealed stainless steel canister enclosed in a 2 in. thick carbon steel cask which in turn would be inserted into a reinforced concrete gamma-neutron shield, which would also provide the necessary air-cooling through an air annulus between the cask and the shield. This concept best satisfies the requirements for safety, long-term exposure to natural phenomena, low capital and operating costs, retrievability, amenability to incremental development, and acceptably small environmental impact. This document assumes that the reference site would be on ERDA's Hanford reservation. This document is a Conceptual System Design Description of the facilities which could satisfy all of the functional requirements within the established basic design criteria. The Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF) is planned with the capacity to process and store the waste received in either a calcine or glass/ceramic form. The RSSF planning is based on a modular development program in which the modular increments are constructed at rates matching projected waste receipts.

  16. Retrievable surface storage facility conceptual system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    The studies evaluated several potentially attractive methods for processing and retrievably storing high-level radioactive waste after delivery to the Federal repository. These studies indicated that several systems could be engineered to safely store the waste, but that the simplest and most attractive concept from a technical standpoint would be to store the waste in a sealed stainless steel canister enclosed in a 2 in. thick carbon steel cask which in turn would be inserted into a reinforced concrete gamma-neutron shield, which would also provide the necessary air-cooling through an air annulus between the cask and the shield. This concept best satisfies the requirements for safety, long-term exposure to natural phenomena, low capital and operating costs, retrievability, amenability to incremental development, and acceptably small environmental impact. This document assumes that the reference site would be on ERDA's Hanford reservation. This document is a Conceptual System Design Description of the facilities which could satisfy all of the functional requirements within the established basic design criteria. The Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF) is planned with the capacity to process and store the waste received in either a calcine or glass/ceramic form. The RSSF planning is based on a modular development program in which the modular increments are constructed at rates matching projected waste receipts

  17. Retrieval of humidity and temperature profiles over the oceans from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036, India. ... inspired many researchers and the power of invok- ing prior knowledge in .... to accelerate the process of retrieval if direct ANN ... to drive a more robust retrieval algorithm. Fur-.

  18. Stereoscopic Feature Tracking System for Retrieving Velocity of Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga Zamalloa, C. C.; Landry, B. J.

    2017-12-01

    The present work is concerned with the surface velocity retrieval of flows using a stereoscopic setup and finding the correspondence in the images via feature tracking (FT). The feature tracking provides a key benefit of substantially reducing the level of user input. In contrast to other commonly used methods (e.g., normalized cross-correlation), FT does not require the user to prescribe interrogation window sizes and removes the need for masking when specularities are present. The results of the current FT methodology are comparable to those obtained via Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry while requiring little to no user input which allowed for rapid, automated processing of imagery.

  19. ISLSCP II Sea Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sea surface temperature (SST) is an important indicator of the state of the earth climate system as well as a key variable in the coupling between the atmosphere and...

  20. Temperature retrieval at the southern pole of the Venusian atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garate-Lopez, Itziar; Garcia-Munoz, A.; Hueso, R.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2013-10-01

    Venus’ thermal radiation spectrum is punctuated by CO2 bands of various strengths probing into different atmospheric depths. It is thus possible to invert measured spectra of thermal radiation to infer atmospheric temperature profiles. VIRTIS-M observations of Venus in the 3-5 µm range allow us to study the night time thermal structure of the planet’s upper troposphere and lower mesosphere from 50 to 105 km [1, 2]. Building a forward radiative transfer model that solves the radiative transfer equation for the atmosphere on a line-by-line basis, we confirmed that aerosol scattering must be taken into account and we studied the impact of factors such as cloud opacity, and the size, composition and vertical distribution of aerosols [3]. The cloud top altitude and aerosol scale height have a notable impact on the spectrum. However, their weighting function matrices have similar structures contributing to the degeneracy of the temperature retrieval algorithm [2]. Our retrieval code is focused on the strong 4.3µm CO2 band, which enables the determination of the thermal profile above the cloud top, and based on the algorithm proposed by Grassi et al. (2008) in their equation (2). We present temperature maps for the south pole of Venus, where a highly variable vortex is observed. We aim to combine these maps with our previously measured velocity fields from the same VIRTIS-M infrared images [4], in order to infer the potential vorticity distribution for different vortex configurations and to improve the understanding of its unpredictable character and its role in the general atmospheric circulation. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Spanish MICIIN projects AYA2009-10701 and AYA2012-36666 with FEDER funds, by Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-765-13 and by Universidad País Vasco UPV/EHU through program UFI11/55. IGL and AGM gratefully acknowledge ESA/RSSD for hospitality and access to ‘The Grid’ computing resources. References [1] Roos-Serote, M., et al

  1. On the sensitivity of Land Surface Temperature estimates in arid irrigated lands using MODTRAN

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas, Jorge; Houborg, Rasmus; McCabe, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) derived from thermal infrared (TIR) satellite data has been reliably used as a remote indicator of evapotranspiration (ET) and surface moisture status. However, in order to retrieve the ET with an accuracy approaching

  2. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for temperature and humidity profile retrieval from microwave radiometer observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, K.; Kesarkar, A. P.; Bhate, J.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Jayaraman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The retrieval of accurate profiles of temperature and water vapour is important for the study of atmospheric convection. Recent development in computational techniques motivated us to use adaptive techniques in the retrieval algorithms. In this work, we have used an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to retrieve profiles of temperature and humidity up to 10 km over the tropical station Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E), India. ANFIS is trained by using observations of temperature and humidity measurements by co-located Meisei GPS radiosonde (henceforth referred to as radiosonde) and microwave brightness temperatures observed by radiometrics multichannel microwave radiometer MP3000 (MWR). ANFIS is trained by considering these observations during rainy and non-rainy days (ANFIS(RD + NRD)) and during non-rainy days only (ANFIS(NRD)). The comparison of ANFIS(RD + NRD) and ANFIS(NRD) profiles with independent radiosonde observations and profiles retrieved using multivariate linear regression (MVLR: RD + NRD and NRD) and artificial neural network (ANN) indicated that the errors in the ANFIS(RD + NRD) are less compared to other retrieval methods. The Pearson product movement correlation coefficient (r) between retrieved and observed profiles is more than 92% for temperature profiles for all techniques and more than 99% for the ANFIS(RD + NRD) technique Therefore this new techniques is relatively better for the retrieval of temperature profiles. The comparison of bias, mean absolute error (MAE), RMSE and symmetric mean absolute percentage error (SMAPE) of retrieved temperature and relative humidity (RH) profiles using ANN and ANFIS also indicated that profiles retrieved using ANFIS(RD + NRD) are significantly better compared to the ANN technique. The analysis of profiles concludes that retrieved profiles using ANFIS techniques have improved the temperature retrievals substantially; however, the retrieval of RH by all techniques considered in this paper (ANN, MVLR and

  3. Titan's Surface Temperatures Maps from Cassini - CIRS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Anderson, C. M.; Samuelson, R. E.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.

    2009-09-01

    The Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) observations of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, are providing us with the ability to detect the surface temperature of the planet by studying its outgoing radiance through a spectral window in the thermal infrared at 19 μm (530 cm-1) characterized by low opacity. Since the first acquisitions of CIRS Titan data the instrument has gathered a large amount of spectra covering a wide range of latitudes, longitudes and local times. We retrieve the surface temperature and the atmospheric temperature profile by modeling proper zonally averaged spectra of nadir observations with radiative transfer computations. Our forward model uses the correlated-k approximation for spectral opacity to calculate the emitted radiance, including contributions from collision induced pairs of CH4, N2 and H2, haze, and gaseous emission lines (Irwin et al. 2008). The retrieval method uses a non-linear least-squares optimal estimation technique to iteratively adjust the model parameters to achieve a spectral fit (Rodgers 2000). We show an accurate selection of the wide amount of data available in terms of footprint diameter on the planet and observational conditions, together with the retrieved results. Our results represent formal retrievals of surface brightness temperatures from the Cassini CIRS dataset using a full radiative transfer treatment, and we compare to the earlier findings of Jennings et al. (2009). In future, application of our methodology over wide areas should greatly increase the planet coverage and accuracy of our knowledge of Titan's surface brightness temperature. References: Irwin, P.G.J., et al.: "The NEMESIS planetary atmosphere radiative transfer and retrieval tool" (2008). JQSRT, Vol. 109, pp. 1136-1150, 2008. Rodgers, C. D.: "Inverse Methods For Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice". World Scientific, Singapore, 2000. Jennings, D.E., et al.: "Titan's Surface Brightness Temperatures." Ap. J. L., Vol. 691, pp. L103-L

  4. Accounting for surface reflectance anisotropy in satellite retrievals of tropospheric NO₂

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Yipin; Brunner, D.; Spurr, R.J.D.; Boersma, K.F.; Sneep, M.; Popp, C.; Buchmann, B.

    2010-01-01

    Surface reflectance is a key parameter in satellite trace gas retrievals in the UV/visible range and in particular for the retrieval of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical tropospheric columns (VTCs). Current operational retrievals rely on coarse-resolution reflectance data and do not account for the

  5. Extreme Maximum Land Surface Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1992-09-01

    There are numerous reports in the literature of observations of land surface temperatures. Some of these, almost all made in situ, reveal maximum values in the 50°-70°C range, with a few, made in desert regions, near 80°C. Consideration of a simplified form of the surface energy balance equation, utilizing likely upper values of absorbed shortwave flux (1000 W m2) and screen air temperature (55°C), that surface temperatures in the vicinity of 90°-100°C may occur for dry, darkish soils of low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.2 W m1 K1). Numerical simulations confirm this and suggest that temperature gradients in the first few centimeters of soil may reach 0.5°-1°C mm1 under these extreme conditions. The study bears upon the intrinsic interest of identifying extreme maximum temperatures and yields interesting information regarding the comfort zone of animals (including man).

  6. Diurnal Variations of Titan's Surface Temperatures From Cassini -CIRS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, Conor; Jennings, Don; Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, Robert; Irwin, Patrick; Flasar, F. Michael

    The Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) observations of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, are providing us with the ability to detect the surface temperature of the planet by studying its outgoing radiance through a spectral window in the thermal infrared at 19 m (530 cm-1) characterized by low opacity. Since the first acquisitions of CIRS Titan data the in-strument has gathered a large amount of spectra covering a wide range of latitudes, longitudes and local times. We retrieve the surface temperature and the atmospheric temperature pro-file by modeling proper zonally averaged spectra of nadir observations with radiative transfer computations. Our forward model uses the correlated-k approximation for spectral opacity to calculate the emitted radiance, including contributions from collision induced pairs of CH4, N2 and H2, haze, and gaseous emission lines (Irwin et al. 2008). The retrieval method uses a non-linear least-squares optimal estimation technique to iteratively adjust the model parameters to achieve a spectral fit (Rodgers 2000). We show an accurate selection of the wide amount of data available in terms of footprint diameter on the planet and observational conditions, together with the retrieved results. Our results represent formal retrievals of surface brightness temperatures from the Cassini CIRS dataset using a full radiative transfer treatment, and we compare to the earlier findings of Jennings et al. (2009). The application of our methodology over wide areas has increased the planet coverage and accuracy of our knowledge of Titan's surface brightness temperature. In particular we had the chance to look for diurnal variations in surface temperature around the equator: a trend with slowly increasing temperature toward the late afternoon reveals that diurnal temperature changes are present on Titan surface. References: Irwin, P.G.J., et al.: "The NEMESIS planetary atmosphere radiative transfer and retrieval tool" (2008). JQSRT, Vol. 109, pp

  7. Assesment of a soil moisture retrieval with numerical weather prediction model temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of using a Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) soil temperature product instead of estimates provided by concurrent 37 GHz data on satellite-based passive microwave retrieval of soil moisture retrieval was evaluated. This was prompted by the change in system configuration of preceding mult...

  8. Surface wave retrieval in layered media using seismic interferometry by multidimensional deconvolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dalen, K.N.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Halliday, D.F.

    2013-01-01

    Virtual-source surface wave responses can be retrieved using the crosscorrelation (CC) of wavefields observed at two receivers. Higher mode surface waves cannot be properly retrieved when there is a lack of subsurface sources that excite these wavefields, as is often the case. In this paper, we

  9. Improved surface?wave retrieval from ambient seismic noise by multi?dimensional deconvolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Ruigrok, E.N.; Van der Neut, J.R.; Draganov, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    The methodology of surface?wave retrieval from ambient seismic noise by crosscorrelation relies on the assumption that the noise field is equipartitioned. Deviations from equipartitioning degrade the accuracy of the retrieved surface?wave Green's function. A point?spread function, derived from the

  10. Estimation of bare soil surface temperature from air temperature and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil surface temperature has critical influence on climate, agricultural and hydrological activities since it serves as a good indicator of the energy budget of the earth's surface. Two empirical models for estimating soil surface temperature from air temperature and soil depth temperature were developed. The coefficient of ...

  11. Retrieval.

    OpenAIRE

    Clay, Allyson

    1990-01-01

    Allyson Clay’s "Traces of a City in the Spaces Between Some People" is a series of twenty diptychs contrasting fabricated faux finishing with expressionist painting and text. The fabricated paint applications evoke city surfaces like concrete and granite; they also evoke modernist painting.  Unlike modernist painting, however, the faux surfaces are decorative and mechanically painted. The choice to have the surfaces fabricated serves to disrupt the egoism of modern abstraction and the im...

  12. Assessment of Mars Atmospheric Temperature Retrievals from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer Radiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Matthew J.; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Weisenstein, Deborah; Uymin, Gennady; Moncet, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the needs of Mars data assimilation. particularly quantification of measurement errors and generation of averaging kernels. we have evaluated atmospheric temperature retrievals from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) radiances. Multiple sets of retrievals have been considered in this study; (1) retrievals available from the Planetary Data System (PDS), (2) retrievals based on variants of the retrieval algorithm used to generate the PDS retrievals, and (3) retrievals produced using the Mars 1-Dimensional Retrieval (M1R) algorithm based on the Optimal Spectral Sampling (OSS ) forward model. The retrieved temperature profiles are compared to the MGS Radio Science (RS) temperature profiles. For the samples tested, the M1R temperature profiles can be made to agree within 2 K with the RS temperature profiles, but only after tuning the prior and error statistics. Use of a global prior that does not take into account the seasonal dependence leads errors of up 6 K. In polar samples. errors relative to the RS temperature profiles are even larger. In these samples, the PDS temperature profiles also exhibit a poor fit with RS temperatures. This fit is worse than reported in previous studies, indicating that the lack of fit is due to a bias correction to TES radiances implemented after 2004. To explain the differences between the PDS and Ml R temperatures, the algorithms are compared directly, with the OSS forward model inserted into the PDS algorithm. Factors such as the filtering parameter, the use of linear versus nonlinear constrained inversion, and the choice of the forward model, are found to contribute heavily to the differences in the temperature profiles retrieved in the polar regions, resulting in uncertainties of up to 6 K. Even outside the poles, changes in the a priori statistics result in different profile shapes which all fit the radiances within the specified error. The importance of the a priori statistics prevents

  13. Evaluation of a Linear Mixing Model to Retrieve Soil and Vegetation Temperatures of Land Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jinxin; Jia, Li; Cui, Yaokui; Zhou, Jie; Menenti, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    A simple linear mixing model of heterogeneous soil-vegetation system and retrieval of component temperatures from directional remote sensing measurements by inverting this model is evaluated in this paper using observations by a thermal camera. The thermal camera was used to obtain multi-angular TIR (Thermal Infra-Red) images over vegetable and orchard canopies. A whole thermal camera image was treated as a pixel of a satellite image to evaluate the model with the two-component system, i.e. soil and vegetation. The evaluation included two parts: evaluation of the linear mixing model and evaluation of the inversion of the model to retrieve component temperatures. For evaluation of the linear mixing model, the RMSE is 0.2 K between the observed and modelled brightness temperatures, which indicates that the linear mixing model works well under most conditions. For evaluation of the model inversion, the RMSE between the model retrieved and the observed vegetation temperatures is 1.6K, correspondingly, the RMSE between the observed and retrieved soil temperatures is 2.0K. According to the evaluation of the sensitivity of retrieved component temperatures on fractional cover, the linear mixing model gives more accurate retrieval accuracies for both soil and vegetation temperatures under intermediate fractional cover conditions

  14. Near-Real Time Satellite-Retrieved Cloud and Surface Properties for Weather and Aviation Safety Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, P.; Smith, W., Jr.; Bedka, K. M.; Nguyen, L.; Palikonda, R.; Hong, G.; Trepte, Q.; Chee, T.; Scarino, B. R.; Spangenberg, D.; Sun-Mack, S.; Fleeger, C.; Ayers, J. K.; Chang, F. L.; Heck, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    Cloud properties determined from satellite imager radiances provide a valuable source of information for nowcasting and weather forecasting. In recent years, it has been shown that assimilation of cloud top temperature, optical depth, and total water path can increase the accuracies of weather analyses and forecasts. Aircraft icing conditions can be accurately diagnosed in near-real time (NRT) retrievals of cloud effective particle size, phase, and water path, providing valuable data for pilots. NRT retrievals of surface skin temperature can also be assimilated in numerical weather prediction models to provide more accurate representations of solar heating and longwave cooling at the surface, where convective initiation. These and other applications are being exploited more frequently as the value of NRT cloud data become recognized. At NASA Langley, cloud properties and surface skin temperature are being retrieved in near-real time globally from both geostationary (GEO) and low-earth orbiting (LEO) satellite imagers for weather model assimilation and nowcasting for hazards such as aircraft icing. Cloud data from GEO satellites over North America are disseminated through NCEP, while those data and global LEO and GEO retrievals are disseminated from a Langley website. This paper presents an overview of the various available datasets, provides examples of their application, and discusses the use of the various datasets downstream. Future challenges and areas of improvement are also presented.

  15. Near-Real Time Satellite-Retrieved Cloud and Surface Properties for Weather and Aviation Safety Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Smith, William L., Jr.; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Nguyen, Louis; Palikonda, Rabindra; Hong, Gang; Trepte, Qing Z.; Chee, Thad; Scarino, Benjamin; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Cloud properties determined from satellite imager radiances provide a valuable source of information for nowcasting and weather forecasting. In recent years, it has been shown that assimilation of cloud top temperature, optical depth, and total water path can increase the accuracies of weather analyses and forecasts. Aircraft icing conditions can be accurately diagnosed in near-­-real time (NRT) retrievals of cloud effective particle size, phase, and water path, providing valuable data for pilots. NRT retrievals of surface skin temperature can also be assimilated in numerical weather prediction models to provide more accurate representations of solar heating and longwave cooling at the surface, where convective initiation. These and other applications are being exploited more frequently as the value of NRT cloud data become recognized. At NASA Langley, cloud properties and surface skin temperature are being retrieved in near-­-real time globally from both geostationary (GEO) and low-­-earth orbiting (LEO) satellite imagers for weather model assimilation and nowcasting for hazards such as aircraft icing. Cloud data from GEO satellites over North America are disseminated through NCEP, while those data and global LEO and GEO retrievals are disseminated from a Langley website. This paper presents an overview of the various available datasets, provides examples of their application, and discusses the use of the various datasets downstream. Future challenges and areas of improvement are also presented.

  16. An extended Kalman-Bucy filter for atmospheric temperature profile retrieval with a passive microwave sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledsham, W. H.; Staelin, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    An extended Kalman-Bucy filter has been implemented for atmospheric temperature profile retrievals from observations made using the Scanned Microwave Spectrometer (SCAMS) instrument carried on the Nimbus 6 satellite. This filter has the advantage that it requires neither stationary statistics in the underlying processes nor linear production of the observed variables from the variables to be estimated. This extended Kalman-Bucy filter has yielded significant performance improvement relative to multiple regression retrieval methods. A multi-spot extended Kalman-Bucy filter has also been developed in which the temperature profiles at a number of scan angles in a scanning instrument are retrieved simultaneously. These multi-spot retrievals are shown to outperform the single-spot Kalman retrievals.

  17. Evaluation of Surface Fatigue Strength Based on Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gang; Nakanishi, Tsutomu

    Surface temperature is considered to be an integrated index that is dependent on not only the load and the dimensions at the contact point but also the sliding velocity, rolling velocity, surface roughness, and lubrication conditions. Therefore, the surface durability of rollers and gears can be evaluated more exactly and simply by the use of surface temperature rather than Hertzian stress. In this research, surface temperatures of rollers under different rolling and sliding conditions are measured using a thermocouple. The effects of load P, mean velocity Vm and sliding velocity Vs on surface temperature are clarified. An experimental formula, which expresses the linear relationship between surface temperature and the P0.86Vs1.31Vm-0.83 value, is used to determine surface temperature. By comparing calculated and measured temperature on the tooth surface of a gear, this formula is confirmed to be applicable for gear tooth surface temperature calculation.

  18. Improvements to the swath-level near-surface atmospheric state parameter retrievals within the NRL Ocean Surface Flux System (NFLUX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J. C.; Rowley, C. D.; Meyer, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Ocean Surface Flux System (NFLUX) is an end-to-end data processing and assimilation system used to provide near-real-time satellite-based surface heat flux fields over the global ocean. The first component of NFLUX produces near-real-time swath-level estimates of surface state parameters and downwelling radiative fluxes. The focus here will be on the satellite swath-level state parameter retrievals, namely surface air temperature, surface specific humidity, and surface scalar wind speed over the ocean. Swath-level state parameter retrievals are produced from satellite sensor data records (SDRs) from four passive microwave sensors onboard 10 platforms: the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) sensor onboard the DMSP F16, F17, and F18 platforms; the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) sensor onboard the NOAA-15, NOAA-18, NOAA-19, Metop-A, and Metop-B platforms; the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) sensor onboard the S-NPP platform; and the Advanced Microwave Scannin Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) sensor onboard the GCOM-W1 platform. The satellite SDRs are translated into state parameter estimates using multiple polynomial regression algorithms. The coefficients to the algorithms are obtained using a bootstrapping technique with all available brightness temperature channels for a given sensor, in addition to a SST field. For each retrieved parameter for each sensor-platform combination, unique algorithms are developed for ascending and descending orbits, as well as clear vs cloudy conditions. Each of the sensors produces surface air temperature and surface specific humidity retrievals. The SSMIS and AMSR2 sensors also produce surface scalar wind speed retrievals. Improvement is seen in the SSMIS retrievals when separate algorithms are used for the even and odd scans, with the odd scans performing better than the even scans. Currently, NFLUX treats all SSMIS scans as even scans. Additional improvement in all of

  19. 1D-Var temperature retrievals from microwave radiometer and convective scale model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Martinet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the potential of ground-based microwave radiometers (MWR for providing accurate temperature retrievals by combining convective scale numerical models and brightness temperatures (BTs. A one-dimensional variational (1D-Var retrieval technique has been tested to optimally combine MWR and 3-h forecasts from the French convective scale model AROME. A microwave profiler HATPRO (Humidity and Temperature PROfiler was operated during 6 months at the meteorological station of Bordeaux (Météo France. MWR BTs were monitored against simulations from the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator 2 radiative transfer model. An overall good agreement was found between observations and simulations for opaque V-band channels but large errors were observed for channels the most affected by liquid water and water vapour emissions (51.26 and 52.28 GHz. 1D-Var temperature retrievals are performed in clear-sky and cloudy conditions using a screening procedure based on cloud base height retrieval from ceilometer observations, infrared radiometer temperature and liquid water path derived from the MWR observations. The 1D-Var retrievals were found to improve the AROME forecasts up to 2 km with a maximum gain of approximately 50 % in root-mean-square-errors (RMSE below 500 m. They were also found to outperform neural network retrievals. A static bias correction was proposed to account for systematic instrumental errors. This correction was found to have a negligible impact on the 1D-Var retrievals. The use of low elevation angles improves the retrievals up to 12 % in RMSE in cloudy-sky in the first layers. The present implementation achieved a RMSE with respect to radiosondes within 1 K in clear-sky and 1.3 K in cloudy-sky conditions for temperature.

  20. NOAA Global Surface Temperature (NOAAGlobalTemp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Global Surface Temperature Dataset (NOAAGlobalTemp) is a merged land–ocean surface temperature analysis (formerly known as MLOST) (link is external). It is...

  1. GODAE, SFCOBS - Surface Temperature Observations, 1998-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GODAE, SFCOBS - Surface Temperature Observations: Ship, fixed/drifting buoy, and CMAN in-situ surface temperature. Global Telecommunication System (GTS) Data. The...

  2. Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) dataset is a global monthly sea surface temperature analysis derived from the International Comprehensive...

  3. The EUSTACE project: delivering global, daily information on surface air temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghent, D.; Rayner, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, in the EUSTACE project (2015-2018, https://www.eustaceproject.eu) we have developed an understanding of the relationships between traditional (land and marine) surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. Here we discuss the science needed to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types. Information contained in the satellite retrievals is used to create globally-complete fields in the past, using statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. This includes developing new "Big Data" analysis methods as the data volumes involved are considerable. We will present recent progress along this road in the EUSTACE project, i.e.: • identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; • estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; • using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras. Information will also be given on how interested users can become involved.

  4. Retrieval of Surface Ozone from UV-MFRSR Irradiances using Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Sun, Z.; Davis, J.; Zempila, M.; Liu, C.; Gao, W.

    2017-12-01

    High concentration of surface ozone is harmful to humans and plants. USDA UV-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP) uses Ultraviolet (UV) version of Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (UV-MFRSR) to measure direct, diffuse, and total irradiances every three minutes at seven UV channels (i.e. 300, 305, 311, 317, 325, 332, and 368 nm channels with 2 nm full width at half maximum). Based on the wavelength dependency of aerosol optical depths, there have been plenty of literatures exploring retrieval methods of total column ozone from UV-MFRSR measurements. However, few has explored the retrieval of surface ozone. The total column ozone is the integral of the multiplication of ozone concentration (varying by height and time) and cross section (varying by wavelength and temperature) over height. Because of the distinctive values of ozone cross section in the UV region, the irradiances at seven UV channels have the potential to resolve the ozone concentration at multiple vertical layers. If the UV irradiances at multiple time points are considered together, the uncertainty or the vertical resolution of ozone concentrations can be further improved. In this study, the surface ozone amounts at the UVMRP station located at Billings, Oklahoma are estimated from the adjacent (i.e. within 200 miles) US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) surface ozone observations using the spatial analysis technique. Then, the (direct normal) irradiances of UVMRP at one or more time points as inputs and the corresponding estimated surface ozone from EPA as outputs are fed into a pre-trained (dense) deep neural network (DNN) to explore the hidden non-linear relationship between them. This process could improve our understanding of their physical/mathematical relationship. Finally, the optimized DNN is tested with the preserved 5% of the dataset, which are not used during training, to verify the relationship.

  5. A Bayesian Retrieval of Greenland Ice Sheet Internal Temperature from Ultra-wideband Software-defined Microwave Radiometer (UWBRAD) Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Y.; Durand, M. T.; Jezek, K. C.; Yardim, C.; Bringer, A.; Aksoy, M.; Johnson, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    The ultra-wideband software-defined microwave radiometer (UWBRAD) is designed to provide ice sheet internal temperature product via measuring low frequency microwave emission. Twelve channels ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 GHz are covered by the instrument. A Greenland air-borne demonstration was demonstrated in September 2016, provided first demonstration of Ultra-wideband radiometer observations of geophysical scenes, including ice sheets. Another flight is planned for September 2017 for acquiring measurements in central ice sheet. A Bayesian framework is designed to retrieve the ice sheet internal temperature from simulated UWBRAD brightness temperature (Tb) measurements over Greenland flight path with limited prior information of the ground. A 1-D heat-flow model, the Robin Model, was used to model the ice sheet internal temperature profile with ground information. Synthetic UWBRAD Tb observations was generated via the partially coherent radiation transfer model, which utilizes the Robin model temperature profile and an exponential fit of ice density from Borehole measurement as input, and corrupted with noise. The effective surface temperature, geothermal heat flux, the variance of upper layer ice density, and the variance of fine scale density variation at deeper ice sheet were treated as unknown variables within the retrieval framework. Each parameter is defined with its possible range and set to be uniformly distributed. The Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach is applied to make the unknown parameters randomly walk in the parameter space. We investigate whether the variables can be improved over priors using the MCMC approach and contribute to the temperature retrieval theoretically. UWBRAD measurements near camp century from 2016 was also treated with the MCMC to examine the framework with scattering effect. The fine scale density fluctuation is an important parameter. It is the most sensitive yet highly unknown parameter in the estimation framework

  6. Temperature dependence of nuclear surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campi, X.; Stringari, S.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal properties of nuclear surface are investigated in a semi-infinite medium. Explicit analytical expression are given for the temperature dependence of surface thickness, surface energy and surface free energy. In this model the temperature effects depend critically on the nuclear incompressibility and on the shape of the effective mass at the surface. To illustrate the relevance of these effects we made an estimate of the temperature dependence of the fission barrier height. (orig.)

  7. A new approach to the retrieval of surface properties from earthshine measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurr, R.J.D. E-mail: rspurr@cfa.harvard.edu

    2004-01-01

    Instruments such as the MODIS and MISR radiometers on EOS AM-1, and POLDER on ADEOS have been deployed for the remote sensing retrieval of surface properties. Typically, retrieval algorithms use linear combinations of semi-empirical bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) kernels to model surface reflectance. The retrieval proceeds in two steps; first, an atmospheric correction relates surface BRDF to top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectances, then regression is used to establish the linear coefficients used in the kernel combination. BRDF kernels may also depend on a number of physical or empirical non-linear parameters (e.g. ocean wind speed for a specular BRDF); such parameters are usually assumed known. A major source of error in this retrieval comes from lack of knowledge of planetary boundary layer (PBL) aerosol properties. In this paper, we present a different approach to surface property retrieval. For the radiative transfer simulations, we use the discrete ordinate LIDORT model, which has the capability to generate simultaneous fields of radiances and weighting functions in a multiply scattering multi-layer atmosphere. Surface-atmosphere coupling due to multiple scattering and reflection effects is treated in full; the use of an atmospheric correction is not required. Further, it is shown that sensitivities of TOA reflectances to both linear and non-linear surface BRDF parameters may be established directly by explicit analytic differentiation of the discrete ordinate radiative transfer equations. Surface properties may thus be retrieved directly and conveniently from satellite measurements using standard non-linear fitting methods. In the fitting for BRDF parameters, lower-boundary aerosol properties can either be retrieved as auxiliary parameters, or they can be regarded as forward model parameter errors. We present examples of simulated radiances and surface/aerosol weighting functions for combinations of multi-angle measurements at several

  8. A new approach to the retrieval of surface properties from earthshine measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurr, R.J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Instruments such as the MODIS and MISR radiometers on EOS AM-1, and POLDER on ADEOS have been deployed for the remote sensing retrieval of surface properties. Typically, retrieval algorithms use linear combinations of semi-empirical bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) kernels to model surface reflectance. The retrieval proceeds in two steps; first, an atmospheric correction relates surface BRDF to top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectances, then regression is used to establish the linear coefficients used in the kernel combination. BRDF kernels may also depend on a number of physical or empirical non-linear parameters (e.g. ocean wind speed for a specular BRDF); such parameters are usually assumed known. A major source of error in this retrieval comes from lack of knowledge of planetary boundary layer (PBL) aerosol properties. In this paper, we present a different approach to surface property retrieval. For the radiative transfer simulations, we use the discrete ordinate LIDORT model, which has the capability to generate simultaneous fields of radiances and weighting functions in a multiply scattering multi-layer atmosphere. Surface-atmosphere coupling due to multiple scattering and reflection effects is treated in full; the use of an atmospheric correction is not required. Further, it is shown that sensitivities of TOA reflectances to both linear and non-linear surface BRDF parameters may be established directly by explicit analytic differentiation of the discrete ordinate radiative transfer equations. Surface properties may thus be retrieved directly and conveniently from satellite measurements using standard non-linear fitting methods. In the fitting for BRDF parameters, lower-boundary aerosol properties can either be retrieved as auxiliary parameters, or they can be regarded as forward model parameter errors. We present examples of simulated radiances and surface/aerosol weighting functions for combinations of multi-angle measurements at several

  9. Measurement range of phase retrieval in optical surface and wavefront metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, Gregory R.; Fienup, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Phase retrieval employs very simple data collection hardware and iterative algorithms to determine the phase of an optical field. We have derived limitations on phase retrieval, as applied to optical surface and wavefront metrology, in terms of the speed of beam (i.e., f-number or numerical aperture) and amount of aberration using arguments based on sampling theory and geometrical optics. These limitations suggest methodologies for expanding these ranges by increasing the complexity of the measurement arrangement, the phase-retrieval algorithm, or both. We have simulated one of these methods where a surface is measured at unusual conjugates

  10. Surface pressure retrieval from SCIAMACHY measurements in the O2 A Band: validation of the measurements and sensitivity on aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. van Diedenhoven

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We perform surface pressure retrievals from cloud-free Oxygen A band measurements of SCIAMACHY. These retrievals can be well validated because surface pressure is a quantity that is, in general, accurately known from meteorological models. Therefore, surface pressure retrievals and their validation provide important insight into the quality of the instrument calibration. Furthermore, they can provide insight into retrievals which are affected by similar radiation transport processes, for example the retrieval of total columns of H2O, CO, CO2 and CH4. In our retrieval aerosols are neglected. Using synthetic measurements, it is shown that for low to moderate surface albedos this leads to an underestimation of the retrieved surface pressures. For high surface albedos this generally leads to an overestimation of the retrieved surface pressures. The surface pressures retrieved from the SCIAMACHY measurements indeed show this dependence on surface albedo, when compared to the corresponding pressures from a meteorological database. However, an offset of about 20 hPa was found, which can not be caused by neglecting aerosols in the retrieval. The same offset was found when comparing the retrieved surface pressures to those retrieved from co-located GOME Oxygen A band measurements. This implies a calibration error in the SCIAMACHY measurements. By adding an offset of 0.86% of the continuum reflectance at 756 nm to the SCIAMACHY reflectance measurements, this systematic bias vanishes.

  11. The Pacific sea surface temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, David H.

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific sea surface temperature data contains two components: N L , a signal that exhibits the familiar El Niño/La Niña phenomenon and N H , a signal of one-year period. Analysis reveals: (1) The existence of an annual solar forcing F S ; (2) N H is phase locked directly to F S while N L is frequently phase locked to the 2nd or 3rd subharmonic of F S . At least ten distinct subharmonic time segments of N L since 1870 are found. The beginning or end dates of these segments have a near one-to-one correspondence with the abrupt climate changes previously reported. Limited predictability is possible. -- Highlights: ► El Niño/La Niña consists of 2 components phase-locked to annual solar cycle. ► The first component N L is the familiar El Niño/La Niña effect. ► The second N H component has a period of 1 cycle/year. ► N L can be phase-locked to 2nd or 3rd subharmonic of annual cycle. ► Ends of phase-locked segments correspond to abrupt previously reported climate changes.

  12. The Pacific sea surface temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglass, David H., E-mail: douglass@pas.rochester.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States)

    2011-12-05

    The Pacific sea surface temperature data contains two components: N{sub L}, a signal that exhibits the familiar El Niño/La Niña phenomenon and N{sub H}, a signal of one-year period. Analysis reveals: (1) The existence of an annual solar forcing F{sub S}; (2) N{sub H} is phase locked directly to F{sub S} while N{sub L} is frequently phase locked to the 2nd or 3rd subharmonic of F{sub S}. At least ten distinct subharmonic time segments of N{sub L} since 1870 are found. The beginning or end dates of these segments have a near one-to-one correspondence with the abrupt climate changes previously reported. Limited predictability is possible. -- Highlights: ► El Niño/La Niña consists of 2 components phase-locked to annual solar cycle. ► The first component N{sub L} is the familiar El Niño/La Niña effect. ► The second N{sub H} component has a period of 1 cycle/year. ► N{sub L} can be phase-locked to 2nd or 3rd subharmonic of annual cycle. ► Ends of phase-locked segments correspond to abrupt previously reported climate changes.

  13. Improved surface-wave retrieval from ambient seismic noise by multi-dimensional deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, Kees; Ruigrok, Elmer; van der Neut, Joost; Draganov, Deyan

    2011-01-01

    The methodology of surface-wave retrieval from ambient seismic noise by crosscorrelation relies on the assumption that the noise field is equipartitioned. Deviations from equipartitioning degrade the accuracy of the retrieved surface-wave Green's function. A point-spread function, derived from the same ambient noise field, quantifies the smearing in space and time of the virtual source of the Green's function. By multidimensionally deconvolving the retrieved Green's function by the point-spread function, the virtual source becomes better focussed in space and time and hence the accuracy of the retrieved surface-wave Green's function may improve significantly. We illustrate this at the hand of a numerical example and discuss the advantages and limitations of this new methodology.

  14. Bias Correction for Assimilation of Retrieved AIRS Profiles of Temperature and Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakenship, Clay; Zavodsky, Bradley; Blackwell, William

    2014-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a hyperspectral radiometer aboard NASA's Aqua satellite designed to measure atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity. AIRS retrievals are assimilated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the North Pacific for some cases involving "atmospheric rivers". These events bring a large flux of water vapor to the west coast of North America and often lead to extreme precipitation in the coastal mountain ranges. An advantage of assimilating retrievals rather than radiances is that information in partly cloudy fields of view can be used. Two different Level 2 AIRS retrieval products are compared: the Version 6 AIRS Science Team standard retrievals and a neural net retrieval from MIT. Before assimilation, a bias correction is applied to adjust each layer of retrieved temperature and humidity so the layer mean values agree with a short-term model climatology. WRF runs assimilating each of the products are compared against each other and against a control run with no assimilation. Forecasts are against ERA reanalyses.

  15. GHRSST Level 2P Global Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  16. GHRSST Level 2P Global Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Level 2P Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals from the...

  17. GHRSST Level 2P Global Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-16 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Level 2P Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals from the...

  18. GHRSST Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  19. GHRSST Level 2P Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-18 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  20. Modelling global fresh surface water temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, L.P.H. van; Eikelboom, T.; Vliet, M.T.H. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Temperature directly determines a range of water physical properties including vapour pressure, surface tension, density and viscosity, and the solubility of oxygen and other gases. Indirectly water temperature acts as a strong control on fresh water biogeochemistry, influencing sediment

  1. The effect of cloud liquid water on tropospheric temperature retrievals from microwave measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bernet

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Microwave radiometry is a suitable technique to measure atmospheric temperature profiles with high temporal resolution during clear sky and cloudy conditions. In this study, we included cloud models in the inversion algorithm of the microwave radiometer TEMPERA (TEMPErature RAdiometer to determine the effect of cloud liquid water on the temperature retrievals. The cloud models were built based on measurements of cloud base altitude and integrated liquid water (ILW, all performed at the aerological station (MeteoSwiss in Payerne (Switzerland. Cloud base altitudes were detected using ceilometer measurements while the ILW was measured by a HATPRO (Humidity And Temperature PROfiler radiometer. To assess the quality of the TEMPERA retrieval when clouds were considered, the resulting temperature profiles were compared to 2 years of radiosonde measurements. The TEMPERA instrument measures radiation at 12 channels in the frequency range from 51 to 57 GHz, corresponding to the left wing of the oxygen emission line complex. When the full spectral information with all the 12 frequency channels was used, we found a marked improvement in the temperature retrievals after including a cloud model. The chosen cloud model influenced the resulting temperature profile, especially for high clouds and clouds with a large amount of liquid water. Using all 12 channels, however, presented large deviations between different cases, suggesting that additional uncertainties exist in the lower, more transparent channels. Using less spectral information with the higher, more opaque channels only also improved the temperature profiles when clouds where included, but the influence of the chosen cloud model was less important. We conclude that tropospheric temperature profiles can be optimized by considering clouds in the microwave retrieval, and that the choice of the cloud model has a direct impact on the resulting temperature profile.

  2. Retrieval of temperature and pressure using broadband solar occultation: SOFIE approach and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Marshall

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of atmospheric temperature as a function of pressure, T(P, is key to understanding many atmospheric processes and a prerequisite for retrieving gas mixing ratios and other parameters from solar occultation measurements. This paper gives a brief overview of the solar occultation measurement technique followed by a detailed discussion of the mechanisms that make the measurement sensitive to temperature. Methods for retrieving T(P using both broadband transmittance and refraction are discussed. Investigations using measurements of broadband transmittance in two CO2 absorption bands (the 4.3 and 2.7 μm bands and refractive bending are then presented. These investigations include sensitivity studies, simulated retrieval studies, and examples from SOFIE.

  3. Optimal Estimation of Sea Surface Temperature from AMSR-E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Nielsen-Englyst

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Optimal Estimation (OE technique is developed within the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA-CCI to retrieve subskin Sea Surface Temperature (SST from AQUA’s Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer—Earth Observing System (AMSR-E. A comprehensive matchup database with drifting buoy observations is used to develop and test the OE setup. It is shown that it is essential to update the first guess atmospheric and oceanic state variables and to perform several iterations to reach an optimal retrieval. The optimal number of iterations is typically three to four in the current setup. In addition, updating the forward model, using a multivariate regression model is shown to improve the capability of the forward model to reproduce the observations. The average sensitivity of the OE retrieval is 0.5 and shows a latitudinal dependency with smaller sensitivity for cold waters and larger sensitivity for warmer waters. The OE SSTs are evaluated against drifting buoy measurements during 2010. The results show an average difference of 0.02 K with a standard deviation of 0.47 K when considering the 64% matchups, where the simulated and observed brightness temperatures are most consistent. The corresponding mean uncertainty is estimated to 0.48 K including the in situ and sampling uncertainties. An independent validation against Argo observations from 2009 to 2011 shows an average difference of 0.01 K, a standard deviation of 0.50 K and a mean uncertainty of 0.47 K, when considering the best 62% of retrievals. The satellite versus in situ discrepancies are highest in the dynamic oceanic regions due to the large satellite footprint size and the associated sampling effects. Uncertainty estimates are available for all retrievals and have been validated to be accurate. They can thus be used to obtain very good retrieval results. In general, the results from the OE retrieval are very encouraging and demonstrate that passive microwave

  4. A Method of Retrieving BRDF from Surface-Reflected Radiance Using Decoupling of Atmospheric Radiative Transfer and Surface Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Radkevich

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF defines anisotropy of the surface reflection. It is required to specify the boundary condition for radiative transfer (RT modeling used in aerosol retrievals, cloud retrievals, atmospheric modeling, and other applications. Ground based measurements of reflected radiance draw increasing attention as a source of information about anisotropy of surface reflection. Derivation of BRDF from surface radiance requires atmospheric correction. This study develops a new method of retrieving BRDF on its whole domain, making it immediately suitable for further atmospheric RT modeling applications. The method is based on the integral equation relating surface-reflected radiance, BRDF, and solutions of two auxiliary atmosphere-only RT problems. The method requires kernel-based BRDF. The weights of the kernels are obtained with a quickly converging iterative procedure. RT modeling has to be done only one time before the start of iterative process.

  5. Evaluation of a Linear Mixing Model to Retrieve Soil and Vegetation Temperatures of Land Targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, J.; Jia, L.; Cui, Y.; Zhou, J.; Menenti, M.

    2014-01-01

    A simple linear mixing model of heterogeneous soil-vegetation system and retrieval of component temperatures from directional remote sensing measurements by inverting this model is evaluated in this paper using observations by a thermal camera. The thermal camera was used to obtain multi-angular TIR

  6. A data-driven approach for retrieving temperatures and abundances in brown dwarf atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    Line, MR; Fortney, JJ; Marley, MS; Sorahana, S

    2014-01-01

    © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Brown dwarf spectra contain a wealth of information about their molecular abundances, temperature structure, and gravity. We present a new data driven retrieval approach, previously used in planetary atmosphere studies, to extract the molecular abundances and temperature structure from brown dwarf spectra. The approach makes few a priori physical assumptions about the state of the atmosphere. The feasibility of the approach is fi...

  7. Analytical Retrieval of Global Land Surface Emissivity Maps at AMSR-E passive microwave frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, H.; Temimi, M.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2009-12-01

    Land emissivity is a crucial boundary condition in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) modeling. Land emissivity is also a key indicator of land surface and subsurface properties. The objective of this study, supported by NOAA-NESDIS, is to develop global land emissivity maps using AMSR-E passive microwave measurements along with several ancillary data. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) database has been used to obtain several inputs for the proposed approach such as land surface temperature, cloud mask and atmosphere profile. The Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) has been used to estimate upwelling and downwelling atmospheric contributions. Although it is well known that correction of the atmospheric effect on brightness temperature is required at higher frequencies (over 19 GHz), our preliminary results have shown that a correction at 10.7 GHz is also necessary over specific areas. The proposed approach is based on three main steps. First, all necessary data have been collected and processed. Second, a global cloud free composite of AMSR-E data and corresponding ancillary images is created. Finally, monthly composting of emissivity maps has been performed. AMSR-E frequencies at 6.9, 10.7, 18.7, 36.5 and 89.0 GHz have been used to retrieve the emissivity. Water vapor information obtained from ISCCP (TOVS data) was used to calculate upwelling, downwelling temperatures and atmospheric transmission in order to assess the consistency of those derived from the CRTM model. The frequent land surface temperature (LST) determination (8 times a day) in the ISCCP database has allowed us to assess the diurnal cycle effect on emissivity retrieval. Differences in magnitude and phase between thermal temperature and low frequencies microwave brightness temperature have been noticed. These differences seem to vary in space and time. They also depend on soil texture and thermal inertia. The proposed methodology accounts for these factors and

  8. The retrieval of land surface albedo in rugged terrain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, B.; Jia, L.; Menenti, M.

    2012-01-01

    Land surface albedo may be derived from the satellite data through the estimation of a bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model and angular integration. However many BRDF models do not consider explicitly the topography. In rugged terrain, the topography influences the observed

  9. Exploiting the synergy between SMAP and SMOS to improve brightness temperature simulations and soil moisture retrievals in arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mohsen; Alavipanah, Seyed Kazem; Hamzeh, Saeid; Amiraslani, Farshad; Neysani Samany, Najmeh; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to exploit the synergy between SMOS and SMAP based on vegetation optical depth (VOD) to improve brightness temperature (TB) simulations and land surface soil moisture (SM) retrievals in arid regions of the world. In the current operational algorithm of SMAP (level 2), vegetation water content (VWC) is considered as a proxy to compute VOD which is calculated by an empirical conversion function of NDVI. Avoiding the empirical estimation of VOD, the SMOS algorithm is used to retrieve simultaneously SM and VOD from TB observations. The present study attempted to improve SMAP TB simulations and SM retrievals by benefiting from the advantages of the SMOS (L-MEB) algorithm. This was achieved by using a synergy method based on replacing the default value of SMAP VOD with the retrieved value of VOD from the SMOS multi angular and bi-polarization observations of TB. The insitu SM measurements, used as reference SM in this study, were obtained from the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) over 180 stations located in arid regions of the world. Furthermore, four stations were randomly selected to analyze the temporal variations in VOD and SM. Results of the synergy method showed that the accuracy of the TB simulations and SM retrievals was respectively improved at 144 and 124 stations (out of a total of 180 stations) in terms of coefficient of determination (R2) and unbiased root mean squared error (UbRMSE). Analyzing the temporal variations in VOD showed that the SMOS VOD, conversely to the SMAP VOD, can better illustrate the presence of herbaceous plants and may be a better indicator of the seasonal changes in the vegetation density and biomass over the year.

  10. Telemetric measurement of body core temperature in exercising unconditioned Labrador retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angle, T Craig; Gillette, Robert L

    2011-04-01

    This project evaluated the use of an ingestible temperature sensor to measure body core temperature (Tc) in exercising dogs. Twenty-five healthy, unconditioned Labrador retrievers participated in an outdoor 3.5-km run, completed in 20 min on a level, 400-m grass track. Core temperature was measured continuously with a telemetric monitoring system before, during, and after the run. Data were successfully collected with no missing data points during the exercise. Core temperature elevated in the dogs from 38.7 ± 0.3°C at pre-exercise to 40.4 ± 0.6°C post-exercise. While rectal temperatures are still the standard of measurement, telemetric core temperature monitors may offer an easier and more comfortable means of sampling core temperature with minimal human and mechanical interference with the exercising dog.

  11. Development and Testing of the New Surface LER Climatology for OMI UV Aerosol Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pawan; Torres, Omar; Jethva, Hiren; Ahn, Changwoo

    2014-01-01

    Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard Aura satellite retrieved aerosols properties using UV part of solar spectrum. The OMI near UV aerosol algorithm (OMAERUV) is a global inversion scheme which retrieves aerosol properties both over ocean and land. The current version of the algorithm makes use of TOMS derived Lambertian Equivalent Reflectance (LER) climatology. A new monthly climatology of surface LER at 354 and 388 nm have been developed. This will replace TOMS LER (380 nm and 354nm) climatology in OMI near UV aerosol retrieval algorithm. The main objectives of this study is to produce high resolution (quarter degree) surface LER sets as compared to existing one degree TOMS surface LERs, to product instrument and wavelength consistent surface climatology. Nine years of OMI observations have been used to derive monthly climatology of surface LER. MODIS derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) have been used to make aerosol corrections on OMI wavelengths. MODIS derived BRDF adjusted reflectance product has been also used to capture seasonal changes in the surface characteristics. Finally spatial and temporal averaging techniques have been used to fill the gaps around the globes, especially in the regions with consistent cloud cover such as Amazon. After implementation of new surface data in the research version of algorithm, comparisons of AOD and single scattering albedo (SSA) have been performed over global AERONET sites for year 2007. Preliminary results shows improvements in AOD retrievals globally but more significance improvement were observed over desert and bright locations. We will present methodology of deriving surface data sets and will discuss the observed changes in retrieved aerosol properties with respect to reference AERONET measurements.

  12. IASI's sensitivity to near-surface carbon monoxide (CO): Theoretical analyses and retrievals on test cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauduin, Sophie; Clarisse, Lieven; Theunissen, Michael; George, Maya; Hurtmans, Daniel; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-François

    2017-03-01

    Separating concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) in the boundary layer from the rest of the atmosphere with nadir satellite measurements is of particular importance to differentiate emission from transport. Although thermal infrared (TIR) satellite sounders are considered to have limited sensitivity to the composition of the near-surface atmosphere, previous studies show that they can provide information on CO close to the ground in case of high thermal contrast. In this work we investigate the capability of IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) to retrieve near-surface CO concentrations, and we quantitatively assess the influence of thermal contrast on such retrievals. We present a 3-part analysis, which relies on both theoretical forward simulations and retrievals on real data, performed for a large range of negative and positive thermal contrast situations. First, we derive theoretically the IASI detection threshold of CO enhancement in the boundary layer, and we assess its dependence on thermal contrast. Then, using the optimal estimation formalism, we quantify the role of thermal contrast on the error budget and information content of near-surface CO retrievals. We demonstrate that, contrary to what is usually accepted, large negative thermal contrast values (ground cooler than air) lead to a better decorrelation between CO concentrations in the low and the high troposphere than large positive thermal contrast (ground warmer than the air). In the last part of the paper we use Mexico City and Barrow as test cases to contrast our theoretical predictions with real retrievals, and to assess the accuracy of IASI surface CO retrievals through comparisons to ground-based in-situ measurements.

  13. An operational analysis of Lake Surface Water Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma K. Fiedler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Operational analyses of Lake Surface Water Temperature (LSWT have many potential uses including improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP models on regional scales. In November 2011, LSWT was included in the Met Office Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Ice Analysis (OSTIA product, for 248 lakes globally. The OSTIA analysis procedure, which has been optimised for oceans, has also been used for the lakes in this first version of the product. Infra-red satellite observations of lakes and in situ measurements are assimilated. The satellite observations are based on retrievals optimised for Sea Surface Temperature (SST which, although they may introduce inaccuracies into the LSWT data, are currently the only near-real-time information available. The LSWT analysis has a global root mean square difference of 1.31 K and a mean difference of 0.65 K (including a cool skin effect of 0.2 K compared to independent data from the ESA ARC-Lake project for a 3-month period (June to August 2009. It is demonstrated that the OSTIA LSWT is an improvement over the use of climatology to capture the day-to-day variation in global lake surface temperatures.

  14. Inverse analysis of inner surface temperature history from outer surface temperature measurement of a pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, S; Ioka, S; Onchi, S; Matsumoto, Y

    2010-01-01

    When slug flow runs through a pipe, nonuniform and time-varying thermal stresses develop and there is a possibility that thermal fatigue occurs. Therefore it is necessary to know the temperature distributions and the stress distributions in the pipe for the integrity assessment of the pipe. It is, however, difficult to measure the inner surface temperature directly. Therefore establishment of the estimation method of the temperature history on inner surface of pipe is needed. As a basic study on the estimation method of the temperature history on the inner surface of a pipe with slug flow, this paper presents an estimation method of the temperature on the inner surface of a plate from the temperature on the outer surface. The relationship between the temperature history on the outer surface and the inner surface is obtained analytically. Using the results of the mathematical analysis, the inverse analysis method of the inner surface temperature history estimation from the outer surface temperature history is proposed. It is found that the inner surface temperature history can be estimated from the outer surface temperature history by applying the inverse analysis method, even when it is expressed by the multiple frequency components.

  15. Effectiveness of WRF wind direction for retrieving coastal sea surface wind from synthetic aperture radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeyama, Yuko; Ohsawa, Teruo; Kozai, Katsutoshi

    2013-01-01

    Wind direction is required as input to the geophysical model function (GMF) for the retrieval of sea surface wind speed from a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The present study verifies the effectiveness of using the wind direction obtained from the weather research and forecasting model (...

  16. evaluation of land surface temperature parameterization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Surface temperature (Ts) is vital to the study of land-atmosphere interactions and ... representation of Ts in Global Climate Models using available ..... Obviously, the influence of the ambient .... diurnal cycle over land under clear and cloudy.

  17. Sea Surface Temperature Average_SST_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea surface temperature collected via satellite imagery from http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.noaa.ersst.html and averaged for each region using ArcGIS...

  18. Analysed foundation sea surface temperature, global

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The through-cloud capabilities of microwave radiometers provide a valuable picture of global sea surface temperature (SST). To utilize this, scientists at Remote...

  19. Sea Surface Temperature (14 KM North America)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Product shows local sea surface temperatures (degrees C). It is a composite gridded-image derived from 8-km resolution SST Observations. It is generated every 48...

  20. OW NOAA GOES Sea-Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains satellite-derived sea-surface temperature measurements collected by means of the Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellite. The data is...

  1. NOAA Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA 1/4° daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (or daily OISST) is an analysis constructed by combining observations from different platforms...

  2. Evaluation of Flat Surface Temperature Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beges, G.; Rudman, M.; Drnovsek, J.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is elaboration of elements related to metrological analysis in the field of surface temperature measurement. Surface temperature measurements are applicable in many fields. As examples, safety testing of electrical appliances and a pharmaceutical production line represent case studies for surface temperature measurements. In both cases correctness of the result of the surface temperature has an influence on final product safety and quality and thus conformity with specifications. This paper deals with the differences of flat surface temperature probes in measuring the surface temperature. For the purpose of safety testing of electrical appliances, surface temperature measurements are very important for safety of the user. General requirements are presented in European standards, which support requirements in European directives, e.g., European Low Voltage Directive 2006/95/EC and pharmaceutical requirements, which are introduced in official state legislation. This paper introduces a comparison of temperature measurements of an attached thermocouple on the measured surface and measurement with flat surface temperature probes. As a heat generator, a so called temperature artifact is used. It consists of an aluminum plate with an incorporated electrical heating element with very good temperature stability in the central part. The probes and thermocouple were applied with different forces to the surface in horizontal and vertical positions. The reference temperature was measured by a J-type fine-wire (0.2 mm) thermocouple. Two probes were homemade according to requirements in the European standard EN 60335-2-9/A12, one with a fine-wire (0.2 mm) thermocouple and one with 0.5mm of thermocouple wire diameter. Additional commercially available probes were compared. Differences between probes due to thermal conditions caused by application of the probe were found. Therefore, it can happen that measurements are performed with improper equipment or

  3. Retrieving Temperature and Moisture Profiles from AERI Radiance Observations. AERIPROF Value-Added Product Technical Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feltz, W. F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Howell, H. B. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United; Knuteson, R. O. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Comstock, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mahon, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Turner, D. D. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Smith, W. L. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Woolf, H. M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United; Sivaraman, C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halter, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-04-01

    One of the goals of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to collect a long-term series of radiative and atmospheric state observations to improve the parameterization of these processes in global climate models. The ARM Program intended to move away from the traditional approach of directly measuring profiles of temperature and moisture using radiosondes, which is expensive in terms of expendables and manpower, and develop methods to retrieve these profiles with ground-based remote sensors. The atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI), whose radiance data contains information on the vertical distribution of water vapor and temperature, is an integral part of the ARM profiling plan.

  4. Evaluation of MODIS Land Surface Temperature with In Situ Snow Surface Temperature from CREST-SAFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Diaz, C. L.; Lakhankar, T.; Romanov, P.; Munoz, J.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Yu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the procedure and results of a temperature-based validation approach for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Land Surface Temperature (LST) product provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Terra and Aqua Earth Observing System satellites using in situ LST observations recorded at the Cooperative Remote Sensing Science and Technology Center - Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE) during the years of 2013 (January-April) and 2014 (February-April). A total of 314 day and night clear-sky thermal images, acquired by the Terra and Aqua satellites, were processed and compared to ground-truth data from CREST-SAFE with a frequency of one measurement every 3 min. Additionally, this investigation incorporated supplementary analyses using meteorological CREST-SAFE in situ variables (i.e. wind speed, cloud cover, incoming solar radiation) to study their effects on in situ snow surface temperature (T-skin) and T-air. Furthermore, a single pixel (1km2) and several spatially averaged pixels were used for satellite LST validation by increasing the MODIS window size to 5x5, 9x9, and 25x25 windows for comparison. Several trends in the MODIS LST data were observed, including the underestimation of daytime values and nighttime values. Results indicate that, although all the data sets (Terra and Aqua, diurnal and nocturnal) showed high correlation with ground measurements, day values yielded slightly higher accuracy ( 1°C), both suggesting that MODIS LST retrievals are reliable for similar land cover classes and atmospheric conditions. Results from the CREST-SAFE in situ variables' analyses indicate that T-air is commonly higher than T-skin, and that a lack of cloud cover results in: lower T-skin and higher T-air minus T-skin difference (T-diff). Additionally, the study revealed that T-diff is inversely proportional to cloud cover, wind speed, and incoming solar radiation. Increasing the MODIS window size

  5. Retrieving background surface reflectance of Himawari-8/AHI using BRDF modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungwon; Seo, Minji; Lee, Kyeong-sang; Han, Kyung-soo

    2017-04-01

    In these days, remote sensing is more important than past. And retrieving surface reflectance in remote sensing is also important. So there are many ways to retrieve surface reflectance by my countries with polar orbit and geostationary satellite. We studied Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) which is used to retrieve surface reflectance. In BRDF equation, we calculate surface reflectance using BRD components and angular data. BRD components are to calculate 3 of scatterings, isotropic geometric and volumetric scattering. To make Background Surface Reflectance (BSR) of Himawari-8/AHI. We used 5 bands (band1, band2, band3, band4, band5) with BRDF. And we made 5 BSR for 5 channels. For validation, we compare BSR with Top of canopy (TOC) reflectance of AHI. As a result, bias are from -0.00223 to 0.008328 and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) are from 0.045 to 0.049. We think BSR can be used to replace TOC reflectance in remote sensing to improve weakness of TOC reflectance.

  6. Comparison between core temperatures measured telemetrically using the CorTemp® ingestible temperature sensor and rectal temperature in healthy Labrador retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinchuk, Stephanie; Taylor, Susan M; Shmon, Cindy L; Pharr, John; Campbell, John

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the CorTemp(®) ingestible telemetric core body temperature sensor in dogs, to establish the relationship between rectal temperature and telemetrically measured core body temperature at rest and during exercise, and to examine the effect of sensor location in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract on measured core temperature. CorTemp(®) sensors were administered orally to fasted Labrador retriever dogs and radiographs were taken to document sensor location. Core and rectal temperatures were monitored throughout the day in 6 resting dogs and during a 10-minute strenuous retrieving exercise in 6 dogs. Time required for the sensor to leave the stomach (120 to 610 min) was variable. Measured core temperature was consistently higher than rectal temperature across all GI locations but temperature differences based on GI location were not significant (P = 0.5218). Resting dogs had a core temperature that was on average 0.4°C above their rectal temperature with 95% limits of agreement (LoA) between 1.2°C and -0.5°C. Core temperature in exercising dogs was on average 0.3°C higher than their concurrent rectal temperature, with LoA of +1.6°C and -1.1°C.

  7. International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) Global Land Surface Temperature Databank - Stage 2 Monthly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global land surface temperature databank contains monthly timescale mean, max, and min temperature for approximately 40,000 stations globally. It was developed...

  8. International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) Global Land Surface Temperature Databank - Stage 3 Monthly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Land Surface Temperature Databank contains monthly timescale mean, maximum, and minimum temperature for approximately 40,000 stations globally. It was...

  9. International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) Global Land Surface Temperature Databank - Stage 2 Daily

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global land surface temperature databank contains monthly timescale mean, max, and min temperature for approximately 40,000 stations globally. It was developed...

  10. International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) Global Land Surface Temperature Databank - Stage 1 Monthly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global land surface temperature databank contains monthly timescale mean, max, and min temperature for approximately 40,000 stations globally. It was developed...

  11. International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) Global Land Surface Temperature Databank - Stage 1 Daily

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global land surface temperature databank contains monthly timescale mean, max, and min temperature for approximately 40,000 stations globally. It was developed...

  12. Sea Surface Salinity and Wind Retrieval Algorithm Using Combined Passive-Active L-Band Microwave Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Chaubell, Mario J.

    2011-01-01

    Aquarius is a combined passive/active L-band microwave instrument developed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The data will support studies of the coupling between ocean circulation, the global water cycle, and climate. The primary science objective of this mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean with a spatial resolution of 150 kilometers and a retrieval accuracy of 0.2 practical salinity units globally on a monthly basis. The measurement principle is based on the response of the L-band (1.413 gigahertz) sea surface brightness temperatures (T (sub B)) to sea surface salinity. To achieve the required 0.2 practical salinity units accuracy, the impact of sea surface roughness (e.g. wind-generated ripples and waves) along with several factors on the observed brightness temperature has to be corrected to better than a few tenths of a degree Kelvin. To the end, Aquarius includes a scatterometer to help correct for this surface roughness effect.

  13. SEASONAL CHANGES IN TITAN'S SURFACE TEMPERATURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Romani, P. N.; Hesman, B. E.; Carlson, R. C.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Coustenis, A.; Tokano, T.

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal changes in Titan's surface brightness temperatures have been observed by Cassini in the thermal infrared. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer measured surface radiances at 19 μm in two time periods: one in late northern winter (LNW; L s = 335 deg.) and another centered on northern spring equinox (NSE; L s = 0 deg.). In both periods we constructed pole-to-pole maps of zonally averaged brightness temperatures corrected for effects of the atmosphere. Between LNW and NSE a shift occurred in the temperature distribution, characterized by a warming of ∼0.5 K in the north and a cooling by about the same amount in the south. At equinox the polar surface temperatures were both near 91 K and the equator was at 93.4 K. We measured a seasonal lag of ΔL S ∼ 9 0 in the meridional surface temperature distribution, consistent with the post-equinox results of Voyager 1 as well as with predictions from general circulation modeling. A slightly elevated temperature is observed at 65 0 S in the relatively cloud-free zone between the mid-latitude and southern cloud regions.

  14. Determination of Optimum Viewing Angles for the Angular Normalization of Land Surface Temperature over Vegetated Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huazhong Ren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multi-angular observation of land surface thermal radiation is considered to be a promising method of performing the angular normalization of land surface temperature (LST retrieved from remote sensing data. This paper focuses on an investigation of the minimum requirements of viewing angles to perform such normalizations on LST. The normally kernel-driven bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF is first extended to the thermal infrared (TIR domain as TIR-BRDF model, and its uncertainty is shown to be less than 0.3 K when used to fit the hemispheric directional thermal radiation. A local optimum three-angle combination is found and verified using the TIR-BRDF model based on two patterns: the single-point pattern and the linear-array pattern. The TIR-BRDF is applied to an airborne multi-angular dataset to retrieve LST at nadir (Te-nadir from different viewing directions, and the results show that this model can obtain reliable Te-nadir from 3 to 4 directional observations with large angle intervals, thus corresponding to large temperature angular variations. The Te-nadir is generally larger than temperature of the slant direction, with a difference of approximately 0.5~2.0 K for vegetated pixels and up to several Kelvins for non-vegetated pixels. The findings of this paper will facilitate the future development of multi-angular thermal infrared sensors.

  15. Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Separation from Cross-Track Infrared Sounder Data with Atmospheric Reanalysis Data and ISSTES Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ze Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS is one of the most advanced hyperspectral instruments and has been used for various atmospheric applications such as atmospheric retrievals and weather forecast modeling. However, because of the specific design purpose of CrIS, little attention has been paid to retrieving land surface parameters from CrIS data. To take full advantage of the rich spectral information in CrIS data to improve the land surface retrievals, particularly the acquisition of a continuous Land Surface Emissivity (LSE spectrum, this paper attempts to simultaneously retrieve a continuous LSE spectrum and the Land Surface Temperature (LST from CrIS data with the atmospheric reanalysis data and the Iterative Spectrally Smooth Temperature and Emissivity Separation (ISSTES algorithm. The results show that the accuracy of the retrieved LSEs and LST is comparable with the current land products. The overall differences of the LST and LSE retrievals are approximately 1.3 K and 1.48%, respectively. However, the LSEs in our study can be provided as a continuum spectrum instead of the single-channel values in traditional products. The retrieved LST and LSEs now can be better used to further analyze the surface properties or improve the retrieval of atmospheric parameters.

  16. An Improved Local Gradient Method for Sea Surface Wind Direction Retrieval from SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhang Zhou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface wind affects the fluxes of energy, mass and momentum between the atmosphere and ocean, and therefore regional and global weather and climate. With various satellite microwave sensors, sea surface wind can be measured with large spatial coverage in almost all-weather conditions, day or night. Like any other remote sensing measurements, sea surface wind measurement is also indirect. Therefore, it is important to develop appropriate wind speed and direction retrieval models for different types of microwave instruments. In this paper, a new sea surface wind direction retrieval method from synthetic aperture radar (SAR imagery is developed. In the method, local gradients are computed in frequency domain by combining the operation of smoothing and computing local gradients in one step to simplify the process and avoid the difference approximation. This improved local gradients (ILG method is compared with the traditional two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D FFT method and local gradients (LG method, using interpolating wind directions from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF reanalysis data and the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP wind vector product. The sensitivities to the salt-and-pepper noise, the additive noise and the multiplicative noise are analyzed. The ILG method shows a better performance of retrieval wind directions than the other two methods.

  17. Influence of Aerosols And Surface Reflectance On NO2 Retrieval Over China From 2005 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Lin, J.

    2016-12-01

    Satellite observation is a powerful way to analysis annual and seasonal variations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2). However, much retrieval of vertical column densities (VCDs) of normally do not explicitly account for aerosol optical effects and surface reflectance anisotropy that vary with space and time. In traditional retrieval, aerosols' effects are often considered as cloud. However, China has complicated aerosols type and aerosol loading. Their optical properties may be very different from the cloud. Furthermore, China has undergone big changes in land use type in recent 10 years. Traditional climatology surface reflectance data may not have representation. In order to study spatial-temporal variation of and influences of these two factors on variations and trends, we use an improved retrieval method of VCDs over China, called the POMINO, based on measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and we compare the results of without aerosol, without surface reflectance treatments and without both to the original POMINO product from 2005 to 2015. Furthermore, we will study correspondent spatial-temporal variations of aerosols, represented by MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) data and CALIOP extinction data; surface reflectance, represented by MODIS bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) data.

  18. Surface temperature measurement with radioactive kryptonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruzinec, J.; Piatrik, M.

    1976-01-01

    The preparation and use of radioactive kryptonates is described for measuring surface temperatures within the region of 45 to 70 degC. Two samples each were prepared of kryptonated beechwood and hydroquinone on a paper carrier. One sample served as the standard which during the experiment was placed in a thermostat at a constant temperature of 45 degC. The second sample was placed in another thermostat where the temperature changed from 45 to 70 degC. Both samples were in the thermostat for 30 mins. The temperature was raised in steps of 2.5 degC and the time of measurement was constant in both samples. The dependences are given of the drop in activity on temperature for both types of samples. The difference was determined of the drop in activity between the standard and the second sample and the relation for measuring the temperature of the sample was determined therefrom. (J.B.)

  19. A sea surface reflectance model for (AATSR, and application to aerosol retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Sayer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A model of the sea surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF is presented for the visible and near-IR channels (over the spectral range 550 nm to 1.6 μm of the dual-viewing Along-Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSRs. The intended application is as part of the Oxford-RAL Aerosols and Clouds (ORAC retrieval scheme. The model accounts for contributions to the observed reflectance from whitecaps, sun-glint and underlight. Uncertainties in the parametrisations used in the BRDF model are propagated through into the forward model and retrieved state. The new BRDF model offers improved coverage over previous methods, as retrievals are possible into the sun-glint region, through the ATSR dual-viewing system. The new model has been applied in the ORAC aerosol retrieval algorithm to process Advanced ATSR (AATSR data from September 2004 over the south-eastern Pacific. The assumed error budget is shown to be generally appropriate, meaning the retrieved states are consistent with the measurements and a priori assumptions. The resulting field of aerosol optical depth (AOD is compared with colocated MODIS-Terra observations, AERONET observations at Tahiti, and cruises over the oceanic region. MODIS and AATSR show similar spatial distributions of AOD, although MODIS reports values which are larger and more variable. It is suggested that assumptions in the MODIS aerosol retrieval algorithm may lead to a positive bias in MODIS AOD of order 0.01 at 550 nm over ocean regions where the wind speed is high.

  20. Retrievable surface storage: interim storage of solidified high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRiviere, J.R.; Nelson, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    Studies have been conducted on retrievable-surface-storage concepts for the interim storage of solidified high-level wastes. These studies have been reviewed by the Panel on Engineered Storage, convened by the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council-National Academy of Sciences. The Panel has concluded that ''retrievable surface storage is an acceptable interim stage in a comprehensive system for managing high-level radioactive wastes.'' The scaled storage cask concept, which was recommended by the Panel on Engineered Storage, consists of placing a canister of waste inside a carbon-steel cask, which in turn is placed inside a thick concrete cylinder. The waste is cooled by natural convection air flow through an annulus between the cask and the inner wall of the concrete cylinder. The complete assembly is placed above ground in an outdoor storage area

  1. Hull Surface Information Retrieval and Optimization of High Speed Planing Craft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayob, A F; Wan Nik, W B; Ray, T; Smith, W F

    2012-01-01

    Traditional approach on ship design involve the use of a method which takes a form that was earlier called the 'general design diagram' and is now known as the 'design spiral' – an iterative ship design process that allows for an increase in complexity and precision across the design cycle. Several advancements have been made towards the design spiral, however inefficient for handling complex simultaneous design changes, especially when later variable changes affect the ship's performance characteristics evaluated in earlier stages. Reviewed in this paper are several advancements in high speed planing craft design in preliminary design stage. An optimization framework for high speed planing craft is discussed which consist of surface information retrieval module, a suite of state-of-the-art optimization algorithms and standard naval architectural performance estimation tools. A summary of the implementation of the proposed hull surface information retrieval and several case studies are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the framework.

  2. Low temperature surface chemistry and nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, G. B.; Shabatina, T. I.

    2002-03-01

    The new scientific field of low temperature surface chemistry, which combines the low temperature chemistry (cryochemistry) and surface chemistry approaches, is reviewed in this paper. One of the most exciting achievements in this field of science is the development of methods to create highly ordered hybrid nanosized structures on different organic and inorganic surfaces and to encapsulate nanosized metal particles in organic and polymer matrices. We consider physical and chemical behaviour for the systems obtained by co-condensation of the components vapours on the surfaces cooled down to 4-10 and 70-100 K. In particular the size effect of both types, the number of atoms in the reactive species structure and the thickness of growing co-condensate film, on the chemical activity of the system is analysed in detail. The effect of the internal mechanical stresses on the growing interfacial co-condensate film formation and on the generation of fast (explosive) spontaneous reactions at low temperatures is discussed. The examples of unusual chemical interactions of metal atoms, clusters and nanosized particles, obtained in co-condensate films on the cooled surfaces under different conditions, are presented. The examples of highly ordered surface and volume hybrid nanostructures formation are analysed.

  3. Surface roughness retrieval by inversion of the Hapke model: A multiscale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarre, S.; Ferrari, C.; Jacquemoud, S.

    2017-07-01

    Surface roughness is a key property of soils that controls many surface processes and influences the scattering of incident electromagnetic waves at a wide range of scales. Hapke (2012b) designed a photometric model providing an approximate analytical solution of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of a particulate medium: he introduced the effect of surface roughness as a correction factor of the BRDF of a smooth surface. This photometric roughness is defined as the mean slope angle of the facets composing the surface, integrated over all scales from the grain size to the local topography. Yet its physical meaning is still a question at issue, as the scale at which it occurs is not clearly defined. This work aims at better understanding the relative influence of roughness scales on soil BRDF and to test the ability of the Hapke model to retrieve a roughness that depicts effectively the ground truth. We apply a wavelet transform on millimeter digital terrain models (DTM) acquired over volcanic terrains. This method allows splitting the frequency band of a signal in several sub-bands, each corresponding to a spatial scale. We demonstrate that sub-centimeter surface features dominate both the integrated roughness and the BRDF shape. We investigate the suitability of the Hapke model for surface roughness retrieval by inversion on optical data. A global sensitivity analysis of the model shows that soil BRDF is very sensitive to surface roughness, nearly as much as the single scattering albedo according to the phase angle, but also that these two parameters are strongly correlated. Based on these results, a simplified two-parameter model depending on surface albedo and roughness is proposed. Inversion of this model on BRDF data simulated by a ray-tracing code over natural targets shows a good estimation of surface roughness when the assumptions of the model are verified, with a priori knowledge on surface albedo.

  4. Retrieval of an ice water path over the ocean from ISMAR and MARSS millimeter and submillimeter brightness temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brath, Manfred; Fox, Stuart; Eriksson, Patrick; Chawn Harlow, R.; Burgdorf, Martin; Buehler, Stefan A.

    2018-02-01

    A neural-network-based retrieval method to determine the snow ice water path (SIWP), liquid water path (LWP), and integrated water vapor (IWV) from millimeter and submillimeter brightness temperatures, measured by using airborne radiometers (ISMAR and MARSS), is presented. The neural networks were trained by using atmospheric profiles from the ICON numerical weather prediction (NWP) model and by radiative transfer simulations using the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS). The basic performance of the retrieval method was analyzed in terms of offset (bias) and the median fractional error (MFE), and the benefit of using submillimeter channels was studied in comparison to pure microwave retrievals. The retrieval is offset-free for SIWP > 0.01 kg m-2, LWP > 0.1 kg m-2, and IWV > 3 kg m-2. The MFE of SIWP decreases from 100 % at SIWP = 0.01 kg m-2 to 20 % at SIWP = 1 kg m-2 and the MFE of LWP from 100 % at LWP = 0.05 kg m-2 to 30 % at LWP = 1 kg m-2. The MFE of IWV for IWV > 3 kg m-2 is 5 to 8 %. The SIWP retrieval strongly benefits from submillimeter channels, which reduce the MFE by a factor of 2, compared to pure microwave retrievals. The IWV and the LWP retrievals also benefit from submillimeter channels, albeit to a lesser degree. The retrieval was applied to ISMAR and MARSS brightness temperatures from FAAM flight B897 on 18 March 2015 of a precipitating frontal system west of the coast of Iceland. Considering the given uncertainties, the retrieval is in reasonable agreement with the SIWP, LWP, and IWV values simulated by the ICON NWP model for that flight. A comparison of the retrieved IWV with IWV from 12 dropsonde measurements shows an offset of 0.5 kg m-2 and an RMS difference of 0.8 kg m-2, showing that the retrieval of IWV is highly effective even under cloudy conditions.

  5. Trend patterns in global sea surface temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, S.M.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2009-01-01

    Isolating long-term trend in sea surface temperature (SST) from El Nino southern oscillation (ENSO) variability is fundamental for climate studies. In the present study, trend-empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, a robust space-time method for extracting trend patterns, is applied to iso...

  6. Respiratory alkalosis and primary hypocapnia in Labrador Retrievers participating in field trials in high-ambient-temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiss, Janet E; Wright, James C

    2008-10-01

    To determine whether Labrador Retrievers participating in field trials develop respiratory alkalosis and hypocapnia primarily in conditions of high ambient temperatures. 16 Labrador Retrievers. At each of 5 field trials, 5 to 10 dogs were monitored during a test (retrieval of birds over a variable distance on land [1,076 to 2,200 m]; 36 assessments); ambient temperatures ranged from 2.2 degrees to 29.4 degrees C. For each dog, rectal temperature was measured and a venous blood sample was collected in a heparinized syringe within 5 minutes of test completion. Blood samples were analyzed on site for Hct; pH; sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, glucose, lactate, bicarbonate, and total CO2 concentrations; and values of PvO2 and PvCO2. Scatterplots of each variable versus ambient temperature were reviewed. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of ambient temperature ( 21 degrees C) on each variable. Compared with findings at ambient temperatures 21 degrees C; rectal temperature did not differ. Two dogs developed signs of heat stress in 1 test at an ambient temperature of 29 degrees C; their rectal temperatures were higher and PvCO2 values were lower than findings in other dogs. When running distances frequently encountered at field trials, healthy Labrador Retrievers developed hyperthermia regardless of ambient temperature. Dogs developed respiratory alkalosis and hypocapnia at ambient temperatures > 21 degrees C.

  7. GHRSST Level 2P Global Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the MetOp-A satellite produced by EUMETSAT (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global 1 km Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated...

  8. GHRSST Level 2P Global skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the Metop-B satellite (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in real-time...

  9. GHRSST Level 2P Global skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the Metop-A satellite (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global 1 km Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated...

  10. GHRSST Level 2P Global 1m Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-18 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  11. GHRSST Level 2P Global 1m Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the MetOp-B satellite produced by NAVO (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  12. GHRSST Level 2P sub-skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on Metop satellites (currently Metop-A) (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global 1 km Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated...

  13. GHRSST Level 2P Regional 1m Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-19 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  14. GHRSST Level 2P sub-skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on Metop satellites (currently Metop-B) (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global 1 km Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated...

  15. GHRSST Level 2P Global 1m Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the MetOp-A satellite produced by NAVO (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  16. GHRSST Level 2P Global 1m Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-19 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  17. Temperature effect on surface oxidation of titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaquilla, I.; Barco, J.L. del; Ferron, J.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the first stages of the superficial oxidation of polycrystalline titanium was studied using both Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and emission shreshold (AEAPS). The number of compounds present on the surface was determined by application of the factor analysis technique. Reaction evolution was followed through the relative variation of Auger LMM and LMV transitions which are characteristic of titanium. Also the evolution of the chemical shift was determined by AEAPS. The amount of oxygen on the surface was quantified using transition KLL of oxygen. It was found that superficial oxidation depends on temperature. As much as three different compounds were determined according to substrate temperature and our exposure ranges. (Author). 7 refs., 5 figs

  18. ALMA observation of Ceres' Surface Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, T. N.; Li, J. Y.; Sykes, M. V.; Ip, W. H.; Lai, I.; Moullet, A.

    2016-12-01

    Ceres, the largest object in the main asteroid belt, has been mapped by the Dawn spacecraft. The mapping includes measuring surface temperatures using the Visible and Infrared (VIR) spectrometer at high spatial resolution. However, the VIR instrument has a long wavelength cutoff at 5 μm, which prevents the accurate measurement of surface temperatures below 180 K. This restricts temperature determinations to low and mid-latitudes at mid-day. Observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) [1], while having lower spatial resolution, are sensitive to the full range of surface temperatures that are expected at Ceres. Forty reconstructed images at 75 km/beam resolution were acquired of Ceres that were consistent with a low thermal inertia surface. The diurnal temperature profiles were compared to the KRC thermal model [2, 3], which has been extensively used for Mars [e.g. 4, 5]. Variations in temperature as a function of local time are observed and are compared to predictions from the KRC model. The model temperatures are converted to radiance (Jy/Steradian) and are corrected for near-surface thermal gradients and limb effects for comparison to observations. Initial analysis is consistent with the presence of near-surface water ice in the north polar region. The edge of the ice table is between 50° and 70° North Latitude, consistent with the enhanced detection of hydrogen by the Dawn GRaND instrument [6]. Further analysis will be presented. This work is supported by the NASA Solar System Observations Program. References: [1] Wootten A. et al. (2015) IAU General Assembly, Meeting #29, #2237199 [2] Kieffer, H. H., et al. (1977) JGR, 82, 4249-4291. [3] Kieffer, Hugh H., (2013) Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 118(3), 451-470. [4] Titus, T. N., H. H. Kieffer, and P. N. Christensen (2003) Science, 299, 1048-1051. [5] Fergason, R. L. et al. (2012) Space Sci. Rev, 170, 739-773[6] Prettyman, T. et al. (2016) LPSC 47, #2228.

  19. Validation of Land Surface Temperature from Sentinel-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghent, D.

    2017-12-01

    One of the main objectives of the Sentinel-3 mission is to measure sea- and land-surface temperature with high-end accuracy and reliability in support of environmental and climate monitoring in an operational context. Calibration and validation are thus key criteria for operationalization within the framework of the Sentinel-3 Mission Performance Centre (S3MPC). Land surface temperature (LST) has a long heritage of satellite observations which have facilitated our understanding of land surface and climate change processes, such as desertification, urbanization, deforestation and land/atmosphere coupling. These observations have been acquired from a variety of satellite instruments on platforms in both low-earth orbit and in geostationary orbit. Retrieval accuracy can be a challenge though; surface emissivities can be highly variable owing to the heterogeneity of the land, and atmospheric effects caused by the presence of aerosols and by water vapour absorption can give a bias to the underlying LST. As such, a rigorous validation is critical in order to assess the quality of the data and the associated uncertainties. Validation of the level-2 SL_2_LST product, which became freely available on an operational basis from 5th July 2017 builds on an established validation protocol for satellite-based LST. This set of guidelines provides a standardized framework for structuring LST validation activities. The protocol introduces a four-pronged approach which can be summarised thus: i) in situ validation where ground-based observations are available; ii) radiance-based validation over sites that are homogeneous in emissivity; iii) intercomparison with retrievals from other satellite sensors; iv) time-series analysis to identify artefacts on an interannual time-scale. This multi-dimensional approach is a necessary requirement for assessing the performance of the LST algorithm for the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) which is designed around biome

  20. Development of an Aerosol Opacity Retrieval Algorithm for Use with Multi-Angle Land Surface Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, D.; Paradise, S.; Martonchik, J.

    1994-01-01

    In 1998, the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) will fly aboard the EOS-AM1 spacecraft. MISR will enable unique methods for retrieving the properties of atmospheric aerosols, by providing global imagery of the Earth at nine viewing angles in four visible and near-IR spectral bands. As part of the MISR algorithm development, theoretical methods of analyzing multi-angle, multi-spectral data are being tested using images acquired by the airborne Advanced Solid-State Array Spectroradiometer (ASAS). In this paper we derive a method to be used over land surfaces for retrieving the change in opacity between spectral bands, which can then be used in conjunction with an aerosol model to derive a bound on absolute opacity.

  1. Coincident Retrieval of Ocean Surface Roughness and Salinity Using Airborne and Satellite Microwave Radiometry and Reflectometry Measurements during the Carolina Offshore (Caro) Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrage, D. M.; Wesson, J. C.; Wang, D. W.; Garrison, J. L.; Zhang, H.

    2017-12-01

    The launch of the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) constellation of 8 microsats carrying GPS L-band reflectometers on 15 Dec., 2016, and continued operation of the L-band radiometer on the European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite, allow these complementary technologies to coincidentally retrieve Ocean surface roughness (Mean Square Slope, MSS), Surface Wind speed (WSP), and Sea Surface Salinity (SSS). The Carolina Offshore (Caro) airborne experiment was conducted jointly by NRL SSC and Purdue University from 7-11 May, 2017 with the goal of under-flying CYGNSS and SMOS and overflying NOAA buoys, to obtain high-resolution reflectometer and radiometer data for combined retrieval of MSS, SSS and WSP on the continental shelf. Airborne instruments included NRL's Salinity Temperature and Roughness Remote Scanner (STARRS) L-, C- and IR-band radiometer system, and a 4-channel dual-pol L-band (GPS) and S-band (XM radio) reflectometer, built by Purdue University. Flights either crossed NOAA buoys on various headings, or intersected with specular point ground tracks at predicted CYGNSS overpass times. Prevailing winds during Caro were light to moderate (1-8 m/s), so specular returns dominated the reflectometer Delay Doppler Maps (DDMs), and MSS was generally low. In contrast, stronger winds (1-12 m/s) and rougher seas (wave heights 1-5 m) were experienced during the preceding Maine Offshore (Maineo) experiment in March, 2016. Several DDM observables were used to retrieve MSS and WSP, and radiometer brightness temperatures produced Sea Surface Temperature (SST), SSS and also WSP estimates. The complementary relationship of Kirchoff's formula e+r=1, between radiometric emissivity, e, and reflectivity, r, was exploited to seek consistent estimates of MSS, and use it to correct the SSS retrievals for sea surface roughness effects. The relative performance and utility of the various airborne and satellite retrieval algorithms

  2. NOAA JPSS Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MIRS) Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) Precipitation and Surface Products from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains two-dimensional precipitation and surface products from the JPSS Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MIRS) using sensor data from the...

  3. Hot surface temperatures of domestic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Malcolm; Arild, Anne-Helene

    2002-09-01

    Domestic appliances are burning people. In the European Union, accidents requiring hospital treatment due to burns from hot objects account for between 0 and 1% of all such accidents. Young children are particularly at risk. These reported accidents requiring hospital treatment are also likely to be a small proportion of the total number of burns from hot objects. There is a lack of hard evidence about the level of accidents, typical consumer expectation and use, and on the state of the art of appliances. Results of technical laboratory tests carried out on products are used to demonstrate the state of the art and also show how consumer expectations could be changing. Results of a survey into accidents, based on a written questionnaire following telephone contact, provide information on non-hospital cases. Results of tests on products show that there are significant differences in the temperatures of touchable surfaces, even in products of the same type. Typically, these differences are due to variations in design and/or materials of construction. Some products are hot enough to burn skin. Accident research indicates that non-hospital medical practices are treating burn injuries, which are therefore not being included into the current accident statistics. For products with the same function, some types of design or materials of construction are safer, with lower surface temperatures. Many product standards have no or unnecessarily high limits on surface temperatures. Many standards do not address the realities of who is using their products, for what purpose or where they are located. Some standards use unreasonable general limitations and exclusions that allow products with higher surface temperatures than they should have. Many standards rely on the experience factor for avoiding injury that is no longer valid, with the increased availability of safer products of the same type. A major field of work ahead is to carry out more surveys and in-depth studies of non

  4. Ensemble forecasts of road surface temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokol, Zbyněk; Bližňák, Vojtěch; Sedlák, Pavel; Zacharov, Petr, jr.; Pešice, Petr; Škuthan, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 187, 1 May (2017), s. 33-41 ISSN 0169-8095 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S; GA TA ČR(CZ) TA01031509 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : ensemble prediction * road surface temperature * road weather forecast Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 3.778, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169809516307311

  5. LOFT fuel rod surface temperature measurement testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, A.M.; Tolman, E.L.; Solbrig, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Testing of the LOFT fuel rod cladding surface thermocouples has been performed to evaluate how accurately the LOFT thermocouples measure the cladding surface temperature during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) sequence and what effect, if any, the thermocouple would have on core performance. Extensive testing has been done to characterize the thermocouple design. Thermal cycling and corrosion testing of the thermocouple weld design have provided an expected lifetime of 6000 hours when exposed to reactor coolant conditions of 620 K and 15.9 MPa and to sixteen thermal cycles with an initial temperature of 480 K and peak temperatures ranging from 870 to 1200K. Departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) tests have indicated a DNB penalty (5 to 28% lower) during steady state operation and negligible effects during LOCA blowdown caused by the LOFT fuel rod surface thermocouple arrangement. Experience with the thermocouple design in Power Burst Facility (PBF) and LOFT nonnuclear blowdown testing has been quite satisfactory. Tests discussed here were conducted using both stainless steel and zircaloy-clad electrically heated rod in the LOFT Test Support Facility (LTSF) blowdown simulation loop

  6. Leaf Surface Effects on Retrieving Chlorophyll Content from Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Feng; Chen, JingMing; Ju, Weimin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Qian

    2017-04-01

    Light reflected directly from the leaf surface without entering the surface layer is not influenced by leaf internal biochemical content. Leaf surface reflectance varies from leaf to leaf due to differences in the surface roughness features and is relatively more important in strong absorption spectral regions. Therefore it introduces dispersion of data points in the relationship between biochemical concentration and reflectance (especially in the visible region). Separation of surface from total leaf reflection is important to improve the link between leaf pigments content and remote sensing data. This study aims to estimate leaf surface reflectance from hyperspectral remote sensing data and retrieve chlorophyll content by inverting a modified PROSPECT model. Considering leaf surface reflectance is almost the same in the visible and near infrared spectral regions, a surface layer with a reflectance independent of wavelength but varying from leaf to leaf was added to the PROSPECT model. The specific absorption coefficients of pigments were recalibrated. Then the modified model was inverted on independent datasets to check the performance of the model in predicting the chlorophyll content. Results show that differences in estimated surface layer reflectance of various species are noticeable. Surface reflectance of leaves with epicuticular waxes and trichomes is usually higher than other samples. Reconstruction of leaf reflectance and transmittance in the 400-1000 nm wavelength region using the modified PROSPECT model is excellent with low root mean square error (RMSE) and bias. Improvements for samples with high surface reflectance (e.g. maize) are significant, especially for high pigment leaves. Moreover, chlorophyll retrieved from inversion of the modified model is consequently improved (RMSE from 5.9-13.3 ug/cm2 with mean value 8.1 ug/cm2, while mean correlation coefficient is 0.90) compared to results of PROSPECT-5 (RMSE from 9.6-20.2 ug/cm2 with mean value 13

  7. Stratospheric Impact of Varying Sea Surface Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Nielsen, Jon E.; Waugh, Darryn; Pawson, Steven

    2004-01-01

    The Finite-Volume General Circulation Model (FVGCM) has been run in 50 year simulations with the: 1) 1949-1999 Hadley Centre sea surface temperatures (SST), and 2) a fixed annual cycle of SSTs. In this presentation we first show that the 1949-1999 FVGCM simulation produces a very credible stratosphere in comparison to an NCEP/NCAR reanalysis climatology. In particular, the northern hemisphere has numerous major and minor stratospheric warming, while the southern hemisphere has only a few over the 50-year simulation. During the northern hemisphere winter, temperatures are both warmer in the lower stratosphere and the polar vortex is weaker than is found in the mid-winter southern hemisphere. Mean temperature differences in the lower stratosphere are shown to be small (less than 2 K), and planetary wave forcing is found to be very consistent with the climatology. We then will show the differences between our varying SST simulation and the fixed SST simulation in both the dynamics and in two parameterized trace gases (ozone and methane). In general, differences are found to be small, with subtle changes in planetary wave forcing that lead to reduced temperatures in the SH and increased temperatures in the NH.

  8. Surface soil moisture retrievals from remote sensing: Current status, products & future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, George P.; Ireland, Gareth; Barrett, Brian

    Advances in Earth Observation (EO) technology, particularly over the last two decades, have shown that soil moisture content (SMC) can be measured to some degree or other by all regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and a variety of techniques have been proposed to facilitate this purpose. In this review we provide a synthesis of the efforts made during the last 20 years or so towards the estimation of surface SMC exploiting EO imagery, with a particular emphasis on retrievals from microwave sensors. Rather than replicating previous overview works, we provide a comprehensive and critical exploration of all the major approaches employed for retrieving SMC in a range of different global ecosystems. In this framework, we consider the newest techniques developed within optical and thermal infrared remote sensing, active and passive microwave domains, as well as assimilation or synergistic approaches. Future trends and prospects of EO for the accurate determination of SMC from space are subject to key challenges, some of which are identified and discussed within. It is evident from this review that there is potential for more accurate estimation of SMC exploiting EO technology, particularly so, by exploring the use of synergistic approaches between a variety of EO instruments. Given the importance of SMC in Earth's land surface interactions and to a large range of applications, one can appreciate that its accurate estimation is critical in addressing key scientific and practical challenges in today's world such as food security, sustainable planning and management of water resources. The launch of new, more sophisticated satellites strengthens the development of innovative research approaches and scientific inventions that will result in a range of pioneering and ground-breaking advancements in the retrievals of soil moisture from space.

  9. GHRSST Level 3C North Atlantic Regional (NAR) subskin Sea Surface Temperature from SNPP/VIIRS (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 3 Collated (L3C) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) based on retrievals from the...

  10. GHRSST Level 2P 1 m Depth Global Sea Surface Temperature from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi NPP satellite (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on retrievals from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)....

  11. Eye surface temperature detects stress response in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikkatai, Yuko; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2015-08-05

    Previous studies have suggested that stressors not only increase body core temperature but also body surface temperature in many animals. However, it remains unclear whether surface temperature could be used as an alternative to directly measure body core temperature, particularly in birds. We investigated whether surface temperature is perceived as a stress response in budgerigars. Budgerigars have been used as popular animal models to investigate various neural mechanisms such as visual perception, vocal learning, and imitation. Developing a new technique to understand the basic physiological mechanism would help neuroscience researchers. First, we found that cloacal temperature correlated with eye surface temperature. Second, eye surface temperature increased after handling stress. Our findings suggest that eye surface temperature is closely related to cloacal temperature and that the stress response can be measured by eye surface temperature in budgerigars.

  12. Performance of the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM for temperature, water vapor, and trace gas retrievals: recent updates evaluated with IASI case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Alvarado

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern data assimilation algorithms depend on accurate infrared spectroscopy in order to make use of the information related to temperature, water vapor (H2O, and other trace gases provided by satellite observations. Reducing the uncertainties in our knowledge of spectroscopic line parameters and continuum absorption is thus important to improve the application of satellite data to weather forecasting. Here we present the results of a rigorous validation of spectroscopic updates to an advanced radiative transfer model, the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM, against a global dataset of 120 near-nadir, over-ocean, nighttime spectra from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI. We compare calculations from the latest version of LBLRTM (v12.1 to those from a previous version (v9.4+ to determine the impact of spectroscopic updates to the model on spectral residuals as well as retrieved temperature and H2O profiles. We show that the spectroscopy in the CO2 ν2 and ν3 bands is significantly improved in LBLRTM v12.1 relative to v9.4+, and that these spectroscopic updates lead to mean changes of ~0.5 K in the retrieved vertical temperature profiles between the surface and 10 hPa, with the sign of the change and the variability among cases depending on altitude. We also find that temperature retrievals using each of these two CO2 bands are remarkably consistent in LBLRTM v12.1, potentially allowing these bands to be used to retrieve atmospheric temperature simultaneously. The updated H2O spectroscopy in LBLRTM v12.1 substantially improves the a posteriori residuals in the P-branch of the H2O ν2 band, while the improvements in the R-branch are more modest. The H2O amounts retrieved with LBLRTM v12.1 are on average 14% lower between 100 and 200 hPa, 42% higher near 562 hPa, and 31% higher near the surface compared to the amounts retrieved with v9.4+ due to a combination of the different retrieved temperature profiles and the

  13. Surface temperatures in the polar regions from Nimbus 7 temperature humidity infrared radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    1994-01-01

    Monthly surface temperatures in the Arctic and Antarctic regions have been derived from the 11.5 micrometer thermal infrared channel of the Nimbus 7 temperature humidity infrared radiometer (THIR) for a whole year in 1979 and for a winter and a summer month from 1980 through 1985. The data set shows interannual variability and provides spatial details that allow identification of temperature patterns over sea ice and ice sheet surfaces. For example, the coldest spot in the southern hemisphere is observed to be consistently in the Antarctic plateau in the southern hemisphere, while that in the northern hemisphere is usually located in Greenland, or one of three other general areas: Siberia, the central Arctic, or the Canadian Archipelago. Also, in the southern hemisphere, the amplitude of the seasonal fluctuation of ice sheet temperatures is about 3 times that of sea ice, while in the northern hemisphere, the corresponding fluctuations for the two surfaces are about the same. The main sources of error in the retrieval are cloud and other atmospheric effects. These were minimized by first choosing the highest radiance value from the set of measurements during the day taken within a 30 km by 30 km grid of each daily map. Then the difference of daily maps was taken and where the difference is greater than a certain threshold (which in this case is 12 C), the data element is deleted. Overall, the monthly maps derived from the resulting daily maps are spatially and temporally consistent, are coherent with the topograph y of the Antarctic continent and the location of the sea ice edge, and are in qualitative agreement with climatological data. Quantitatively, THIR data are in good agreement with Antarctic ice sheet surface air temperature station data with a correlation coefficient of 0.997 and a standard deviation of 2.0 C. The absolute values are not as good over the sea ice edges, but a comparison with Russian 2-m drift station temperatures shows very high correlation

  14. Analysis of relationships between land surface temperature and land use changes in the Yellow River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jicai; Gao, Zhiqiang; Meng, Ran; Xu, Fuxiang; Gao, Meng

    2018-06-01

    This study analyzed land use and land cover changes and their impact on land surface temperature using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager and Thermal Infrared Sensor imagery of the Yellow River Delta. Six Landsat images comprising two time series were used to calculate the land surface temperature and correlated vegetation indices. The Yellow River Delta area has expanded substantially because of the deposited sediment carried from upstream reaches of the river. Between 1986 and 2015, approximately 35% of the land use area of the Yellow River Delta has been transformed into salterns and aquaculture ponds. Overall, land use conversion has occurred primarily from poorly utilized land into highly utilized land. To analyze the variation of land surface temperature, a mono-window algorithm was applied to retrieve the regional land surface temperature. The results showed bilinear correlation between land surface temperature and the vegetation indices (i.e., Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Adjusted-Normalized Vegetation Index, Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index, and Modified Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index). Generally, values of the vegetation indices greater than the inflection point mean the land surface temperature and the vegetation indices are correlated negatively, and vice versa. Land surface temperature in coastal areas is affected considerably by local seawater temperature and weather conditions.

  15. Retrieving Marine Inherent Optical Properties from Satellites Using Temperature and Salinity-dependent Backscattering by Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdell, Paul J.; Franz, Bryan Alden; Lefler, Jason Travis; Robinson, Wayne D.; Boss, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Time-series of marine inherent optical properties (IOPs) from ocean color satellite instruments provide valuable data records for studying long-term time changes in ocean ecosystems. Semi-analytical algorithms (SAAs) provide a common method for estimating IOPs from radiometric measurements of the marine light field. Most SAAs assign constant spectral values for seawater absorption and backscattering, assume spectral shape functions of the remaining constituent absorption and scattering components (e.g., phytoplankton, non-algal particles, and colored dissolved organic matter), and retrieve the magnitudes of each remaining constituent required to match the spectral distribution of measured radiances. Here, we explore the use of temperature- and salinity-dependent values for seawater backscattering in lieu of the constant spectrum currently employed by most SAAs. Our results suggest that use of temperature- and salinity-dependent seawater spectra elevate the SAA-derived particle backscattering, reduce the non-algal particles plus colored dissolved organic matter absorption, and leave the derived absorption by phytoplankton unchanged.

  16. Retrieval of an ice water path over the ocean from ISMAR and MARSS millimeter and submillimeter brightness temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brath

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A neural-network-based retrieval method to determine the snow ice water path (SIWP, liquid water path (LWP, and integrated water vapor (IWV from millimeter and submillimeter brightness temperatures, measured by using airborne radiometers (ISMAR and MARSS, is presented. The neural networks were trained by using atmospheric profiles from the ICON numerical weather prediction (NWP model and by radiative transfer simulations using the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS. The basic performance of the retrieval method was analyzed in terms of offset (bias and the median fractional error (MFE, and the benefit of using submillimeter channels was studied in comparison to pure microwave retrievals. The retrieval is offset-free for SIWP  > 0.01 kg m−2, LWP  > 0.1 kg m−2, and IWV  > 3 kg m−2. The MFE of SIWP decreases from 100 % at SIWP  =  0.01 kg m−2 to 20 % at SIWP  =  1 kg m−2 and the MFE of LWP from 100 % at LWP  = 0.05 kg m−2 to 30 % at LWP  =  1 kg m−2. The MFE of IWV for IWV  > 3 kg m−2 is 5 to 8 %. The SIWP retrieval strongly benefits from submillimeter channels, which reduce the MFE by a factor of 2, compared to pure microwave retrievals. The IWV and the LWP retrievals also benefit from submillimeter channels, albeit to a lesser degree. The retrieval was applied to ISMAR and MARSS brightness temperatures from FAAM flight B897 on 18 March 2015 of a precipitating frontal system west of the coast of Iceland. Considering the given uncertainties, the retrieval is in reasonable agreement with the SIWP, LWP, and IWV values simulated by the ICON NWP model for that flight. A comparison of the retrieved IWV with IWV from 12 dropsonde measurements shows an offset of 0.5 kg m−2 and an RMS difference of 0.8 kg m−2, showing that the retrieval of IWV is highly effective even under cloudy conditions.

  17. Sea Surface Temperature Products and Research Associated with GHRSST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser-Weiss, Andrea K.; Minnett, Peter J.; Kaplan, Alexey; Wick, Gary A.; Castro, Sandra; Llewellyn-Jones, David; Merchant, Chris; LeBorgne, Pierre; Beggs, Helen; Donlon, Craig J.

    2012-03-01

    GHRSST serves its user community through the specification of operational Sea Surface Temperature (SST) products (Level 2, Level 3 and Level 4) based on international consensus. Providers of SST data from individual satellites create and deliver GHRSST-compliant near-real time products to a global GHRSST data assembly centre and a long-term stewardship facility. The GHRSST-compliant data include error estimates and supporting data for interpretation. Groups organised within GHRSST perform research on issues relevant to applying SST for air-sea exchange, for instance the Diurnal Variability Working Group (DVWG) analyses the evolution of the skin temperature. Other GHRSST groups concentrate on improving the SST estimate (Estimation and Retrievals Working Group EARWiG) and on improving the error characterization, (Satellite SST Validation Group, ST-VAL) and on improving the methods for SST analysis (Inter-Comparison Technical Advisory Group, IC-TAG). In this presentation we cover the data products and the scientific activities associated with GHRSST which might be relevant for investigating ocean-atmosphere interactions.

  18. A new retrieval algorithm for tropospheric temperature, humidity and pressure profiling based on GNSS radio occultation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, Gottfried; Li, Ying; Scherllin-Pirscher, Barbara; Schwärz, Marc; Schwarz, Jakob; Nielsen, Johannes K.

    2017-04-01

    The GNSS radio occultation (RO) technique is an important remote sensing technique for obtaining thermodynamic profiles of temperature, humidity, and pressure in the Earth's troposphere. However, due to refraction effects of both dry ambient air and water vapor in the troposphere, retrieval of accurate thermodynamic profiles at these lower altitudes is challenging and requires suitable background information in addition to the RO refractivity information. Here we introduce a new moist air retrieval algorithm aiming to improve the quality and robustness of retrieving temperature, humidity and pressure profiles in moist air tropospheric conditions. The new algorithm consists of four steps: (1) use of prescribed specific humidity and its uncertainty to retrieve temperature and its associated uncertainty; (2) use of prescribed temperature and its uncertainty to retrieve specific humidity and its associated uncertainty; (3) use of the previous results to estimate final temperature and specific humidity profiles through optimal estimation; (4) determination of air pressure and density profiles from the results obtained before. The new algorithm does not require elaborated matrix inversions which are otherwise widely used in 1D-Var retrieval algorithms, and it allows a transparent uncertainty propagation, whereby the uncertainties of prescribed variables are dynamically estimated accounting for their spatial and temporal variations. Estimated random uncertainties are calculated by constructing error covariance matrices from co-located ECMWF short-range forecast and corresponding analysis profiles. Systematic uncertainties are estimated by empirical modeling. The influence of regarding or disregarding vertical error correlations is quantified. The new scheme is implemented with static input uncertainty profiles in WEGC's current OPSv5.6 processing system and with full scope in WEGC's next-generation system, the Reference Occultation Processing System (rOPS). Results from

  19. Robot Towed Shortwave Infrared Camera for Specific Surface Area Retrieval of Surface Snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J.; Lines, A.; Ray, L.; Albert, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Optical grain size and specific surface area are key parameters for measuring the atmospheric interactions of snow, as well as tracking metamorphosis and allowing for the ground truthing of remote sensing data. We describe a device using a shortwave infrared camera with changeable optical bandpass filters (centered at 1300 nm and 1550 nm) that can be used to quickly measure the average SSA over an area of 0.25 m^2. The device and method are compared with calculations made from measurements taken with a field spectral radiometer. The instrument is designed to be towed by a small autonomous ground vehicle, and therefore rides above the snow surface on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW) skis.

  20. Retrieval of Surface Lambert Albedos and Aerosols Optical Depths Using OMEGA Near-IR EPF Observations of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincendon, M.; Langevin, Y.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Gondet, B.

    2007-03-01

    We have analyzed five EPF sequences acquired by OMEGA/Mars Express in the near-IR over ice-free and ice-covered surfaces to retrieve simultaneously the Lambert albedo of the surface and the optical depth of aerosols.

  1. Global Land Surface Temperature From the Along-Track Scanning Radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghent, D. J.; Corlett, G. K.; Göttsche, F.-M.; Remedios, J. J.

    2017-11-01

    The Leicester Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) and Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) Processor for LAnd Surface Temperature (LASPLAST) provides global land surface temperature (LST) products from thermal infrared radiance data. In this paper, the state-of-the-art version of LASPLAST, as deployed in the GlobTemperature project, is described and applied to data from the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR). The LASPLAST retrieval formulation for LST is a nadir-only, two-channel, split-window algorithm, based on biome classification, fractional vegetation, and across-track water vapor dependences. It incorporates globally robust retrieval coefficients derived using highly sampled atmosphere profiles. LASPLAST benefits from appropriate spatial resolution auxiliary information and a new probabilistic-based cloud flagging algorithm. For the first time for a satellite-derived LST product, pixel-level uncertainties characterized in terms of random, locally correlated, and systematic components are provided. The new GlobTemperature GT_ATS_2P Version 1.0 product has been validated for 1 year of AATSR data (2009) against in situ measurements acquired from "gold standard reference" stations: Gobabeb, Namibia, and Evora, Portugal; seven Surface Radiation Budget stations, and the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement station at Southern Great Plains. These data show average absolute biases for the GT_ATS_2P Version 1.0 product of 1.00 K in the daytime and 1.08 K in the nighttime. The improvements in data provenance including better accuracy, fully traceable retrieval coefficients, quantified uncertainty, and more detailed information in the new harmonized format of the GT_ATS_2P product will allow for more significant exploitation of the historical LST data record from the ATSRs and a valuable near-real-time service from the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometers (SLSTRs).

  2. Evaluating soil moisture retrievals from ESA’s SMOS and NASA’s SMAP brightness temperature datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yaari, A.; Wigneron, J.-P.; Kerr, Y.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, N.; O’Neill, P. E.; Jackson, T. J.; De Lannoy, G.J.M.; Al Bitar, A; Mialon, A.; Richaume, P.; Walker, JP; Mahmoodi, A.; Yueh, S.

    2018-01-01

    Two satellites are currently monitoring surface soil moisture (SM) using L-band observations: SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity), a joint ESA (European Space Agency), CNES (Centre national d’études spatiales), and CDTI (the Spanish government agency with responsibility for space) satellite launched on November 2, 2009 and SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive), a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) satellite successfully launched in January 2015. In this study, we used a multilinear regression approach to retrieve SM from SMAP data to create a global dataset of SM, which is consistent with SM data retrieved from SMOS. This was achieved by calibrating coefficients of the regression model using the CATDS (Centre Aval de Traitement des Données) SMOS Level 3 SM and the horizontally and vertically polarized brightness temperatures (TB) at 40° incidence angle, over the 2013 – 2014 period. Next, this model was applied to SMAP L3 TB data from Apr 2015 to Jul 2016. The retrieved SM from SMAP (referred to here as SMAP_Reg) was compared to: (i) the operational SMAP L3 SM (SMAP_SCA), retrieved using the baseline Single Channel retrieval Algorithm (SCA); and (ii) the operational SMOSL3 SM, derived from the multiangular inversion of the L-MEB model (L-MEB algorithm) (SMOSL3). This inter-comparison was made against in situ soil moisture measurements from more than 400 sites spread over the globe, which are used here as a reference soil moisture dataset. The in situ observations were obtained from the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN; https://ismn.geo.tuwien.ac.at/) in North of America (PBO_H2O, SCAN, SNOTEL, iRON, and USCRN), in Australia (Oznet), Africa (DAHRA), and in Europe (REMEDHUS, SMOSMANIA, FMI, and RSMN). The agreement was analyzed in terms of four classical statistical criteria: Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), Bias, Unbiased RMSE (UnbRMSE), and correlation coefficient (R). Results of the comparison of these various products with in

  3. Merged Land and Ocean Surface Temperature, Version 3.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The historical Merged Land-Ocean Surface Temperature Analysis (MLOST) is derived from two independent analyses, an Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature...

  4. NOAA Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST), Version 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) dataset is a global monthly sea surface temperature dataset derived from the International...

  5. NOAA Global Surface Temperature Dataset, Version 4.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Global Surface Temperature Dataset (NOAAGlobalTemp) is derived from two independent analyses: the Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST)...

  6. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Reddy, G.V.; Araligidad, N.; Shenoy, Shrikant

    Surface layer temperature inversion occurring in the Bay of Bengal has been addressed. Hydrographic data archived in the Indian Oceanographic Data Center are used to understand various aspects of the temperature inversion of surface layer in the Bay...

  7. Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST), Version 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) dataset is a global monthly sea surface temperature analysis on a 2x2 degree grid derived from the...

  8. Retrieval of sea surface humidity and back radiation from satellite data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe, P.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.

    , access = 'direct') 1039682, access = 'direct') 1039682, access = 'direct') 1039682, access = 'direct') 2079364, access = 'direct') 2079364, access = 'direef) 519841, access = 'direct') react(ll)(T19V(j),j = I, 519841) read(l2)(Tl9HG);j = 1,519841) read...( 13) (T22VG),j = 1,519841) read(14)(T37VG),j = I, 519841) read(15) (T37H(j),j = 1,519841) read(l6)(T85V(j),j = 1, 519841) Retrieval ofSea Surface Humidity and Back Radiation... read(l7)(lat(j),j = I, SI9841) read(18)(lon(j),j = I, S19841) read(19)(tim...

  9. The retrieval of two-dimensional distribution of the earth's surface aerodynamic roughness using SAR image and TM thermal infrared image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Renhua; WANG; Jinfeng; ZHU; Caiying; SUN; Xiaomin

    2004-01-01

    After having analyzed the requirement on the aerodynamic earth's surface roughness in two-dimensional distribution in the research field of interaction between land surface and atmosphere, this paper presents a new way to calculate the aerodynamic roughness using the earth's surface geometric roughness retrieved from SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) and TM thermal infrared image data. On the one hand, the SPM (Small Perturbation Model) was used as a theoretical SAR backscattering model to describe the relationship between the SAR backscattering coefficient and the earth's surface geometric roughness and its dielectric constant retrieved from the physical model between the soil thermal inertia and the soil surface moisture with the simultaneous TM thermal infrared image data and the ground microclimate data. On the basis of the SAR image matching with the TM image, the non-volume scattering surface geometric information was obtained from the SPM model at the TM image pixel scale, and the ground pixel surface's equivalent geometric roughness-height standard RMS (Root Mean Square) was achieved from the geometric information by the transformation of the typical topographic factors. The vegetation (wheat, tree) height retrieved from spectrum model was also transferred into its equivalent geometric roughness. A completely two-dimensional distribution map of the equivalent geometric roughness over the experimental area was produced by the data mosaic technique. On the other hand, according to the atmospheric eddy currents theory, the aerodynamic surface roughness was iterated out with the atmosphere stability correction method using the wind and the temperature profiles data measured at several typical fields such as bare soil field and vegetation field. After having analyzed the effect of surface equivalent geometric roughness together with dynamic and thermodynamic factors on the aerodynamic surface roughness within the working area, this paper first establishes a scale

  10. Estimation of land surface temperature of Kaduna metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of land surface temperature of Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria using landsat images. Isa Zaharaddeen, Ibrahim I. Baba, Ayuba Zachariah. Abstract. Understanding the spatial variation of Land Surface Temperature (LST), will be helpful in urban micro climate studies. This study estimates the land surface temperature ...

  11. Low Temperature Surface Carburization of Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Sunniva R; Heuer, Arthur H; Sikka, Vinod K

    2007-12-07

    Low-temperature colossal supersaturation (LTCSS) is a novel surface hardening method for carburization of austenitic stainless steels (SS) without the precipitation of carbides. The formation of carbides is kinetically suppressed, enabling extremely high or colossal carbon supersaturation. As a result, surface carbon concentrations in excess of 12 at. % are routinely achieved. This treatment increases the surface hardness by a factor of four to five, improving resistance to wear, corrosion, and fatigue, with significant retained ductility. LTCSS is a diffusional surface hardening process that provides a uniform and conformal hardened gradient surface with no risk of delamination or peeling. The treatment retains the austenitic phase and is completely non-magnetic. In addition, because parts are treated at low temperature, they do not distort or change dimensions. During this treatment, carbon diffusion proceeds into the metal at temperatures that constrain substitutional diffusion or mobility between the metal alloy elements. Though immobilized and unable to assemble to form carbides, chromium and similar alloying elements nonetheless draw enormous amounts of carbon into their interstitial spaces. The carbon in the interstitial spaces of the alloy crystals makes the surface harder than ever achieved before by more conventional heat treating or diffusion process. The carbon solid solution manifests a Vickers hardness often exceeding 1000 HV (equivalent to 70 HRC). This project objective was to extend the LTCSS treatment to other austenitic alloys, and to quantify improvements in fatigue, corrosion, and wear resistance. Highlights from the research include the following: • Extension of the applicability of the LTCSS process to a broad range of austenitic and duplex grades of steels • Demonstration of LTCSS ability for a variety of different component shapes and sizes • Detailed microstructural characterization of LTCSS-treated samples of 316L and other alloys

  12. An Information Retrieval Approach for Robust Prediction of Road Surface States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Kwanho

    2017-01-28

    Recently, due to the increasing importance of reducing severe vehicle accidents on roads (especially on highways), the automatic identification of road surface conditions, and the provisioning of such information to drivers in advance, have recently been gaining significant momentum as a proactive solution to decrease the number of vehicle accidents. In this paper, we firstly propose an information retrieval approach that aims to identify road surface states by combining conventional machine-learning techniques and moving average methods. Specifically, when signal information is received from a radar system, our approach attempts to estimate the current state of the road surface based on the similar instances observed previously based on utilizing a given similarity function. Next, the estimated state is then calibrated by using the recently estimated states to yield both effective and robust prediction results. To validate the performances of the proposed approach, we established a real-world experimental setting on a section of actual highway in South Korea and conducted a comparison with the conventional approaches in terms of accuracy. The experimental results show that the proposed approach successfully outperforms the previously developed methods.

  13. Fast protein tertiary structure retrieval based on global surface shape similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sael, Lee; Li, Bin; La, David; Fang, Yi; Ramani, Karthik; Rustamov, Raif; Kihara, Daisuke

    2008-09-01

    Characterization and identification of similar tertiary structure of proteins provides rich information for investigating function and evolution. The importance of structure similarity searches is increasing as structure databases continue to expand, partly due to the structural genomics projects. A crucial drawback of conventional protein structure comparison methods, which compare structures by their main-chain orientation or the spatial arrangement of secondary structure, is that a database search is too slow to be done in real-time. Here we introduce a global surface shape representation by three-dimensional (3D) Zernike descriptors, which represent a protein structure compactly as a series expansion of 3D functions. With this simplified representation, the search speed against a few thousand structures takes less than a minute. To investigate the agreement between surface representation defined by 3D Zernike descriptor and conventional main-chain based representation, a benchmark was performed against a protein classification generated by the combinatorial extension algorithm. Despite the different representation, 3D Zernike descriptor retrieved proteins of the same conformation defined by combinatorial extension in 89.6% of the cases within the top five closest structures. The real-time protein structure search by 3D Zernike descriptor will open up new possibility of large-scale global and local protein surface shape comparison. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Precipitation Processing System (PPS) GPM Mission Gridded Text Products Provide Surface Precipitation Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Erich Franz; Kelley, O.; Kummerow, C.; Huffman, G.; Olson, W.; Kwiatkowski, J.

    2015-01-01

    In February 2015, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission core satellite will complete its first year in space. The core satellite carries a conically scanning microwave imager called the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI), which also has 166 GHz and 183 GHz frequency channels. The GPM core satellite also carries a dual frequency radar (DPR) which operates at Ku frequency, similar to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar, and a new Ka frequency. The precipitation processing system (PPS) is producing swath-based instantaneous precipitation retrievals from GMI, both radars including a dual-frequency product, and a combined GMIDPR precipitation retrieval. These level 2 products are written in the HDF5 format and have many additional parameters beyond surface precipitation that are organized into appropriate groups. While these retrieval algorithms were developed prior to launch and are not optimal, these algorithms are producing very creditable retrievals. It is appropriate for a wide group of users to have access to the GPM retrievals. However, for researchers requiring only surface precipitation, these L2 swath products can appear to be very intimidating and they certainly do contain many more variables than the average researcher needs. Some researchers desire only surface retrievals stored in a simple easily accessible format. In response, PPS has begun to produce gridded text based products that contain just the most widely used variables for each instrument (surface rainfall rate, fraction liquid, fraction convective) in a single line for each grid box that contains one or more observations.This paper will describe the gridded data products that are being produced and provide an overview of their content. Currently two types of gridded products are being produced: (1) surface precipitation retrievals from the core satellite instruments GMI, DPR, and combined GMIDPR (2) surface precipitation retrievals for the partner constellation

  15. estimation of land surface temperature of kaduna metropolis, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zaharaddeen et. al

    Land surface temperature can provide noteworthy information about the surface ... modelling the surface energy balance (Kalma, et al., 2008; ... Landsat, in addition some of the Landsat data have cloud cover and ..... The Impact Of Urban.

  16. AQUA AMSR-E Sea Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentemann, C. L.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's AQUA satellite carries the JAXA's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E). The AQUA satellite was launched in May 2002 into a polar, sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705 km, with a LECT of 1:30 AM/PM. AMSR-E has 12 channels corresponding to 6 frequencies; all except 23.8 GHz measure both vertical and horizontal polarizations. Geophysical retrievals of SST, wind speed, water vapor, cloud liquid water, and rain rates are calculated using a multi-stage linear regression algorithm derived through comprehensive radiative transfer model simulations. SST retrievals are prevented by rain, sun glint, near land emissions, and radio frequency interference due to geostationary satellite broadcasts. Since only a small number of retrievals are unsuccessful, almost complete global coverage is available daily. At high latitudes, where cloud cover regularly prevents infrared observations of SSTs, the microwave observations of SST provide a significant improvement to measurement capabilities. Validation of the datasets through comparison to the global drifting buoy networks yields mean biases of -0.02 K and standard deviations of 0.50 K. AMSR-E SSTs have been widely used for numerical weather prediction, ocean modeling, fisheries, and oceanographic research.

  17. Alkaline phosphatase binds tenaciously to titanium; implications for biological surface evaluation following bone implant retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, J P; Shiel, A I; Harwood, C; Stephens, D

    2017-07-01

    Enhancing the performance and longevity of titanium (Ti) implants continues to be a significant developmental theme in contemporary biomaterials design. Our specific focus pertains to the surface functionalisation of Ti using the bioactive lipid, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and certain phosphatase-resistant analogues of LPA. Coating survivorship to a plethora of testing regimens is required to align with due regulatory process before novel biomaterials can enter clinical trials. One of the key acceptance criteria is coating retention to the physical stresses experienced during implantation. In assessing coating stability to insertion into porcine bone we found that a subsequent in vitro assessment to confirm coating persistence was masked by abundant alkaline phosphatase (ALP) contamination adsorbed to the metal surface. Herein we report that ALP can bind to Ti in a matter of minutes by simply immersing Ti samples in aqueous solutions of the enzyme. We strongly discourage the in vitro monitoring of osteoblast and stromal cell ALP expression when assessing bioactive coating survivorship following Ti implant retrieval form native bone tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. First-guess dependence of a physically based set of temperature-humidity retrievals from HIRS2/MSU data. [High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder 2/Microwave Sounding Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, D.; Susskind, Joel; Pursch, Andrew

    1988-01-01

    The first-guess dependence of temperature and humidity fields retrieved from HIRS2/MSU data using the GLA (Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres) physically based retrieval scheme is examined. Retrievals were performed over the ALPEX region for two successive synoptic periods, 1200 UTC March 4 and 00000 UTC March 5, 1982, using three different initial guesses for each period. Results show rather low first-guess dependence for the thickness fields and larger first-guess dependence for the precipitable water fields, especially close to the surface. The humidity retrieval algorithm used is described. The processing system has the property of maintaining the accuracy of a good guess and improving a poor one for both thickness and precipitable water at all levels.

  19. Error sources in the retrieval of aerosol information over bright surfaces from satellite measurements in the oxygen A band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Swadhin; de Graaf, Martin; Sneep, Maarten; de Haan, Johan F.; Stammes, Piet; Sanders, Abram F. J.; Tuinder, Olaf; Pepijn Veefkind, J.; Levelt, Pieternel F.

    2018-01-01

    Retrieving aerosol optical thickness and aerosol layer height over a bright surface from measured top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectrum in the oxygen A band is known to be challenging, often resulting in large errors. In certain atmospheric conditions and viewing geometries, a loss of sensitivity to aerosol optical thickness has been reported in the literature. This loss of sensitivity has been attributed to a phenomenon known as critical surface albedo regime, which is a range of surface albedos for which the top-of-atmosphere reflectance has minimal sensitivity to aerosol optical thickness. This paper extends the concept of critical surface albedo for aerosol layer height retrievals in the oxygen A band, and discusses its implications. The underlying physics are introduced by analysing the top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectrum as a sum of atmospheric path contribution and surface contribution, obtained using a radiative transfer model. Furthermore, error analysis of an aerosol layer height retrieval algorithm is conducted over dark and bright surfaces to show the dependence on surface reflectance. The analysis shows that the derivative with respect to aerosol layer height of the atmospheric path contribution to the top-of-atmosphere reflectance is opposite in sign to that of the surface contribution - an increase in surface brightness results in a decrease in information content. In the case of aerosol optical thickness, these derivatives are anti-correlated, leading to large retrieval errors in high surface albedo regimes. The consequence of this anti-correlation is demonstrated with measured spectra in the oxygen A band from the GOME-2 instrument on board the Metop-A satellite over the 2010 Russian wildfires incident.

  20. Operational tools and applications of EO satellite data to retrieve surface fluxes in semi-arid countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguy, Maliko

    The objective of the thesis is to develop and evaluate useful tools and applications of Earth Observation (EO) satellite data to estimate surface fluxes in semi-arid countries. In a first part (Chapter 4), we assess the performance of a new parameterisation scheme of ground heat flux (G) to be used in remote sensing (RS) evapotranspiration (ET) estimation methods. The G-parameterisation optimized with AMMA flux data performs well and improves the sensible heat flux (H) and ET retrieved by means of the triangle method (Jiang & Islam, 2001). In a second part (Chapter 5), the triangle method is compared with ET estimated by means of a land surface model (JULES). An attempt is made to calibrate JULES using the triangle method through Monte Carlo simulations, but the two methods supply rather different results, indicating that further intercomparison tasks should be carried out to assess the performance of RS-based algorithms and land surface models in estimating the components of the land surface energy balance. Chapter 6 presents a set of operational examples for retrieving surface fluxes using RS data. The first example is the study of temporal evolution of ET-maps in Western Africa under monsoonal influence. In a second example, we apply the new scheme proposed in Chapter 4 to retrieve and analyse the long term evolution (2000-2009) of the surface energy balance components, G, H and ET at several sites of the Segura Basin (S-E Spain) using MODIS-Terra data (land surface temperature and NDVI). Temporal and spatial distribution of evapotranspiration reveals different controls on ET. (Chapter 6). In the last example, MODIS-Aqua Sea Surface Temperature (SST) is used to validate a mathematical model to retrieve surface fluxes in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Mar Menor, S-E Spain). El objetivo de esta tesis es de desarrollar y evaluar herramientas y aplicaciones de la teledetección para estimar flujos de superficie en zonas semiáridas. En una primera parte (Cap

  1. Optimal estimation of sea surface temperature from AMSR-E

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen-Englyst, Pia; Høyer, Jacob L.; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    2018-01-01

    setup. In addition, updating the forward model, using a multivariate regression model is shown to improve the capability of the forward model to reproduce the observations. The average sensitivity of the OE retrieval is 0.5 and shows a latitudinal dependency with smaller sensitivity for cold waters...... and larger sensitivity for warmer waters. The OE SSTs are evaluated against drifting buoy measurements during 2010. The results show an average difference of 0.02 K with a standard deviation of 0.47 K when considering the 64% matchups, where the simulated and observed brightness temperatures are most...... considering the best 62% of retrievals. The satellite versus in situ discrepancies are highest in the dynamic oceanic regions due to the large satellite footprint size and the associated sampling effects. Uncertainty estimates are available for all retrievals and have been validated to be accurate. They can...

  2. THE EFFECT OF LAND USE CHANGE ON LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE IN THE NETHERLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Youneszadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Netherlands is a small country with a relatively large population which experienced a rapid rate of land use changes from 2000 to 2008 years due to the industrialization and population increase. Land use change is especially related to the urban expansion and open agriculture reduction due to the enhanced economic growth. This research reports an investigation into the application of remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS in combination with statistical methods to provide a quantitative information on the effect of land use change on the land surface temperature. In this study, remote sensing techniques were used to retrieve the land surface temperature (LST by using the MODIS Terra (MOD11A2 Satellite imagery product. As land use change alters the thermal environment, the land surface temperature (LST could be a proper change indicator to show the thermal changes in relation with land use changes. The Geographical information system was further applied to extract the mean yearly land surface temperature (LST for each land use type and each province in the 2003, 2006 and 2008 years, by using the zonal statistic techniques. The results show that, the inland water and offshore area has the highest night land surface temperature (LST. Furthermore, the Zued (South-Holland province has the highest night LST value in the 2003, 2006 and 2008 years. The result of this research will be helpful tool for urban planners and environmental scientists by providing the critical information about the land surface temperature.

  3. Using Paraffin PCM, Cryogel and TEC to Maintain Comet Surface Sample Cold from Earth Approach Through Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2017-01-01

    An innovative thermal design concept to maintain comet surface samples cold (for example, 263 degrees Kelvin, 243 degrees Kelvin or 223 degrees Kelvin) from Earth approach through retrieval is presented. It uses paraffin phase change material (PCM), Cryogel insulation and thermoelectric cooler (TEC), which are commercially available.

  4. Improving the Accuracy of Satellite Sea Surface Temperature Measurements by Explicitly Accounting for the Bulk-Skin Temperature Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Gary A.; Emery, William J.; Castro, Sandra L.; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this research was to determine whether the accuracy of satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST) could be improved by explicitly accounting for the complex temperature gradients at the surface of the ocean associated with the cool skin and diurnal warm layers. To achieve this goal, work was performed in two different major areas. The first centered on the development and deployment of low-cost infrared radiometers to enable the direct validation of satellite measurements of skin temperature. The second involved a modeling and data analysis effort whereby modeled near-surface temperature profiles were integrated into the retrieval of bulk SST estimates from existing satellite data. Under the first work area, two different seagoing infrared radiometers were designed and fabricated and the first of these was deployed on research ships during two major experiments. Analyses of these data contributed significantly to the Ph.D. thesis of one graduate student and these results are currently being converted into a journal publication. The results of the second portion of work demonstrated that, with presently available models and heat flux estimates, accuracy improvements in SST retrievals associated with better physical treatment of the near-surface layer were partially balanced by uncertainties in the models and extra required input data. While no significant accuracy improvement was observed in this experiment, the results are very encouraging for future applications where improved models and coincident environmental data will be available. These results are included in a manuscript undergoing final review with the Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology.

  5. Combined retrieval of Arctic liquid water cloud and surface snow properties using airborne spectral solar remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, André; Bierwirth, Eike; Istomina, Larysa; Wendisch, Manfred

    2017-09-01

    The passive solar remote sensing of cloud properties over highly reflecting ground is challenging, mostly due to the low contrast between the cloud reflectivity and that of the underlying surfaces (sea ice and snow). Uncertainties in the retrieved cloud optical thickness τ and cloud droplet effective radius reff, C may arise from uncertainties in the assumed spectral surface albedo, which is mainly determined by the generally unknown effective snow grain size reff, S. Therefore, in a first step the effects of the assumed snow grain size are systematically quantified for the conventional bispectral retrieval technique of τ and reff, C for liquid water clouds. In general, the impact of uncertainties of reff, S is largest for small snow grain sizes. While the uncertainties of retrieved τ are independent of the cloud optical thickness and solar zenith angle, the bias of retrieved reff, C increases for optically thin clouds and high Sun. The largest deviations between the retrieved and true original values are found with 83 % for τ and 62 % for reff, C. In the second part of the paper a retrieval method is presented that simultaneously derives all three parameters (τ, reff, C, reff, S) and therefore accounts for changes in the snow grain size. Ratios of spectral cloud reflectivity measurements at the three wavelengths λ1 = 1040 nm (sensitive to reff, S), λ2 = 1650 nm (sensitive to τ), and λ3 = 2100 nm (sensitive to reff, C) are combined in a trispectral retrieval algorithm. In a feasibility study, spectral cloud reflectivity measurements collected by the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation measurement sysTem (SMART) during the research campaign Vertical Distribution of Ice in Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds (VERDI, April/May 2012) were used to test the retrieval procedure. Two cases of observations above the Canadian Beaufort Sea, one with dense snow-covered sea ice and another with a distinct snow-covered sea ice edge are analysed. The retrieved values of τ, reff

  6. Combined retrieval of Arctic liquid water cloud and surface snow properties using airborne spectral solar remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ehrlich

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The passive solar remote sensing of cloud properties over highly reflecting ground is challenging, mostly due to the low contrast between the cloud reflectivity and that of the underlying surfaces (sea ice and snow. Uncertainties in the retrieved cloud optical thickness τ and cloud droplet effective radius reff, C may arise from uncertainties in the assumed spectral surface albedo, which is mainly determined by the generally unknown effective snow grain size reff, S. Therefore, in a first step the effects of the assumed snow grain size are systematically quantified for the conventional bispectral retrieval technique of τ and reff, C for liquid water clouds. In general, the impact of uncertainties of reff, S is largest for small snow grain sizes. While the uncertainties of retrieved τ are independent of the cloud optical thickness and solar zenith angle, the bias of retrieved reff, C increases for optically thin clouds and high Sun. The largest deviations between the retrieved and true original values are found with 83 % for τ and 62 % for reff, C.In the second part of the paper a retrieval method is presented that simultaneously derives all three parameters (τ, reff, C, reff, S and therefore accounts for changes in the snow grain size. Ratios of spectral cloud reflectivity measurements at the three wavelengths λ1 = 1040 nm (sensitive to reff, S, λ2 = 1650 nm (sensitive to τ, and λ3 = 2100 nm (sensitive to reff, C are combined in a trispectral retrieval algorithm. In a feasibility study, spectral cloud reflectivity measurements collected by the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation measurement sysTem (SMART during the research campaign Vertical Distribution of Ice in Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds (VERDI, April/May 2012 were used to test the retrieval procedure. Two cases of observations above the Canadian Beaufort Sea, one with dense snow-covered sea ice and another with a distinct snow-covered sea ice

  7. Characterisation of the surface topography, tomography and chemistry of fretting corrosion product found on retrieved polished femoral stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, M; Ward, M; Farrar, R; Freeman, R; Brummitt, K; Nolan, J; Neville, A

    2014-04-01

    This study presents the characterisation of the surface topography, tomography and chemistry of fretting corrosion product found on retrieved polished femoral stems. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FI-IR) were utilised in order to assess the surface morphology of retrieved Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Replacements and surface chemistry of the films found on the surface. Gross slip, plastic deformation and directionality of the surface were extensively seen on the proximal surfaces of the retrievals. A more corrosive phenomenon was observed in the distal regions of the stem, demonstrating a seemingly intergranular attack. Tribochemical reactions were seen to occur within the stem-cement interfaces with tribofilms being observed on the femoral stem and counterpart PMMA bone cement. XPS, TEM-EDX and FT-IR analyses demonstrated that the films present in the stem surfaces were a complex mixture of chromium oxide and amorphous organic material. A comparison between current experimental and clinical literature has been conducted and findings from this study demonstrate that the formation and chemistry of films are drastically influenced by the type of wear or degradation mechanism. Films formed in the stem-cement interface are thought to further influence the biological environment outside the stem-cement interface due to the formation of Cr and O rich films within the interface whilst Co is free to migrate away. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Improved Temperature Sounding and Quality Control Methodology Using AIRS/AMSU Data: The AIRS Science Team Version 5 Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John M.; Iredell, Lena; Keita, Fricky

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm in terms of its three most significant improvements over the methodology used in the AIRS Science Team Version 4 retrieval algorithm. Improved physics in Version 5 allows for use of AIRS clear column radiances in the entire 4.3 micron CO2 absorption band in the retrieval of temperature profiles T(p) during both day and night. Tropospheric sounding 15 micron CO2 observations are now used primarily in the generation of clear column radiances .R(sub i) for all channels. This new approach allows for the generation of more accurate values of .R(sub i) and T(p) under most cloud conditions. Secondly, Version 5 contains a new methodology to provide accurate case-by-case error estimates for retrieved geophysical parameters and for channel-by-channel clear column radiances. Thresholds of these error estimates are used in a new approach for Quality Control. Finally, Version 5 also contains for the first time an approach to provide AIRS soundings in partially cloudy conditions that does not require use of any microwave data. This new AIRS Only sounding methodology, referred to as AIRS Version 5 AO, was developed as a backup to AIRS Version 5 should the AMSU-A instrument fail. Results are shown comparing the relative performance of the AIRS Version 4, Version 5, and Version 5 AO for the single day, January 25, 2003. The Goddard DISC is now generating and distributing products derived using the AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm. This paper also described the Quality Control flags contained in the DISC AIRS/AMSU retrieval products and their intended use for scientific research purposes.

  9. How to apply the optimal estimation method to your lidar measurements for improved retrievals of temperature and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, R. J.; Haefele, A.; Jalali, A.; Gamage, S.; Farhani, G.

    2018-04-01

    The optimal estimation method (OEM) has a long history of use in passive remote sensing, but has only recently been applied to active instruments like lidar. The OEM's advantage over traditional techniques includes obtaining a full systematic and random uncertainty budget plus the ability to work with the raw measurements without first applying instrument corrections. In our meeting presentation we will show you how to use the OEM for temperature and composition retrievals for Rayleigh-scatter, Ramanscatter and DIAL lidars.

  10. Near-surface temperature inversion during summer at Summit, Greenland, and its relation to MODIS-derived surface temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Alden C.; Albert, Mary R.; Hall, Dorothy K.

    2018-03-01

    As rapid warming of the Arctic occurs, it is imperative that climate indicators such as temperature be monitored over large areas to understand and predict the effects of climate changes. Temperatures are traditionally tracked using in situ 2 m air temperatures and can also be assessed using remote sensing techniques. Remote sensing is especially valuable over the Greenland Ice Sheet, where few ground-based air temperature measurements exist. Because of the presence of surface-based temperature inversions in ice-covered areas, differences between 2 m air temperature and the temperature of the actual snow surface (referred to as skin temperature) can be significant and are particularly relevant when considering validation and application of remote sensing temperature data. We present results from a field campaign extending from 8 June to 18 July 2015, near Summit Station in Greenland, to study surface temperature using the following measurements: skin temperature measured by an infrared (IR) sensor, 2 m air temperature measured by a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) meteorological station, and a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface temperature product. Our data indicate that 2 m air temperature is often significantly higher than snow skin temperature measured in situ, and this finding may account for apparent biases in previous studies of MODIS products that used 2 m air temperature for validation. This inversion is present during our study period when incoming solar radiation and wind speed are both low. As compared to our in situ IR skin temperature measurements, after additional cloud masking, the MOD/MYD11 Collection 6 surface temperature standard product has an RMSE of 1.0 °C and a mean bias of -0.4 °C, spanning a range of temperatures from -35 to -5 °C (RMSE = 1.6 °C and mean bias = -0.7 °C prior to cloud masking). For our study area and time series, MODIS surface temperature products agree with skin surface

  11. ASTER-Derived High-Resolution Ice Surface Temperature for the Arctic Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sun Son

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ice surface temperature (IST controls the rate of sea ice growth and the heat exchange between the atmosphere and ocean. In this study, high-resolution IST using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER thermal infrared region (TIR images was retrieved to observe the thermal change of coastal sea ice. The regression coefficients of the multi-channel equation using ASTER brightness temperatures ( B T and MODIS ISTs were derived. MODIS IST products (MOD29 were used as an in situ temperature substitute. The ASTER IST using five channels from band 10 ( B T 10 to band 14 ( B T 14 showed an RMSE of 0.746 K for the validation images on the Alaskan coast. The uncertainty of the two-channel ( B T 13 and B T 14 ASTER IST was 0.497 K, which was better than that of the five-channel. We thus concluded that the two-channel equation using ASTER B T 13 and B T 14 was an optimal model for the surface temperature retrieval of coastal sea ice. The two-channel ASTER IST showed similar accuracy at higher latitudes than in Alaska. Therefore, ASTER-derived IST with 90 m spatial resolution can be used to observe small-scale thermal variations on the sea ice surface along the Arctic coast.

  12. Precambrian Surface Temperatures and Molecular Phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, David; Lineweaver, Charles H.

    2004-06-01

    The timing of emergence of major organismal groups is consistent with the climatic temperature being equal to their upper temperature limit of growth (T_{max}), implying a temperature constraint on the evolution of each group, with the climatic temperature inferred from the oxygen isotope record of marine cherts. Support for this constraint comes from the correlation of T_{max} with the rRNA molecular phylogenetic distance from the last common ancestor (LCA) for both thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria. In particular, this correlation for hyperthermophilic Archaea suggests a climatic temperature of about 120°C at the time of the LCA, likely in the Hadean.

  13. An improvement of the retrieval of temperature and relative humidity profiles from a combination of active and passive remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Yunfei; Ma, Shuqing; Xing, Fenghua; Li, Siteng; Dai, Yaru

    2018-03-01

    This paper focuses on an improvement of the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and relative humidity profiles through combining active and passive remote sensing. Ground-based microwave radiometer and millimeter-wavelength cloud radar were used to acquire the observations. Cloud base height and cloud thickness determinations from cloud radar were added into the atmospheric profile retrieval process, and a back-propagation neural network method was used as the retrieval tool. Because a substantial amount of data are required to train a neural network, and as microwave radiometer data are insufficient for this purpose, 8 years of radiosonde data from Beijing were used as the database. The monochromatic radiative transfer model was used to calculate the brightness temperatures in the same channels as the microwave radiometer. Parts of the cloud base heights and cloud thicknesses in the training data set were also estimated using the radiosonde data. The accuracy of the results was analyzed through a comparison with L-band sounding radar data and quantified using the mean bias, root-mean-square error (RMSE), and correlation coefficient. The statistical results showed that an inversion with cloud information was the optimal method. Compared with the inversion profiles without cloud information, the RMSE values after adding cloud information reduced to varying degrees for the vast majority of height layers. These reductions were particularly clear in layers with clouds. The maximum reduction in the RMSE for the temperature profile was 2.2 K, while that for the humidity profile was 16%.

  14. Developing first time-series of land surface temperature from AATSR with uncertainty estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghent, Darren; Remedios, John

    2013-04-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is the radiative skin temperature of the land, and is one of the key parameters in the physics of land-surface processes on regional and global scales. Earth Observation satellites provide the opportunity to obtain global coverage of LST approximately every 3 days or less. One such source of satellite retrieved LST has been the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR); with LST retrieval being implemented in the AATSR Instrument Processing Facility in March 2004. Here we present first regional and global time-series of LST data from AATSR with estimates of uncertainty. Mean changes in temperature over the last decade will be discussed along with regional patterns. Although time-series across all three ATSR missions have previously been constructed (Kogler et al., 2012), the use of low resolution auxiliary data in the retrieval algorithm and non-optimal cloud masking resulted in time-series artefacts. As such, considerable ESA supported development has been carried out on the AATSR data to address these concerns. This includes the integration of high resolution auxiliary data into the retrieval algorithm and subsequent generation of coefficients and tuning parameters, plus the development of an improved cloud mask based on the simulation of clear sky conditions from radiance transfer modelling (Ghent et al., in prep.). Any inference on this LST record is though of limited value without the accompaniment of an uncertainty estimate; wherein the Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology quote an uncertainty as "a parameter associated with the result of a measurement that characterizes the dispersion of the values that could reasonably be attributed to the measurand that is the value of the particular quantity to be measured". Furthermore, pixel level uncertainty fields are a mandatory requirement in the on-going preparation of the LST product for the upcoming Sea and Land Surface Temperature (SLSTR) instrument on-board Sentinel-3

  15. Satellite retrieved cloud optical thickness sensitive to surface wind speed in the subarctic marine boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glantz, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The optical and microphysical properties of low level marine clouds, presented over the Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea, have been investigated for the period 2000-2006. The air masses were transported for more or less seven days over the warmer North Atlantic before they arrived at the area investigated. The main focus in this study is on investigating the relationship between cloud optical thickness (COT) and surface wind speed (U 10m ) using satellite retrievals in combination with operational meteorological data. A relatively strong correlation (R 2 = 0.97) is obtained for wind speeds up to 12 m s -1 , in air masses that were probably to a major degree influenced by wind shears and to a minor degree by buoyancy. The relationship (U 2.5 ) is also in between those most commonly found in the literature for water vapor (∼U 1 ) and sea salt (∼U 3.4 ). The present results highlight the magnitude of marine sea-spray influence on COT and their global climatic importance.

  16. Influence of Surface Roughness Spatial Variability and Temporal Dynamics on the Retrieval of Soil Moisture from SAR Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Álvarez-Mozos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Radar-based surface soil moisture retrieval has been subject of intense research during the last decades. However, several difficulties hamper the operational estimation of soil moisture based on currently available spaceborne sensors. The main difficulty experienced so far results from the strong influence of other surface characteristics, mainly roughness, on the backscattering coefficient, which hinders the soil moisture inversion. This is especially true for single configuration observations where the solution to the surface backscattering problem is ill-posed. Over agricultural areas cultivated with winter cereal crops, roughness can be assumed to remain constant along the growing cycle allowing the use of simplified approaches that facilitate the estimation of the moisture content of soils. However, the field scale spatial variability and temporal variations of roughness can introduce errors in the estimation of soil moisture that are difficult to evaluate. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of roughness spatial variability and roughness temporal variations on the retrieval of soil moisture from radar observations. A series of laser profilometer measurements were performed over several fields in an experimental watershed from September 2004 to March 2005. The influence of the observed roughness variability and its temporal variations on the retrieval of soil moisture is studied using simulations performed with the Integral Equation Model, considering different sensor configurations. Results show that both field scale roughness spatial variability and its temporal variations are aspects that need to be taken into account, since they can introduce large errors on the retrieved soil moisture values.

  17. Estimation of surface air temperature over central and eastern Eurasia from MODIS land surface temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G

    2011-01-01

    Surface air temperature (T a ) is a critical variable in the energy and water cycle of the Earth–atmosphere system and is a key input element for hydrology and land surface models. This is a preliminary study to evaluate estimation of T a from satellite remotely sensed land surface temperature (T s ) by using MODIS-Terra data over two Eurasia regions: northern China and fUSSR. High correlations are observed in both regions between station-measured T a and MODIS T s . The relationships between the maximum T a and daytime T s depend significantly on land cover types, but the minimum T a and nighttime T s have little dependence on the land cover types. The largest difference between maximum T a and daytime T s appears over the barren and sparsely vegetated area during the summer time. Using a linear regression method, the daily maximum T a were estimated from 1 km resolution MODIS T s under clear-sky conditions with coefficients calculated based on land cover types, while the minimum T a were estimated without considering land cover types. The uncertainty, mean absolute error (MAE), of the estimated maximum T a varies from 2.4 °C over closed shrublands to 3.2 °C over grasslands, and the MAE of the estimated minimum T a is about 3.0 °C.

  18. Effect of particle surface area on ice active site densities retrieved from droplet freezing spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Beydoun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous ice nucleation remains one of the outstanding problems in cloud physics and atmospheric science. Experimental challenges in properly simulating particle-induced freezing processes under atmospherically relevant conditions have largely contributed to the absence of a well-established parameterization of immersion freezing properties. Here, we formulate an ice active, surface-site-based stochastic model of heterogeneous freezing with the unique feature of invoking a continuum assumption on the ice nucleating activity (contact angle of an aerosol particle's surface that requires no assumptions about the size or number of active sites. The result is a particle-specific property g that defines a distribution of local ice nucleation rates. Upon integration, this yields a full freezing probability function for an ice nucleating particle. Current cold plate droplet freezing measurements provide a valuable and inexpensive resource for studying the freezing properties of many atmospheric aerosol systems. We apply our g framework to explain the observed dependence of the freezing temperature of droplets in a cold plate on the concentration of the particle species investigated. Normalizing to the total particle mass or surface area present to derive the commonly used ice nuclei active surface (INAS density (ns often cannot account for the effects of particle concentration, yet concentration is typically varied to span a wider measurable freezing temperature range. A method based on determining what is denoted an ice nucleating species' specific critical surface area is presented and explains the concentration dependence as a result of increasing the variability in ice nucleating active sites between droplets. By applying this method to experimental droplet freezing data from four different systems, we demonstrate its ability to interpret immersion freezing temperature spectra of droplets containing variable particle concentrations. It is shown

  19. Multi-Sensor Improved Sea Surface Temperature (MISST) for GODAE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gentemann, Chelle L; Wick, Gary A; Cummings, James; Bayler, Eric

    2004-01-01

    ...) sensors and to then demonstrate the impact of these improved sea surface temperatures (SSTs) on operational ocean models, numerical weather prediction, and tropical cyclone intensity forecasting...

  20. The feasibility of retrieving vertical temperature profiles from satellite nadir UV observations: A sensitivity analysis and an inversion experiment with neural network algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellitto, P.; Del Frate, F.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric temperature profiles are inferred from passive satellite instruments, using thermal infrared or microwave observations. Here we investigate on the feasibility of the retrieval of height resolved temperature information in the ultraviolet spectral region. The temperature dependence of the absorption cross sections of ozone in the Huggins band, in particular in the interval 320–325 nm, is exploited. We carried out a sensitivity analysis and demonstrated that a non-negligible information on the temperature profile can be extracted from this small band. Starting from these results, we developed a neural network inversion algorithm, trained and tested with simulated nadir EnviSat-SCIAMACHY ultraviolet observations. The algorithm is able to retrieve the temperature profile with root mean square errors and biases comparable to existing retrieval schemes that use thermal infrared or microwave observations. This demonstrates, for the first time, the feasibility of temperature profiles retrieval from space-borne instruments operating in the ultraviolet. - Highlights: • A sensitivity analysis and an inversion scheme to retrieve temperature profiles from satellite UV observations (320–325 nm). • The exploitation of the temperature dependence of the absorption cross section of ozone in the Huggins band is proposed. • First demonstration of the feasibility of temperature profiles retrieval from satellite UV observations. • RMSEs and biases comparable with more established techniques involving TIR and MW observations

  1. Evaluation of OMI operational standard NO2 column retrievals using in situ and surface-based NO2 observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Lamsal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We assess the standard operational nitrogen dioxide (NO2 data product (OMNO2, version 2.1 retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI onboard NASA's Aura satellite using a combination of aircraft and surface in~situ measurements as well as ground-based column measurements at several locations and a bottom-up NOx emission inventory over the continental US. Despite considerable sampling differences, NO2 vertical column densities from OMI are modestly correlated (r = 0.3–0.8 with in situ measurements of tropospheric NO2 from aircraft, ground-based observations of NO2 columns from MAX-DOAS and Pandora instruments, in situ surface NO2 measurements from photolytic converter instruments, and a bottom-up NOx emission inventory. Overall, OMI retrievals tend to be lower in urban regions and higher in remote areas, but generally agree with other measurements to within ± 20%. No consistent seasonal bias is evident. Contrasting results between different data sets reveal complexities behind NO2 validation. Since validation data sets are scarce and are limited in space and time, validation of the global product is still limited in scope by spatial and temporal coverage and retrieval conditions. Monthly mean vertical NO2 profile shapes from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI chemistry-transport model (CTM used in the OMI retrievals are highly consistent with in situ aircraft measurements, but these measured profiles exhibit considerable day-to-day variation, affecting the retrieved daily NO2 columns by up to 40%. This assessment of OMI tropospheric NO2 columns, together with the comparison of OMI-retrieved and model-simulated NO2 columns, could offer diagnostic evaluation of the model.

  2. Temperature sensitive surfaces and methods of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang [Richland, WA; Rieke, Peter C [Pasco, WA; Alford, Kentin L [Pasco, WA

    2002-09-10

    Poly-n-isopropylacrylamide surface coatings demonstrate the useful property of being able to switch charateristics depending upon temperature. More specifically, these coatings switch from being hydrophilic at low temperature to hydrophobic at high temperature. Research has been conducted for many years to better characterize and control the properties of temperature sensitive coatings. The present invention provides novel temperature sensitive coatings on articles and novel methods of making temperature sensitive coatings that are disposed on the surfaces of various articles. These novel coatings contain the reaction products of n-isopropylacrylamide and are characterized by their properties such as advancing contact angles. Numerous other characteristics such as coating thickness, surface roughness, and hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic transition temperatures are also described. The present invention includes articles having temperature-sensitve coatings with improved properties as well as improved methods for forming temperature sensitive coatings.

  3. Simultaneous Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Optical Properties from Combined Airborne- and Ground-Based Direct and Diffuse Radiometric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Dubovik, O.; King, M. D.; Sinyuk, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for simultaneously retrieving aerosol and surface reflectance properties from combined airborne and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements. The method is based on the standard Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) method for retrieving aerosol size distribution, complex index of refraction, and single scattering albedo, but modified to retrieve aerosol properties in two layers, below and above the aircraft, and parameters on surface optical properties from combined datasets (Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) and AERONET data). A key advantage of this method is the inversion of all available spectral and angular data at the same time, while accounting for the influence of noise in the inversion procedure using statistical optimization. The wide spectral (0.34-2.30 m) and angular range (180 ) of the CAR instrument, combined with observations from an AERONET sunphotometer, provide sufficient measurement constraints for characterizing aerosol and surface properties with minimal assumptions. The robustness of the method was tested on observations made during four different field campaigns: (a) the Southern African Regional Science Initiative 2000 over Mongu, Zambia, (b) the Intercontinental Transport Experiment-Phase B over Mexico City, Mexico (c) Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Central Facility, Oklahoma, USA, and (d) the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) over Elson Lagoon in Barrow, Alaska, USA. The four areas are dominated by different surface characteristics and aerosol types, and therefore provide good test cases for the new inversion method.

  4. Surface alloying in Sn/Au(111) at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Pampa; Singh, Vipin Kumar; Rai, Abhishek; Bhattacharya, Kuntala; Barman, Sudipta Roy

    2018-04-01

    On the basis of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we show that when Sn is deposited on Au(111) single crystal surface at a substrate temperature TS=373 K, surface alloying occurs with the formation of AuSn phase. The evolution of the surface structure and the surface morphology has been studied by low energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy, respectively as a function of Sn coverage and substrate temperatures.

  5. Cloud Masking and Surface Temperature Distribution in the Polar Regions Using AVHRR and other Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Joey C.

    1995-01-01

    Surface temperature is one of the key variables associated with weather and climate. Accurate measurements of surface air temperatures are routinely made in meteorological stations around the world. Also, satellite data have been used to produce synoptic global temperature distributions. However, not much attention has been paid on temperature distributions in the polar regions. In the polar regions, the number of stations is very sparse. Because of adverse weather conditions and general inaccessibility, surface field measurements are also limited. Furthermore, accurate retrievals from satellite data in the region have been difficult to make because of persistent cloudiness and ambiguities in the discrimination of clouds from snow or ice. Surface temperature observations are required in the polar regions for air-sea-ice interaction studies, especially in the calculation of heat, salinity, and humidity fluxes. They are also useful in identifying areas of melt or meltponding within the sea ice pack and the ice sheets and in the calculation of emissivities of these surfaces. Moreover, the polar regions are unique in that they are the sites of temperature extremes, the location of which is difficult to identify without a global monitoring system. Furthermore, the regions may provide an early signal to a potential climate change because such signal is expected to be amplified in the region due to feedback effects. In cloud free areas, the thermal channels from infrared systems provide surface temperatures at relatively good accuracies. Previous capabilities include the use of the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) onboard the Nimbus-7 satellite which was launched in 1978. Current capabilities include the use of the Advance Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aboard NOAA satellites. Together, these two systems cover a span of 16 years of thermal infrared data. Techniques for retrieving surface temperatures with these sensors in the polar regions have

  6. Modelling the angular effects on satellite retrieved LST at global scale using a land surface classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermida, Sofia; DaCamara, Carlos C.; Trigo, Isabel F.; Pires, Ana C.; Ghent, Darren

    2017-04-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a key climatological variable and a diagnostic parameter of land surface conditions. Remote sensing constitutes the most effective method to observe LST over large areas and on a regular basis. Although LST estimation from remote sensing instruments operating in the Infrared (IR) is widely used and has been performed for nearly 3 decades, there is still a list of open issues. One of these is the LST dependence on viewing and illumination geometry. This effect introduces significant discrepancies among LST estimations from different sensors, overlapping in space and time, that are not related to uncertainties in the methodologies or input data used. Furthermore, these directional effects deviate LST products from an ideally defined LST, which should represent to the ensemble of directional radiometric temperature of all surface elements within the FOV. Angular effects on LST are here conveniently estimated by means of a kernel model of the surface thermal emission, which describes the angular dependence of LST as a function of viewing and illumination geometry. The model is calibrated using LST data as provided by a wide range of sensors to optimize spatial coverage, namely: 1) a LEO sensor - the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on-board NASA's TERRA and AQUA; and 2) 3 GEO sensors - the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on-board EUMETSAT's Meteosat Second Generation (MSG), the Japanese Meteorological Imager (JAMI) on-board the Japanese Meteorological Association (JMA) Multifunction Transport SATellite (MTSAT-2), and NASA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). As shown in our previous feasibility studies the sampling of illumination and view angles has a high impact on the obtained model parameters. This impact may be mitigated when the sampling size is increased by aggregating pixels with similar surface conditions. Here we propose a methodology where land surface is

  7. Do Aphids Alter Leaf Surface Temperature Patterns During Early Infestation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cahon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Arthropods at the surface of plants live in particular microclimatic conditions that can differ from atmospheric conditions. The temperature of plant leaves can deviate from air temperature, and leaf temperature influences the eco-physiology of small insects. The activity of insects feeding on leaf tissues, may, however, induce changes in leaf surface temperatures, but this effect was only rarely demonstrated. Using thermography analysis of leaf surfaces under controlled environmental conditions, we quantified the impact of presence of apple green aphids on the temperature distribution of apple leaves during early infestation. Aphids induced a slight change in leaf surface temperature patterns after only three days of infestation, mostly due to the effect of aphids on the maximal temperature that can be found at the leaf surface. Aphids may induce stomatal closure, leading to a lower transpiration rate. This effect was local since aphids modified the configuration of the temperature distribution over leaf surfaces. Aphids were positioned at temperatures near the maximal leaf surface temperatures, thus potentially experiencing the thermal changes. The feedback effect of feeding activity by insects on their host plant can be important and should be quantified to better predict the response of phytophagous insects to environmental changes.

  8. Effects of surface roughness on sea ice freeboard retrieval with an Airborne Ku-Band SAR radar altimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Stefan; Stenseng, Lars; Helm, Veit

    2010-01-01

    to investigate sea ice volume changes on an Arctic wide scale. Freeboard retrieval requires precise radar range measurements to the ice surface, therefore we investigate the penetration of the Ku-Band radar waves into the overlying snow cover as well as the effects of sub-footprint-scale surface roughness using...... airborne radar and laser altimeters. We find regional variable penetration of the radar signal at late spring conditions, where the difference of the radar and the reference laser range measurement never agrees with the expected snow thickness. In addition, a rough surface can lead to biases...

  9. Relationship among land surface temperature and LUCC, NDVI in typical karst area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanhong; Wang, Shijie; Bai, Xiaoyong; Tian, Yichao; Wu, Luhua; Xiao, Jianyong; Chen, Fei; Qian, Qinghuan

    2018-01-12

    Land surface temperature (LST) can reflect the land surface water-heat exchange process comprehensively, which is considerably significant to the study of environmental change. However, research about LST in karst mountain areas with complex topography is scarce. Therefore, we retrieved the LST in a karst mountain area from Landsat 8 data and explored its relationships with LUCC and NDVI. The results showed that LST of the study area was noticeably affected by altitude and underlying surface type. In summer, abnormal high-temperature zones were observed in the study area, perhaps due to karst rocky desertification. LSTs among different land use types significantly differed with the highest in construction land and the lowest in woodland. The spatial distributions of NDVI and LST exhibited opposite patterns. Under the spatial combination of different land use types, the LST-NDVI feature space showed an obtuse-angled triangle shape and showed a negative linear correlation after removing water body data. In summary, the LST can be retrieved well by the atmospheric correction model from Landsat 8 data. Moreover, the LST of the karst mountain area is controlled by altitude, underlying surface type and aspect. This study provides a reference for land use planning, ecological environment restoration in karst areas.

  10. High Temperature Surface Parameters for Solar Power

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butler, C. F; Jenkins, R. J; Rudkin, R. L; Laughridge, F. I

    1960-01-01

    ... at a given distance from the sun. Thermal conversion efficiencies with a concentration ratio of 50 have been computed for each surface when exposed to solar radiation at the Earth's mean orbital radius...

  11. Estimation of Surface Air Temperature Over Central and Eastern Eurasia from MODIS Land Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.

    2011-01-01

    Surface air temperature (T(sub a)) is a critical variable in the energy and water cycle of the Earth.atmosphere system and is a key input element for hydrology and land surface models. This is a preliminary study to evaluate estimation of T(sub a) from satellite remotely sensed land surface temperature (T(sub s)) by using MODIS-Terra data over two Eurasia regions: northern China and fUSSR. High correlations are observed in both regions between station-measured T(sub a) and MODIS T(sub s). The relationships between the maximum T(sub a) and daytime T(sub s) depend significantly on land cover types, but the minimum T(sub a) and nighttime T(sub s) have little dependence on the land cover types. The largest difference between maximum T(sub a) and daytime T(sub s) appears over the barren and sparsely vegetated area during the summer time. Using a linear regression method, the daily maximum T(sub a) were estimated from 1 km resolution MODIS T(sub s) under clear-sky conditions with coefficients calculated based on land cover types, while the minimum T(sub a) were estimated without considering land cover types. The uncertainty, mean absolute error (MAE), of the estimated maximum T(sub a) varies from 2.4 C over closed shrublands to 3.2 C over grasslands, and the MAE of the estimated minimum Ta is about 3.0 C.

  12. Empirical Retrieval of Surface Melt Magnitude from Coupled MODIS Optical and Thermal Measurements over the Greenland Ice Sheet during the 2001 Ablation Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampkin, Derrick; Peng, Rui

    2008-08-22

    Accelerated ice flow near the equilibrium line of west-central Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) has been attributed to an increase in infiltrated surface melt water as a response to climate warming. The assessment of surface melting events must be more than the detection of melt onset or extent. Retrieval of surface melt magnitude is necessary to improve understanding of ice sheet flow and surface melt coupling. In this paper, we report on a new technique to quantify the magnitude of surface melt. Cloud-free dates of June 10, July 5, 7, 9, and 11, 2001 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily reflectance Band 5 (1.230-1.250μm) and surface temperature images rescaled to 1km over western Greenland were used in the retrieval algorithm. An optical-thermal feature space partitioned as a function of melt magnitude was derived using a one-dimensional thermal snowmelt model (SNTHERM89). SNTHERM89 was forced by hourly meteorological data from the Greenland Climate Network (GC-Net) at reference sites spanning dry snow, percolation, and wet snow zones in the Jakobshavn drainage basin in western GIS. Melt magnitude or effective melt (E-melt) was derived for satellite composite periods covering May, June, and July displaying low fractions (0-1%) at elevations greater than 2500m and fractions at or greater than 15% at elevations lower than 1000m assessed for only the upper 5 cm of the snow surface. Validation of E-melt involved comparison of intensity to dry and wet zones determined from QSCAT backscatter. Higher intensities (> 8%) were distributed in wet snow zones, while lower intensities were grouped in dry zones at a first order accuracy of ~ ±2%.

  13. Predicting monsoon rainfall and pressure indices from sea surface temperature

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.

    The relationship between the sea surface temperature (SST) in the Indian Ocean and monsoon rainfall has been examined by using 21 years data set (1967-87) of MOHSST.6 (Met. Office Historical Sea Surface Temperature data set, obtained from U.K. Met...

  14. Recent trends in sea surface temperature off Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lluch-Cota, S.E.; Tripp-Valdéz, M.; Lluch-Cota, D.B.; Lluch-Belda, D.; Verbesselt, J.; Herrera-Cervantes, H.; Bautista-Romero, J.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in global mean sea surface temperature may have potential negative implications for natural and socioeconomic systems; however, measurements to predict trends in different regions have been limited and sometimes contradictory. In this study, an assessment of sea surface temperature change

  15. Direct evaluation of transient surface temperatures and heat fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axford, R.A.

    1975-08-01

    Evaluations of transient surface temperatures resulting from the absorption of radiation are required in laser fusion reactor systems studies. A general method for the direct evaluation of transient surface temperatures and heat fluxes on the boundaries of bounded media is developed by constructing fundamental solutions of the scalar Helmholtz equation and performing certain elementary integrations

  16. Outdoor surface temperature measurement: ground truth or lie?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skauli, Torbjorn

    2004-08-01

    Contact surface temperature measurement in the field is essential in trials of thermal imaging systems and camouflage, as well as for scene modeling studies. The accuracy of such measurements is challenged by environmental factors such as sun and wind, which induce temperature gradients around a surface sensor and lead to incorrect temperature readings. In this work, a simple method is used to test temperature sensors under conditions representative of a surface whose temperature is determined by heat exchange with the environment. The tested sensors are different types of thermocouples and platinum thermistors typically used in field trials, as well as digital temperature sensors. The results illustrate that the actual measurement errors can be much larger than the specified accuracy of the sensors. The measurement error typically scales with the difference between surface temperature and ambient air temperature. Unless proper care is taken, systematic errors can easily reach 10% of this temperature difference, which is often unacceptable. Reasonably accurate readings are obtained using a miniature platinum thermistor. Thermocouples can perform well on bare metal surfaces if the connection to the surface is highly conductive. It is pointed out that digital temperature sensors have many advantages for field trials use.

  17. Low temperature self-cleaning properties of superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fajun; Shen, Taohua; Li, Changquan; Li, Wen; Yan, Guilong

    2014-10-01

    Outdoor surfaces are usually dirty surfaces. Ice accretion on outdoor surfaces could lead to serious accidents. In the present work, the superhydrophobic surface based on 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-Perfluorodecanethiol (PFDT) modified Ag/PDMS composite was prepared to investigate the anti-icing property and self-cleaning property at temperatures below freezing point. The superhydrophobic surface was deliberately polluted with activated carbon before testing. It was observed that water droplet picked up dusts on the cold superhydrophobic surface and took it away without freezing at a measuring temperature of -10 °C. While on a smooth PFDT surface and a rough surface base on Ag/PDMS composite without PFDT modification, water droplets accumulated and then froze quickly at the same temperature. However, at even lower temperature of -12 °C, the superhydrophobic surface could not prevent the surface water from icing. In addition, it was observed that the frost layer condensed from the moisture pay an important role in determining the low temperature self-cleaning properties of a superhydrophobic surface.

  18. Sea Surface Temperature from MODIS during Saharan Air Layer outbreaks: Multichannel vs Optimal Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczodrak, G.; Minnett, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    The current Sea-Surface Temperature (SST) retrieval algorithms applied to MODIS and VIIRS data are build on the Non-Linear SST algorithm (NLSST Walton et al., 1998). This algorithm is based on combination of top-of-atmosphere brightness temperatures, T11 and T12 measured at λ= 11µm and 12µm. The algorithm has a set of coefficients derived using collocated measurements of SST temperature from drifting buoys (Match-Up Data Base - MUDB). NLSST produces accurate SST retrievals in conditions that are similar to those of the represented in the MUDB. When conditions deviate from typical, the errors are larger. An alternative approach of estimating the SST from radiance measurements is based on the Optimal Estimation (OE). The OE approach is not tied to a MUDB so OESST should be free of the systematic biases seen in NLSST retrievals in anomalous conditions. OE uses prior knowledge or estimation of a system as an input of a forward model to simulate `observations' and seeks to minimize the difference between these simulated observation and actual measurements in the space of the state variables. One situation that leads to significant bias in NLSST occurs in Northern Atlantic near the African coast during Saharan Air Layer (SAL) outbreaks. Typically, the atmosphere in this region is moist and these conditions are represented in the coefficients of the NLSST algorithm. During SAL events, moist air is replaced by a layer of very dry air; the established coefficients are no longer representative. During a number of research cruises in the North Atlantic affected by the SAL, we have collected radiometric SST measurements from ships using the Marine Atmosphere Emitted Radiance Interferometer (M-AERI), and frequent measurements of the atmospheric state with radiosondes launched from the ships. Using these data, we investigate if the OE approach is capable of improving the accuracy of the SST retrieval from MODIS under the conditions of the dry air outbreak from the Sahara.

  19. Global surface temperature in relation to northeast monsoon rainfall ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is observed that the meridional gradient in surface air temperature anomalies between Europe and ... Surface air tempera- ture is one of the factors that influence monsoon variability. The distribution of surface air temper- ature over land and sea determines the locations ..... Asia, north Indian Ocean, northeast Russia and.

  20. Low-temperature plasma techniques in surface modification of biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xiangfen; Xie Hankun; Zhang Jing

    2002-01-01

    Since synthetic polymers usually can not meet the biocompatibility and bio-functional demands of the human body, surface treatment is a prerequisite for them to be used as biomaterials. A very effective surface modification method, plasma treatment, is introduced. By immobilizing the bio-active molecules with low temperature plasma, polymer surfaces can be modified to fully satisfy the requirements of biomaterials

  1. Evaluation of a dimension-reduction-based statistical technique for Temperature, Water Vapour and Ozone retrievals from IASI radiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Umberto; Antoniadis, Anestis; De Feis, Italia; Masiello, Guido; Matricardi, Marco; Serio, Carmine

    2009-03-01

    Remote sensing of atmosphere is changing rapidly thanks to the development of high spectral resolution infrared space-borne sensors. The aim is to provide more and more accurate information on the lower atmosphere, as requested by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), to improve reliability and time span of weather forecasts plus Earth's monitoring. In this paper we show the results we have obtained on a set of Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) observations using a new statistical strategy based on dimension reduction. Retrievals have been compared to time-space colocated ECMWF analysis for temperature, water vapor and ozone.

  2. Daytime Land Surface Temperature Extraction from MODIS Thermal Infrared Data under Cirrus Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwei Fan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Simulated data showed that cirrus clouds could lead to a maximum land surface temperature (LST retrieval error of 11.0 K when using the generalized split-window (GSW algorithm with a cirrus optical depth (COD at 0.55 μm of 0.4 and in nadir view. A correction term in the COD linear function was added to the GSW algorithm to extend the GSW algorithm to cirrus cloudy conditions. The COD was acquired by a look up table of the isolated cirrus bidirectional reflectance at 0.55 μm. Additionally, the slope k of the linear function was expressed as a multiple linear model of the top of the atmospheric brightness temperatures of MODIS channels 31–34 and as the difference between split-window channel emissivities. The simulated data showed that the LST error could be reduced from 11.0 to 2.2 K. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the total errors from all the uncertainties of input parameters, extension algorithm accuracy, and GSW algorithm accuracy were less than 2.5 K in nadir view. Finally, the Great Lakes surface water temperatures measured by buoys showed that the retrieval accuracy of the GSW algorithm was improved by at least 1.5 K using the proposed extension algorithm for cirrus skies.

  3. GHRSST Level 3C sub-skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES 13) Imager in East position (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 3 Collated (L3C) dataset for the America Region (AMERICAS) based on retrievals from the...

  4. Recent Development on the NOAA's Global Surface Temperature Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. M.; Huang, B.; Boyer, T.; Lawrimore, J. H.; Menne, M. J.; Rennie, J.

    2016-12-01

    Global Surface Temperature (GST) is one of the most widely used indicators for climate trend and extreme analyses. A widely used GST dataset is the NOAA merged land-ocean surface temperature dataset known as NOAAGlobalTemp (formerly MLOST). The NOAAGlobalTemp had recently been updated from version 3.5.4 to version 4. The update includes a significant improvement in the ocean surface component (Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature or ERSST, from version 3b to version 4) which resulted in an increased temperature trends in recent decades. Since then, advancements in both the ocean component (ERSST) and land component (GHCN-Monthly) have been made, including the inclusion of Argo float SSTs and expanded EOT modes in ERSST, and the use of ISTI databank in GHCN-Monthly. In this presentation, we describe the impact of those improvements on the merged global temperature dataset, in terms of global trends and other aspects.

  5. Performance analysis of PV panel under varying surface temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Tripathi Abhishek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface temperature of PV panel has an adverse impact on its performance. The several electrical parameters of PV panel, such as open circuit voltage, short circuit current, power output and fill factor depends on the surface temperature of PV panel. In the present study, an experimental work was carried out to investigate the influence of PV panel surface temperature on its electrical parameters. The results obtained from this experimental study show a significant reduction in the performance of PV panel with an increase in panel surface temperature. A 5W PV panel experienced a 0.4% decrease in open circuit voltage for every 1°C increase in panel surface temperature. Similarly, there was 0.6% and 0.32% decrease in maximum power output and in fill factor, respectively, for every 1°C increase in panel surface temperature. On the other hand, the short circuit current increases with the increase in surface temperature at the rate of 0.09%/°C.

  6. Remote sensing of land surface temperature: The directional viewing effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.A.; Schmugge, T.J.; Ballard, J.R. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is an important parameter in understanding global environmental change because it controls many of the underlying processes in the energy budget at the surface and heat and water transport between the surface and the atmosphere. The measurement of LST at a variety of spatial and temporal scales and extension to global coverage requires remote sensing means to achieve these goals. Land surface temperature and emissivity products are currently being derived from satellite and aircraft remote sensing data using a variety of techniques to correct for atmospheric effects. Implicit in the commonly employed approaches is the assumption of isotropy in directional thermal infrared exitance. The theoretical analyses indicate angular variations in apparent infrared temperature will typically yield land surface temperature errors ranging from 1 to 4 C unless corrective measures are applied

  7. Influence of aerosols and surface reflectance on satellite NO2 retrieval: seasonal and spatial characteristics and implications for NOx emission constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, J.T.; Liu, M.Y.; Xin, J.Y.; Boersma, K.F.; Spurr, R.; Zhang, Q.; Martin, R.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite retrievals of vertical column densities (VCDs) of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) normally do not explicitly account for aerosol optical effects and surface reflectance anisotropy that vary with space and time. Here, we conduct an improved retrieval of NO2 VCDs over China, called the

  8. Temperature profiles on the gadolinium surface during electron beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohba, Hironori; Shibata, Takemasa [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1995-03-01

    The distributions of surface temperature of gadolinium in a water-cooled copper crucible during electron beam evaporation were measured by optical pyrometry. The surface temperatures were obtained from the radiation intensity ratio of the evaporating surface and a reference light source using Planck`s law of radiation. The emitted radiation from the evaporating surface and a reference source was detected by a CCD sensor through a band pass filter of 650 nm. The measured surface temperature generally agreed with those estimated from the deposition rate and the data of the saturated vapor pressure. At high input powers, it was found that the measured value had small difference with the estimated one due to variation of the surface condition. (author).

  9. Temperature profiles on the gadolinium surface during electron beam evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, Hironori; Shibata, Takemasa

    1995-01-01

    The distributions of surface temperature of gadolinium in a water-cooled copper crucible during electron beam evaporation were measured by optical pyrometry. The surface temperatures were obtained from the radiation intensity ratio of the evaporating surface and a reference light source using Planck's law of radiation. The emitted radiation from the evaporating surface and a reference source was detected by a CCD sensor through a band pass filter of 650 nm. The measured surface temperature generally agreed with those estimated from the deposition rate and the data of the saturated vapor pressure. At high input powers, it was found that the measured value had small difference with the estimated one due to variation of the surface condition. (author)

  10. Retrieval of Specific Leaf Area From Landsat-8 Surface Reflectance Data Using Statistical and Physical Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Abebe Mohammed; Darvishzadeh, R.; Skidmore, Andrew K.

    2017-01-01

    One of the key traits in the assessment of ecosystem functions is a specific leaf area (SLA). The main aim of this study was to examine the potential of new generation satellite images, such as Landsat-8 imagery, for the retrieval of SLA at regional and global scales. Therefore, both statistical and

  11. Retrieving 4-dimensional atmospheric boundary layer structure from surface observations and profiles over a single station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu, Zhaoxia [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-10-06

    Most routine measurements from climate study facilities, such as the Department of Energy’s ARM SGP site, come from individual sites over a long period of time. While single-station data are very useful for many studies, it is challenging to obtain 3-dimensional spatial structures of atmospheric boundary layers that include prominent signatures of deep convection from these data. The principal objective of this project is to create realistic estimates of high-resolution (~ 1km × 1km horizontal grids) atmospheric boundary layer structure and the characteristics of precipitating convection. These characteristics include updraft and downdraft cumulus mass fluxes and cold pool properties over a region the size of a GCM grid column from analyses that assimilate surface mesonet observations of wind, temperature, and water vapor mixing ratio and available profiling data from single or multiple surface stations. The ultimate goal of the project is to enhance our understanding of the properties of mesoscale convective systems and also to improve their representation in analysis and numerical simulations. During the proposed period (09/15/2011–09/14/2014) and the no-cost extension period (09/15/2014–09/14/2015), significant accomplishments have been achieved relating to the stated goals. Efforts have been extended to various research and applications. Results have been published in professional journals and presented in related science team meetings and conferences. These are summarized in the report.

  12. Near-surface temperature inversion during summer at Summit, Greenland, and its relation to MODIS-derived surface temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Adolph

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As rapid warming of the Arctic occurs, it is imperative that climate indicators such as temperature be monitored over large areas to understand and predict the effects of climate changes. Temperatures are traditionally tracked using in situ 2 m air temperatures and can also be assessed using remote sensing techniques. Remote sensing is especially valuable over the Greenland Ice Sheet, where few ground-based air temperature measurements exist. Because of the presence of surface-based temperature inversions in ice-covered areas, differences between 2 m air temperature and the temperature of the actual snow surface (referred to as skin temperature can be significant and are particularly relevant when considering validation and application of remote sensing temperature data. We present results from a field campaign extending from 8 June to 18 July 2015, near Summit Station in Greenland, to study surface temperature using the following measurements: skin temperature measured by an infrared (IR sensor, 2 m air temperature measured by a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA meteorological station, and a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS surface temperature product. Our data indicate that 2 m air temperature is often significantly higher than snow skin temperature measured in situ, and this finding may account for apparent biases in previous studies of MODIS products that used 2 m air temperature for validation. This inversion is present during our study period when incoming solar radiation and wind speed are both low. As compared to our in situ IR skin temperature measurements, after additional cloud masking, the MOD/MYD11 Collection 6 surface temperature standard product has an RMSE of 1.0 °C and a mean bias of −0.4 °C, spanning a range of temperatures from −35 to −5 °C (RMSE  =  1.6 °C and mean bias  =  −0.7 °C prior to cloud masking. For our study area and time series

  13. A physically based model of global freshwater surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Ludovicus P. H.; Eikelboom, Tessa; van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2012-09-01

    Temperature determines a range of physical properties of water and exerts a strong control on surface water biogeochemistry. Thus, in freshwater ecosystems the thermal regime directly affects the geographical distribution of aquatic species through their growth and metabolism and indirectly through their tolerance to parasites and diseases. Models used to predict surface water temperature range between physically based deterministic models and statistical approaches. Here we present the initial results of a physically based deterministic model of global freshwater surface temperature. The model adds a surface water energy balance to river discharge modeled by the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. In addition to advection of energy from direct precipitation, runoff, and lateral exchange along the drainage network, energy is exchanged between the water body and the atmosphere by shortwave and longwave radiation and sensible and latent heat fluxes. Also included are ice formation and its effect on heat storage and river hydraulics. We use the coupled surface water and energy balance model to simulate global freshwater surface temperature at daily time steps with a spatial resolution of 0.5° on a regular grid for the period 1976-2000. We opt to parameterize the model with globally available data and apply it without calibration in order to preserve its physical basis with the outlook of evaluating the effects of atmospheric warming on freshwater surface temperature. We validate our simulation results with daily temperature data from rivers and lakes (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), limited to the USA) and compare mean monthly temperatures with those recorded in the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) data set. Results show that the model is able to capture the mean monthly surface temperature for the majority of the GEMS stations, while the interannual variability as derived from the USGS and NOAA data was captured reasonably well. Results are poorest for

  14. A One-Source Approach for Estimating Land Surface Heat Fluxes Using Remotely Sensed Land Surface Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The partitioning of available energy between sensible heat and latent heat is important for precise water resources planning and management in the context of global climate change. Land surface temperature (LST is a key variable in energy balance process and remotely sensed LST is widely used for estimating surface heat fluxes at regional scale. However, the inequality between LST and aerodynamic surface temperature (Taero poses a great challenge for regional heat fluxes estimation in one-source energy balance models. To address this issue, we proposed a One-Source Model for Land (OSML to estimate regional surface heat fluxes without requirements for empirical extra resistance, roughness parameterization and wind velocity. The proposed OSML employs both conceptual VFC/LST trapezoid model and the electrical analog formula of sensible heat flux (H to analytically estimate the radiometric-convective resistance (rae via a quartic equation. To evaluate the performance of OSML, the model was applied to the Soil Moisture-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX in United States and the Multi-Scale Observation Experiment on Evapotranspiration (MUSOEXE in China, using remotely sensed retrievals as auxiliary data sets at regional scale. Validated against tower-based surface fluxes observations, the root mean square deviation (RMSD of H and latent heat flux (LE from OSML are 34.5 W/m2 and 46.5 W/m2 at SMACEX site and 50.1 W/m2 and 67.0 W/m2 at MUSOEXE site. The performance of OSML is very comparable to other published studies. In addition, the proposed OSML model demonstrates similar skills of predicting surface heat fluxes in comparison to SEBS (Surface Energy Balance System. Since OSML does not require specification of aerodynamic surface characteristics, roughness parameterization and meteorological conditions with high spatial variation such as wind speed, this proposed method shows high potential for routinely acquisition of latent heat flux estimation

  15. High-temperature morphology of stepped gold surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilalbegovic, G.; Tosatti, E.; Ercolessi, F.

    1992-04-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations with a classical many-body potential are used to study the high-temperature stability of stepped non-melting metal surfaces. We have studied in particular the Au(111) vicinal surfaces in the (M+1, M-1, M) family and the Au(100) vicinals in the (M, 1, 1) family. Some vicinal orientations close to the non-melting Au(111) surface become unstable close to the bulk melting temperature and facet into a mixture of crystalline (111) regions and localized surface-melted regions. On the contrary, we do not find high-temperature faceting for vicinals close to Au(100), also a non-melting surface. These (100) vicinal surfaces gradually disorder with disappearance of individual steps well below the bulk melting temperature. We have also studied the high-temperature stability of ledges formed by pairs of monoatomic steps of opposite sign on the Au(111) surface. It is found that these ledges attract each other, so that several of them merge into one larger ledge, whose edge steps then act as a nucleation site for surface melting. (author). 43 refs, 8 figs

  16. 1994 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...

  17. 1993 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the NOAA...

  18. OW NOAA AVHRR-GAC Sea-Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains satellite-derived sea-surface temperature measurements collected by means of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer - Global Area Coverage...

  19. Tropical sea surface temperatures and the earth's orbital eccentricity cycles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, S.M.; Fernandes, A.A.; Mohan, R.

    The tropical oceanic warm pools are climatologically important regions because their sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are positively related to atmospheric greenhouse effect and the cumulonimbus-cirrus cloud anvil. Such a warm pool is also present...

  20. OW NOAA GOES-POES Sea Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains blended satellite-derived sea-surface temperature measurements collected by means of the Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellites (GOES)...

  1. NOAA High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Analysis Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archive covers two high resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis products developed using an optimum interpolation (OI) technique. The analyses have a...

  2. COBE-SST2 Sea Surface Temperature and Ice

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A new sea surface temperature (SST) analysis on a centennial time scale is presented. The dataset starts in 1850 with monthly 1x1 means and is periodically updated....

  3. Global 1-km Sea Surface Temperature (G1SST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — JPL OurOcean Portal: A daily, global Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data set is produced at 1-km (also known as ultra-high resolution) by the JPL ROMS (Regional Ocean...

  4. Afforestation in China cools local land surface temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Shu-Shi; Piao, Shilong; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Ciais, Philippe; Zhou, Liming; Li, Laurent Z. X.; Myneni, Ranga B.; Yin, Yi; Zeng, Hui

    2014-01-01

    International audience; China has the largest afforested area in the world (~62 million hectares in 2008), and these forests are carbon sinks. The climatic effect of these new forests depends on how radiant and turbulent energy fluxes over these plantations modify surface temperature. For instance, a lower albedo may cause warming, which negates the climatic benefits of carbon sequestration. Here, we used satellite measurements of land surface temperature (LST) from planted forests and adjace...

  5. SURFACE TEMPERATURES ON TITAN DURING NORTHERN WINTER AND SPRING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Romani, P. N.; Samuelson, R. E. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Mamoutkine, A. [ADNET Systems, Inc., Bethesda, MD 20817 (United States); Gorius, N. J. P. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Coustenis, A. [Laboratoire d’Etudes Spatiales et d’Instrumentation en Astrophysique (LESIA), Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, 5, place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon Cedex (France); Tokano, T., E-mail: donald.e.jennings@nasa.gov [Universität zu Köln, Albertus-Magnus-Platz, D-50923 Köln (Germany)

    2016-01-01

    Meridional brightness temperatures were measured on the surface of Titan during the 2004–2014 portion of the Cassini mission by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer. Temperatures mapped from pole to pole during five two-year periods show a marked seasonal dependence. The surface temperature near the south pole over this time decreased by 2 K from 91.7 ± 0.3 to 89.7 ± 0.5 K while at the north pole the temperature increased by 1 K from 90.7 ± 0.5 to 91.5 ± 0.2 K. The latitude of maximum temperature moved from 19 S to 16 N, tracking the sub-solar latitude. As the latitude changed, the maximum temperature remained constant at 93.65 ± 0.15 K. In 2010 our temperatures repeated the north–south symmetry seen by Voyager one Titan year earlier in 1980. Early in the mission, temperatures at all latitudes had agreed with GCM predictions, but by 2014 temperatures in the north were lower than modeled by 1 K. The temperature rise in the north may be delayed by cooling of sea surfaces and moist ground brought on by seasonal methane precipitation and evaporation.

  6. SURFACE TEMPERATURES ON TITAN DURING NORTHERN WINTER AND SPRING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Romani, P. N.; Samuelson, R. E.; Mamoutkine, A.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Coustenis, A.; Tokano, T.

    2016-01-01

    Meridional brightness temperatures were measured on the surface of Titan during the 2004–2014 portion of the Cassini mission by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer. Temperatures mapped from pole to pole during five two-year periods show a marked seasonal dependence. The surface temperature near the south pole over this time decreased by 2 K from 91.7 ± 0.3 to 89.7 ± 0.5 K while at the north pole the temperature increased by 1 K from 90.7 ± 0.5 to 91.5 ± 0.2 K. The latitude of maximum temperature moved from 19 S to 16 N, tracking the sub-solar latitude. As the latitude changed, the maximum temperature remained constant at 93.65 ± 0.15 K. In 2010 our temperatures repeated the north–south symmetry seen by Voyager one Titan year earlier in 1980. Early in the mission, temperatures at all latitudes had agreed with GCM predictions, but by 2014 temperatures in the north were lower than modeled by 1 K. The temperature rise in the north may be delayed by cooling of sea surfaces and moist ground brought on by seasonal methane precipitation and evaporation

  7. TWO METHODS FOR REMOTE ESTIMATION OF COMPLETE URBAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jiang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Complete urban surface temperature (TC is a key parameter for evaluating the energy exchange between the urban surface and atmosphere. At the present stage, the estimation of TC still needs detailed 3D structure information of the urban surface, however, it is often difficult to obtain the geometric structure and composition of the corresponding temperature of urban surface, so that there is still lack of concise and efficient method for estimating the TC by remote sensing. Based on the four typical urban surface scale models, combined with the Envi-met model, thermal radiant directionality forward modeling and kernel model, we analyzed a complete day and night cycle hourly component temperature and radiation temperature in each direction of two seasons of summer and winter, and calculated hemispherical integral temperature and TC. The conclusion is obtained by examining the relationship of directional radiation temperature, hemispherical integral temperature and TC: (1 There is an optimal angle of radiation temperature approaching the TC in a single observation direction when viewing zenith angle is 45–60°, the viewing azimuth near the vertical surface of the sun main plane, the average absolute difference is about 1.1 K in the daytime. (2 There are several (3–5 times directional temperatures of different view angle, under the situation of using the thermal radiation directionality kernel model can more accurately calculate the hemispherical integral temperature close to TC, the mean absolute error is about 1.0 K in the daytime. This study proposed simple and effective strategies for estimating TC by remote sensing, which are expected to improve the quantitative level of remote sensing of urban thermal environment.

  8. Comparison Spatial Pattern of Land Surface Temperature with Mono Window Algorithm and Split Window Algorithm: A Case Study in South Tangerang, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunai, Tasya; Rokhmatuloh; Wibowo, Adi

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, two methods to retrieve the Land Surface Temperature (LST) from thermal infrared data supplied by band 10 and 11 of the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) onboard the Landsat 8 is compared. The first is mono window algorithm developed by Qin et al. and the second is split window algorithm by Rozenstein et al. The purpose of this study is to perform the spatial distribution of land surface temperature, as well as to determine more accurate algorithm for retrieving land surface temperature by calculated root mean square error (RMSE). Finally, we present comparison the spatial distribution of land surface temperature by both of algorithm, and more accurate algorithm is split window algorithm refers to the root mean square error (RMSE) is 7.69° C.

  9. Retrieving surface soil moisture at high spatio-temporal resolution from a synergy between Sentinel-1 radar and Landsat thermal data: A study case over bare soil

    KAUST Repository

    Amazirh, Abdelhakim; Merlin, Olivier; Er-Raki, Salah; Gao, Qi; Rivalland, Vincent; Malbeteau, Yoann; Khabba, Said; Escorihuela, Maria José

    2018-01-01

    Radar data have been used to retrieve and monitor the surface soil moisture (SM) changes in various conditions. However, the calibration of radar models whether empirically or physically-based, is still subject to large uncertainties especially

  10. Stratospheric temperature measurement with scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer for wind retrieval from mobile Rayleigh Doppler lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Haiyun; Dou, Xiankang; Shangguan, Mingjia; Zhao, Ruocan; Sun, Dongsong; Wang, Chong; Qiu, Jiawei; Shu, Zhifeng; Xue, Xianghui; Han, Yuli; Han, Yan

    2014-09-08

    Temperature detection remains challenging in the low stratosphere, where the Rayleigh integration lidar is perturbed by aerosol contamination and ozone absorption while the rotational Raman lidar is suffered from its low scattering cross section. To correct the impacts of temperature on the Rayleigh Doppler lidar, a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) based on cavity scanning Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) is developed. By considering the effect of the laser spectral width, Doppler broadening of the molecular backscatter, divergence of the light beam and mirror defects of the FPI, a well-behaved transmission function is proved to show the principle of HSRL in detail. Analysis of the statistical error of the HSRL is carried out in the data processing. A temperature lidar using both HSRL and Rayleigh integration techniques is incorporated into the Rayleigh Doppler wind lidar. Simultaneous wind and temperature detection is carried out based on the combined system at Delhi (37.371°N, 97.374°E; 2850 m above the sea level) in Qinghai province, China. Lower Stratosphere temperature has been measured using HSRL between 18 and 50 km with temporal resolution of 2000 seconds. The statistical error of the derived temperatures is between 0.2 and 9.2 K. The temperature profile retrieved from the HSRL and wind profile from the Rayleigh Doppler lidar show good agreement with the radiosonde data. Specifically, the max temperature deviation between the HSRL and radiosonde is 4.7 K from 18 km to 36 km, and it is 2.7 K between the HSRL and Rayleigh integration lidar from 27 km to 34 km.

  11. Quality Assessment of S-NPP VIIRS Land Surface Temperature Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuling Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The VIIRS Land Surface Temperature (LST Environmental Data Record (EDR has reached validated (V1 stage maturity in December 2014. This study compares VIIRS v1 LST with the ground in situ observations and with heritage LST product from MODIS Aqua and AATSR. Comparisons against U.S. SURFRAD ground observations indicate a similar accuracy among VIIRS, MODIS and AATSR LST, in which VIIRS LST presents an overall accuracy of −0.41 K and precision of 2.35 K. The result over arid regions in Africa suggests that VIIRS and MODIS underestimate the LST about 1.57 K and 2.97 K, respectively. The cross comparison indicates an overall close LST estimation between VIIRS and MODIS. In addition, a statistical method is used to quantify the VIIRS LST retrieval uncertainty taking into account the uncertainty from the surface type input. Some issues have been found as follows: (1 Cloud contamination, particularly the cloud detection error over a snow/ice surface, shows significant impacts on LST validation; (2 Performance of the VIIRS LST algorithm is strongly dependent on a correct classification of the surface type; (3 The VIIRS LST quality can be degraded when significant brightness temperature difference between the two split window channels is observed; (4 Surface type dependent algorithm exhibits deficiency in correcting the large emissivity variations within a surface type.

  12. A model of the ground surface temperature for micrometeorological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Julian S.; Erell, Evyatar

    2017-07-01

    Micrometeorological models at various scales require ground surface temperature, which may not always be measured in sufficient spatial or temporal detail. There is thus a need for a model that can calculate the surface temperature using only widely available weather data, thermal properties of the ground, and surface properties. The vegetated/permeable surface energy balance (VP-SEB) model introduced here requires no a priori knowledge of soil temperature or moisture at any depth. It combines a two-layer characterization of the soil column following the heat conservation law with a sinusoidal function to estimate deep soil temperature, and a simplified procedure for calculating moisture content. A physically based solution is used for each of the energy balance components allowing VP-SEB to be highly portable. VP-SEB was tested using field data measuring bare loess desert soil in dry weather and following rain events. Modeled hourly surface temperature correlated well with the measured data (r 2 = 0.95 for a whole year), with a root-mean-square error of 2.77 K. The model was used to generate input for a pedestrian thermal comfort study using the Index of Thermal Stress (ITS). The simulation shows that the thermal stress on a pedestrian standing in the sun on a fully paved surface, which may be over 500 W on a warm summer day, may be as much as 100 W lower on a grass surface exposed to the same meteorological conditions.

  13. Analysis of Anomaly in Land Surface Temperature Using MODIS Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorozu, K.; Kodama, T.; Kim, S.; Tachikawa, Y.; Shiiba, M.

    2011-12-01

    Atmosphere-land surface interaction plays a dominant role on the hydrologic cycle. Atmospheric phenomena cause variation of land surface state and land surface state can affect on atmosphereic conditions. Widely-known article related in atmospheric-land interaction was published by Koster et al. in 2004. The context of this article is that seasonal anomaly in soil moisture or soil surface temperature can affect summer precipitation generation and other atmospheric processes especially in middle North America, Sahel and south Asia. From not only above example but other previous research works, it is assumed that anomaly of surface state has a key factor. To investigate atmospheric-land surface interaction, it is necessary to analyze anomaly field in land surface state. In this study, soil surface temperature should be focused because it can be globally and continuously observed by satellite launched sensor. To land surface temperature product, MOD11C1 and MYD11C1 products which are kinds of MODIS products are applied. Both of them have 0.05 degree spatial resolution and daily temporal resolution. The difference of them is launched satellite, MOD11C1 is Terra and MYD11C1 is Aqua. MOD11C1 covers the latter of 2000 to present and MYD11C1 covers the early 2002 to present. There are unrealistic values on provided products even if daily product was already calibrated or corrected. For pre-analyzing, daily data is aggregated into 8-days data to remove irregular values for stable analysis. It was found that there are spatial and temporal distribution of 10-years average and standard deviation for each 8-days term. In order to point out extreme anomaly in land surface temperature, standard score for each 8-days term is applied. From the analysis of standard score, it is found there are large anomaly in land surface temperature around north China plain in early April 2005 and around Bangladesh in early May 2009.

  14. Land Surface Temperature- Comparing Data from Polar Orbiting and Geostationary Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comyn-Platt, E.; Remedios, J. J.; Good, E. J.; Ghent, D.; Saunders, R.

    2012-04-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a vital parameter in Earth climate science, driving long-wave radiation exchanges that control the surface energy budget and carbon fluxes, which are important factors in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and the monitoring of climate change. Satellites offer a convenient way to observe LST consistently and regularly over large areas. A comparison between LST retrieved from a Geostationary Instrument, the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI), and a Polar Orbiting Instrument, the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) is presented. Both sensors offer differing benefits. AATSR offers superior precision and spatial resolution with global coverage but given its sun-synchronous platform only observes at two local times, ~10am and ~10pm. SEVIRI provides the high-temporal resolution (every 15 minutes) required for observing diurnal variability of surface temperatures but given its geostationary platform has a poorer resolution, 3km at nadir, which declines at higher latitudes. A number of retrieval methods are applied to the raw satellite data: First order coefficient based algorithms provided on an operational basis by the LandSAF (for SEVIRI) and the University of Leicester (for AATSR); Second order coefficient based algorithms put forward by the University of Valencia; and an optimal estimation method using the 1DVar software provided by the NWP SAF. Optimal estimation is an iterative technique based upon inverse theory, thus is very useful for expanding into data assimilation systems. The retrievals are assessed and compared on both a fine scale using in-situ data from recognised validation sites and on a broad scale using two 100x100 regions such that biases can be better understood. Overall, the importance of LST lies in monitoring daily temperature extremes, e.g. for estimating permafrost thawing depth or risk of crop damage due to frost, hence the ideal dataset would use a combination of observations

  15. Multi-target retrieval (MTR): the simultaneous retrieval of pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio profiles from limb-scanning atmospheric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinelli, B.M.; Alpaslan, D.; Carlotti, M.; Magnani, L.; Ridolfi, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe a retrieval approach for the simultaneous determination of the altitude distributions of p, T and VMR of atmospheric constituents from limb-scanning measurements of the atmosphere. This analysis method, named multi-target retrieval (MTR), has been designed and implemented in a computer code aimed at the analysis of MIPAS-ENVISAT observations; however, the concepts implemented in MTR have a general validity and can be extended to the analysis of all type of limb-scanning observations. In order to assess performance and advantages of the proposed approach, MTR has been compared with the sequential analysis system implemented by ESA as the level-2 processor for MIPAS measurements. The comparison has been performed on a common set of target species and spectral intervals. The performed tests have shown that MTR produces results of better quality than a sequential retrieval. However, the simultaneous retrieval of p, T and water VMR has not lead to satisfactory results below the tropopause, because of the high correlation occurring between p and water VMR in the troposphere. We have shown that this problem can be fixed extending the MTR analysis to at least one further target whose spectral features decouple the retrieval of pressure and water VMR. Ozone was found to be a suitable target for this purpose. The advantages of the MTR analysis system in terms of systematic errors have also been discussed

  16. Long term persistence in the sea surface temperature fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Monetti, Roberto A.; Havlin, Shlomo; Bunde, Armin

    2002-01-01

    We study the temporal correlations in the sea surface temperature (SST) fluctuations around the seasonal mean values in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. We apply a method that systematically overcome possible trends in the data. We find that the SST persistence, characterized by the correlation $C(s)$ of temperature fluctuations separated by a time period $s$, displays two different regimes. In the short-time regime which extends up to roughly 10 months, the temperature fluctuations display a...

  17. Spatial and temporal patterns of land surface fluxes from remotely sensed surface temperatures within an uncertainty modelling framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. McCabe

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterising the development of evapotranspiration through time is a difficult task, particularly when utilising remote sensing data, because retrieved information is often spatially dense, but temporally sparse. Techniques to expand these essentially instantaneous measures are not only limited, they are restricted by the general paucity of information describing the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of evaporative patterns. In a novel approach, temporal changes in land surface temperatures, derived from NOAA-AVHRR imagery and a generalised split-window algorithm, are used as a calibration variable in a simple land surface scheme (TOPUP and combined within the Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE methodology to provide estimates of areal evapotranspiration at the pixel scale. Such an approach offers an innovative means of transcending the patch or landscape scale of SVAT type models, to spatially distributed estimates of model output. The resulting spatial and temporal patterns of land surface fluxes and surface resistance are used to more fully understand the hydro-ecological trends observed across a study catchment in eastern Australia. The modelling approach is assessed by comparing predicted cumulative evapotranspiration values with surface fluxes determined from Bowen ratio systems and using auxiliary information such as in-situ soil moisture measurements and depth to groundwater to corroborate observed responses.

  18. Surface kinetic temperature mapping using satellite spectral data in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result revealed that despite the limited topographic differences of the rift lakes and their proximity, the surface kinetic temperature difference is high, mainly due to groundwater and surface water fluxes. From thermal signature analysis two hot springs below the lake bed of Ziway were discovered. The various hot springs ...

  19. Temperature Dependence of Arn+ Cluster Backscattering from Polymer Surfaces: a New Method to Determine the Surface Glass Transition Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleunis, Claude; Cristaudo, Vanina; Delcorte, Arnaud

    2018-01-01

    In this work, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used to study the intensity variations of the backscattered Ar n + clusters as a function of temperature for several amorphous polymer surfaces (polyolefins, polystyrene, and polymethyl methacrylate). For all these investigated polymers, our results show a transition of the ratio Ar 2 + /(Ar 2 + + Ar 3 + ) when the temperature is scanned from -120 °C to +125 °C (the exact limits depend on the studied polymer). This transition generally spans over a few tens of degrees and the temperature of the inflection point of each curve is always lower than the bulk glass transition temperature (T g ) reported for the considered polymer. Due to the surface sensitivity of the cluster backscattering process (several nanometers), the presented analysis could provide a new method to specifically evaluate a surface transition temperature of polymers, with the same lateral resolution as the gas cluster beam. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  20. Oxidised zirconium versus cobalt alloy bearing surfaces in total knee arthroplasty: 3D laser scanning of retrieved polyethylene inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, F L; Koch, C N; Elpers, M E; Wright, T M; Haas, S B; Heyse, T J

    2017-06-01

    We sought to establish whether an oxidised zirconium (OxZr) femoral component causes less loss of polyethylene volume than a cobalt alloy (CoCr) femoral component in total knee arthroplasty. A total of 20 retrieved tibial inserts that had articulated with OxZr components were matched with 20 inserts from CoCr articulations for patient age, body mass index, length of implantation, and revision diagnosis. Changes in dimensions of the articular surfaces were compared with those of pristine inserts using laser scanning. The differences in volume between the retrieved and pristine surfaces of the two groups were calculated and compared. The loss of polyethylene volume was 122 mm 3 (standard deviation (sd) 87) in the OxZr group and 170 mm 3 (sd 96) in the CoCr group (p = 0.033). The volume loss in the OxZr group was also lower in the medial (72 mm 3 (sd 67) versus 92 mm 3 (sd 60); p = 0.096) and lateral (49 mm 3 (sd 36) versus 79 mm 3 (sd 61); p = 0.096) compartments separately, but these differences were not significant. Our results corroborate earlier findings from in vitro testing and visual retrieval analysis which suggest that polyethylene volume loss is lower with OxZr femoral components. Since both OxZr and CoCr are hard surfaces that would be expected to create comparable amounts of polyethylene creep, the differences in volume loss may reflect differences in the in vivo wear of these inserts. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:793-8. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  1. Land Surface Reflectance Retrieval from Hyperspectral Data Collected by an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle over the Baotou Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Si-Bo; Li, Zhao-Liang; Tang, Bo-Hui; Wu, Hua; Ma, Lingling; Zhao, Enyu; Li, Chuanrong

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the in-flight performance of a new hyperspectral sensor onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-HYPER), a comprehensive field campaign was conducted over the Baotou test site in China on 3 September 2011. Several portable reference reflectance targets were deployed across the test site. The radiometric performance of the UAV-HYPER sensor was assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the calibration accuracy. The SNR of the different bands of the UAV-HYPER sensor was estimated to be between approximately 5 and 120 over the homogeneous targets, and the linear response of the apparent reflectance ranged from approximately 0.05 to 0.45. The uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance was retrieved and validated using in situ measurements, with root mean square error (RMSE) of approximately 0.01–0.07 and relative RMSE of approximately 5%–12%. There were small discrepancies between the retrieved uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance over the homogeneous targets and under low aerosol optical depth (AOD) conditions (AOD = 0.18). However, these discrepancies must be taken into account when adjacent pixels had large land surface reflectance contrast and under high AOD conditions (e.g. AOD = 1.0). PMID:23785513

  2. Influence of the tilting reflection mirror on the temperature and wind velocity retrieved by a polarizing atmospheric Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunmin; Li, Ying

    2012-09-20

    The principles of a polarizing atmospheric Michelson interferometer are outlined. The tilt of its reflection mirror results in deflection of the reflected beam and affects the intensities of the observed inteferogram. This effect is systematically analyzed. Both rectangular and circular apertures are considered. The theoretical expression of the modulation depth and phase of the interferogram are derived. These parameters vary with the inclination angle of the mirror and the distance between the deflection center and the optical axis and significantly influence the retrieved temperature and wind speed. If the wind and temperature errors are required to be less than 3 m/s and 5 K, the deflection angle must be less than 0.5°. The errors are also dependent on the shape of aperture. If the reflection mirror is deflected in one direction, the temperature error is smaller for a circular aperture (1.3 K) than for a rectangular one (2.6 K), but the wind velocity errors are almost the same (less than 3 m/s). If the deflection center and incident light beam are coincident, the temperature errors are 3 × 10(-4) K and 0.45 K for circular and rectangular apertures, respectively. The wind velocity errors are 1.2 × 10(-3) m/s and 0.06 m/s. Both are small. The result would be helpful for theoretical research and development of the static polarization wind imaging interferometer.

  3. Measuring the Surface Temperature of the Cryosphere using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.

    2012-01-01

    A general description of the remote sensing of cryosphere surface temperatures from satellites will be provided. This will give historical information on surface-temperature measurements from space. There will also be a detailed description of measuring the surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data which will be the focus of the presentation. Enhanced melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been documented in recent literature along with surface-temperature increases measured using infrared satellite data since 1981. Using a recently-developed climate data record, trends in the clear-sky ice-surface temperature (IST) of the Greenland Ice Sheet have been studied using the MODIS IST product. Daily and monthly MODIS ISTs of the Greenland Ice Sheet beginning on 1 March 2000 and continuing through 31 December 2010 are now freely available to download at 6.25-km spatial resolution on a polar stereographic grid. Maps showing the maximum extent of melt for the entire ice sheet and for the six major drainage basins have been developed from the MODIS IST dataset. Twelve-year trends of the duration of the melt season on the ice sheet vary in different drainage basins with some basins melting progressively earlier over the course of the study period. Some (but not all) of the basins also show a progressively-longer duration of melt. The consistency of this IST record, with temperature and melt records from other sources will be discussed.

  4. Surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiel, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    During this PhD, the challenges on the non-intrusive surface temperature measurements of metallic plasma facing components in tokamaks are reported. Indeed, a precise material emissivity value is needed for classical infrared methods and the environment contribution has to be known particularly for low emissivities materials. Although methods have been developed to overcome these issues, they have been implemented solely for dedicated experiments. In any case, none of these methods are suitable for surface temperature measurement in tokamaks.The active pyrometry introduced in this study allows surface temperature measurements independently of reflected flux and emissivities using pulsed and modulated photothermal effect. This method has been validated in laboratory on metallic materials with reflected fluxes for pulsed and modulated modes. This experimental validation is coupled with a surface temperature variation induced by photothermal effect and temporal signal evolvement modelling in order to optimize both the heating source characteristics and the data acquisition and treatment. The experimental results have been used to determine the application range in temperature and detection wavelengths. In this context, the design of an active pyrometry system on tokamak has been completed, based on a bicolor camera for a thermography application in metallic (or low emissivity) environment.The active pyrometry method introduced in this study is a complementary technique of classical infrared methods used for thermography in tokamak environment which allows performing local and 2D surface temperature measurements independently of reflected fluxes and emissivities. (author) [fr

  5. Integrating satellite retrieved leaf chlorophyll into land surface models for constraining simulations of water and carbon fluxes

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus

    2013-07-01

    In terrestrial biosphere models, key biochemical controls on carbon uptake by vegetation canopies are typically assigned fixed literature-based values for broad categories of vegetation types although in reality significant spatial and temporal variability exists. Satellite remote sensing can support modeling efforts by offering distributed information on important land surface characteristics, which would be very difficult to obtain otherwise. This study investigates the utility of satellite based retrievals of leaf chlorophyll for estimating leaf photosynthetic capacity and for constraining model simulations of water and carbon fluxes. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. Mathematical model of the metal mould surface temperature optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mlynek, Jaroslav, E-mail: jaroslav.mlynek@tul.cz; Knobloch, Roman, E-mail: roman.knobloch@tul.cz [Department of Mathematics, FP Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 2, 461 17 Liberec, The Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Srb, Radek, E-mail: radek.srb@tul.cz [Institute of Mechatronics and Computer Engineering Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 2, 461 17 Liberec, The Czech Republic (Czech Republic)

    2015-11-30

    The article is focused on the problem of generating a uniform temperature field on the inner surface of shell metal moulds. Such moulds are used e.g. in the automotive industry for artificial leather production. To produce artificial leather with uniform surface structure and colour shade the temperature on the inner surface of the mould has to be as homogeneous as possible. The heating of the mould is realized by infrared heaters located above the outer mould surface. The conceived mathematical model allows us to optimize the locations of infrared heaters over the mould, so that approximately uniform heat radiation intensity is generated. A version of differential evolution algorithm programmed in Matlab development environment was created by the authors for the optimization process. For temperate calculations software system ANSYS was used. A practical example of optimization of heaters locations and calculation of the temperature of the mould is included at the end of the article.

  7. Mathematical model of the metal mould surface temperature optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynek, Jaroslav; Knobloch, Roman; Srb, Radek

    2015-01-01

    The article is focused on the problem of generating a uniform temperature field on the inner surface of shell metal moulds. Such moulds are used e.g. in the automotive industry for artificial leather production. To produce artificial leather with uniform surface structure and colour shade the temperature on the inner surface of the mould has to be as homogeneous as possible. The heating of the mould is realized by infrared heaters located above the outer mould surface. The conceived mathematical model allows us to optimize the locations of infrared heaters over the mould, so that approximately uniform heat radiation intensity is generated. A version of differential evolution algorithm programmed in Matlab development environment was created by the authors for the optimization process. For temperate calculations software system ANSYS was used. A practical example of optimization of heaters locations and calculation of the temperature of the mould is included at the end of the article

  8. Quantative determination of surface temperatures using an infrared camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, C.K.; Ellingson, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method is presented to determine the surface-temperature distribution at each point in an infrared picture. To handle the surface reflection problem, three cases are considered that include the use of black coatings, radiation shields, and band-pass filters. For uniform irradiation on the test surface, the irradiation can be measured by using a cooled, convex mirror. Equations are derived to show that this surrounding irradiation effect can be subtracted out from the scanned radiation; thus the net radiation is related to only emission from the surface. To provide for temperature measurements over a large field, the image-processing technique is used to digitize the infrared data. The paper spells out procedures that involve the use of a computer for making point-by-point temperature calculations. Finally, a sample case is given to illustrate applications of the method. 6 figures, 1 table

  9. Symmetric scaling properties in global surface air temperature anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varotsos, Costas A.; Efstathiou, Maria N.

    2015-08-01

    We have recently suggested "long-term memory" or internal long-range correlation within the time-series of land-surface air temperature (LSAT) anomalies in both hemispheres. For example, an increasing trend in the LSAT anomalies is followed by another one at a different time in a power-law fashion. However, our previous research was mainly focused on the overall long-term persistence, while in the present study, the upward and downward scaling dynamics of the LSAT anomalies are analysed, separately. Our results show that no significant fluctuation differences were found between the increments and decrements in LSAT anomalies, over the whole Earth and over each hemisphere, individually. On the contrary, the combination of land-surface air and sea-surface water temperature anomalies seemed to cause a departure from symmetry and the increments in the land and sea surface temperature anomalies appear to be more persistent than the decrements.

  10. Improving 7-Day Forecast Skill by Assimilation of Retrieved AIRS Temperature Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Rosenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a new set of Data Assimilation Experiments covering the period January 1 to February 29, 2016 using the GEOS-5 DAS. Our experiments assimilate all data used operationally by GMAO (Control) with some modifications. Significant improvement in Global and Southern Hemisphere Extra-tropical 7-day forecast skill was obtained when: We assimilated AIRS Quality Controlled temperature profiles in place of observed AIRS radiances, and also did not assimilate CrISATMS radiances, nor did we assimilate radiosonde temperature profiles or aircraft temperatures. This new methodology did not improve or degrade 7-day Northern Hemispheric Extra-tropical forecast skill. We are conducting experiments aimed at further improving of Northern Hemisphere Extra-tropical forecast skill.

  11. An Integrated Approach to Estimate Instantaneous Near-Surface Air Temperature and Sensible Heat Flux Fields during the SEMAPHORE Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourras, Denis; Eymard, Laurence; Liu, W. Timothy; Dupuis, Hélène

    2002-03-01

    A new technique was developed to retrieve near-surface instantaneous air temperatures and turbulent sensible heat fluxes using satellite data during the Structure des Echanges Mer-Atmosphere, Proprietes des Heterogeneites Oceaniques: Recherche Experimentale (SEMAPHORE) experiment, which was conducted in 1993 under mainly anticyclonic conditions. The method is based on a regional, horizontal atmospheric temperature advection model whose inputs are wind vectors, sea surface temperature fields, air temperatures around the region under study, and several constants derived from in situ measurements. The intrinsic rms error of the method is 0.7°C in terms of air temperature and 9 W m2 for the fluxes, both at 0.16° × 0.16° and 1.125° × 1.125° resolution. The retrieved air temperature and flux horizontal structures are in good agreement with fields from two operational general circulation models. The application to SEMAPHORE data involves the First European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) wind fields, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) SST fields, and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) air temperature boundary conditions. The rms errors obtained by comparing the estimations with research vessel measurements are 0.3°C and 5 W m2.

  12. A Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC) for surface energy balance fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallick, Kaniska; Jarvis, Andrew J.; Boegh, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The use of Penman–Monteith (PM) equation in thermal remote sensing based surface energy balance modeling is not prevalent due to the unavailability of any direct method to integrate thermal data into the PM equation and due to the lack of physical models expressing the surface (or stomatal......) and boundary layer conductances (gS and gB) as a function of surface temperature. Here we demonstrate a new method that physically integrates the radiometric surface temperature (TS) into the PM equation for estimating the terrestrial surface energy balance fluxes (sensible heat, H and latent heat, λ......E). The method combines satellite TS data with standard energy balance closure models in order to derive a hybrid closure that does not require the specification of surface to atmosphere conductance terms. We call this the Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC), which is formed by the simultaneous solution...

  13. Diode temperature sensor array for measuring and controlling micro scale surface temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Il Young; Kim, Sung Jin

    2004-01-01

    The needs of micro scale thermal detecting technique are increasing in biology and chemical industry. For example, thermal finger print, Micro PCR(Polymer Chain Reaction), TAS and so on. To satisfy these needs, we developed a DTSA(Diode Temperature Sensor Array) for detecting and controlling the temperature on small surface. The DTSA is fabricated by using VLSI technique. It consists of 32 array of diodes(1,024 diodes) for temperature detection and 8 heaters for temperature control on a 8mm surface area. The working principle of temperature detection is that the forward voltage drop across a silicon diode is approximately proportional to the inverse of the absolute temperature of diode. And eight heaters (1K) made of poly-silicon are added onto a silicon wafer and controlled individually to maintain a uniform temperature distribution across the DTSA. Flip chip packaging used for easy connection of the DTSA. The circuitry for scanning and controlling DTSA are also developed

  14. Fiber-Optic Surface Temperature Sensor Based on Modal Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Musin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatially-integrated surface temperature sensing is highly useful when it comes to controlling processes, detecting hazardous conditions or monitoring the health and safety of equipment and people. Fiber-optic sensing based on modal interference has shown great sensitivity to temperature variation, by means of cost-effective image-processing of few-mode interference patterns. New developments in the field of sensor configuration, as described in this paper, include an innovative cooling and heating phase discrimination functionality and more precise measurements, based entirely on the image processing of interference patterns. The proposed technique was applied to the measurement of the integrated surface temperature of a hollow cylinder and compared with a conventional measurement system, consisting of an infrared camera and precision temperature probe. As a result, the optical technique is in line with the reference system. Compared with conventional surface temperature probes, the optical technique has the following advantages: low heat capacity temperature measurement errors, easier spatial deployment, and replacement of multiple angle infrared camera shooting and the continuous monitoring of surfaces that are not visually accessible.

  15. An experimental method for making spectral emittance and surface temperature measurements of opaque surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Travis J.; Jones, Matthew R.; Tree, Dale R.; Daniel Maynes, R.; Baxter, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental procedure has been developed to make spectral emittance and temperature measurements. The spectral emittance of an object is calculated using measurements of the spectral emissive power and of the surface temperature of the object obtained using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. A calibration procedure is described in detail which accounts for the temperature dependence of the detector. The methods used to extract the spectral emissive power and surface temperature from measured infrared spectra were validated using a blackbody radiator at known temperatures. The average error in the measured spectral emittance was 2.1% and the average difference between the temperature inferred from the recorded spectra and the temperature indicated on the blackbody radiator was 1.2%. The method was used to measure the spectral emittance of oxidized copper at various temperatures.

  16. Assessment of broiler surface temperature variation when exposed to different air temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR Nascimento

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of the air temperature variation on the mean surface temperature (MST of 7- to 35-day-old broiler chickens using infrared thermometry to estimate MST, and to study surface temperature variation of the wings, head, legs, back and comb as affected by air temperature and broiler age. One hundred Cobb® broilers were used in the experiment. Starting on day 7, 10 birds were weekly selected at random, housed in an environmental chamber and reared under three distinct temperatures (18, 25 and 32 ºC to record their thermal profile using an infrared thermal camera. The recorded images were processed to estimate MST by selecting the whole area of the bird within the picture and comparing it with the values obtained using selected equations in literature, and to record the surface temperatures of the body parts. The MST estimated by infrared images were not statistically different (p > 0.05 from the values obtained by the equations. MST values significantly increased (p < 0.05 when the air temperature increased, but were not affected by bird age. However, age influenced the difference between MST and air temperature, which was highest on day 14. The technique of infrared thermal image analysis was useful to estimate the mean surface temperature of broiler chickens.

  17. Variability of emissivity and surface temperature over a sparsely vegetated surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humes, K.S.; Kustas, W.P.; Moran, M.S.; Nichols, W.D.; Weltz, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Radiometric surface temperatures obtained from remote sensing measurements are a function of both the physical surface temperature and the effective emissivity of the surface within the band pass of the radiometric measurement. For sparsely vegetated areas, however, a sensor views significant fractions of both bare soil and various vegetation types. In this case the radiometric response of a sensor is a function of the emissivities and kinetic temperatures of various surface elements, the proportion of those surface elements within the field of view of the sensor, and the interaction of radiation emitted from the various surface components. In order to effectively utilize thermal remote sensing data to quantify energy balance components for a sparsely vegetated area, it is important to examine the typical magnitude and degree of variability of emissivity and surface temperature for such surfaces. Surface emissivity measurements and ground and low-altitude-aircraft-based surface temperature measurements (8-13 micrometer band pass) made in conjunction with the Monsoon '90 field experiment were used to evaluate the typical variability of those quantities during the summer rainy season in a semiarid watershed. The average value for thermal band emissivity of the exposed bare soil portions of the surface was found to be approximately 0.96; the average value measured for most of the varieties of desert shrubs present was approximately 0.99. Surface composite emissivity was estimated to be approximately 0.98 for both the grass-dominated and shrub-dominated portions of the watershed. The spatial variability of surface temperature was found to be highly dependent on the spatial scale of integration for the instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of the instrument, the spatial scale of the total area under evaluation, and the time of day

  18. Planar time-resolved PIV for velocity and pressure retrieval in atmospheric boundary layer over surface waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Kandaurov, Alexander; Sergeev, Daniil; Bopp, Maximilian; Caulliez, Guillemette

    2017-04-01

    Air-sea coupling in general is important for weather, climate, fluxes. Wind wave source is crucially important for surface waves' modeling. But the wind-wave growth rate is strongly uncertain. Using direct measurements of pressure by wave-following Elliott probe [1] showed, weak and indefinite dependence of wind-wave growth rate on the wave steepness, while Grare et.al. [2] discuss the limitations of direct measurements of pressure associated with the inability to measure the pressure close to the surface by contact methods. Recently non-invasive methods for determining the pressure on the basis of technology of time-resolved PIV are actively developed [3]. Retrieving air flow velocities by 2D PIV techniques was started from Reul et al [4]. The first attempt for retrieving wind pressure field of waves in the laboratory tank from the time-resolved PIV measurements was done in [5]. The experiments were performed at the Large Air-Sea Interaction Facility (LASIF) - MIO/Luminy (length 40 m, cross section of air channel 3.2 x 1.6 m). For 18 regimes with wind speed up to 14 m/s including presence of puddle waves, a combination of time resolved PIV technique and optical measurements of water surface form was applied to detailed investigation of the characteristics of the wind flow over the water surface. Ammonium chloride smoke was used for flow visualization illuminated by two 6 Wt blue diode lasers combined into a vertical laser plane. Particle movement was captured with high-speed camera using Scheimpflug technique (up to 20 kHz frame rate with 4-frame bursts, spatial resolution about 190 μm, field of view 314x12 mm). Velocity air flow field was retrieved by PIV images processing with adaptive cross-correlation method on the curvilinear grid following surface wave form. The resulting time resolved instantaneous velocity fields on regular grid allowed us to obtain momentum fluxes directly from measured air velocity fluctuations. The average wind velocity patterns were

  19. Surface temperature and surface heat flux determination of the inverse heat conduction problem for a slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroyanagi, Toshiyuki

    1983-07-01

    Based on an idea that surface conditions should be a reflection of interior temperature and interior heat flux variation as inverse as interior conditions has been determined completely by the surface temperature and/on surface heat flux as boundary conditions, a method is presented for determining the surface temperature and the surface heat flux of a solid when the temperature and heat flux at an interior point are a prescribed function of time. The method is developed by the integration of Duhumels' integral which has unknown temperature or unknown heat flux in its integrand. Specific forms of surface condition determination are developed for a sample inverse problem: slab. Ducussing the effect of a degree of avairable informations at an interior point due to damped system and the effect of variation of surface conditions on those formulations, it is shown that those formulations are capable of representing the unknown surface conditions except for small time interval followed by discontinuous change of surface conditions. The small un-resolved time interval is demonstrated by a numerical example. An evaluation method of heat flux at an interior point, which is requested by those formulations, is discussed. (author)

  20. NASA's MODIS/VIIRS Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Products: Asssessment of Accuracy, Continuity and Science Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulley, G. C.; Malakar, N.; Islam, T.

    2017-12-01

    Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST&E) are an important Earth System Data Record (ESDR) and Environmental Climate Variable (ECV) defined by NASA and GCOS respectively. LST&E data are key variables used in land cover/land use change studies, in surface energy balance and atmospheric water vapor retrieval models and retrievals, and in climate research. LST&E products are currently produced on a routine basis using data from the MODIS instruments on the NASA EOS platforms and by the VIIRS instrument on the Suomi-NPP platform that serves as a bridge between NASA EOS and the next-generation JPSS platforms. Two new NASA LST&E products for MODIS (MxD21) and VIIRS (VNP21) are being produced during 2017 using a new approach that addresses discrepancies in accuracy and consistency between the current suite of split-window based LST products. The new approach uses a Temperature Emissivity Separation (TES) algorithm, originally developed for the ASTER instrument, to physically retrieve both LST and spectral emissivity consistently for both sensors with high accuracy and well defined uncertainties. This study provides a rigorous assessment of accuracy of the MxD21/VNP21 products using temperature- and radiance-based validation strategies and demonstrates continuity between the products using collocated matchups over CONUS. We will further demonstrate potential science use of the new products with studies related to heat waves, monitoring snow melt dynamics, and land cover/land use change.

  1. High-Temperature Surface-Acoustic-Wave Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoliang; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft-engine rotating equipment usually operates at high temperature and stress. Non-invasive inspection of microcracks in those components poses a challenge for the non-destructive evaluation community. A low-profile ultrasonic guided wave sensor can detect cracks in situ. The key feature of the sensor is that it should withstand high temperatures and excite strong surface wave energy to inspect surface/subsurface cracks. As far as the innovators know at the time of this reporting, there is no existing sensor that is mounted to the rotor disks for crack inspection; the most often used technology includes fluorescent penetrant inspection or eddy-current probes for disassembled part inspection. An efficient, high-temperature, low-profile surface acoustic wave transducer design has been identified and tested for nondestructive evaluation of structures or materials. The development is a Sol-Gel bismuth titanate-based surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) sensor that can generate efficient surface acoustic waves for crack inspection. The produced sensor is very thin (submillimeter), and can generate surface waves up to 540 C. Finite element analysis of the SAW transducer design was performed to predict the sensor behavior, and experimental studies confirmed the results. One major uniqueness of the Sol-Gel bismuth titanate SAW sensor is that it is easy to implement to structures of various shapes. With a spray coating process, the sensor can be applied to surfaces of large curvatures. Second, the sensor is very thin (as a coating) and has very minimal effect on airflow or rotating equipment imbalance. Third, it can withstand temperatures up to 530 C, which is very useful for engine applications where high temperature is an issue.

  2. Sea surface temperature trends in the coastal ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Amos, C.L.; Al-Rashidi, Thamer B.; Rakha, Karim; El-Gamily, Hamdy; Nicholls, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) trends in the coastal zone are shown to be increasing at rates that exceed the global trends by up to an order of magnitude. This paper compiles some of the evidence of the trends published in the literature. The evidence suggests that urbanization in the coastal hinterland is having a direct effect on SST through increased temperatures of river and lake waters, as well as through heated run-off and thermal effluent discharges from coastal infrastructure. These l...

  3. Long-term changes in sea surface temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Historical observations of sea surface temperature since 1856 have been improved by applying corrections to compensate for the predominant use of uninsulated or partly insulated buckets until the Second World War. There are large gaps in coverage in the late nineteenth century and around the two world wars, but a range of statistical techniques suggest that these gaps do not severely prejudice estimates of global and regional climatic change. Nonetheless, to improve the analysis on smaller scales, many unused historical data are to be digitized and incorporated. For recent years, satellite-based sea surface temperatures have improved the coverage, after adjustments for their biases relative to in situ data. An initial version of a nominally globally complete sea ice and interpolated sea surface temperature data set, beginning in 1871, has been created for use in numerical simulations of recent climate. Long time series of corrected regional, hemispheric, and global sea surface temperatures are mostly consistent with corresponding night marine air temperature series, and confirm the regionally specific climatic changes portrayed in the Scientific Assessments of the intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The observations also show an El Nino-like oscillation on bidecadal and longer time scales

  4. Development of a new method for high temperature in-core characterisation of solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamawaki, M.; Suzuki, A.; Yokota, T.; Nan Luo, G.; Yamaguchi, K.; Hayashi, K.

    2000-01-01

    In order to develop a new method for establishing in situ characterizations and monitoring of solid surfaces under irradiation and in controlled atmospheres, the high temperature Kelvin probe has been applied and tested to measure work function changes under such conditions. In the case of Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 2 ZrO 3 , two steps of distinct change of work function were observed when the specimen was exposed to hydrogen gas and also when it was retrieved. These changes were attributed to the oxygen vacancies formation/annihilation and the adsorption/desorption of gas (H 2 ). While the work function measured on a gold specimen under proton beam irradiation showed a steep drop in the work function during the initial irradiation, it gradually recovered after the end of irradiation. The second irradiation gave rise to a smaller value of the work function decrease of gold. These results support a possibility of adopting the high temperature Kelvin probe for the purpose of monitoring/characterising solid surface under irradiation in nuclear reactors and other facilities so as to detect the formation of defects in the surface and near-surface region of solid specimens. (authors)

  5. Assimilating AOD retrievals from GOCI and VIIRS to forecast surface PM2.5 episodes over Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jiongming; Liu, Zhiquan; Wang, Xuemei; Bresch, Jamie; Ban, Junmei; Chen, Dan; Kim, Jhoon

    2018-04-01

    In this study, Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) AOD and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) AOD data were assimilated to forecast surface PM2.5 concentrations over Eastern China, by using the three-dimensional variational (3DAVR) data assimilation (DA) system, to compare DA impacts by assimilating AOD retrievals from these two types of satellites. Three experiments were conducted, including a CONTROL without the AOD assimilation, and GOCIDA and VIIRSDA with the assimilation of AOD retrievals from GOCI and VIIRS, respectively. By utilizing the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) model, 48-h forecasts were initialized at each 06 UTC from 19 November to 06 December 2013. These forecasts were evaluated with 248 ground-based measurements from the air quality monitoring network across 67 China cities. The results show that overall the CONTROL underestimated surface PM2.5 concentrations, especially over Jing-Jin-Ji (JJJ) region and Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region. Both the GOCIDA and VIIRSDA produced higher surface PM2.5 concentrations mainly over Eastern China, which fits well with the PM2.5 measurements at these eastern sites, with more than 8% error reductions (ER). Moreover, compared to CONTROL, GOCIDA reduced 14.0% and 6.4% error on JJJ region and YRD region, respectively, while VIIRSDA reduced respectively 2.0% and 13.4% error over the corresponding areas. During the heavy polluted period, VIIRSDA improved all sites within YRD region, and GOCIDA enhanced 84% sites. Meanwhile, GOCIDA improved 84% sites on JJJ region, while VIIRSDA did not affect that region. These geographic distinctions might result from spatial dissimilarity between GOCI AOD and VIIRS AOD at time intervals. Moreover, the larger increment produced by AOD DA under stable meteorological conditions could lead to a longer duration (e.g., 1-2 days, > 2 days) of AOD DA impacts. Even though with AOD DA, surface PM2.5 concentrations were still underestimated

  6. AATSR land surface temperature product algorithm verification over a WATERMED site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, E. J.; Sòria, G.; Sobrino, J. A.; Remedios, J. J.; Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.; Corlett, G. K.

    A new operational Land Surface Temperature (LST) product generated from data acquired by the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) provides the opportunity to measure LST on a global scale with a spatial resolution of 1 km2. The target accuracy of the product, which utilises nadir data from the AATSR thermal channels at 11 and 12 μm, is 2.5 K for daytime retrievals and 1.0 K at night. We present the results of an experiment where the performance of the algorithm has been assessed for one daytime and one night time overpass occurring over the WATERMED field site near Marrakech, Morocco, on 05 March 2003. Top of atmosphere (TOA) brightness temperatures (BTs) are simulated for 12 pixels from each overpass using a radiative transfer model, with the LST product and independent emissivity values and atmospheric data as inputs. We have estimated the error in the LST product over this biome for this set of conditions by applying the operational AATSR LST retrieval algorithm to the modelled BTs and comparing the results with the original AATSR LSTs input into the model. An average bias of -1.00 K (standard deviation 0.07 K) for the daytime data, and -1.74 K (standard deviation 0.02 K) for the night time data is obtained, which indicates that the algorithm is yielding an LST that is too cold under these conditions. While these results are within specification for daytime retrievals, this suggests that the target accuracy of 1.0 K at night is not being met within this biome.

  7. Derivation and evaluation of land surface temperature from the geostationary operational environmental satellite series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) have been continuously monitoring the earth surface since 1970, providing valuable and intensive data from a very broad range of wavelengths, day and night. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) is currently operating GOES-15 and GOES-13. The design of the GOES series is now heading to the 4 th generation. GOES-R, as a representative of the new generation of the GOES series, is scheduled to be launched in 2015 with higher spatial and temporal resolution images and full-time soundings. These frequent observations provided by GOES Image make them attractive for deriving information on the diurnal land surface temperature (LST) cycle and diurnal temperature range (DTR). These parameters are of great value for research on the Earth's diurnal variability and climate change. Accurate derivation of satellite-based LSTs from thermal infrared data has long been an interesting and challenging research area. To better support the research on climate change, the generation of consistent GOES LST products for both GOES-East and GOES-West from operational dataset as well as historical archive is in great demand. The derivation of GOES LST products and the evaluation of proposed retrieval methods are two major objectives of this study. Literature relevant to satellite-based LST retrieval techniques was reviewed. Specifically, the evolution of two LST algorithm families and LST retrieval methods for geostationary satellites were summarized in this dissertation. Literature relevant to the evaluation of satellite-based LSTs was also reviewed. All the existing methods are a valuable reference to develop the GOES LST product. The primary objective of this dissertation is the development of models for deriving consistent GOES LSTs with high spatial and high temporal coverage. Proper LST retrieval algorithms were studied

  8. The Remote Sensing of Surface Radiative Temperature over Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    remote sensing of surface radiative temperature over Barbados was undertaken using a PRT-5 attached to a light aircraft. Traverses across the centre of the island, over the rugged east coast area, and the urban area of Bridgetown were undertaken at different times of day and night in the last week of June and the first week of December, 1969. These traverses show that surface variations in long-wave radiation emission lie within plus or minus 5% of the observations over grass at a representative site. The quick response of the surface to sunset and sunrise was

  9. A Method for Retrieving Daily Land Surface Albedo from Space at 30-m Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Land surface albedo data with high spatio-temporal resolution are increasingly important for scientific studies addressing spatially and/or temporally small-scale phenomena, such as urban heat islands and urban land surface energy balance. Our previous study derived albedo data with 2–4-day and 30-m temporal and spatial resolution that have better spatio-temporal resolution than existing albedo data, but do not completely satisfy the requirements for monitoring high-frequency land surface changes at the small scale. Downscaling technology provides a chance to further improve the albedo data spatio-temporal resolution and accuracy. This paper introduces a method that combines downscaling technology for land surface reflectance with an empirical method of deriving land surface albedo. Firstly, downscaling daily MODIS land surface reflectance data (MOD09GA from 500 m to 30 m on the basis of HJ-1A/B BRDF data with 2–4-day and 30-m temporal and spatial resolution is performed: this is the key step in the improved method. Subsequently, the daily 30-m land surface albedo data are derived by an empirical method combining prior knowledge of the MODIS BRDF product and the downscaled daily 30-m reflectance. Validation of albedo data obtained using the proposed method shows that the new method has both improved spatio-temporal resolution and good accuracy (a total absolute accuracy of 0.022 and a total root mean squared error at six sites of 0.028.

  10. An Estimation of Land Surface Temperatures from Landsat ETM+ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr-Adeline

    Keywords: Urban growth, urban heat Island, land surface temperatures, ... climate from the resulting increase in LST can impact on the development of ... were not available (due to high cloud cover) in a given season, 2011 images ..... Sailor, D.J. and H. Fan, 2002: Modeling the diurnal variability of effective albedo for cities.

  11. Solitary ionizing surface waves on low-temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, S.V.; Yu, M.Y.

    1993-01-01

    It is demonstrated that at the boundary of semi-infinite low-temperature plasma new types of localized ionizing surface wave structures can propagate. The solitary waves are described by an evolution equation similar to the KdV equation, but the solutions differ considerably from that of the latter

  12. Sea surface temperature anomalies in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.

    temperature anomalies for the above regions respectively. An analysis has shown that most of the short duration anomalies (i.e., anomalies with periods less than 4 months) are driven by the surface heat fluxes. The medium duration anomalies (i.e., anomalies...

  13. Surface and temperature effects in isovector giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipparini, E.; Stringari, S.

    1988-01-01

    Using the liquid droplet model (LDM) we investigate three different sum rules for the isovector dipole and monopole excitations. Analytical formulae are derived for the excitation energies of these resonances and the predictions are compared with experiments. The role of the surface and the effects of temperature are explicitly discussed. (orig.)

  14. Surface Intermediates on Metal Electrodes at High Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Jacobsen, Torben; Bay, Lasse

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms widely suggested for the O2-reduc-tion or H2-oxidation SOFC reactions involve inter-mediate O/H species adsorbed on the electrode surface. The presence of these intermediates is investigated by linear sweep voltammetry. In airat moderate temperatures (500øC) Pt in contact with YSZ...

  15. Heterogeneity of soil surface temperature induced by xerophytic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The diurnal maximum and diurnal variations of soil surface temperatures under canopy vary strongly with different .... elevation of 1300 m above sea level), located at the southeastern fringe of ... cipitation is the only source of soil water replenish- ment. ...... 2001 Effects of nutrients and shade on tree-grass inter- actions in an ...

  16. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Global Land Surface Air Temperature Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A station observation-based global land monthly mean surface air temperature dataset at 0.5 0.5 latitude-longitude resolution for the period from 1948 to the present...

  17. Surface intermediates on metal electrodes at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Jacobsen, Torben; Bay, Lasse

    1998-01-01

    The mechanisms widely conceived for the O(2)-reduction or H(2)-oxidation reactions in SOFC's involve intermediate O/H species adsorbed on the electrode surface. The presence of these intermediates is investigated by linear sweep voltammetry. In air at moderate temperatures (500 degrees C) Pt...

  18. Temperature limit values for touching cold surfaces with the fingertip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geng, Q.; Holme, I.; Hartog, E.A. den; Havenith, G.; Jay, O.; Malchaires, J.; Piette, A.; Rintama, H.; Rissanen, S.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: At the request of the European Commission and in the framework of the European Machinery Directive, research was performed in five different laboratories to develop specifications for surface temperature limit values for the short-term accidental touching of the fingertip with cold

  19. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Global Land Surface Air Temperature Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A station observation-based global land monthly mean surface air temperature dataset at 0.5 x 0.5 latitude-longitude resolution for the period from 1948 to the...

  20. A Microring Temperature Sensor Based on the Surface Plasmon Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A structure of microring sensor suitable for temperature measurement based on the surface plasmon wave is put forward in this paper. The sensor uses surface plasmon multilayer waveguiding structure in the vertical direction and U-shaped microring structure in the horizontal direction and utilizes SOI as the thermal material. The transfer function derivation of the structure of surface plasmon microring sensor is according to the transfer matrix method. While the change of refractive index of Si is caused by the change of ambient temperature, the effective refractive index of the multilayer waveguiding structure is changed, resulting in the drifting of the sensor output spectrum. This paper focuses on the transmission characteristics of multilayer waveguide structure and the impact on the output spectrum caused by refractive index changes in temperature parts. According to the calculation and simulation, the transmission performance of the structure is stable and the sensitivity is good. The resonance wavelength shift can reach 0.007 μm when the temperature is increased by 100 k and FSR can reach about 60 nm. This structure achieves a high sensitivity in the temperature sense taking into account a wide range of filter frequency selections, providing a theoretical basis for the preparation of microoptics.

  1. Near-surface temperature gradient in a coastal upwelling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, H.; Ochoa, J.; Almeda-Jauregui, C. O.; Ruiz-de la Torre, M. C.; Cruz-López, R.; Villegas-Mendoza, J. R.

    2014-08-01

    In oceanography, a near homogeneous mixed layer extending from the surface to a seasonal thermocline is a common conceptual basis in physics, chemistry, and biology. In a coastal upwelling region 3 km off the coast in the Mexican Pacific, we measured vertical density gradients with a free-rising CTD and temperature gradients with thermographs at 1, 3, and 5 m depths logging every 5 min during more than a year. No significant salinity gradient was observed down to 10 m depth, and the CTD temperature and density gradients showed no pronounced discontinuity that would suggest a near-surface mixed layer. Thermographs generally logged decreasing temperature with depth with gradients higher than 0.2 K m-1 more than half of the time in the summer between 1 and 3 m, 3 and 5 m and in the winter between 1 and 3 m. Some negative temperature gradients were present and gradients were generally highly variable in time with high peaks lasting fractions of hours to hours. These temporal changes were too rapid to be explained by local heating or cooling. The pattern of positive and negative peaks might be explained by vertical stacks of water layers of different temperatures and different horizontal drift vectors. The observed near-surface gradient has implications for turbulent wind energy transfer, vertical exchange of dissolved and particulate water constituents, the interpretation of remotely sensed SST, and horizontal wind-induced transport.

  2. Validation of GOES-Derived Surface Radiation Using NOAA's Physical Retrieval Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

    2013-01-01

    This report was part of a multiyear collaboration with the University of Wisconsin and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to produce high-quality, satellite-based, solar resource datasets for the United States. High-quality, solar resource assessment accelerates technology deployment by making a positive impact on decision making and reducing uncertainty in investment decisions. Satellite-based solar resource datasets are used as a primary source in solar resource assessment. This is mainly because satellites provide larger areal coverage and longer periods of record than ground-based measurements. With the advent of newer satellites with increased information content and faster computers that can process increasingly higher data volumes, methods that were considered too computationally intensive are now feasible. One class of sophisticated methods for retrieving solar resource information from satellites is a two-step, physics-based method that computes cloud properties and uses the information in a radiative transfer model to compute solar radiation. This method has the advantage of adding additional information as satellites with newer channels come on board. This report evaluates the two-step method developed at NOAA and adapted for solar resource assessment for renewable energy with the goal of identifying areas that can be improved in the future.

  3. Modeling Apple Surface Temperature Dynamics Based on Weather Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed was recorded for seven hours between 11:00–18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of “Fuji” apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.

  4. Modeling apple surface temperature dynamics based on weather data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Peters, Troy; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-10-27

    The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST) dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) was recorded for seven hours between 11:00-18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of "Fuji" apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.

  5. Simultaneous retrieval of water vapour, temperature and cirrus clouds properties from measurements of far infrared spectral radiance over the Antarctic Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Natale, Gianluca; Palchetti, Luca; Bianchini, Giovanni; Del Guasta, Massimo

    2017-03-01

    The possibility separating the contributions of the atmospheric state and ice clouds by using spectral infrared measurements is a fundamental step to quantifying the cloud effect in climate models. A simultaneous retrieval of cloud and atmospheric parameters from infrared wideband spectra will allow the disentanglement of the spectral interference between these variables. In this paper, we describe the development of a code for the simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric state and ice cloud parameters, and its application to the analysis of the spectral measurements acquired by the Radiation Explorer in the Far Infrared - Prototype for Applications and Development (REFIR-PAD) spectroradiometer, which has been in operation at Concordia Station on the Antarctic Plateau since 2012. The code performs the retrieval with a computational time that is comparable with the instrument acquisition time. Water vapour and temperature profiles and the cloud optical and microphysical properties, such as the generalised effective diameter and the ice water path, are retrieved by exploiting the 230-980 cm-1 spectral band. To simulate atmospheric radiative transfer, the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) has been integrated with a specifically developed subroutine based on the δ-Eddington two-stream approximation, whereas the single-scattering properties of cirrus clouds have been derived from a database for hexagonal column habits. In order to detect ice clouds, a backscattering and depolarisation lidar, co-located with REFIR-PAD has been used, allowing us to infer the position and the cloud thickness to be used in the retrieval. A climatology of the vertical profiles of water vapour and temperature has been performed by using the daily radiosounding available at the station at 12:00 UTC. The climatology has been used to build an a priori profile correlation to constrain the fitting procedure. An optimal estimation method with the Levenberg-Marquardt approach has been

  6. Geophysical validation of temperature retrieved by the ESA processor from MIPAS/ENVISAT atmospheric limb-emission measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ridolfi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS has been operating since March 2002 onboard of the ENVIronmental SATellite of the European Space Agency (ESA. The high resolution (0.035 cm−1 full width half maximum, unapodized limb-emission measurements acquired by MIPAS in the first two years of operation have very good geographical and temporal coverage and have been re-processed by ESA with the most recent versions (4.61 and 4.62 of the inversion algorithms. The products of this processing chain are pressures at the tangent points and geolocated profiles of temperature and of the volume mixing ratios of six key atmospheric constituents: H2O, O3, HNO3, CH4, N2O and NO2. As for all the measurements made with innovative instruments and techniques, this data set requires a thorough validation. In this paper we present a geophysical validation of the temperature profiles derived from MIPAS measurements by the ESA retrieval algorithm. The validation is carried-out by comparing MIPAS temperature with correlative measurements made by radiosondes, lidars, in-situ and remote sensors operated either from the ground or stratospheric balloons.

    The results of the intercomparison indicate that the bias of the MIPAS profiles is generally smaller than 1 or 2 K depending on altitude. Furthermore we find that, especially at the edges of the altitude range covered by the MIPAS scan, the random error estimated from the intercomparison is larger (typically by a factor of two to three than the corresponding estimate derived on the basis of error propagation.

    In this work we also characterize the discrepancies between MIPAS temperature and the temperature fields resulting from the analyses of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF. The bias and the standard deviation of these discrepancies are consistent with those obtained when

  7. Effects of temperature and surface orientation on migration behaviours of helium atoms near tungsten surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoshuang; Wu, Zhangwen; Hou, Qing, E-mail: qhou@scu.edu.cn

    2015-10-15

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the dependence of migration behaviours of single helium atoms near tungsten surfaces on the surface orientation and temperature. For W{100} and W{110} surfaces, He atoms can quickly escape out near the surface without accumulation even at a temperature of 400 K. The behaviours of helium atoms can be well-described by the theory of continuous diffusion of particles in a semi-infinite medium. For a W{111} surface, the situation is complex. Different types of trap mutations occur within the neighbouring region of the W{111} surface. The trap mutations hinder the escape of He atoms, resulting in their accumulation. The probability of a He atom escaping into vacuum from a trap mutation depends on the type of the trap mutation, and the occurrence probabilities of the different types of trap mutations are dependent on the temperature. This finding suggests that the escape rate of He atoms on the W{111} surface does not show a monotonic dependence on temperature. For instance, the escape rate at T = 1500 K is lower than the rate at T = 1100 K. Our results are useful for understanding the structural evolution and He release on tungsten surfaces and for designing models in other simulation methods beyond molecular dynamics.

  8. Numerically predicting horizontally oriented spent fuel rod surface temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.D.; Koski, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    A comparison between numerical calculations with use of commercial thermal analysis software packages and experimental data simulating a horizontally oriented spent fuel rod array was performed. Twelve cases were analyzed using air and helium for the fill gas, with three different heat dissipation levels. The numerically predicted temperatures are higher than the experimental data for all levels of heat dissipation with air as the fill gas. The temperature differences are 4 degrees C and 23 degrees C for the low heat dissipation and high dissipation, respectively. The temperature predictions using helium as a fill gas are lower than the experimental data for the low and medium heat dissipation levels. The temperature predictions are 1 degrees C and 6 degrees C lower than the experimental data for the low and medium heat dissipation, respectively. For the high heat dissipation level, the temperature predictions are 16 degrees C higher than the experimental data. Differences between the predicted and experimental temperatures can be attributed to several factors. These factors include a experimental uncertainity in the temperature and heat dissipation measurements, actual convection effects not included in the model, and axial heat flow in the experimental data. This works demonstrates that horizontally oriented spent fuel rod surface temperature predictions can be made using existing commercial software packages. This work also shows that end effects, such as axial heat transfer through the spent fuel rods, will be increasingly important as the amount of dissipated heat increases

  9. Numerically predicting horizontally oriented spent fuel rod surface temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.D.; Koski, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    A comparison between numerical calculations with use of commercial thermal analysis software packages and experimental data simulating a horizontally oriented spent fuel rod array was performed. Twelve cases were analyzed using air and helium for the fill gas, with three different heat dissipation levels. The numerically predicted temperatures are higher than the experimental data for all levels of heat dissipation with air as the fill gas. The temperature differences are 4 degree C and 23 degree C for the low heat dissipation and high heat dissipation, respectively. The temperature predictions using helium as a fill gas are lower than the experimental data for the low and medium heat dissipation levels. The temperature predictions are 1 degree C and 6 degree C lower than the experimental data for the low and medium heat dissipation, respectively. For the high heat dissipation level, the temperature predictions are 16 degree C higher than the experimental data. Differences between the predicted and experimental temperatures can be attributed to several factors. These factors include experimental uncertainty in the temperature and heat dissipation measurements, actual convection effects not included in the model, and axial heat flow in the experimental data. This work demonstrates that horizontally oriented spent fuel rod surface temperature predictions can be made using existing commercial software packages. This work also shows that end effects, such as axial heat transfer through the spent fuel rods, will be increasingly important as the amount of dissipated heat increases

  10. Unexpected and Unexplained Surface Temperature Variations on Mimas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howett, C.; Spencer, J. R.; Pearl, J. C.; Hurford, T. A.; Segura, M.; Cassini Cirs Team

    2010-12-01

    Until recently it was thought one of the most interesting things about Mimas, Saturn’s innermost classical icy moon, was its resemblance to Star Wars’ Death Star. However, a bizarre pattern of daytime surface temperatures was observed on Mimas using data obtained by Cassini’s Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) in February 2010. The observations were taken during Cassini’s closest ever encounter with Mimas (<10,000 km) and cover the daytime anti-Saturn hemisphere centered on longitude ~145° W. Instead of surface temperatures smoothly increasing throughout the morning and early afternoon, then cooling in the evening, as expected, a sharp V-shaped boundary is observed separating cooler midday and afternoon temperatures (~77 K) on the leading side from warmer morning temperatures (~92 K) on the trailing side. The boundary’s apex is centered at equatorial latitudes near the anti-Saturn point and extends to low north and south latitudes on the trailing side. Subtle differences in the surface colors have been observed that are roughly spatially correlated with the observed extent of the temperature anomaly, with the cooler regions tending to be bluer (Schenk et al., Submitted). However, visible-wavelength albedo is similar in the two regions, so albedo variations are probably not directly responsible for the thermal anomaly. It is more likely that thermal inertia variations produce the anomaly, with thermal inertia being unusually high in the region with anomalously low daytime temperatures. Comparison of the February 2010 CIRS data to previous lower spatial resolution data taken at different local times tentatively confirm that the cooler regions do indeed display higher thermal inertias. Bombardment of the surface by high energy electrons from Saturn’s radiation belts has been proposed to explain the observed color variations (Schenk et al., Submitted). Electrons above ~1 MeV preferentially impact Mimas’ leading hemisphere at low latitudes where they

  11. Impervious surfaces and sewer pipe effects on stormwater runoff temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouri, F.; Gharabaghi, B.; Mahboubi, A. A.; McBean, E. A.

    2013-10-01

    The warming effect of the impervious surfaces in urban catchment areas and the cooling effect of underground storm sewer pipes on stormwater runoff temperature are assessed. Four urban residential catchment areas in the Cities of Guelph and Kitchener, Ontario, Canada were evaluated using a combination of runoff monitoring and modelling. The stormwater level and water temperature were monitored at 10 min interval at the inlet of the stormwater management ponds for three summers 2009, 2010 and 2011. The warming effect of the ponds is also studied, however discussed in detail in a separate paper. An artificial neural network (ANN) model for stormwater temperature was trained and validated using monitoring data. Stormwater runoff temperature was most sensitive to event mean temperature of the rainfall (EMTR) with a normalized sensitivity coefficient (Sn) of 1.257. Subsequent levels of sensitivity corresponded to the longest sewer pipe length (LPL), maximum rainfall intensity (MI), percent impervious cover (IMP), rainfall depth (R), initial asphalt temperature (AspT), pipe network density (PND), and rainfall duration (D), respectively. Percent impervious cover of the catchment area (IMP) was the key parameter that represented the warming effect of the paved surfaces; sensitivity analysis showed IMP increase from 20% to 50% resulted in runoff temperature increase by 3 °C. The longest storm sewer pipe length (LPL) and the storm sewer pipe network density (PND) are the two key parameters that control the cooling effect of the underground sewer system; sensitivity analysis showed LPL increase from 345 to 966 m, resulted in runoff temperature drop by 2.5 °C.

  12. Body temperature measurement in mice during acute illness: implantable temperature transponder versus surface infrared thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jie; Riedel, Nico; Grittner, Ulrike; Endres, Matthias; Banneke, Stefanie; Emmrich, Julius Valentin

    2018-02-23

    Body temperature is a valuable parameter in determining the wellbeing of laboratory animals. However, using body temperature to refine humane endpoints during acute illness generally lacks comprehensiveness and exposes to inter-observer bias. Here we compared two methods to assess body temperature in mice, namely implanted radio frequency identification (RFID) temperature transponders (method 1) to non-contact infrared thermometry (method 2) in 435 mice for up to 7 days during normothermia and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin-induced hypothermia. There was excellent agreement between core and surface temperature as determined by method 1 and 2, respectively, whereas the intra- and inter-subject variation was higher for method 2. Nevertheless, using machine learning algorithms to determine temperature-based endpoints both methods had excellent accuracy in predicting death as an outcome event. Therefore, less expensive and cumbersome non-contact infrared thermometry can serve as a reliable alternative for implantable transponder-based systems for hypothermic responses, although requiring standardization between experimenters.

  13. Urban pavement surface temperature. Comparison of numerical and statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Mario; Khalifa, Abderrahmen; Bues, Michel; Bouilloud, Ludovic; Martin, Eric; Chancibaut, Katia

    2015-04-01

    The forecast of pavement surface temperature is very specific in the context of urban winter maintenance. to manage snow plowing and salting of roads. Such forecast mainly relies on numerical models based on a description of the energy balance between the atmosphere, the buildings and the pavement, with a canyon configuration. Nevertheless, there is a specific need in the physical description and the numerical implementation of the traffic in the energy flux balance. This traffic was originally considered as a constant. Many changes were performed in a numerical model to describe as accurately as possible the traffic effects on this urban energy balance, such as tires friction, pavement-air exchange coefficient, and infrared flux neat balance. Some experiments based on infrared thermography and radiometry were then conducted to quantify the effect fo traffic on urban pavement surface. Based on meteorological data, corresponding pavement temperature forecast were calculated and were compared with fiels measurements. Results indicated a good agreement between the forecast from the numerical model based on this energy balance approach. A complementary forecast approach based on principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-square regression (PLS) was also developed, with data from thermal mapping usng infrared radiometry. The forecast of pavement surface temperature with air temperature was obtained in the specific case of urban configurtation, and considering traffic into measurements used for the statistical analysis. A comparison between results from the numerical model based on energy balance, and PCA/PLS was then conducted, indicating the advantages and limits of each approach.

  14. Surface ice flow velocity and tide retrieval of the amery ice shelf using precise point positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, X.H.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2006-01-01

    Five days of continuous GPS observation data were collected in the frontal zone of the Amery ice shelf and subsequently post-processed using precise point position (PPP) technology based on precise orbit and clock products from the International GNSS service. The surface ice flow velocity of the ...

  15. An Improved Method For Retrieving Land Surface Albedo Over Rugged Terrain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, B.; Jia, L.; Menenti, M.

    2014-01-01

    Land surface albedo is a very important parameter, which can be derived from a bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model with angular integration of BRDF in a particular distribution of downward solar irradiance. The Algorithm for MODIS Bidirectional Reflectance Anisotropic of

  16. Retrieval of the Land Surface Reflectance for Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 and its validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, J. C.; Vermote, E.; Skakun, S.; Franch, B.; Holben, B. N.; Justice, C. O.

    2017-12-01

    The land surface reflectance is a fundamental climate data record at the basis of the derivation of other climate data records (Albedo, LAI/Fpar, Vegetation indices) and a key parameter in the understanding of the land-surface-climate processes. For 25 years, Vermote and al. develop atmospheric corrections methods to define a land surface reflectance product for various satellites (AVHRR, MODIS, VIIRS…). This presentation highlights the algorithms developed both for Landsant-8 and Sentinel-2. We also emphasize the validation of the "Land surface reflectance" satellite products, which is a very important step to be done. For that purpose, we compared the surface reflectance products to a reference determined by using the accurate radiative transfer code 6S and very detailed measurements of the atmosphere obtained over the AERONET network (which allows to test for a large range of aerosol characteristics); formers being important inputs for atmospheric corrections. However, the application of this method necessitates the definition of a very detailed protocol for the use of AERONET data especially as far as size distribution and absorption are concerned, so that alternative validation methods or protocols could be compared. We describe here the protocol we have been working on based on our experience with the AERONET data and its application to Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2). We also derive a detailed error budget in relation to this approach. For a mean loaded atmosphere, t550 less than 0.25, the maximum uncertainty is 0.0025 corresponding to a relative uncertainty (in the RED channels): U 0.10, and 1% rsurf > 0.04.

  17. System and technique for retrieving depth information about a surface by projecting a composite image of modulated light patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassebrook, Laurence G. (Inventor); Lau, Daniel L. (Inventor); Guan, Chun (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A technique, associated system and program code, for retrieving depth information about at least one surface of an object, such as an anatomical feature. Core features include: projecting a composite image comprising a plurality of modulated structured light patterns, at the anatomical feature; capturing an image reflected from the surface; and recovering pattern information from the reflected image, for each of the modulated structured light patterns. Pattern information is preferably recovered for each modulated structured light pattern used to create the composite, by performing a demodulation of the reflected image. Reconstruction of the surface can be accomplished by using depth information from the recovered patterns to produce a depth map/mapping thereof. Each signal waveform used for the modulation of a respective structured light pattern, is distinct from each of the other signal waveforms used for the modulation of other structured light patterns of a composite image; these signal waveforms may be selected from suitable types in any combination of distinct signal waveforms, provided the waveforms used are uncorrelated with respect to each other. The depth map/mapping to be utilized in a host of applications, for example: displaying a 3-D view of the object; virtual reality user-interaction interface with a computerized device; face--or other animal feature or inanimate object--recognition and comparison techniques for security or identification purposes; and 3-D video teleconferencing/telecollaboration.

  18. High Predictive Skill of Global Surface Temperature a Year Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folland, C. K.; Colman, A.; Kennedy, J. J.; Knight, J.; Parker, D. E.; Stott, P.; Smith, D. M.; Boucher, O.

    2011-12-01

    We discuss the high skill of real-time forecasts of global surface temperature a year ahead issued by the UK Met Office, and their scientific background. Although this is a forecasting and not a formal attribution study, we show that the main instrumental global annual surface temperature data sets since 1891 are structured consistently with a set of five physical forcing factors except during and just after the second World War. Reconstructions use a multiple application of cross validated linear regression to minimise artificial skill allowing time-varying uncertainties in the contribution of each forcing factor to global temperature to be assessed. Mean cross validated reconstructions for the data sets have total correlations in the range 0.93-0.95,interannual correlations in the range 0.72-0.75 and root mean squared errors near 0.06oC, consistent with observational uncertainties.Three transient runs of the HadCM3 coupled model for 1888-2002 demonstrate quite similar reconstruction skill from similar forcing factors defined appropriately for the model, showing that skilful use of our technique is not confined to observations. The observed reconstructions show that the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) likely contributed to the re-commencement of global warming between 1976 and 2010 and to global cooling observed immediately beforehand in 1965-1976. The slowing of global warming in the last decade is likely to be largely due to a phase-delayed response to the downturn in the solar cycle since 2001-2, with no net ENSO contribution. The much reduced trend in 2001-10 is similar in size to other weak decadal temperature trends observed since global warming resumed in the 1970s. The causes of variations in decadal trends can be mostly explained by variations in the strength of the forcing factors. Eleven real-time forecasts of global mean surface temperature for the year ahead for 2000-2010, based on broadly similar methods, provide an independent test of the

  19. Reliability of an incremental exercise test to evaluate acute blood lactate, heart rate and body temperature responses in Labrador retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferasin, Luca; Marcora, Samuele

    2009-10-01

    Thirteen healthy Labrador retrievers underwent a 5-stage incremental treadmill exercise test to assess its reliability. Blood lactate (BL), heart rate (HR), and body temperature (BT) were measured at rest, after each stage of exercise, and after a 20-min recovery. Reproducibility was assessed by repeating the test after 7 days. Two-way MANOVAs revealed significant differences between consecutive stages, and between values at rest and after recovery. There was also a significant reduction in physiological strain between the first and second trial (learning effect). Test reliability expressed as typical error (BL = 0.22 mmol/l, HR = 9.81 bpm, BT = 0.22 degrees C), coefficient of variation (BL = 19.3%, HR = 7.9% and BT = 0.6%) and test-retest correlation (BL = 0.89, HR = 0.96, BT = 0.95) was good. Results support test reproducibility although the learning effect needs to be controlled when investigating the exercise-related problems commonly observed in this breed.

  20. Influence of the atomic structure of crystal surfaces on the surface diffusion in medium temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousty, J.P.

    1981-12-01

    In this work, we have studied the influence of atomic structure of crystal surface on surface self-diffusion in the medium temperature range. Two ways are followed. First, we have measured, using a radiotracer method, the self-diffusion coefficient at 820 K (0.6 T melting) on copper surfaces both the structure and the cleanliness of which were stable during the experiment. We have shown that the interaction between mobile surface defects and steps can be studied through measurements of the anisotropy of surface self diffusion. Second, the behavior of an adatom and a surface vacancy is simulated via a molecular dynamics method, on several surfaces of a Lennard Jones crystal. An inventory of possible migration mechanisms of these surface defects has been drawn between 0.35 and 0.45 Tsub(m). The results obtained with both the methods point out the influence of the surface atomic structure in surface self-diffusion in the medium temperature range [fr

  1. Thermodynamic and cloud parameter retrieval using infrared spectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, William L., Sr.; Liu, Xu; Larar, Allen M.; Huang, Hung-Lung A.; Li, Jun; McGill, Matthew J.; Mango, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution infrared radiance spectra obtained from near nadir observations provide atmospheric, surface, and cloud property information. A fast radiative transfer model, including cloud effects, is used for atmospheric profile and cloud parameter retrieval. The retrieval algorithm is presented along with its application to recent field experiment data from the NPOESS Airborne Sounding Testbed - Interferometer (NAST-I). The retrieval accuracy dependence on cloud properties is discussed. It is shown that relatively accurate temperature and moisture retrievals can be achieved below optically thin clouds. For optically thick clouds, accurate temperature and moisture profiles down to cloud top level are obtained. For both optically thin and thick cloud situations, the cloud top height can be retrieved with an accuracy of approximately 1.0 km. Preliminary NAST-I retrieval results from the recent Atlantic-THORPEX Regional Campaign (ATReC) are presented and compared with coincident observations obtained from dropsondes and the nadir-pointing Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL).

  2. Increase of body surface temperature and blood flow by theanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Takeo; Noguchi, Kenichi; Ando, Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    Suntheanine (Taiyo Kagaku Co.: Theanine) is the trade name for L-theanine which is a unique amino acid found almost solely in tea plants, responsible for the exotictaste of green tea. We investigated the effects of relate to relaxation, improves the taste of processed foods, radiation sensitization, and increase of body surface temperature in vivo study. The results of the present study confirmed, (1) Suntheanine is incorporated into the brain and induces the emission of α -waves an induced of relaxation. (2) Body surface temperature and blood flow on skin were increased after administration of Suntheanine. (3) There was effects of radiation sensitization in whole body irradiation of X-rays after Suntheanine IP injection on C3H mice. (4) Acute toxicity, subacute toxicity and mutagen testconfirm the safety Suntheanine in this study

  3. Estimation of precipitable water from surface dew point temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Wahab, M.; Sharif, T.A.

    1991-09-01

    The Reitan (1963) regression equation which is of the form lnw=a+bT d has been examined and tested to estimate precipitable water content from surface dew point temperature at different locations. The study confirms that the slope of this equation (b) remains constant at the value of .0681 deg. C., while the intercept (a) changes rapidly with the latitude. The use of the variable intercept can improve the estimated result by 2%. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Patellar Skin Surface Temperature by Thermography Reflects Knee Osteoarthritis Severity

    OpenAIRE

    Anna E. Denoble; Norine Hall; Carl F. Pieper; Virginia B. Kraus

    2010-01-01

    Background: Digital infrared thermal imaging is a means of measuring the heat radiated from the skin surface. Our goal was to develop and assess the reproducibility of serial infrared measurements of the knee and to assess the association of knee temperature by region of interest with radiographic severity of knee Osteoarthritis (rOA). Methods: A total of 30 women (15 Cases with symptomatic knee OA and 15 age-matched Controls without knee pain or knee OA) participated in this study. Infrared ...

  5. Interannual variability of north Atlantic Sea surface temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, U.S.; Battisiti, D.S.; Alexander, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    In the midlatitude north Atlantic Ocean the pattern of sea surface temperature anomalies (ssta) is characterized by a north-south dipole. Bjerknes was the first to propose that the banded structure was associated with the interannual variability. Recently, these patterns have been studied more extensively. In this study the quantitative aspects of these patterns are examined through the use of a mixed-layer model (MLM)

  6. A Useful Tool for Atmospheric Correction and Surface Temperature Estimation of Landsat Infrared Thermal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivalland, Vincent; Tardy, Benjamin; Huc, Mireille; Hagolle, Olivier; Marcq, Sébastien; Boulet, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    Land Surface temperature (LST) is a critical variable for studying the energy and water budgets at the Earth surface, and is a key component of many aspects of climate research and services. The Landsat program jointly carried out by NASA and USGS has been providing thermal infrared data for 40 years, but no associated LST product has been yet routinely proposed to community. To derive LST values, radiances measured at sensor-level need to be corrected for the atmospheric absorption, the atmospheric emission and the surface emissivity effect. Until now, existing LST products have been generated with multi channel methods such as the Temperature/Emissivity Separation (TES) adapted to ASTER data or the generalized split-window algorithm adapted to MODIS multispectral data. Those approaches are ill-adapted to the Landsat mono-window data specificity. The atmospheric correction methodology usually used for Landsat data requires detailed information about the state of the atmosphere. This information may be obtained from radio-sounding or model atmospheric reanalysis and is supplied to a radiative transfer model in order to estimate atmospheric parameters for a given coordinate. In this work, we present a new automatic tool dedicated to Landsat thermal data correction which improves the common atmospheric correction methodology by introducing the spatial dimension in the process. The python tool developed during this study, named LANDARTs for LANDsat Automatic Retrieval of surface Temperature, is fully automatic and provides atmospheric corrections for a whole Landsat tile. Vertical atmospheric conditions are downloaded from the ERA Interim dataset from ECMWF meteorological organization which provides them at 0.125 degrees resolution, at a global scale and with a 6-hour-time step. The atmospheric correction parameters are estimated on the atmospheric grid using the commercial software MODTRAN, then interpolated to 30m resolution. We detail the processing steps

  7. White Dwarfs in Cataclysmic Variable Stars: Surface Temperatures and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Sion

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A summary is presented of what is currently known about the surface temperatures of accreting white dwarfs (WDs detected in non-magnetic and magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs based upon synthetic spectral analyses of far ultraviolet data. A special focus is placed on WD temperatures above and below the CV period gap as a function of the orbital period, Porb. The principal uncertainty of the temperatures for the CV WDs in the Teff - Porb distribution, besides the distance to the CV, is the mass of the WD. Only in eclipsing CV systems, an area of eclipsing binary studies, which was so central to Robert H. Koch’s career, is it possible to know CV WD masses with high precision.

  8. An Algorithm for the Retrieval of 30-m Snow-Free Albedo from Landsat Surface Reflectance and MODIS BRDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yanmin; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Gao, Feng; Schaaf, Crystal B.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new methodology to generate 30-m resolution land surface albedo using Landsat surface reflectance and anisotropy information from concurrent MODIS 500-m observations. Albedo information at fine spatial resolution is particularly useful for quantifying climate impacts associated with land use change and ecosystem disturbance. The derived white-sky and black-sky spectral albedos maybe used to estimate actual spectral albedos by taking into account the proportion of direct and diffuse solar radiation arriving at the ground. A further spectral-to-broadband conversion based on extensive radiative transfer simulations is applied to produce the broadband albedos at visible, near infrared, and shortwave regimes. The accuracy of this approach has been evaluated using 270 Landsat scenes covering six field stations supported by the SURFace RADiation Budget Network (SURFRAD) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains (ARM/SGP) network. Comparison with field measurements shows that Landsat 30-m snow-free shortwave albedos from all seasons generally achieve an absolute accuracy of +/-0.02 - 0.05 for these validation sites during available clear days in 2003-2005,with a root mean square error less than 0.03 and a bias less than 0.02. This level of accuracy has been regarded as sufficient for driving global and regional climate models. The Landsat-based retrievals have also been compared to the operational 16-day MODIS albedo produced every 8-days from MODIS on Terra and Aqua (MCD43A). The Landsat albedo provides more detailed landscape texture, and achieves better agreement (correlation and dynamic range) with in-situ data at the validation stations, particularly when the stations include a heterogeneous mix of surface covers.

  9. Tribo-biological deposits on the articulating surfaces of metal-on-polyethylene total hip implants retrieved from patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhiwei; Tian, Yi-Xing; Yue, Wen; Yang, Lei; Li, Qunyang

    2016-06-01

    Artificial total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most effective orthopaedic surgeries that has been used for decades. However, wear of the articulating surfaces is one of the key failure causes limiting the lifetime of total hip implant. In this paper, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to explore the composition and formation mechanism of the tribo-layer on the articulating surfaces of metal-on-polyethylene (MoPE) implants retrieved from patients. Results showed that, in contrast to conventional understanding, the attached tribo-layer contained not only denatured proteins but also a fraction of polymer particles. The formation of the tribo-layer was believed to relate to lubrication regime, which was supposed to be largely affected by the nature of the ultra-high-molecule-weight-polyethylene (UHMWPE). Wear and formation of tribo-layer could be minimized in elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) regime when the UHMWPE was less stiff and have a morphology containing micro-pits; whereas the wear was more severe and tribo-layer formed in boundary lubrication. Our results and analyses suggest that enhancing interface lubrication may be more effective on reducing wear than increasing the hardness of material. This finding may shed light on the design strategy of artificial hip joints.

  10. Retrieval Algorithms for Road Surface Modelling Using Laser-Based Mobile Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antero Kukko

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Automated processing of the data provided by a laser-based mobile mapping system will be a necessity due to the huge amount of data produced. In the future, vehiclebased laser scanning, here called mobile mapping, should see considerable use for road environment modelling. Since the geometry of the scanning and point density is different from airborne laser scanning, new algorithms are needed for information extraction. In this paper, we propose automatic methods for classifying the road marking and kerbstone points and modelling the road surface as a triangulated irregular network. On the basis of experimental tests, the mean classification accuracies obtained using automatic method for lines, zebra crossings and kerbstones were 80.6%, 92.3% and 79.7%, respectively.

  11. Intraseasonal sea surface temperature variability in Indonesian seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napitu, A. M.; Gordon, A. L.; Yuan, X.

    2012-12-01

    The satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data, 1998-mid 2012, are used to examine intraseasonal variability (ISV; 20-90 days) across the Indonesian seas. The most energetic ISV is observed in the Banda Sea and across the Indo-Australia basin with an The satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data, 1998-mid 2012, are used to examine intraseasonal variability (ISV; 20-90 days) across the Indonesian seas. The most energetic ISV is observed in the Banda Sea and across the Indo-Australia basin with an average SST standard deviation (STD) between 0.4-0.5°C, with strongest signature during boreal winter. What physical processes force the SST ISV variability within the Indonesian seas? Ocean process, sea-air interaction, or both? To help identify the main forcing, the satellite derived outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and wind stress data in the region are examined. The OLR shows robust intraseasonal variations and is significantly correlated with the SST, particularly for variability with periods of 30-60 days, with OLR accounting for ~60-70% of the SST variance. The OLR is also maximum during boreal winter. Conversely, the surface wind may play insignificant role in perturbing the SST at intraseasonal timescales as shown by weak correlation between wind stress and SST. We thus suspect that the surface solar flux (suggested by the OLR) is likely more dominant than the surface turbulent heat flux (indicated by the surface wind) as the main source for the ISV in the SST in Indonesian seas. Furthermore the maximum OLR phase, coupled with a period of minimum mixed layer depth, may explain the strong SST variation during boreal winter in Indonesian seas. The influence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on the OLR and SST variability is currently being evaluated.

  12. Kalman filters for assimilating near-surface observations in the Richards equation - Part 2: A dual filter approach for simultaneous retrieval of states and parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, H.; Romano, N.; Chirico, G. B.

    2012-12-01

    We present a dual Kalman Filter (KF) approach for retrieving states and parameters controlling soil water dynamics in a homogenous soil column by using near-surface state observations. The dual Kalman filter couples a standard KF algorithm for retrieving the states and an unscented KF algorithm for retrieving the parameters. We examine the performance of the dual Kalman Filter applied to two alternative state-space formulations of the Richards equation, respectively differentiated by the type of variable employed for representing the states: either the soil water content (θ) or the soil matric pressure head (h). We use a synthetic time-series series of true states and noise corrupted observations and a synthetic time-series of meteorological forcing. The performance analyses account for the effect of the input parameters, the observation depth and the assimilation frequency as well as the relationship between the retrieved states and the assimilated variables. We show that the identifiability of the parameters is strongly conditioned by several factors, such as the initial guess of the unknown parameters, the wet or dry range of the retrieved states, the boundary conditions, as well as the form (h-based or θ-based) of the state-space formulation. State identifiability is instead efficient even with a relatively coarse time-resolution of the assimilated observation. The accuracy of the retrieved states exhibits limited sensitivity to the observation depth and the assimilation frequency.

  13. Global Sea Surface Temperature: A Harmonized Multi-sensor Time-series from Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the methods used to obtain a new global sea surface temperature (SST) dataset spanning the early 1980s to the present, intended for use as a climate data record (CDR). The dataset provides skin SST (the fundamental measurement) and an estimate of the daily mean SST at depths compatible with drifting buoys (adjusting for skin and diurnal variability). The depth SST provided enables the CDR to be used with in situ records and centennial-scale SST reconstructions. The new SST timeseries is as independent as possible from in situ observations, and from 1995 onwards is harmonized to an independent satellite reference (namely, SSTs from the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (Advanced ATSR)). This maximizes the utility of our new estimates of variability and long-term trends in interrogating previous datasets tied to in situ observations. The new SSTs include full resolution (swath, level 2) data, single-sensor gridded data (level 3, 0.05 degree latitude-longitude grid) and a multi-sensor optimal analysis (level 4, same grid). All product levels are consistent. All SSTs have validated uncertainty estimates attached. The sensors used include all Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers from NOAA-6 onwards and the ATSR series. AVHRR brightness temperatures (BTs) are calculated from counts using a new in-flight re-calibration for each sensor, ultimately linked through to the AATSR BT calibration by a new harmonization technique. Artefacts in AVHRR BTs linked to varying instrument temperature, orbital regime and solar contamination are significantly reduced. These improvements in the AVHRR BTs (level 1) translate into improved cloud detection and SST (level 2). For cloud detection, we use a Bayesian approach for all sensors. For the ATSRs, SSTs are derived with sufficient accuracy and sensitivity using dual-view coefficients. This is not the case for single-view AVHRR observations, for which a physically based retrieval is employed, using a hybrid

  14. Worldwide surface temperature trends since the mid-19th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, D.E.; Folland, C.K.

    1990-01-01

    Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) for the period 1856 to the present have been corrected to compensate for the use of uninsulated buckets prior to the early 1940s. Trends in the corrected SST are consistent with trends in independently corrected nighttime marine air temperatures (NMAT). Global-scale patterns of variation of annual anomalies of SST and NMAT, as revealed by the first three covariance eigenvectors, are also in close agreement. The corrected SST anomalies are also compared with those of nearby coastal and island land air temperatures. Global-scale agreement is good except in the early 20th century when the land data were relatively warm by up to 0.2 C. Proposed causes are the siting of thermometers in open-sided thatched sheds in tropical regions at that time, along with a marked tendency to warm westerly atmospheric circulation over Europe in winter. Combined fields of SST and land air temperature are presented. The relative overall coldness of the late 19th century land air temperatures appears to have arisen from inner-continental and high-latitude regions, especially in winter. Combined fields do not yield full global coverage even in the 1980s, so satellite-based SST data need to be blended carefully with the ship-based observations if monitoring of global climate is to be complete

  15. Sensitivity of LUCC on the Surface Temperature of Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, W.; Deng, X.; Wu, F.

    2016-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau has an important effect on the ecological security in China, even in Asia, which makes the region become the hot spot in recently research. Under the joint influence of global change and human activities, ecosystem destabilizing and the increasing pressure on resources and environment emerge on the Tibetan Plateau, but the potential spatial sensitivity of land use and land cover changes(LUCC) on surface temperature has not been quantitatively analyzed. This study analyzed the mainly types of LUCC, urbanization, grassland degradation, deforestation on Tibetan Plateau along with Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The LUCC in recent decades was first quantitatively analyzed in this study to give the basic fact with a significant increase in temperatures, reduced precipitation and increased evaporation. This study focused on the future spatio-temporal heterogeneity of the temperature and precipitation. Finally, the influencing factors with LUCC on Tibetan Plateau were simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and the sensitivity of different land use types was spatially analyzed with Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). The results indicate that the large-area alpine grassland plays a more important role in alleviating global warming than other vegetation types do. The changes of the landscape structure resulting from the urban expansion play a significant role in intensifying regional temperature increase. In addition, the effects of LUCC on monthly average temperature change would vary from month to month with obviously spatial heterogeneity.

  16. Worldwide surface temperature trends since the mid-19th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, D.E.; Folland, C.K.

    1991-01-01

    Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) for the period 1856 to the present have been corrected to compensate for the use of uninsulated buckets prior to the early 1940s. Trends in the corrected SST are consistent with trends in independently corrected nighttime marine air temperatures (NMAT). Global-scale patterns of variation of annual anomalies of SST and NMAT, as revealed by the first three covariance eigenvectors, are also in close agreement. The corrected SST anomalies are also compared with those of nearby coastal and island land air temperatures. Global-scale agreement is good except in the early 20th century when the land data were relatively warm by up to 0.2 C. Proposed causes are the siting of thermometers in open-sided thatched sheds in tropical regions at that time, along with a marked tendency to warm westerly atmospheric circulation over Europe in winter. Combined fields of SST and land air temperature are presented. The relative overall coldness of the late 19th century land air temperatures appears to have arisen from inner-continental and high-latitude regions, especially in winter. Combined fields do not yield full global coverage even in the 1980s, so satellite-based SST data need to be blended carefully with the ship-based observations if monitoring of global climate is to be complete. 32 refs.; 16 figs

  17. Ground surface temperature and continental heat gain: uncertainties from underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrami, Hugo; Matharoo, Gurpreet S; Smerdon, Jason E

    2015-01-01

    Temperature changes at the Earth's surface propagate and are recorded underground as perturbations to the equilibrium thermal regime associated with the heat flow from the Earth's interior. Borehole climatology is concerned with the analysis and interpretation of these downward propagating subsurface temperature anomalies in terms of surface climate. Proper determination of the steady-state geothermal regime is therefore crucial because it is the reference against which climate-induced subsurface temperature anomalies are estimated. Here, we examine the effects of data noise on the determination of the steady-state geothermal regime of the subsurface and the subsequent impact on estimates of ground surface temperature (GST) history and heat gain. We carry out a series of Monte Carlo experiments using 1000 Gaussian noise realizations and depth sections of 100 and 200 m as for steady-state estimates depth intervals, as well as a range of data sampling intervals from 10 m to 0.02 m. Results indicate that typical uncertainties for 50 year averages are on the order of ±0.02 K for the most recent 100 year period. These uncertainties grow with decreasing sampling intervals, reaching about ±0.1 K for a 10 m sampling interval under identical conditions and target period. Uncertainties increase for progressively older periods, reaching ±0.3 K at 500 years before present for a 10 m sampling interval. The uncertainties in reconstructed GST histories for the Northern Hemisphere for the most recent 50 year period can reach a maximum of ±0.5 K in some areas. We suggest that continuous logging should be the preferred approach when measuring geothermal data for climate reconstructions, and that for those using the International Heat Flow Commission database for borehole climatology, the steady-state thermal conditions should be estimated from boreholes as deep as possible and using a large fitting depth range (∼100 m). (letter)

  18. A Robust Inversion Algorithm for Surface Leaf and Soil Temperatures Using the Vegetation Clumping Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunjian Bian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The inversion of land surface component temperatures is an essential source of information for mapping heat fluxes and the angular normalization of thermal infrared (TIR observations. Leaf and soil temperatures can be retrieved using multiple-view-angle TIR observations. In a satellite-scale pixel, the clumping effect of vegetation is usually present, but it is not completely considered during the inversion process. Therefore, we introduced a simple inversion procedure that uses gap frequency with a clumping index (GCI for leaf and soil temperatures over both crop and forest canopies. Simulated datasets corresponding to turbid vegetation, regularly planted crops and randomly distributed forest were generated using a radiosity model and were used to test the proposed inversion algorithm. The results indicated that the GCI algorithm performed well for both crop and forest canopies, with root mean squared errors of less than 1.0 °C against simulated values. The proposed inversion algorithm was also validated using measured datasets over orchard, maize and wheat canopies. Similar results were achieved, demonstrating that using the clumping index can improve inversion results. In all evaluations, we recommend using the GCI algorithm as a foundation for future satellite-based applications due to its straightforward form and robust performance for both crop and forest canopies using the vegetation clumping index.

  19. Spatial Correlations of Anomaly Time Series of AIRS Version-6 Land Surface Skin Temperatures with the Nino-4 Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Lee, Jae N.; Iredell, Lena

    2013-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version-6 data set is a valuable resource for meteorological studies. Quality Controlled earth's surface skin temperatures are produced on a 45 km x 45 km spatial scale under most cloud cover conditions. The same retrieval algorithm is used for all surface types under all conditions. This study used eleven years of AIRS monthly mean surface skin temperature and cloud cover products to show that land surface skin temperatures have decreased significantly in some areas and increased significantly in other areas over the period September 2002 through August 2013. These changes occurred primarily at 1:30 PM but not at 1:30 AM. Cooling land areas contained corresponding increases in cloud cover over this time period, with the reverse being true for warming land areas. The cloud cover anomaly patterns for a given month are affected significantly by El Nino/La Nina activity, and anomalies in cloud cover are a driving force behind anomalies in land surface skin temperature.

  20. Evaluating Vegetation Type Effects on Land Surface Temperature at the City Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherley, E. B.; McFadden, J. P.; Roberts, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the effects of different plant functional types and urban materials on surface temperatures has significant consequences for climate modeling, water management, and human health in cities. To date, doing so at the urban scale has been complicated by small-scale surface heterogeneity and limited data. In this study we examined gradients of land surface temperature (LST) across sub-pixel mixtures of different vegetation types and urban materials across the entire Los Angeles, CA, metropolitan area (4,283 km2). We used AVIRIS airborne hyperspectral imagery (36 m resolution, 224 bands, 0.35 - 2.5 μm) to estimate sub-pixel fractions of impervious, pervious, tree, and turfgrass surfaces, validating them with simulated mixtures constructed from image spectra. We then used simultaneously imaged LST retrievals collected at multiple times of day to examine how temperature changed along gradients of the sub-pixel mixtures. Diurnal in situ LST measurements were used to confirm image values. Sub-pixel fractions were well correlated with simulated validation data for turfgrass (r2 = 0.71), tree (r2 = 0.77), impervious (r2 = 0.77), and pervious (r2 = 0.83) surfaces. The LST of pure pixels showed the effects of both the diurnal cycle and the surface type, with vegetated classes having a smaller diurnal temperature range of 11.6°C whereas non-vegetated classes had a diurnal range of 16.2°C (similar to in situ measurements collected simultaneously with the imagery). Observed LST across fractional gradients of turf/impervious and tree/impervious sub-pixel mixtures decreased linearly with increasing vegetation fraction. The slopes of decreasing LST were significantly different between tree and turf mixtures, with steeper slopes observed for turf (p < 0.05). These results suggest that different physiological characteristics and different access to irrigation water of urban trees and turfgrass results in significantly different LST effects, which can be detected at

  1. Evaluation of the Precision of Satellite-Derived Sea Surface Temperature Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F.; Cornillon, P. C.; Guan, L.

    2016-02-01

    A great deal of attention has been focused on the temporal accuracy of satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) fields with little attention being given to their spatial precision. Specifically, the primary measure of the quality of SST fields has been the bias and variance of selected values minus co-located (in space and time) in situ values. Contributing values, determined by the location of the in situ values and the necessity that the satellite-derived values be cloud free, are generally widely separated in space and time hence provide little information related to the pixel-to-pixel uncertainty in the retrievals. But the main contribution to the uncertainty in satellite-derived SST retrievals relates to atmospheric contamination and because the spatial scales of atmospheric features are, in general, large compared with the pixel separation of modern infra-red sensors, the pixel-to-pixel uncertainty is often smaller than the accuracy determined from in situ match-ups. This makes selection of satellite-derived datasets for the study of submesoscale processes, for which the spatial structure of the upper ocean is significant, problematic. In this presentation we present a methodology to characterize the spatial precision of satellite-derived SST fields. The method is based on an examination of the high wavenumber tail of the 2-D spectrum of SST fields in the Sargasso Sea, a low energy region of the ocean close to the track of the MV Oleander, a container ship making weekly roundtrips between New York and Bermuda, with engine intake temperatures sampled every 75 m along track. Important spectral characteristics are the point at which the satellite-derived spectra separate from the Oleander spectra and the spectral slope following separation. In this presentation a number of high resolution 375 m to 10 km SST datasets are evaluated based on this approach.

  2. Theoretical algorithms for satellite-derived sea surface temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, I. J.; Zavody, A. M.; O'Brien, D. M.; Cutten, D. R.; Saunders, R. W.; Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.

    1989-03-01

    Reliable climate forecasting using numerical models of the ocean-atmosphere system requires accurate data sets of sea surface temperature (SST) and surface wind stress. Global sets of these data will be supplied by the instruments to fly on the ERS 1 satellite in 1990. One of these instruments, the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR), has been specifically designed to provide SST in cloud-free areas with an accuracy of 0.3 K. The expected capabilities of the ATSR can be assessed using transmission models of infrared radiative transfer through the atmosphere. The performances of several different models are compared by estimating the infrared brightness temperatures measured by the NOAA 9 AVHRR for three standard atmospheres. Of these, a computationally quick spectral band model is used to derive typical AVHRR and ATSR SST algorithms in the form of linear equations. These algorithms show that a low-noise 3.7-μm channel is required to give the best satellite-derived SST and that the design accuracy of the ATSR is likely to be achievable. The inclusion of extra water vapor information in the analysis did not improve the accuracy of multiwavelength SST algorithms, but some improvement was noted with the multiangle technique. Further modeling is required with atmospheric data that include both aerosol variations and abnormal vertical profiles of water vapor and temperature.

  3. Urban percent impervious surface and its relationship with land surface temperature in Yantai City, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Xinyang; Lu, Changhe

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated percent impervious surface area (PISA) extracted by a four-endmember normalized spectral mixture analysis (NSMA) method and evaluated the reliability of PISA as an indicator of land surface temperature (LST). Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images for Yantai city, eastern China obtained from USGS were used as the main data source. The results demonstrated that four-endmember NSMA method performed better than the typical three-endmember one, and there was a strong linear relationship between LST and PISA for the two images, which suggest percent impervious surface area provides an alternative parameter for analyzing LST quantitatively in urban areas

  4. Decadal trends in Red Sea maximum surface temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaidez, V; Dreano, D; Agusti, S; Duarte, C M; Hoteit, I

    2017-08-15

    Ocean warming is a major consequence of climate change, with the surface of the ocean having warmed by 0.11 °C decade -1 over the last 50 years and is estimated to continue to warm by an additional 0.6 - 2.0 °C before the end of the century 1 . However, there is considerable variability in the rates experienced by different ocean regions, so understanding regional trends is important to inform on possible stresses for marine organisms, particularly in warm seas where organisms may be already operating in the high end of their thermal tolerance. Although the Red Sea is one of the warmest ecosystems on earth, its historical warming trends and thermal evolution remain largely understudied. We characterized the Red Sea's thermal regimes at the basin scale, with a focus on the spatial distribution and changes over time of sea surface temperature maxima, using remotely sensed sea surface temperature data from 1982 - 2015. The overall rate of warming for the Red Sea is 0.17 ± 0.07 °C decade -1 , while the northern Red Sea is warming between 0.40 and 0.45 °C decade -1 , all exceeding the global rate. Our findings show that the Red Sea is fast warming, which may in the future challenge its organisms and communities.

  5. Decadal trends in Red Sea maximum surface temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Chaidez, Veronica

    2017-08-09

    Ocean warming is a major consequence of climate change, with the surface of the ocean having warmed by 0.11 °C decade-1 over the last 50 years and is estimated to continue to warm by an additional 0.6 - 2.0 °C before the end of the century1. However, there is considerable variability in the rates experienced by different ocean regions, so understanding regional trends is important to inform on possible stresses for marine organisms, particularly in warm seas where organisms may be already operating in the high end of their thermal tolerance. Although the Red Sea is one of the warmest ecosystems on earth, its historical warming trends and thermal evolution remain largely understudied. We characterized the Red Sea\\'s thermal regimes at the basin scale, with a focus on the spatial distribution and changes over time of sea surface temperature maxima, using remotely sensed sea surface temperature data from 1982 - 2015. The overall rate of warming for the Red Sea is 0.17 ± 0.07 °C decade-1, while the northern Red Sea is warming between 0.40 and 0.45 °C decade-1, all exceeding the global rate. Our findings show that the Red Sea is fast warming, which may in the future challenge its organisms and communities.

  6. Decadal trends in Red Sea maximum surface temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Chaidez, Veronica; Dreano, Denis; Agusti, Susana; Duarte, Carlos M.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Ocean warming is a major consequence of climate change, with the surface of the ocean having warmed by 0.11 °C decade-1 over the last 50 years and is estimated to continue to warm by an additional 0.6 - 2.0 °C before the end of the century1. However, there is considerable variability in the rates experienced by different ocean regions, so understanding regional trends is important to inform on possible stresses for marine organisms, particularly in warm seas where organisms may be already operating in the high end of their thermal tolerance. Although the Red Sea is one of the warmest ecosystems on earth, its historical warming trends and thermal evolution remain largely understudied. We characterized the Red Sea's thermal regimes at the basin scale, with a focus on the spatial distribution and changes over time of sea surface temperature maxima, using remotely sensed sea surface temperature data from 1982 - 2015. The overall rate of warming for the Red Sea is 0.17 ± 0.07 °C decade-1, while the northern Red Sea is warming between 0.40 and 0.45 °C decade-1, all exceeding the global rate. Our findings show that the Red Sea is fast warming, which may in the future challenge its organisms and communities.

  7. Online Global Land Surface Temperature Estimation from Landsat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Parastatidis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the estimation of land surface temperature (LST for the globe from Landsat 5, 7 and 8 thermal infrared sensors, using different surface emissivity sources. A single channel algorithm is used for consistency among the estimated LST products, whereas the option of using emissivity from different sources provides flexibility for the algorithm’s implementation to any area of interest. The Google Earth Engine (GEE, an advanced earth science data and analysis platform, allows the estimation of LST products for the globe, covering the time period from 1984 to present. To evaluate the method, the estimated LST products were compared against two reference datasets: (a LST products derived from ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, as higher-level products based on the temperature-emissivity separation approach; (b Landsat LST data that have been independently produced, using different approaches. An overall RMSE (root mean square error of 1.52 °C was observed and it was confirmed that the accuracy of the LST product is dependent on the emissivity; different emissivity sources provided different LST accuracies, depending on the surface cover. The LST products, for the full Landsat 5, 7 and 8 archives, are estimated “on-the-fly” and are available on-line via a web application.

  8. On the sensitivity of Land Surface Temperature estimates in arid irrigated lands using MODTRAN

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas, Jorge

    2015-11-29

    Land surface temperature (LST) derived from thermal infrared (TIR) satellite data has been reliably used as a remote indicator of evapotranspiration (ET) and surface moisture status. However, in order to retrieve the ET with an accuracy approaching 10%, LST should be retrieved to within 1 ◦C or better, disregarding other elements of uncertainty. The removal of atmospheric effects is key towards achieving a precise estimation of LST and it requires detailed information on water vapor. The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) onboard Landsat 8 captures data in two long wave thermal bands with 100-meter resolution. However, the US Geological Survey has reported a calibration problem of TIRS bands caused by stray light, resulting in a higher bias in one of its two bands (4% in band 11, 2% in band 10). Therefore, split-window algorithms for the estimation of LST might not be reliable. Our work will focus on the impact of using different atmospheric profiles (e.g. weather prediction models, satellite) for the estimation of LST derived from MODTRAN by using one of the TIRS bands onboard Landsat 8 (band 10). Sites with in-situ measurements of LST are used as evaluation sources. Comparisons between the measured LST and LST derived based on different atmospheric profile inputs to MODTRAN are carried out from 2 Landsat-overpass days (DOY 153 and 160 2015). Preliminary results show a mean absolute error of around 3 ◦C between in-situ and estimated LST over two different crops (alfalfa and carrot) and bare soil.

  9. LEAST SQUARE APPROACH FOR ESTIMATING OF LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE FROM LANDSAT-8 SATELLITE DATA USING RADIATIVE TRANSFER EQUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Jouybari-Moghaddam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is one of the significant variables measured by remotely sensed data, and it is applied in many environmental and Geoscience studies. The main aim of this study is to develop an algorithm to retrieve the LST from Landsat-8 satellite data using Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE. However, LST can be retrieved from RTE, but, since the RTE has two unknown parameters including LST and surface emissivity, estimating LST from RTE is an under the determined problem. In this study, in order to solve this problem, an approach is proposed an equation set includes two RTE based on Landsat-8 thermal bands (i.e.: band 10 and 11 and two additional equations based on the relation between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and emissivity of Landsat-8 thermal bands by using simulated data for Landsat-8 bands. The iterative least square approach was used for solving the equation set. The LST derived from proposed algorithm is evaluated by the simulated dataset, built up by MODTRAN. The result shows the Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE is less than 1.18°K. Therefore; the proposed algorithm can be a suitable and robust method to retrieve the LST from Landsat-8 satellite data.

  10. Least Square Approach for Estimating of Land Surface Temperature from LANDSAT-8 Satellite Data Using Radiative Transfer Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouybari-Moghaddam, Y.; Saradjian, M. R.; Forati, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is one of the significant variables measured by remotely sensed data, and it is applied in many environmental and Geoscience studies. The main aim of this study is to develop an algorithm to retrieve the LST from Landsat-8 satellite data using Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE). However, LST can be retrieved from RTE, but, since the RTE has two unknown parameters including LST and surface emissivity, estimating LST from RTE is an under the determined problem. In this study, in order to solve this problem, an approach is proposed an equation set includes two RTE based on Landsat-8 thermal bands (i.e.: band 10 and 11) and two additional equations based on the relation between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and emissivity of Landsat-8 thermal bands by using simulated data for Landsat-8 bands. The iterative least square approach was used for solving the equation set. The LST derived from proposed algorithm is evaluated by the simulated dataset, built up by MODTRAN. The result shows the Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) is less than 1.18°K. Therefore; the proposed algorithm can be a suitable and robust method to retrieve the LST from Landsat-8 satellite data.

  11. Measurement of Near-Surface Salinity, Temperature and Directional Wave Spectra using a Novel Wave-Following, Lagrangian Surface Contact Buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, J. P.

    2016-02-01

    Results from a surface contact drifter buoy which measures near-surface conductivity ( 10 cm depth), sea state characteristics and near-surface water temperature ( 2 cm depth) are described. This light (righting. It has a small above-surface profile and low windage, resulting in near-Lagrangian drift characteristics. It is autonomous, with low power requirements and solar panel battery recharging. Onboard sensors include an inductive toroidal conductivity probe for salinity measurement, a nine-degrees-of-freedom motion package for derivation of directional wave spectra and a thermocouple for water temperature measurement. Data retrieval for expendable, ocean-going operation uses an onboard Argos transmitter. Scientific results as well as data processing algorithms are presented from laboratory and field experiments which support qualification of buoy platform measurements. These include sensor calibration experiments, longer-term dock-side biofouling experiments during 2013-2014 and a series of short-duration ocean deployments in the Gulf Stream in 2014. In addition, a treatment method will be described which appears to minimize the effects of biofouling on the inductive conductivity probe when in coastal surface waters. Due to its low cost and ease of deployment, scores, perhaps hundreds of these novel instruments could be deployed from ships or aircraft during process studies or to provide surface validation for satellite-based measurements, particularly in high precipitation regions.

  12. Temperature-mediated transition from Dyakonov-Tamm surface waves to surface-plasmon-polariton waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiadini, Francesco; Fiumara, Vincenzo; Mackay, Tom G.; Scaglione, Antonio; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2017-08-01

    The effect of changing the temperature on the propagation of electromagnetic surface waves (ESWs), guided by the planar interface of a homogeneous isotropic temperature-sensitive material (namely, InSb) and a temperature-insensitive structurally chiral material (SCM) was numerically investigated in the terahertz frequency regime. As the temperature rises, InSb transforms from a dissipative dielectric material to a dissipative plasmonic material. Correspondingly, the ESWs transmute from Dyakonov-Tamm surface waves into surface-plasmon-polariton waves. The effects of the temperature change are clearly observed in the phase speeds, propagation distances, angular existence domains, multiplicity, and spatial profiles of energy flow of the ESWs. Remarkably large propagation distances can be achieved; in such instances the energy of an ESW is confined almost entirely within the SCM. For certain propagation directions, simultaneous excitation of two ESWs with (i) the same phase speeds but different propagation distances or (ii) the same propagation distances but different phase speeds are also indicated by our results.

  13. Patellar Skin Surface Temperature by Thermography Reflects Knee Osteoarthritis Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Denoble

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Digital infrared thermal imaging is a means of measuring the heat radiated from the skin surface. Our goal was to develop and assess the reproducibility of serial infrared measurements of the knee and to assess the association of knee temperature by region of interest with radiographic severity of knee Osteoarthritis (rOA. Methods A total of 30 women (15 Cases with symptomatic knee OA and 15 age-matched Controls without knee pain or knee OA participated in this study. Infrared imaging was performed with a Meditherm Med2000™ Pro infrared camera. The reproducibility of infrared imaging of the knee was evaluated through determination of intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs for temperature measurements from two images performed 6 months apart in Controls whose knee status was not expected to change. The average cutaneous temperature for each of five knee regions of interest was extracted using WinTes software. Knee x-rays were scored for severity of rOA based on the global Kellgren-Lawrence grading scale. Results The knee infrared thermal imaging procedure used here demonstrated long-term reproducibility with high ICCs (0.50–0.72 for the various regions of interest in Controls. Cutaneous temperature of the patella (knee cap yielded a significant correlation with severity of knee rOA (R = 0.594, P = 0.02. Conclusion The skin temperature of the patellar region correlated with x-ray severity of knee OA. This method of infrared knee imaging is reliable and as an objective measure of a sign of inflammation, temperature, indicates an interrelationship of inflammation and structural knee rOA damage.

  14. Patellar skin surface temperature by thermography reflects knee osteoarthritis severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoble, Anna E; Hall, Norine; Pieper, Carl F; Kraus, Virginia B

    2010-10-15

    Digital infrared thermal imaging is a means of measuring the heat radiated from the skin surface. Our goal was to develop and assess the reproducibility of serial infrared measurements of the knee and to assess the association of knee temperature by region of interest with radiographic severity of knee Osteoarthritis (rOA). A total of 30 women (15 Cases with symptomatic knee OA and 15 age-matched Controls without knee pain or knee OA) participated in this study. Infrared imaging was performed with a Meditherm Med2000™ Pro infrared camera. The reproducibility of infrared imaging of the knee was evaluated through determination of intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for temperature measurements from two images performed 6 months apart in Controls whose knee status was not expected to change. The average cutaneous temperature for each of five knee regions of interest was extracted using WinTes software. Knee x-rays were scored for severity of rOA based on the global Kellgren-Lawrence grading scale. The knee infrared thermal imaging procedure used here demonstrated long-term reproducibility with high ICCs (0.50-0.72 for the various regions of interest) in Controls. Cutaneous temperature of the patella (knee cap) yielded a significant correlation with severity of knee rOA (R = 0.594, P = 0.02). The skin temperature of the patellar region correlated with x-ray severity of knee OA. This method of infrared knee imaging is reliable and as an objective measure of a sign of inflammation, temperature, indicates an interrelationship of inflammation and structural knee rOA damage.

  15. Indonesia sea surface temperature from TRMM Microwave Imaging (TMI) sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Y.; Setiawan, K. T.

    2018-05-01

    We analysis the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) data to monitor the sea surface temperature (SST) of Indonesia waters for a decade of 2005-2014. The TMI SST data shows the seasonal and interannual SST in Indonesian waters. In general, the SST average was highest in March-May period with SST average was 29.4°C, and the lowest was in June – August period with the SST average was 28.5°C. The monthly SST average fluctuation of Indonesian waters for 10 years tends to increase. The lowest SST average of Indonesia occurred in August 2006 with the SST average was 27.6° C, while the maximum occurred in May 2014 with the monthly SST average temperature was 29.9 ° C.

  16. Classically exact surface diffusion constants at arbitrary temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voter, A.F.; Cohen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    An expression is presented for computing the classical diffusion constant of a point defect (e.g., an adatom) in an infinite lattice of binding sites at arbitrary temperature. The transition state theory diffusion constant is simply multiplied by a dynamical correction factor that is computed from short-time classical trajectories initiated at the site boundaries. The time scale limitations of direct molecular dynamics are thus avoided in the low- and middle-temperature regimes. The expression results from taking the time derivative of the particle mean-square displacement in the lattice-discretized coordinate system. Applications are presented for surface diffusion on fcc(100) and fcc(111) Lennard-Jones crystal faces

  17. Sea surface temperature contributes to marine crocodylomorph evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeremy E; Amiot, Romain; Lécuyer, Christophe; Benton, Michael J

    2014-08-18

    During the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, four distinct crocodylomorph lineages colonized the marine environment. They were conspicuously absent from high latitudes, which in the Mesozoic were occupied by warm-blooded ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs. Despite a relatively well-constrained stratigraphic distribution, the varying diversities of marine crocodylomorphs are poorly understood, because their extinctions neither coincided with any major biological crises nor with the advent of potential competitors. Here we test the potential link between their evolutionary history in terms of taxic diversity and two abiotic factors, sea level variations and sea surface temperatures (SST). Excluding Metriorhynchoidea, which may have had a peculiar ecology, significant correlations obtained between generic diversity and estimated Tethyan SST suggest that water temperature was a driver of marine crocodylomorph diversity. Being most probably ectothermic reptiles, these lineages colonized the marine realm and diversified during warm periods, then declined or became extinct during cold intervals.

  18. Retrieving surface soil moisture at high spatio-temporal resolution from a synergy between Sentinel-1 radar and Landsat thermal data: A study case over bare soil

    KAUST Repository

    Amazirh, Abdelhakim

    2018-04-24

    Radar data have been used to retrieve and monitor the surface soil moisture (SM) changes in various conditions. However, the calibration of radar models whether empirically or physically-based, is still subject to large uncertainties especially at high-spatial resolution. To help calibrate radar-based retrieval approaches to supervising SM at high resolution, this paper presents an innovative synergistic method combining Sentinel-1 (S1) microwave and Landsat-7/8 (L7/8) thermal data. First, the S1 backscatter coefficient was normalized by its maximum and minimum values obtained during 2015–2016 agriculture season. Second, the normalized S1 backscatter coefficient was calibrated from reference points provided by a thermal-derived SM proxy named soil evaporative efficiency (SEE, defined as the ratio of actual to potential soil evaporation). SEE was estimated as the radiometric soil temperature normalized by its minimum and maximum values reached in a water-saturated and dry soil, respectively. We estimated both soil temperature endmembers by using a soil energy balance model forced by available meteorological forcing. The proposed approach was evaluated against in situ SM measurements collected over three bare soil fields in a semi-arid region in Morocco and we compared it against a classical approach based on radar data only. The two polarizations VV (vertical transmit and receive) and VH (vertical transmit and horizontal receive) of the S1 data available over the area are tested to analyse the sensitivity of radar signal to SM at high incidence angles (39°–43°). We found that the VV polarization was better correlated to SM than the VH polarization with a determination coefficient of 0.47 and 0.28, respectively. By combining S1 (VV) and L7/8 data, we reduced the root mean square difference between satellite and in situ SM to 0.03 m3 m−3, which is far smaller than 0.16 m3 m−3 when using S1 (VV) only.

  19. Experiences With an Optimal Estimation Algorithm for Surface and Atmospheric Parameter Retrieval From Passive Microwave Data in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarlat, Raul Cristian; Heygster, Georg; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    2017-01-01

    is constrained using numerical weather prediction data in order to retrieve a set of geophysical parameters that best fit the measurements. A sensitivity study demonstrates the method is robust and that the solution it provides is not dependent on initialization conditions. The retrieval parameters have been...

  20. The effects of sea surface temperature gradients on surface turbulent fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, John

    A positive correlation between sea surface temperature (SST) and wind stress perturbation near strong SST gradients (DeltaSST) has been observed in different parts of the world ocean, such as the Gulf Stream in the North Atlantic and the Kuroshio Extension east of Japan. These changes in winds and SSTs can modify near-surface stability, surface stress, and latent and sensible heat fluxes. In general, these small scale processes are poorly modeled in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and climate models. Failure to account for these air--sea interactions produces inaccurate values of turbulent fluxes, and therefore a misrepresentation of the energy, moisture, and momentum budgets. Our goal is to determine the change in these surface turbulent fluxes due to overlooking the correlated variability in winds, SSTs, and related variables. To model these air--sea interactions, a flux model was forced with and without SST--induced changes to the surface wind fields. The SST modification to the wind fields is based on a baroclinic argument as implemented by the University of Washington Planetary Boundary-Layer (UWPBL) model. Other input parameters include 2-m air temperature, 2-m dew point temperature, surface pressure (all from ERA--interim), and Reynolds Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST). Flux model runs are performed every 6 hours starting in December 2002 and ending in November 2003. From these model outputs, seasonal, monthly, and daily means of the difference between DeltaSST and no DeltaSST effects on sensible heat flux (SHF), latent heat flux (LHF), and surface stress are calculated. Since the greatest impacts occur during the winter season, six additional December-January-February (DJF) seasons were analyzed for 1987--1990 and 1999--2002. The greatest differences in surface turbulent fluxes are concentrated near strong SST fronts associated with the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio Extension. On average, 2002---2003 DJF seasonal differences in SHF

  1. Measurement of a surface heat flux and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. M.; Antoine, G. J.; Diller, T. E.; Wicks, A. L.

    1994-04-01

    The Heat Flux Microsensor is a new sensor which was recently patented by Virginia Tech and is just starting to be marketed by Vatell Corp. The sensor is made using the thin-film microfabrication techniques directly on the material that is to be measured. It consists of several thin-film layers forming a differential thermopile across a thermal resistance layer. The measured heat flux q is proportional to the temperature difference across the resistance layer q= k(sub g)/delta(sub g) x (t(sub 1) - T(sub 2)), where k(sub g) is the thermal conductivity and delta (sub g) is the thickness of the thermal resistance layer. Because the gages are sputter coated directly onto the surface, their total thickness is less than 2 micrometers, which is two orders of magnitude thinner than previous gages. The resulting temperature difference across the thermal resistance layer (delta is less than 1 micrometer) is very small even at high heat fluxes. To generate a measurable signal many thermocouple pairs are put in series to form a differential thermopile. The combination of series thermocouple junctions and thin-film design creates a gage with very attractive characteristics. It is not only physically non-intrusive to the flow, but also causes minimal disruption of the surface temperature. Because it is so thin, the response time is less than 20 microsec. Consequently, the frequency response is flat from 0 to over 50 kHz. Moreover, the signal of the Heat Flux Microsensor is directly proportional to the heat flux. Therefore, it can easily be used in both steady and transient flows, and it measures both the steady and unsteady components of the surface heat flux. A version of the Heat Flux Microsensor has been developed to meet the harsh demands of combustion environments. These gages use platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium as the thermoelectric materials. The thermal resistance layer is silicon monoxide and a protective coating of Al2O3 is deposited on top of the sensor. The

  2. Analyzing land surface temperature variations during Fogo Island (Cape Verde) 2014-2015 eruption with Landsat 8 images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, D.; Teodoro, A.; Gomes, A.

    2016-10-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is an important parameter related to land surface processes that changes continuously through time. Assessing its dynamics during a volcanic eruption has both environmental and socio-economical interest. Lava flows and other volcanic materials produced and deposited throughout an eruption transform the landscape, contributing to its heterogeneity and altering LST measurements. This paper aims to assess variations of satellite-derived LST and to detect patterns during the latest Fogo Island (Cape Verde) eruption, extending from November 2014 through February 2015. LST data was obtained through four processed Landsat 8 images, focused on the caldera where Pico do Fogo volcano sits. QGIS' plugin Semi-Automatic Classification was used in order to apply atmospheric corrections and radiometric calibrations. The algorithm used to retrieve LST values is a single-channel method, in which emissivity values are known. The absence of in situ measurements is compensated by the use of MODIS sensor-derived LST data, used to compare with Landsat retrieved measurements. LST data analysis shows as expected that the highest LST values are located inside the caldera. High temperature values were also founded on the south-facing flank of the caldera. Although spatial patterns observed on the retrieved data remained roughly the same during the time period considered, temperature values changed throughout the area and over time, as it was also expected. LST values followed the eruption dynamic experiencing a growth followed by a decline. Moreover, it seems possible to recognize areas affected by lava flows of previous eruptions, due to well-defined LST spatial patterns.

  3. Deriving a sea surface temperature record suitable for climate change research from the along-track scanning radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, C. J.; Llewellyn-Jones, D.; Saunders, R. W.; Rayner, N. A.; Kent, E. C.; Old, C. P.; Berry, D.; Birks, A. R.; Blackmore, T.; Corlett, G. K.; Embury, O.; Jay, V. L.; Kennedy, J.; Mutlow, C. T.; Nightingale, T. J.; O'Carroll, A. G.; Pritchard, M. J.; Remedios, J. J.; Tett, S.

    We describe the approach to be adopted for a major new initiative to derive a homogeneous record of sea surface temperature for 1991 2007 from the observations of the series of three along-track scanning radiometers (ATSRs). This initiative is called (A)RC: (Advanced) ATSR Re-analysis for Climate. The main objectives are to reduce regional biases in retrieved sea surface temperature (SST) to less than 0.1 K for all global oceans, while creating a very homogenous record that is stable in time to within 0.05 K decade-1, with maximum independence of the record from existing analyses of SST used in climate change research. If these stringent targets are achieved, this record will enable significantly improved estimates of surface temperature trends and variability of sufficient quality to advance questions of climate change attribution, climate sensitivity and historical reconstruction of surface temperature changes. The approach includes development of new, consistent estimators for SST for each of the ATSRs, and detailed analysis of overlap periods. Novel aspects of the approach include generation of multiple versions of the record using alternative channel sets and cloud detection techniques, to assess for the first time the effect of such choices. There will be extensive effort in quality control, validation and analysis of the impact on climate SST data sets. Evidence for the plausibility of the 0.1 K target for systematic error is reviewed, as is the need for alternative cloud screening methods in this context.

  4. Retrieval of Kinetic Temperature and Carbon Dioxide Abundance from Non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Limb Emission Measurements made by the SABER Experiment on the TIMED Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Wintersteiner, Peter P.; Picard, Richard H.; Winick, Jeremy R.; Gordley, Larry L.; Russell, James M., III

    2002-01-01

    The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) experiment was launched onboard the TIMED satellite in December, 2001. SABER is designed to provide measurements of the key radiative and chemical sources and sinks of energy in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). SABER measures Earth limb emission in 10 broadband radiometer channels ranging from 1.27 micrometers to 17 micrometers. Measurements are made both day and night over the latitude range from 54 deg. S to 87 deg. N with alternating hemisphere coverage every 60 days. In this paper we concentrate on retrieved profiles of kinetic temperature (T(sub k)) and CO2 volume mixing ratio (vmr), inferred from SABER-observed 15 micrometer and 4.3 micrometer limb emissions, respectively. SABER-measured limb radiances are in non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) in the MLT region. The complexity of non-LTE radiation transfer combined with the large volume of data measured by SABER requires new retrieval approaches and radiative transfer techniques to accurately and efficiently retrieve the data products. In this paper we present the salient features of the coupled non-LTE T(sub k)/CO2 retrieval algorithm, along with preliminary results.

  5. Theoretical study of cathode surfaces and high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Wolfgang

    1995-01-01

    Calculations are presented for the work functions of BaO on W, Os, Pt, and alloys of Re-W, Os-W, and Ir-W that are in excellent agreement with experiment. The observed emission enhancement for alloy relative to tungsten dispenser cathodes is attributed to properties of the substrate crystal structure and explained by the smaller depolarization of the surface dipole on hexagonal as compared to cubic substrates. For Ba and BaO on W(100), the geometry of the adsorbates has been determined by a comparison of inverse photoemission spectra with calculated densities of unoccupied states based on the fully relativistic embedded cluster approach. Results are also discussed for models of scandate cathodes and the electronic structure of oxygen on W(100) at room and elevated temperatures. A detailed comparison is made for the surface electronic structure of the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7 as obtained with non-, quasi-, and fully relativistic cluster calculations.

  6. Three modes of interdecadal trends in sea surface temperature and sea surface height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Pradal, M.

    2013-12-01

    It might be thought that sea surface height and sea surface temperature would be tightly related. We show that this is not necessarily the case on a global scale. We analysed this relationship in a suite of coupled climate models run under 1860 forcing conditions. The models are low-resolution variants of the GFDL Earth System Model, reported in Galbraith et al. (J. Clim. 2011). 1. Correlated changes in global sea surface height and global sea surface temperature. This mode corresponds to opening and closing of convective chimneys in the Southern Ocean. As the Southern Ocean destratifies, sea ice formation is suppressed during the winter and more heat is taken up during the summer. This mode of variability is highly correlated with changes in the top of the atmosphere radiative budget and weakly correlated with changes in the deep ocean circulation. 2. Uncorrelated changes in global sea surface height and global sea surface temperature. This mode of variability is associated with interdecadal variabliity in tropical winds. Changes in the advective flux of heat to the surface ocean play a critical role in driving these changes, which also result in significant local changes in sea level. Changes sea ice over the Southern Ocean still result in changes in solar absorption, but these are now largely cancelled by changes in outgoing longwave radiation. 3. Anticorrelated changes in global sea surface height and global sea surface temperatures. By varying the lateral diffusion coefficient in the ocean model, we are able to enhance and suppress convection in the Southern and Northern Pacific Oceans. Increasing the lateral diffusion coefficients shifts the balance sources of deep water away from the warm salty deep water of the North Atlantic and towards cold fresh deep water from the other two regions. As a result, even though the planet as a whole warms, the deep ocean cools and sea level falls, with changes of order 30 cm over 500 years. The increase in solar absorption

  7. All-weather Land Surface Temperature Estimation from Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J.; Zhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing, including the thermal infrared (TIR) and passive microwave (MW), provides the possibility to observe LST at large scales. For better modeling the land surface processes with high temporal resolutions, all-weather LST from satellite data is desirable. However, estimation of all-weather LST faces great challenges. On the one hand, TIR remote sensing is limited to clear-sky situations; this drawback reduces its usefulness under cloudy conditions considerably, especially in regions with frequent and/or permanent clouds. On the other hand, MW remote sensing suffers from much greater thermal sampling depth (TSD) and coarser spatial resolution than TIR; thus, MW LST is generally lower than TIR LST, especially at daytime. Two case studies addressing the challenges mentioned previously are presented here. The first study is for the development of a novel thermal sampling depth correction method (TSDC) to estimate the MW LST over barren land; this second study is for the development of a feasible method to merge the TIR and MW LSTs by addressing the coarse resolution of the latter one. In the first study, the core of the TSDC method is a new formulation of the passive microwave radiation balance equation, which allows linking bulk MW radiation to the soil temperature at a specific depth, i.e. the representative temperature: this temperature is then converted to LST through an adapted soil heat conduction equation. The TSDC method is applied to the 6.9 GHz channel in vertical polarization of AMSR-E. Evaluation shows that LST estimated by the TSDC method agrees well with the MODIS LST. Validation is based on in-situ LSTs measured at the Gobabeb site in western Namibia. The results demonstrate the high accuracy of the TSDC method: it yields a root-mean squared error (RMSE) of 2 K and ignorable systematic error over barren land. In the second study, the method consists of two core processes: (1) estimation of MW LST from MW brightness temperature and (2

  8. Mesoscale surface equivalent temperature (T E) for East Central USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Keri; Mahmood, Rezaul; Goodrich, Gregory; Pielke, Roger A.; Durkee, Joshua

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate near surface mesoscale equivalent temperatures (T E) in Kentucky (located in east central USA) and potential land cover influences. T E is a measure of the moist enthalpy composed of the dry bulb temperature, T, and absolute humidity. Kentucky presents a unique opportunity to perform a study of this kind because of the observational infrastructure provided by the Kentucky Mesonet (www.kymesonet.org). This network maintains 69 research-grade, in-situ weather and climate observing stations across the Commonwealth. Equivalent temperatures were calculated utilizing high-quality observations from 33 of these stations. In addition, the Kentucky Mesonet offers higher spatial and temporal resolution than previous research on this topic. As expected, the differences (T E - T) were greatest in the summer (smallest in the winter), with an average of 35 °C (5 °C). In general, the differences were found to be the largest in the western climate division. This is attributed to agricultural land use and poorly drained land. These differences are smaller during periods of drought, signifying less influence of moisture.

  9. Impact of vegetation growth on urban surface temperature distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buyadi, S N A; Mohd, W M N W; Misni, A

    2014-01-01

    Earlier studies have indicated that, the temperature distribution in the urban area is significantly warmer than its surrounding suburban areas. The process of urbanization has created urban heat island (UHI). As a city expands, trees are cut down to accommodate commercial development, industrial areas, roads, and suburban growth. Trees or green areas normally play a vital role in mitigating the UHI effects especially in regulating high temperature in saturated urban areas. This study attempts to assess the effects of vegetation growth on land surface temperature (LST) distribution in urban areas. An area within the City of Shah Alam, Selangor has been selected as the study area. Land use/land cover and LST maps of two different dates are generated from Landsat 5 TM images of the year 1991 and 2009. Only five major land cover classes are considered in this study. Mono-window algorithm is used to generate the LST maps. Landsat 5 TM images are also used to generate the NDVI maps. Results from this study have shown that there are significant land use changes within the study area. Although the conversion of green areas into residential and commercial areas significantly increase the LST, matured trees will help to mitigate the effects of UHI

  10. Estimating surface turbulent heat fluxes from land surface temperature and soil moisture using the particle batch smoother

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Dong, Jianzhi; Steele-Dunne, Susan; van de Giesen, Nick

    2016-04-01

    This study is focused on estimating surface sensible and latent heat fluxes from land surface temperature (LST) time series and soil moisture observations. Surface turbulent heat fluxes interact with the overlying atmosphere and play a crucial role in meteorology, hydrology and other climate-related fields, but in-situ measurements are costly and difficult. It has been demonstrated that the time series of LST contains information of energy partitioning and that surface turbulent heat fluxes can be determined from assimilation of LST. These studies are mainly based on two assumptions: (1) a monthly value of bulk heat transfer coefficient under neutral conditions (CHN) which scales the sum of the fluxes, and (2) an evaporation fraction (EF) which stays constant during the near-peak hours of the day. Previous studies have applied variational and ensemble approaches to this problem. Here the newly developed particle batch smoother (PBS) algorithm is adopted to test its capability in this application. The PBS can be seen as an extension of the standard particle filter (PF) in which the states and parameters within a fix window are updated in a batch using all observations in the window. The aim of this study is two-fold. First, the PBS is used to assimilate only LST time series into the force-restore model to estimate fluxes. Second, a simple soil water transfer scheme is introduced to evaluate the benefit of assimilating soil moisture observations simultaneously. The experiments are implemented using the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) (FIFE) data. It is shown that the restored LST time series using PBS agrees very well with observations, and that assimilating LST significantly improved the flux estimation at both daily and half-hourly time scales. When soil moisture is introduced to further constrain EF, the accuracy of estimated EF is greatly improved. Furthermore, the RMSEs of retrieved fluxes are effectively reduced at both

  11. Emissivity Measurements of Foam-Covered Water Surface at L-Band for Low Water Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Bo Wei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For a foam-covered sea surface, it is difficult to retrieve sea surface salinity (SSS with L-band brightness temperature (1.4 GHz because of the effect of a foam layer with wind speeds stronger than 7 m/s, especially at low sea surface temperature (SST. With foam-controlled experiments, emissivities of a foam-covered water surface at low SST (−1.4 °C to 1.7 °C are measured for varying SSS, foam thickness, incidence angle, and polarization. Furthermore, a theoretical model of emissivity is introduced by combining wave approach theory with the effective medium approximation method. Good agreement is obtained upon comparing theoretical emissivities with those of experiments. The results indicate that foam parameters have a strong influence on increasing emissivity of a foam-covered water surface. Increments of experimental emissivities caused by foam thickness of 1 cm increase from about 0.014 to 0.131 for horizontal polarization and 0.022 to 0.150 for vertical polarization with SSS increase and SST decrease. Contributions of the interface between the foam layer and water surface to the foam layer emissivity increments are discussed for frequencies between 1 and 37 GHz.

  12. Unified Retrieval of Cloud Properties, Atmospheric Profiles, and Surface Parameters from Combined DMSP Imager and Sounder Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isaacs, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of the proposed study was to investigate the complementary information provided by microwave and infrared sensors in order to enhance both the microwave retrieval and the current cloud analysis...

  13. Correction of sub-pixel topographical effects on land surface albedo retrieved from geostationary satellite (FengYun-2D) observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roupioz, L; Nerry, F; Jia, L; Menenti, M

    2014-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is characterised by a very strong relief which affects albedo retrieval from satellite data. The objective of this study is to highlight the effects of sub-pixel topography and to account for those effects when retrieving land surface albedo from geostationary satellite FengYun-2D (FY-2D) data with 1.25km spatial resolution using the high spatial resolution (30 m) data of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from ASTER. The methodology integrates the effects of sub-pixel topography on the estimation of the total irradiance received at the surface, allowing the computation of the topographically corrected surface reflectance. Furthermore, surface albedo is estimated by applying the parametric BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) model called RPV (Rahman-Pinty-Verstraete) to the terrain corrected surface reflectance. The results, evaluated against ground measurements collected over several experimental sites on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, document the advantage of integrating the sub-pixel topography effects in the land surface reflectance at 1km resolution to estimate the land surface albedo. The results obtained after using sub-pixel topographic correction are compared with the ones obtained after using pixel level topographic correction. The preliminary results imply that, in highly rugged terrain, the sub-pixel topography correction method gives more accurate results. The pixel level correction tends to overestimate surface albedo

  14. Analysing Regional Land Surface Temperature Changes by Satellite Data, a Case Study of Zonguldak, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekertekin, A.; Kutoglu, S.; Kaya, S.; Marangoz, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, climate change is one of the most important problems that the ecological system of the world has been encountering. Global warming and climate change have been studied frequently by all disciplines all over the world and Geomatics Engineering also contributes to such studies by means of remote sensing, global positioning system etc. Monitoring Land Surface Temperature (LST) via remote sensing satellites is one of the most important contributions to climatology. LST is an important parameter governing the energy balance on the Earth and there are lots of algorithms to obtain LST by remote sensing techniques. The most commonly used algorithms are split-window algorithm, temperature/emissivity separation method, mono-window algorithm and single channel method. Generally three algorithms are used to obtain LST by using Landsat 5 TM data. These algorithms are radiative transfer equation method, single channel method and mono-window algorithm. Radiative transfer equation method is not applicable because during the satellite pass, atmospheric parameters must be measured in-situ. In this research, mono window algorithm was implemented to Landsat 5 TM image. Besides, meteorological data such as humidity and temperature are used in the algorithm. Acquisition date of the image is 28.08.2011 and our study area is Zonguldak, Turkey. High resolution images are used to investigate the relationships between LST and land cover type. As a result of these analyses, area with vegetation cover has approximately 5 ºC lower temperature than the city center and arid land. Because different surface properties like reinforced concrete construction, green zones and sandbank are all together in city center, LST differs about 10 ºC in the city center. The temperature around some places in thermal power plant region Çatalağzı, is about 5 ºC higher than city center. Sandbank and agricultural areas have highest temperature because of land cover structure. Thanks to this

  15. GHRSST Level 4 DMI_OI Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis by the Danish...

  16. GHRSST Level 4 MUR North America Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced as a retrospective dataset at the JPL Physical...

  17. GHRSST Level 4 OSPO Global Nighttime Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Office of...

  18. GHRSST Level 4 AVHRR_AMSR_OI Global Blended Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) global Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on a 0.25 degree grid at the NOAA...

  19. GHRSST Level 4 ODYSSEA Mediterranean Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at Ifremer/CERSAT...

  20. GHRSST Level 4 G1SST Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis by the JPL OurOcean...

  1. GHRSST Level 4 MW_OI Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) global Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on a 0.25 degree grid at Remote Sensing...

  2. GHRSST Level 4 K10_SST Global 1 meter Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Naval...

  3. GHRSST Level 4 EUR Mediterranean Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily by Ifremer/CERSAT (France) using optimal...

  4. GHRSST Level 4 ODYSSEA Eastern Central Pacific Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at Ifremer/CERSAT...

  5. GHRSST Level 4 ODYSSEA Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at Ifremer/CERSAT...

  6. GHRSST Level 4 OSPO Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Office of...

  7. GHRSST Level 4 GAMSSA Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Australian Bureau...

  8. GHRSST Level 4 RAMSSA Australian Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Australian Bureau...

  9. GHRSST Level 4 OSTIA Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the UK Met Office...

  10. Multiangular L-band Datasets for Soil Moisture and Sea Surface Salinity Retrieval Measured by Airborne HUT-2D Synthetic Aperture Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainulainen, J.; Rautiainen, K.; Seppänen, J.; Hallikainen, M.

    2009-04-01

    SMOS is the European Space Agency's next Earth Explorer satellite due for launch in 2009. It aims for global monitoring of soil moisture and ocean salinity utilizing a new technology concept for remote sensing: two-dimensional aperture synthesis radiometry. The payload of SMOS is Microwave Imaging Radiometer by Aperture Synthesis, or MIRAS. It is a passive instrument that uses 72 individual L-band receivers for measuring the brightness temperature of the Earth. From each acquisition, i.e. integration time or snapshot, MIRAS provides two-dimensional brightness temperature of the scene in the instrument's field of view. Thus, consecutive snapshots provide multiangular measurements of the target once the instrument passes over it. Depending on the position of the target in instrument's swath, the brightness temperature of the target at incidence angles from zero up to 50 degrees can be measured with one overpass. To support the development MIRAS instrument, its calibration, and soil moisture and sea surface salinity retrieval algorithm development, Helsinki University of Technology (TKK) has designed, manufactured and tested a radiometer which operates at L-band and utilizes the same two-dimensional methodology of interferometery and aperture synthesis as MIRAS does. This airborne instrument, called HUT-2D, was designed to be used on board the University's research aircraft. It provides multiangular measurements of the target in its field of view, which spans up to 30 degrees off the boresight of the instrument, which is pointed to the nadir. The number of independent measurements of each target point depends on the flight speed and altitude. In addition to the Spanish Airborne MIRAS demonstrator (AMIRAS), HUT-2D is the only European airborne synthetic aperture radiometer. This paper presents the datasets and measurement campaigns, which have been carried out using the HUT-2D radiometer and are available for the scientific community. In April 2007 HUT-2D participated

  11. Tropical sea surface temperature variability near the Oligocene - Miocene boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Pagani, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Oligocene/Miocene (O-M) boundary is characterized by a period of rapid and intense glaciation labeled Mi-1 at ~ 23.1 Ma. An abrupt 1.5‰ increase in the benthic foraminifera oxygen isotope composition that characterizes Mi-1 may indicate a (1) significant deep-water temperature decrease; (2) major ice-sheet expansion, or the combination of both. Current coarse Mg/Ca-based temperature estimations for the early Miocene suggests that deep-ocean temperatures were ~2°C warmer than Today [1, 2]. However, Mg/Ca based temperatures can also be influenced by changes in the carbonate ion concentration, vital effects, and diagenesis. In particular, recent evidence from mid-ocean ridge flank carbonate veins shows dramatic seawater Mg/Ca ratio changes during the Neogene (Mg/Ca from ~2.2 to 5.3, [3]), which further challenges the application of Mg/Ca thermometry. Owing to poor temperature constraints, current ice volume estimations for the late Oligocene/early Miocene range from 125% of the present-day East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) to a nearly complete collapse of the Antarctic glaciers [4]. Here we present tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) records based on TEX86 and alkenone UK37 near the O-M boundary. Sediment samples from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 926 in the Ceara Rise (tropical Atlantic) and Site 1148 in the South China Sea (tropical Pacific) were subject to lipid extraction, separation, gas chromatography, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. TEX86-based SST indicates that the tropics were ~3-4°C warmer than today and relatively stable during Mi-1. This suggests that ice-sheet dynamics, rather than temperature, might be responsible for the observed oxygen isotope changes during the O-M boundary. Further, O-M boundary averaged temperatures recorded at site 926 is ~ 0.5°C higher relative to the late Eocene from site 925 (a nearby site [5]). Given late Oligocene benthic δ18O that suggests at least 1‰ enrichment relative to the late

  12. Temporal and spatial assessments of minimum air temperature using satellite surface temperature measurements in Massachusetts, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloog, Itai; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel

    2012-08-15

    Although meteorological stations provide accurate air temperature observations, their spatial coverage is limited and thus often insufficient for epidemiological studies. Satellite data expand spatial coverage, enhancing our ability to estimate near surface air temperature (Ta). However, the derivation of Ta from surface temperature (Ts) measured by satellites is far from being straightforward. In this study, we present a novel approach that incorporates land use regression, meteorological variables and spatial smoothing to first calibrate between Ts and Ta on a daily basis and then predict Ta for days when satellite Ts data were not available. We applied mixed regression models with daily random slopes to calibrate Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Ts data with monitored Ta measurements for 2003. Then, we used a generalized additive mixed model with spatial smoothing to estimate Ta in days with missing Ts. Out-of-sample tenfold cross-validation was used to quantify the accuracy of our predictions. Our model performance was excellent for both days with available Ts and days without Ts observations (mean out-of-sample R(2)=0.946 and R(2)=0.941 respectively). Furthermore, based on the high quality predictions we investigated the spatial patterns of Ta within the study domain as they relate to urban vs. non-urban land uses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Daily Cycle of Air Temperature and Surface Temperature in Stone Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Li, Y.; Wang, X.; Yuan, M.

    2013-12-01

    Urbanization is one of the most profound human activities that impact on climate change. In cities, where are highly artificial areas, the conflict between human activity and natural climate is particularly prominent. Urban areas always have the larger area of impervious land, the higher consumption of greenhouse gases, more emissions of anthropogenic heat and air pollution, all contribute to the urban warming phenomena. Understanding the mechanisms causing a variety of phenomena involved in the urban warming is critical to distinguish the anthropogenic effect and natural variation in the climate change. However, the exact dynamics of urban warming were poorly understood, and effective control strategies are not available. Here we present a study of the daily cycle of air temperature and surface temperature in Stone Forest. The specific heat of the stones in the Stone Forest and concrete of the man-made structures within the cities are approximate. Besides, the height of the Stone Forest and the height of buildings within the city are also similar. As a scenic area, the Stone Forest is being preserved and only opened for sightseeing. There is no anthropogenic heat, as well air pollution within the Stone Forest. The thermal environment in Stone Forest can be considered to be a simulation of thermal environment in the city, which can reveal the effect of man-made structures on urban thermal environment. We conducted the field studies and numerical analysis in the Stone Forest for 4 typical urban morphology and environment scenarios, including high-rise compact cities, low-rise sparse cities, garden cities and isolated single stone. Air temperature and relative humidity were measured every half an hour in 15 different locations, which within different spatial distribution of stones and can represent the four urban scenarios respectively. At the same time, an infrared camera was used to take thermal images and get the hourly surface temperatures of stones and

  14. Sensitivity of Landsat 8 Surface Temperature Estimates to Atmospheric Profile Data: A Study Using MODTRAN in Dryland Irrigated Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas, Jorge

    2017-09-26

    The land surface temperature (LST) represents a critical element in efforts to characterize global surface energy and water fluxes, as well as being an essential climate variable in its own right. Current satellite platforms provide a range of spatial and temporal resolution radiance data from which LST can be determined. One of the most complete records of data comes via the Landsat series of satellites, which provide a continuous sequence that extends back to 1982. However, for much of this time, Landsat thermal data were provided through a single broadband thermal channel, making surface temperature retrieval challenging. To fully exploit the valuable time-series of thermal information that is available from these satellites requires efforts to better describe and understand the accuracy of temperature retrievals. Here, we contribute to these efforts by examining the impact of atmospheric correction on the estimation of LST, using atmospheric profiles derived from a range of in-situ, reanalysis, and satellite data. Radiance data from the thermal infrared (TIR) sensor onboard Landsat 8 was converted to LST by using the MODTRAN version 5.2 radiative transfer model, allowing the production of an LST time series based upon 28 Landsat overpasses. LST retrievals were then evaluated against in-situ thermal measurements collected over an arid zone farmland comprising both bare soil and vegetated surface types. Atmospheric profiles derived from AIRS, MOD07, ECMWF, NCEP, and balloon-based radiosonde data were used to drive the MODTRAN simulations. In addition to examining the direct impact of using various profile data on LST retrievals, randomly distributed errors were introduced into a range of forcing variables to better understand retrieval uncertainty. Results indicated differences in LST of up to 1 K for perturbations in emissivity and profile measurements, with the analysis also highlighting the challenges in modeling aerosol optical depth (AOD) over arid lands and

  15. Sensitivity of Landsat 8 Surface Temperature Estimates to Atmospheric Profile Data: A Study Using MODTRAN in Dryland Irrigated Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas, Jorge; Houborg, Rasmus; McCabe, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The land surface temperature (LST) represents a critical element in efforts to characterize global surface energy and water fluxes, as well as being an essential climate variable in its own right. Current satellite platforms provide a range of spatial and temporal resolution radiance data from which LST can be determined. One of the most complete records of data comes via the Landsat series of satellites, which provide a continuous sequence that extends back to 1982. However, for much of this time, Landsat thermal data were provided through a single broadband thermal channel, making surface temperature retrieval challenging. To fully exploit the valuable time-series of thermal information that is available from these satellites requires efforts to better describe and understand the accuracy of temperature retrievals. Here, we contribute to these efforts by examining the impact of atmospheric correction on the estimation of LST, using atmospheric profiles derived from a range of in-situ, reanalysis, and satellite data. Radiance data from the thermal infrared (TIR) sensor onboard Landsat 8 was converted to LST by using the MODTRAN version 5.2 radiative transfer model, allowing the production of an LST time series based upon 28 Landsat overpasses. LST retrievals were then evaluated against in-situ thermal measurements collected over an arid zone farmland comprising both bare soil and vegetated surface types. Atmospheric profiles derived from AIRS, MOD07, ECMWF, NCEP, and balloon-based radiosonde data were used to drive the MODTRAN simulations. In addition to examining the direct impact of using various profile data on LST retrievals, randomly distributed errors were introduced into a range of forcing variables to better understand retrieval uncertainty. Results indicated differences in LST of up to 1 K for perturbations in emissivity and profile measurements, with the analysis also highlighting the challenges in modeling aerosol optical depth (AOD) over arid lands and

  16. Wintertime sea surface temperature fronts in the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi; Shimada, Teruhisa; Lee, Ming-An; Lu, Hsueh-Jung; Sakaida, Futoki; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2006-12-01

    We present wintertime variations and distributions of sea surface temperature (SST) fronts in the Taiwan Strait by applying an entropy-based edge detection method to 10-year (1996-2005) satellite SST images with grid size of 0.01°. From climatological monthly mean maps of SST gradient magnitude in winter, we identify four significant SST fronts in the Taiwan Strait. The Mainland China Coastal Front is a long frontal band along the 50-m isobath near the Chinese coast. The sharp Peng-Chang Front appears along the Peng-Hu Channel and extends northward around the Chang-Yuen Ridge. The Taiwan Bank Front evolves in early winter. As the winter progresses, the front becomes broad and moves toward the Chinese coast, connecting to the Mainland China Coastal Front. The Kuroshio Front extends northeastward from the northeastern tip of Taiwan with a semicircle-shape curving along the 100-m isobath.

  17. Model-based surface soil moisture (SSM) retrieval algorithm using multi-temporal RISAT-1 C-band SAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Dharmendra K.; Maity, Saroj; Bhattacharya, Bimal; Misra, Arundhati

    2016-05-01

    Accurate measurement of surface soil moisture of bare and vegetation covered soil over agricultural field and monitoring the changes in surface soil moisture is vital for estimation for managing and mitigating risk to agricultural crop, which requires information and knowledge to assess risk potential and implement risk reduction strategies and deliver essential responses. The empirical and semi-empirical model-based soil moisture inversion approach developed in the past are either sensor or region specific, vegetation type specific or have limited validity range, and have limited scope to explain physical scattering processes. Hence, there is need for more robust, physical polarimetric radar backscatter model-based retrieval methods, which are sensor and location independent and have wide range of validity over soil properties. In the present study, Integral Equation Model (IEM) and Vector Radiative Transfer (VRT) model were used to simulate averaged backscatter coefficients in various soil moisture (dry, moist and wet soil), soil roughness (smooth to very rough) and crop conditions (low to high vegetation water contents) over selected regions of Gujarat state of India and the results were compared with multi-temporal Radar Imaging Satellite-1 (RISAT-1) C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data in σ°HH and σ°HV polarizations, in sync with on field measured soil and crop conditions. High correlations were observed between RISAT-1 HH and HV with model simulated σ°HH & σ°HV based on field measured soil with the coefficient of determination R2 varying from 0.84 to 0.77 and RMSE varying from 0.94 dB to 2.1 dB for bare soil. Whereas in case of winter wheat crop, coefficient of determination R2 varying from 0.84 to 0.79 and RMSE varying from 0.87 dB to 1.34 dB, corresponding to with vegetation water content values up to 3.4 kg/m2. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) methods were adopted for model-based soil moisture inversion. The training datasets for the NNs were

  18. Ocular Surface Temperature in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sodi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to investigate the ocular thermographic profiles in age-related macular degeneration (AMD eyes and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities, which could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Methods. 32 eyes with early AMD, 37 eyes with atrophic AMD, 30 eyes affected by untreated neovascular AMD, and 43 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included. The control group consisted of 44 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, diabetes mellitus, and a body temperature higher than 37.5°C. A total of 186 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320. The ocular surface temperature (OST of three ocular points was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test were used for statistical analyses. Results. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P value >0.272. OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P>0.05. Conclusions. Considering the possible relationship between ocular blood flow and OST, these findings might support the central role of ischemia in the pathogenesis of AMD.

  19. Rapid modification of urban land surface temperature during rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, H.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Song, J.; Yang, J.; Arwatz, G.; Wang, Z.; Hultmark, M.; Kaloush, K.

    2017-12-01

    We study the runoff dynamics and heat transfer over urban pavements during rainfall. A kinematic wave approach is combined with heat storage and transfer schemes to develop a model for impervious (with runoff) and pervious (without runoff) pavements. The resulting framework is a numerical prognostic model that can simulate the temperature fields in the subsurface and runoff layers to capture the rapid cooling of the surface, as well as the thermal pollution advected in the runoff. Extensive field measurements were then conducted over experimental pavements in Arizona to probe the physics and better represent the relevant processes in the model, and then to validate the model. The experimental data and the model results were in very good agreements, and their joint analysis elucidated the physics of the rapid heat transfer from the subsurface to the runoff layer. Finally, we apply the developed model to investigate how the various hydrological and thermal properties of the pavements, as well as ambient environmental conditions, modulate the surface and runoff thermal dynamics, what is the relative importance of each of them, and how we can apply the model mitigate the adverse impacts of urbanization.

  20. Cloud Tolerance of Remote-Sensing Technologies to Measure Land Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Thomas R. H.; Hain, Christopher R.; Anderson, Martha C.; Crow, Wade T.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional methods to estimate land surface temperature (LST) from space rely on the thermal infrared(TIR) spectral window and is limited to cloud-free scenes. To also provide LST estimates during periods with clouds, a new method was developed to estimate LST based on passive microwave(MW) observations. The MW-LST product is informed by six polar-orbiting satellites to create a global record with up to eight observations per day for each 0.25resolution grid box. For days with sufficient observations, a continuous diurnal temperature cycle (DTC) was fitted. The main characteristics of the DTC were scaled to match those of a geostationary TIR-LST product. This paper tests the cloud tolerance of the MW-LST product. In particular, we demonstrate its stable performance with respect to flux tower observation sites (four in Europe and nine in the United States), over a range of cloudiness conditions up to heavily overcast skies. The results show that TIR based LST has slightly better performance than MW-LST for clear-sky observations but suffers an increasing negative bias as cloud cover increases. This negative bias is caused by incomplete masking of cloud-covered areas within the TIR scene that affects many applications of TIR-LST. In contrast, for MW-LST we find no direct impact of clouds on its accuracy and bias. MW-LST can therefore be used to improve TIR cloud screening. Moreover, the ability to provide LST estimates for cloud-covered surfaces can help expand current clear-sky-only satellite retrieval products to all-weather applications.

  1. The Effects of Surface Properties and Albedo on Methane Retrievals with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer Next Generation (AVIRIS-NG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayasse, A.; Thorpe, A. K.; Roberts, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric methane has increased by a factor of 2.5 since the beginning of the industrial era in response to anthropogenic emissions (Ciais et al., 2013). Although it is less abundant than carbon dioxide it is 86 time more potent on a 20 year time scale (Myhre et al., 2013) and is therefore responsible for about 20% of the total global warming induced by anthropogenic greenhouse gasses (Kirschke et al., 2013). Given the importance of methane to global climate change, monitoring and measuring methane emissions using techniques such as remote sensing is of increasing interest. Recently the Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer - Next Generation (AVIRIS-NG) has proven to be a valuable instrument for quantitative mapping of methane plumes (Frankenberg et al., 2016; Thorpe et al., 2016; Thompson et al., 2015). In this study, we applied the Iterative Maximum a Posterior Differential Optical Spectroscopy (IMAP-DOAS) methane retrieval algorithm to a synthetic image with variable methane concentrations, albedo, and land cover. This allowed for characterizing retrieval performance, including potential sensitivity to variable land cover, low albedo surfaces, and surfaces known to cause spurious signals. We conclude that albedo had little influence on the IMAP-DOAS results except at very low radiance levels. Water (without sun glint) was found to be the most challenging surface for methane retrievals while hydrocarbons and some green vegetation also caused error. Understanding the effect of surface properties on methane retrievals is important given the increased use of AVIRIS-NG to map gas plumes over diverse locations and methane sources. This analysis could be expanded to include additional gas species like carbon dioxide and to further investigate gas sensitivity of proposed instruments for dedicated gas mapping from airborne and spaceborne platforms.

  2. Kalman filters for assimilating near-surface observations into the Richards equation - Part 2: A dual filter approach for simultaneous retrieval of states and parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, H.; Romano, N.; Chirico, G. B.

    2014-07-01

    This study presents a dual Kalman filter (DSUKF - dual standard-unscented Kalman filter) for retrieving states and parameters controlling the soil water dynamics in a homogeneous soil column, by assimilating near-surface state observations. The DSUKF couples a standard Kalman filter for retrieving the states of a linear solver of the Richards equation, and an unscented Kalman filter for retrieving the parameters of the soil hydraulic functions, which are defined according to the van Genuchten-Mualem closed-form model. The accuracy and the computational expense of the DSUKF are compared with those of the dual ensemble Kalman filter (DEnKF) implemented with a nonlinear solver of the Richards equation. Both the DSUKF and the DEnKF are applied with two alternative state-space formulations of the Richards equation, respectively differentiated by the type of variable employed for representing the states: either the soil water content (θ) or the soil water matric pressure head (h). The comparison analyses are conducted with reference to synthetic time series of the true states, noise corrupted observations, and synthetic time series of the meteorological forcing. The performance of the retrieval algorithms are examined accounting for the effects exerted on the output by the input parameters, the observation depth and assimilation frequency, as well as by the relationship between retrieved states and assimilated variables. The uncertainty of the states retrieved with DSUKF is considerably reduced, for any initial wrong parameterization, with similar accuracy but less computational effort than the DEnKF, when this is implemented with ensembles of 25 members. For ensemble sizes of the same order of those involved in the DSUKF, the DEnKF fails to provide reliable posterior estimates of states and parameters. The retrieval performance of the soil hydraulic parameters is strongly affected by several factors, such as the initial guess of the unknown parameters, the wet or dry

  3. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Sea Surface Temperature - WHOI, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Ocean Surface Bundle (OSB) Climate Data Record (CDR) consist of three parts: sea surface temperature, near-surface atmospheric properties, and heat fluxes....

  4. SAFARI 2000 AVHRR-derived Land Surface Temperature Maps, Africa, 1995-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a key indicator of land surface states, and can provide information on surface-atmosphere heat and mass fluxes, vegetation water...

  5. SAFARI 2000 AVHRR-derived Land Surface Temperature Maps, Africa, 1995-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a key indicator of land surface states, and can provide information on surface-atmosphere heat and mass fluxes,...

  6. Parametrization of Land Surface Temperature Fields with Optical and Microwave Remote Sensing in Brazil's Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, K. C.; Khan, A.; Carnaval, A. C.

    2016-12-01

    Brazil is home to two of the largest and most biodiverse ecosystems in the world, primarily encompassed in forests and wetlands. A main region of interest in this project is Brazil's Atlantic Forest (AF). Although this forest is only a fraction of the size of the Amazon rainforest, it harbors significant biological richness, making it one of the world's major hotspots for biodiversity. The AF is located on the East to Southeast region of Brazil, bordering the Atlantic Ocean. As luscious and biologically rich as this region is, the area covered by the Atlantic Forest has been diminishing over past decades, mainly due to human influences and effects of climate change. We examine 1 km resolution Land Surface Temperature (LST) data from NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) combined with 25 km resolution radiometric temperature derived from NASA's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on EOS (AMSR-E) to develop a capability employing both in combination to assess LST. Since AMSR-E is a microwave remote sensing instrument, products derived from its measurements are minimally effected by cloud cover. On the other hand, MODIS data are heavily influenced by cloud cover. We employ a statistical downscaling technique to the coarse-resolution AMSR-E datasets to enhance its spatial resolution to match that of MODIS. Our approach employs 16-day composite MODIS LST data in combination with synergistic ASMR-E radiometric brightness temperature data to develop a combined, downscaled dataset. Our goal is to use this integrated LST retrieval with complementary in situ station data to examine associated influences on regional biodiversity

  7. Variability in Surface BRDF at Different Spatial Scales (30m-500m) Over a Mixed Agricultural Landscape as Retrieved from Airborne and Satellite Spectral Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Miguel O.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Poudyal, Rajesh; Wang, Zhuosen; King, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, the role of multiangle 1 remote sensing has been central to the development of algorithms for the retrieval of global land surface properties including models of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), albedo, land cover/dynamics, burned area extent, as well as other key surface biophysical quantities represented by the anisotropic reflectance characteristics of vegetation. In this study, a new retrieval strategy for fine-to-moderate resolution multiangle observations was developed, based on the operational sequence used to retrieve the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 5 reflectance and BRDF/albedo products. The algorithm makes use of a semiempirical kernel-driven bidirectional reflectance model to provide estimates of intrinsic albedo (i.e., directional-hemispherical reflectance and bihemispherical reflectance), model parameters describing the BRDF, and extensive quality assurance information. The new retrieval strategy was applied to NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) data acquired during the 2007 Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) over the well-instrumented Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site in Oklahoma, USA. For the case analyzed, we obtained approx.1.6 million individual surface bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) retrievals, from nadir to 75deg off-nadir, and at spatial resolutions ranging from 3 m - 500 m. This unique dataset was used to examine the interaction of the spatial and angular 18 characteristics of a mixed agricultural landscape; and provided the basis for detailed assessments of: (1) the use of a priori knowledge in kernel-driven BRDF model inversions; (2) the interaction between surface reflectance anisotropy and instrument spatial resolution; and (3) the uncertainties that arise when sub-pixel differences in the BRDF are aggregated to a moderate resolution satellite

  8. Temperature distribution and heat radiation of patterned surfaces at short wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emig, Thorsten

    2017-05-01

    We analyze the equilibrium spatial distribution of surface temperatures of patterned surfaces. The surface is exposed to a constant external heat flux and has a fixed internal temperature that is coupled to the outside heat fluxes by finite heat conductivity across the surface. It is assumed that the temperatures are sufficiently high so that the thermal wavelength (a few microns at room temperature) is short compared to all geometric length scales of the surface patterns. Hence the radiosity method can be employed. A recursive multiple scattering method is developed that enables rapid convergence to equilibrium temperatures. While the temperature distributions show distinct dependence on the detailed surface shapes (cuboids and cylinder are studied), we demonstrate robust universal relations between the mean and the standard deviation of the temperature distributions and quantities that characterize overall geometric features of the surface shape.

  9. Vicarious Calibration of sUAS Microbolometer Temperature Imagery for Estimation of Radiometric Land Surface Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Torres-Rua

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the availability of lightweight microbolometer thermal cameras compatible with small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS has allowed their use in diverse scientific and management activities that require sub-meter pixel resolution. Nevertheless, as with sensors already used in temperature remote sensing (e.g., Landsat satellites, a radiance atmospheric correction is necessary to estimate land surface temperature. This is because atmospheric conditions at any sUAS flight elevation will have an adverse impact on the image accuracy, derived calculations, and study replicability using the microbolometer technology. This study presents a vicarious calibration methodology (sUAS-specific, time-specific, flight-specific, and sensor-specific for sUAS temperature imagery traceable back to NIST-standards and current atmospheric correction methods. For this methodology, a three-year data collection campaign with a sUAS called “AggieAir”, developed at Utah State University, was performed for vineyards near Lodi, California, for flights conducted at different times (early morning, Landsat overpass, and mid-afternoon” and seasonal conditions. From the results of this study, it was found that, despite the spectral response of microbolometer cameras (7.0 to 14.0 μm, it was possible to account for the effects of atmospheric and sUAS operational conditions, regardless of time and weather, to acquire accurate surface temperature data. In addition, it was found that the main atmospheric correction parameters (transmissivity and atmospheric radiance significantly varied over the course of a day. These parameters fluctuated the most in early morning and partially stabilized in Landsat overpass and in mid-afternoon times. In terms of accuracy, estimated atmospheric correction parameters presented adequate statistics (confidence bounds under ±0.1 for transmissivity and ±1.2 W/m2/sr/um for atmospheric radiance, with a range of RMSE below 1.0 W/m2/sr

  10. Are Sea Surface Temperature satellite measurements reliable proxies of lagoon temperature in the South Pacific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wynsberge, Simon; Menkes, Christophe; Le Gendre, Romain; Passfield, Teuru; Andréfouët, Serge

    2017-12-01

    In remote coral reef environments, lagoon and reef in situ measurements of temperature are scarce. Sea Surface Temperature (SST) measured by satellite has been frequently used as a proxy of the lagoon temperature experienced by coral reef organisms (TL) especially during coral bleaching events. However, the link between SST and TL is poorly characterized. First, we compared the correlation between various SST series and TL from 2012 to 2016 in three atolls and one island in the Central South Pacific Ocean. Simple linear correlation between SST and TL ranged between 0.44 and 0.97 depending on lagoons, localities of sensors, and type of SST data. High-resolution-satellite-measurements of SST inside the lagoons did not outperform oceanic SST series, suggesting that SST products are not adapted for small lagoons. Second, we modelled the difference between oceanic SST and TL as a function of the drivers of lagoon water renewal and mixing, namely waves, tide, wind, and season. The multivariate models reduced significantly the bias between oceanic SST and TL. In atoll lagoons, and probably in other hydrodynamically semi-open systems, a correction taking into account these factors is necessary when SST are used to characterize organisms' thermal stress thresholds.

  11. Diffusion Filters for Variational Data Assimilation of Sea Surface Temperature in an Intermediate Climate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequential, adaptive, and gradient diffusion filters are implemented into spatial multiscale three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR as alternative schemes to model background error covariance matrix for the commonly used correction scale method, recursive filter method, and sequential 3DVAR. The gradient diffusion filter (GDF is verified by a two-dimensional sea surface temperature (SST assimilation experiment. Compared to the existing DF, the new GDF scheme shows a superior performance in the assimilation experiment due to its success in extracting the spatial multiscale information. The GDF can retrieve successfully the longwave information over the whole analysis domain and the shortwave information over data-dense regions. After that, a perfect twin data assimilation experiment framework is designed to study the effect of the GDF on the state estimation based on an intermediate coupled model. In this framework, the assimilation model is subject to “biased” initial fields from the “truth” model. While the GDF reduces the model bias in general, it can enhance the accuracy of the state estimation in the region that the observations are removed, especially in the South Ocean. In addition, the higher forecast skill can be obtained through the better initial state fields produced by the GDF.

  12. ENHANCED MODELING OF REMOTELY SENSED ANNUAL LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Satellite thermal remote sensing provides access to acquire large-scale Land surface temperature (LST data, but also generates missing and abnormal values resulting from non-clear-sky conditions. Given this limitation, Annual Temperature Cycle (ATC model was employed to reconstruct the continuous daily LST data over a year. The original model ATCO used harmonic functions, but the dramatic changes of the real LST caused by the weather changes remained unclear due to the smooth sine curve. Using Aqua/MODIS LST products, NDVI and meteorological data, we proposed enhanced model ATCE based on ATCO to describe the fluctuation and compared their performances for the Yangtze River Delta region of China. The results demonstrated that, the overall root mean square errors (RMSEs of the ATCE was lower than ATCO, and the improved accuracy of daytime was better than that of night, with the errors decreased by 0.64 K and 0.36 K, respectively. The improvements of accuracies varied with different land cover types: the forest, grassland and built-up areas improved larger than water. And the spatial heterogeneity was observed for performance of ATC model: the RMSEs of built-up area, forest and grassland were around 3.0 K in the daytime, while the water attained 2.27 K; at night, the accuracies of all types significantly increased to similar RMSEs level about 2 K. By comparing the differences between LSTs simulated by two models in different seasons, it was found that the differences were smaller in the spring and autumn, while larger in the summer and winter.

  13. Surface temperature measurements on superconducting cavities in superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouaidy, T.; Junquera, T.; Caruette, A.

    1991-01-01

    Two thermometry systems have been developed: a scanning thermometer system routinely used for the 1.5 GHz monocell cavity studies and a fixed thermometer array used to investigate spatial surface resistance distribution on various SC removable endplates of a cylindrical TE011mode cavity. Thermometers used in these systems are thermally insulated from the surrounding HeII bath by an epoxy housing ('epoxy'thermometers). Accurate calibration of the fixed thermometers was conducted by using different test cells and the experimental results were compared to model calculations performed with a finite element computational code. Measured thermometer efficiency and linearity are in good agreement with numerical results. Some typical temperature maps of different Nb samples obtained with the TE011 array (40 epoxy thermometers) are discussed. On the basis of numerical modelling results, a new type of thermometer with an improved efficiency has been designed. The thermal insulation against Helium II has been drastically improved by placing the sensitive part of the thermometer in a small vacuum jacket ('vacuum' thermometers). Two main goals have been reached with the first prototypes: improved efficiency by a factor of 2.5 - 3, and a bath temperature dependence of the thermal response in good agreement with the expected Kapitza conductance behaviour. Fitting experimental results with numerical modelling data, allow us to estimate the Kapitza conductance. The obtained values are in good agreement with the previous results reported by several authors using a different measurement method. The 'vacuum' thermometers are currently used on the TE011 mode cavity with Nb and NbTiN plates and the first results are presented

  14. The approximate determination of the critical temperature of a liquid by measuring surface tension versus the temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroto, J A; Nieves, F J de las; Quesada-Perez, M

    2004-01-01

    A classical experience in a physics student laboratory is to determine the surface tension of a liquid versus the temperature and to check the linear appearance of the obtained graph. In this work we show a simple method to estimate the critical temperature of three liquids by using experimental data of surface tension at different temperatures. By a logarithm fitting between surface tension and temperature, the critical temperature can be determined and compared with data from the literature. For two liquids (butanol and nitrobenzene) the comparison is acceptable but the differences are too high for the third liquid (water). By discussing the results it seems to be clear that the difference between the critical temperature of the liquid and the maximum temperature of the surface tension measurements is the determining factor in obtaining acceptable results. From this study it is possible to obtain more information on the liquid characteristics from surface tension measurements that are currently carried out in a student laboratory. Besides, in this paper it is shown how to select the most suitable liquids which provide both acceptable values for the critical temperature and measurements of the surface tension at moderate temperatures. The complementary use of numerical methods permits us to offer a complete experience for the students with a simple laboratory experiment which we recommend for physics students in advanced university courses

  15. Modeling seasonal surface temperature variations in secondary tropical dry forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Sen; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo

    2017-10-01

    Secondary tropical dry forests (TDFs) provide important ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, and nutrient cycle regulation. However, their biogeophysical processes at the canopy-atmosphere interface remain unknown, limiting our understanding of how this endangered ecosystem influences, and responds to the ongoing global warming. To facilitate future development of conservation policies, this study characterized the seasonal land surface temperature (LST) behavior of three successional stages (early, intermediate, and late) of a TDF, at the Santa Rosa National Park (SRNP), Costa Rica. A total of 38 Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) data and the Surface Reflectance (SR) product were utilized to model LST time series from July 2013 to July 2016 using a radiative transfer equation (RTE) algorithm. We further related the LST time series to seven vegetation indices which reflect different properties of TDFs, and soil moisture data obtained from a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Results showed that the LST in the dry season was 15-20 K higher than in the wet season at SRNP. We found that the early successional stages were about 6-8 K warmer than the intermediate successional stages and were 9-10 K warmer than the late successional stages in the middle of the dry season; meanwhile, a minimum LST difference (0-1 K) was observed at the end of the wet season. Leaf phenology and canopy architecture explained most LST variations in both dry and wet seasons. However, our analysis revealed that it is precipitation that ultimately determines the LST variations through both biogeochemical (leaf phenology) and biogeophysical processes (evapotranspiration) of the plants. Results of this study could help physiological modeling studies in secondary TDFs.

  16. Relative skills of soil moisture and vegetation optical depth retrievals for agricultural drought monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil moisture condition is an important indicator for agricultural drought monitoring. Through the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM), vegetation optical depth (VOD) as well as surface soil moisture (SM) can be retrieved simultaneously from brightness temperature observations from the Advanced Mi...

  17. Mapping Surface Heat Fluxes by Assimilating SMAP Soil Moisture and GOES Land Surface Temperature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Steele-Dunne, Susan C.; Farhadi, Leila; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-12-01

    Surface heat fluxes play a crucial role in the surface energy and water balance. In situ measurements are costly and difficult, and large-scale flux mapping is hindered by surface heterogeneity. Previous studies have demonstrated that surface heat fluxes can be estimated by assimilating land surface temperature (LST) and soil moisture to determine two key parameters: a neutral bulk heat transfer coefficient (CHN) and an evaporative fraction (EF). Here a methodology is proposed to estimate surface heat fluxes by assimilating Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) soil moisture data and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) LST data into a dual-source (DS) model using a hybrid particle assimilation strategy. SMAP soil moisture data are assimilated using a particle filter (PF), and GOES LST data are assimilated using an adaptive particle batch smoother (APBS) to account for the large gap in the spatial and temporal resolution. The methodology is implemented in an area in the U.S. Southern Great Plains. Assessment against in situ observations suggests that soil moisture and LST estimates are in better agreement with observations after assimilation. The RMSD for 30 min (daytime) flux estimates is reduced by 6.3% (8.7%) and 31.6% (37%) for H and LE on average. Comparison against a LST-only and a soil moisture-only assimilation case suggests that despite the coarse resolution, assimilating SMAP soil moisture data is not only beneficial but also crucial for successful and robust flux estimation, particularly when the uncertainties in the model estimates are large.

  18. Characterizing the Diurnal Cycle of Land Surface Temperature and Evapotranspiration at High Spatial Resolution Using Thermal Observations from sUAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, D.; Drewry, D.; Johnson, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    The surface temperature of plant canopies is an important indicator of the stomatal regulation of plant water use and the associated water flux from plants to atmosphere (evapotranspiration (ET)). Remotely sensed thermal observations using compact, low-cost, lightweight sensors from small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) have the potential to provide surface temperature (ST) and ET estimates at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolutions, allowing us to characterize the intra-field diurnal variations in canopy ST and ET for a variety of vegetation systems. However, major challenges exist for obtaining accurate surface temperature estimates from low-cost uncooled microbolometer-type sensors. Here we describe the development of calibration methods using thermal chamber experiments, taking into account the ambient optics and sensor temperatures, and applying simple models of spatial non-uniformity correction to the sensor focal-plane-array. We present a framework that can be used to derive accurate surface temperatures using radiometric observations from low-cost sensors, and demonstrate this framework using a sUAS-mounted sensor across a diverse set of calibration and vegetation targets. Further, we demonstrate the use of the Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC) model for computing spatially explicit, high spatial resolution ET estimates across several well-monitored agricultural systems, as driven by sUAS acquired surface temperatures. STIC provides a physically-based surface energy balance framework for the simultaneous retrieval of the surface and atmospheric vapor conductances and surface energy fluxes, by physically integrating radiometric surface temperature information into the Penman-Monteith equation. Results of our analysis over agricultural systems in Ames, IA and Davis, CA demonstrate the power of this approach for quantifying the intra-field spatial variability in the diurnal cycle of plant water use at sub-meter resolutions.

  19. The multifractal structure of satellite sea surface temperature maps can be used to obtain global maps of streamlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Turiel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Earth observation satellites provide information about many relevant variables of the ocean-climate system, such as temperature, moisture, aerosols, etc. However, to retrieve the velocity field, which is the most relevant dynamical variable, is still a technological challenge, specially in the case of oceans. New processing techniques, emerged from the theory of turbulent flows, have come to assist us in this task. In this paper, we show that multifractal techniques applied to new Sea Surface Temperature satellite products opens the way to build maps of ocean currents with unprecedented accuracy. With the application of singularity analysis, we show that global ocean circulation patterns can be retrieved in a daily basis. We compare these results with high-quality altimetry-derived geostrophic velocities, finding a quite good correspondence of the observed patterns both qualitatively and quantitatively; and this is done for the first time on a global basis, even for less active areas. The implications of this findings from the perspective both of theory and of operational applications are discussed.

  20. Temperature-dependent surface density of alkylthiol monolayers on gold nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuepeng; Lu, Pin; Zhai, Hua; Wu, Yucheng

    2018-03-01

    Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to study the surface density of passivating monolayers of alkylthiol chains on gold nanocrystals at temperatures ranging from 1 to 800 K. The results show that the surface density of alkylthiol monolayer reaches a maximum value at near room temperature (200-300 K), while significantly decreases with increasing temperature in the higher temperature region (> 300 {{K}}), and slightly decreases with decreasing temperature at low temperature (< 200 {{K}}). We find that the temperature dependence of surface ligand density in the higher temperature region is attributed to the substantial ligand desorption induced by the thermal fluctuation, while that at low temperature results from the reduction in entropy caused by the change in the ordering of passivating monolayer. These results are expected helpful to understand the temperature-dependent surface coverage of gold nanocrystals.

  1. Maximum surface level and temperature histories for Hanford waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, B.D.; Ha, N.D.; Huisingh, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive defense waste resulting from the chemical processing of spent nuclear fuel has been accumulating at the Hanford Site since 1944. This waste is stored in underground waste-storage tanks. The Hanford Site Tank Farm Facilities Interim Safety Basis (ISB) provides a ready reference to the safety envelope for applicable tank farm facilities and installations. During preparation of the ISB, tank structural integrity concerns were identified as a key element in defining the safety envelope. These concerns, along with several deficiencies in the technical bases associated with the structural integrity issues and the corresponding operational limits/controls specified for conduct of normal tank farm operations are documented in the ISB. Consequently, a plan was initiated to upgrade the safety envelope technical bases by conducting Accelerated Safety Analyses-Phase 1 (ASA-Phase 1) sensitivity studies and additional structural evaluations. The purpose of this report is to facilitate the ASA-Phase 1 studies and future analyses of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) and double-shell tanks (DSTs) by compiling a quantitative summary of some of the past operating conditions the tanks have experienced during their existence. This report documents the available summaries of recorded maximum surface levels and maximum waste temperatures and references other sources for more specific data

  2. Current Options for Measuring the Surface Temperature of Dairy Cattle in a Stable Technology: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Švejdová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Regular measurement of the body surface temperature can help to assess the health status of animals. There are many technological possibilities of contactless temperature measurement of body surface. The important thing is to find the right part of the body whose temperature will point to the first possible symptoms and immediately react to the first signs of the disease. Disagreements about how to measure body surface temperature and accuracy of the method can occur when different measures are used. We review work showing possibilities of contactless surface temperature measurements using 1 thermography, 2 electronic transponders and 3 other possibilities of measuring the body surface temperature of dairy cattle. For example, when we scan the surface temperature with the thermal imager there can operate in individual animals confounding factors such as the nature or degree of muscular coat, which may significantly affect the results.

  3. Quantifying Surface Energy Flux Estimation Uncertainty Using Land Surface Temperature Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, A. N.; Hunsaker, D.; Thorp, K.; Bronson, K. F.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing with thermal infrared is widely recognized as good way to estimate surface heat fluxes, map crop water use, and detect water-stressed vegetation. When combined with net radiation and soil heat flux data, observations of sensible heat fluxes derived from surface temperatures (LST) are indicative of instantaneous evapotranspiration (ET). There are, however, substantial reasons LST data may not provide the best way to estimate of ET. For example, it is well known that observations and models of LST, air temperature, or estimates of transport resistances may be so inaccurate that physically based model nevertheless yield non-meaningful results. Furthermore, using visible and near infrared remote sensing observations collected at the same time as LST often yield physically plausible results because they are constrained by less dynamic surface conditions such as green fractional cover. Although sensitivity studies exist that help identify likely sources of error and uncertainty, ET studies typically do not provide a way to assess the relative importance of modeling ET with and without LST inputs. To better quantify model benefits and degradations due to LST observational inaccuracies, a Bayesian uncertainty study was undertaken using data collected in remote sensing experiments at Maricopa, Arizona. Visible, near infrared and thermal infrared data were obtained from an airborne platform. The prior probability distribution of ET estimates were modeled using fractional cover, local weather data and a Penman-Monteith mode, while the likelihood of LST data was modeled from a two-source energy balance model. Thus the posterior probabilities of ET represented the value added by using LST data. Results from an ET study over cotton grown in 2014 and 2015 showed significantly reduced ET confidence intervals when LST data were incorporated.

  4. Effects of Surface BRDF on the OMI Cloud and NO2 Retrievals: A New Approach Based on Geometry-Dependent Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (GLER) Derived from MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilkov, Alexander; Qin, Wenhan; Krotkov, Nickolay; Lamsal, Lok; Spurr, Robert; Haffner, David; Joiner, Joanna; Yang, Eun-Su; Marchenko, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) cloud and NO2 algorithms use a monthly gridded surface reflectivity climatology that does not depend upon the observation geometry. In reality, reflection of incoming direct and diffuse solar light from land or ocean surfaces is sensitive to the sun sensor geometry. This dependence is described by the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). To account for the BRDF, we propose to use a new concept of geometry-dependent Lambertian equivalent reflectivity (GLER). Implementation within the existing OMI cloud and NO2 retrieval infrastructure requires changes only to the input surface reflectivity database. GLER is calculated using a vector radiative transfer model with high spatial resolution BRDF information from MODIS over land and the Cox Munk slope distribution over ocean with a contribution from water-leaving radiance. We compare GLER and climatological LER at 466 nm, which is used in the OMI O2-O2cloud algorithm to derive effective cloud fractions. A detailed comparison of the cloud fractions and pressures derived with climatological and GLERs is carried out. GLER and corresponding retrieved cloud products are then used as input to the OMI NO2 algorithm. We find that replacing the climatological OMI-based LERs with GLERs can increase NO2 vertical columns by up to 50 % in highly polluted areas; the differences include both BRDF effects and biases between the MODIS and OMI-based surface reflectance data sets. Only minor changes to NO2 columns (within 5 %) are found over unpolluted and overcast areas.

  5. Overstory removal and residue treatments affect soil surface, air, and soil temperature: implications for seedling survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Hungerford; Ronald E. Babbitt

    1987-01-01

    Potentially lethal ground surface temperatures were measured at three locations in the Northern Rocky Mountains but occurred more frequently under treatments with greater overstory removal. Observed maximum and minimum temperatures of exposed surfaces are directly related to the thermal properties of the surface materials. Survival of planted seedlings was consistent...

  6. Study of sea surface temperature distribution, in Angra dos Reis Nuclear Plant region - Mission Angra 01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, M.R.; Steffen, C.A.; Villagra, H.M.I.

    1982-03-01

    A study of spectral and temporal variations of sea surface temperature, using data obtained from level of satellite, aircraft and surface, with the purpose of evaluate and plot the small scale variations of sea surface temperature, due to thermal discharge from a nuclear the results of the first mission called Angra 1. (maps). (C.G.C.)

  7. Computation of the temperatures of a fluid flowing through a pipe from temperature measurements on the pipe's outer surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, G.

    1999-01-01

    A method for computing the temperatures of a fluid flowing through a pipe on the basis of temperatures recorded at the pipe's outer surface is presented. The heat conduction in the pipe wall is described by one-dimensional heat conduction elements. Heat transfer between fluid, pipe and surrounding is allowed for. The equation system resulting from the standard finite element discretization is reformulated to enable the computation of temperature events preceding the recorded temperature in time. It is shown that the method can be used to identify the actual fluid temperature from temperature data obtained only at the outer surface of the pipe. The temperatures in the pipe wall are computed with good accuracy even in the case of a severe thermal shock. (orig.) [de

  8. The Development of a Low-Cost, Near Infrared, High-Temperature Thermal Imaging System and Its Application to the Retrieval of Accurate Lava Lake Temperatures at Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Charles Wilkes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Near infrared thermal cameras can provide useful low-cost imaging systems for high temperature applications, as an alternative to ubiquitous mid-/long-wavelength infrared systems. Here, we present a new Raspberry Pi-based near infrared thermal camera for use at temperatures of ≈>500 °C. We discuss in detail the building of the optical system, calibration using a Sakuma-Hattori model and quantification of uncertainties in remote temperature retrievals. We then present results from the deployment of the system on Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua, where the active lava lake was imaged. Temperatures reached a maximum of 1104 ± 14 °C and the lake radiative power output was found to range between 30 and 45 MW. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published ground-based data on the thermal characteristics of this relatively nascent lava lake, which became visible in late 2015.

  9. Data-Model Comparison of Pliocene Sea Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, H. J.; Foley, K.; Robinson, M. M.; Bloemers, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    The mid-Piacenzian (late Pliocene) climate represents the most geologically recent interval of long-term average warmth and shares similarities with the climate projected for the end of the 21st century. As such, its fossil and sedimentary record represents a natural experiment from which we can gain insight into potential climate change impacts, enabling more informed policy decisions for mitigation and adaptation. We present the first systematic comparison of Pliocene sea surface temperatures (SST) between an ensemble of eight climate model simulations produced as part of PlioMIP (Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project) and the PRISM (Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping) Project mean annual SST field. Our results highlight key regional (mid- to high latitude North Atlantic and tropics) and dynamic (upwelling) situations where there is discord between reconstructed SST and the PlioMIP simulations. These differences can lead to improved strategies for both experimental design and temporal refinement of the palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. Scatter plot of multi-model-mean anomalies (squares) and PRISM3 data anomalies (large blue circles) by latitude. Vertical bars on data anomalies represent the variability of warm climate phase within the time-slab at each locality. Small colored circles represent individual model anomalies and show the spread of model estimates about the multi-model-mean. While not directly comparable in terms of the development of the means nor the meaning of variability, this plot provides a first order comparison of the anomalies. Encircled areas are a, PRISM low latitude sites outside of upwelling areas; b, North Atlantic coastal sequences and Mediterranean sites; c, large anomaly PRISM sites from the northern hemisphere. Numbers identify Ocean Drilling Program sites.

  10. Molecular dynamics simulation of temperature effects on low energy near-surface cascades and surface damage in Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guo; Sun, Jiangping; Guo, Xiongxiong; Zou, Xixi; Zhang, Libin; Gan, Zhiyin

    2017-06-01

    The temperature effects on near-surface cascades and surface damage in Cu(0 0 1) surface under 500 eV argon ion bombardment were studied using molecular dynamics (MD) method. In present MD model, substrate system was fully relaxed for 1 ns and a read-restart scheme was introduced to save total computation time. The temperature dependence of damage production was calculated. The evolution of near-surface cascades and spatial distribution of adatoms at varying temperature were analyzed and compared. It was found that near-surface vacancies increased with temperature, which was mainly due to the fact that more atoms initially located in top two layers became adatoms with the decrease of surface binding energy. Moreover, with the increase of temperature, displacement cascades altered from channeling-like structure to branching structure, and the length of collision sequence decreased gradually, because a larger portion of energy of primary knock-on atom (PKA) was scattered out of focused chain. Furthermore, increasing temperature reduced the anisotropy of distribution of adatoms, which can be ascribed to that regular registry of surface lattice atoms was changed with the increase of thermal vibration amplitude of surface atoms.

  11. Molecular dynamics simulation of temperature effects on low energy near-surface cascades and surface damage in Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Guo; Sun, Jiangping; Guo, Xiongxiong; Zou, Xixi; Zhang, Libin; Gan, Zhiyin, E-mail: ganzhiyin@126.com

    2017-06-15

    The temperature effects on near-surface cascades and surface damage in Cu(0 0 1) surface under 500 eV argon ion bombardment were studied using molecular dynamics (MD) method. In present MD model, substrate system was fully relaxed for 1 ns and a read-restart scheme was introduced to save total computation time. The temperature dependence of damage production was calculated. The evolution of near-surface cascades and spatial distribution of adatoms at varying temperature were analyzed and compared. It was found that near-surface vacancies increased with temperature, which was mainly due to the fact that more atoms initially located in top two layers became adatoms with the decrease of surface binding energy. Moreover, with the increase of temperature, displacement cascades altered from channeling-like structure to branching structure, and the length of collision sequence decreased gradually, because a larger portion of energy of primary knock-on atom (PKA) was scattered out of focused chain. Furthermore, increasing temperature reduced the anisotropy of distribution of adatoms, which can be ascribed to that regular registry of surface lattice atoms was changed with the increase of thermal vibration amplitude of surface atoms.

  12. Soil hydraulic parameters and surface soil moisture of a tilled bare soil plot inversely derived from l-band brightness temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Dimitrov, Marin

    2014-01-01

    We coupled a radiative transfer model and a soil hydrologic model (HYDRUS 1D) with an optimization routine to derive soil hydraulic parameters, surface roughness, and soil moisture of a tilled bare soil plot using measured brightness temperatures at 1.4 GHz (L-band), rainfall, and potential soil evaporation. The robustness of the approach was evaluated using five 28-d data sets representing different meteorological conditions. We considered two soil hydraulic property models: the unimodal Mualem-van Genuchten and the bimodal model of Durner. Microwave radiative transfer was modeled by three different approaches: the Fresnel equation with depth-averaged dielectric permittivity of either 2-or 5-cm-thick surface layers and a coherent radiative transfer model (CRTM) that accounts for vertical gradients in dielectric permittivity. Brightness temperatures simulated by the CRTM and the 2-cm-layer Fresnel model fitted well to the measured ones. L-band brightness temperatures are therefore related to the dielectric permittivity and soil moisture in a 2-cm-thick surface layer. The surface roughness parameter that was derived from brightness temperatures using inverse modeling was similar to direct estimates from laser profiler measurements. The laboratory-derived water retention curve was bimodal and could be retrieved consistently for the different periods from brightness temperatures using inverse modeling. A unimodal soil hydraulic property function underestimated the hydraulic conductivity near saturation. Surface soil moisture contents simulated using retrieved soil hydraulic parameters were compared with in situ measurements. Depth-specific calibration relations were essential to derive soil moisture from near-surface installed sensors. © Soil Science Society of America 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI 53711 USA.

  13. Coupled Retrieval of Aerosol Properties and Surface Reflection Using the Airborne Multi-angle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, F.; van Harten, G.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; Diner, D. J.; Seidel, F. C.; Garay, M. J.; Dubovik, O.

    2016-12-01

    The Airborne Multi-angle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) [1] has been flying aboard the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft since October 2010. In step-and-stare operation mode, AirMSPI acquires radiance and polarization data at 355, 380, 445, 470*, 555, 660*, 865*, and 935 nm (* denotes polarimetric bands). The imaged area covers about 10 km by 10 km and is observed from 9 view angles between ±67° off of nadir. We have developed an efficient and flexible code that uses the information content of AirMSPI data for a coupled retrieval of aerosol properties and surface reflection. The retrieval was built based on the multi-pixel optimization concept [2], with the use of a hybrid radiative transfer model [3] that combines the Markov Chain [4] and adding/doubling methods [5]. The convergence and robustness of our algorithm is ensured by applying constraints on (a) the spectral variation of the Bidirectional Polarization Distribution Function (BPDF) and angular shape of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF); (b) the spectral variation of aerosol optical properties; and (c) the spatial variation of aerosol parameters across neighboring image pixels. Our retrieval approach has been tested using over 20 AirMSPI datasets having low to moderately high aerosol loadings ( 0.02550-nmSpace Sci. Rev. 16, 527 (1974).

  14. Evaluating operational AVHRR sea surface temperature data at the coastline using surfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Robert J. W.; de Mora, Lee; Billson, Oliver; Jackson, Thomas; Russell, Paul; Brewin, Thomas G.; Shutler, Jamie D.; Miller, Peter I.; Taylor, Benjamin H.; Smyth, Tim J.; Fishwick, James R.

    2017-09-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) is an essential climate variable that can be measured routinely from Earth Observation (EO) with high temporal and spatial coverage. To evaluate its suitability for an application, it is critical to know the accuracy and precision (performance) of the EO SST data. This requires comparisons with co-located and concomitant in situ data. Owing to a relatively large network of in situ platforms there is a good understanding of the performance of EO SST data in the open ocean. However, at the coastline this performance is not well known, impeded by a lack of in situ data. Here, we used in situ SST measurements collected by a group of surfers over a three year period in the coastal waters of the UK and Ireland, to improve our understanding of the performance of EO SST data at the coastline. At two beaches near the city of Plymouth, UK, the in situ SST measurements collected by the surfers were compared with in situ SST collected from two autonomous buoys located ∼7 km and ∼33 km from the coastline, and showed good agreement, with discrepancies consistent with the spatial separation of the sites. The in situ SST measurements collected by the surfers around the coastline, and those collected offshore by the two autonomous buoys, were used to evaluate the performance of operational Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) EO SST data. Results indicate: (i) a significant reduction in the performance of AVHRR at retrieving SST at the coastline, with root mean square errors in the range of 1.0 to 2.0 °C depending on the temporal difference between match-ups, significantly higher than those at the two offshore stations (0.4 to 0.6 °C); (ii) a systematic negative bias in the AVHRR retrievals of approximately 1 °C at the coastline, not observed at the two offshore stations; and (iii) an increase in the root mean square error at the coastline when the temporal difference between match-ups exceeded three hours. Harnessing new solutions

  15. Annual to Inter-Decadal Variability in Surface Air Temperature Along ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    instrumental sea surface temperature (SST) and. East African rainfall ... accelerated rise in minimum temperatures. The objectives of the ... Altitude above sea level (m) Urban/Exposed. Tanga. 05.05°S ...... Environmental Report, South Florida.

  16. A quality-control procedure for surface temperature and surface layer inversion in the XBT data archive from the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Ghosh, A.K.; Pattanaik, J.; Ratnakaran, L.

    and surface layer temperature inversion. XBT surface temperatrues (XST) are compared with the surface temperature from simultaneous CTD observations from four cruises and the former were found to be erroneous in a number of stations. XSTs are usually corrected...

  17. Energy filtering transmission electron microscopy immunocytochemistry and antigen retrieval of surface layer proteins from Tannerella forsythensis using microwave or autoclave heating with citraconic anhydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Tannerella forsythensis (Bacteroides forsythus), an anaerobic Gram-negative species of bacteria that plays a role in the progression of periodontal disease, has a unique bacterial protein profile. It is characterized by two unique protein bands with molecular weights of more than 200 kDa. It also is known to have a typical surface layer (S-layer) consisting of regularly arrayed subunits outside the outer membrane. We examined the relationship between high molecular weight proteins and the S-layer using electron microscopic immunolabeling with chemical fixation and an antigen retrieval procedure consisting of heating in a microwave oven or autoclave with citraconic anhydride. Immunogold particles were localized clearly at the outermost cell surface. We also used energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) to visualize 3, 3′-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride (DAB) reaction products after microwave antigen retrieval with 1% citraconic anhydride. The three-window method for electron spectroscopic images (ESI) of nitrogen by the EFTEM reflected the presence of moieties demonstrated by the DAB reaction with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated secondary antibodies instead of immunogold particles. The mapping patterns of net nitrogen were restricted to the outermost cell surface. PMID:22984898

  18. Development of an Operational System for the Retrieval of Aerosol and Land Surface Properties from the Terra Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crean, Kathleen A.

    2003-01-01

    An operational system to retrieve atmospheric aerosol and land surface properties using data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument, currently flying onboard NASA's Terra spacecraft, has been deployed. The system is in full operation, with new data products generated daily and distributed to science users worldwide. This paper describes the evolution of the system, from initial requirements definition and prototyping through design, implementation, testing, operational deployment, checkout and maintenance activities. The current status of the system and future plans for enhancement are described. Major challenges encountered during implementation are detailed.

  19. Temporal and Spatial Variabilities of Japan Sea Surface Temperature and Atmospheric Forcings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Peter C; Chen, Yuchun; Lu, Shihua

    1998-01-01

    ...) and surface air temperature (SAT) data during 1982-1994 and the National Center for Atmospheric Research surface wind stress curl data during 1982-1989 to investigate the Japan Sea SST temporal and spatial variabilities...

  20. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal: Main characteristics and related mechanisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Suresh, I.; Gautham, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Lengaigne, M.; Rao, R.R.; Neetu, S.; Hegde, A.

    Surface layer temperature inversion (SLTI), a warm layer sandwiched between surface and subsurface colder waters, has been reported to frequently occur in conjunction with barrier layers in the Bay of Bengal (BoB), with potentially commensurable...

  1. REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF SEA-SURFACE-TEMPERATURE PATTERNS FOR THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SEA WATER, *SURFACE TEMPERATURE, *OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA, PACIFIC OCEAN, REGRESSION ANALYSIS , STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, UNDERWATER EQUIPMENT, DETECTION, UNDERWATER COMMUNICATIONS, DISTRIBUTION, THERMAL PROPERTIES, COMPUTERS.

  2. High-frequency fluctuations of surface temperatures in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Andreas; Meier, Fred; Scherer, Dieter

    2012-04-01

    This study presents an attempt to resolve fluctuations in surface temperatures at scales of a few seconds to several minutes using time-sequential thermography (TST) from a ground-based platform. A scheme is presented to decompose a TST dataset into fluctuating, high-frequency, and long-term mean parts. To demonstrate the scheme's application, a set of four TST runs (day/night, leaves-on/leaves-off) recorded from a 125-m-high platform above a complex urban environment in Berlin, Germany is used. Fluctuations in surface temperatures of different urban facets are measured and related to surface properties (material and form) and possible error sources. A number of relationships were found: (1) Surfaces with surface temperatures that were significantly different from air temperature experienced the highest fluctuations. (2) With increasing surface temperature above (below) air temperature, surface temperature fluctuations experienced a stronger negative (positive) skewness. (3) Surface materials with lower thermal admittance (lawns, leaves) showed higher fluctuations than surfaces with high thermal admittance (walls, roads). (4) Surface temperatures of emerged leaves fluctuate more compared to trees in a leaves-off situation. (5) In many cases, observed fluctuations were coherent across several neighboring pixels. The evidence from (1) to (5) suggests that atmospheric turbulence is a significant contributor to fluctuations. The study underlines the potential of using high-frequency thermal remote sensing in energy balance and turbulence studies at complex land-atmosphere interfaces.

  3. Soil surface temperatures reveal moderation of the urban heat island effect by trees and shrubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edmondson, Jill L; Stott, Iain; Davies, Zoe G

    2016-01-01

    months increased by 0.6 °C over the 5 km from the city outskirts to the centre. Trees and shrubs in non-domestic greenspace reduced mean maximum daily soil surface temperatures in the summer by 5.7 °C compared to herbaceous vegetation, but tended to maintain slightly higher temperatures in winter. Trees...... in domestic gardens, which tend to be smaller, were less effective at reducing summer soil surface temperatures. Our findings reveal that the UHI effects soil temperatures at a city-wide scale, and that in their moderating urban soil surface temperature extremes, trees and shrubs may help to reduce...

  4. Estimating the Ocean Flow Field from Combined Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Surface Height Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammer, Detlef; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This project was part of a previous grant at MIT that was moved over to the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) together with the principal investigator. The final report provided here is concerned only with the work performed at SIO since January 2000. The primary focus of this project was the study of the three-dimensional, absolute and time-evolving general circulation of the global ocean from a combined analysis of remotely sensed fields of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface height (SSH). The synthesis of those two fields was performed with other relevant physical data, and appropriate dynamical ocean models with emphasis on constraining ocean general circulation models by a combination of both SST and SSH data. The central goal of the project was to improve our understanding and modeling of the relationship between the SST and its variability to internal ocean dynamics, and the overlying atmosphere, and to explore the relative roles of air-sea fluxes and internal ocean dynamics in establishing anomalies in SST on annual and longer time scales. An understanding of those problems will feed into the general discussion on how SST anomalies vary with time and the extend to which they interact with the atmosphere.

  5. [The reaction of human surface and inside body temperature to extreme hypothermia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, O A; Onishchenko, V O; Liakh, Iu Ie

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of changes in the parameters of the surface and core body temperature under the systematic impact of ultra-low temperature is described in this article. As a source of ultra-low temperature was used (Cryo Therapy Chamber) Zimmer Medizin Systeme firm Zimmer Electromedizin (Germany) (-110 degrees C). Surface and internal body temperature was measured by infrared thermometer immediately before visiting cryochamber and immediately after exiting. In the study conducted 47,464 measurements of body temperature. It was established that the internal temperature of the human body under the influence of ultra-low temperatures in the proposed mode of exposure remains constant, and the surface temperature of the body reduces by an average of 11.57 degrees C. The time frame stabilization of adaptive processes of thermoregulation under the systematic impact of ultra-low temperature was defined in the study.

  6. Low temperature gaseous surface hardening of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present contribution gives an overview of some of the technological aspects of low temperature thermochemical treatment of stainless steel. Examples of low temperature gaseous nitriding, carburising and nitrocarburising of stainless steel are presented and discussed. In particular......, the morphology, microstructure and characteristics of so-called expanite “layers” on stainless steel are addressed....

  7. Surface electrostatic waves in bounded high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averkov, Yu.O.; Yakovenko, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    The dispersion relations of surface electrostatic waves propagating along the surface of semi bounded layered superconductor and in the slab of layered superconductor are theoretically investigated. An arbitrary inclination of superconductor layers to the interface of a vacuum - crystal and an arbitrary direction of propagation of surface waves in the plane of the interface are taking into account. The possibility of initiation of an absolute instability during the propagation of a non-relativistic plasma stream above the surface of the layered superconductor is shown

  8. Low Friction Surfaces for Low Temperature Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar and other extraterrestrial environments put extreme demands on moving mechanical components. Gears must continue to function and surfaces must continue to...

  9. Reintroducing radiometric surface temperature into the Penman-Monteith formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallick, Kaniska; Bøgh, Eva; Trebs, Ivonne

    2015-01-01

    ). It combines TR data with standard energy balance closure models for deriving a hybrid scheme that does not require parameterization of the surface (or stomatal) and aerodynamic conductances (gS and gB). STIC is formed by the simultaneous solution of four state equations and it uses TR as an additional data......E and H. The errors and uncertainties in both surface fluxes are comparable to the models that typically use land surface parameterizations for determining the unobserved components (gS and gB) of the surface energy balance models. However, the scheme is simpler, has the capabilities for generating...

  10. From Space to the Rocky Intertidal: Using NASA MODIS Sea Surface Temperature and NOAA Water Temperature to Predict Intertidal Logger Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R. P. Sutton

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of satellite-derived datasets has greatly facilitated large-scale ecological studies, as in situ observations are spatially sparse and expensive undertakings. We tested the efficacy of using satellite sea surface temperature (SST collected by NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and local water temperature collected from NOAA buoys and onshore stations to estimate submerged intertidal mussel logger temperatures. Daily SST and local water temperatures were compared to mussel logger temperatures at five study sites located along the Oregon coastline. We found that satellite-derived SSTs and local water temperatures were similarly correlated to the submerged mussel logger temperatures. This finding suggests that satellite-derived SSTs may be used in conjunction with local water temperatures to understand the temporal and spatial variation of mussel logger temperatures. While there are limitations to using satellite-derived temperature for ecological studies, including issues with temporal and spatial resolution, our results are promising.

  11. Antarctic Temperature Extremes from MODIS Land Surface Temperatures: New Processing Methods Reveal Data Quality Puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, G.; Gallaher, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    New methods for processing massive remotely sensed datasets are used to evaluate Antarctic land surface temperature (LST) extremes. Data from the MODIS/Terra sensor (Collection 6) provides a twice-daily look at Antarctic LSTs over a 17 year period, at a higher spatiotemporal resolution than past studies. Using a data condensation process that creates databases of anomalous values, our processes create statistical images of Antarctic LSTs. In general, the results find few significant trends in extremes; however, they do reveal a puzzling picture of inconsistent cloud detection and possible systemic errors, perhaps due to viewing geometry. Cloud discrimination shows a distinct jump in clear-sky detections starting in 2011, and LSTs around the South Pole exhibit a circular cooling pattern, which may also be related to cloud contamination. Possible root causes are discussed. Ongoing investigations seek to determine whether the results are a natural phenomenon or, as seems likely, the results of sensor degradation or processing artefacts. If the unusual LST patterns or cloud detection discontinuities are natural, they point to new, interesting processes on the Antarctic continent. If the data artefacts are artificial, MODIS LST users should be alerted to the potential issues.

  12. Effect of design factors on surface temperature and wear in disk brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, J. J.; Kennedy, F. E.; Ling, F. F.

    1976-01-01

    The temperatures, friction, wear and contact conditions that occur in high energy disk brakes are studied. Surface and near surface temperatures were monitored at various locations in a caliper disk brake during drag type testing, with friction coefficient and wear rates also being determined. The recorded transient temperature distributions in the friction pads and infrared photographs of the rotor disk surface both showed that contact at the friction surface was not uniform, with contact areas constantly shifting due to nonuniform thermal expansion and wear. The effect of external cooling and of design modifications on friction, wear and temperatures was also investigated. It was found that significant decreases in surface temperature and in wear rate can be achieved without a reduction in friction either by slotting the contacting face of the brake pad or by modifying the design of the pad support to improve pad compliance. Both design changes result in more uniform contact conditions on the friction surface.

  13. Climate change impact of livestock CH4 emission in India: Global temperature change potential (GTP) and surface temperature response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Shilpi; Hiloidhari, Moonmoon; Kumari, Nisha; Naik, S N; Dahiya, R P

    2018-01-01

    Two climate metrics, Global surface Temperature Change Potential (GTP) and the Absolute GTP (AGTP) are used for studying the global surface temperature impact of CH 4 emission from livestock in India. The impact on global surface temperature is estimated for 20 and 100 year time frames due to CH 4 emission. The results show that the CH 4 emission from livestock, worked out to 15.3 Tg in 2012. In terms of climate metrics GTP of livestock-related CH 4 emission in India in 2012 were 1030 Tg CO 2 e (GTP 20 ) and 62 Tg CO 2 e (GTP 100 ) at the 20 and 100 year time horizon, respectively. The study also illustrates that livestock-related CH 4 emissions in India can cause a surface temperature increase of up to 0.7mK and 0.036mK over the 20 and 100 year time periods, respectively. The surface temperature response to a year of Indian livestock emission peaks at 0.9mK in the year 2021 (9 years after the time of emission). The AGTP gives important information in terms of temperature change due to annual CH 4 emissions, which is useful when comparing policies that address multiple gases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation and High-temperature Anti-adhesion Behavior of a Slippery Surface on Stainless Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Huawei, Chen; Liu, Guang; Zhang, Liwen; Zhang, Deyuan

    2018-03-29

    Anti-adhesion surfaces with high-temperature resistance have a wide application potential in electrosurgical instruments, engines, and pipelines. A typical anti-wetting superhydrophobic surface easily fails when exposed to a high-temperature liquid. Recently, Nepenthes-inspired slippery surfaces demonstrated a new way to solve the adhesion problem. A lubricant layer on the slippery surface can act as a barrier between the repelled materials and the surface structure. However, the slippery surfaces in previous studies rarely showed high-temperature resistance. Here, we describe a protocol for the preparation of slippery surfaces with high-temperature resistance. A photolithography-assisted method was used to fabricate pillar structures on stainless steel. By functionalizing the surface with saline, a slippery surface was prepared by adding silicone oil. The prepared slippery surface maintained the anti-wetting property for water, even when the surface was heated to 300 °C. Also, the slippery surface exhibited great anti-adhesion effects on soft tissues at high temperatures. This type of slippery surface on stainless steel has applications in medical devices, mechanical equipment, etc.

  15. Inverse estimation for temperatures of outer surface and geometry of inner surface of furnace with two layer walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-K.; Su, C.-R.

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an inverse analysis to estimate the boundary thermal behavior of a furnace with two layer walls. The unknown temperature distribution of the outer surface and the geometry of the inner surface were estimated from the temperatures of a small number of measured points within the furnace wall. The present approach rearranged the matrix forms of the governing differential equations and then combined the reversed matrix method, the linear least squares error method and the concept of virtual area to determine the unknown boundary conditions of the furnace system. The dimensionless temperature data obtained from the direct problem were used to simulate the temperature measurements. The influence of temperature measurement errors upon the precision of the estimated results was also investigated. The advantage of this approach is that the unknown condition can be directly solved by only one calculation process without initially guessed temperatures, and the iteration process of the traditional method can be avoided in the analysis of the heat transfer. Therefore, the calculation in this work is more rapid and exact than the traditional method. The result showed that the estimation error of the geometry increased with increasing distance between measured points and inner surface and in preset error, and with decreasing number of measured points. However, the geometry of the furnace inner surface could be successfully estimated by only the temperatures of a small number of measured points within and near the outer surface under reasonable preset error

  16. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Reddy, G.V.; Araligidad, N.

    Hydrographic and XBT data archived in the Indian Oceanographic Data Centre (IODC) are used to understand the process of temperature inversions occurring in the Bay of Bengal. The following aspects of the inversions are addressed: i) annual...

  17. Time-Resolved Surface Temperature Measurement for Pulsed Ablative Thrusters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonsen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    .... The diagnostic draws on heritage from the experimental dynamic crack propagation community which has used photovoltaic infrared detectors to measure temperature rise in materials in the process of fracture...

  18. Improving the performance of temperature index snowmelt model of SWAT by using MODIS land surface temperature data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Onishi, Takeo; Hiramatsu, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Simulation results of the widely used temperature index snowmelt model are greatly influenced by input air temperature data. Spatially sparse air temperature data remain the main factor inducing uncertainties and errors in that model, which limits its applications. Thus, to solve this problem, we created new air temperature data using linear regression relationships that can be formulated based on MODIS land surface temperature data. The Soil Water Assessment Tool model, which includes an improved temperature index snowmelt module, was chosen to test the newly created data. By evaluating simulation performance for daily snowmelt in three test basins of the Amur River, performance of the newly created data was assessed. The coefficient of determination (R (2)) and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) were used for evaluation. The results indicate that MODIS land surface temperature data can be used as a new source for air temperature data creation. This will improve snow simulation using the temperature index model in an area with sparse air temperature observations.

  19. Measurement of surface temperature and emissivity by a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform infrared spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Morgenstjerne, Axel; Rathmann, Ole

    1996-01-01

    Surface temperatures are estimated with high precision based on a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform spectrometers. The method is based on Planck's radiation law and a nonlinear least-squares fitting algorithm applied to two or more spectra at different sample temperatures and a single...... of blackbody sources are estimated with an uncertainty of 0.2-2 K. The method is demonstrated for measuring the spectral emissivity of a brass specimen and an oxidized nickel specimen. (C) 1996 Optical Society of America...... measurement at a known sample temperature, for example, at ambient temperature. The temperature of the sample surface can be measured rather easily at ambient temperature. The spectrum at ambient temperature is used to eliminate background effects from spectra as measured at other surface temperatures...

  20. Temperature-Responsive Anisotropic Slippery Surface for Smart Control of the Droplet Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, By Lili; Heng, Liping; Jiang, Lei

    2018-02-28

    Development of stimulus-responsive anisotropic slippery surfaces is important because of the high demand for such materials in the field of liquid directional-driven systems. However, current studies in the field of slippery surfaces are mainly conducted to prepare isotropic slippery surfaces. Although we have developed electric-responsive anisotropic slippery surfaces that enable smart control of the droplet motion, there remain challenges for designing temperature-responsive anisotropic slippery surfaces to control the liquid droplet motion on the surface and in the tube. In this work, temperature-responsive anisotropic slippery surfaces have been prepared by using paraffin, a thermo-responsive phase-transition material, as a lubricating fluid and directional porous polystyrene (PS) films as the substrate. The smart regulation of the droplet motion of several liquids on this surface was accomplished by tuning the substrate temperature. The uniqueness of this surface lies in the use of an anisotropic structure and temperature-responsive lubricating fluids to achieve temperature-driven smart control of the anisotropic motion of the droplets. Furthermore, this surface was used to design temperature-driven anisotropic microreactors and to manipulate liquid transfer in tubes. This work advances the understanding of the principles underlying anisotropic slippery surfaces and provides a promising material for applications in the biochip and microreactor system.

  1. Temperature increases on the external root surface during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-25

    Feb 25, 2015 ... surface caused bone resorption and tooth ankyloses.[9] The .... thickness is important because it acts as a protective coating against thermal damage. .... heat stress proteins by human periodontal ligament cells. J Oral Pathol.

  2. Identifying anthropogenic anomalies in air, surface and groundwater temperatures in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Susanne A; Bayer, Peter; Blum, Philipp

    2017-04-15

    Human activity directly influences ambient air, surface and groundwater temperatures. The most prominent phenomenon is the urban heat island effect, which has been investigated particularly in large and densely populated cities. This study explores the anthropogenic impact on the thermal regime not only in selected urban areas, but on a countrywide scale for mean annual temperature datasets in Germany in three different compartments: measured surface air temperature, measured groundwater temperature, and satellite-derived land surface temperature. Taking nighttime lights as an indicator of rural areas, the anthropogenic heat intensity is introduced. It is applicable to each data set and provides the difference between measured local temperature and median rural background temperature. This concept is analogous to the well-established urban heat island intensity, but applicable to each measurement point or pixel of a large, even global, study area. For all three analyzed temperature datasets, anthropogenic heat intensity grows with increasing nighttime lights and declines with increasing vegetation, whereas population density has only minor effects. While surface anthropogenic heat intensity cannot be linked to specific land cover types in the studied resolution (1km×1km) and classification system, both air and groundwater show increased heat intensities for artificial surfaces. Overall, groundwater temperature appears most vulnerable to human activity, albeit the different compartments are partially influenced through unrelated processes; unlike land surface temperature and surface air temperature, groundwater temperatures are elevated in cultivated areas as well. At the surface of Germany, the highest anthropogenic heat intensity with 4.5K is found at an open-pit lignite mine near Jülich, followed by three large cities (Munich, Düsseldorf and Nuremberg) with annual mean anthropogenic heat intensities >4K. Overall, surface anthropogenic heat intensities >0K and

  3. Exploring Database Improvements for GPM Constellation Precipitation Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringerud, S.; Kidd, C.; Skofronick Jackson, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) offers an unprecedented opportunity for understanding and mapping of liquid and frozen precipitation on a global scale. GPM mission development of physically based retrieval algorithms, for application consistently across the constellation radiometers, relies on combined active-passive retrievals from the GPM core satellite as a transfer standard. Radiative transfer modeling is then utilized to compute a priori databases at the frequency and footprint geometry of each individual radiometer. The Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) performs constellation retrievals across the GPM databases in a Bayesian framework, constraining searches using model data on a pixel-by-pixel basis. This work explores how the retrieval might be enhanced with additional information available within the brightness temperature observations themselves. In order to better exploit available information content, model water vapor is replaced with retrieved water vapor. Rather than treating each footprint as a 1D profile alone in space, information regarding Tb variability in the horizontal is added as well as variability in the time dimension. This additional information is tested and evaluated for retrieval improvement in the context of the Bayesian retrieval scheme. Retrieval differences are presented as a function of precipitation and surface type for evaluation of where the added information proves most effective.

  4. Glacial-interglacial vegetation dynamics in South Eastern Africa coupled to sea surface temperature variations in the Western Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Dupont

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Glacial-interglacial fluctuations in the vegetation of South Africa might elucidate the climate system at the edge of the tropics between the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. However, vegetation records covering a full glacial cycle have only been published from the eastern South Atlantic. We present a pollen record of the marine core MD96-2048 retrieved by the Marion Dufresne from the Indian Ocean ∼120 km south of the Limpopo River mouth. The sedimentation at the site is slow and continuous. The upper 6 m (spanning the past 342 Ka have been analysed for pollen and spores at millennial resolution. The terrestrial pollen assemblages indicate that during interglacials, the vegetation of eastern South Africa and southern Mozambique largely consisted of evergreen and deciduous forests. During glacials open mountainous scrubland dominated. Montane forest with Podocarpus extended during humid periods was favoured by strong local insolation. Correlation with the sea surface temperature record of the same core indicates that the extension of mountainous scrubland primarily depends on sea surface temperatures of the Agulhas Current. Our record corroborates terrestrial evidence of the extension of open mountainous scrubland (including fynbos-like species of the high-altitude Grassland biome for the last glacial as well as for other glacial periods of the past 300 Ka.

  5. THE EFFECTS OF BUILT-UP AND GREEN AREAS ON THE LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE OF THE KUALA LUMPUR CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Isa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A common consequence of rapid and uncontrollable urbanization is Urban Heat Island (UHI. It occurs due to the negligence on climate behaviour which degrades the quality of urban climate condition. Recently, addressing urban climate in urban planning through mapping has received worldwide attention. Therefore, the need to identify the significant factors is a must. This study aims to analyse the relationships between Land Surface Temperature (LST and two urban parameters namely built-up and green areas. Geographical Information System (GIS and remote sensing techniques were used to prepare the necessary data layers required for this study. The built-up and the green areas were extracted from Landsat 8 satellite images either using the Normalized Difference Built-Up Index (NDBI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI or Modified Normalize Difference Water Index (MNDWI algorithms, while the mono-window algorithm was used to retrieve the Land Surface Temperature (LST. Correlation analysis and Multi-Linear Regression (MLR model were applied to quantitatively analyse the effects of the urban parameters. From the study, it was found that the two urban parameters have significant effects on the LST of Kuala Lumpur City. The built-up areas have greater influence on the LST as compared to the green areas. The built-up areas tend to increase the LST while green areas especially the densely vegetated areas help to reduce the LST within an urban areas. Future studies should focus on improving existing urban climatic model by including other urban parameters.

  6. Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Headlight Surface Temperature in an Infrared Heated Stress Relieving Oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa MUTLU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the IR heated stress relieve oven was experimentally and theoretically examined. In experimental measurements, temperature was measured on headlight surface, placed in IR oven at various conveyor speeds and various distances between IR lamps and headlight surface. In theoretical study, a mathematical model was developed for the headlights surface temperature by using heat transfer theory. The results obtained by the mathematical model and the measurement showed very good agreement with a 6.5 % average error. It is shown that mathematical models can be used to estimate the surface temperatures when the oven is operated under different conditions.

  7. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Arabian Sea during winter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Ghosh, A.K.

    picture of the actual inversion phenomena occurring in this area. Figure 1 illustrates the procedure adopted in finding the inversion stations. If the temperature difference (Del T) obtained from (T U –T L ) is greater than 0.2°C, then the station... is more or less consistent. Figure 3-A shows the frequency distribution of temperature difference of the inversion layer (Del T). Figure 3-B shows the frequency distribution of the thickness of the inversion layers in meters (Di). Del T is distributed over...

  8. Surface characterization of low-temperature grown yttrium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Mirosław; Lisowski, Wojciech; Pisarek, Marcin; Nikiforow, Kostiantyn; Jablonski, Aleksander

    2018-04-01

    The step-by-step growth of yttrium oxide layer was controlled in situ using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The O/Y atomic concentration (AC) ratio in the surface layer of finally oxidized Y substrate was found to be equal to 1.48. The as-grown yttrium oxide layers were then analyzed ex situ using combination of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), elastic-peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to characterize their surface chemical composition, electron transport phenomena and surface morphology. Prior to EPES measurements, the Y oxide surface was pre-sputtered by 3 kV argon ions, and the resulting AES-derived composition was found to be Y0.383O0.465C0.152 (O/Y AC ratio of 1.21). The SEM images revealed different surface morphology of sample before and after Ar sputtering. The oxide precipitates were observed on the top of un-sputtered Y oxide layer, whereas the oxide growth at the Ar ion-sputtered surface proceeded along defects lines normal to the layer plane. The inelastic mean free path (IMFP) characterizing electron transport was evaluated as a function of energy in the range of 0.5-2 keV from the EPES method. Two reference materials (Ni and Au) were used in these measurements. Experimental IMFPs determined for the Y0.383O0.465C0.152 and Y2O3 surface compositions, λ, were uncorrected for surface excitations and approximated by the simple function λ = kEp at electron energies E between 500 eV and 2000 eV, where k and p were fitted parameters. These values were also compared with IMFPs resulting from the TPP-2 M predictive equation for both oxide compositions. The fitted functions were found to be reasonably consistent with the measured and predicted IMFPs. In both cases, the average value of the mean percentage deviation from the fits varied between 5% and 37%. The IMFPs measured for Y0.383O0.465C0.152 surface composition were found to be similar to the IMFPs for Y2O3.

  9. EFFECTS OF PAVEMENT SURFACE TEMPERATURE ON THE MODIFICATION OF URBAN THERMAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARAT, Adebayo-Aminu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban centres continue to experience escalating average summer temperature over the last fifty years. Temperature in the urban core cites have been rising due to rapid growth of urbanization in the latter half of the twentieth century (Akbari et al., 1989. Outdoor experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of different movement of materials on the urban thermal environment. Meteorological conditions such as air temperature, pavement surface temperature, Relative humidity and wind velocity were recorded to determine temperature differences among Asphalt/concrete, interlocking bricks and grass surfaces.

  10. Determination of surface temperatures in combustion environments using thermographic phosphors; Wandtemperaturmessungen in Verbrennungsumgebungen mithilfe thermographischer Phosphore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruebach, J.; Kissel, T. [TU Darmstadt (Germany). FG Energie- und Kraftwerkstechnik; Dreizler, A. [TU Darmstadt (Germany). FG Reaktive Stroemungen und Messtechnik

    2009-07-01

    A phosphor thermometry system was characterised with regard to all sources of systematic errors. Exemplary, the point measurement of a surface temperature and the determination of wall-normal temperature gradients within an optically accessible combustion chamber are outlined. Furthermore, the temporal temperature characteristic at the quartz ring of an optically accessible engine is presented. (orig.)

  11. Design and evaluation of an inexpensive radiation shield for monitoring surface air temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary A. Holden; Anna E. Klene; Robert F. Keefe; Gretchen G. Moisen

    2013-01-01

    Inexpensive temperature sensors are widely used in agricultural and forestry research. This paper describes a low-cost (~3 USD) radiation shield (radshield) designed for monitoring surface air temperatures in harsh outdoor environments. We compared the performance of the radshield paired with low-cost temperature sensors at three sites in western Montana to several...

  12. Temperature processes at two sliding surfaces subjected to dry friction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk; Cibulka, Jan; Bula, Vítězslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 63, 5/6 (2012), s. 277-292 ISSN 0039-2472 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1166 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : dry friction * vibration damping * experimental set * increase of temperature * lost energy Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  13. Unravelling Diurnal Asymmetry of Surface Temperature in Different Climate Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnarasi, R; Dhanya, C T; Chakravorty, Aniket; AghaKouchak, Amir

    2017-08-04

    Understanding the evolution of Diurnal Temperature Range (DTR), which has contradicting global and regional trends, is crucial because it influences environmental and human health. Here, we analyse the regional evolution of DTR trend over different climatic zones in India using a non-stationary approach known as the Multidimensional Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (MEEMD) method, to explore the generalized influence of regional climate on DTR, if any. We report a 0.36 °C increase in overall mean of DTR till 1980, however, the rate has declined since then. Further, arid deserts and warm-temperate grasslands exhibit negative DTR trends, while the west coast and sub-tropical forest in the north-east show positive trends. This transition predominantly begins with a 0.5 °C increase from the west coast and spreads with an increase of 0.25 °C per decade. These changes are more pronounced during winter and post-monsoon, especially in the arid desert and warm-temperate grasslands, the DTR decreased up to 2 °C, where the rate of increase in minimum temperature is higher than the maximum temperature. We conclude that both maximum and minimum temperature increase in response to the global climate change, however, their rates of increase are highly local and depend on the underlying climatic zone.

  14. Surface Temperature Prediction of a Bridge for Tactical Decision Aide Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Roadway And Piling Surface Temperature Predictions (No Radiosity Incident on Lower Surface) Compared to Temperature Estimates...Heat gained from water = Heat lost by long wave radiosity radiation. Algebraically, with the conduction term expressed in the same manner as for...5 10 15 20 LOCAL TIME (hrs.) Figure 8. Effect of No Radiosity Incident on Lower Surface. 37 U 8a M OT U% 60-- 0- o.. 20- 0- 1 T I I 5 10 15 20 LOCAL

  15. Effects of high temperature surface oxides on room temperature aqueous corrosion and environmental embrittlement of iron aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, R.A.; Perrin, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effects of high-temperature surface oxides, produced during thermomechanical processing, heat treatment (750 {degrees}C in air, one hour) or simulated in-service-type oxidation (1000{degrees}C in air, 24 hours) on the room-temperature aqueous-corrosion and environmental-embrittlement characteristics of iron aluminides. Materials evaluated included the Fe{sub 3}Al-based iron aluminides, FA-84, FA-129, FAL and FAL-Mo, a FeAl-based iron aluminide, FA-385, and a disordered low-aluminum Fe-Al alloy, FAPY. Tests were performed in a mild acid-chloride solution to simulate aggressive atmospheric corrosion. Cyclic-anodic-polarization tests were employed to evaluate resistances to localized aqueous corrosion. The high-temperature oxide surfaces consistently produced detrimental results relative to mechanically or chemically cleaned surfaces. Specifically, the pitting corrosion resistances were much lower for the as-processed and 750{degrees} C surfaces, relative to the cleaned surfaces, for FA-84, FA-129, FAL-Mo, FA-385 and FAPY. Furthermore, the pitting corrosion resistances were much lower for the 1000{degrees}C surfaces, relative to cleaned surfaces, for FA-129, FAL and FAL-Mo.

  16. Preliminary study of the relationship between surface and bulk water temperatures at the Dresden cooling pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesely, M.L.; Hicks, B.B.; Hess, G.D.

    1975-01-01

    Successful application of bulk aerodynamic formulae to determine the vertical sensible and latent heat fluxes above a cooling lake requires accurate estimates of water surface temperature. Because of the heat loss at the surface and partial insulation by the poorly-mixed outer skin of water in contact with the air-water interface, the surface temperature is usually 0.1 to 2.0 C less than the temperature at a depth greater than 1 cm. For engineering applications requiring estimates of the total heat dissipation capacity of a particular cooling lake, the bulk temperature of the entire mixed layer of subsurface water is more important than the surface temperature. Therefore, in order to simulate the thermal performance of a cooling pond, both the surface temperature and the bulk temperature should be estimated. In the case of cooling ponds, the total heat transfer through the uppermost layer is extremely large and the water beneath the surface is strongly mixed by circulation currents within the pond. The purpose of this report is to describe the magnitude of the temperature difference across the surface skin at the Dresden nuclear power plant cooling pond and to relate this difference to variables used in modeling the thermal performance of cooling ponds

  17. Validation of AIRS V6 Surface Temperature over Greenland with GCN and NOAA Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae N.; Hearty, Thomas; Cullather, Richard; Nowicki, Sophie; Susskind, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This work compares the temporal and spatial characteristics of the AIRSAMSU (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A) Version 6 and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Collection 5 derived surface temperatures over Greenland. To estimate uncertainties in space-based surface temperature measurements, we re-projected the MODIS Ice Surface Temperature (IST) to 0.5 by 0.5 degree spatial resolution. We also re-gridded AIRS Skin Temperature (Ts) into the same grid but classified with different cloud conditions and surface types. These co-located data sets make intercomparison between the two instruments relatively straightforward. Using this approach, the spatial comparison between the monthly mean AIRS Ts and MODIS IST is in good agreement with RMS 2K for May 2012. This approach also allows the detection of any long-term calibration drift and the careful examination of calibration consistency in the MODIS and AIRS temperature data record. The temporal correlations between temperature data are also compared with those from in-situ measurements from GC-Net (GCN) and NOAA stations. The coherent time series of surface temperature evident in the correlation between AIRS Ts and GCN temperatures suggest that at monthly time scales both observations capture the same climate signal over Greenland. It is also suggested that AIRS surface air temperature (Ta) can be used to estimate the boundary layer inversion.