WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface temperature monitoring

  1. Design and evaluation of an inexpensive radiation shield for monitoring surface air temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary A. Holden; Anna E. Klene; Robert F. Keefe; Gretchen G. Moisen

    2013-01-01

    Inexpensive temperature sensors are widely used in agricultural and forestry research. This paper describes a low-cost (~3 USD) radiation shield (radshield) designed for monitoring surface air temperatures in harsh outdoor environments. We compared the performance of the radshield paired with low-cost temperature sensors at three sites in western Montana to several...

  2. Aquarius Reflector Surface Temperature Monitoring Test and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Jamie; Lee, Siu-Chun; Becker, Ray

    2008-01-01

    The presentation addresses how to infer the front side temperatures for the Aquarius L-band reflector based upon backside measurement sites. Slides discussing the mission objectives and design details are at the same level found on typical project outreach websites and in conference papers respectively. The test discussion provides modest detail of an ordinary thermal balance test using mockup hardware. The photographs show an off-Lab vacuum chamber facility with no compromising details.

  3. Monitoring sea level and sea surface temperature trends from ERS satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per; Beckley, B.

    2002-01-01

    Data from the two ESA satellites ERS-1 and ERS-2 are used in global and regional analysis of sea level and sea surface temperature trends over the last, 7.8 years. T he ERS satellites and in the future the ENVISAT satellite provide unique opportunity for monitoring both changes in sea level and sea...

  4. Radioactive surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Kei; Minagoshi, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Toru

    1994-01-01

    To reduce radiation exposure and prevent contamination from spreading, each nuclear power plant has established a radiation controlled area. People and articles out of the controlled area are checked for the surface contamination of radioactive materials with surface contamination monitors. Fuji Electric has repeatedly improved these monitors on the basis of user's needs. This paper outlines typical of a surface contamination monitor, a personal surface contamination monitor, an article surface contamination monitor and a laundry monitor, and the whole-body counter of an internal contamination monitor. (author)

  5. Maine River Temperature Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We collect seasonal and annual temperature measurements on an hourly or quarter hourly basis to monitor habitat suitability for ATS and other species. Temperature...

  6. AATSR - Precise Sea-Surface Temperature for Climate Monitoring and for Operational Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Jones, David; Corlett, Gary; Donlon, Craig; Stark, John

    The Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) is an imaging radiometer specifi- cally designed to measure Sea-Surface Temperature (SST) to the demanding levels of accuracy and stability required for climate research. AATSR, which has been operating continuously on ESA's Envisat Satellite since its launch in 2002, achieves the required levels of accuracy on account of its unique dual view, whereby each terrestrial scene is viewed twice, once at nadir and then through an inclined path which uses a different atmospheric path-length, thereby providing a direct observation of atmospheric effects, leading to an exceptionally accurate atmospheric correction. This feature is accompanied by an advanced calibration system combined with excellent optical and thermal designs. Recent rigorous and extensive comparisons with in situ data have shown that, for most of the global oceans, AATSR can achieve and accuracy of around 0.2o C with high stability, which has qualified them for use in climate analysis schemes. Because AATSR is the third sensor in a near-continuous series which started with the launch of ATSR-1 on ERS-1 satellite in 1991, there is a time-series of 16+ years of climate standard SSTs which have recently been re-processed and are now becoming available to the World-wide user community from data centres in Europe. SST data from AATSR have been included in the suite of operational SST products generated by the GODAE/GHRSST Pilot Project, on a timescale needed by operational users and in a format which allows easy ingestion and error estimates for data from AATSR and most of the other sensors currently providing SST measurements from space. Within the GODAE/GHRSST data-products, AATSR SST data are generally regarded as the benchmark for accuracy and are used to provide bias corrections for data from the other sensors, which often have superior coverage, thus exploiting synergistically the complementary qualities if the different data-sets. The UK Met Office

  7. Assessment of NDVI, land surface temperature and precipitation anomalies for drought monitoring in Bayankhongor province, Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    Guerreiro, Joana Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade Mongolia’s region was characterized by a rapid increase of both severity and frequency of drought events, leading to pasture reduction. Drought monitoring and assessment plays an important role in the region’s early warning systems as a way to mitigate the negative impacts in social, economic and environmental sectors. Nowadays it is possible to access information related to the hydrologic cycle through remote sensing, which provides a continuous monitoring of variables...

  8. Frost Monitoring and Forecasting Using MODIS Land Surface Temperature Data and a Numerical Weather Prediction Model Forecasts for Eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuchanga, Eric; Flores, Africa; Malaso, Susan; Mungai, John; Sakwa, Vincent; Shaka, Ayub; Limaye, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Frost is a major challenge across Eastern Africa, severely impacting agricultural farms. Frost damages have wide ranging economic implications on tea and coffee farms, which represent a major economic sector. Early monitoring and forecasting will enable farmers to take preventive actions to minimize the losses. Although clearly important, timely information on when to protect crops from freezing is relatively limited. MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data, derived from NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, and 72-hr weather forecasts from the Kenya Meteorological Service's operational Weather Research Forecast model are enabling the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) and the Tea Research Foundation of Kenya to provide timely information to farmers in the region. This presentation will highlight an ongoing collaboration among the Kenya Meteorological Service, RCMRD, and the Tea Research Foundation of Kenya to identify frost events and provide farmers with potential frost forecasts in Eastern Africa.

  9. Monitoring and trend mapping of sea surface temperature (SST) from MODIS data: a case study of Mumbai coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Samee; Agarwadkar, Yogesh; Bhattacharya, Mohor; Apte, Mugdha; Inamdar, Arun B

    2015-04-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) is one of the most important parameters in monitoring ecosystem health in the marine and coastal environment. Coastal ecosystem is largely dependent on ambient temperature and temperature fronts for marine/coastal habitat and its sustainability. Hence, thermal pollution is seen as a severe threat for ecological health of coastal waters across the world. Mumbai is one of the largest metropolises of the world and faces severe domestic and industrial effluent disposal problem, of which thermal pollution is a major issue with policy-makers and environmental stakeholders. This study attempts to understand the long-term SST variation in the coastal waters off Mumbai, on the western coast of India, and to identify thermal pollution zones. Analysis of SST trends in the near-coastal waters for the pre- and post-monsoon seasons from the year 2004 to the year 2010 has been carried out using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) Thermal Infra-red (TIR) bands. SST is calculated with the help of bands 31 and 32 using split window method. Several statistical operations were then applied to find the seasonal averages in SST and the standard deviation of SST in the study area. Maximum variation in SST was found within a perpendicular distance of 5 km from the shoreline during the study period. Also, a warm water mass was found to form consistently off coast during the winter months. Several anthropogenic sources of thermal pollution could be identified which were found to impact various locations along the coast.

  10. Monitoring changes in body surface temperature associated with treadmill exercise in dogs by use of infrared methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Maria; Arfuso, Francesca; Alberghina, Daniela; Giudice, Elisabetta; Gianesella, Matteo; Piccione, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of moderate treadmill exercise session on body surface and core temperature in dog measured by means of two infrared instruments. Ten Jack Russell Terrier/Miniature Pinscher mixed-breed dogs were subjected to 15min of walking, 10min of trotting and 10min of gallop. At every step, body surface temperature (T surface ) was measured on seven regions (neck, shoulder, ribs, flank, back, internal thigh and eye) using two different methods, a digital infrared camera (ThermaCam P25) and a non-contact infrared thermometer (Infrared Thermometer THM010-VT001). Rectal temperature (T rectal ) and blood samples were collected before (T0) and after exercise (T3). Blood samples were tested for red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct). A significant effect of exercise in all body surface regions was found, as measured by both infrared methods. The temperature obtained in the eye and the thigh area were higher with respect to the other studied regions throughout the experimental period (Ptemperature values measured by infrared thermometer was found in neck, shoulder, ribs, flank, back regions respect to the values obtained by digital infrared camera (Ptemperatures are influenced by physical exercise probably due to muscle activity and changes in blood flow in dogs. Both infrared instruments used in this study have proven to be useful in detecting surface temperature variations of specific body regions, however factors including type and color of animal hair coat must be taken into account in the interpretation of data obtained by thermography methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Surface Temperature Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Ruedy, Reto

    2012-01-01

    Small global mean temperature changes may have significant to disastrous consequences for the Earth's climate if they persist for an extended period. Obtaining global means from local weather reports is hampered by the uneven spatial distribution of the reliably reporting weather stations. Methods had to be developed that minimize as far as possible the impact of that situation. This software is a method of combining temperature data of individual stations to obtain a global mean trend, overcoming/estimating the uncertainty introduced by the spatial and temporal gaps in the available data. Useful estimates were obtained by the introduction of a special grid, subdividing the Earth's surface into 8,000 equal-area boxes, using the existing data to create virtual stations at the center of each of these boxes, and combining temperature anomalies (after assessing the radius of high correlation) rather than temperatures.

  12. Use of Landsat Land Surface Temperature and Vegetation Indices for Monitoring Drought in the Salt Lake Basin Area, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Orhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to investigate multitemporal land surface temperature (LST changes by using satellite remote sensing data. The study included a real-time field work performed during the overpass of Landsat-5 satellite on 21/08/2011 over Salt Lake, Turkey. Normalized vegetation index (NDVI, vegetation condition index (VCI, and temperature vegetation index (TVX were used for evaluating drought impact over the region between 1984 and 2011. In the image processing step, geometric and radiometric correction procedures were conducted to make satellite remote sensing data comparable with in situ measurements carried out using thermal infrared thermometer supported by hand-held GPS. The results showed that real-time ground and satellite remote sensing data were in good agreement with correlation coefficient (R2 values of 0.90. The remotely sensed and treated satellite images and resulting thematic indices maps showed that dramatic land surface temperature changes occurred (about 2∘C in the Salt Lake Basin area during the 28-year period (1984–2011. Analysis of air temperature data also showed increases at a rate of 1.5–2∘C during the same period. Intensification of irrigated agriculture particularly in the southern basin was also detected. The use of water supplies, especially groundwater, should be controlled considering particularly summer drought impacts on the basin.

  13. Temperature monitoring device and thermocouple assembly therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Noel P.; Bauer, Frank I.; Bengel, Thomas G.; Kothmann, Richard E.; Mavretish, Robert S.; Miller, Phillip E.; Nath, Raymond J.; Salton, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    A temperature monitoring device for measuring the temperature at a surface of a body, composed of: at least one first thermocouple and a second thermocouple; support members supporting the thermocouples for placing the first thermocouple in contact with the body surface and for maintaining the second thermocouple at a defined spacing from the body surface; and a calculating circuit connected to the thermocouples for receiving individual signals each representative of the temperature reading produced by a respective one of the first and second thermocouples and for producing a corrected temperature signal having a value which represents the temperature of the body surface and is a function of the difference between the temperature reading produced by the first thermocouple and a selected fraction of the temperature reading provided by the second thermocouple.

  14. ITS Temperature Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Savin, A E; CERN. Geneva; Gerasimov, S F

    1999-01-01

    The results of the R&D done under the ISTC#345 grant are presented for consideration for possible future application. The choice of the temperature sensors is described. Thin-film miniature Pt-sensors were produced and the results of the metrological studies of the manufactured samples are presented. The multi-channel temperature data readout system prototype and results of long-term stability tests are discussed. List of figures: Figure 1 Thin film Pt-thermometer topology Figure 2 Studies of long-term stability of Pt-thermometers Figure 3 DT structural scheme Figures 4 & 5 Output data ADC read operation, Control register ADC write operation

  15. An automated processing chains for surface temperature monitoring on Earth's most active volcanoes by optical data from multiple satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Malvina; Musacchio, Massimo; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria

    2017-04-01

    The Geohazards Exploitation Platform, or GEP is one of six Thematic Exploitation Platforms developed by ESA to serve data user communities. As a new element of the ground segment delivering satellite results to users, these cloud-based platforms provide an online environment to access information, processing tools, computing resources for community collaboration. The aim is to enable the easy extraction of valuable knowledge from vast quantities of satellite-sensed data now being produced by Europe's Copernicus programme and other Earth observation satellites. In this context, the estimation of surface temperature on active volcanoes around the world is considered. E2E processing chains have been developed for different satellite data (ASTER, Landsat8 and Sentinel 3 missions) using thermal infrared (TIR) channels by applying specific algorithms. These chains have been implemented on the GEP platform enabling the use of EO missions and the generation of added value product such as surface temperature map, from not skilled users. This solution will enhance the use of satellite data and improve the dissemination of the results saving valuable time (no manual browsing, downloading or processing is needed) and producing time series data that can be speedily extracted from a single co-registered pixel, to highlight gradual trends within a narrow area. Moreover, thanks to the high-resolution optical imagery of Sentinel 2 (MSI), the detection of lava maps during an eruption can be automatically obtained. The proposed lava detection method is based on a contextual algorithm applied to Sentinel-2 NIR (band 8 - 0.8 micron) and SWIR (band 12 - 2.25 micron) data. Examples derived by last eruptions on active volcanoes are showed.

  16. High temperature water chemistry monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, P.

    1992-01-01

    Almost all corrosion phenomena in nuclear power plants can be prevented or at least damped by water chemistry control or by the change of water chemistry control or by the change of water chemistry. Successful water chemistry control needs regular and continuous monitoring of such water chemistry parameters like dissolved oxygen content, pH, conductivity and impurity contents. Conventionally the monitoring is carried out at low pressures and temperatures, which method, however, has some shortcomings. Recently electrodes have been developed which enables the direct monitoring at operating pressures and temperatures. (author). 2 refs, 5 figs

  17. Bridge deck surface temperature monitoring by infrared thermography and inner structure identification using PPT and PCT analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Jean

    2013-04-01

    One of the objectives of ISTIMES project was to evaluate the potentialities offered by the integration of different electromagnetic techniques able to perform non-invasive diagnostics for surveillance and monitoring of transport infrastructures. Among the EM methods investigated, we focused our research and development efforts on uncooled infrared camera techniques due to their promising potential level of dissemination linked to their relative low cost on the market. On the other hand, works were also carried out to identify well adapted implementation protocols and key limits of Pulse Phase Thermography (PPT) and Principal Component Thermography (PCT) processing methods to analyse thermal image sequence and retrieve information about the inner structure. So the first part of this research works addresses infrared thermography measurement when it is used in quantitative mode (not in laboratory conditions) and not in qualitative mode (vision applied to survey). In such context, it requires to process in real time thermal radiative corrections on raw data acquired to take into account influences of natural environment evolution with time, thanks to additional measurements. But, camera sensor has to be enough smart to apply in real time calibration law and radiometric corrections in a varying atmosphere. So, a complete measurement system was studied and developed [1] with low cost infrared cameras available on the market. In the system developed, infrared camera is coupled with other sensors to feed simplified radiative models running, in real time, on GPU available on small PC. The whole measurement system was implemented on the "Musmeci" bridge located in Potenza (Italy). No traffic interruption was required during the mounting of our measurement system. The infrared camera was fixed on top of a mast at 6 m elevation from the surface of the bridge deck. A small weather station was added on the same mast at 1 m under the camera. A GPS antenna was also fixed at the

  18. Global Monitoring RSEM System for Crop Production by Incorporating Satellite-based Photosynthesis Rates and Anomaly Data of Sea Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, D.; Sakuma, H.

    2014-12-01

    The first author has been developing RSEM crop-monitoring system using satellite-based assessment of photosynthesis, incorporating meteorological conditions. Crop production comprises of several stages and plural mechanisms based on leaf photosynthesis, surface energy balance, and the maturing of grains after fixation of CO2, along with water exchange through soil vegetation-atmosphere transfer. Grain production in prime countries appears to be randomly perturbed regionally and globally. Weather for crop plants reflects turbulent phenomena of convective and advection flows in atmosphere and surface boundary layer. It has been difficult for scientists to simulate and forecast weather correctly for sufficiently long terms to crop harvesting. However, severely poor harvests related to continental events must originate from a consistent mechanism of abnormal energetic flow in the atmosphere through both land and oceans. It should be remembered that oceans have more than 100 times of energy storage compared to atmosphere and ocean currents represent gigantic energy flows, strongly affecting climate. Anomalies of Sea Surface Temperature (SST), globally known as El Niño, Indian Ocean dipole, and Atlantic Niño etc., affect the seasonal climate on a continental scale. The authors aim to combine monitoring and seasonal forecasting, considering such mechanisms through land-ocean biosphere transfer. The present system produces assessments for all continents, specifically monitoring agricultural fields of main crops. Historical regions of poor and good harvests are compared with distributions of SST anomalies, which are provided by NASA GSFC. Those comparisons fairly suggest that the Worst harvest in 1993 and the Best in 1994 relate to the offshore distribution of low temperature anomalies and high gaps in ocean surface temperatures. However, high-temperature anomalies supported good harvests because of sufficient solar radiation for photosynthesis, and poor harvests because

  19. GISS Surface Temperature Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GISTEMP dataset is a global 2x2 gridded temperature anomaly dataset. Temperature data is updated around the middle of every month using current data files from...

  20. Energy Doubler cryoloop temperature monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucci, G.; Howard, D.

    1981-10-01

    The Cryoloop Temperature Monitor System is a fully electronic system designed to monitor temperature at key points in the Energy Doubler cryoloop system. It is used for cryoloop diagnostics, temperature studies, and cooldown valve control

  1. COBE Sea Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The COBE-SST is a gridded 1x1 resolution SST monitoring dataset. It is used as input for the JMA Climate Data Assimilation System (JCDAS) and the Japanese 25-year...

  2. Surface temperature monitoring by integrating satellite data and ground thermal camera network on Solfatara Crater in Campi Flegrei volcanic area (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buongiorno, M. F.; Musacchio, M.; Silvestri, M.; Vilardo, G.; Sansivero, F.; caPUTO, T.; bellucci Sessa, E.; Pieri, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    Current satellite missions providing imagery in the TIR region at high spatial resolution offer the possibility to estimate the surface temperature in volcanic area contributing in understanding the ongoing phenomena to mitigate the volcanic risk when population are exposed. The Campi Flegrei volcanic area (Italy) is part of the Napolitan volcanic district and its monitored by INGV ground networks including thermal cameras. TIRS on LANDSAT and ASTER on NASA-TERRA provide thermal IR channels to monitor the evolution of the surface temperatures on Campi Flegrei area. The spatial resolution of the TIR data is 100 m for LANDSAT8 and 90 m for ASTER, temporal resolution is 16 days for both satellites. TIRNet network has been developed by INGV for long-term volcanic surveillance of the Flegrei Fields through the acquisition of thermal infrared images. The system is currently comprised of 5 permanent stations equipped with FLIR A645SC thermo cameras with a 640x480 resolution IR sensor. To improve the systematic use of satellite data in the monitor procedures of Volcanic Observatories a suitable integration and validation strategy is needed, also considering that current satellite missions do not provide TIR data with optimal characteristics to observe small thermal anomalies that may indicate changes in the volcanic activity. The presented procedure has been applied to the analysis of Solfatara Crater and is based on 2 different steps: 1) parallel processing chains to produce ground temperature data both from satellite and ground cameras; 2) data integration and comparison. The ground cameras images generally correspond to views of portion of the crater slopes characterized by significant thermal anomalies due to fumarole fields. In order to compare the satellite and ground cameras it has been necessary to take into account the observation geometries. All thermal images of the TIRNet have been georeferenced to the UTM WGS84 system, a regular grid of 30x30 meters has been

  3. Temperature dependence of surface nanobubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkelaar, R.P.; Seddon, James Richard Thorley; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Lohse, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    The temperature dependence of nanobubbles was investigated experimentally using atomic force microscopy. By scanning the same area of the surface at temperatures from 51 °C to 25 °C it was possible to track geometrical changes of individual nanobubbles as the temperature was decreased.

  4. ISLSCP II Sea Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sea surface temperature (SST) is an important indicator of the state of the earth climate system as well as a key variable in the coupling between the atmosphere and...

  5. Use of Land Surface Temperature Observations in a Two-Source Energy Balance Model Towards Improved Monitoring of Evapotranspiration and Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, C.; Anderson, M. C.; Otkin, J.; Semmens, K. A.; Zhan, X.; Fang, L.; Li, Z.

    2014-12-01

    As the world's water resources come under increasing tension due to the dual stressors of climate change and population growth, accurate knowledge of water consumption through evapotranspiration (ET) over a range in spatial scales will be critical in developing adaptation strategies. However, direct validation of ET models is challenging due to lack of available observations that are sufficiently representative at the model grid scale (10-100 km). Prognostic land-surface models require accurate information about observed precipitation, soil moisture storage, groundwater, and artificial controls on water supply (e.g., irrigation, dams, etc.) to reliably link rainfall to evaporative fluxes. In contrast, diagnostic estimates of ET can be generated, with no prior knowledge of the surface moisture state, by energy balance models using thermal-infrared remote sensing of land-surface temperature (LST) as a boundary condition. One such method, the Atmosphere Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model provides estimates of surface energy fluxes through the use of mid-morning change in LST and radiation inputs. The LST inputs carry valuable proxy information regarding soil moisture and its effect on soil evaporation and canopy transpiration. Additionally, the Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) representing anomalies in the ratio of actual-to-potential ET has shown to be a reliable indicator of drought. ESI maps over the continental US show good correspondence with standard drought metrics and with patterns of precipitation, but can be generated at significantly higher spatial resolution due to a limited reliance on ground observations. Furthermore, ESI is a measure of actual stress rather than potential for stress, and has physical relevance to projected crop development. Because precipitation is not used in construction of the ESI, it provides an independent assessment of drought conditions and has particular utility for real-time monitoring in regions with sparse rainfall data or

  6. Extreme Maximum Land Surface Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1992-09-01

    There are numerous reports in the literature of observations of land surface temperatures. Some of these, almost all made in situ, reveal maximum values in the 50°-70°C range, with a few, made in desert regions, near 80°C. Consideration of a simplified form of the surface energy balance equation, utilizing likely upper values of absorbed shortwave flux (1000 W m2) and screen air temperature (55°C), that surface temperatures in the vicinity of 90°-100°C may occur for dry, darkish soils of low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.2 W m1 K1). Numerical simulations confirm this and suggest that temperature gradients in the first few centimeters of soil may reach 0.5°-1°C mm1 under these extreme conditions. The study bears upon the intrinsic interest of identifying extreme maximum temperatures and yields interesting information regarding the comfort zone of animals (including man).

  7. Determination of irradiation temperature using SiC temperature monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Tadashi; Onose, Shoji

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a method for detecting the change in length of SiC temperature monitors and a discussion is made on the relationship between irradiation temperature and the recovery in length of SiC temperature monitors. The SiC specimens were irradiated in the experimental fast reactor JOYO' at the irradiation temperatures around 417 to 645degC (design temperature). The change in length of irradiated specimens was detected using a dilatometer with SiO 2 glass push rod in an infrared image furnace. The temperature at which recovery in macroscopic length begins was obtained from the annealing intersection temperature. The results of measurements indicated that a difference between annealing intersection temperature and the design temperature sometimes reached well over ±100degC. A calibration method to obtain accurate irradiation temperature was presented and compared with the design temperature. (author)

  8. Estimation of bare soil surface temperature from air temperature and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil surface temperature has critical influence on climate, agricultural and hydrological activities since it serves as a good indicator of the energy budget of the earth's surface. Two empirical models for estimating soil surface temperature from air temperature and soil depth temperature were developed. The coefficient of ...

  9. Temperature monitoring of gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    The present paper deals with questions like : a) Why temperature monitoring in high-temperature reactors at all. b) How are the measuring positions arranged and how are the measurements designed. c) What technique of temperature measurement is applied. (RW) [de

  10. Evaluation of Surface Fatigue Strength Based on Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gang; Nakanishi, Tsutomu

    Surface temperature is considered to be an integrated index that is dependent on not only the load and the dimensions at the contact point but also the sliding velocity, rolling velocity, surface roughness, and lubrication conditions. Therefore, the surface durability of rollers and gears can be evaluated more exactly and simply by the use of surface temperature rather than Hertzian stress. In this research, surface temperatures of rollers under different rolling and sliding conditions are measured using a thermocouple. The effects of load P, mean velocity Vm and sliding velocity Vs on surface temperature are clarified. An experimental formula, which expresses the linear relationship between surface temperature and the P0.86Vs1.31Vm-0.83 value, is used to determine surface temperature. By comparing calculated and measured temperature on the tooth surface of a gear, this formula is confirmed to be applicable for gear tooth surface temperature calculation.

  11. Clean Air Markets - Monitoring Surface Water Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about how EPA uses Long Term Monitoring (LTM) and Temporily Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) to track the effect of the Clean Air Act Amendments on acidity of surface waters in the eastern U.S.

  12. Monitoring the turbidity and surface temperature changes and effects of the 17 August 1999 earthquake in the Izmit Gulf, Turkey by the Landsat TM/ETM data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüfekçi, Kenan; Akman, A Unal

    2005-09-01

    The temporal turbidity and surface temperature changes and effects of the 17 August 1999 earthquake in the Izmit Gulf, Turkey have been investigated using Landsat TM/ETM data. The gulf is in the Mediterranean-Black Sea transition climatic zone and is partially surrounded by green vegetation cover and degraded and densely urbanized-industrialized areas. Landsat TM/ETM data acquired in 1990-1999 confirms increase in turbidity. Turbidity is always low in the southern part and high in the northern part of the gulf, because the more urbanized and industrialized areas are located in the northern part. The Landsat-7 ETM data acquired in the same year (1999) shows seasonal changes in turbidity. Moreover, the two high turbidity and surface temperature anomalies, one of which is parallel to the 17 August 1999 earthquake surface rupture (east-west) and the other which is in the northwest-southeast direction were mapped from Landsat-5 TM data acquired the day (18.08.1999) following the earthquake in the east end of the gulf. On the basis of turbidity implying the sea bottom movement, it is possible to state that a second rupture in the northwest and southeast direction could have occurred at the sea bottom during the earthquake. The distribution of the seismicity centers and the orientation of the lineaments in the area support this finding.

  13. The international surface temperature initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, P. W.; Lawrimore, J. H.; Willett, K. M.; Allan, R.; Chandler, R. E.; Mhanda, A.; de Podesta, M.; Possolo, A.; Revadekar, J.; Rusticucci, M.; Stott, P. A.; Strouse, G. F.; Trewin, B.; Wang, X. L.; Yatagai, A.; Merchant, C.; Merlone, A.; Peterson, T. C.; Scott, E. M.

    2013-09-01

    The aim of International Surface Temperature Initiative is to create an end-to-end process for analysis of air temperature data taken over the land surface of the Earth. The foundation of any analysis is the source data. Land surface air temperature records have traditionally been stored in local, organizational, national and international holdings, some of which have been available digitally but many of which are available solely on paper or as imaged files. Further, economic and geopolitical realities have often precluded open sharing of these data. The necessary first step therefore is to collate readily available holdings and augment these over time either through gaining access to previously unavailable digital data or through data rescue and digitization activities. Next, it must be recognized that these historical measurements were made primarily in support of real-time weather applications where timeliness and coverage are key. At almost every long-term station it is virtually certain that changes in instrumentation, siting or observing practices have occurred. Because none of the historical measures were made in a metrologically traceable manner there is no unambiguous way to retrieve the true climate evolution from the heterogeneous raw data holdings. Therefore it is desirable for multiple independent groups to produce adjusted data sets (so-called homogenized data) to adequately understand the data characteristics and estimate uncertainties. Then it is necessary to benchmark the performance of the contributed algorithms (equivalent to metrological software validation) through development of realistic benchmark datasets. In support of this, a series of successive benchmarking and assessment cycles are envisaged, allowing continual improvement while avoiding over-tuning of algorithms. Finally, a portal is proposed giving access to related data-products, utilizing the assessment results to provide guidance to end-users on which product is the most suited to

  14. NOAA Global Surface Temperature (NOAAGlobalTemp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Global Surface Temperature Dataset (NOAAGlobalTemp) is a merged land–ocean surface temperature analysis (formerly known as MLOST) (link is external). It is...

  15. GODAE, SFCOBS - Surface Temperature Observations, 1998-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GODAE, SFCOBS - Surface Temperature Observations: Ship, fixed/drifting buoy, and CMAN in-situ surface temperature. Global Telecommunication System (GTS) Data. The...

  16. Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) dataset is a global monthly sea surface temperature analysis derived from the International Comprehensive...

  17. Temperature dependence of nuclear surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campi, X.; Stringari, S.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal properties of nuclear surface are investigated in a semi-infinite medium. Explicit analytical expression are given for the temperature dependence of surface thickness, surface energy and surface free energy. In this model the temperature effects depend critically on the nuclear incompressibility and on the shape of the effective mass at the surface. To illustrate the relevance of these effects we made an estimate of the temperature dependence of the fission barrier height. (orig.)

  18. The Pacific sea surface temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, David H.

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific sea surface temperature data contains two components: N L , a signal that exhibits the familiar El Niño/La Niña phenomenon and N H , a signal of one-year period. Analysis reveals: (1) The existence of an annual solar forcing F S ; (2) N H is phase locked directly to F S while N L is frequently phase locked to the 2nd or 3rd subharmonic of F S . At least ten distinct subharmonic time segments of N L since 1870 are found. The beginning or end dates of these segments have a near one-to-one correspondence with the abrupt climate changes previously reported. Limited predictability is possible. -- Highlights: ► El Niño/La Niña consists of 2 components phase-locked to annual solar cycle. ► The first component N L is the familiar El Niño/La Niña effect. ► The second N H component has a period of 1 cycle/year. ► N L can be phase-locked to 2nd or 3rd subharmonic of annual cycle. ► Ends of phase-locked segments correspond to abrupt previously reported climate changes.

  19. The Pacific sea surface temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglass, David H., E-mail: douglass@pas.rochester.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States)

    2011-12-05

    The Pacific sea surface temperature data contains two components: N{sub L}, a signal that exhibits the familiar El Niño/La Niña phenomenon and N{sub H}, a signal of one-year period. Analysis reveals: (1) The existence of an annual solar forcing F{sub S}; (2) N{sub H} is phase locked directly to F{sub S} while N{sub L} is frequently phase locked to the 2nd or 3rd subharmonic of F{sub S}. At least ten distinct subharmonic time segments of N{sub L} since 1870 are found. The beginning or end dates of these segments have a near one-to-one correspondence with the abrupt climate changes previously reported. Limited predictability is possible. -- Highlights: ► El Niño/La Niña consists of 2 components phase-locked to annual solar cycle. ► The first component N{sub L} is the familiar El Niño/La Niña effect. ► The second N{sub H} component has a period of 1 cycle/year. ► N{sub L} can be phase-locked to 2nd or 3rd subharmonic of annual cycle. ► Ends of phase-locked segments correspond to abrupt previously reported climate changes.

  20. Near-surface temperature inversion during summer at Summit, Greenland, and its relation to MODIS-derived surface temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Alden C.; Albert, Mary R.; Hall, Dorothy K.

    2018-03-01

    As rapid warming of the Arctic occurs, it is imperative that climate indicators such as temperature be monitored over large areas to understand and predict the effects of climate changes. Temperatures are traditionally tracked using in situ 2 m air temperatures and can also be assessed using remote sensing techniques. Remote sensing is especially valuable over the Greenland Ice Sheet, where few ground-based air temperature measurements exist. Because of the presence of surface-based temperature inversions in ice-covered areas, differences between 2 m air temperature and the temperature of the actual snow surface (referred to as skin temperature) can be significant and are particularly relevant when considering validation and application of remote sensing temperature data. We present results from a field campaign extending from 8 June to 18 July 2015, near Summit Station in Greenland, to study surface temperature using the following measurements: skin temperature measured by an infrared (IR) sensor, 2 m air temperature measured by a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) meteorological station, and a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface temperature product. Our data indicate that 2 m air temperature is often significantly higher than snow skin temperature measured in situ, and this finding may account for apparent biases in previous studies of MODIS products that used 2 m air temperature for validation. This inversion is present during our study period when incoming solar radiation and wind speed are both low. As compared to our in situ IR skin temperature measurements, after additional cloud masking, the MOD/MYD11 Collection 6 surface temperature standard product has an RMSE of 1.0 °C and a mean bias of -0.4 °C, spanning a range of temperatures from -35 to -5 °C (RMSE = 1.6 °C and mean bias = -0.7 °C prior to cloud masking). For our study area and time series, MODIS surface temperature products agree with skin surface

  1. Development of radioactive surface contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Tadao; Hasegawa, Toru; Fukumoto, Keisuke; Ooki, Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    In the radiation facilities such as nuclear power plants, surface contamination of the people accessing or articles conveyed in and out of the radiation controlled areas is detected and monitored by installing contamination monitors at the boundary of controlled areas and uncontrolled areas against the expansion of the radioactive materials to out of the facilities. It is required for the surface contamination of articles to be tightened of control criteria as 'Guidelines for discrimination ways of nonradioactive waste (not classified as radioactive waste) generated from nuclear power plants' (hereinafter referred to as 'the Guideline') was established by the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry in August, 2005. It predicts that the control criteria of monitors other than article monitors are also tightened in the future. Fuji electric has been fabricating and delivering surface contamination detecting monitors. Now we are developing the new contamination monitor corresponding to the tightening of the control criteria. 'Large article transfer monitor', 'Clothing monitor' and 'Body surface contamination monitor' are introduced in this article. (author)

  2. Monitoring of surface and airborne contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeep Kumar, K S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

    1997-06-01

    Indian nuclear energy programme aims at total safety in all activities involved in the entire fuel cycle for the occupational workers, members of the public and the environment as a whole. Routine radiation monitoring with clearly laid out procedures are followed for ensuring the safety of workers and public. Radiation monitoring carried out for the nuclear installations comprises of process monitoring, monitoring of effluent releases and also of the radiation protection monitoring of the individuals, work place and environment. Regulations like banning of smoking and consumption of food and drink etc. reduces the risk of direct ingestion even if inadvertent spread of contamination takes place. Though limit of transportable surface contamination is prescribed, the health physicists always follow a ``clean on swipe`` philosophy which compensates any error in the measurement of surface contamination. In this paper, the following items are contained: Necessity of contamination monitoring, accuracy required in the calibration of surface contamination monitors, methodology for contamination monitoring, air monitoring, guidelines for unrestricted release of scrap materials, and problems in contamination monitoring. (G.K.)

  3. Modelling global fresh surface water temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, L.P.H. van; Eikelboom, T.; Vliet, M.T.H. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Temperature directly determines a range of water physical properties including vapour pressure, surface tension, density and viscosity, and the solubility of oxygen and other gases. Indirectly water temperature acts as a strong control on fresh water biogeochemistry, influencing sediment

  4. Low temperature monitoring system for subsurface barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; McKinzie, II Billy John [Houston, TX

    2009-08-18

    A system for monitoring temperature of a subsurface low temperature zone is described. The system includes a plurality of freeze wells configured to form the low temperature zone, one or more lasers, and a fiber optic cable coupled to at least one laser. A portion of the fiber optic cable is positioned in at least one freeze well. At least one laser is configured to transmit light pulses into a first end of the fiber optic cable. An analyzer is coupled to the fiber optic cable. The analyzer is configured to receive return signals from the light pulses.

  5. Calibration of alpha surface contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, I.S.M. de; Goncalez, O.L.

    1990-01-01

    In this work, the results, as well as the methodology, of the calibration of an alpha surface contamination monitor are presented. The calibration factors are obtained by least-squares fitting with effective variance. (author)

  6. Adaptive ultrasound temperature imaging for monitoring radiofrequency ablation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Da Liu

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency ablation (RFA has been widely used as an alternative treatment modality for liver tumors. Monitoring the temperature distribution in the tissue during RFA is required to assess the thermal dosage. Ultrasound temperature imaging based on the detection of echo time shifts has received the most attention in the past decade. The coefficient k, connecting the temperature change and the echo time shift, is a medium-dependent parameter used to describe the confounding effects of changes in the speed of sound and thermal expansion as temperature increases. The current algorithm of temperature estimate based on echo time shift detection typically uses a constant k, resulting in estimation errors when ablation temperatures are higher than 50°C. This study proposes an adaptive-k algorithm that enables the automatic adjustment of the coefficient k during ultrasound temperature monitoring of RFA. To verify the proposed algorithm, RFA experiments on in vitro porcine liver samples (total n = 15 were performed using ablation powers of 10, 15, and 20 W. During RFA, a clinical ultrasound system equipped with a 7.5-MHz linear transducer was used to collect backscattered signals for ultrasound temperature imaging using the constant- and adaptive-k algorithms. Concurrently, an infrared imaging system and thermocouples were used to measure surface temperature distribution of the sample and internal ablation temperatures for comparisons with ultrasound estimates. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed adaptive-k method improved the performance in visualizing the temperature distribution. In particular, the estimation errors were also reduced even when the temperature of the tissue is higher than 50°C. The proposed adaptive-k ultrasound temperature imaging strategy has potential to serve as a thermal dosage evaluation tool for monitoring high-temperature RFA.

  7. LRAD surface monitoring results at TA-21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounds, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    In August/September 1994, NIS-6 personnel used LRAD soil surface monitor technology to characterize the extent of alpha contamination on the surface of a parking lot adjacent to TA-21, LANL, known as Material Disposal Area B. This report documents that monitoring. Based on this survey, there is no reason for concern about significant contamination in the parking area as a whole, although unexpected small hot spots could exist between the grid points where monitoring was performed. However, the grouping of high readings on the east side of the parking area does point to possible contamination at the level of 100 dpm/100 cm 2 or less (above background). Further monitoring or remediation of this area seems appropriate. In addition, because this was an alpha survey, one cannot rule out contamination under the asphalt or possibly between layers if it was paved more than once

  8. Radiological monitoring. Controlling surface water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Maxime

    2018-01-01

    Throughout France, surface waters (from rivers to brooks) located at the vicinity of nuclear or industrial sites, are subject to regular radiological monitoring. An example is given with the radiological monitoring of a small river near La Hague Areva's plant, where contaminations have been detected with the help of the French IRSN nuclear safety research organization. The sampling method and various measurement types are described

  9. Monitoring System for ALICE Surface Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Demirbasci, Oguz

    2016-01-01

    I have been at CERN for 12 weeks within the scope of Summer Student Programme working on a monitoring system project for surface areas of the ALICE experiment during this period of time. The development and implementation of a monitoring system for environmental parameters in the accessible areas where a cheap hardware setup can be deployed were aim of this project. This report explains how it was developed by using Arduino, Raspberry PI, WinCC OA and DIM protocol.

  10. The automated infrared thermal imaging system for the continuous long-term monitoring of the surface temperature of the Vesuvius crater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Sansivero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Infrared remote sensing monitoring is a significant tool aimed to integrated surveillance system of active volcanic areas. In this paper we describe the realization and the technological evolution of the permanent image thermal infrared (TIR surveillance system of the Vesuvius volcano. The TIR monitoring station was installed on the Vesuvius crater rim on July 2004 in order to acquire scenes of the SW inner slope of Vesuvius crater that is characterized by a significant thermal emission. At that time, it represented the first achievement all over the world of a permanent surveillance thermal imaging system on a volcano. It has been working in its prototypal configuration till May 2007. The experience gained over years about the engineering, management and maintenance of TIR remote acquisition systems in extreme environmental conditions, allows us to design and realize a new release of the TIR monitoring station with improved functionalities and more flexibility for the IR image acquisition, management and storage, which became operational in June 2011. In order to characterize the thermal background of the Vesuvius crater at present state of volcanic quiescence, the time series of TIR images gathered between July 2004 and May 2012 were analyzed using a statistical approach. Results show no significant changes in the thermal radiation during the observation periods, so they can be assumed as representative of a background level to which refer for the interpretation of possible future anomalies related to a renewal of the volcanic dynamics of the Vesuvius volcano.

  11. Inverse analysis of inner surface temperature history from outer surface temperature measurement of a pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, S; Ioka, S; Onchi, S; Matsumoto, Y

    2010-01-01

    When slug flow runs through a pipe, nonuniform and time-varying thermal stresses develop and there is a possibility that thermal fatigue occurs. Therefore it is necessary to know the temperature distributions and the stress distributions in the pipe for the integrity assessment of the pipe. It is, however, difficult to measure the inner surface temperature directly. Therefore establishment of the estimation method of the temperature history on inner surface of pipe is needed. As a basic study on the estimation method of the temperature history on the inner surface of a pipe with slug flow, this paper presents an estimation method of the temperature on the inner surface of a plate from the temperature on the outer surface. The relationship between the temperature history on the outer surface and the inner surface is obtained analytically. Using the results of the mathematical analysis, the inverse analysis method of the inner surface temperature history estimation from the outer surface temperature history is proposed. It is found that the inner surface temperature history can be estimated from the outer surface temperature history by applying the inverse analysis method, even when it is expressed by the multiple frequency components.

  12. An analysis of spatial representativeness of air temperature monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suhua; Su, Hongbo; Tian, Jing; Wang, Weizhen

    2018-05-01

    Surface air temperature is an essential variable for monitoring the atmosphere, and it is generally acquired at meteorological stations that can provide information about only a small area within an r m radius ( r-neighborhood) of the station, which is called the representable radius. In studies on a local scale, ground-based observations of surface air temperatures obtained from scattered stations are usually interpolated using a variety of methods without ascertaining their effectiveness. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the spatial representativeness of ground-based observations of surface air temperature before conducting studies on a local scale. The present study used remote sensing data to estimate the spatial distribution of surface air temperature using the advection-energy balance for air temperature (ADEBAT) model. Two target stations in the study area were selected to conduct an analysis of spatial representativeness. The results showed that one station (AWS 7) had a representable radius of about 400 m with a possible error of less than 1 K, while the other station (AWS 16) had the radius of about 250 m. The representable radius was large when the heterogeneity of land cover around the station was small.

  13. evaluation of land surface temperature parameterization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Surface temperature (Ts) is vital to the study of land-atmosphere interactions and ... representation of Ts in Global Climate Models using available ..... Obviously, the influence of the ambient .... diurnal cycle over land under clear and cloudy.

  14. Sea Surface Temperature Average_SST_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea surface temperature collected via satellite imagery from http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.noaa.ersst.html and averaged for each region using ArcGIS...

  15. Analysed foundation sea surface temperature, global

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The through-cloud capabilities of microwave radiometers provide a valuable picture of global sea surface temperature (SST). To utilize this, scientists at Remote...

  16. Sea Surface Temperature (14 KM North America)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Product shows local sea surface temperatures (degrees C). It is a composite gridded-image derived from 8-km resolution SST Observations. It is generated every 48...

  17. OW NOAA GOES Sea-Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains satellite-derived sea-surface temperature measurements collected by means of the Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellite. The data is...

  18. NOAA Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA 1/4° daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (or daily OISST) is an analysis constructed by combining observations from different platforms...

  19. Evaluation of Flat Surface Temperature Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beges, G.; Rudman, M.; Drnovsek, J.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is elaboration of elements related to metrological analysis in the field of surface temperature measurement. Surface temperature measurements are applicable in many fields. As examples, safety testing of electrical appliances and a pharmaceutical production line represent case studies for surface temperature measurements. In both cases correctness of the result of the surface temperature has an influence on final product safety and quality and thus conformity with specifications. This paper deals with the differences of flat surface temperature probes in measuring the surface temperature. For the purpose of safety testing of electrical appliances, surface temperature measurements are very important for safety of the user. General requirements are presented in European standards, which support requirements in European directives, e.g., European Low Voltage Directive 2006/95/EC and pharmaceutical requirements, which are introduced in official state legislation. This paper introduces a comparison of temperature measurements of an attached thermocouple on the measured surface and measurement with flat surface temperature probes. As a heat generator, a so called temperature artifact is used. It consists of an aluminum plate with an incorporated electrical heating element with very good temperature stability in the central part. The probes and thermocouple were applied with different forces to the surface in horizontal and vertical positions. The reference temperature was measured by a J-type fine-wire (0.2 mm) thermocouple. Two probes were homemade according to requirements in the European standard EN 60335-2-9/A12, one with a fine-wire (0.2 mm) thermocouple and one with 0.5mm of thermocouple wire diameter. Additional commercially available probes were compared. Differences between probes due to thermal conditions caused by application of the probe were found. Therefore, it can happen that measurements are performed with improper equipment or

  20. Fiber-Optic Surface Temperature Sensor Based on Modal Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Musin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatially-integrated surface temperature sensing is highly useful when it comes to controlling processes, detecting hazardous conditions or monitoring the health and safety of equipment and people. Fiber-optic sensing based on modal interference has shown great sensitivity to temperature variation, by means of cost-effective image-processing of few-mode interference patterns. New developments in the field of sensor configuration, as described in this paper, include an innovative cooling and heating phase discrimination functionality and more precise measurements, based entirely on the image processing of interference patterns. The proposed technique was applied to the measurement of the integrated surface temperature of a hollow cylinder and compared with a conventional measurement system, consisting of an infrared camera and precision temperature probe. As a result, the optical technique is in line with the reference system. Compared with conventional surface temperature probes, the optical technique has the following advantages: low heat capacity temperature measurement errors, easier spatial deployment, and replacement of multiple angle infrared camera shooting and the continuous monitoring of surfaces that are not visually accessible.

  1. Automation system for tritium contaminated surface monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Curuia, Marian; Raceanu, Mircea; Enache, Adrian; Stefanescu, Ioan; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel

    2005-01-01

    The low energy of betas makes tritium difficult to detect. However, there are several methods used in tritium detection, such as liquid scintillation and ionization chambers. Tritium on or near a surface can be also detected using proportional counter and, recently, solid state devices. The paper presents our results in the design and achievement of a surface tritium monitor using a PIN photodiode as a solid state charged particle detector to count betas emitted from the surface. That method allows continuous, real-time and non-destructively measuring of tritium. (authors)

  2. E-PERM alpha surface monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, V.

    1999-01-01

    Innovative Technology Summary Reports are designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They are also designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users. Each report describes a technology, system, or process that has been developed and tested with funding from DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST). The E-PERMreg s ign Alpha Surface Monitor is an integrating electret ion chamber innovative technology used to measure alpha radiation on surfaces of materials. The technology is best used on surfaces with low contamination levels such as areas with potential for free release, but can also be used in areas with higher levels of contamination. Measurement accuracy and production of the E-PERM reg s ign Alpha Surface Monitor compared favorably with the baseline technology. The innovative technology cost is approximately 28% higher than the baseline with an average unit cost per reading costing %6.04 vs. $4.36; however, the flexibility of the E-PERMreg s ign Alpha Surface Monitor may offer advantages in ALARA, reduction of operator error, waste minimization, and measurement accuracy

  3. A physically based model of global freshwater surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Ludovicus P. H.; Eikelboom, Tessa; van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2012-09-01

    Temperature determines a range of physical properties of water and exerts a strong control on surface water biogeochemistry. Thus, in freshwater ecosystems the thermal regime directly affects the geographical distribution of aquatic species through their growth and metabolism and indirectly through their tolerance to parasites and diseases. Models used to predict surface water temperature range between physically based deterministic models and statistical approaches. Here we present the initial results of a physically based deterministic model of global freshwater surface temperature. The model adds a surface water energy balance to river discharge modeled by the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. In addition to advection of energy from direct precipitation, runoff, and lateral exchange along the drainage network, energy is exchanged between the water body and the atmosphere by shortwave and longwave radiation and sensible and latent heat fluxes. Also included are ice formation and its effect on heat storage and river hydraulics. We use the coupled surface water and energy balance model to simulate global freshwater surface temperature at daily time steps with a spatial resolution of 0.5° on a regular grid for the period 1976-2000. We opt to parameterize the model with globally available data and apply it without calibration in order to preserve its physical basis with the outlook of evaluating the effects of atmospheric warming on freshwater surface temperature. We validate our simulation results with daily temperature data from rivers and lakes (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), limited to the USA) and compare mean monthly temperatures with those recorded in the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) data set. Results show that the model is able to capture the mean monthly surface temperature for the majority of the GEMS stations, while the interannual variability as derived from the USGS and NOAA data was captured reasonably well. Results are poorest for

  4. Near-surface temperature inversion during summer at Summit, Greenland, and its relation to MODIS-derived surface temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Adolph

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As rapid warming of the Arctic occurs, it is imperative that climate indicators such as temperature be monitored over large areas to understand and predict the effects of climate changes. Temperatures are traditionally tracked using in situ 2 m air temperatures and can also be assessed using remote sensing techniques. Remote sensing is especially valuable over the Greenland Ice Sheet, where few ground-based air temperature measurements exist. Because of the presence of surface-based temperature inversions in ice-covered areas, differences between 2 m air temperature and the temperature of the actual snow surface (referred to as skin temperature can be significant and are particularly relevant when considering validation and application of remote sensing temperature data. We present results from a field campaign extending from 8 June to 18 July 2015, near Summit Station in Greenland, to study surface temperature using the following measurements: skin temperature measured by an infrared (IR sensor, 2 m air temperature measured by a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA meteorological station, and a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS surface temperature product. Our data indicate that 2 m air temperature is often significantly higher than snow skin temperature measured in situ, and this finding may account for apparent biases in previous studies of MODIS products that used 2 m air temperature for validation. This inversion is present during our study period when incoming solar radiation and wind speed are both low. As compared to our in situ IR skin temperature measurements, after additional cloud masking, the MOD/MYD11 Collection 6 surface temperature standard product has an RMSE of 1.0 °C and a mean bias of −0.4 °C, spanning a range of temperatures from −35 to −5 °C (RMSE  =  1.6 °C and mean bias  =  −0.7 °C prior to cloud masking. For our study area and time series

  5. International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) Global Land Surface Temperature Databank - Stage 2 Monthly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global land surface temperature databank contains monthly timescale mean, max, and min temperature for approximately 40,000 stations globally. It was developed...

  6. International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) Global Land Surface Temperature Databank - Stage 3 Monthly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Land Surface Temperature Databank contains monthly timescale mean, maximum, and minimum temperature for approximately 40,000 stations globally. It was...

  7. International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) Global Land Surface Temperature Databank - Stage 2 Daily

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global land surface temperature databank contains monthly timescale mean, max, and min temperature for approximately 40,000 stations globally. It was developed...

  8. International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) Global Land Surface Temperature Databank - Stage 1 Monthly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global land surface temperature databank contains monthly timescale mean, max, and min temperature for approximately 40,000 stations globally. It was developed...

  9. International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) Global Land Surface Temperature Databank - Stage 1 Daily

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global land surface temperature databank contains monthly timescale mean, max, and min temperature for approximately 40,000 stations globally. It was developed...

  10. SEASONAL CHANGES IN TITAN'S SURFACE TEMPERATURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Romani, P. N.; Hesman, B. E.; Carlson, R. C.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Coustenis, A.; Tokano, T.

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal changes in Titan's surface brightness temperatures have been observed by Cassini in the thermal infrared. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer measured surface radiances at 19 μm in two time periods: one in late northern winter (LNW; L s = 335 deg.) and another centered on northern spring equinox (NSE; L s = 0 deg.). In both periods we constructed pole-to-pole maps of zonally averaged brightness temperatures corrected for effects of the atmosphere. Between LNW and NSE a shift occurred in the temperature distribution, characterized by a warming of ∼0.5 K in the north and a cooling by about the same amount in the south. At equinox the polar surface temperatures were both near 91 K and the equator was at 93.4 K. We measured a seasonal lag of ΔL S ∼ 9 0 in the meridional surface temperature distribution, consistent with the post-equinox results of Voyager 1 as well as with predictions from general circulation modeling. A slightly elevated temperature is observed at 65 0 S in the relatively cloud-free zone between the mid-latitude and southern cloud regions.

  11. Surface temperature measurement with radioactive kryptonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruzinec, J.; Piatrik, M.

    1976-01-01

    The preparation and use of radioactive kryptonates is described for measuring surface temperatures within the region of 45 to 70 degC. Two samples each were prepared of kryptonated beechwood and hydroquinone on a paper carrier. One sample served as the standard which during the experiment was placed in a thermostat at a constant temperature of 45 degC. The second sample was placed in another thermostat where the temperature changed from 45 to 70 degC. Both samples were in the thermostat for 30 mins. The temperature was raised in steps of 2.5 degC and the time of measurement was constant in both samples. The dependences are given of the drop in activity on temperature for both types of samples. The difference was determined of the drop in activity between the standard and the second sample and the relation for measuring the temperature of the sample was determined therefrom. (J.B.)

  12. The detection of wind turbine shaft misalignment using temperature monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Tonks, Oliver; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Temperature is a parameter increasingly monitored in wind turbine systems. This paper details a potential temperature monitoring technique for use on shaft couplings. Such condition monitoring methods aid fault detection in other areas of wind turbines. However, application to shaft couplings has not previously been widely researched. A novel temperature measurement technique is outlined, using an infra-red thermometer which can be applied to online condition monitoring. The method was va...

  13. Low temperature surface chemistry and nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, G. B.; Shabatina, T. I.

    2002-03-01

    The new scientific field of low temperature surface chemistry, which combines the low temperature chemistry (cryochemistry) and surface chemistry approaches, is reviewed in this paper. One of the most exciting achievements in this field of science is the development of methods to create highly ordered hybrid nanosized structures on different organic and inorganic surfaces and to encapsulate nanosized metal particles in organic and polymer matrices. We consider physical and chemical behaviour for the systems obtained by co-condensation of the components vapours on the surfaces cooled down to 4-10 and 70-100 K. In particular the size effect of both types, the number of atoms in the reactive species structure and the thickness of growing co-condensate film, on the chemical activity of the system is analysed in detail. The effect of the internal mechanical stresses on the growing interfacial co-condensate film formation and on the generation of fast (explosive) spontaneous reactions at low temperatures is discussed. The examples of unusual chemical interactions of metal atoms, clusters and nanosized particles, obtained in co-condensate films on the cooled surfaces under different conditions, are presented. The examples of highly ordered surface and volume hybrid nanostructures formation are analysed.

  14. Surface Acoustic Wave Monitor for Deposition and Analysis of Ultra-Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Jacqueline H. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) based thin film deposition monitor device and system for monitoring the deposition of ultra-thin films and nanomaterials and the analysis thereof is characterized by acoustic wave device embodiments that include differential delay line device designs, and which can optionally have integral reference devices fabricated on the same substrate as the sensing device, or on a separate device in thermal contact with the film monitoring/analysis device, in order to provide inherently temperature compensated measurements. These deposition monitor and analysis devices can include inherent temperature compensation, higher sensitivity to surface interactions than quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) devices, and the ability to operate at extreme temperatures.

  15. Impervious surfaces and sewer pipe effects on stormwater runoff temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouri, F.; Gharabaghi, B.; Mahboubi, A. A.; McBean, E. A.

    2013-10-01

    The warming effect of the impervious surfaces in urban catchment areas and the cooling effect of underground storm sewer pipes on stormwater runoff temperature are assessed. Four urban residential catchment areas in the Cities of Guelph and Kitchener, Ontario, Canada were evaluated using a combination of runoff monitoring and modelling. The stormwater level and water temperature were monitored at 10 min interval at the inlet of the stormwater management ponds for three summers 2009, 2010 and 2011. The warming effect of the ponds is also studied, however discussed in detail in a separate paper. An artificial neural network (ANN) model for stormwater temperature was trained and validated using monitoring data. Stormwater runoff temperature was most sensitive to event mean temperature of the rainfall (EMTR) with a normalized sensitivity coefficient (Sn) of 1.257. Subsequent levels of sensitivity corresponded to the longest sewer pipe length (LPL), maximum rainfall intensity (MI), percent impervious cover (IMP), rainfall depth (R), initial asphalt temperature (AspT), pipe network density (PND), and rainfall duration (D), respectively. Percent impervious cover of the catchment area (IMP) was the key parameter that represented the warming effect of the paved surfaces; sensitivity analysis showed IMP increase from 20% to 50% resulted in runoff temperature increase by 3 °C. The longest storm sewer pipe length (LPL) and the storm sewer pipe network density (PND) are the two key parameters that control the cooling effect of the underground sewer system; sensitivity analysis showed LPL increase from 345 to 966 m, resulted in runoff temperature drop by 2.5 °C.

  16. Trend patterns in global sea surface temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, S.M.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2009-01-01

    Isolating long-term trend in sea surface temperature (SST) from El Nino southern oscillation (ENSO) variability is fundamental for climate studies. In the present study, trend-empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, a robust space-time method for extracting trend patterns, is applied to iso...

  17. Temperature effect on surface oxidation of titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaquilla, I.; Barco, J.L. del; Ferron, J.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the first stages of the superficial oxidation of polycrystalline titanium was studied using both Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and emission shreshold (AEAPS). The number of compounds present on the surface was determined by application of the factor analysis technique. Reaction evolution was followed through the relative variation of Auger LMM and LMV transitions which are characteristic of titanium. Also the evolution of the chemical shift was determined by AEAPS. The amount of oxygen on the surface was quantified using transition KLL of oxygen. It was found that superficial oxidation depends on temperature. As much as three different compounds were determined according to substrate temperature and our exposure ranges. (Author). 7 refs., 5 figs

  18. ALMA observation of Ceres' Surface Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, T. N.; Li, J. Y.; Sykes, M. V.; Ip, W. H.; Lai, I.; Moullet, A.

    2016-12-01

    Ceres, the largest object in the main asteroid belt, has been mapped by the Dawn spacecraft. The mapping includes measuring surface temperatures using the Visible and Infrared (VIR) spectrometer at high spatial resolution. However, the VIR instrument has a long wavelength cutoff at 5 μm, which prevents the accurate measurement of surface temperatures below 180 K. This restricts temperature determinations to low and mid-latitudes at mid-day. Observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) [1], while having lower spatial resolution, are sensitive to the full range of surface temperatures that are expected at Ceres. Forty reconstructed images at 75 km/beam resolution were acquired of Ceres that were consistent with a low thermal inertia surface. The diurnal temperature profiles were compared to the KRC thermal model [2, 3], which has been extensively used for Mars [e.g. 4, 5]. Variations in temperature as a function of local time are observed and are compared to predictions from the KRC model. The model temperatures are converted to radiance (Jy/Steradian) and are corrected for near-surface thermal gradients and limb effects for comparison to observations. Initial analysis is consistent with the presence of near-surface water ice in the north polar region. The edge of the ice table is between 50° and 70° North Latitude, consistent with the enhanced detection of hydrogen by the Dawn GRaND instrument [6]. Further analysis will be presented. This work is supported by the NASA Solar System Observations Program. References: [1] Wootten A. et al. (2015) IAU General Assembly, Meeting #29, #2237199 [2] Kieffer, H. H., et al. (1977) JGR, 82, 4249-4291. [3] Kieffer, Hugh H., (2013) Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 118(3), 451-470. [4] Titus, T. N., H. H. Kieffer, and P. N. Christensen (2003) Science, 299, 1048-1051. [5] Fergason, R. L. et al. (2012) Space Sci. Rev, 170, 739-773[6] Prettyman, T. et al. (2016) LPSC 47, #2228.

  19. Electronic Monitoring Of Storage And Transport Temperatures Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electronic Monitoring Of Storage And Transport Temperatures Of Thermostable Newcastle ... 22) were monitored during storage and transport from vaccine production laboratory in Temeke, Dar es ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  20. Channel Islands, Kelp Forest Monitoring, Sea Temperature, 1993-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset from the Channel Islands National Park's Kelp Forest Monitoring Program has subtidal temperature data taken at permanent monitoring sites. Since 1993,...

  1. Surface acoustic wave dust deposition monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, G.E.; Smith, N.S. Jr.

    1988-02-12

    A system is disclosed for using the attenuation of surface acoustic waves to monitor real time dust deposition rates on surfaces. The system includes a signal generator, a tone-burst generator/amplifier connected to a transmitting transducer for converting electrical signals into acoustic waves. These waves are transmitted through a path defining means adjacent to a layer of dust and then, in turn, transmitted to a receiving transducer for changing the attenuated acoustic wave to electrical signals. The signals representing the attenuated acoustic waves may be amplified and used in a means for analyzing the output signals to produce an output indicative of the dust deposition rates and/or values of dust in the layer. 8 figs.

  2. Frequency Selective Surface for Structural Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlyana Azemi, Saidatul; Mustaffa, Farzana Hazira Wan; Faizal Jamlos, Mohd; Abdullah Al-Hadi, Azremi; Soh, Ping Jack

    2018-03-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) technologies have attained attention to monitor civil structures. SHM sensor systems have been used in various civil structures such as bridges, buildings, tunnels and so on. However the previous sensor for SHM is wired and encounter with problem to cover large areas. Therefore, wireless sensor was introduced for SHM to reduce network connecting problem. Wireless sensors for Structural Health monitoring are new technology and have many advantages to overcome the drawback of conventional and wired sensor. This project proposed passive wireless SHM sensor using frequency selective surface (FSS) as an alternative to conventional sensors. The electromagnetic wave characteristic of FSS will change by geometrical changes of FSS due to mechanical strain or structural failure. The changes feature is used as a sensing function without any connecting wires. Two type of design which are circular ring and square loop along with the transmission and reflection characteristics of SHM using FSS were discussed in this project. A simulation process has shown that incident angle characteristics can be use as a data for SHM application.

  3. Northern Mariana Islands Marine Monitoring Team Sea Temperature Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site specific monitoring of sea temperature is conducted using submersible temperature dataloggers at selected sites and depths around the islands of Saipan and Rota.

  4. Hot surface temperatures of domestic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Malcolm; Arild, Anne-Helene

    2002-09-01

    Domestic appliances are burning people. In the European Union, accidents requiring hospital treatment due to burns from hot objects account for between 0 and 1% of all such accidents. Young children are particularly at risk. These reported accidents requiring hospital treatment are also likely to be a small proportion of the total number of burns from hot objects. There is a lack of hard evidence about the level of accidents, typical consumer expectation and use, and on the state of the art of appliances. Results of technical laboratory tests carried out on products are used to demonstrate the state of the art and also show how consumer expectations could be changing. Results of a survey into accidents, based on a written questionnaire following telephone contact, provide information on non-hospital cases. Results of tests on products show that there are significant differences in the temperatures of touchable surfaces, even in products of the same type. Typically, these differences are due to variations in design and/or materials of construction. Some products are hot enough to burn skin. Accident research indicates that non-hospital medical practices are treating burn injuries, which are therefore not being included into the current accident statistics. For products with the same function, some types of design or materials of construction are safer, with lower surface temperatures. Many product standards have no or unnecessarily high limits on surface temperatures. Many standards do not address the realities of who is using their products, for what purpose or where they are located. Some standards use unreasonable general limitations and exclusions that allow products with higher surface temperatures than they should have. Many standards rely on the experience factor for avoiding injury that is no longer valid, with the increased availability of safer products of the same type. A major field of work ahead is to carry out more surveys and in-depth studies of non

  5. Ensemble forecasts of road surface temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokol, Zbyněk; Bližňák, Vojtěch; Sedlák, Pavel; Zacharov, Petr, jr.; Pešice, Petr; Škuthan, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 187, 1 May (2017), s. 33-41 ISSN 0169-8095 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S; GA TA ČR(CZ) TA01031509 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : ensemble prediction * road surface temperature * road weather forecast Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 3.778, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169809516307311

  6. LOFT fuel rod surface temperature measurement testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, A.M.; Tolman, E.L.; Solbrig, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Testing of the LOFT fuel rod cladding surface thermocouples has been performed to evaluate how accurately the LOFT thermocouples measure the cladding surface temperature during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) sequence and what effect, if any, the thermocouple would have on core performance. Extensive testing has been done to characterize the thermocouple design. Thermal cycling and corrosion testing of the thermocouple weld design have provided an expected lifetime of 6000 hours when exposed to reactor coolant conditions of 620 K and 15.9 MPa and to sixteen thermal cycles with an initial temperature of 480 K and peak temperatures ranging from 870 to 1200K. Departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) tests have indicated a DNB penalty (5 to 28% lower) during steady state operation and negligible effects during LOCA blowdown caused by the LOFT fuel rod surface thermocouple arrangement. Experience with the thermocouple design in Power Burst Facility (PBF) and LOFT nonnuclear blowdown testing has been quite satisfactory. Tests discussed here were conducted using both stainless steel and zircaloy-clad electrically heated rod in the LOFT Test Support Facility (LTSF) blowdown simulation loop

  7. Real-time optoacoustic monitoring of temperature in tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larina, Irina V; Larin, Kirill V; Esenaliev, Rinat O

    2005-01-01

    To improve the safety and efficacy of thermal therapy, it is necessary to map tissue temperature in real time with submillimetre spatial resolution. Accurate temperature maps may provide the necessary control of the boundaries of the heated regions and minimize thermal damage to surrounding normal tissues. Current imaging modalities fail to monitor tissue temperature in real time with high resolution and accuracy. We investigated a non-invasive optoacoustic method for accurate, real-time monitoring of tissue temperature during thermotherapy. In this study, we induced temperature gradients in tissue and tissue-like samples and monitored the temperature distribution using the optoacoustic technique. The fundamental harmonic of a Q-switched Nd : YAG laser (λ = 1064 nm) was used for optoacoustic wave generation and probing of tissue temperature. The tissue temperature was also monitored with a multi-sensor temperature probe inserted in the samples. Good agreement between optoacoustically measured and actual tissue temperatures was obtained. The accuracy of temperature monitoring was better than 1 0 C, while the spatial resolution was about 1 mm. These data suggest that the optoacoustic technique has the potential to be used for non-invasive, real-time temperature monitoring during thermotherapy

  8. Modeling Apple Surface Temperature Dynamics Based on Weather Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed was recorded for seven hours between 11:00–18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of “Fuji” apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.

  9. Modeling apple surface temperature dynamics based on weather data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Peters, Troy; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-10-27

    The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST) dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) was recorded for seven hours between 11:00-18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of "Fuji" apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.

  10. Stratospheric Impact of Varying Sea Surface Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Nielsen, Jon E.; Waugh, Darryn; Pawson, Steven

    2004-01-01

    The Finite-Volume General Circulation Model (FVGCM) has been run in 50 year simulations with the: 1) 1949-1999 Hadley Centre sea surface temperatures (SST), and 2) a fixed annual cycle of SSTs. In this presentation we first show that the 1949-1999 FVGCM simulation produces a very credible stratosphere in comparison to an NCEP/NCAR reanalysis climatology. In particular, the northern hemisphere has numerous major and minor stratospheric warming, while the southern hemisphere has only a few over the 50-year simulation. During the northern hemisphere winter, temperatures are both warmer in the lower stratosphere and the polar vortex is weaker than is found in the mid-winter southern hemisphere. Mean temperature differences in the lower stratosphere are shown to be small (less than 2 K), and planetary wave forcing is found to be very consistent with the climatology. We then will show the differences between our varying SST simulation and the fixed SST simulation in both the dynamics and in two parameterized trace gases (ozone and methane). In general, differences are found to be small, with subtle changes in planetary wave forcing that lead to reduced temperatures in the SH and increased temperatures in the NH.

  11. Low-cost automatic station for compost temperature monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo D. L. Jordão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Temperature monitoring is an important procedure to control the composting process. Due to cost limitation, temperature monitoring is manual and with daily sampling resolution. The objective of this study was to develop an automatic station with US$ 150 dollars, able to monitor air temperature at two different points in a compost pile, with a 5-min time resolution. In the calibration test, the sensors showed an estimated uncertainty from ± 1 to ± 1.9 ºC. In the field validation test, the station guaranteed secure autonomy for seven days and endured high humidity and extreme temperature (> 70 °C.

  12. Eye surface temperature detects stress response in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikkatai, Yuko; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2015-08-05

    Previous studies have suggested that stressors not only increase body core temperature but also body surface temperature in many animals. However, it remains unclear whether surface temperature could be used as an alternative to directly measure body core temperature, particularly in birds. We investigated whether surface temperature is perceived as a stress response in budgerigars. Budgerigars have been used as popular animal models to investigate various neural mechanisms such as visual perception, vocal learning, and imitation. Developing a new technique to understand the basic physiological mechanism would help neuroscience researchers. First, we found that cloacal temperature correlated with eye surface temperature. Second, eye surface temperature increased after handling stress. Our findings suggest that eye surface temperature is closely related to cloacal temperature and that the stress response can be measured by eye surface temperature in budgerigars.

  13. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ramos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS, an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment.

  14. Temperature-monitored optical treatment for radial tissue expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Jinoh; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2017-07-01

    Esophageal stricture occurs in 7-23% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, the current treatments including stent therapy, balloon dilation, and bougienage involve limitations such as stent migration, formation of the new strictures, and snowplow effect. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the feasibility of structural expansion in tubular tissue ex vivo during temperature-monitored photothermal treatment with a diffusing applicator for esophageal stricture. Porcine liver was used as an ex vivo tissue sample for the current study. A glass tube was used to maintain a constant distance between the diffuser and tissue surface and to evaluate any variations in the luminal area after 10-W 1470-nm laser irradiation for potential stricture treatment. The 3D goniometer measurements confirmed roughly isotropic distribution with less than 10% deviation from the average angular intensity over 2π (i.e., 0.86 ± 0.09 in arbitrary unit) from the diffusing applicator. The 30-s irradiation increased the tissue temperature up to 72.5 °C, but due to temperature feedback, the interstitial tissue temperature became saturated at 70 °C (i.e., steady-state error = ±0.4 °C). The irradiation times longer than 5 s presented area expansion index of 1.00 ± 0.04, signifying that irreversible tissue denaturation permanently deformed the lumen in a circular shape and secured the equivalent luminal area to that of the glass tube. Application of a temperature feedback controller for photothermal treatment with the diffusing applicator can regulate the degree of thermal denaturation to feasibly treat esophageal stricture in a tubular tissue.

  15. High Temperatures Health Monitoring of the Condensed Water Height in Steam Pipe Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Takano, Nobuyuki; Ostlund, Patrick; Blosiu, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic probes were designed, fabricated and tested for high temperature health monitoring system. The goal of this work was to develop the health monitoring system that can determine the height level of the condensed water through the pipe wall at high temperature up to 250 deg while accounting for the effects of surface perturbation. Among different ultrasonic probe designs, 2.25 MHz probes with air backed configuration provide satisfactory results in terms of sensitivity, receiving reflections from the target through the pipe wall. A series of tests were performed using the air-backed probes under irregular conditions, such as surface perturbation and surface disturbance at elevated temperature, to qualify the developed ultrasonic system. The results demonstrate that the fabricated air-backed probes combined with advanced signal processing techniques offer the capability of health monitoring of steam pipe under various operating conditions.

  16. Perry Nuclear Power Plant Area/Equipment Temperature Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Perry Nuclear Power Plant Area/Equipment Temperature Monitoring Program serves two purposes. The first is to track temperature trends during normal plant operation in areas where suspected deviations from established environmental profiles exist. This includes the use of Resistance Temperature Detectors, Recorders, and Temperature Dots for evaluation of equipment qualified life for comparison with tested parameters and the established Environmental Design Profile. It also may be used to determine the location and duration of steam leaks for effect on equipment qualified life. The second purpose of this program is to aid HVAC design engineers in determining the source of heat outside anticipated design parameters. Resistance Temperature Detectors, Recorders, and Temperature Dots are also used for this application but the results may include design changes to eliminate the excess heat or provide qualified equipment (cable) to withstand the elevated temperature, splitting of environmental zones to capture accurate temperature parameters, or continued environmental monitoring for evaluation of equipment located in hot spots

  17. Merged Land and Ocean Surface Temperature, Version 3.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The historical Merged Land-Ocean Surface Temperature Analysis (MLOST) is derived from two independent analyses, an Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature...

  18. NOAA Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST), Version 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) dataset is a global monthly sea surface temperature dataset derived from the International...

  19. NOAA Global Surface Temperature Dataset, Version 4.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Global Surface Temperature Dataset (NOAAGlobalTemp) is derived from two independent analyses: the Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST)...

  20. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Reddy, G.V.; Araligidad, N.; Shenoy, Shrikant

    Surface layer temperature inversion occurring in the Bay of Bengal has been addressed. Hydrographic data archived in the Indian Oceanographic Data Center are used to understand various aspects of the temperature inversion of surface layer in the Bay...

  1. Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST), Version 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) dataset is a global monthly sea surface temperature analysis on a 2x2 degree grid derived from the...

  2. Estimation of land surface temperature of Kaduna metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of land surface temperature of Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria using landsat images. Isa Zaharaddeen, Ibrahim I. Baba, Ayuba Zachariah. Abstract. Understanding the spatial variation of Land Surface Temperature (LST), will be helpful in urban micro climate studies. This study estimates the land surface temperature ...

  3. Indonesia sea surface temperature from TRMM Microwave Imaging (TMI) sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Y.; Setiawan, K. T.

    2018-05-01

    We analysis the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) data to monitor the sea surface temperature (SST) of Indonesia waters for a decade of 2005-2014. The TMI SST data shows the seasonal and interannual SST in Indonesian waters. In general, the SST average was highest in March-May period with SST average was 29.4°C, and the lowest was in June – August period with the SST average was 28.5°C. The monthly SST average fluctuation of Indonesian waters for 10 years tends to increase. The lowest SST average of Indonesia occurred in August 2006 with the SST average was 27.6° C, while the maximum occurred in May 2014 with the monthly SST average temperature was 29.9 ° C.

  4. Low Temperature Surface Carburization of Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Sunniva R; Heuer, Arthur H; Sikka, Vinod K

    2007-12-07

    Low-temperature colossal supersaturation (LTCSS) is a novel surface hardening method for carburization of austenitic stainless steels (SS) without the precipitation of carbides. The formation of carbides is kinetically suppressed, enabling extremely high or colossal carbon supersaturation. As a result, surface carbon concentrations in excess of 12 at. % are routinely achieved. This treatment increases the surface hardness by a factor of four to five, improving resistance to wear, corrosion, and fatigue, with significant retained ductility. LTCSS is a diffusional surface hardening process that provides a uniform and conformal hardened gradient surface with no risk of delamination or peeling. The treatment retains the austenitic phase and is completely non-magnetic. In addition, because parts are treated at low temperature, they do not distort or change dimensions. During this treatment, carbon diffusion proceeds into the metal at temperatures that constrain substitutional diffusion or mobility between the metal alloy elements. Though immobilized and unable to assemble to form carbides, chromium and similar alloying elements nonetheless draw enormous amounts of carbon into their interstitial spaces. The carbon in the interstitial spaces of the alloy crystals makes the surface harder than ever achieved before by more conventional heat treating or diffusion process. The carbon solid solution manifests a Vickers hardness often exceeding 1000 HV (equivalent to 70 HRC). This project objective was to extend the LTCSS treatment to other austenitic alloys, and to quantify improvements in fatigue, corrosion, and wear resistance. Highlights from the research include the following: • Extension of the applicability of the LTCSS process to a broad range of austenitic and duplex grades of steels • Demonstration of LTCSS ability for a variety of different component shapes and sizes • Detailed microstructural characterization of LTCSS-treated samples of 316L and other alloys

  5. Worldwide surface temperature trends since the mid-19th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, D.E.; Folland, C.K.

    1990-01-01

    Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) for the period 1856 to the present have been corrected to compensate for the use of uninsulated buckets prior to the early 1940s. Trends in the corrected SST are consistent with trends in independently corrected nighttime marine air temperatures (NMAT). Global-scale patterns of variation of annual anomalies of SST and NMAT, as revealed by the first three covariance eigenvectors, are also in close agreement. The corrected SST anomalies are also compared with those of nearby coastal and island land air temperatures. Global-scale agreement is good except in the early 20th century when the land data were relatively warm by up to 0.2 C. Proposed causes are the siting of thermometers in open-sided thatched sheds in tropical regions at that time, along with a marked tendency to warm westerly atmospheric circulation over Europe in winter. Combined fields of SST and land air temperature are presented. The relative overall coldness of the late 19th century land air temperatures appears to have arisen from inner-continental and high-latitude regions, especially in winter. Combined fields do not yield full global coverage even in the 1980s, so satellite-based SST data need to be blended carefully with the ship-based observations if monitoring of global climate is to be complete

  6. Worldwide surface temperature trends since the mid-19th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, D.E.; Folland, C.K.

    1991-01-01

    Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) for the period 1856 to the present have been corrected to compensate for the use of uninsulated buckets prior to the early 1940s. Trends in the corrected SST are consistent with trends in independently corrected nighttime marine air temperatures (NMAT). Global-scale patterns of variation of annual anomalies of SST and NMAT, as revealed by the first three covariance eigenvectors, are also in close agreement. The corrected SST anomalies are also compared with those of nearby coastal and island land air temperatures. Global-scale agreement is good except in the early 20th century when the land data were relatively warm by up to 0.2 C. Proposed causes are the siting of thermometers in open-sided thatched sheds in tropical regions at that time, along with a marked tendency to warm westerly atmospheric circulation over Europe in winter. Combined fields of SST and land air temperature are presented. The relative overall coldness of the late 19th century land air temperatures appears to have arisen from inner-continental and high-latitude regions, especially in winter. Combined fields do not yield full global coverage even in the 1980s, so satellite-based SST data need to be blended carefully with the ship-based observations if monitoring of global climate is to be complete. 32 refs.; 16 figs

  7. estimation of land surface temperature of kaduna metropolis, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zaharaddeen et. al

    Land surface temperature can provide noteworthy information about the surface ... modelling the surface energy balance (Kalma, et al., 2008; ... Landsat, in addition some of the Landsat data have cloud cover and ..... The Impact Of Urban.

  8. Fish product quality evaluation based on temperature monitoring in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As one kind of perishable food, fish product is at risk of suffering various damages during cold chain and temperature is the most important factor to affect the product quality. This research work on frozen tilapia fillet was aimed at evaluating the fish product quality and predict shelf-life through monitoring temperature change ...

  9. Effect of design factors on surface temperature and wear in disk brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, J. J.; Kennedy, F. E.; Ling, F. F.

    1976-01-01

    The temperatures, friction, wear and contact conditions that occur in high energy disk brakes are studied. Surface and near surface temperatures were monitored at various locations in a caliper disk brake during drag type testing, with friction coefficient and wear rates also being determined. The recorded transient temperature distributions in the friction pads and infrared photographs of the rotor disk surface both showed that contact at the friction surface was not uniform, with contact areas constantly shifting due to nonuniform thermal expansion and wear. The effect of external cooling and of design modifications on friction, wear and temperatures was also investigated. It was found that significant decreases in surface temperature and in wear rate can be achieved without a reduction in friction either by slotting the contacting face of the brake pad or by modifying the design of the pad support to improve pad compliance. Both design changes result in more uniform contact conditions on the friction surface.

  10. [The development of a respiration and temperature monitor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X; Wu, B; Liu, Y; He, Q; Xiao, J

    2001-12-01

    This paper introduces the design of a monitoring system to measure the respiration and temperature of a body with an 8Xc196 single-chip microcomputer. This system can measure and display the respiration wave, respiration frequency and the body temperature in real-time with a liquid crystal display (LCD) and give an alarm when the parameters are beyond the normal scope. In addition, this device can provide a 24 hours trend graph of the respiration frequency and the body temperature parameters measured. Data can also be exchanged through serial communication interfaces (RS232) between the PC and the monitor.

  11. Design of temperature monitoring system based on CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li

    2017-10-01

    The remote temperature monitoring system based on the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is designed to collect the multi-node remote temperature. By using the STM32F103 as main controller and multiple DS18B20s as temperature sensors, the system achieves a master-slave node data acquisition and transmission based on the CAN bus protocol. And making use of the serial port communication technology to communicate with the host computer, the system achieves the function of remote temperature storage, historical data show and the temperature waveform display.

  12. Monitoring actual temperatures in Susquehanna SES reactor buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derkacs, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    PP and L has been monitoring temperatures in the Susquehanna SES reactor building with digital temperature recorders since 1986. In early 1990, data from four representative areas was analyzed to determine the temperature in each area which would produce the same rate of degradation as the distribution of actual temperatures recorded over about 40 months. From these effective average temperatures, qualified life multipliers were determined for activation energies in the range of 0.5 to 1.5 and those multipliers were used to estimate new qualified lives and the number of replacements which might be saved during the life of the plant. The results indicate that pursuing a program of determining EQ qualified lives from actual temperatures, rather than maximum design basis temperatures, will provide a substantial payback in reduced EQ driven maintenance

  13. A Gusseted Thermogradient Table to Control Soil Temperatures for Evaluating Plant Growth and Monitoring Soil Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbaum, Gregory E; Khan, Osamah S; Samarah, Nezar H

    2016-10-22

    Thermogradient tables were first developed in the 1950s primarily to test seed germination over a range of temperatures simultaneously without using a series of incubators. A temperature gradient is passively established across the surface of the table between the heated and cooled ends and is lost quickly at distances above the surface. Since temperature is only controlled on the table surface, experiments are restricted to shallow containers, such as Petri dishes, placed on the table. Welding continuous aluminum vertical strips or gussets perpendicular to the surface of a table enables temperature control in depth via convective heat flow. Soil in the channels between gussets was maintained across a gradient of temperatures allowing a greater diversity of experimentation. The gusseted design was evaluated by germinating oat, lettuce, tomato, and melon seeds. Soil temperatures were monitored using individual, battery-powered dataloggers positioned across the table. LED lights installed in the lids or along the sides of the gradient table create a controlled temperature chamber where seedlings can be grown over a range of temperatures. The gusseted design enabled accurate determination of optimum temperatures for fastest germination rate and the highest percentage germination for each species. Germination information from gradient table experiments can help predict seed germination and seedling growth under the adverse soil conditions often encountered during field crop production. Temperature effects on seed germination, seedling growth, and soil ecology can be tested under controlled conditions in a laboratory using a gusseted thermogradient table.

  14. Precambrian Surface Temperatures and Molecular Phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, David; Lineweaver, Charles H.

    2004-06-01

    The timing of emergence of major organismal groups is consistent with the climatic temperature being equal to their upper temperature limit of growth (T_{max}), implying a temperature constraint on the evolution of each group, with the climatic temperature inferred from the oxygen isotope record of marine cherts. Support for this constraint comes from the correlation of T_{max} with the rRNA molecular phylogenetic distance from the last common ancestor (LCA) for both thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria. In particular, this correlation for hyperthermophilic Archaea suggests a climatic temperature of about 120°C at the time of the LCA, likely in the Hadean.

  15. Hanford coring bit temperature monitor development testing results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, D.

    1995-05-01

    Instrumentation which directly monitors the temperature of a coring bit used to retrieve core samples of high level nuclear waste stored in tanks at Hanford was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Monitoring the temperature of the coring bit is desired to enhance the safety of the coring operations. A unique application of mature technologies was used to accomplish the measurement. This report documents the results of development testing performed at Sandia to assure the instrumentation will withstand the severe environments present in the waste tanks

  16. Estimation of surface air temperature over central and eastern Eurasia from MODIS land surface temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G

    2011-01-01

    Surface air temperature (T a ) is a critical variable in the energy and water cycle of the Earth–atmosphere system and is a key input element for hydrology and land surface models. This is a preliminary study to evaluate estimation of T a from satellite remotely sensed land surface temperature (T s ) by using MODIS-Terra data over two Eurasia regions: northern China and fUSSR. High correlations are observed in both regions between station-measured T a and MODIS T s . The relationships between the maximum T a and daytime T s depend significantly on land cover types, but the minimum T a and nighttime T s have little dependence on the land cover types. The largest difference between maximum T a and daytime T s appears over the barren and sparsely vegetated area during the summer time. Using a linear regression method, the daily maximum T a were estimated from 1 km resolution MODIS T s under clear-sky conditions with coefficients calculated based on land cover types, while the minimum T a were estimated without considering land cover types. The uncertainty, mean absolute error (MAE), of the estimated maximum T a varies from 2.4 °C over closed shrublands to 3.2 °C over grasslands, and the MAE of the estimated minimum T a is about 3.0 °C.

  17. Temporal and spatial assessments of minimum air temperature using satellite surface temperature measurements in Massachusetts, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloog, Itai; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel

    2012-08-15

    Although meteorological stations provide accurate air temperature observations, their spatial coverage is limited and thus often insufficient for epidemiological studies. Satellite data expand spatial coverage, enhancing our ability to estimate near surface air temperature (Ta). However, the derivation of Ta from surface temperature (Ts) measured by satellites is far from being straightforward. In this study, we present a novel approach that incorporates land use regression, meteorological variables and spatial smoothing to first calibrate between Ts and Ta on a daily basis and then predict Ta for days when satellite Ts data were not available. We applied mixed regression models with daily random slopes to calibrate Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Ts data with monitored Ta measurements for 2003. Then, we used a generalized additive mixed model with spatial smoothing to estimate Ta in days with missing Ts. Out-of-sample tenfold cross-validation was used to quantify the accuracy of our predictions. Our model performance was excellent for both days with available Ts and days without Ts observations (mean out-of-sample R(2)=0.946 and R(2)=0.941 respectively). Furthermore, based on the high quality predictions we investigated the spatial patterns of Ta within the study domain as they relate to urban vs. non-urban land uses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Multi-Sensor Improved Sea Surface Temperature (MISST) for GODAE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gentemann, Chelle L; Wick, Gary A; Cummings, James; Bayler, Eric

    2004-01-01

    ...) sensors and to then demonstrate the impact of these improved sea surface temperatures (SSTs) on operational ocean models, numerical weather prediction, and tropical cyclone intensity forecasting...

  19. Temperature sensitive surfaces and methods of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang [Richland, WA; Rieke, Peter C [Pasco, WA; Alford, Kentin L [Pasco, WA

    2002-09-10

    Poly-n-isopropylacrylamide surface coatings demonstrate the useful property of being able to switch charateristics depending upon temperature. More specifically, these coatings switch from being hydrophilic at low temperature to hydrophobic at high temperature. Research has been conducted for many years to better characterize and control the properties of temperature sensitive coatings. The present invention provides novel temperature sensitive coatings on articles and novel methods of making temperature sensitive coatings that are disposed on the surfaces of various articles. These novel coatings contain the reaction products of n-isopropylacrylamide and are characterized by their properties such as advancing contact angles. Numerous other characteristics such as coating thickness, surface roughness, and hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic transition temperatures are also described. The present invention includes articles having temperature-sensitve coatings with improved properties as well as improved methods for forming temperature sensitive coatings.

  20. Surface alloying in Sn/Au(111) at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Pampa; Singh, Vipin Kumar; Rai, Abhishek; Bhattacharya, Kuntala; Barman, Sudipta Roy

    2018-04-01

    On the basis of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we show that when Sn is deposited on Au(111) single crystal surface at a substrate temperature TS=373 K, surface alloying occurs with the formation of AuSn phase. The evolution of the surface structure and the surface morphology has been studied by low energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy, respectively as a function of Sn coverage and substrate temperatures.

  1. Validation of Land Surface Temperature from Sentinel-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghent, D.

    2017-12-01

    One of the main objectives of the Sentinel-3 mission is to measure sea- and land-surface temperature with high-end accuracy and reliability in support of environmental and climate monitoring in an operational context. Calibration and validation are thus key criteria for operationalization within the framework of the Sentinel-3 Mission Performance Centre (S3MPC). Land surface temperature (LST) has a long heritage of satellite observations which have facilitated our understanding of land surface and climate change processes, such as desertification, urbanization, deforestation and land/atmosphere coupling. These observations have been acquired from a variety of satellite instruments on platforms in both low-earth orbit and in geostationary orbit. Retrieval accuracy can be a challenge though; surface emissivities can be highly variable owing to the heterogeneity of the land, and atmospheric effects caused by the presence of aerosols and by water vapour absorption can give a bias to the underlying LST. As such, a rigorous validation is critical in order to assess the quality of the data and the associated uncertainties. Validation of the level-2 SL_2_LST product, which became freely available on an operational basis from 5th July 2017 builds on an established validation protocol for satellite-based LST. This set of guidelines provides a standardized framework for structuring LST validation activities. The protocol introduces a four-pronged approach which can be summarised thus: i) in situ validation where ground-based observations are available; ii) radiance-based validation over sites that are homogeneous in emissivity; iii) intercomparison with retrievals from other satellite sensors; iv) time-series analysis to identify artefacts on an interannual time-scale. This multi-dimensional approach is a necessary requirement for assessing the performance of the LST algorithm for the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) which is designed around biome

  2. Intra-hole fluid convection: High-resolution temperature monitoring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Vladimír; Šafanda, Jan; Krešl, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 348, č. 3-4 (2008), s. 464-479 ISSN 0022-1694 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : temperature monitoring * convection * fluid dynamics * borehole logging Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.305, year: 2008

  3. Distributed remote temperature monitoring system for INDUS-2 vacuum chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhange, N.J.; Gothwal, P.; Fatnani, P.; Shukla, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Indus-2, a 2.5 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) at Indore has a large vacuum system. The vacuum envelope of Indus-2 ring comprises of 16 dipole chambers as vital parts. Each chamber has 4 photon absorbers and three beam line ports blanked with end flanges. Temperature monitoring of critical vacuum components during operation of Indus-2 ring is an important requirement. The paper discusses a distributed, 160 channel remote temperature monitoring system developed and deployed for this purpose using microcontroller based, modular Temperature Monitoring Units (TMU). The cabling has been extensively minimized using RS485 system and keeping trip relay contacts of all units in series. For ensuring proper signal conditioning of thermocouple outputs (K-type) and successful operation over RS485 bus, many precautions were taken considering the close proximity to the storage ring. We also discuss the software for vacuum chamber temperature monitoring and safety system. The software developed using LabVIEW, has important features like modularity, client-server architecture, local and global database logging, alarms and trips, event and error logging, provision of various important configurations, communications handling etc. (author)

  4. Do Aphids Alter Leaf Surface Temperature Patterns During Early Infestation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cahon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Arthropods at the surface of plants live in particular microclimatic conditions that can differ from atmospheric conditions. The temperature of plant leaves can deviate from air temperature, and leaf temperature influences the eco-physiology of small insects. The activity of insects feeding on leaf tissues, may, however, induce changes in leaf surface temperatures, but this effect was only rarely demonstrated. Using thermography analysis of leaf surfaces under controlled environmental conditions, we quantified the impact of presence of apple green aphids on the temperature distribution of apple leaves during early infestation. Aphids induced a slight change in leaf surface temperature patterns after only three days of infestation, mostly due to the effect of aphids on the maximal temperature that can be found at the leaf surface. Aphids may induce stomatal closure, leading to a lower transpiration rate. This effect was local since aphids modified the configuration of the temperature distribution over leaf surfaces. Aphids were positioned at temperatures near the maximal leaf surface temperatures, thus potentially experiencing the thermal changes. The feedback effect of feeding activity by insects on their host plant can be important and should be quantified to better predict the response of phytophagous insects to environmental changes.

  5. A miniature inductive temperature sensor to monitor temperature noise in the coolant of an LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, S.A.; Sandham, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    A description is given of the design and performance of miniature inductive sensors developed to monitor fast temperature fluctuations in the sodium coolant above the core of a LMFBR. These instruments, designed to be installed within existing thermocouple containment thimbles, also provide a steady-state temperature indication for reactor control purposes. (author)

  6. High Temperature Surface Parameters for Solar Power

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butler, C. F; Jenkins, R. J; Rudkin, R. L; Laughridge, F. I

    1960-01-01

    ... at a given distance from the sun. Thermal conversion efficiencies with a concentration ratio of 50 have been computed for each surface when exposed to solar radiation at the Earth's mean orbital radius...

  7. Estimation of Surface Air Temperature Over Central and Eastern Eurasia from MODIS Land Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.

    2011-01-01

    Surface air temperature (T(sub a)) is a critical variable in the energy and water cycle of the Earth.atmosphere system and is a key input element for hydrology and land surface models. This is a preliminary study to evaluate estimation of T(sub a) from satellite remotely sensed land surface temperature (T(sub s)) by using MODIS-Terra data over two Eurasia regions: northern China and fUSSR. High correlations are observed in both regions between station-measured T(sub a) and MODIS T(sub s). The relationships between the maximum T(sub a) and daytime T(sub s) depend significantly on land cover types, but the minimum T(sub a) and nighttime T(sub s) have little dependence on the land cover types. The largest difference between maximum T(sub a) and daytime T(sub s) appears over the barren and sparsely vegetated area during the summer time. Using a linear regression method, the daily maximum T(sub a) were estimated from 1 km resolution MODIS T(sub s) under clear-sky conditions with coefficients calculated based on land cover types, while the minimum T(sub a) were estimated without considering land cover types. The uncertainty, mean absolute error (MAE), of the estimated maximum T(sub a) varies from 2.4 C over closed shrublands to 3.2 C over grasslands, and the MAE of the estimated minimum Ta is about 3.0 C.

  8. Predicting monsoon rainfall and pressure indices from sea surface temperature

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.

    The relationship between the sea surface temperature (SST) in the Indian Ocean and monsoon rainfall has been examined by using 21 years data set (1967-87) of MOHSST.6 (Met. Office Historical Sea Surface Temperature data set, obtained from U.K. Met...

  9. Recent trends in sea surface temperature off Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lluch-Cota, S.E.; Tripp-Valdéz, M.; Lluch-Cota, D.B.; Lluch-Belda, D.; Verbesselt, J.; Herrera-Cervantes, H.; Bautista-Romero, J.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in global mean sea surface temperature may have potential negative implications for natural and socioeconomic systems; however, measurements to predict trends in different regions have been limited and sometimes contradictory. In this study, an assessment of sea surface temperature change

  10. Direct evaluation of transient surface temperatures and heat fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axford, R.A.

    1975-08-01

    Evaluations of transient surface temperatures resulting from the absorption of radiation are required in laser fusion reactor systems studies. A general method for the direct evaluation of transient surface temperatures and heat fluxes on the boundaries of bounded media is developed by constructing fundamental solutions of the scalar Helmholtz equation and performing certain elementary integrations

  11. a Research on Monitoring Surface Deformation and Relationships with Surface Parameters in Qinghai Tibetan Plateau Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, S. J.; Li, Y. T.; Wang, F.; Li, L.; Ge, Y.; Luo, L.; Zhang, C. L.; Chen, J. B.

    2017-09-01

    The Qinghai Tibetan Plateau permafrost has been the largest permafrost region in middle-low latitude in the world for its high altitude. For the large area permafrost, especially surface deformation brought by it, have serious influence on the road engineering, road maintaining and regional economic development. Consequently, it is essential to monitor the surface deformation and study factors that influent it. We monitored an area named Wudaoliang from July 25, 2015 to June 1, 2016 and 15 Sentinel images were obtained during this time. The area we chose is about 35 kilometers long and 2 kilometers wide, and the national road 109 of China passes through the area. The traditional PS-INSAR (Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) method is not suitable because less historical images in the research area and leading to the number of PS (Persistent Scatterer) points is not enough to obtain accurate deformation results. Therefore, in this paper, we used another method which named QUASI-PSInSAR (QUASI Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) to acquire deformation for it has the advantage to weaken or eliminate the effects of spatial and temporal correlation, which has proved by other scholar. After processing 15 images in the SARproz software, we got the conclusions that, 1) the biggest deformation velocity in the whole area was about 127.9mm/year and about 109.3 mm/year in the road; 2) apparent deformation which have surface deformation more than 30mm/year was about 1.7Km in the road. Meanwhile, soil moisture(SM), Land surface temperature (LST) and surface water(SW), which are primary parameters of the land surface over the same time were reversed by using Sentinel data, Landsat data and ZY-3 data, respectively. After analyzing SM, LST , SW and deformation, we obtained that wet areas which had bigger SM, lower LST and more SW, had greater percentage of severe deformation than arid areas; besides, deformation pattern were

  12. A Wireless Monitoring System for Cracks on the Surface of Reactor Containment Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianguo; Xu, Yaming; Zhang, Tao

    2016-06-14

    Structural health monitoring with wireless sensor networks has been increasingly popular in recent years because of the convenience. In this paper, a real-time monitoring system for cracks on the surface of reactor containment buildings is presented. Customized wireless sensor networks platforms are designed and implemented with sensors especially for crack monitoring, which include crackmeters and temperature detectors. Software protocols like route discovery, time synchronization and data transfer are developed to satisfy the requirements of the monitoring system and stay simple at the same time. Simulation tests have been made to evaluate the performance of the system before full scale deployment. The real-life deployment of the crack monitoring system is carried out on the surface of reactor containment building in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station during the in-service pressure test with 30 wireless sensor nodes.

  13. Outdoor surface temperature measurement: ground truth or lie?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skauli, Torbjorn

    2004-08-01

    Contact surface temperature measurement in the field is essential in trials of thermal imaging systems and camouflage, as well as for scene modeling studies. The accuracy of such measurements is challenged by environmental factors such as sun and wind, which induce temperature gradients around a surface sensor and lead to incorrect temperature readings. In this work, a simple method is used to test temperature sensors under conditions representative of a surface whose temperature is determined by heat exchange with the environment. The tested sensors are different types of thermocouples and platinum thermistors typically used in field trials, as well as digital temperature sensors. The results illustrate that the actual measurement errors can be much larger than the specified accuracy of the sensors. The measurement error typically scales with the difference between surface temperature and ambient air temperature. Unless proper care is taken, systematic errors can easily reach 10% of this temperature difference, which is often unacceptable. Reasonably accurate readings are obtained using a miniature platinum thermistor. Thermocouples can perform well on bare metal surfaces if the connection to the surface is highly conductive. It is pointed out that digital temperature sensors have many advantages for field trials use.

  14. Comparison of an in-helmet temperature monitor system to rectal temperature during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickwire, P Jason; Buresh, Robert J; Tis, Laurie L; Collins, Mitchell A; Jacobs, Robert D; Bell, Marla M

    2012-01-01

    Body temperature monitoring is crucial in helping to decrease the amount and severity of heat illnesses; however, a practical method of monitoring temperature is lacking. In response to the lack of a practical method of monitoring the temperature of athletes, Hothead Technologies developed a device (HOT), which continuously monitors an athlete's fluctuations in body temperature. HOT measures forehead temperature inside helmets. The purpose of this study was to compare HOT against rectal temperature (Trec). Male volunteers (n = 29, age = 23.5 ± 4.5 years, weight = 83.8 ± 10.4 kg, height = 180.1 ± 5.8 cm, body fat = 12.3 ± 4.5%) exercised on a treadmill at an intensity of 60-75% heart rate reserve (HRR) (wet bulb globe temperature [WBGT] = 28.7° C) until Trec reached 38.7° C. The correlation between Trec and HOT was 0.801 (R = 0.64, standard error of the estimate (SEE) = 0.25, p = 0.00). One reason for this relatively high correlation is the microclimate that HOT is monitoring. HOT is not affected by the external climate greatly because of its location in the helmet. Therefore, factors such as evaporation do not alter HOT temperature to a great degree. HOT was compared with Trec in a controlled setting, and the exercise used in this study was moderate aerobic exercise, very unlike that used in football. In a controlled laboratory setting, the relationship between HOT and Trec showed favorable correlations. However, in applied settings, helmets are repeatedly removed and replaced forcing HOT to equilibrate to forehead temperature every time the helmet is replaced. Therefore, future studies are needed to mimic how HOT will be used in field situations.

  15. Low temperature self-cleaning properties of superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fajun; Shen, Taohua; Li, Changquan; Li, Wen; Yan, Guilong

    2014-10-01

    Outdoor surfaces are usually dirty surfaces. Ice accretion on outdoor surfaces could lead to serious accidents. In the present work, the superhydrophobic surface based on 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-Perfluorodecanethiol (PFDT) modified Ag/PDMS composite was prepared to investigate the anti-icing property and self-cleaning property at temperatures below freezing point. The superhydrophobic surface was deliberately polluted with activated carbon before testing. It was observed that water droplet picked up dusts on the cold superhydrophobic surface and took it away without freezing at a measuring temperature of -10 °C. While on a smooth PFDT surface and a rough surface base on Ag/PDMS composite without PFDT modification, water droplets accumulated and then froze quickly at the same temperature. However, at even lower temperature of -12 °C, the superhydrophobic surface could not prevent the surface water from icing. In addition, it was observed that the frost layer condensed from the moisture pay an important role in determining the low temperature self-cleaning properties of a superhydrophobic surface.

  16. In Situ Monitoring of Temperature inside Lithium-Ion Batteries by Flexible Micro Temperature Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chi Chen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion secondary batteries are commonly used in electric vehicles, smart phones, personal digital assistants (PDA, notebooks and electric cars. These lithium-ion secondary batteries must charge and discharge rapidly, causing the interior temperature to rise quickly, raising a safety issue. Over-charging results in an unstable voltage and current, causing potential safety problems, such as thermal runaways and explosions. Thus, a micro flexible temperature sensor for the in in-situ monitoring of temperature inside a lithium-ion secondary battery must be developed. In this work, flexible micro temperature sensors were integrated into a lithium-ion secondary battery using the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS process for monitoring temperature in situ.

  17. High Temperature Transducers for Online Monitoring of Microstructure Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lissenden, Cliff [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Tittmann, Bernhard [Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-30

    A critical technology gap exists relative to online condition monitoring (CM) of advanced nuclear plant components for damage accumulation; there are not capable sensors and infrastructure available for the high temperature environment. The sensory system, monitoring methodology, data acquisition, and damage characterization algorithm that comprise a CM system are investigated here. Thus this work supports the DOE mission to develop a fundamental understanding of advanced sensors to improve physical measurement accuracy and reduce uncertainty. The research involves a concept viability assessment, a detailed technology gap analysis, and a technology development roadmap.

  18. Monitoring of full scale tensegrity skeletons under temperature change

    OpenAIRE

    KAWAGUCHI, Ken'ichi; OHYA, Shunji

    2009-01-01

    p. 224-231 Strain change in the members of full-scale tensegrity skeletons has been monitored for eight years. The one-day data of one of the tensegrity frame on the hottest and the coldest day in the record are reported and discussed. Kawaguchi, K.; Ohya, S. (2009). Monitoring of full scale tensegrity skeletons under temperature change. Symposium of the International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures. Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. http://hdl.handle.net/10...

  19. New cryogenic temperature monitor: PLT-HPT-32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera Curbelo, Teodora Aleida; Martín-Fernández, Sergio Gonzáles; Hoyland, R.; Vega-Moreno, A.; Cozar Castellano, Juan; Gómez Reñasco, M. F.; Aguiar-González, M.; Pérez de Taoro, Angeles; Sánchez-de la Rosa, V.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Génova-Santos, R.

    2016-07-01

    The PLT-HPT-32, a new cryogenic temperature monitor, has been developed by the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands (IAC) and an external engineering company (Sergio González Martín-Fernandez). The PLT-HPT-32 temperature monitor offers precision measurement in a wide range of cryogenic and higher-temperature applications with the ability to easily monitor up to 32 sensor channels. It provides better measurement performance in applications where researchers need to ensure accuracy and precision in their low cryogenic temperature monitoring. The PLT-HPT-32 supports PTC RTDs such as platinum sensors, and diodes such as the Lake Shore DT-670 Series. Used with silicon diodes, it provides accurate measurements in cryo-cooler applications from 16 K to above room temperature. The resolution of the measurement is less than 0.1K. Measurements can be displayed in voltage units or Kelvin units. For it, two different tables can be used. One can be programmed by the user, and the other one corresponds to Lake Shore DT670 sensor that comes standard. There are two modes of measuring, the instantaneous mode and averaged mode. In this moment, all channels must work in the same mode but in the near future it expected to be used in blocks of eight channels. The instantaneous mode takes three seconds to read all channels. The averaged mode takes one minute to average twenty samples in all channels. Alarm thresholds can be configured independently for each input. The alarm events, come from the first eight channels, can activate the unit's relay outputs for hard-wired triggering of other systems or audible annunciators. Activate relays on high, low, or both alarms for any input. For local monitoring, "Stand-Alone Mode", the front panel of the PLT-HPT-32 features a bright liquid crystal display with an LED backlight that shows up to 32 readings simultaneously. Plus, monitoring can be done over a network "Remote Control Mode". Using the Ethernet port on the PLT-HPT-32, you

  20. Global surface temperature in relation to northeast monsoon rainfall ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is observed that the meridional gradient in surface air temperature anomalies between Europe and ... Surface air tempera- ture is one of the factors that influence monsoon variability. The distribution of surface air temper- ature over land and sea determines the locations ..... Asia, north Indian Ocean, northeast Russia and.

  1. Low-temperature plasma techniques in surface modification of biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xiangfen; Xie Hankun; Zhang Jing

    2002-01-01

    Since synthetic polymers usually can not meet the biocompatibility and bio-functional demands of the human body, surface treatment is a prerequisite for them to be used as biomaterials. A very effective surface modification method, plasma treatment, is introduced. By immobilizing the bio-active molecules with low temperature plasma, polymer surfaces can be modified to fully satisfy the requirements of biomaterials

  2. Surface temperature retrieval in a temperate grassland with multiresolution sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, S. J.; Halthore, R. N.; Hall, F. G.; Markham, B. L.

    1995-12-01

    Radiometric surface temperatures retrieved at various spatial resolutions from aircraft and satellite measurements at the FIFE site in eastern Kansas were compared with near-surface temperature measurements to determine the accuracy of the retrieval techniques and consistency between the various sensors. Atmospheric characterizations based on local radiosonde profiles of temperature, pressure, and water vapor were used with the LOWTRAN-7 and MODTRAN atmospheric radiance models to correct measured thermal radiances of water and grassland targets for atmospheric attenuation. Comparison of retrieved surface temperatures from a helicopter-mounted modular multispectral radiometer (MMR) (˜5-m "pixel"), C-130 mounted thematic mapper simulator (TMS) (NS001, ˜20-m pixel), and the Landsat 5 thematic mapper (TM) (120-m pixel) was done. Differences between atmospherically corrected radiative temperatures and near-surface measurements ranged from less than 1°C to more than 8°C. Corrected temperatures from helicopter-MMR and NS001-TMS were in general agreement with near-surface infrared radiative thermometer (IRT) measurements collected from automated meteorological stations, with mean differences of 3.2°C and 1.7°C for grassland targets. Much better agreement (within 1°C) was found between the retrieved aircraft surface temperatures and near-surface measurements acquired with a hand-held mast equipped with a MMR and IRT. The NS001-TMS was also in good agreement with near-surface temperatures acquired over water targets. In contrast, the Landsat 5 TM systematically overestimated surface temperature in all cases. This result has been noted previously but not consistently. On the basis of the results reported here, surface measurements were used to provide a calibration of the TM thermal channel. Further evaluation of the in-flight radiometric calibration of the TM thermal channel is recommended.

  3. Precision temperature monitoring (PTM) and Humidity monitoring (HM) sensors of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A major aspect for the ECAL detector control is the monitoring of the system temperature and the verification that the required temperature stability of the crystal volume and the APDs, expected to be (18 ± 0.05)C, is achieved. The PTM is designed to read out thermistors, placed on both the front and back of the crystals, with a relative precision better than 0.01 C. In total there are ten sensors per supermodule. The humidity level in the electronics compartment is monitored by the HM system and consists of one humidity sensor per module.

  4. Test plan for core sampling drill bit temperature monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    At WHC, one of the functions of the Tank Waste Remediation System division is sampling waste tanks to characterize their contents. The push-mode core sampling truck is currently used to take samples of liquid and sludge. Sampling of tanks containing hard salt cake is to be performed with the rotary-mode core sampling system, consisting of the core sample truck, mobile exhauster unit, and ancillary subsystems. When drilling through the salt cake material, friction and heat can be generated in the drill bit. Based upon tank safety reviews, it has been determined that the drill bit temperature must not exceed 180 C, due to the potential reactivity of tank contents at this temperature. Consequently, a drill bit temperature limit of 150 C was established for operation of the core sample truck to have an adequate margin of safety. Unpredictable factors, such as localized heating, cause this buffer to be so great. The most desirable safeguard against exceeding this threshold is bit temperature monitoring . This document describes the recommended plan for testing the prototype of a drill bit temperature monitor developed for core sampling by Sandia National Labs. The device will be tested at their facilities. This test plan documents the tests that Westinghouse Hanford Company considers necessary for effective testing of the system

  5. Study of Volcanic Activity at Different Time Scales Using Hypertemporal Land Surface Temperature Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlidou, Efthymia; Hecker, Chris; van der Werff, Harald; van der Meijder, Mark

    2017-01-01

    We apply a method for detecting subtle spatiotemporal signal fluctuations to monitor volcanic activity. Whereas midwave infrared data are commonly used for volcanic hot spot detection, our approach utilizes hypertemporal longwave infrared-based land surface temperature (LST) data. Using LST data of

  6. Note: surface acoustic wave resonators for detecting of small changes of temperature: a thermometric "magnifying glass".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryshtal, R G; Medved, A V

    2014-02-01

    Application of surface acoustic wave resonators with a phase format of an output signal as the thermometric "magnifying glass" is suggested. Possibilities of monitoring and measuring of small changes of temperature from 0.001 K to 0.3 K of objects having thermal contact with the resonator's substrate are shown experimentally.

  7. Evaluation of MODIS Land Surface Temperature with In Situ Snow Surface Temperature from CREST-SAFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Diaz, C. L.; Lakhankar, T.; Romanov, P.; Munoz, J.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Yu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the procedure and results of a temperature-based validation approach for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Land Surface Temperature (LST) product provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Terra and Aqua Earth Observing System satellites using in situ LST observations recorded at the Cooperative Remote Sensing Science and Technology Center - Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE) during the years of 2013 (January-April) and 2014 (February-April). A total of 314 day and night clear-sky thermal images, acquired by the Terra and Aqua satellites, were processed and compared to ground-truth data from CREST-SAFE with a frequency of one measurement every 3 min. Additionally, this investigation incorporated supplementary analyses using meteorological CREST-SAFE in situ variables (i.e. wind speed, cloud cover, incoming solar radiation) to study their effects on in situ snow surface temperature (T-skin) and T-air. Furthermore, a single pixel (1km2) and several spatially averaged pixels were used for satellite LST validation by increasing the MODIS window size to 5x5, 9x9, and 25x25 windows for comparison. Several trends in the MODIS LST data were observed, including the underestimation of daytime values and nighttime values. Results indicate that, although all the data sets (Terra and Aqua, diurnal and nocturnal) showed high correlation with ground measurements, day values yielded slightly higher accuracy ( 1°C), both suggesting that MODIS LST retrievals are reliable for similar land cover classes and atmospheric conditions. Results from the CREST-SAFE in situ variables' analyses indicate that T-air is commonly higher than T-skin, and that a lack of cloud cover results in: lower T-skin and higher T-air minus T-skin difference (T-diff). Additionally, the study revealed that T-diff is inversely proportional to cloud cover, wind speed, and incoming solar radiation. Increasing the MODIS window size

  8. Recent Development on the NOAA's Global Surface Temperature Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. M.; Huang, B.; Boyer, T.; Lawrimore, J. H.; Menne, M. J.; Rennie, J.

    2016-12-01

    Global Surface Temperature (GST) is one of the most widely used indicators for climate trend and extreme analyses. A widely used GST dataset is the NOAA merged land-ocean surface temperature dataset known as NOAAGlobalTemp (formerly MLOST). The NOAAGlobalTemp had recently been updated from version 3.5.4 to version 4. The update includes a significant improvement in the ocean surface component (Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature or ERSST, from version 3b to version 4) which resulted in an increased temperature trends in recent decades. Since then, advancements in both the ocean component (ERSST) and land component (GHCN-Monthly) have been made, including the inclusion of Argo float SSTs and expanded EOT modes in ERSST, and the use of ISTI databank in GHCN-Monthly. In this presentation, we describe the impact of those improvements on the merged global temperature dataset, in terms of global trends and other aspects.

  9. Advanced targeted monitoring of high temperature components in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E.; Maile, K.; Jovanovic, A. [MPA Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The article presents the idea of targeted monitoring of high-temperature pressurized components in fossil-fueled power plants, implemented within a modular software system and using, in addition to pressure and temperature data, also displacement and strain measurement data. The concept has been implemented as a part of a more complex company-oriented Internet/Intranet system of MPA Stuttgart (ALIAS). ALIAS enables to combine smoothly the monitoring results with those of the off-line analysis, e. g. sensitivity analyses, comparison with preceding experience (case studies), literature search, search in material databases -(experimental and standard data), nonlinear FE-analysis, etc. The concept and the system have been implemented in real plant conditions several power plants in Germany and Europe: one of these applications and its results are described more in detail in the presentation. (orig.) 9 refs.

  10. Advanced targeted monitoring of high temperature components in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E; Maile, K; Jovanovic, A [MPA Stuttgart (Germany)

    1999-12-31

    The article presents the idea of targeted monitoring of high-temperature pressurized components in fossil-fueled power plants, implemented within a modular software system and using, in addition to pressure and temperature data, also displacement and strain measurement data. The concept has been implemented as a part of a more complex company-oriented Internet/Intranet system of MPA Stuttgart (ALIAS). ALIAS enables to combine smoothly the monitoring results with those of the off-line analysis, e. g. sensitivity analyses, comparison with preceding experience (case studies), literature search, search in material databases -(experimental and standard data), nonlinear FE-analysis, etc. The concept and the system have been implemented in real plant conditions several power plants in Germany and Europe: one of these applications and its results are described more in detail in the presentation. (orig.) 9 refs.

  11. Performance analysis of PV panel under varying surface temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Tripathi Abhishek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface temperature of PV panel has an adverse impact on its performance. The several electrical parameters of PV panel, such as open circuit voltage, short circuit current, power output and fill factor depends on the surface temperature of PV panel. In the present study, an experimental work was carried out to investigate the influence of PV panel surface temperature on its electrical parameters. The results obtained from this experimental study show a significant reduction in the performance of PV panel with an increase in panel surface temperature. A 5W PV panel experienced a 0.4% decrease in open circuit voltage for every 1°C increase in panel surface temperature. Similarly, there was 0.6% and 0.32% decrease in maximum power output and in fill factor, respectively, for every 1°C increase in panel surface temperature. On the other hand, the short circuit current increases with the increase in surface temperature at the rate of 0.09%/°C.

  12. Remote sensing of land surface temperature: The directional viewing effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.A.; Schmugge, T.J.; Ballard, J.R. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is an important parameter in understanding global environmental change because it controls many of the underlying processes in the energy budget at the surface and heat and water transport between the surface and the atmosphere. The measurement of LST at a variety of spatial and temporal scales and extension to global coverage requires remote sensing means to achieve these goals. Land surface temperature and emissivity products are currently being derived from satellite and aircraft remote sensing data using a variety of techniques to correct for atmospheric effects. Implicit in the commonly employed approaches is the assumption of isotropy in directional thermal infrared exitance. The theoretical analyses indicate angular variations in apparent infrared temperature will typically yield land surface temperature errors ranging from 1 to 4 C unless corrective measures are applied

  13. Spatio-temporal behavior of brightness temperature in Tel-Aviv and its application to air temperature monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelta, Ran; Chudnovsky, A. Alexandra; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This study applies remote sensing technology to assess and examine the spatial and temporal Brightness Temperature (BT) profile in the city of Tel-Aviv, Israel over the last 30 years using Landsat imagery. The location of warmest and coldest zones are constant over the studied period. Distinct diurnal and temporal BT behavior divide the city into four different segments. As an example of future application, we applied mixed regression models with daily random slopes to correlate Landsat BT data with monitored air temperature (Tair) measurements using 14 images for 1989–2014. Our preliminary results show a good model performance with R"2 = 0.81. Furthermore, based on the model's results, we analyzed the spatial profile of Tair within the study domain for representative days. - Highlights: • The location of warmest and coldest zones are constant over the last 30 years. • Distinct diurnal and temporal Brightness Temperature behavior divide the city into four segments. • We assess air temperature from satellite surface temperature (R"2 = 0.81). - The location of warmest and coldest zones are constant over the last 30 years. Distinct diurnal and temporal Surface Temperature behavior divide the city into four different segments.

  14. Remote monitor system of temperature and humidity based on internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ting; Fang Fang; Zeng Zhijie

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the system architecture and implement details of the remote and realtime monitor system of temperature and humidity. In this design, NiosII soft CPU core and peripheral's IP core are embedded in FPGA, while a MicroC/OS2 real-time operating system and lightweight IP protocol stack are porting thereon, to achieve a open system which hardware and software are all can be reconfigure. (authors)

  15. Temperature monitoring of vehicle engine exhaust gases under vibration condition using optical fibre temperature sensor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, W Z; Suna, T; Grattana, K T V; Shen, Y H; Wei, C L; Al-Shamma'a, A I

    2006-01-01

    Two optical approaches, comprising and contracting both the fluorescence decay lifetime and the fibre Bragg grating (FBG) methods, were developed and evaluated for temperature monitoring of exhaust gases for use on a vehicle engine. The FBGs used in the system were written into specially designed Bi-Ge co-doped photosensitive fibres, to enable them to sustain high temperatures to over 800 0 C, which is far beyond that of FBGs written into most commercial photosensitive fibres. The sensors were subjected to a range of vibration tests, as a part of an optical exhaust monitoring network under development, and results from the test carried out are reported

  16. Thermal Transmission through Existing Building Enclosures: Destructive Monitoring in Intermediate Layers versus Non-Destructive Monitoring with Sensors on Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echarri, Víctor; Espinosa, Almudena; Rizo, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Opaque enclosures of buildings play an essential role in the level of comfort experienced indoors and annual energy demand. The impact of solar radiation and thermal inertia of the materials that make up the multi-layer enclosures substantially modify thermal transmittance behaviour of the enclosures. This dynamic form of heat transfer, additionally affected by indoor HVAC systems, has a substantial effect on the parameters that define comfort. It also has an impact on energy demand within a daily cycle as well as throughout a one-year use cycle. This study describes the destructive monitoring of an existing block of flats located in Alicante. Once the enclosure was opened, sensors of temperature (PT100), air velocity, and relative humidity were located in the different layers of the enclosure, as well as in the interior and exterior surfaces. A pyranometer was also installed to measure solar radiation levels. A temperature data correction algorithm was drawn up to address irregularities produced in the enclosure. The algorithm was applied using a Raspberry Pi processor in the data collection system. The comparative results of temperature gradients versus non-destructive monitoring systems are presented, providing measures of the transmittance value, surface temperatures and indoor and outdoor air temperatures. This remote sensing system can be used in future studies to quantify and compare the energy savings of different enclosure construction solutions. PMID:29292781

  17. Thermal Transmission through Existing Building Enclosures: Destructive Monitoring in Intermediate Layers versus Non-Destructive Monitoring with Sensors on Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echarri, Víctor; Espinosa, Almudena; Rizo, Carlos

    2017-12-08

    Opaque enclosures of buildings play an essential role in the level of comfort experienced indoors and annual energy demand. The impact of solar radiation and thermal inertia of the materials that make up the multi-layer enclosures substantially modify thermal transmittance behaviour of the enclosures. This dynamic form of heat transfer, additionally affected by indoor HVAC systems, has a substantial effect on the parameters that define comfort. It also has an impact on energy demand within a daily cycle as well as throughout a one-year use cycle. This study describes the destructive monitoring of an existing block of flats located in Alicante. Once the enclosure was opened, sensors of temperature (PT100), air velocity, and relative humidity were located in the different layers of the enclosure, as well as in the interior and exterior surfaces. A pyranometer was also installed to measure solar radiation levels. A temperature data correction algorithm was drawn up to address irregularities produced in the enclosure. The algorithm was applied using a Raspberry Pi processor in the data collection system. The comparative results of temperature gradients versus non-destructive monitoring systems are presented, providing measures of the transmittance value, surface temperatures and indoor and outdoor air temperatures. This remote sensing system can be used in future studies to quantify and compare the energy savings of different enclosure construction solutions.

  18. Thermal Transmission through Existing Building Enclosures: Destructive Monitoring in Intermediate Layers versus Non-Destructive Monitoring with Sensors on Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Echarri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Opaque enclosures of buildings play an essential role in the level of comfort experienced indoors and annual energy demand. The impact of solar radiation and thermal inertia of the materials that make up the multi-layer enclosures substantially modify thermal transmittance behaviour of the enclosures. This dynamic form of heat transfer, additionally affected by indoor HVAC systems, has a substantial effect on the parameters that define comfort. It also has an impact on energy demand within a daily cycle as well as throughout a one-year use cycle. This study describes the destructive monitoring of an existing block of flats located in Alicante. Once the enclosure was opened, sensors of temperature (PT100, air velocity, and relative humidity were located in the different layers of the enclosure, as well as in the interior and exterior surfaces. A pyranometer was also installed to measure solar radiation levels. A temperature data correction algorithm was drawn up to address irregularities produced in the enclosure. The algorithm was applied using a Raspberry Pi processor in the data collection system. The comparative results of temperature gradients versus non-destructive monitoring systems are presented, providing measures of the transmittance value, surface temperatures and indoor and outdoor air temperatures. This remote sensing system can be used in future studies to quantify and compare the energy savings of different enclosure construction solutions.

  19. Temperature profiles on the gadolinium surface during electron beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohba, Hironori; Shibata, Takemasa [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1995-03-01

    The distributions of surface temperature of gadolinium in a water-cooled copper crucible during electron beam evaporation were measured by optical pyrometry. The surface temperatures were obtained from the radiation intensity ratio of the evaporating surface and a reference light source using Planck`s law of radiation. The emitted radiation from the evaporating surface and a reference source was detected by a CCD sensor through a band pass filter of 650 nm. The measured surface temperature generally agreed with those estimated from the deposition rate and the data of the saturated vapor pressure. At high input powers, it was found that the measured value had small difference with the estimated one due to variation of the surface condition. (author).

  20. Temperature profiles on the gadolinium surface during electron beam evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, Hironori; Shibata, Takemasa

    1995-01-01

    The distributions of surface temperature of gadolinium in a water-cooled copper crucible during electron beam evaporation were measured by optical pyrometry. The surface temperatures were obtained from the radiation intensity ratio of the evaporating surface and a reference light source using Planck's law of radiation. The emitted radiation from the evaporating surface and a reference source was detected by a CCD sensor through a band pass filter of 650 nm. The measured surface temperature generally agreed with those estimated from the deposition rate and the data of the saturated vapor pressure. At high input powers, it was found that the measured value had small difference with the estimated one due to variation of the surface condition. (author)

  1. Monitoring temperatures in coal conversion and combustion processes via ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalsami, N.; Raptis, A. C.; Mulcahey, T. P.

    1980-02-01

    The state of the art of instrumentation for monitoring temperatures in coal conversion and combustion systems is examined. The instrumentation types studied include thermocouples, radiation pyrometers, and acoustical thermometers. The capabilities and limitations of each type are reviewed. A feasibility study of the ultrasonic thermometry is described. A mathematical model of a pulse-echo ultrasonic temperature measurement system is developed using linear system theory. The mathematical model lends itself to the adaptation of generalized correlation techniques for the estimation of propagation delays. Computer simulations are made to test the efficacy of the signal processing techniques for noise-free as well as noisy signals. Based on the theoretical study, acoustic techniques to measure temperature in reactors and combustors are feasible.

  2. High-temperature morphology of stepped gold surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilalbegovic, G.; Tosatti, E.; Ercolessi, F.

    1992-04-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations with a classical many-body potential are used to study the high-temperature stability of stepped non-melting metal surfaces. We have studied in particular the Au(111) vicinal surfaces in the (M+1, M-1, M) family and the Au(100) vicinals in the (M, 1, 1) family. Some vicinal orientations close to the non-melting Au(111) surface become unstable close to the bulk melting temperature and facet into a mixture of crystalline (111) regions and localized surface-melted regions. On the contrary, we do not find high-temperature faceting for vicinals close to Au(100), also a non-melting surface. These (100) vicinal surfaces gradually disorder with disappearance of individual steps well below the bulk melting temperature. We have also studied the high-temperature stability of ledges formed by pairs of monoatomic steps of opposite sign on the Au(111) surface. It is found that these ledges attract each other, so that several of them merge into one larger ledge, whose edge steps then act as a nucleation site for surface melting. (author). 43 refs, 8 figs

  3. 1994 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...

  4. 1993 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the NOAA...

  5. OW NOAA AVHRR-GAC Sea-Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains satellite-derived sea-surface temperature measurements collected by means of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer - Global Area Coverage...

  6. Tropical sea surface temperatures and the earth's orbital eccentricity cycles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, S.M.; Fernandes, A.A.; Mohan, R.

    The tropical oceanic warm pools are climatologically important regions because their sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are positively related to atmospheric greenhouse effect and the cumulonimbus-cirrus cloud anvil. Such a warm pool is also present...

  7. OW NOAA GOES-POES Sea Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains blended satellite-derived sea-surface temperature measurements collected by means of the Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellites (GOES)...

  8. NOAA High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Analysis Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archive covers two high resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis products developed using an optimum interpolation (OI) technique. The analyses have a...

  9. COBE-SST2 Sea Surface Temperature and Ice

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A new sea surface temperature (SST) analysis on a centennial time scale is presented. The dataset starts in 1850 with monthly 1x1 means and is periodically updated....

  10. Global 1-km Sea Surface Temperature (G1SST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — JPL OurOcean Portal: A daily, global Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data set is produced at 1-km (also known as ultra-high resolution) by the JPL ROMS (Regional Ocean...

  11. Afforestation in China cools local land surface temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Shu-Shi; Piao, Shilong; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Ciais, Philippe; Zhou, Liming; Li, Laurent Z. X.; Myneni, Ranga B.; Yin, Yi; Zeng, Hui

    2014-01-01

    International audience; China has the largest afforested area in the world (~62 million hectares in 2008), and these forests are carbon sinks. The climatic effect of these new forests depends on how radiant and turbulent energy fluxes over these plantations modify surface temperature. For instance, a lower albedo may cause warming, which negates the climatic benefits of carbon sequestration. Here, we used satellite measurements of land surface temperature (LST) from planted forests and adjace...

  12. SURFACE TEMPERATURES ON TITAN DURING NORTHERN WINTER AND SPRING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Romani, P. N.; Samuelson, R. E. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Mamoutkine, A. [ADNET Systems, Inc., Bethesda, MD 20817 (United States); Gorius, N. J. P. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Coustenis, A. [Laboratoire d’Etudes Spatiales et d’Instrumentation en Astrophysique (LESIA), Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, 5, place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon Cedex (France); Tokano, T., E-mail: donald.e.jennings@nasa.gov [Universität zu Köln, Albertus-Magnus-Platz, D-50923 Köln (Germany)

    2016-01-01

    Meridional brightness temperatures were measured on the surface of Titan during the 2004–2014 portion of the Cassini mission by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer. Temperatures mapped from pole to pole during five two-year periods show a marked seasonal dependence. The surface temperature near the south pole over this time decreased by 2 K from 91.7 ± 0.3 to 89.7 ± 0.5 K while at the north pole the temperature increased by 1 K from 90.7 ± 0.5 to 91.5 ± 0.2 K. The latitude of maximum temperature moved from 19 S to 16 N, tracking the sub-solar latitude. As the latitude changed, the maximum temperature remained constant at 93.65 ± 0.15 K. In 2010 our temperatures repeated the north–south symmetry seen by Voyager one Titan year earlier in 1980. Early in the mission, temperatures at all latitudes had agreed with GCM predictions, but by 2014 temperatures in the north were lower than modeled by 1 K. The temperature rise in the north may be delayed by cooling of sea surfaces and moist ground brought on by seasonal methane precipitation and evaporation.

  13. SURFACE TEMPERATURES ON TITAN DURING NORTHERN WINTER AND SPRING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Romani, P. N.; Samuelson, R. E.; Mamoutkine, A.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Coustenis, A.; Tokano, T.

    2016-01-01

    Meridional brightness temperatures were measured on the surface of Titan during the 2004–2014 portion of the Cassini mission by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer. Temperatures mapped from pole to pole during five two-year periods show a marked seasonal dependence. The surface temperature near the south pole over this time decreased by 2 K from 91.7 ± 0.3 to 89.7 ± 0.5 K while at the north pole the temperature increased by 1 K from 90.7 ± 0.5 to 91.5 ± 0.2 K. The latitude of maximum temperature moved from 19 S to 16 N, tracking the sub-solar latitude. As the latitude changed, the maximum temperature remained constant at 93.65 ± 0.15 K. In 2010 our temperatures repeated the north–south symmetry seen by Voyager one Titan year earlier in 1980. Early in the mission, temperatures at all latitudes had agreed with GCM predictions, but by 2014 temperatures in the north were lower than modeled by 1 K. The temperature rise in the north may be delayed by cooling of sea surfaces and moist ground brought on by seasonal methane precipitation and evaporation

  14. TWO METHODS FOR REMOTE ESTIMATION OF COMPLETE URBAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jiang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Complete urban surface temperature (TC is a key parameter for evaluating the energy exchange between the urban surface and atmosphere. At the present stage, the estimation of TC still needs detailed 3D structure information of the urban surface, however, it is often difficult to obtain the geometric structure and composition of the corresponding temperature of urban surface, so that there is still lack of concise and efficient method for estimating the TC by remote sensing. Based on the four typical urban surface scale models, combined with the Envi-met model, thermal radiant directionality forward modeling and kernel model, we analyzed a complete day and night cycle hourly component temperature and radiation temperature in each direction of two seasons of summer and winter, and calculated hemispherical integral temperature and TC. The conclusion is obtained by examining the relationship of directional radiation temperature, hemispherical integral temperature and TC: (1 There is an optimal angle of radiation temperature approaching the TC in a single observation direction when viewing zenith angle is 45–60°, the viewing azimuth near the vertical surface of the sun main plane, the average absolute difference is about 1.1 K in the daytime. (2 There are several (3–5 times directional temperatures of different view angle, under the situation of using the thermal radiation directionality kernel model can more accurately calculate the hemispherical integral temperature close to TC, the mean absolute error is about 1.0 K in the daytime. This study proposed simple and effective strategies for estimating TC by remote sensing, which are expected to improve the quantitative level of remote sensing of urban thermal environment.

  15. A model of the ground surface temperature for micrometeorological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Julian S.; Erell, Evyatar

    2017-07-01

    Micrometeorological models at various scales require ground surface temperature, which may not always be measured in sufficient spatial or temporal detail. There is thus a need for a model that can calculate the surface temperature using only widely available weather data, thermal properties of the ground, and surface properties. The vegetated/permeable surface energy balance (VP-SEB) model introduced here requires no a priori knowledge of soil temperature or moisture at any depth. It combines a two-layer characterization of the soil column following the heat conservation law with a sinusoidal function to estimate deep soil temperature, and a simplified procedure for calculating moisture content. A physically based solution is used for each of the energy balance components allowing VP-SEB to be highly portable. VP-SEB was tested using field data measuring bare loess desert soil in dry weather and following rain events. Modeled hourly surface temperature correlated well with the measured data (r 2 = 0.95 for a whole year), with a root-mean-square error of 2.77 K. The model was used to generate input for a pedestrian thermal comfort study using the Index of Thermal Stress (ITS). The simulation shows that the thermal stress on a pedestrian standing in the sun on a fully paved surface, which may be over 500 W on a warm summer day, may be as much as 100 W lower on a grass surface exposed to the same meteorological conditions.

  16. An algorithm to retrieve Land Surface Temperature using Landsat-8 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ayodeji Ogunode;Mulemwa Akombelwa

    The results show temperature variation over a long period of time can be ... Remote sensing of LST using infrared radiation gives the average surface temperature of the scene ... advantage over previous Landsat series. ..... Li, F., Jackson, T. J., Kustas, W. P., Schmugge, T. J., French, A. N., Cosh, M. H. & Bindlish, R. 2004.

  17. Development of a calibration system for surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marechal, M.H.H.; Barbosa, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A calibration system for surface contamination monitors is developed, aiming supply the existence demand of these instruments. A experimental arrangement and a methodology are described. The advantages of use this system for calibration routine optimization are also discussed. (C.G.C.)

  18. Analysis of Anomaly in Land Surface Temperature Using MODIS Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorozu, K.; Kodama, T.; Kim, S.; Tachikawa, Y.; Shiiba, M.

    2011-12-01

    Atmosphere-land surface interaction plays a dominant role on the hydrologic cycle. Atmospheric phenomena cause variation of land surface state and land surface state can affect on atmosphereic conditions. Widely-known article related in atmospheric-land interaction was published by Koster et al. in 2004. The context of this article is that seasonal anomaly in soil moisture or soil surface temperature can affect summer precipitation generation and other atmospheric processes especially in middle North America, Sahel and south Asia. From not only above example but other previous research works, it is assumed that anomaly of surface state has a key factor. To investigate atmospheric-land surface interaction, it is necessary to analyze anomaly field in land surface state. In this study, soil surface temperature should be focused because it can be globally and continuously observed by satellite launched sensor. To land surface temperature product, MOD11C1 and MYD11C1 products which are kinds of MODIS products are applied. Both of them have 0.05 degree spatial resolution and daily temporal resolution. The difference of them is launched satellite, MOD11C1 is Terra and MYD11C1 is Aqua. MOD11C1 covers the latter of 2000 to present and MYD11C1 covers the early 2002 to present. There are unrealistic values on provided products even if daily product was already calibrated or corrected. For pre-analyzing, daily data is aggregated into 8-days data to remove irregular values for stable analysis. It was found that there are spatial and temporal distribution of 10-years average and standard deviation for each 8-days term. In order to point out extreme anomaly in land surface temperature, standard score for each 8-days term is applied. From the analysis of standard score, it is found there are large anomaly in land surface temperature around north China plain in early April 2005 and around Bangladesh in early May 2009.

  19. Long term persistence in the sea surface temperature fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Monetti, Roberto A.; Havlin, Shlomo; Bunde, Armin

    2002-01-01

    We study the temporal correlations in the sea surface temperature (SST) fluctuations around the seasonal mean values in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. We apply a method that systematically overcome possible trends in the data. We find that the SST persistence, characterized by the correlation $C(s)$ of temperature fluctuations separated by a time period $s$, displays two different regimes. In the short-time regime which extends up to roughly 10 months, the temperature fluctuations display a...

  20. A Shear Horizontal Waveguide Technique for Monitoring of High Temperature Pipe Thinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Yongmoo; Kim, Hongpyo; Lee, Duckhyun

    2014-01-01

    An ultrasonic thickness measurement method is a well-known and most commonly used non-destructive testing technique for wall thickness monitoring of a piping or plate. However, current commonly available ultrasonic transducers cannot withstand high temperatures of, above 200 .deg. C. Currently, the variation of wall thickness of the pipes is determined by a portable ultrasonic gauge during plant shutdowns. This manual ultrasonic method reveals several disadvantages: inspections have to be performed during shutdowns with the possible consequences of prolonging down time and increasing production losses, insulation has to be removed and replaced for each manual measurement, and scaffolding has to be installed to inaccessible areas, resulting in considerable cost for intervention. In addition, differences of the measurement conditions such as examiner, temperature, and couplant could result in measurement errors. It has been suggested that a structural health monitoring approach with permanently installed ultrasonic thickness gauges could have substantial benefits over current practices. In order to solve those fundamental problems occurring during the propagation of ultrasound at high temperature, a shear horizontal waveguide technique for wall thickness monitoring at high temperatures is developed. A dry clamping device without a couplant for the acoustic contact between waveguide and pipe surface was designed and fabricated. The shear horizontal waveguides and clamping device result in an excellent S/N ratio and high accuracy of measurement with long exposure in an elevated temperature condition. A computer program for on-line monitoring of the pipe thickness at high temperature for a long period of time was developed. The system can be applied to monitor the FAC in carbon steel piping in a nuclear power plant after a verification test for a long period of time

  1. Improving Land Surface Temperature Retrievals over Mountainous Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgílio A. Bento

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms for Land Surface Temperature (LST retrieval from infrared measurements are usually sensitive to the amount of water vapor present in the atmosphere. The Satellite Application Facilities on Climate Monitoring and Land Surface Analysis (CM SAF and LSA SAF are currently compiling a 25 year LST Climate data record (CDR, which uses water vapor information from ERA-Int reanalysis. However, its relatively coarse spatial resolution may lead to systematic errors in the humidity profiles with implications in LST, particularly over mountainous areas. The present study compares LST estimated with three different retrieval algorithms: a radiative transfer-based physical mono-window (PMW, a statistical mono-window (SMW, and a generalized split-windows (GSW. The algorithms were tested over the Alpine region using ERA-Int reanalysis data and relied on the finer spatial scale Consortium for Small-Scale Modelling (COSMO model data as a reference. Two methods were developed to correct ERA-Int water vapor misestimation: (1 an exponential parametrization of total precipitable water (TPW appropriate for SMW/GSW; and (2 a level reduction method to be used in PMW. When ERA-Int TPW was used, the algorithm missed the right TPW class in 87% of the cases. When the exponential parametrization was used, the missing class rate decreased to 9%, and when the level reduction method was applied, the LST corrections went up to 1.7 K over the study region. Overall, the correction for pixel orography in TPW leads to corrections in LST estimations, which are relevant to ensure that long-term LST records meet climate requirements, particularly over mountainous regions.

  2. Surface kinetic temperature mapping using satellite spectral data in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result revealed that despite the limited topographic differences of the rift lakes and their proximity, the surface kinetic temperature difference is high, mainly due to groundwater and surface water fluxes. From thermal signature analysis two hot springs below the lake bed of Ziway were discovered. The various hot springs ...

  3. Tritium contaminated surface monitoring with a solid - state device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Curuia, Marian; Enache, Adrian; Stefanescu, Ioan; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel

    2004-01-01

    The low energy of betas makes tritium difficult to detect. However, there are several methods used in tritium detection, such as liquid scintillation and ionization chambers. Tritium on or near a surface can be also detected using proportional counters and, recently, solid state devices. The paper presents our results in the design and achievement of a surface tritium monitor using a PIN photodiode as a solid state charged particle detector to count betas emitted from the surface. That method allows continuous, real-time and non-destructively measuring of tritium. (authors)

  4. Potential utility of the thematic mapper for surface mine monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irons, J.R.; Lachowski, H.M.

    1981-01-01

    One of many potential applications of the thematic mapper (TM) is surface mine monitoring. To assess this potential, data acquired by an aircraft multispectral scanner over Pennsylvania surface mines were preprocessed to simulate the anticipated spectral, spatial, and radiometric characteristics of TM data. False color imagery and thematic maps were derived from the simulated data and compared to imagery and maps derived from LANDSAT multispectral scanner subsystems data. On the basis of this comparison, TM data should definitely increase the detail and accuracy of remotely acquired surface mine information and may enable the remote determination of compliance with reclamation regulations

  5. Improvement of a device for monitoring the contamination of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, Albert.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this invention is to make it possible to monitor the contamination of surfaces by a light weight portable device and enabling the alpha, beta and gamma radiation contamination to be detected. The detection probe which is connected by a single lead to the box is adapted, in each particular case, to the radiation mode emitted by the contaminated surfaces and the box is provided with a special leak-proof socket for connecting the probe and includes means for assessing the counting rate of the radiation given off, depending on the mode of the radiations emitted by the contaminated surfaces and the intensity of the count rate [fr

  6. Evidence on a link between the intensity of Schumann resonance and global surface temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sekiguchi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A correlation is investigated between the intensity of the global electromagnetic oscillations (Schumann resonance with the planetary surface temperature. The electromagnetic signal was monitored at Moshiri (Japan, and temperature data were taken from surface meteorological observations. The series covers the period from November 1998 to May 2002. The Schumann resonance intensity is found to vary coherently with the global ground temperature in the latitude interval from 45° S to 45° N: the relevant cross-correlation coefficient reaches the value of 0.9. It slightly increases when the high-latitude temperature is incorporated. Correspondence among the data decreases when we reduce the latitude interval, which indicates the important role of the middle-latitude lightning in the Schumann resonance oscillations. We apply the principal component (or singular spectral analysis to the electromagnetic and temperature records to extract annual, semiannual, and interannual variations. The principal component analysis (PCA clarifies the links between electromagnetic records and meteorological data.

  7. Temperature Dependence of Arn+ Cluster Backscattering from Polymer Surfaces: a New Method to Determine the Surface Glass Transition Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleunis, Claude; Cristaudo, Vanina; Delcorte, Arnaud

    2018-01-01

    In this work, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used to study the intensity variations of the backscattered Ar n + clusters as a function of temperature for several amorphous polymer surfaces (polyolefins, polystyrene, and polymethyl methacrylate). For all these investigated polymers, our results show a transition of the ratio Ar 2 + /(Ar 2 + + Ar 3 + ) when the temperature is scanned from -120 °C to +125 °C (the exact limits depend on the studied polymer). This transition generally spans over a few tens of degrees and the temperature of the inflection point of each curve is always lower than the bulk glass transition temperature (T g ) reported for the considered polymer. Due to the surface sensitivity of the cluster backscattering process (several nanometers), the presented analysis could provide a new method to specifically evaluate a surface transition temperature of polymers, with the same lateral resolution as the gas cluster beam. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  8. Monitoring tablet surface roughness during the film coating process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Rantanen, Jukka

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change of surface roughness and the development of the film during the film coating process using laser profilometer roughness measurements, SEM imaging, and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Surface roughness and texture changes developing during...... the process of film coating tablets were studied by noncontact laser profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An EDX analysis was used to monitor the magnesium stearate and titanium dioxide of the tablets. The tablet cores were film coated with aqueous hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, and the film...... coating was performed using an instrumented pilot-scale side-vented drum coater. The SEM images of the film-coated tablets showed that within the first 30 minutes, the surface of the tablet cores was completely covered with a thin film. The magnesium signal that was monitored by SEM-EDX disappeared after...

  9. Measuring the Surface Temperature of the Cryosphere using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.

    2012-01-01

    A general description of the remote sensing of cryosphere surface temperatures from satellites will be provided. This will give historical information on surface-temperature measurements from space. There will also be a detailed description of measuring the surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data which will be the focus of the presentation. Enhanced melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been documented in recent literature along with surface-temperature increases measured using infrared satellite data since 1981. Using a recently-developed climate data record, trends in the clear-sky ice-surface temperature (IST) of the Greenland Ice Sheet have been studied using the MODIS IST product. Daily and monthly MODIS ISTs of the Greenland Ice Sheet beginning on 1 March 2000 and continuing through 31 December 2010 are now freely available to download at 6.25-km spatial resolution on a polar stereographic grid. Maps showing the maximum extent of melt for the entire ice sheet and for the six major drainage basins have been developed from the MODIS IST dataset. Twelve-year trends of the duration of the melt season on the ice sheet vary in different drainage basins with some basins melting progressively earlier over the course of the study period. Some (but not all) of the basins also show a progressively-longer duration of melt. The consistency of this IST record, with temperature and melt records from other sources will be discussed.

  10. Surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiel, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    During this PhD, the challenges on the non-intrusive surface temperature measurements of metallic plasma facing components in tokamaks are reported. Indeed, a precise material emissivity value is needed for classical infrared methods and the environment contribution has to be known particularly for low emissivities materials. Although methods have been developed to overcome these issues, they have been implemented solely for dedicated experiments. In any case, none of these methods are suitable for surface temperature measurement in tokamaks.The active pyrometry introduced in this study allows surface temperature measurements independently of reflected flux and emissivities using pulsed and modulated photothermal effect. This method has been validated in laboratory on metallic materials with reflected fluxes for pulsed and modulated modes. This experimental validation is coupled with a surface temperature variation induced by photothermal effect and temporal signal evolvement modelling in order to optimize both the heating source characteristics and the data acquisition and treatment. The experimental results have been used to determine the application range in temperature and detection wavelengths. In this context, the design of an active pyrometry system on tokamak has been completed, based on a bicolor camera for a thermography application in metallic (or low emissivity) environment.The active pyrometry method introduced in this study is a complementary technique of classical infrared methods used for thermography in tokamak environment which allows performing local and 2D surface temperature measurements independently of reflected fluxes and emissivities. (author) [fr

  11. Mathematical model of the metal mould surface temperature optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mlynek, Jaroslav, E-mail: jaroslav.mlynek@tul.cz; Knobloch, Roman, E-mail: roman.knobloch@tul.cz [Department of Mathematics, FP Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 2, 461 17 Liberec, The Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Srb, Radek, E-mail: radek.srb@tul.cz [Institute of Mechatronics and Computer Engineering Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 2, 461 17 Liberec, The Czech Republic (Czech Republic)

    2015-11-30

    The article is focused on the problem of generating a uniform temperature field on the inner surface of shell metal moulds. Such moulds are used e.g. in the automotive industry for artificial leather production. To produce artificial leather with uniform surface structure and colour shade the temperature on the inner surface of the mould has to be as homogeneous as possible. The heating of the mould is realized by infrared heaters located above the outer mould surface. The conceived mathematical model allows us to optimize the locations of infrared heaters over the mould, so that approximately uniform heat radiation intensity is generated. A version of differential evolution algorithm programmed in Matlab development environment was created by the authors for the optimization process. For temperate calculations software system ANSYS was used. A practical example of optimization of heaters locations and calculation of the temperature of the mould is included at the end of the article.

  12. Mathematical model of the metal mould surface temperature optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynek, Jaroslav; Knobloch, Roman; Srb, Radek

    2015-01-01

    The article is focused on the problem of generating a uniform temperature field on the inner surface of shell metal moulds. Such moulds are used e.g. in the automotive industry for artificial leather production. To produce artificial leather with uniform surface structure and colour shade the temperature on the inner surface of the mould has to be as homogeneous as possible. The heating of the mould is realized by infrared heaters located above the outer mould surface. The conceived mathematical model allows us to optimize the locations of infrared heaters over the mould, so that approximately uniform heat radiation intensity is generated. A version of differential evolution algorithm programmed in Matlab development environment was created by the authors for the optimization process. For temperate calculations software system ANSYS was used. A practical example of optimization of heaters locations and calculation of the temperature of the mould is included at the end of the article

  13. Quantative determination of surface temperatures using an infrared camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, C.K.; Ellingson, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method is presented to determine the surface-temperature distribution at each point in an infrared picture. To handle the surface reflection problem, three cases are considered that include the use of black coatings, radiation shields, and band-pass filters. For uniform irradiation on the test surface, the irradiation can be measured by using a cooled, convex mirror. Equations are derived to show that this surrounding irradiation effect can be subtracted out from the scanned radiation; thus the net radiation is related to only emission from the surface. To provide for temperature measurements over a large field, the image-processing technique is used to digitize the infrared data. The paper spells out procedures that involve the use of a computer for making point-by-point temperature calculations. Finally, a sample case is given to illustrate applications of the method. 6 figures, 1 table

  14. Symmetric scaling properties in global surface air temperature anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varotsos, Costas A.; Efstathiou, Maria N.

    2015-08-01

    We have recently suggested "long-term memory" or internal long-range correlation within the time-series of land-surface air temperature (LSAT) anomalies in both hemispheres. For example, an increasing trend in the LSAT anomalies is followed by another one at a different time in a power-law fashion. However, our previous research was mainly focused on the overall long-term persistence, while in the present study, the upward and downward scaling dynamics of the LSAT anomalies are analysed, separately. Our results show that no significant fluctuation differences were found between the increments and decrements in LSAT anomalies, over the whole Earth and over each hemisphere, individually. On the contrary, the combination of land-surface air and sea-surface water temperature anomalies seemed to cause a departure from symmetry and the increments in the land and sea surface temperature anomalies appear to be more persistent than the decrements.

  15. Coaxial monitoring of temperature field in selective pulsed laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Che; Chen, Zhongyun; Cao, Hongzhong; Zhou, Jianhong

    2017-10-01

    Selective Laser Melting is a rapid manufacturing technology which produces complex parts layer by layer. The presence of thermal stress and thermal strain in the forming process often leads to defects in the formed parts. In order to detect fabricate errors and avoid failure which caused by thermal gradient in time. An infrared thermal imager and a high speed CCD camera were applied to build a coaxial optical system for real-time monitoring the temperature distribution and changing trend of laser affected zone in SLM forming process. Molten tracks were fabricated by SLM under different laser parameters such as frequency, pulse width. And the relationship between the laser parameters and the temperature distribution were all obtained and analyzed.

  16. A new temperature threshold detector - Application to missile monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coston, C. J.; Higgins, E. V.

    Comprehensive thermal surveys within the case of solid propellant ballistic missile flight motors are highly desirable. For example, a problem involving motor failures due to insulator cracking at motor ignition, which took several years to solve, could have been identified immediately on the basis of a suitable thermal survey. Using conventional point measurements, such as those utilizing typical thermocouples, for such a survey on a full scale motor is not feasible because of the great number of sensors and measurements required. An alternate approach recognizes that temperatures below a threshold (which depends on the material being monitored) are acceptable, but higher temperatures exceed design margins. In this case hot spots can be located by a grid of wire-like sensors which are sensitive to temperature above the threshold anywhere along the sensor. A new type of temperature threshold detector is being developed for flight missile use. The considered device consists of KNO3 separating copper and Constantan metals. Above the KNO3 MP, galvanic action provides a voltage output of a few tenths of a volt.

  17. A Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC) for surface energy balance fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallick, Kaniska; Jarvis, Andrew J.; Boegh, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The use of Penman–Monteith (PM) equation in thermal remote sensing based surface energy balance modeling is not prevalent due to the unavailability of any direct method to integrate thermal data into the PM equation and due to the lack of physical models expressing the surface (or stomatal......) and boundary layer conductances (gS and gB) as a function of surface temperature. Here we demonstrate a new method that physically integrates the radiometric surface temperature (TS) into the PM equation for estimating the terrestrial surface energy balance fluxes (sensible heat, H and latent heat, λ......E). The method combines satellite TS data with standard energy balance closure models in order to derive a hybrid closure that does not require the specification of surface to atmosphere conductance terms. We call this the Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC), which is formed by the simultaneous solution...

  18. Diode temperature sensor array for measuring and controlling micro scale surface temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Il Young; Kim, Sung Jin

    2004-01-01

    The needs of micro scale thermal detecting technique are increasing in biology and chemical industry. For example, thermal finger print, Micro PCR(Polymer Chain Reaction), TAS and so on. To satisfy these needs, we developed a DTSA(Diode Temperature Sensor Array) for detecting and controlling the temperature on small surface. The DTSA is fabricated by using VLSI technique. It consists of 32 array of diodes(1,024 diodes) for temperature detection and 8 heaters for temperature control on a 8mm surface area. The working principle of temperature detection is that the forward voltage drop across a silicon diode is approximately proportional to the inverse of the absolute temperature of diode. And eight heaters (1K) made of poly-silicon are added onto a silicon wafer and controlled individually to maintain a uniform temperature distribution across the DTSA. Flip chip packaging used for easy connection of the DTSA. The circuitry for scanning and controlling DTSA are also developed

  19. Monitoring the Vadose Zone Moisture Regime Below a Surface Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, C. E.; Field, J. G.

    2009-12-01

    A 6000 m2 interim surface barrier has been constructed over a portion of the T Tank Farm in the Depart of Energy’s Hanford site. The purpose of using a surface barrier was to reduce or eliminate the infiltration of meteoric precipitation into the contaminated soil zone due to past leaks from Tank T-106 and hence to reduce the rate of movement of the plume. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture is being monitored to assess the effectiveness of the barrier on the reduction of soil moisture flow. A vadose zone monitoring system was installed to measure soil water conditions at four horizontal locations (i.e., instrument Nests A, B, C, and D) outside, near the edge of, and beneath the barrier. Each instrument nest consists of a capacitance probe with multiple sensors, multiple heat-dissipation units, and a neutron probe access tube used to measure soil-water content and soil-water pressure. Nest A serves as a control by providing subsurface conditions outside the influence of the surface barrier. Nest B provides subsurface measurements to assess barrier edge effects. Nests C and D are used to assess the impact of the surface barrier on soil-moisture conditions beneath it. Monitoring began in September 2006 and continues to the present. To date, the monitoring system has provided high-quality data. Results show that the soil beneath the barrier has been draining from the shallower depth. The lack of climate-caused seasonal variation of soil water condition beneath the barrier indicates that the surface barrier has minimized water exchange between the soil and the atmosphere.

  20. An experimental method for making spectral emittance and surface temperature measurements of opaque surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Travis J.; Jones, Matthew R.; Tree, Dale R.; Daniel Maynes, R.; Baxter, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental procedure has been developed to make spectral emittance and temperature measurements. The spectral emittance of an object is calculated using measurements of the spectral emissive power and of the surface temperature of the object obtained using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. A calibration procedure is described in detail which accounts for the temperature dependence of the detector. The methods used to extract the spectral emissive power and surface temperature from measured infrared spectra were validated using a blackbody radiator at known temperatures. The average error in the measured spectral emittance was 2.1% and the average difference between the temperature inferred from the recorded spectra and the temperature indicated on the blackbody radiator was 1.2%. The method was used to measure the spectral emittance of oxidized copper at various temperatures.

  1. Assessment of broiler surface temperature variation when exposed to different air temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR Nascimento

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of the air temperature variation on the mean surface temperature (MST of 7- to 35-day-old broiler chickens using infrared thermometry to estimate MST, and to study surface temperature variation of the wings, head, legs, back and comb as affected by air temperature and broiler age. One hundred Cobb® broilers were used in the experiment. Starting on day 7, 10 birds were weekly selected at random, housed in an environmental chamber and reared under three distinct temperatures (18, 25 and 32 ºC to record their thermal profile using an infrared thermal camera. The recorded images were processed to estimate MST by selecting the whole area of the bird within the picture and comparing it with the values obtained using selected equations in literature, and to record the surface temperatures of the body parts. The MST estimated by infrared images were not statistically different (p > 0.05 from the values obtained by the equations. MST values significantly increased (p < 0.05 when the air temperature increased, but were not affected by bird age. However, age influenced the difference between MST and air temperature, which was highest on day 14. The technique of infrared thermal image analysis was useful to estimate the mean surface temperature of broiler chickens.

  2. A Runway Surface Monitor using Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, Amedeo; Pasero, Eros

    2014-05-01

    The monitoring of runway surfaces, for the detection of ice formation or presence of water, is an important issue for reducing maintenance costs and improving traffic safety. An innovative sensor was developed to detect the presence of ice or water on its surface, and its repeatability, stability and reliability were assessed in different simulations and experiments, performed both in laboratory and in the field. Three sensors were embedded in the runway of the Turin-Caselle airport, in the north-west of Italy, to check the state of its surface. Each sensor was connected to a GPRS modem to send the collected data to a common database. The entire system was installed about three years ago, and up to now it shows correct work and automatic reactivation after malfunctions without any external help. The state of the runway surface is virtual represented in an internet website, using the Internet of Things features and opening new scenarios.

  3. Variability of emissivity and surface temperature over a sparsely vegetated surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humes, K.S.; Kustas, W.P.; Moran, M.S.; Nichols, W.D.; Weltz, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Radiometric surface temperatures obtained from remote sensing measurements are a function of both the physical surface temperature and the effective emissivity of the surface within the band pass of the radiometric measurement. For sparsely vegetated areas, however, a sensor views significant fractions of both bare soil and various vegetation types. In this case the radiometric response of a sensor is a function of the emissivities and kinetic temperatures of various surface elements, the proportion of those surface elements within the field of view of the sensor, and the interaction of radiation emitted from the various surface components. In order to effectively utilize thermal remote sensing data to quantify energy balance components for a sparsely vegetated area, it is important to examine the typical magnitude and degree of variability of emissivity and surface temperature for such surfaces. Surface emissivity measurements and ground and low-altitude-aircraft-based surface temperature measurements (8-13 micrometer band pass) made in conjunction with the Monsoon '90 field experiment were used to evaluate the typical variability of those quantities during the summer rainy season in a semiarid watershed. The average value for thermal band emissivity of the exposed bare soil portions of the surface was found to be approximately 0.96; the average value measured for most of the varieties of desert shrubs present was approximately 0.99. Surface composite emissivity was estimated to be approximately 0.98 for both the grass-dominated and shrub-dominated portions of the watershed. The spatial variability of surface temperature was found to be highly dependent on the spatial scale of integration for the instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of the instrument, the spatial scale of the total area under evaluation, and the time of day

  4. Surface water classification and monitoring using polarimetric synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Katherine Elizabeth

    Surface water classification using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is an established practice for monitoring flood hazards due to the high temporal and spatial resolution it provides. Surface water change is a dynamic process that varies both spatially and temporally, and can occur on various scales resulting in significant impacts on affected areas. Small-scale flooding hazards, caused by beaver dam failure, is an example of surface water change, which can impact nearby infrastructure and ecosystems. Assessing these hazards is essential to transportation and infrastructure maintenance. With current satellite missions operating in multiple polarizations, spatio-temporal resolutions, and frequencies, a comprehensive comparison between SAR products for surface water monitoring is necessary. In this thesis, surface water extent models derived from high resolution single-polarization TerraSAR-X (TSX) data, medium resolution dual-polarization TSX data and low resolution quad-polarization RADARSAT-2 (RS-2) data are compared. There exists a compromise between acquiring SAR data with a high resolution or high information content. Multi-polarization data provides additional phase and intensity information, which makes it possible to better classify areas of flooded vegetation and wetlands. These locations are often where fluctuations in surface water occur and are essential for understanding dynamic underlying processes. However, often multi-polarized data is acquired at a low resolution, which cannot image these zones effectively. High spatial resolution, single-polarization TSX data provides the best model of open water. However, these single-polarization observations have limited information content and are affected by shadow and layover errors. This often hinders the classification of other land cover types. The dual-polarization TSX data allows for the classification of flooded vegetation, but classification is less accurate compared to the quad-polarization RS-2 data

  5. Surface temperature and surface heat flux determination of the inverse heat conduction problem for a slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroyanagi, Toshiyuki

    1983-07-01

    Based on an idea that surface conditions should be a reflection of interior temperature and interior heat flux variation as inverse as interior conditions has been determined completely by the surface temperature and/on surface heat flux as boundary conditions, a method is presented for determining the surface temperature and the surface heat flux of a solid when the temperature and heat flux at an interior point are a prescribed function of time. The method is developed by the integration of Duhumels' integral which has unknown temperature or unknown heat flux in its integrand. Specific forms of surface condition determination are developed for a sample inverse problem: slab. Ducussing the effect of a degree of avairable informations at an interior point due to damped system and the effect of variation of surface conditions on those formulations, it is shown that those formulations are capable of representing the unknown surface conditions except for small time interval followed by discontinuous change of surface conditions. The small un-resolved time interval is demonstrated by a numerical example. An evaluation method of heat flux at an interior point, which is requested by those formulations, is discussed. (author)

  6. Temperature monitoring with FBG sensor during diffuser-assisted laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ngot T.; Lee, Seul Lee; Lee, Yong Wook; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2017-02-01

    Temperature variations are often monitored by using sensors operating at the site of treatment during Laser-induced Interstitial Thermotherapy (LITT). Currently, temperature measurements during LITT have been performed with thermocouples (TCs). However, TCs could directly absorb laser light and lead to self-heating (resulting in an over-estimation). Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors can instead overcome this limitation of the TCs due to its insensitivity to electromagnetic interference. The aim of the current study was to quantitatively evaluate the FBG temperature sensor with a K-type thermocouple to real-time monitor temperature increase in ex vivo tissue during diffuser-assisted LITT. A 4-W 980-nm laser was employed to deliver optical energy in continuous mode through a 600-µm core-diameter diffusing applicator. A goniometric measurement validated the uniform light distribution in polar and longitudinal directions. The FBG sensor showed a linear relationship (R2 = 0.995) between wavelength shift and temperature change in air and tissue along with a sensitivity of 0.0114 nm/˚C. Regardless of sensor type, the measured temperature increased with irradiation time and applied power but decreased with increasing distance from the diffuser surface. The temperature elevation augmented the degree of thermal coagulation in the tissue during LITT (4.0±0.3-mm at 99˚C after 120-s). The temperature elevation augmented the degree of thermal coagulation in the tissue during LITT s irradiation). The FBG-integrated diffuser was able to monitor the interstitial temperature in tubular tissue (porcine urethra) real-time during laser treatment. However, the thermal coagulation thickness of the porcine urethra was measured to be 1.5 mm that was slightly thicker ( 20%) than that of the bovine liver after 4-W 980-nm laser for 48 s. The FBG temperature sensor can be a feasible tool to real-time monitor the temporal development of the temperature during the diffuser-assisted LITT to

  7. Body surface mounted biomedical monitoring system using Bluetooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambu, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Continuous monitoring in daily life is important for the health condition control of the elderly. However, portable or wearable devices need to carry by user on their own will. On the other hand, implantation sensors are not adoptable, because of generic users dislike to insert the any object in the body for monitoring. Therefore, another monitoring system of the health condition to carry it easily is necessary. In addition, ID system is necessary even if the subject live with few families. Furthermore, every measurement system should be wireless system, because not to obstruct the daily life of the user. In this paper, we propose the monitoring system, which is mounted on the body surface. This system will not obstruct the action or behavior of user in daily life, because this system attached the body surface on the back of the user. In addition, this system has wireless communication system, using Bluetooth, and acquired data transfer to the outside of the house via the Internet.

  8. High-Temperature Surface-Acoustic-Wave Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoliang; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft-engine rotating equipment usually operates at high temperature and stress. Non-invasive inspection of microcracks in those components poses a challenge for the non-destructive evaluation community. A low-profile ultrasonic guided wave sensor can detect cracks in situ. The key feature of the sensor is that it should withstand high temperatures and excite strong surface wave energy to inspect surface/subsurface cracks. As far as the innovators know at the time of this reporting, there is no existing sensor that is mounted to the rotor disks for crack inspection; the most often used technology includes fluorescent penetrant inspection or eddy-current probes for disassembled part inspection. An efficient, high-temperature, low-profile surface acoustic wave transducer design has been identified and tested for nondestructive evaluation of structures or materials. The development is a Sol-Gel bismuth titanate-based surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) sensor that can generate efficient surface acoustic waves for crack inspection. The produced sensor is very thin (submillimeter), and can generate surface waves up to 540 C. Finite element analysis of the SAW transducer design was performed to predict the sensor behavior, and experimental studies confirmed the results. One major uniqueness of the Sol-Gel bismuth titanate SAW sensor is that it is easy to implement to structures of various shapes. With a spray coating process, the sensor can be applied to surfaces of large curvatures. Second, the sensor is very thin (as a coating) and has very minimal effect on airflow or rotating equipment imbalance. Third, it can withstand temperatures up to 530 C, which is very useful for engine applications where high temperature is an issue.

  9. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW Resonators for Monitoring Conditioning Film Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Hohmann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose surface acoustic wave (SAW resonators as a complementary tool for conditioning film monitoring. Conditioning films are formed by adsorption of inorganic and organic substances on a substrate the moment this substrate comes into contact with a liquid phase. In the case of implant insertion, for instance, initial protein adsorption is required to start wound healing, but it will also trigger immune reactions leading to inflammatory responses. The control of the initial protein adsorption would allow to promote the healing process and to suppress adverse immune reactions. Methods to investigate these adsorption processes are available, but it remains difficult to translate measurement results into actual protein binding events. Biosensor transducers allow user-friendly investigation of protein adsorption on different surfaces. The combination of several transduction principles leads to complementary results, allowing a more comprehensive characterization of the adsorbing layer. We introduce SAW resonators as a novel complementary tool for time-resolved conditioning film monitoring. SAW resonators were coated with polymers. The adsorption of the plasma proteins human serum albumin (HSA and fibrinogen onto the polymer-coated surfaces were monitored. Frequency results were compared with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor measurements, which confirmed the suitability of the SAW resonators for this application.

  10. Sea surface temperature trends in the coastal ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Amos, C.L.; Al-Rashidi, Thamer B.; Rakha, Karim; El-Gamily, Hamdy; Nicholls, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) trends in the coastal zone are shown to be increasing at rates that exceed the global trends by up to an order of magnitude. This paper compiles some of the evidence of the trends published in the literature. The evidence suggests that urbanization in the coastal hinterland is having a direct effect on SST through increased temperatures of river and lake waters, as well as through heated run-off and thermal effluent discharges from coastal infrastructure. These l...

  11. Long-term changes in sea surface temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Historical observations of sea surface temperature since 1856 have been improved by applying corrections to compensate for the predominant use of uninsulated or partly insulated buckets until the Second World War. There are large gaps in coverage in the late nineteenth century and around the two world wars, but a range of statistical techniques suggest that these gaps do not severely prejudice estimates of global and regional climatic change. Nonetheless, to improve the analysis on smaller scales, many unused historical data are to be digitized and incorporated. For recent years, satellite-based sea surface temperatures have improved the coverage, after adjustments for their biases relative to in situ data. An initial version of a nominally globally complete sea ice and interpolated sea surface temperature data set, beginning in 1871, has been created for use in numerical simulations of recent climate. Long time series of corrected regional, hemispheric, and global sea surface temperatures are mostly consistent with corresponding night marine air temperature series, and confirm the regionally specific climatic changes portrayed in the Scientific Assessments of the intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The observations also show an El Nino-like oscillation on bidecadal and longer time scales

  12. Diurnal Variations of Titan's Surface Temperatures From Cassini -CIRS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, Conor; Jennings, Don; Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, Robert; Irwin, Patrick; Flasar, F. Michael

    The Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) observations of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, are providing us with the ability to detect the surface temperature of the planet by studying its outgoing radiance through a spectral window in the thermal infrared at 19 m (530 cm-1) characterized by low opacity. Since the first acquisitions of CIRS Titan data the in-strument has gathered a large amount of spectra covering a wide range of latitudes, longitudes and local times. We retrieve the surface temperature and the atmospheric temperature pro-file by modeling proper zonally averaged spectra of nadir observations with radiative transfer computations. Our forward model uses the correlated-k approximation for spectral opacity to calculate the emitted radiance, including contributions from collision induced pairs of CH4, N2 and H2, haze, and gaseous emission lines (Irwin et al. 2008). The retrieval method uses a non-linear least-squares optimal estimation technique to iteratively adjust the model parameters to achieve a spectral fit (Rodgers 2000). We show an accurate selection of the wide amount of data available in terms of footprint diameter on the planet and observational conditions, together with the retrieved results. Our results represent formal retrievals of surface brightness temperatures from the Cassini CIRS dataset using a full radiative transfer treatment, and we compare to the earlier findings of Jennings et al. (2009). The application of our methodology over wide areas has increased the planet coverage and accuracy of our knowledge of Titan's surface brightness temperature. In particular we had the chance to look for diurnal variations in surface temperature around the equator: a trend with slowly increasing temperature toward the late afternoon reveals that diurnal temperature changes are present on Titan surface. References: Irwin, P.G.J., et al.: "The NEMESIS planetary atmosphere radiative transfer and retrieval tool" (2008). JQSRT, Vol. 109, pp

  13. Titan's Surface Temperatures Maps from Cassini - CIRS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Anderson, C. M.; Samuelson, R. E.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.

    2009-09-01

    The Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) observations of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, are providing us with the ability to detect the surface temperature of the planet by studying its outgoing radiance through a spectral window in the thermal infrared at 19 μm (530 cm-1) characterized by low opacity. Since the first acquisitions of CIRS Titan data the instrument has gathered a large amount of spectra covering a wide range of latitudes, longitudes and local times. We retrieve the surface temperature and the atmospheric temperature profile by modeling proper zonally averaged spectra of nadir observations with radiative transfer computations. Our forward model uses the correlated-k approximation for spectral opacity to calculate the emitted radiance, including contributions from collision induced pairs of CH4, N2 and H2, haze, and gaseous emission lines (Irwin et al. 2008). The retrieval method uses a non-linear least-squares optimal estimation technique to iteratively adjust the model parameters to achieve a spectral fit (Rodgers 2000). We show an accurate selection of the wide amount of data available in terms of footprint diameter on the planet and observational conditions, together with the retrieved results. Our results represent formal retrievals of surface brightness temperatures from the Cassini CIRS dataset using a full radiative transfer treatment, and we compare to the earlier findings of Jennings et al. (2009). In future, application of our methodology over wide areas should greatly increase the planet coverage and accuracy of our knowledge of Titan's surface brightness temperature. References: Irwin, P.G.J., et al.: "The NEMESIS planetary atmosphere radiative transfer and retrieval tool" (2008). JQSRT, Vol. 109, pp. 1136-1150, 2008. Rodgers, C. D.: "Inverse Methods For Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice". World Scientific, Singapore, 2000. Jennings, D.E., et al.: "Titan's Surface Brightness Temperatures." Ap. J. L., Vol. 691, pp. L103-L

  14. Long-range alpha detection applied to soil surface monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caress, R.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Catlett, M.M.; MacArthur, D.W.; Rutherford, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    The long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technique depends on the detection of ion pairs generated by alpha particles losing energy in air rather than on detection of the alpha particles themselves. Typical alpha particles generated by uranium will travel less than 3 cm in air. In contrast, the ions have been successfully detected many inches or feet away from the contamination. Since LRAD detection systems are sensitive to all ions simultaneously, large LRAD soil surface monitors (SSMS) can be used to collect all of the ions from a large sample. The LRAD SSMs are designed around the fan-less LRAD detector. In this case a five-sided box with an open bottom is placed on the soil surface. Ions generated by alpha decays on the soil surface are collected on a charged copper plate within the box. These ions create a small current from the plate to ground which is monitored with a sensitive electrometer. The current measured is proportional to the number of ions in the box, which is, in turn, proportional to the amount of alpha contamination on the surface of the soil. This report includes the design and construction of a 1-m by 1-m SSM as well as the results of a study at Fernald, OH, as part of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration

  15. The Remote Sensing of Surface Radiative Temperature over Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    remote sensing of surface radiative temperature over Barbados was undertaken using a PRT-5 attached to a light aircraft. Traverses across the centre of the island, over the rugged east coast area, and the urban area of Bridgetown were undertaken at different times of day and night in the last week of June and the first week of December, 1969. These traverses show that surface variations in long-wave radiation emission lie within plus or minus 5% of the observations over grass at a representative site. The quick response of the surface to sunset and sunrise was

  16. High Temperature Monitoring the Height of Condensed Water in Steam Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Widholm, Scott; Ostlund, Patrick; Blosiu, Julian

    2011-01-01

    An in-service health monitoring system is needed for steam pipes to track through their wall the condensation of water. The system is required to measure the height of the condensed water inside the pipe while operating at temperatures that are as high as 250 deg. C. The system needs to be able to make real time measurements while accounting for the effects of cavitation and wavy water surface. For this purpose, ultrasonic wave in pulse-echo configuration was used and reflected signals were acquired and auto-correlated to remove noise from the data and determine the water height. Transmitting and receiving the waves is done by piezoelectric transducers having Curie temperature that is significantly higher than 250 deg. C. Measurements were made at temperatures as high as 250 deg. C and have shown the feasibility of the test method. This manuscript reports the results of this feasibility study.

  17. An Estimation of Land Surface Temperatures from Landsat ETM+ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr-Adeline

    Keywords: Urban growth, urban heat Island, land surface temperatures, ... climate from the resulting increase in LST can impact on the development of ... were not available (due to high cloud cover) in a given season, 2011 images ..... Sailor, D.J. and H. Fan, 2002: Modeling the diurnal variability of effective albedo for cities.

  18. Solitary ionizing surface waves on low-temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, S.V.; Yu, M.Y.

    1993-01-01

    It is demonstrated that at the boundary of semi-infinite low-temperature plasma new types of localized ionizing surface wave structures can propagate. The solitary waves are described by an evolution equation similar to the KdV equation, but the solutions differ considerably from that of the latter

  19. Sea surface temperature anomalies in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.

    temperature anomalies for the above regions respectively. An analysis has shown that most of the short duration anomalies (i.e., anomalies with periods less than 4 months) are driven by the surface heat fluxes. The medium duration anomalies (i.e., anomalies...

  20. An operational analysis of Lake Surface Water Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma K. Fiedler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Operational analyses of Lake Surface Water Temperature (LSWT have many potential uses including improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP models on regional scales. In November 2011, LSWT was included in the Met Office Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Ice Analysis (OSTIA product, for 248 lakes globally. The OSTIA analysis procedure, which has been optimised for oceans, has also been used for the lakes in this first version of the product. Infra-red satellite observations of lakes and in situ measurements are assimilated. The satellite observations are based on retrievals optimised for Sea Surface Temperature (SST which, although they may introduce inaccuracies into the LSWT data, are currently the only near-real-time information available. The LSWT analysis has a global root mean square difference of 1.31 K and a mean difference of 0.65 K (including a cool skin effect of 0.2 K compared to independent data from the ESA ARC-Lake project for a 3-month period (June to August 2009. It is demonstrated that the OSTIA LSWT is an improvement over the use of climatology to capture the day-to-day variation in global lake surface temperatures.

  1. Surface and temperature effects in isovector giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipparini, E.; Stringari, S.

    1988-01-01

    Using the liquid droplet model (LDM) we investigate three different sum rules for the isovector dipole and monopole excitations. Analytical formulae are derived for the excitation energies of these resonances and the predictions are compared with experiments. The role of the surface and the effects of temperature are explicitly discussed. (orig.)

  2. Surface Intermediates on Metal Electrodes at High Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Jacobsen, Torben; Bay, Lasse

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms widely suggested for the O2-reduc-tion or H2-oxidation SOFC reactions involve inter-mediate O/H species adsorbed on the electrode surface. The presence of these intermediates is investigated by linear sweep voltammetry. In airat moderate temperatures (500øC) Pt in contact with YSZ...

  3. Heterogeneity of soil surface temperature induced by xerophytic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The diurnal maximum and diurnal variations of soil surface temperatures under canopy vary strongly with different .... elevation of 1300 m above sea level), located at the southeastern fringe of ... cipitation is the only source of soil water replenish- ment. ...... 2001 Effects of nutrients and shade on tree-grass inter- actions in an ...

  4. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Global Land Surface Air Temperature Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A station observation-based global land monthly mean surface air temperature dataset at 0.5 0.5 latitude-longitude resolution for the period from 1948 to the present...

  5. Surface intermediates on metal electrodes at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Jacobsen, Torben; Bay, Lasse

    1998-01-01

    The mechanisms widely conceived for the O(2)-reduction or H(2)-oxidation reactions in SOFC's involve intermediate O/H species adsorbed on the electrode surface. The presence of these intermediates is investigated by linear sweep voltammetry. In air at moderate temperatures (500 degrees C) Pt...

  6. Temperature limit values for touching cold surfaces with the fingertip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geng, Q.; Holme, I.; Hartog, E.A. den; Havenith, G.; Jay, O.; Malchaires, J.; Piette, A.; Rintama, H.; Rissanen, S.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: At the request of the European Commission and in the framework of the European Machinery Directive, research was performed in five different laboratories to develop specifications for surface temperature limit values for the short-term accidental touching of the fingertip with cold

  7. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Global Land Surface Air Temperature Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A station observation-based global land monthly mean surface air temperature dataset at 0.5 x 0.5 latitude-longitude resolution for the period from 1948 to the...

  8. A Microring Temperature Sensor Based on the Surface Plasmon Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A structure of microring sensor suitable for temperature measurement based on the surface plasmon wave is put forward in this paper. The sensor uses surface plasmon multilayer waveguiding structure in the vertical direction and U-shaped microring structure in the horizontal direction and utilizes SOI as the thermal material. The transfer function derivation of the structure of surface plasmon microring sensor is according to the transfer matrix method. While the change of refractive index of Si is caused by the change of ambient temperature, the effective refractive index of the multilayer waveguiding structure is changed, resulting in the drifting of the sensor output spectrum. This paper focuses on the transmission characteristics of multilayer waveguide structure and the impact on the output spectrum caused by refractive index changes in temperature parts. According to the calculation and simulation, the transmission performance of the structure is stable and the sensitivity is good. The resonance wavelength shift can reach 0.007 μm when the temperature is increased by 100 k and FSR can reach about 60 nm. This structure achieves a high sensitivity in the temperature sense taking into account a wide range of filter frequency selections, providing a theoretical basis for the preparation of microoptics.

  9. Near-surface temperature gradient in a coastal upwelling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, H.; Ochoa, J.; Almeda-Jauregui, C. O.; Ruiz-de la Torre, M. C.; Cruz-López, R.; Villegas-Mendoza, J. R.

    2014-08-01

    In oceanography, a near homogeneous mixed layer extending from the surface to a seasonal thermocline is a common conceptual basis in physics, chemistry, and biology. In a coastal upwelling region 3 km off the coast in the Mexican Pacific, we measured vertical density gradients with a free-rising CTD and temperature gradients with thermographs at 1, 3, and 5 m depths logging every 5 min during more than a year. No significant salinity gradient was observed down to 10 m depth, and the CTD temperature and density gradients showed no pronounced discontinuity that would suggest a near-surface mixed layer. Thermographs generally logged decreasing temperature with depth with gradients higher than 0.2 K m-1 more than half of the time in the summer between 1 and 3 m, 3 and 5 m and in the winter between 1 and 3 m. Some negative temperature gradients were present and gradients were generally highly variable in time with high peaks lasting fractions of hours to hours. These temporal changes were too rapid to be explained by local heating or cooling. The pattern of positive and negative peaks might be explained by vertical stacks of water layers of different temperatures and different horizontal drift vectors. The observed near-surface gradient has implications for turbulent wind energy transfer, vertical exchange of dissolved and particulate water constituents, the interpretation of remotely sensed SST, and horizontal wind-induced transport.

  10. Long-term monitoring of temperature in the subsoil using Fiber Optic Distributed Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, Kusnahadi; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Gance, Julien; Marc, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    Monitoring changes in soil water content in the vadose zone of soils is a great importance for various hydrological, agronomical, ecological and environmental studies. By using soil temperature measurements with Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (FO-DTS), we can indirectly document soil water changes at high spatial and temporal frequency. In this research, we installed an observatory of soil temperature on a representative black marl slope of the long-term Draix-Bléone hydrological observatory (South French Alps, Réseau de Basins-Versants / RBV). A 350 m long reinforced fiber optic cable was buried at 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 m of depths and installed at the soil surface. The total length of the monitored profile is 60 m, and it three different soil units consisting of argillaceous weathered black marls, silty colluvium under grass and silty colluvium under forest. Soil temperature is measured every 6 minutes at a spatial resolution of 0.50 m using a double-ended configuration. Both passive and active (heating of the FO) is used to document soil water changes. We present the analysis of a period of 6 months of temperature measurements (January-July 2016). Changes in soil temperature at various temporal scales (rainfall event, season) and for the three units are discussed. These changes indicate different processes of water infiltration at different velocities in relation to the presence of roots and the soil permeability. We further test several inversion strategies to estimate soil water content from the thermal diffusivity of the soils using simple and more complex thermal models. Some limitations of using this indirect technique for long-term monitoring are also presented. The work is supported by the research project HYDROSLIDE and the large infrastructure project CRITEX funded by the French Research Agency (ANR).

  11. Sensors and OBIA synergy for operational monitoring of surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Eric; Thenard, Lucas

    2010-05-01

    This contribution will focus on combining Object Based Image Analysis (i.e. OBIA with e-Cognition 8) and recent sensors (i.e. Spot 5 XS, Pan and ALOS Prism, Avnir2, Palsar) to address the technical feasibility for an operational monitoring of surface water. Three cases of river meandering (India), flood mapping (Nepal) and dam's seasonal water level monitoring (Morocco) using recent sensors will present various application of surface water monitoring. The operational aspect will be demonstrated either by sensor properties (i.e. spatial resolution and bandwidth), data acquisition properties (i.e. multi sensor, return period and near real-time acquisition) but also with OBIA algorithms (i.e. fusion of multi sensors / multi resolution data and batch processes). In the first case of river meandering (India) we will address multi sensor and multi date satellite acquisition to monitor the river bed mobility within a floodplain using an ALOS dataset. It will demonstrate the possibility of an operational monitoring system that helps the geomorphologist in the analysis of fluvial dynamic and sediment budget for high energy rivers. In the second case of flood mapping (Nepal) we will address near real time Palsar data acquisition at high spatial resolution to monitor and to map a flood extension. This ALOS sensor takes benefit both from SAR and L band properties (i.e. atmospheric transparency, day/night acquisition, low sensibility to surface wind). It's a real achievement compared to optical imagery or even other high resolution SAR properties (i.e. acquisition swath, bandwidth and data price). These advantages meet the operational needs set by crisis management of hydrological disasters but also for the implementation of flood risk management plans. The last case of dam surface water monitoring (Morocco) will address an important issue of water resource management in countries affected by water scarcity. In such countries water users have to cope with over exploitation

  12. Effects of temperature and surface orientation on migration behaviours of helium atoms near tungsten surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoshuang; Wu, Zhangwen; Hou, Qing, E-mail: qhou@scu.edu.cn

    2015-10-15

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the dependence of migration behaviours of single helium atoms near tungsten surfaces on the surface orientation and temperature. For W{100} and W{110} surfaces, He atoms can quickly escape out near the surface without accumulation even at a temperature of 400 K. The behaviours of helium atoms can be well-described by the theory of continuous diffusion of particles in a semi-infinite medium. For a W{111} surface, the situation is complex. Different types of trap mutations occur within the neighbouring region of the W{111} surface. The trap mutations hinder the escape of He atoms, resulting in their accumulation. The probability of a He atom escaping into vacuum from a trap mutation depends on the type of the trap mutation, and the occurrence probabilities of the different types of trap mutations are dependent on the temperature. This finding suggests that the escape rate of He atoms on the W{111} surface does not show a monotonic dependence on temperature. For instance, the escape rate at T = 1500 K is lower than the rate at T = 1100 K. Our results are useful for understanding the structural evolution and He release on tungsten surfaces and for designing models in other simulation methods beyond molecular dynamics.

  13. Numerically predicting horizontally oriented spent fuel rod surface temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.D.; Koski, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    A comparison between numerical calculations with use of commercial thermal analysis software packages and experimental data simulating a horizontally oriented spent fuel rod array was performed. Twelve cases were analyzed using air and helium for the fill gas, with three different heat dissipation levels. The numerically predicted temperatures are higher than the experimental data for all levels of heat dissipation with air as the fill gas. The temperature differences are 4 degrees C and 23 degrees C for the low heat dissipation and high dissipation, respectively. The temperature predictions using helium as a fill gas are lower than the experimental data for the low and medium heat dissipation levels. The temperature predictions are 1 degrees C and 6 degrees C lower than the experimental data for the low and medium heat dissipation, respectively. For the high heat dissipation level, the temperature predictions are 16 degrees C higher than the experimental data. Differences between the predicted and experimental temperatures can be attributed to several factors. These factors include a experimental uncertainity in the temperature and heat dissipation measurements, actual convection effects not included in the model, and axial heat flow in the experimental data. This works demonstrates that horizontally oriented spent fuel rod surface temperature predictions can be made using existing commercial software packages. This work also shows that end effects, such as axial heat transfer through the spent fuel rods, will be increasingly important as the amount of dissipated heat increases

  14. Numerically predicting horizontally oriented spent fuel rod surface temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.D.; Koski, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    A comparison between numerical calculations with use of commercial thermal analysis software packages and experimental data simulating a horizontally oriented spent fuel rod array was performed. Twelve cases were analyzed using air and helium for the fill gas, with three different heat dissipation levels. The numerically predicted temperatures are higher than the experimental data for all levels of heat dissipation with air as the fill gas. The temperature differences are 4 degree C and 23 degree C for the low heat dissipation and high heat dissipation, respectively. The temperature predictions using helium as a fill gas are lower than the experimental data for the low and medium heat dissipation levels. The temperature predictions are 1 degree C and 6 degree C lower than the experimental data for the low and medium heat dissipation, respectively. For the high heat dissipation level, the temperature predictions are 16 degree C higher than the experimental data. Differences between the predicted and experimental temperatures can be attributed to several factors. These factors include experimental uncertainty in the temperature and heat dissipation measurements, actual convection effects not included in the model, and axial heat flow in the experimental data. This work demonstrates that horizontally oriented spent fuel rod surface temperature predictions can be made using existing commercial software packages. This work also shows that end effects, such as axial heat transfer through the spent fuel rods, will be increasingly important as the amount of dissipated heat increases

  15. Pesticide monitoring in surface water and groundwater using passive samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodes, V.; Grabic, R.

    2009-04-01

    Passive samplers as screening devices have been used within a czech national water quality monitoring network since 2002 (SPMD and DGT samplers for non polar substances and metals). The passive sampler monitoring of surface water was extended to polar substances, in 2005. Pesticide and pharmaceutical POCIS samplers have been exposed in surface water at 21 locations and analysed for polar pesticides, perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals. Pesticide POCIS samplers in groundwater were exposed at 5 locations and analysed for polar pesticides. The following active substances of plant protection products were analyzed in surface water and groundwater using LC/MS/MS: 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, Acetochlor, Alachlor, Atrazine, Atrazine_desethyl, Azoxystrobin, Bentazone, Bromacil, Bromoxynil, Carbofuran, Clopyralid, Cyanazin, Desmetryn, Diazinon, Dicamba, Dichlobenil, Dichlorprop, Dimethoat, Diuron, Ethofumesate, Fenarimol, Fenhexamid, Fipronil, Fluazifop-p-butyl, Hexazinone, Chlorbromuron, Chlorotoluron, Imazethapyr, Isoproturon, Kresoxim-methyl, Linuron, MCPA, MCPP, Metalaxyl, Metamitron, Methabenzthiazuron, Methamidophos, Methidathion, Metobromuron, Metolachlor, Metoxuron, Metribuzin, Monolinuron, Nicosulfuron, Phorate, Phosalone, Phosphamidon, Prometryn, Propiconazole, Propyzamide, Pyridate, Rimsulfuron, Simazine, Tebuconazole, Terbuthylazine, Terbutryn, Thifensulfuron-methyl, Thiophanate-methyl and Tri-allate. The POCIS samplers performed very well being able to provide better picture than grab samples. The results show that polar pesticides and also perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals as well occur in hydrosphere of the Czech republic. Acknowledgment: Authors acknowledge the financial support of grant No. 2B06095 by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports.

  16. Monitoring of tritium-contaminated surfaces, including skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surette, R A; Wood, M J

    1994-05-01

    We have examined various commercially available tritium surface contamination monitors along with different swipe media and techniques for direct and indirect (swipe) monitoring of contaminated surfaces, including skin. None of the methods or instruments evaluated were more sensitive than the swipe and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method. Swipe measurements with open-window proportional counters were, in general, less than half as sensitive as LSC, but have the advantages of having the results available almost immediately, and no sample preparation is required. The Nuclear Measurement Corporation`s PC-55 is the most suitable instrument we tested for the analysis of routine swipe measurement. The PC-55 was about one third as sensitive as LSC when used with Ontario Hydro filter paper swipe media. Surface contamination measurement results can be obtained within minutes using the PC-55, compared to hours using LSC. The selection of swipe media for use with proportional counter-based instruments is critical. A medium that is electrically insulating can develop an electrostatic charge on its surface; this may alter the field gradient in the detector and may adversely influence the results. Although the PC-55 is sufficiently sensitive and very convenient, operational experience with the instrument is needed before recommending that it replace current LSC methods. The PC-55`s susceptibility to internal tritium contamination may limit its practical usefulness. Because of the complexity of using live animals to evaluate direct and indirect methods for assessing skin contamination, pig skin was investigated as a possible substitute. We concluded that, for the first few hours post-exposure, pig skin mimics the kinetics of animal skin that has contacted a tritium-contaminated surface. (author). 30 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  17. Monitoring of tritium-contaminated surfaces, including skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surette, R.A.; Wood, M.J.

    1994-05-01

    We have examined various commercially available tritium surface contamination monitors along with different swipe media and techniques for direct and indirect (swipe) monitoring of contaminated surfaces, including skin. None of the methods or instruments evaluated were more sensitive than the swipe and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method. Swipe measurements with open-window proportional counters were, in general, less than half as sensitive as LSC, but have the advantages of having the results available almost immediately, and no sample preparation is required. The Nuclear Measurement Corporation's PC-55 is the most suitable instrument we tested for the analysis of routine swipe measurement. The PC-55 was about one third as sensitive as LSC when used with Ontario Hydro filter paper swipe media. Surface contamination measurement results can be obtained within minutes using the PC-55, compared to hours using LSC. The selection of swipe media for use with proportional counter-based instruments is critical. A medium that is electrically insulating can develop an electrostatic charge on its surface; this may alter the field gradient in the detector and may adversely influence the results. Although the PC-55 is sufficiently sensitive and very convenient, operational experience with the instrument is needed before recommending that it replace current LSC methods. The PC-55's susceptibility to internal tritium contamination may limit its practical usefulness. Because of the complexity of using live animals to evaluate direct and indirect methods for assessing skin contamination, pig skin was investigated as a possible substitute. We concluded that, for the first few hours post-exposure, pig skin mimics the kinetics of animal skin that has contacted a tritium-contaminated surface. (author). 30 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  18. Improvement of surface planarity measurements by temperature correction and structural simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Maximilian; Biebel, Otmar; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Flierl, Bernhard; Hertenberger, Ralf; Loesel, Philipp; Mueller, Ralph [LMU Muenchen (Germany); Zibell, Andre [JMU Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Novel micro pattern gaseous detectors, like Micromegas, for particle physics experiments require precise flat active layers of 2-3 m{sup 2} in size. A construction procedure developed at LMU for 2 m{sup 2} sized Micromegas achieves surface planarities with a RMS below 30 μm. The measurements were performed using a laser distance sensor attached to a coordinate measurement machine. Studies were made to investigate the influence of temperature variations on these measurements. The temperature is monitored by several sensors. We present results containing corrections of the measurements in respect to temperature changes. In addition simulations with the FEM program ANSYS are compared to measured detector panel deformations introduced by forces, in order to study their effect on the surface planarity.

  19. Unexpected and Unexplained Surface Temperature Variations on Mimas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howett, C.; Spencer, J. R.; Pearl, J. C.; Hurford, T. A.; Segura, M.; Cassini Cirs Team

    2010-12-01

    Until recently it was thought one of the most interesting things about Mimas, Saturn’s innermost classical icy moon, was its resemblance to Star Wars’ Death Star. However, a bizarre pattern of daytime surface temperatures was observed on Mimas using data obtained by Cassini’s Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) in February 2010. The observations were taken during Cassini’s closest ever encounter with Mimas (<10,000 km) and cover the daytime anti-Saturn hemisphere centered on longitude ~145° W. Instead of surface temperatures smoothly increasing throughout the morning and early afternoon, then cooling in the evening, as expected, a sharp V-shaped boundary is observed separating cooler midday and afternoon temperatures (~77 K) on the leading side from warmer morning temperatures (~92 K) on the trailing side. The boundary’s apex is centered at equatorial latitudes near the anti-Saturn point and extends to low north and south latitudes on the trailing side. Subtle differences in the surface colors have been observed that are roughly spatially correlated with the observed extent of the temperature anomaly, with the cooler regions tending to be bluer (Schenk et al., Submitted). However, visible-wavelength albedo is similar in the two regions, so albedo variations are probably not directly responsible for the thermal anomaly. It is more likely that thermal inertia variations produce the anomaly, with thermal inertia being unusually high in the region with anomalously low daytime temperatures. Comparison of the February 2010 CIRS data to previous lower spatial resolution data taken at different local times tentatively confirm that the cooler regions do indeed display higher thermal inertias. Bombardment of the surface by high energy electrons from Saturn’s radiation belts has been proposed to explain the observed color variations (Schenk et al., Submitted). Electrons above ~1 MeV preferentially impact Mimas’ leading hemisphere at low latitudes where they

  20. Implant Surface Temperature Changes during Er:YAG Laser Irradiation with Different Cooling Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Monzavi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Peri-implantitis is one of the most common reasons for implant failure. Decontamination of infected implant surfaces can be achieved effectively by laser irradiation; although the associated thermal rise may cause irreversible bone damage and lead to implant loss. Temperature increments of over 10ºC during laser application may suffice for irreversible bone damage.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature increment of implant surface during Er:YAG laser irradiation with different cooling systems.Three implants were placed in a resected block of sheep mandible and irradiated with Er:YAG laser with 3 different cooling systems namely water and air spray, air spray alone and no water or air spray. Temperature changes of the implant surface were monitored during laser irradiation with a K-type thermocouple at the apical area of the fixture.In all 3 groups, the maximum temperature rise was lower than 10°C. Temperature changes were significantly different with different cooling systems used (P<0.001.Based on the results, no thermal damage was observed during implant surface decontamination by Er:YAG laser with and without refrigeration. Thus, Er:YAG laser irradiation can be a safe method for treatment of periimplantitis.

  1. Validation of the Suomi NPP VIIRS Ice Surface Temperature Environmental Data Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous monitoring of the surface temperature is critical to understanding and forecasting Arctic climate change; as surface temperature integrates changes in the surface energy budget. The sea-ice surface temperature (IST has been measured with optical and thermal infrared sensors for many years. With the IST Environmental Data Record (EDR available from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP and future Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS satellites; we can continue to monitor and investigate Arctic climate change. This work examines the quality of the VIIRS IST EDR. Validation is performed through comparisons with multiple datasets; including NASA IceBridge measurements; air temperature from Arctic drifting ice buoys; Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS IST; MODIS IST simultaneous nadir overpass (SNO; and surface air temperature from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Results show biases of −0.34; −0.12; 0.16; −3.20; and −3.41 K compared to an aircraft-mounted downward-looking pyrometer; MODIS; MODIS SNO; drifting buoy; and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis; respectively; root-mean-square errors of 0.98; 1.02; 0.95; 4.89; and 6.94 K; and root-mean-square errors with the bias removed of 0.92; 1.01; 0.94; 3.70; and 6.04 K. Based on the IceBridge and MODIS results; the VIIRS IST uncertainty (RMSE meets or exceeds the JPSS system requirement of 1.0 K. The product can therefore be considered useful for meteorological and climatological applications.

  2. Body temperature measurement in mice during acute illness: implantable temperature transponder versus surface infrared thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jie; Riedel, Nico; Grittner, Ulrike; Endres, Matthias; Banneke, Stefanie; Emmrich, Julius Valentin

    2018-02-23

    Body temperature is a valuable parameter in determining the wellbeing of laboratory animals. However, using body temperature to refine humane endpoints during acute illness generally lacks comprehensiveness and exposes to inter-observer bias. Here we compared two methods to assess body temperature in mice, namely implanted radio frequency identification (RFID) temperature transponders (method 1) to non-contact infrared thermometry (method 2) in 435 mice for up to 7 days during normothermia and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin-induced hypothermia. There was excellent agreement between core and surface temperature as determined by method 1 and 2, respectively, whereas the intra- and inter-subject variation was higher for method 2. Nevertheless, using machine learning algorithms to determine temperature-based endpoints both methods had excellent accuracy in predicting death as an outcome event. Therefore, less expensive and cumbersome non-contact infrared thermometry can serve as a reliable alternative for implantable transponder-based systems for hypothermic responses, although requiring standardization between experimenters.

  3. Urban pavement surface temperature. Comparison of numerical and statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Mario; Khalifa, Abderrahmen; Bues, Michel; Bouilloud, Ludovic; Martin, Eric; Chancibaut, Katia

    2015-04-01

    The forecast of pavement surface temperature is very specific in the context of urban winter maintenance. to manage snow plowing and salting of roads. Such forecast mainly relies on numerical models based on a description of the energy balance between the atmosphere, the buildings and the pavement, with a canyon configuration. Nevertheless, there is a specific need in the physical description and the numerical implementation of the traffic in the energy flux balance. This traffic was originally considered as a constant. Many changes were performed in a numerical model to describe as accurately as possible the traffic effects on this urban energy balance, such as tires friction, pavement-air exchange coefficient, and infrared flux neat balance. Some experiments based on infrared thermography and radiometry were then conducted to quantify the effect fo traffic on urban pavement surface. Based on meteorological data, corresponding pavement temperature forecast were calculated and were compared with fiels measurements. Results indicated a good agreement between the forecast from the numerical model based on this energy balance approach. A complementary forecast approach based on principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-square regression (PLS) was also developed, with data from thermal mapping usng infrared radiometry. The forecast of pavement surface temperature with air temperature was obtained in the specific case of urban configurtation, and considering traffic into measurements used for the statistical analysis. A comparison between results from the numerical model based on energy balance, and PCA/PLS was then conducted, indicating the advantages and limits of each approach.

  4. The warming trend of ground surface temperature in the Choshui Alluvial Fan, western central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Chang, M.; Chen, J.; Lu, W.; Huang, C. C.; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Heat storage in subsurface of the continents forms a fundamental component of the global energy budget and plays an important role in the climate system. Several researches revealed that subsurface temperatures were being increased to 1.8-2.8°C higher in mean ground surface temperature (GST) for some Asian cities where are experiencing a rapid growth of population. Taiwan is a subtropic-tropic island with densely populated in the coastal plains surrounding its mountains. We investigate the subsurface temperature distribution and the borehole temperature-depth profiles by using groundwater monitoring wells in years 2000 and 2010. Our data show that the western central Taiwan plain also has been experiencing a warming trend but with a higher temperatures approximately 3-4 °C of GST during the last 250 yrs. We suggest that the warming were mostly due to the land change to urbanization and agriculture. The current GSTs from our wells are approximately 25.51-26.79 °C which are higher than the current surface air temperature (SAT) of 23.65 °C. Data from Taiwan's weather stations also show 1-1.5 °C higher for the GST than the SAT at neighboring stations. The earth surface heat balance data indicate that GST higher than SAT is reasonable. More researches are needed to evaluate the interaction of GST and SAT, and how a warming GST's impact to the SAT and the climate system of the Earth.

  5. Gold nanoparticle-based thermal history indicator for monitoring low-temperature storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi-Cheng; Lu, Lin; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    2015-01-01

    We describe a gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based thermal history indicator (THI) for monitoring low-temperature storage. The THI was prepared from tetrachloroaurate using gelatin as a reducing reagent. Gelatin also acts as a stabilizer to control the growth of the AuNPs. The size and shape of the AuNPs were characterized by UV–vis spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy and are initially found to be spherical with an average particle size of ∼19 nm. Initially, the color of the THIs is slightly pink, but after a 90-day storage in the freezer, as both the size and shape of the AuNPs change, the color of the THIs turns to red. After 90 days the absorbance peaks of THIs held at room temperature are red-shifted from 538 to 572 nm and possessed larger amplitude compared to those stored in the freezer. The color change is a function of both storage time and temperature. The observed increase in size is mainly due to storage temperature while the change in shape is mainly due to storage time. The THIs experiencing higher temperature treatments exhibit a more intense color change which is attributed to a localized surface plasmon resonance effect. Thus, the observed visual color changes can provide information regarding the thermal history the material has experienced. Accordingly, when used in conjunction with time-temperature sensitive products, the THI may serve as a proactive system for monitoring and controlling product quality and/or safety. For example, the THI is useful in safeguarding high-value biological products such as enzymes, antibodies, plasma, stem cells and other perishables that have to be stored at low temperatures. (author)

  6. High Predictive Skill of Global Surface Temperature a Year Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folland, C. K.; Colman, A.; Kennedy, J. J.; Knight, J.; Parker, D. E.; Stott, P.; Smith, D. M.; Boucher, O.

    2011-12-01

    We discuss the high skill of real-time forecasts of global surface temperature a year ahead issued by the UK Met Office, and their scientific background. Although this is a forecasting and not a formal attribution study, we show that the main instrumental global annual surface temperature data sets since 1891 are structured consistently with a set of five physical forcing factors except during and just after the second World War. Reconstructions use a multiple application of cross validated linear regression to minimise artificial skill allowing time-varying uncertainties in the contribution of each forcing factor to global temperature to be assessed. Mean cross validated reconstructions for the data sets have total correlations in the range 0.93-0.95,interannual correlations in the range 0.72-0.75 and root mean squared errors near 0.06oC, consistent with observational uncertainties.Three transient runs of the HadCM3 coupled model for 1888-2002 demonstrate quite similar reconstruction skill from similar forcing factors defined appropriately for the model, showing that skilful use of our technique is not confined to observations. The observed reconstructions show that the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) likely contributed to the re-commencement of global warming between 1976 and 2010 and to global cooling observed immediately beforehand in 1965-1976. The slowing of global warming in the last decade is likely to be largely due to a phase-delayed response to the downturn in the solar cycle since 2001-2, with no net ENSO contribution. The much reduced trend in 2001-10 is similar in size to other weak decadal temperature trends observed since global warming resumed in the 1970s. The causes of variations in decadal trends can be mostly explained by variations in the strength of the forcing factors. Eleven real-time forecasts of global mean surface temperature for the year ahead for 2000-2010, based on broadly similar methods, provide an independent test of the

  7. A strategy for Local Surface Stability Monitoring Using SAR Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Lan, C. W.; Lin, S. Y.; vanGasselt, S.; Yun, H.

    2017-12-01

    In order to provide sufficient facilities to satisfy a growing number of residents, nowadays there are many constructions and maintenance of infrastructures or buildings undergoing above and below the surface of urban area. In some cases we have learned that disasters might happen if the developments were conducted on unknown or geologically unstable ground or in over-developed areas. To avoid damages caused by such settings, it is essential to perform a regular monitoring scheme to understand the ground stability over the whole urban area. Through long-term monitoring, we firstly aim to observe surface stability over the construction sites. Secondly, we propose to implement an automatic extraction and tracking of suspicious unstable area. To achieve this, we used 12-days-interval C-band Sentinel-1A Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images as the main source to perform regular monitoring. Differential Interferometric SAR (D-InSAR) technique was applied to generate interferograms. Together with the accumulation of updated Sentinel-1A SAR images, time series interferograms were formed accordingly. For the purpose of observing surface stability over known construction sites, the interferograms and the unwrapped products could be used to identify the surface displacement occurring before and after specific events. In addition, Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) and Permanent Scatterers (PS) approaches combining a set of unwrapped D-InSAR interferograms were also applied to derive displacement velocities over long-term periods. For some cases, we conducted the ascending and descending mode time series analysis to decompose three surface migration vectors and to precisely identify the risk pattern. Regarding the extraction of suspicious unstable areas, we propose to develop an automatic pattern recognition algorithm for the identification of specific fringe patterns involving various potential risks. The detected fringes were tracked in the time series interferograms and

  8. Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Temperature, Melt, and Mass Loss: 2000-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Luthcke, Scott B.; DiGirolamo, Nocolo

    2007-01-01

    Extensive melt on the Greenland Ice Sheet has been documented by a variety of ground and satellite measurements in recent years. If the well-documented warming continues in the Arctic, melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet will likely accelerate, contributing to sea-level rise. Modeling studies indicate that an annual or summer temperature rise of 1 C on the ice sheet will increase melt by 20-50% therefore, surface temperature is one of the most important ice-sheet parameters to study for analysis of changes in the mass balance of the ice-sheet. The Greenland Ice Sheet contains enough water to produce a rise in eustatic sea level of up to 7.0 m if the ice were to melt completely. However, even small changes (centimeters) in sea level would cause important economic and societal consequences in the world's major coastal cities thus it is extremely important to monitor changes in the ice-sheet surface temperature and to ultimately quantify these changes in terms of amount of sea-level rise. We have compiled a high-resolution, daily time series of surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet, using the I-km resolution, clear-sky land-surface temperature (LST) standard product from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), from 2000 - 2006. We also use Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data, averaged over 10-day periods, to measure change in mass of the ice sheet as it melt and snow accumulates. Surface temperature can be used to determine frequency of surface melt, timing of the start and the end of the melt season, and duration of melt. In conjunction with GRACE data, it can also be used to analyze timing of ice-sheet mass loss and gain.

  9. Influence of the atomic structure of crystal surfaces on the surface diffusion in medium temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousty, J.P.

    1981-12-01

    In this work, we have studied the influence of atomic structure of crystal surface on surface self-diffusion in the medium temperature range. Two ways are followed. First, we have measured, using a radiotracer method, the self-diffusion coefficient at 820 K (0.6 T melting) on copper surfaces both the structure and the cleanliness of which were stable during the experiment. We have shown that the interaction between mobile surface defects and steps can be studied through measurements of the anisotropy of surface self diffusion. Second, the behavior of an adatom and a surface vacancy is simulated via a molecular dynamics method, on several surfaces of a Lennard Jones crystal. An inventory of possible migration mechanisms of these surface defects has been drawn between 0.35 and 0.45 Tsub(m). The results obtained with both the methods point out the influence of the surface atomic structure in surface self-diffusion in the medium temperature range [fr

  10. Daily monitoring of the land surface of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, J.

    2016-12-01

    Planet is an integrated aerospace and data analytics company that operates the largest fleet of Earth-imaging satellites. With more than 140 cube-sats successfully launched to date, Planet is now collecting approximately 10 million square kilometers of imagery per day (3-5m per pixel, in red, green, blue and near infrared spectral bands). By early 2017, Planet's constellation will image the entire land surface of the Earth on a daily basis. Due to investments in cloud storage and computing, approximately 75% of imagery collected is available to Planet's partners within 24 hours of capture through an Application Program Interface. This unique dataset has enormous applications for monitoring the status of Earth's natural ecosystems, as well as human settlements and agricultural welfare. Through our Ambassadors Program, Planet has made data available for researchers in areas as disparate as human rights monitoring in refugee camps, to assessments of the impact of hydroelectric installations, to tracking illegal gold mining in Amazon forests, to assessing the status of the cryosphere. Here, we share early results from Planet's research partner network, including enhanced spatial and temporal resolution of NDVI data for agricultural health in Saudi Arabia, computation of rates of illegal deforestation in Southern Peru, estimates of tropical forest carbon stocks based on data integration with active sensors, and estimates of glacial flow rates. We synthesize the potentially enormous research and scientific value of Planet's persistent monitoring capability, and discuss methods by which the data will be disseminated into the scientific community.

  11. Increase of body surface temperature and blood flow by theanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Takeo; Noguchi, Kenichi; Ando, Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    Suntheanine (Taiyo Kagaku Co.: Theanine) is the trade name for L-theanine which is a unique amino acid found almost solely in tea plants, responsible for the exotictaste of green tea. We investigated the effects of relate to relaxation, improves the taste of processed foods, radiation sensitization, and increase of body surface temperature in vivo study. The results of the present study confirmed, (1) Suntheanine is incorporated into the brain and induces the emission of α -waves an induced of relaxation. (2) Body surface temperature and blood flow on skin were increased after administration of Suntheanine. (3) There was effects of radiation sensitization in whole body irradiation of X-rays after Suntheanine IP injection on C3H mice. (4) Acute toxicity, subacute toxicity and mutagen testconfirm the safety Suntheanine in this study

  12. Cloud Masking and Surface Temperature Distribution in the Polar Regions Using AVHRR and other Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Joey C.

    1995-01-01

    Surface temperature is one of the key variables associated with weather and climate. Accurate measurements of surface air temperatures are routinely made in meteorological stations around the world. Also, satellite data have been used to produce synoptic global temperature distributions. However, not much attention has been paid on temperature distributions in the polar regions. In the polar regions, the number of stations is very sparse. Because of adverse weather conditions and general inaccessibility, surface field measurements are also limited. Furthermore, accurate retrievals from satellite data in the region have been difficult to make because of persistent cloudiness and ambiguities in the discrimination of clouds from snow or ice. Surface temperature observations are required in the polar regions for air-sea-ice interaction studies, especially in the calculation of heat, salinity, and humidity fluxes. They are also useful in identifying areas of melt or meltponding within the sea ice pack and the ice sheets and in the calculation of emissivities of these surfaces. Moreover, the polar regions are unique in that they are the sites of temperature extremes, the location of which is difficult to identify without a global monitoring system. Furthermore, the regions may provide an early signal to a potential climate change because such signal is expected to be amplified in the region due to feedback effects. In cloud free areas, the thermal channels from infrared systems provide surface temperatures at relatively good accuracies. Previous capabilities include the use of the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) onboard the Nimbus-7 satellite which was launched in 1978. Current capabilities include the use of the Advance Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aboard NOAA satellites. Together, these two systems cover a span of 16 years of thermal infrared data. Techniques for retrieving surface temperatures with these sensors in the polar regions have

  13. An AES Study of the Room Temperature Surface Conditioning of Technological Metal Surfaces by Electron Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Scheuerlein, C; Hilleret, Noël; Taborelli, M; Brown, A; Baker, M A

    2002-01-01

    The modifications to technological copper and niobium surfaces induced by 2.5 keV electron irradiation have been investigated in the context of the conditioning process occurring in particle accelerator ultra high vacuum systems. Changes in the elemental surface composition have been found using Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM) by monitoring the carbon, oxygen and metal Auger peak intensities as a function of electron irradiation in the dose range 10-6 to 10-2 C mm-2. The surface analysis resu...

  14. Estimation of precipitable water from surface dew point temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Wahab, M.; Sharif, T.A.

    1991-09-01

    The Reitan (1963) regression equation which is of the form lnw=a+bT d has been examined and tested to estimate precipitable water content from surface dew point temperature at different locations. The study confirms that the slope of this equation (b) remains constant at the value of .0681 deg. C., while the intercept (a) changes rapidly with the latitude. The use of the variable intercept can improve the estimated result by 2%. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Patellar Skin Surface Temperature by Thermography Reflects Knee Osteoarthritis Severity

    OpenAIRE

    Anna E. Denoble; Norine Hall; Carl F. Pieper; Virginia B. Kraus

    2010-01-01

    Background: Digital infrared thermal imaging is a means of measuring the heat radiated from the skin surface. Our goal was to develop and assess the reproducibility of serial infrared measurements of the knee and to assess the association of knee temperature by region of interest with radiographic severity of knee Osteoarthritis (rOA). Methods: A total of 30 women (15 Cases with symptomatic knee OA and 15 age-matched Controls without knee pain or knee OA) participated in this study. Infrared ...

  16. Interannual variability of north Atlantic Sea surface temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, U.S.; Battisiti, D.S.; Alexander, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    In the midlatitude north Atlantic Ocean the pattern of sea surface temperature anomalies (ssta) is characterized by a north-south dipole. Bjerknes was the first to propose that the banded structure was associated with the interannual variability. Recently, these patterns have been studied more extensively. In this study the quantitative aspects of these patterns are examined through the use of a mixed-layer model (MLM)

  17. Model Study of the Influence of Ambient Temperature and Installation Types on Surface Temperature Measurement by Using a Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface temperature is an important parameter in clinical diagnosis, equipment state control, and environmental monitoring fields. The Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG temperature sensor possesses numerous significant advantages over conventional electrical sensors, thus it is an ideal choice to achieve high-accuracy surface temperature measurements. However, the effects of the ambient temperature and installation types on the measurement of surface temperature are often overlooked. A theoretical analysis is implemented and a thermal transfer model of a surface FBG sensor is established. The theoretical and simulated analysis shows that both substrate strain and the temperature difference between the fiber core and hot surface are the most important factors which affect measurement accuracy. A surface-type temperature standard setup is proposed to study the measurement error of the FBG temperature sensor. Experimental results show that there are two effects influencing measurement results. One is the “gradient effect”. This results in a positive linear error with increasing surface temperature. Another is the “substrate effect”. This results in a negative non-linear error with increasing surface temperature. The measurement error of the FBG sensor with single-ended fixation are determined by the gradient effect and is a linear error. It is not influenced by substrate expansion. Thus, it can be compensated easily. The measurement errors of the FBG sensor with double-ended fixation are determined by the two effects and the substrate effect is dominant. The measurement error change trend of the FBG sensor with fully-adhered fixation is similar to that with double-ended fixation. The adhesive layer can reduce the two effects and measurement error. The fully-adhered fixation has lower error, however, it is easily affected by substrate strain. Due to its linear error and strain-resistant characteristics, the single-ended fixation will play an

  18. Model Study of the Influence of Ambient Temperature and Installation Types on Surface Temperature Measurement by Using a Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Surface temperature is an important parameter in clinical diagnosis, equipment state control, and environmental monitoring fields. The Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) temperature sensor possesses numerous significant advantages over conventional electrical sensors, thus it is an ideal choice to achieve high-accuracy surface temperature measurements. However, the effects of the ambient temperature and installation types on the measurement of surface temperature are often overlooked. A theoretical analysis is implemented and a thermal transfer model of a surface FBG sensor is established. The theoretical and simulated analysis shows that both substrate strain and the temperature difference between the fiber core and hot surface are the most important factors which affect measurement accuracy. A surface-type temperature standard setup is proposed to study the measurement error of the FBG temperature sensor. Experimental results show that there are two effects influencing measurement results. One is the "gradient effect". This results in a positive linear error with increasing surface temperature. Another is the "substrate effect". This results in a negative non-linear error with increasing surface temperature. The measurement error of the FBG sensor with single-ended fixation are determined by the gradient effect and is a linear error. It is not influenced by substrate expansion. Thus, it can be compensated easily. The measurement errors of the FBG sensor with double-ended fixation are determined by the two effects and the substrate effect is dominant. The measurement error change trend of the FBG sensor with fully-adhered fixation is similar to that with double-ended fixation. The adhesive layer can reduce the two effects and measurement error. The fully-adhered fixation has lower error, however, it is easily affected by substrate strain. Due to its linear error and strain-resistant characteristics, the single-ended fixation will play an important role in the FBG sensor

  19. White Dwarfs in Cataclysmic Variable Stars: Surface Temperatures and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Sion

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A summary is presented of what is currently known about the surface temperatures of accreting white dwarfs (WDs detected in non-magnetic and magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs based upon synthetic spectral analyses of far ultraviolet data. A special focus is placed on WD temperatures above and below the CV period gap as a function of the orbital period, Porb. The principal uncertainty of the temperatures for the CV WDs in the Teff - Porb distribution, besides the distance to the CV, is the mass of the WD. Only in eclipsing CV systems, an area of eclipsing binary studies, which was so central to Robert H. Koch’s career, is it possible to know CV WD masses with high precision.

  20. Satellite air temperature estimation for monitoring the canopy layer heat island of Milan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichierri, Manuele; Bonafoni, Stefania; Biondi, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    across the city center from June to September confirming that, in Milan, urban heating is not an occasional phenomenon. Furthermore, this study shows the utility of space missions to monitor the metropolis heat islands if they are able to provide nighttime observations when CLHI peaks are generally......In this work, satellite maps of the urban heat island of Milan are produced using satellite-based infrared sensor data. For this aim, we developed suitable algorithms employing satellite brightness temperatures for the direct air temperature estimation 2 m above the surface (canopy layer), showing...... 2007 and 2010 were processed. Analysis of the canopy layer heat island (CLHI) maps during summer months reveals an average heat island effect of 3–4K during nighttime (with some peaks around 5K) and a weak CLHI intensity during daytime. In addition, the satellite maps reveal a well defined island shape...

  1. 2D surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components with modulated active pyrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiel, S.; Loarer, T.; Pocheau, C.; Roche, H.; Gauthier, E.; Aumeunier, M.-H.; Courtois, X.; Jouve, M.; Balorin, C.; Moncada, V.; Le Niliot, C.; Rigollet, F.

    2014-01-01

    In nuclear fusion devices, such as Tore Supra, the plasma facing components (PFC) are in carbon. Such components are exposed to very high heat flux and the surface temperature measurement is mandatory for the safety of the device and also for efficient plasma scenario development. Besides this measurement is essential to evaluate these heat fluxes for a better knowledge of the physics of plasma-wall interaction, it is also required to monitor the fatigue of PFCs. Infrared system (IR) is used to manage to measure surface temperature in real time. For carbon PFCs, the emissivity is high and known (ε ∼ 0.8), therefore the contribution of the reflected flux from environment and collected by the IR cameras can be neglected. However, the future tokamaks such as WEST and ITER will be equipped with PFCs in metal (W and Be/W, respectively) with low and variable emissivities (ε ∼ 0.1–0.4). Consequently, the reflected flux will contribute significantly in the collected flux by IR camera. The modulated active pyrometry, using a bicolor camera, proposed in this paper allows a 2D surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected fluxes and the emissivity. Experimental results with Tungsten sample are reported and compared with simultaneous measurement performed with classical pyrometry (monochromatic and bichromatic) with and without reflective flux demonstrating the efficiency of this method for surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected flux and the emissivity

  2. Intraseasonal sea surface temperature variability in Indonesian seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napitu, A. M.; Gordon, A. L.; Yuan, X.

    2012-12-01

    The satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data, 1998-mid 2012, are used to examine intraseasonal variability (ISV; 20-90 days) across the Indonesian seas. The most energetic ISV is observed in the Banda Sea and across the Indo-Australia basin with an The satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data, 1998-mid 2012, are used to examine intraseasonal variability (ISV; 20-90 days) across the Indonesian seas. The most energetic ISV is observed in the Banda Sea and across the Indo-Australia basin with an average SST standard deviation (STD) between 0.4-0.5°C, with strongest signature during boreal winter. What physical processes force the SST ISV variability within the Indonesian seas? Ocean process, sea-air interaction, or both? To help identify the main forcing, the satellite derived outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and wind stress data in the region are examined. The OLR shows robust intraseasonal variations and is significantly correlated with the SST, particularly for variability with periods of 30-60 days, with OLR accounting for ~60-70% of the SST variance. The OLR is also maximum during boreal winter. Conversely, the surface wind may play insignificant role in perturbing the SST at intraseasonal timescales as shown by weak correlation between wind stress and SST. We thus suspect that the surface solar flux (suggested by the OLR) is likely more dominant than the surface turbulent heat flux (indicated by the surface wind) as the main source for the ISV in the SST in Indonesian seas. Furthermore the maximum OLR phase, coupled with a period of minimum mixed layer depth, may explain the strong SST variation during boreal winter in Indonesian seas. The influence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on the OLR and SST variability is currently being evaluated.

  3. Inverse method for temperature and stress monitoring in complex-shaped bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duda, Piotr; Taler, Jan E- mail: aler@ss5.mech.pk.edu.pl; Roos, Eberhard

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to formulate a space marching method, which an be used to solve inverse multidimensional heat conduction problems. The method is designed to reconstruct the transient temperature distribution in a hole construction element based on measured temperatures taken at selected points on the outer surface of the construction element. Next, the Finite element Method is used to calculate thermal stresses and stresses caused by other loads such as, for instance, internal pressure. The developed method or solving temperature and total stress distribution is tested using the measured temperatures generated from a direct solution. Transient temperature nd total stress distributions obtained from the method presented below are compared with the values obtained from the direct solution. Finally, the resented method is experimentally verified during the cooling of a hick-walled cylindrical element. The model of a pressure vessel was reheated at 300 deg.C and then cooled by cold water injection. The comparison of results obtained from the inverse method with experimental data hows the high accuracy of the developed method. The presented method allows o optimize the power block's start-up and shut-down operations, contributes o the reduction of heat loss during these operations and to the extension of power block's life. The fatigue and creep usage factor can be computed in an n-line mode. The presented method herein can be applied to monitoring systems that work in conventional as well as in nuclear power plants

  4. Development of a new method for high temperature in-core characterisation of solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamawaki, M.; Suzuki, A.; Yokota, T.; Nan Luo, G.; Yamaguchi, K.; Hayashi, K.

    2000-01-01

    In order to develop a new method for establishing in situ characterizations and monitoring of solid surfaces under irradiation and in controlled atmospheres, the high temperature Kelvin probe has been applied and tested to measure work function changes under such conditions. In the case of Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 2 ZrO 3 , two steps of distinct change of work function were observed when the specimen was exposed to hydrogen gas and also when it was retrieved. These changes were attributed to the oxygen vacancies formation/annihilation and the adsorption/desorption of gas (H 2 ). While the work function measured on a gold specimen under proton beam irradiation showed a steep drop in the work function during the initial irradiation, it gradually recovered after the end of irradiation. The second irradiation gave rise to a smaller value of the work function decrease of gold. These results support a possibility of adopting the high temperature Kelvin probe for the purpose of monitoring/characterising solid surface under irradiation in nuclear reactors and other facilities so as to detect the formation of defects in the surface and near-surface region of solid specimens. (authors)

  5. Quality Assurance statistics for AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.2 L3-Collated (L3C) sea surface temperature in global and selected regions (NODC Accession 0111871)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These quality monitoring data for Pathfinder Version 5.2 (PFV5.2) Sea Surface Temperature (SST) are based on the concept of a Rich Inventory developed by the...

  6. Sensitivity of LUCC on the Surface Temperature of Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, W.; Deng, X.; Wu, F.

    2016-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau has an important effect on the ecological security in China, even in Asia, which makes the region become the hot spot in recently research. Under the joint influence of global change and human activities, ecosystem destabilizing and the increasing pressure on resources and environment emerge on the Tibetan Plateau, but the potential spatial sensitivity of land use and land cover changes(LUCC) on surface temperature has not been quantitatively analyzed. This study analyzed the mainly types of LUCC, urbanization, grassland degradation, deforestation on Tibetan Plateau along with Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The LUCC in recent decades was first quantitatively analyzed in this study to give the basic fact with a significant increase in temperatures, reduced precipitation and increased evaporation. This study focused on the future spatio-temporal heterogeneity of the temperature and precipitation. Finally, the influencing factors with LUCC on Tibetan Plateau were simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and the sensitivity of different land use types was spatially analyzed with Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). The results indicate that the large-area alpine grassland plays a more important role in alleviating global warming than other vegetation types do. The changes of the landscape structure resulting from the urban expansion play a significant role in intensifying regional temperature increase. In addition, the effects of LUCC on monthly average temperature change would vary from month to month with obviously spatial heterogeneity.

  7. Ground surface temperature and continental heat gain: uncertainties from underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrami, Hugo; Matharoo, Gurpreet S; Smerdon, Jason E

    2015-01-01

    Temperature changes at the Earth's surface propagate and are recorded underground as perturbations to the equilibrium thermal regime associated with the heat flow from the Earth's interior. Borehole climatology is concerned with the analysis and interpretation of these downward propagating subsurface temperature anomalies in terms of surface climate. Proper determination of the steady-state geothermal regime is therefore crucial because it is the reference against which climate-induced subsurface temperature anomalies are estimated. Here, we examine the effects of data noise on the determination of the steady-state geothermal regime of the subsurface and the subsequent impact on estimates of ground surface temperature (GST) history and heat gain. We carry out a series of Monte Carlo experiments using 1000 Gaussian noise realizations and depth sections of 100 and 200 m as for steady-state estimates depth intervals, as well as a range of data sampling intervals from 10 m to 0.02 m. Results indicate that typical uncertainties for 50 year averages are on the order of ±0.02 K for the most recent 100 year period. These uncertainties grow with decreasing sampling intervals, reaching about ±0.1 K for a 10 m sampling interval under identical conditions and target period. Uncertainties increase for progressively older periods, reaching ±0.3 K at 500 years before present for a 10 m sampling interval. The uncertainties in reconstructed GST histories for the Northern Hemisphere for the most recent 50 year period can reach a maximum of ±0.5 K in some areas. We suggest that continuous logging should be the preferred approach when measuring geothermal data for climate reconstructions, and that for those using the International Heat Flow Commission database for borehole climatology, the steady-state thermal conditions should be estimated from boreholes as deep as possible and using a large fitting depth range (∼100 m). (letter)

  8. Position-sensitive radiation monitoring (surface contamination monitor). Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The Shonka Research Associates, Inc. Position-Sensitive Radiation Monitor both detects surface radiation and prepares electronic survey map/survey report of surveyed area automatically. The electronically recorded map can be downloaded to a personal computer for review and a map/report can be generated for inclusion in work packages. Switching from beta-gamma detection to alpha detection is relatively simple and entails moving a switch position to alpha and adjusting the voltage level to an alpha detection level. No field calibration is required when switching from beta-gamma to alpha detection. The system can be used for free-release surveys because it meets the federal detection level sensitivity limits requires for surface survey instrumentation. This technology is superior to traditionally-used floor contamination monitor (FCM) and hand-held survey instrumentation because it can precisely register locations of radioactivity and accurately correlate contamination levels to specific locations. Additionally, it can collect and store continuous radiological data in database format, which can be used to produce real-time imagery as well as automated graphics of survey data. Its flexible design can accommodate a variety of detectors. The cost of the innovative technology is 13% to 57% lower than traditional methods. This technology is suited for radiological surveys of flat surfaces at US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) sites or similar public or commercial sites

  9. Position-sensitive radiation monitoring (surface contamination monitor). Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-01

    The Shonka Research Associates, Inc. Position-Sensitive Radiation Monitor both detects surface radiation and prepares electronic survey map/survey report of surveyed area automatically. The electronically recorded map can be downloaded to a personal computer for review and a map/report can be generated for inclusion in work packages. Switching from beta-gamma detection to alpha detection is relatively simple and entails moving a switch position to alpha and adjusting the voltage level to an alpha detection level. No field calibration is required when switching from beta-gamma to alpha detection. The system can be used for free-release surveys because it meets the federal detection level sensitivity limits requires for surface survey instrumentation. This technology is superior to traditionally-used floor contamination monitor (FCM) and hand-held survey instrumentation because it can precisely register locations of radioactivity and accurately correlate contamination levels to specific locations. Additionally, it can collect and store continuous radiological data in database format, which can be used to produce real-time imagery as well as automated graphics of survey data. Its flexible design can accommodate a variety of detectors. The cost of the innovative technology is 13% to 57% lower than traditional methods. This technology is suited for radiological surveys of flat surfaces at US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) sites or similar public or commercial sites.

  10. ANALYSING THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT LAND COVER TYPES ON LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE USING SATELLITE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Şekertekin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring Land Surface Temperature (LST via remote sensing images is one of the most important contributions to climatology. LST is an important parameter governing the energy balance on the Earth and it also helps us to understand the behavior of urban heat islands. There are lots of algorithms to obtain LST by remote sensing techniques. The most commonly used algorithms are split-window algorithm, temperature/emissivity separation method, mono-window algorithm and single channel method. In this research, mono window algorithm was implemented to Landsat 5 TM image acquired on 28.08.2011. Besides, meteorological data such as humidity and temperature are used in the algorithm. Moreover, high resolution Geoeye-1 and Worldview-2 images acquired on 29.08.2011 and 12.07.2013 respectively were used to investigate the relationships between LST and land cover type. As a result of the analyses, area with vegetation cover has approximately 5 ºC lower temperatures than the city center and arid land., LST values change about 10 ºC in the city center because of different surface properties such as reinforced concrete construction, green zones and sandbank. The temperature around some places in thermal power plant region (ÇATES and ZETES Çatalağzı, is about 5 ºC higher than city center. Sandbank and agricultural areas have highest temperature due to the land cover structure.

  11. Analysing the Effects of Different Land Cover Types on Land Surface Temperature Using Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şekertekin, A.; Kutoglu, Ş. H.; Kaya, S.; Marangoz, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring Land Surface Temperature (LST) via remote sensing images is one of the most important contributions to climatology. LST is an important parameter governing the energy balance on the Earth and it also helps us to understand the behavior of urban heat islands. There are lots of algorithms to obtain LST by remote sensing techniques. The most commonly used algorithms are split-window algorithm, temperature/emissivity separation method, mono-window algorithm and single channel method. In this research, mono window algorithm was implemented to Landsat 5 TM image acquired on 28.08.2011. Besides, meteorological data such as humidity and temperature are used in the algorithm. Moreover, high resolution Geoeye-1 and Worldview-2 images acquired on 29.08.2011 and 12.07.2013 respectively were used to investigate the relationships between LST and land cover type. As a result of the analyses, area with vegetation cover has approximately 5 ºC lower temperatures than the city center and arid land., LST values change about 10 ºC in the city center because of different surface properties such as reinforced concrete construction, green zones and sandbank. The temperature around some places in thermal power plant region (ÇATES and ZETES) Çatalağzı, is about 5 ºC higher than city center. Sandbank and agricultural areas have highest temperature due to the land cover structure.

  12. Predicting East African spring droughts using Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperature indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Hoell, Andrew; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Blade, Ileana; Liebmann, Brant; Roberts, Jason B.; Robertson, Franklin R.

    2014-01-01

    In southern Ethiopia, Eastern Kenya, and southern Somalia poor boreal spring rains in 1999, 2000, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2011 contributed to severe food insecurity and high levels of malnutrition. Predicting rainfall deficits in this region on seasonal and decadal time frames can help decision makers support disaster risk reduction while guiding climate-smart adaptation and agricultural development. Building on recent research that links more frequent droughts to a stronger Walker Circulation, warming in the Indo-Pacific warm pool, and an increased western Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) gradient, we explore the dominant modes of East African rainfall variability, links between these modes and sea surface temperatures, and a simple index-based monitoring-prediction system suitable for drought early warning.

  13. Hazards and operability study for the surface moisture monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Board, B.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Nuclear Reservation Tank Farms' underground waste tanks have been used to store liquid radioactive waste from defense materials production since the 1940's. Waste in certain of the tanks may contain material in the form of ferrocyanide or various organic compounds which could potentially be susceptible to condensed phase chemical reactions. Because of the presence of oxidizing materials (nitrate compounds) and heat sources (radioactive decay and chemical reactions), the ferrocyanide or organic material could potentially fuel a propagating exothermic reaction with undesirable consequences. Analysis and experiments indicate that the reaction propagation and/or initiation may be prevented by the presence of sufficient moisture in the waste. Because the reaction would probably be initiated at the surface of the waste, evidence of sufficient moisture concentration would help provide evidence that the tank waste can continue to be safely stored. The Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) was developed to collect data on the surface moisture in the waste by inserting two types of probes (singly) into a waste tank-a neutron probe and an electromagnetic inductance (EMI) probe. The sensor probes will be placed on the surface of the waste utilizing a moveable deployment arm to lower them through an available riser. The movement of the SMMS within the tank will be monitored by a camera lowered through an adjacent riser. The SMMS equipment is the subject of this study. Hazards and Operability Analysis (HAZOP) is a systematic technique for assessing potential hazards and/or operability problems for a new activity. It utilizes a multidiscipline team of knowledgeable individuals in a systematic brainstorming effort. The results of this study will be used as input to an Unreviewed Safety Question determination

  14. Theoretical algorithms for satellite-derived sea surface temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, I. J.; Zavody, A. M.; O'Brien, D. M.; Cutten, D. R.; Saunders, R. W.; Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.

    1989-03-01

    Reliable climate forecasting using numerical models of the ocean-atmosphere system requires accurate data sets of sea surface temperature (SST) and surface wind stress. Global sets of these data will be supplied by the instruments to fly on the ERS 1 satellite in 1990. One of these instruments, the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR), has been specifically designed to provide SST in cloud-free areas with an accuracy of 0.3 K. The expected capabilities of the ATSR can be assessed using transmission models of infrared radiative transfer through the atmosphere. The performances of several different models are compared by estimating the infrared brightness temperatures measured by the NOAA 9 AVHRR for three standard atmospheres. Of these, a computationally quick spectral band model is used to derive typical AVHRR and ATSR SST algorithms in the form of linear equations. These algorithms show that a low-noise 3.7-μm channel is required to give the best satellite-derived SST and that the design accuracy of the ATSR is likely to be achievable. The inclusion of extra water vapor information in the analysis did not improve the accuracy of multiwavelength SST algorithms, but some improvement was noted with the multiangle technique. Further modeling is required with atmospheric data that include both aerosol variations and abnormal vertical profiles of water vapor and temperature.

  15. Urban percent impervious surface and its relationship with land surface temperature in Yantai City, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Xinyang; Lu, Changhe

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated percent impervious surface area (PISA) extracted by a four-endmember normalized spectral mixture analysis (NSMA) method and evaluated the reliability of PISA as an indicator of land surface temperature (LST). Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images for Yantai city, eastern China obtained from USGS were used as the main data source. The results demonstrated that four-endmember NSMA method performed better than the typical three-endmember one, and there was a strong linear relationship between LST and PISA for the two images, which suggest percent impervious surface area provides an alternative parameter for analyzing LST quantitatively in urban areas

  16. Decadal trends in Red Sea maximum surface temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaidez, V; Dreano, D; Agusti, S; Duarte, C M; Hoteit, I

    2017-08-15

    Ocean warming is a major consequence of climate change, with the surface of the ocean having warmed by 0.11 °C decade -1 over the last 50 years and is estimated to continue to warm by an additional 0.6 - 2.0 °C before the end of the century 1 . However, there is considerable variability in the rates experienced by different ocean regions, so understanding regional trends is important to inform on possible stresses for marine organisms, particularly in warm seas where organisms may be already operating in the high end of their thermal tolerance. Although the Red Sea is one of the warmest ecosystems on earth, its historical warming trends and thermal evolution remain largely understudied. We characterized the Red Sea's thermal regimes at the basin scale, with a focus on the spatial distribution and changes over time of sea surface temperature maxima, using remotely sensed sea surface temperature data from 1982 - 2015. The overall rate of warming for the Red Sea is 0.17 ± 0.07 °C decade -1 , while the northern Red Sea is warming between 0.40 and 0.45 °C decade -1 , all exceeding the global rate. Our findings show that the Red Sea is fast warming, which may in the future challenge its organisms and communities.

  17. Decadal trends in Red Sea maximum surface temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Chaidez, Veronica

    2017-08-09

    Ocean warming is a major consequence of climate change, with the surface of the ocean having warmed by 0.11 °C decade-1 over the last 50 years and is estimated to continue to warm by an additional 0.6 - 2.0 °C before the end of the century1. However, there is considerable variability in the rates experienced by different ocean regions, so understanding regional trends is important to inform on possible stresses for marine organisms, particularly in warm seas where organisms may be already operating in the high end of their thermal tolerance. Although the Red Sea is one of the warmest ecosystems on earth, its historical warming trends and thermal evolution remain largely understudied. We characterized the Red Sea\\'s thermal regimes at the basin scale, with a focus on the spatial distribution and changes over time of sea surface temperature maxima, using remotely sensed sea surface temperature data from 1982 - 2015. The overall rate of warming for the Red Sea is 0.17 ± 0.07 °C decade-1, while the northern Red Sea is warming between 0.40 and 0.45 °C decade-1, all exceeding the global rate. Our findings show that the Red Sea is fast warming, which may in the future challenge its organisms and communities.

  18. Decadal trends in Red Sea maximum surface temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Chaidez, Veronica; Dreano, Denis; Agusti, Susana; Duarte, Carlos M.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Ocean warming is a major consequence of climate change, with the surface of the ocean having warmed by 0.11 °C decade-1 over the last 50 years and is estimated to continue to warm by an additional 0.6 - 2.0 °C before the end of the century1. However, there is considerable variability in the rates experienced by different ocean regions, so understanding regional trends is important to inform on possible stresses for marine organisms, particularly in warm seas where organisms may be already operating in the high end of their thermal tolerance. Although the Red Sea is one of the warmest ecosystems on earth, its historical warming trends and thermal evolution remain largely understudied. We characterized the Red Sea's thermal regimes at the basin scale, with a focus on the spatial distribution and changes over time of sea surface temperature maxima, using remotely sensed sea surface temperature data from 1982 - 2015. The overall rate of warming for the Red Sea is 0.17 ± 0.07 °C decade-1, while the northern Red Sea is warming between 0.40 and 0.45 °C decade-1, all exceeding the global rate. Our findings show that the Red Sea is fast warming, which may in the future challenge its organisms and communities.

  19. Online Global Land Surface Temperature Estimation from Landsat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Parastatidis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the estimation of land surface temperature (LST for the globe from Landsat 5, 7 and 8 thermal infrared sensors, using different surface emissivity sources. A single channel algorithm is used for consistency among the estimated LST products, whereas the option of using emissivity from different sources provides flexibility for the algorithm’s implementation to any area of interest. The Google Earth Engine (GEE, an advanced earth science data and analysis platform, allows the estimation of LST products for the globe, covering the time period from 1984 to present. To evaluate the method, the estimated LST products were compared against two reference datasets: (a LST products derived from ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, as higher-level products based on the temperature-emissivity separation approach; (b Landsat LST data that have been independently produced, using different approaches. An overall RMSE (root mean square error of 1.52 °C was observed and it was confirmed that the accuracy of the LST product is dependent on the emissivity; different emissivity sources provided different LST accuracies, depending on the surface cover. The LST products, for the full Landsat 5, 7 and 8 archives, are estimated “on-the-fly” and are available on-line via a web application.

  20. Microbial Monitoring of Surface Water in South Africa: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan S. Wilhelmi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructural problems force South African households to supplement their drinking water consumption from water resources of inadequate microbial quality. Microbial water quality monitoring is currently based on the Colilert®18 system which leads to rapidly available results. Using Escherichia coli as the indicator microorganism limits the influence of environmental sources on the reported results. The current system allows for understanding of long-term trends of microbial surface water quality and the related public health risks. However, rates of false positive for the Colilert®18-derived concentrations have been reported to range from 7.4% to 36.4%. At the same time, rates of false negative results vary from 3.5% to 12.5%; and the Colilert medium has been reported to provide for cultivation of only 56.8% of relevant strains. Identification of unknown sources of faecal contamination is not currently feasible. Based on literature review, calibration of the antibiotic-resistance spectra of Escherichia coli or the bifidobacterial tracking ratio should be investigated locally for potential implementation into the existing monitoring system. The current system could be too costly to implement in certain areas of South Africa where the modified H2S strip test might be used as a surrogate for the Colilert®18.

  1. An AES Study of the Room Temperature Surface Conditioning of Technological Metal Surfaces by Electron Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Taborelli, M; Brown, A; Baker, M A

    2002-01-01

    The modifications to technological copper and niobium surfaces induced by 2.5 keV electron irradiation have been investigated in the context of the conditioning process occurring in particle accelerator ultra high vacuum systems. Changes in the elemental surface composition have been found using Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM) by monitoring the carbon, oxygen and metal Auger peak intensities as a function of electron irradiation in the dose range 10-6 to 10-2 C mm-2. The surface analysis results are compared with electron dose dependent secondary electron and electron stimulated desorption yield measurements. Initially the electron irradiation causes a surface cleaning through electron stimulated desorption, in particular of hydrogen. During this period both the electron stimulated desorption and secondary electron yield decrease as a function of electron dose. When the electron dose exceeds 10-4 C mm-2 electron stimulated desorption yields are reduced by several orders of magnitude and the electron beam indu...

  2. Temperature-mediated transition from Dyakonov-Tamm surface waves to surface-plasmon-polariton waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiadini, Francesco; Fiumara, Vincenzo; Mackay, Tom G.; Scaglione, Antonio; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2017-08-01

    The effect of changing the temperature on the propagation of electromagnetic surface waves (ESWs), guided by the planar interface of a homogeneous isotropic temperature-sensitive material (namely, InSb) and a temperature-insensitive structurally chiral material (SCM) was numerically investigated in the terahertz frequency regime. As the temperature rises, InSb transforms from a dissipative dielectric material to a dissipative plasmonic material. Correspondingly, the ESWs transmute from Dyakonov-Tamm surface waves into surface-plasmon-polariton waves. The effects of the temperature change are clearly observed in the phase speeds, propagation distances, angular existence domains, multiplicity, and spatial profiles of energy flow of the ESWs. Remarkably large propagation distances can be achieved; in such instances the energy of an ESW is confined almost entirely within the SCM. For certain propagation directions, simultaneous excitation of two ESWs with (i) the same phase speeds but different propagation distances or (ii) the same propagation distances but different phase speeds are also indicated by our results.

  3. Spatial and temporal modeling of wetland surface temperature using Landsat-8 imageries in Sulduz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Eisavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetland Surface Temperature (WST maps are an increasingly important parameter to understand the extensive range of existing processes in wetlands. The Wetlands placed in neighborhoods of agricultural and industrial lands are exposed to more chemical pollutants and pesticides that can lead to spatial and temporal variations of their surface temperature. Therefore, more studies are required for temperature modeling and the management and conservation of these variations in their ecosystem. Landsat 8 time series data of Sulduz region, Western Azerbaijan province, Iran were used in this study. The WST was derived using a mono-window algorithm after implementation of atmospheric correction. The NDVI (Normalized Differential Vegetation Index threshold method was also employed to determine the surface emissivity. Our findings show that the WST experienced extensive spatial and temporal variations. It reached its maximum value in June and also experienced the highest mean in the same month. In this research, August (2013.12.08 had a lowest spatial standard deviation regarding surface temperature and June (2013.06.28 had the highest one. Wetlands' watersides adjacent to industrial zones have a higher surface temperature than the middle lands of these places. The map obtained from the WST variance over time can be exploited to reveal thermal stable and unstable zones. The outcome demonstrates that land use, land cover effectively contribute to wetland ecosystem health. The results are useful in the water management, preventive efforts against drying of wetland and evapotranspiration modeling. The approach employed in this research indicates that remote sensing is a valuable, low-cost and stable tool for thermal monitoring of wetlands health.

  4. Patellar Skin Surface Temperature by Thermography Reflects Knee Osteoarthritis Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Denoble

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Digital infrared thermal imaging is a means of measuring the heat radiated from the skin surface. Our goal was to develop and assess the reproducibility of serial infrared measurements of the knee and to assess the association of knee temperature by region of interest with radiographic severity of knee Osteoarthritis (rOA. Methods A total of 30 women (15 Cases with symptomatic knee OA and 15 age-matched Controls without knee pain or knee OA participated in this study. Infrared imaging was performed with a Meditherm Med2000™ Pro infrared camera. The reproducibility of infrared imaging of the knee was evaluated through determination of intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs for temperature measurements from two images performed 6 months apart in Controls whose knee status was not expected to change. The average cutaneous temperature for each of five knee regions of interest was extracted using WinTes software. Knee x-rays were scored for severity of rOA based on the global Kellgren-Lawrence grading scale. Results The knee infrared thermal imaging procedure used here demonstrated long-term reproducibility with high ICCs (0.50–0.72 for the various regions of interest in Controls. Cutaneous temperature of the patella (knee cap yielded a significant correlation with severity of knee rOA (R = 0.594, P = 0.02. Conclusion The skin temperature of the patellar region correlated with x-ray severity of knee OA. This method of infrared knee imaging is reliable and as an objective measure of a sign of inflammation, temperature, indicates an interrelationship of inflammation and structural knee rOA damage.

  5. Patellar skin surface temperature by thermography reflects knee osteoarthritis severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoble, Anna E; Hall, Norine; Pieper, Carl F; Kraus, Virginia B

    2010-10-15

    Digital infrared thermal imaging is a means of measuring the heat radiated from the skin surface. Our goal was to develop and assess the reproducibility of serial infrared measurements of the knee and to assess the association of knee temperature by region of interest with radiographic severity of knee Osteoarthritis (rOA). A total of 30 women (15 Cases with symptomatic knee OA and 15 age-matched Controls without knee pain or knee OA) participated in this study. Infrared imaging was performed with a Meditherm Med2000™ Pro infrared camera. The reproducibility of infrared imaging of the knee was evaluated through determination of intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for temperature measurements from two images performed 6 months apart in Controls whose knee status was not expected to change. The average cutaneous temperature for each of five knee regions of interest was extracted using WinTes software. Knee x-rays were scored for severity of rOA based on the global Kellgren-Lawrence grading scale. The knee infrared thermal imaging procedure used here demonstrated long-term reproducibility with high ICCs (0.50-0.72 for the various regions of interest) in Controls. Cutaneous temperature of the patella (knee cap) yielded a significant correlation with severity of knee rOA (R = 0.594, P = 0.02). The skin temperature of the patellar region correlated with x-ray severity of knee OA. This method of infrared knee imaging is reliable and as an objective measure of a sign of inflammation, temperature, indicates an interrelationship of inflammation and structural knee rOA damage.

  6. Monthly Sea Surface Salinity and Freshwater Flux Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, L.; Xie, P.; Wu, S.

    2017-12-01

    Taking advantages of the complementary nature of the Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) measurements from the in-situ (CTDs, shipboard, Argo floats, etc.) and satellite retrievals from Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA), the Aquarius of a joint venture between US and Argentina, and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) of national Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), a technique is developed at NOAA/NCEP/CPC to construct an analysis of monthly SSS, called the NOAA Blended Analysis of Sea-Surface Salinity (BASS). The algorithm is a two-steps approach, i.e. to remove the bias in the satellite data through Probability Density Function (PDF) matching against co-located in situ measurements; and then to combine the bias-corrected satellite data with the in situ measurements through the Optimal Interpolation (OI) method. The BASS SSS product is on a 1° by 1° grid over the global ocean for a 7-year period from 2010. Combined with the NOAA/NCEP/CPC CMORPH satellite precipitation (P) estimates and the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) evaporation (E) fields, a suite of monthly package of the SSS and oceanic freshwater flux (E and P) was developed to monitor the global oceanic water cycle and SSS on a monthly basis. The SSS in BASS product is a suite of long-term SSS and fresh water flux data sets with temporal homogeneity and inter-component consistency better suited for the examination of the long-term changes and monitoring. It presents complete spatial coverage and improved resolution and accuracy, which facilitates the diagnostic analysis of the relationship and co-variability among SSS, freshwater flux, mixed layer processes, oceanic circulation, and assimilation of SSS into global models. At the AGU meeting, we will provide more details on the CPC salinity and fresh water flux data package and its applications in the monitoring and analysis of SSS variations in association with the ENSO and other major climate

  7. Classically exact surface diffusion constants at arbitrary temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voter, A.F.; Cohen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    An expression is presented for computing the classical diffusion constant of a point defect (e.g., an adatom) in an infinite lattice of binding sites at arbitrary temperature. The transition state theory diffusion constant is simply multiplied by a dynamical correction factor that is computed from short-time classical trajectories initiated at the site boundaries. The time scale limitations of direct molecular dynamics are thus avoided in the low- and middle-temperature regimes. The expression results from taking the time derivative of the particle mean-square displacement in the lattice-discretized coordinate system. Applications are presented for surface diffusion on fcc(100) and fcc(111) Lennard-Jones crystal faces

  8. Sea surface temperature contributes to marine crocodylomorph evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeremy E; Amiot, Romain; Lécuyer, Christophe; Benton, Michael J

    2014-08-18

    During the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, four distinct crocodylomorph lineages colonized the marine environment. They were conspicuously absent from high latitudes, which in the Mesozoic were occupied by warm-blooded ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs. Despite a relatively well-constrained stratigraphic distribution, the varying diversities of marine crocodylomorphs are poorly understood, because their extinctions neither coincided with any major biological crises nor with the advent of potential competitors. Here we test the potential link between their evolutionary history in terms of taxic diversity and two abiotic factors, sea level variations and sea surface temperatures (SST). Excluding Metriorhynchoidea, which may have had a peculiar ecology, significant correlations obtained between generic diversity and estimated Tethyan SST suggest that water temperature was a driver of marine crocodylomorph diversity. Being most probably ectothermic reptiles, these lineages colonized the marine realm and diversified during warm periods, then declined or became extinct during cold intervals.

  9. Developments in outburst prediction by microseismic monitoring from the surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, A W; Styles, P; Jones, V K

    1987-01-01

    Violent outbursts of coal and firedamp affect production operations in most of the coal producing countries of the world, often leading to heavy loss of life. Significant changes in the pattern of Welsh outbursts from 1978 onwards are described with a far larger proportion occurring on longwall faces than was previously the case and with a much higher incidence of spontaneous outbursts, which carry a greater risk than those which are deliberately induced. The elaborate defences in use appeared inadequate to deal with the changing circumstances as methane based alarms only operated after the outburst phenomenon had initiated. An earlier warning of an incipient outburst was required and evidence suggested that seismic monitoring might provide this early warning. A surface located seismometer was installed giving radio transmitted signals to a tape recorder in the colliery control room. This provided promising historical records and led to five surface seismometer stations being commissioned feeding signals, suitably treated, to a micro-processor located in the mine control room. The programming of the micro-processor was arranged to give a real time alarm at pre-set levels of seismic activity in defined areas of the mine. Experience with the new predictive tool is described, as well as the use made of the new facility by management, including changed methods of outburst stress relief.

  10. Combining surface reanalysis and remote sensing data for monitoring evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, M.; Tu, K.; Funk, C.; Michaelsen, J.; Williams, Pat; Williams, C.; Ardö, J.; Marie, B.; Cappelaere, B.; Grandcourt, A.; Nickless, A.; Noubellon, Y.; Scholes, R.; Kutsch, W.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have the greatest impact on the world's poor. In the Sahel, a climatically sensitive region where rain-fed agriculture is the primary livelihood, expected decreases in water supply will increase food insecurity. Studies on climate change and the intensification of the water cycle in sub-Saharan Africa are few. This is due in part to poor calibration of modeled actual evapotranspiration (AET), a key input in continental-scale hydrologic models. In this study, a model driven by dynamic canopy AET was combined with the Global Land Data Assimilation System realization of the NOAH Land Surface Model (GNOAH) wet canopy and soil AET for monitoring purposes in sub-Saharan Africa. The performance of the hybrid model was compared against AET from the GNOAH model and dynamic model using eight eddy flux towers representing major biomes of sub-Saharan Africa. The greatest improvements in model performance are at humid sites with dense vegetation, while performance at semi-arid sites is poor, but better than individual models. The reduction in errors using the hybrid model can be attributed to the integration of a dynamic vegetation component with land surface model estimates, improved model parameterization, and reduction of multiplicative effects of uncertain data.

  11. Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Shonka Research Associates, Inc.`s (SRA) Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information management System (SCM/SIMS) is designed to perform alpha and beta radiation surveys of floors and surfaces and document the measured data. The SRA-SCM/SIMS technology can be applied to routine operational surveys, characterization surveys, and free release and site closure surveys. Any large nuclear site can make use of this technology. This report describes a demonstration of the SRA-SCM/SIMS technology. This demonstration is part of the chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology (ST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East`s (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor Facility. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies.

  12. Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    Shonka Research Associates, Inc.'s (SRA) Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information management System (SCM/SIMS) is designed to perform alpha and beta radiation surveys of floors and surfaces and document the measured data. The SRA-SCM/SIMS technology can be applied to routine operational surveys, characterization surveys, and free release and site closure surveys. Any large nuclear site can make use of this technology. This report describes a demonstration of the SRA-SCM/SIMS technology. This demonstration is part of the chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology (ST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East's (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor Facility. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies

  13. Correlation between Fe–V–C alloys surface hardness and plasma temperature via LIBS technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messaoud Aberkane, S., E-mail: smessaoud@cdta.dz [Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, Baba Hassen, Alger (Algeria); Bendib, A. [Université des Sciences et de Technologie Houari Boumediene, Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Yahiaoui, K.; Boudjemai, S.; Abdelli-Messaci, S.; Kerdja, T. [Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, Baba Hassen, Alger (Algeria); Amara, S.E. [Université des Sciences et de Technologie Houari Boumediene, Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Harith, M.A. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science, Cairo University (Egypt)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • New application of LIBS in industry. • Hardness of metallic alloys estimation using LIBS calibration curves. • Linear correlation between the plasma temperature and the hardness of metallic alloys. • The shock wave is fast when the material is hard. - Abstract: Surface hardness is a very important characteristic of metals. Its monitoring plays a key role in industry. In the present paper, using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), Fe–V{sub 18%}–C{sub 1%} alloys with different heat treatments have been used for making the correlation between surface hardness and laser-induced plasma temperatures. All investigated samples were characterized by the same ferrite phase with different Vickers surface hardnesses. The differences in hardness values were attributed to the crystallite size changes. A linear relationship has been obtained between the Vickers surface hardness and the laser induced plasma temperature. For comparison the relation between surface hardness and the ratio of the vanadium ionic to atomic spectral lines intensities (VII/VI) provided good linear results too. However, adopting the proposed approach of using the plasma temperature, instead, is more reliable in view of the difficulties that could be encountered in choosing the proper ionic and atomic spectral lines. To validate this approach we have investigated the shock wave speed induced by laser interaction with the used samples. It was found that harder is the material faster is the shock wave. The determination of the surface hardness via measuring T{sub e} shows the feasibility of using LIBS as an easy and reliable method for in situ industrial application for production control.

  14. Downscaling Satellite Land Surface Temperatures in Urban Regions for Surface Energy Balance Study and Heat Index Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, H.; Bah, A.; Prakash, S.; Nouri, N.; Blake, R.

    2017-12-01

    A great percentage of the world's population reside in urban areas that are exposed to the threats of global and regional climate changes and associated extreme weather events. Among them, urban heat islands have significant health and economic impacts due to higher thermal gradients of impermeable surfaces in urban regions compared to their surrounding rural areas. Therefore, accurate characterization of the surface energy balance in urban regions are required to predict these extreme events. High spatial resolution Land surface temperature (LST) in the scale of street level in the cities can provide wealth of information to study surface energy balance and eventually providing a reliable heat index. In this study, we estimate high-resolution LST maps using combination of LandSat 8 and infrared based satellite products such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and newly launched Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-R). Landsat 8 provides higher spatial resolution (30 m) estimates of skin temperature every 16 days. However, MODIS and GOES-R have lower spatial resolution (1km and 4km respectively) with much higher temporal resolution. Several statistical downscaling methods were investigated to provide high spatiotemporal LST maps in urban regions. The results reveal that statistical methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) can provide reliable estimations of LST downscaling with 2K accuracy. Other methods also were tried including aggregating (up-scaling) the high-resolution data to a coarse one to examine the limitations and to build the model. Additionally, we deployed flux towers over distinct materials such as concrete, asphalt, and rooftops in New York City to monitor the sensible and latent heat fluxes through eddy covariance method. To account for the incoming and outgoing radiation, a 4-component radiometer is used that can observe both incoming and outgoing longwave and shortwave radiation. This

  15. Anaphylaxis Imaging: Non-Invasive Measurement of Surface Body Temperature and Physical Activity in Small Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Manzano-Szalai

    Full Text Available In highly sensitized patients, the encounter with a specific allergen from food, insect stings or medications may rapidly induce systemic anaphylaxis with potentially lethal symptoms. Countless animal models of anaphylaxis, most often in BALB/c mice, were established to understand the pathophysiology and to prove the safety of different treatments. The most common symptoms during anaphylactic shock are drop of body temperature and reduced physical activity. To refine, improve and objectify the currently applied manual monitoring methods, we developed an imaging method for the automated, non-invasive measurement of the whole-body surface temperature and, at the same time, of the horizontal and vertical movement activity of small animals. We tested the anaphylaxis imaging in three in vivo allergy mouse models for i milk allergy, ii peanut allergy and iii egg allergy. These proof-of-principle experiments suggest that the imaging technology represents a reliable non-invasive method for the objective monitoring of small animals during anaphylaxis over time. We propose that the method will be useful for monitoring diseases associated with both, changes in body temperature and in physical behaviour.

  16. The effects of sea surface temperature gradients on surface turbulent fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, John

    A positive correlation between sea surface temperature (SST) and wind stress perturbation near strong SST gradients (DeltaSST) has been observed in different parts of the world ocean, such as the Gulf Stream in the North Atlantic and the Kuroshio Extension east of Japan. These changes in winds and SSTs can modify near-surface stability, surface stress, and latent and sensible heat fluxes. In general, these small scale processes are poorly modeled in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and climate models. Failure to account for these air--sea interactions produces inaccurate values of turbulent fluxes, and therefore a misrepresentation of the energy, moisture, and momentum budgets. Our goal is to determine the change in these surface turbulent fluxes due to overlooking the correlated variability in winds, SSTs, and related variables. To model these air--sea interactions, a flux model was forced with and without SST--induced changes to the surface wind fields. The SST modification to the wind fields is based on a baroclinic argument as implemented by the University of Washington Planetary Boundary-Layer (UWPBL) model. Other input parameters include 2-m air temperature, 2-m dew point temperature, surface pressure (all from ERA--interim), and Reynolds Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST). Flux model runs are performed every 6 hours starting in December 2002 and ending in November 2003. From these model outputs, seasonal, monthly, and daily means of the difference between DeltaSST and no DeltaSST effects on sensible heat flux (SHF), latent heat flux (LHF), and surface stress are calculated. Since the greatest impacts occur during the winter season, six additional December-January-February (DJF) seasons were analyzed for 1987--1990 and 1999--2002. The greatest differences in surface turbulent fluxes are concentrated near strong SST fronts associated with the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio Extension. On average, 2002---2003 DJF seasonal differences in SHF

  17. Measurement of a surface heat flux and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. M.; Antoine, G. J.; Diller, T. E.; Wicks, A. L.

    1994-04-01

    The Heat Flux Microsensor is a new sensor which was recently patented by Virginia Tech and is just starting to be marketed by Vatell Corp. The sensor is made using the thin-film microfabrication techniques directly on the material that is to be measured. It consists of several thin-film layers forming a differential thermopile across a thermal resistance layer. The measured heat flux q is proportional to the temperature difference across the resistance layer q= k(sub g)/delta(sub g) x (t(sub 1) - T(sub 2)), where k(sub g) is the thermal conductivity and delta (sub g) is the thickness of the thermal resistance layer. Because the gages are sputter coated directly onto the surface, their total thickness is less than 2 micrometers, which is two orders of magnitude thinner than previous gages. The resulting temperature difference across the thermal resistance layer (delta is less than 1 micrometer) is very small even at high heat fluxes. To generate a measurable signal many thermocouple pairs are put in series to form a differential thermopile. The combination of series thermocouple junctions and thin-film design creates a gage with very attractive characteristics. It is not only physically non-intrusive to the flow, but also causes minimal disruption of the surface temperature. Because it is so thin, the response time is less than 20 microsec. Consequently, the frequency response is flat from 0 to over 50 kHz. Moreover, the signal of the Heat Flux Microsensor is directly proportional to the heat flux. Therefore, it can easily be used in both steady and transient flows, and it measures both the steady and unsteady components of the surface heat flux. A version of the Heat Flux Microsensor has been developed to meet the harsh demands of combustion environments. These gages use platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium as the thermoelectric materials. The thermal resistance layer is silicon monoxide and a protective coating of Al2O3 is deposited on top of the sensor. The

  18. Ion beam induced surface graphitization of CVD diamond for x-ray beam position monitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chian; Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.M.; Wen, L.; Melendres, C.A.; Argonne National Lab., IL

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source at ANL is a third-generation synchrotron facility that generates powerful x-ray beams on its undulator beamlines. It is important to know the position and angle of the x- ray beam during experiments. Due to very high heat flux levels, several patented x-ray beam position monitors (XBPM) exploiting chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond have been developed. These XBPMs have a thin layer of low-atomic-mass metallic coating so that photoemission from the x rays generate a minute but measurable current for position determination. Graphitization of the CVD diamond surface creates a very thin, intrinsic and conducting layer that can stand much higher temperatures and minimal x-ray transmission losses compared to the coated metallic layers. In this paper, a laboratory sputter ion source was used to transform selected surfaces of a CVD diamond substrate into graphite. The effect of 1-5 keV argon ion bombardment on CVD diamond surfaces at various target temperatures from 200 to 500 C was studied using Auger electron spectroscopy and in-situ electrical resistivity measurements. Graphitization after the ion bombardment has been confirmed and optimum conditions for graphitization studied. Raman spectroscopy was used to identify the overall diamond structure in the bulk of CVD diamond substrate after the ion bombardments. It was found that target temperature plays an important role in stability and electrical conductivity of the irradiated CVD diamonds

  19. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwen Fan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications.

  20. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guangwen; Shen, Yu; Hao, Xiaowei; Yuan, Zongming; Zhou, Zhi

    2015-09-18

    Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications.

  1. Surface temperatures in the polar regions from Nimbus 7 temperature humidity infrared radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    1994-01-01

    Monthly surface temperatures in the Arctic and Antarctic regions have been derived from the 11.5 micrometer thermal infrared channel of the Nimbus 7 temperature humidity infrared radiometer (THIR) for a whole year in 1979 and for a winter and a summer month from 1980 through 1985. The data set shows interannual variability and provides spatial details that allow identification of temperature patterns over sea ice and ice sheet surfaces. For example, the coldest spot in the southern hemisphere is observed to be consistently in the Antarctic plateau in the southern hemisphere, while that in the northern hemisphere is usually located in Greenland, or one of three other general areas: Siberia, the central Arctic, or the Canadian Archipelago. Also, in the southern hemisphere, the amplitude of the seasonal fluctuation of ice sheet temperatures is about 3 times that of sea ice, while in the northern hemisphere, the corresponding fluctuations for the two surfaces are about the same. The main sources of error in the retrieval are cloud and other atmospheric effects. These were minimized by first choosing the highest radiance value from the set of measurements during the day taken within a 30 km by 30 km grid of each daily map. Then the difference of daily maps was taken and where the difference is greater than a certain threshold (which in this case is 12 C), the data element is deleted. Overall, the monthly maps derived from the resulting daily maps are spatially and temporally consistent, are coherent with the topograph y of the Antarctic continent and the location of the sea ice edge, and are in qualitative agreement with climatological data. Quantitatively, THIR data are in good agreement with Antarctic ice sheet surface air temperature station data with a correlation coefficient of 0.997 and a standard deviation of 2.0 C. The absolute values are not as good over the sea ice edges, but a comparison with Russian 2-m drift station temperatures shows very high correlation

  2. Passive wireless surface acoustic wave sensors for monitoring sequestration sites CO2 emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yizhong [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Chyu, Minking [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Wang, Qing-Ming [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-02-14

    University of Pittsburgh’s Transducer lab has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient CO2 measuring technologies for geological sequestration sites leakage monitoring. A passive wireless CO2 sensing system based on surface acoustic wave technology and carbon nanotube nanocomposite was developed. Surface acoustic wave device was studied to determine the optimum parameters. Delay line structure was adopted as basic sensor structure. CNT polymer nanocomposite was fabricated and tested under different temperature and strain condition for natural environment impact evaluation. Nanocomposite resistance increased for 5 times under pure strain, while the temperature dependence of resistance for CNT solely was -1375ppm/°C. The overall effect of temperature on nanocomposite resistance was -1000ppm/°C. The gas response of the nanocomposite was about 10% resistance increase under pure CO2 . The sensor frequency change was around 300ppm for pure CO2 . With paralyne packaging, the sensor frequency change from relative humidity of 0% to 100% at room temperature decreased from over 1000ppm to less than 100ppm. The lowest detection limit of the sensor is 1% gas concentration, with 36ppm frequency change. Wireless module was tested and showed over one foot transmission distance at preferred parallel orientation.

  3. Theoretical study of cathode surfaces and high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Wolfgang

    1995-01-01

    Calculations are presented for the work functions of BaO on W, Os, Pt, and alloys of Re-W, Os-W, and Ir-W that are in excellent agreement with experiment. The observed emission enhancement for alloy relative to tungsten dispenser cathodes is attributed to properties of the substrate crystal structure and explained by the smaller depolarization of the surface dipole on hexagonal as compared to cubic substrates. For Ba and BaO on W(100), the geometry of the adsorbates has been determined by a comparison of inverse photoemission spectra with calculated densities of unoccupied states based on the fully relativistic embedded cluster approach. Results are also discussed for models of scandate cathodes and the electronic structure of oxygen on W(100) at room and elevated temperatures. A detailed comparison is made for the surface electronic structure of the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7 as obtained with non-, quasi-, and fully relativistic cluster calculations.

  4. Three modes of interdecadal trends in sea surface temperature and sea surface height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Pradal, M.

    2013-12-01

    It might be thought that sea surface height and sea surface temperature would be tightly related. We show that this is not necessarily the case on a global scale. We analysed this relationship in a suite of coupled climate models run under 1860 forcing conditions. The models are low-resolution variants of the GFDL Earth System Model, reported in Galbraith et al. (J. Clim. 2011). 1. Correlated changes in global sea surface height and global sea surface temperature. This mode corresponds to opening and closing of convective chimneys in the Southern Ocean. As the Southern Ocean destratifies, sea ice formation is suppressed during the winter and more heat is taken up during the summer. This mode of variability is highly correlated with changes in the top of the atmosphere radiative budget and weakly correlated with changes in the deep ocean circulation. 2. Uncorrelated changes in global sea surface height and global sea surface temperature. This mode of variability is associated with interdecadal variabliity in tropical winds. Changes in the advective flux of heat to the surface ocean play a critical role in driving these changes, which also result in significant local changes in sea level. Changes sea ice over the Southern Ocean still result in changes in solar absorption, but these are now largely cancelled by changes in outgoing longwave radiation. 3. Anticorrelated changes in global sea surface height and global sea surface temperatures. By varying the lateral diffusion coefficient in the ocean model, we are able to enhance and suppress convection in the Southern and Northern Pacific Oceans. Increasing the lateral diffusion coefficients shifts the balance sources of deep water away from the warm salty deep water of the North Atlantic and towards cold fresh deep water from the other two regions. As a result, even though the planet as a whole warms, the deep ocean cools and sea level falls, with changes of order 30 cm over 500 years. The increase in solar absorption

  5. Innovative Health Monitoring Techniques for High Temperature Composites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High temperature composite materials, which include ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), carbon-carbon and polyimide composites, will be essential for future space...

  6. All-weather Land Surface Temperature Estimation from Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J.; Zhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing, including the thermal infrared (TIR) and passive microwave (MW), provides the possibility to observe LST at large scales. For better modeling the land surface processes with high temporal resolutions, all-weather LST from satellite data is desirable. However, estimation of all-weather LST faces great challenges. On the one hand, TIR remote sensing is limited to clear-sky situations; this drawback reduces its usefulness under cloudy conditions considerably, especially in regions with frequent and/or permanent clouds. On the other hand, MW remote sensing suffers from much greater thermal sampling depth (TSD) and coarser spatial resolution than TIR; thus, MW LST is generally lower than TIR LST, especially at daytime. Two case studies addressing the challenges mentioned previously are presented here. The first study is for the development of a novel thermal sampling depth correction method (TSDC) to estimate the MW LST over barren land; this second study is for the development of a feasible method to merge the TIR and MW LSTs by addressing the coarse resolution of the latter one. In the first study, the core of the TSDC method is a new formulation of the passive microwave radiation balance equation, which allows linking bulk MW radiation to the soil temperature at a specific depth, i.e. the representative temperature: this temperature is then converted to LST through an adapted soil heat conduction equation. The TSDC method is applied to the 6.9 GHz channel in vertical polarization of AMSR-E. Evaluation shows that LST estimated by the TSDC method agrees well with the MODIS LST. Validation is based on in-situ LSTs measured at the Gobabeb site in western Namibia. The results demonstrate the high accuracy of the TSDC method: it yields a root-mean squared error (RMSE) of 2 K and ignorable systematic error over barren land. In the second study, the method consists of two core processes: (1) estimation of MW LST from MW brightness temperature and (2

  7. Effects of Ce concentrations on ignition temperature and surface tension of Mg-9wt.%Al alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Zhenghua

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys are well known for their excellent properties, but the potential issues with oxidation and burning during melting and casting largely limit its industrial applications. The addition of Ce in magnesium alloys can significantly raise ignition-proof performance and change the structure of the oxide film on the surface of the molten metal as well as the surface tension values. Surface tension is an important physical parameter of the metal melts, and it plays an important role in the formation of surface oxide film. In this present work, the ignition temperature and the surface tension of Mg-9wt.%Al alloy with different Ce concentrations were studied. Surface tensions was measured using the maximum bubble pressure method (MBPM. Ignition temperature was measured using NiCr-NiSi type thermocouples and was monitored and recorded via a WXT-604 desk recording device. The results show that the ignition point of Mg-9wt.%Al alloy can be effectively elevated by adding Ce. The ignition temperature reaches its highest point of 720 ℃ when the addition of Ce is 1wt.%. The surface tension of the molten Mg-9wt.%Al alloy decreases exponentially with the increase of Ce addition at the same temperature. Similarly, the experiment also shows that the surface tension of Mg-9wt.%Al alloy decreases exponentially with the increase of temperature.

  8. Mesoscale surface equivalent temperature (T E) for East Central USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Keri; Mahmood, Rezaul; Goodrich, Gregory; Pielke, Roger A.; Durkee, Joshua

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate near surface mesoscale equivalent temperatures (T E) in Kentucky (located in east central USA) and potential land cover influences. T E is a measure of the moist enthalpy composed of the dry bulb temperature, T, and absolute humidity. Kentucky presents a unique opportunity to perform a study of this kind because of the observational infrastructure provided by the Kentucky Mesonet (www.kymesonet.org). This network maintains 69 research-grade, in-situ weather and climate observing stations across the Commonwealth. Equivalent temperatures were calculated utilizing high-quality observations from 33 of these stations. In addition, the Kentucky Mesonet offers higher spatial and temporal resolution than previous research on this topic. As expected, the differences (T E - T) were greatest in the summer (smallest in the winter), with an average of 35 °C (5 °C). In general, the differences were found to be the largest in the western climate division. This is attributed to agricultural land use and poorly drained land. These differences are smaller during periods of drought, signifying less influence of moisture.

  9. Impact of vegetation growth on urban surface temperature distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buyadi, S N A; Mohd, W M N W; Misni, A

    2014-01-01

    Earlier studies have indicated that, the temperature distribution in the urban area is significantly warmer than its surrounding suburban areas. The process of urbanization has created urban heat island (UHI). As a city expands, trees are cut down to accommodate commercial development, industrial areas, roads, and suburban growth. Trees or green areas normally play a vital role in mitigating the UHI effects especially in regulating high temperature in saturated urban areas. This study attempts to assess the effects of vegetation growth on land surface temperature (LST) distribution in urban areas. An area within the City of Shah Alam, Selangor has been selected as the study area. Land use/land cover and LST maps of two different dates are generated from Landsat 5 TM images of the year 1991 and 2009. Only five major land cover classes are considered in this study. Mono-window algorithm is used to generate the LST maps. Landsat 5 TM images are also used to generate the NDVI maps. Results from this study have shown that there are significant land use changes within the study area. Although the conversion of green areas into residential and commercial areas significantly increase the LST, matured trees will help to mitigate the effects of UHI

  10. Effects of high-temperature gas dealkalization on surface mechanical properties of float glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk, Ufuk

    The surface topography, and the near-surface structure and mechanical property changes on float glass, that was treated in atmospheres containing SOsb2, HCl, and 1,1 difluoroethane (DFE) gases, at temperatures in the glass transition region, were studied. Structure was investigated using surface sensitive infrared spectroscopy techniques (attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and diffuse reflectance (DRIFT)) and the topography was evaluated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results obtained from the two FTIR methods were in agreement with each other. Mechanical property characteristics of the surface were determined by measuring microhardness using a recording microindentation set-up. A simple analysis performed on the three hardness calculation methods-LVH, LVHsb2, and Lsb2VH-indicated that LVH and LVHsb2 are less effected by measurement errors and are better suited for the calculation of hardness. Contact damage characteristics of the treated glass was also studied by monitoring the crack initiation behavior during indentation, using acoustic emission. The results of the studies, aiming for the understanding of the structure, topography, and hardness property changes indicate that the treatment parameters-temperature, time, and treatment atmosphere conditions-are significant factors influencing these properties. The analysis of these results suggest a relation to exist between the three properties. This relation is used in understanding the surface mechanical properties of the treated float glasses. The difference in the thermal expansion coefficients between the dealkalized surface and bulk, the nature of surface structure changes, structural relaxation, surface water content, and glass transformation temperature are identified as the major factors having an influence on the properties. A model connecting these features is suggested. A difference in the structure, hardness, and topography on the air and tin sides of float glass is also shown to exist. The

  11. Nuclear electronic components of surface contamination monitor based on multi-electrode proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiangyang; Zhang Yong; Han Shuping; Rao Xianming; Fang Jintu

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear electronic components applying in Portal Monitor and Hands and Feet Surface Contamination Monitor were based on modern integrated circuit are introduced. The detailed points in circuit design and manufacturing technique are analyzed

  12. The application of surface electrical and shallow geothermic methods in monitoring network design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkeson, R.H.; Cartwright, K.

    1983-01-01

    There are a variety of surface geophysical methods that are routinely used in geologic investigations. The three broad applications of these methods to evaluate the impact of waste disposal on shallow groundwater flow systems are: 1) evaluation of proposed waste disposal sites; 2) monitoring of site performance; and 3) investigation of contaminant migration at existing sites. Electrical and shallow geothermic are two surface geophysical methods that have application to waste disposal investigations. Of the electrical methods, electrical resistivity has the greatest application with a variety of techniques available. The distribution of temperature in shallow geologic materials (shallow geothermics) may define characteristics of shallow groundwater flow systems including zones of recharge and discharge and lithologic variation in the shallow geologic materials.-from Authors

  13. Instrumental system for the quick relief of surface temperatures in fumaroles fields and steam heated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diliberto, Iole; Cappuzzo, Santo; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Cosenza, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    We present an instrumental system to measure and to map the space variation of the surface temperature in volcanic fields. The system is called Pirogips, its essential components are a Pyrometer and a Global Position System but also other devices useful to obtain a good performance of the operating system have been included. In the framework of investigation to define and interpret volcanic scenarios, the long-term monitoring of gas geochemistry can improve the resolution of the scientific approaches by other specific disciplines. Indeed the fluid phase is released on a continuous mode from any natural system which produces energy in excess respect to its geological boundaries. This is the case of seismic or magmatic active areas where the long-term geochemical monitoring is able to highlight, and to follow in real time, changes in the rate of energy release and/or in the feeding sources of fluids, thus contributing to define the actual behaviour of the investigated systems (e.g. Paonita el al., 2013; 2002; Taran, 2011; Zettwood and Tazieff, 1973). The demand of pirogips starts from the personal experience in long term monitoring of gas geochemistry (e.g. Diliberto I.S, 2013; 2011; et al., 2002; Inguaggiato et al.,2012a, 2012b). Both space and time variation of surface temperature highlight change of energy and mass release from the deep active system, they reveal the upraise of deep and hot fluid and can be easily detected. Moreover a detailed map of surface temperature can be very useful for establishing a network of sampling points or installing a new site for geochemical monitoring. Water is commonly the main component of magmatic or hydrothermal fluid release and it can reach the ground surface in the form of steam, as in the high and low temperature fumaroles fields, or it can even condense just below the ground surface. In this second case the water disperses in pores or circulates in the permeable layers while the un-condensable gases reach the surface (e

  14. Sensor programming and concept implementation of a temperature monitoring system, using Arduino as prototyping platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sbîrnă, Sebastian; Søberg, Peder Veng; Sbîrnă, Liana Simona

    2016-01-01

    The present work reports the programming paradigms that have been developed for a temperature monitoring system able to provide accurate data regarding food temperatures inside refrigerated vehicles and alert the driver accordingly, in relation to which temperature states are encountered. The men...

  15. Monitorizing nitinol alloy surface reactions for biofouling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinu, C.Z.; Dinca, V.C.; Soare, S.; Moldovan, A.; Smarandache, D.; Scarisoareanu, N.; Barbalat, A.; Birjega, R.; Dinescu, M.; DiStefano, V. Ferrari

    2007-01-01

    Growth and deposition of unwanted bacteria on implant metal alloys affect their use as biomedical samples. Monitoring any bacterial biofilm accumulation will provide early countermeasures. For a reliable antifouling strategy we prepared nitinol (NiTi) thin films on Ti-derived substrates by using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. As the microstructure of Ti-alloy is dictated by the tensile strength, fatigue and the fracture toughness we tested the use of hydrogen as an alloying element. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigated the crystalline structure, chemical composition and respectively the surface morphology of the nitinol hydrogen and hydrogen-free samples. Moreover, the alloys were integrated and tested using a cellular metric and their responses were systematic evaluated and quantified. Our attractive approach is meant to select the suitable components for an effective and trustworthy anti-fouling strategy. A greater understanding of such processes should lead to novel and effective control methods that would improve in the future implant stability and capabilities

  16. Applications of small surface plasmon resonance sensors for biochemical monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Jean-Francois; Battaglia, Tina M.; Beaudoin, Stephen; Booksh, Karl S.

    2004-12-01

    The development of small surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors to detect biological markers for myocardial ischemia (MI), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and wound healing was achieved at low ng/mL and in less than 10 minutes. The markers of interest for MIs are myoglobin (MG) and cardiac Troponin I (cTnI). The limits of detection for these markers are respectively 600 pg/mL and 1.4 ng/mL in saline solution. To study SMA, the level of survival motor neuron protein (SMN) was investigated. A limit of detection of 990 pg/mL was achieved for the detection of SMN. The interactions of SMN with MG decreased the signal for both SMN and MG. Interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) were investigated to monitor wound healing. The sensor's performance in more complex solutions, e.g.: serum, showed a large non-specific signal. Modifying the support on which the antibodies are attached improved the sensor's stability in serum by a factor of 5. To achieve this non-specific binding (NSB) reduction, different polysaccharides, biocompatible polymers and short chain thiols were investigated.

  17. GHRSST Level 4 DMI_OI Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis by the Danish...

  18. GHRSST Level 4 MUR North America Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced as a retrospective dataset at the JPL Physical...

  19. GHRSST Level 4 OSPO Global Nighttime Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Office of...

  20. GHRSST Level 4 AVHRR_AMSR_OI Global Blended Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) global Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on a 0.25 degree grid at the NOAA...

  1. GHRSST Level 4 ODYSSEA Mediterranean Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at Ifremer/CERSAT...

  2. GHRSST Level 4 G1SST Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis by the JPL OurOcean...

  3. GHRSST Level 4 MW_OI Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) global Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on a 0.25 degree grid at Remote Sensing...

  4. GHRSST Level 4 K10_SST Global 1 meter Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Naval...

  5. GHRSST Level 4 EUR Mediterranean Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily by Ifremer/CERSAT (France) using optimal...

  6. GHRSST Level 4 ODYSSEA Eastern Central Pacific Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at Ifremer/CERSAT...

  7. GHRSST Level 4 ODYSSEA Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at Ifremer/CERSAT...

  8. GHRSST Level 4 OSPO Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Office of...

  9. GHRSST Level 4 GAMSSA Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Australian Bureau...

  10. GHRSST Level 4 RAMSSA Australian Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Australian Bureau...

  11. GHRSST Level 4 OSTIA Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the UK Met Office...

  12. Newly devised infrared radiometer (ERI type IR ground scanner) and the surface temperature of the Mihara crater, O-shima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimozuru, D [Earthquake Res. Inst., Univ. of Tokyo; Kagiyama, T

    1976-10-01

    The infrared radiometer, a remote sensing tool, can be successfully used to measure the surface temperature of a volcanic or geothermal area. Many of these devices are available commercially for industrial use but their application to volcano observations is limited due to a wide field of view which prohibits detailed examination of specific points. A commercial radiometer was mounted on a balloon theodolite with an electrically driven rotating base. A telescope was attached to the radiometer to permit monitoring of the field of view. Radiometer output can be recorded either on a magnetic tape data recorder or a strip chart recorder. The device is also useful for continuous monitoring of the temperature of a vent or fumarole. The observed temperatures are dependent upon the wave length of actual spatial temperature distribution, the field of view and the scanning speed. Detailed information of both a theoretical and an experimental nature is provided. The improved radiometer was utilized to observe surface temperature in the caldera of Miharayama, Oshima in March, 1976. It was found that the vent temperature was markedly lower than had previously been recorded, as was the average surface temperature.

  13. A thermal monitoring sheet with low influence from adjacent waterbolus for tissue surface thermometry during clinical hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo F; Stauffer, Paul R

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a complete thermal analysis of a novel conformal surface thermometer design with directional sensitivity for real-time temperature monitoring during hyperthermia treatments of large superficial cancer. The thermal monitoring sheet (TMS) discussed in this paper consists of a 2-D array of fiberoptic sensors embedded between two layers of flexible, low-loss, and thermally conductive printed circuit board (PCB) film. Heat transfer across all interfaces from the tissue surface through multiple layers of insulating dielectrics surrounding the small buried temperature sensor and into an adjacent temperature-regulated water coupling bolus was studied using 3-D thermal simulation software. Theoretical analyses were carried out to identify the most effective differential TMS probe configuration possible with commercially available flexible PCB materials and to compare their thermal responses with omnidirectional probes commonly used in clinical hyperthermia. A TMS sensor design that employs 0.0508-mm Kapton MTB and 0.2032-mm Kapton HN flexible polyimide films is proposed for tissue surface thermometry with low influence from the adjacent waterbolus. Comparison of the thermal simulations with clinical probes indicates the new differential TMS probe design to outperform in terms of both transient response and steady-state accuracy in selectively reading the tissue surface temperature, while decreasing the overall thermal barrier of the probe between the coupling waterbolus and tissue surface.

  14. Stable isotopes in a branching coral monitor seasonal temperature variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, R.B.; Wellington, G.M.

    1981-01-01

    Results are reported of 18 O composition measurements of specimens of the branching reef coral Pocillopora damicornis, which have grown in the field, while seawater temperatures were continuously recorded. It is shown that seasonal temperature changes are accurately recorded by 18 O variations in branches of this reef coral and that isotopic profiles may be used to estimate growth rates of branching corals, which lack annual density banding. The method provides a technique for high resolution palaeoclimatic reconstruction of seasonal temperature ranges and accurate estimation of rates of reef carbonate production. (U.K.)

  15. Monitoring on internal temperature of composite insulator with embedding fiber Bragg grating for early diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Tang, Ming

    2017-04-01

    The abnormal temperature rise is the precursor of the defective composite insulator in power transmission line. However no consolidated techniques or methodologies can on line monitor its internal temperature now. Thus a new method using embedding fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) rod is adopted to monitor its internal temperature. To correctly demodulate the internal temperature of FRP rod from the Bragg wavelength shift of FBG, the conversion coefficient between them is deduced theoretically based on comprehensive investigation on the thermal stresses of the metal-composite joint, as well as its material and structural properties. Theoretical model shows that the conversion coefficients of FBG embedded in different positions will be different because of non-uniform thermal stress distribution, which is verified by an experiment. This work lays the theoretical foundation of monitoring the internal temperature of composite insulator with embedding FBG, which is of great importance to its health structural monitoring, especially early diagnosis.

  16. Strain-temperature monitor of high speed railway switch by fiber Bragg grating gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weilai; Huang, Xiaomei; Cheng, Jian; Pan, Jianjun

    2010-10-01

    On the 350km/h high speed railway there is a seamless track switch on a bridge. 32 Fiber Bragg Grating (FGB) gauges are used along the neutral line of the tracks to monitor the strain generated by thermal, geological and vibrational factors, and these FBG strain gauges have the function of strain expansion. Meanwhile other 6 FBG sensors are used to measure the temperature for strain compensating purpose. The Finite Element Analysis method is used to analyze the special shape of the gauges. A testing unit was used to test the FBG gauges and bare FBG on the track samples under measurable pressure and tension. The fixing and encapsulating technology of FBG gauges on the surface of the track and to protect the fiber cable to survive in the harsh conditions are discussed. The strain status of switch tracks could be obtained by processing the data from FBG strain gauges and FBG temperature sensors. The results of measurement showed that in 9 days, the strain in the track shifted 350 μɛ, and the strain curves closely correlated with the temperature curves.

  17. On the feasibility of borehole-to-surface electromagnetics for monitoring CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G. A.; Zhdanov, M. S.; Hibbs, A. D.; Black, N.; Gribenko, A. V.; Cuma, M.; Agundes, A.; Eiskamp, G.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects rely on storing supercritical CO2 in deep saline reservoirs where buoyancy forces drive the injected CO2 upward into the aquifer until a seal is reached. The permanence of the sequestration depends entirely on the long-term geological integrity of the seal. Active geophysical monitoring of the sequestration is critical for informing CO2 monitoring, accounting and verification (MVA) decisions. During injection, there exists a correlation between the changes in CO2 and water saturations in a saline reservoir. Dissolved salts react with the CO2 to precipitate out as carbonates, thereby generally decreasing the electrical resistivity. As a result, there is a correlation between the change in fluid saturation and measured electromagnetic (EM) fields. The challenge is to design an EM survey appropriate for monitoring large, deep reservoirs. Borehole-to-surface electromagnetic (BSEM) surveys consist of borehole-deployed galvanic transmitters and a surface-based array of electric and magnetic field sensors. During a recent field trial, it was demonstrated that BSEM could successfully identify the oil-water contact in the water-injection zone of a carbonate reservoir. We review the BSEM methodology, and perform full-field BSEM modeling. The 3D resistivity models used in this study are based on dynamic reservoir simulations of CO2 injection into a saline reservoir. Although the electric field response at the earth's surface is low, we demonstrate that it can be accurately measured and processed with novel methods of noise cancellation and sufficient stacking over the period of monitoring to increase the signal-to-noise ratio for subsequent seismic- and well-constrained 3D inversion. For long-term or permanent monitoring, we discuss the deployment of novel electric field sensors with chemically inert electrodes that couple to earth in a capacitive manner. This capacitive coupling is a purely EM phenomenon, which, to first order, has

  18. Tropical sea surface temperature variability near the Oligocene - Miocene boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Pagani, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Oligocene/Miocene (O-M) boundary is characterized by a period of rapid and intense glaciation labeled Mi-1 at ~ 23.1 Ma. An abrupt 1.5‰ increase in the benthic foraminifera oxygen isotope composition that characterizes Mi-1 may indicate a (1) significant deep-water temperature decrease; (2) major ice-sheet expansion, or the combination of both. Current coarse Mg/Ca-based temperature estimations for the early Miocene suggests that deep-ocean temperatures were ~2°C warmer than Today [1, 2]. However, Mg/Ca based temperatures can also be influenced by changes in the carbonate ion concentration, vital effects, and diagenesis. In particular, recent evidence from mid-ocean ridge flank carbonate veins shows dramatic seawater Mg/Ca ratio changes during the Neogene (Mg/Ca from ~2.2 to 5.3, [3]), which further challenges the application of Mg/Ca thermometry. Owing to poor temperature constraints, current ice volume estimations for the late Oligocene/early Miocene range from 125% of the present-day East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) to a nearly complete collapse of the Antarctic glaciers [4]. Here we present tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) records based on TEX86 and alkenone UK37 near the O-M boundary. Sediment samples from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 926 in the Ceara Rise (tropical Atlantic) and Site 1148 in the South China Sea (tropical Pacific) were subject to lipid extraction, separation, gas chromatography, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. TEX86-based SST indicates that the tropics were ~3-4°C warmer than today and relatively stable during Mi-1. This suggests that ice-sheet dynamics, rather than temperature, might be responsible for the observed oxygen isotope changes during the O-M boundary. Further, O-M boundary averaged temperatures recorded at site 926 is ~ 0.5°C higher relative to the late Eocene from site 925 (a nearby site [5]). Given late Oligocene benthic δ18O that suggests at least 1‰ enrichment relative to the late

  19. Daily Cycle of Air Temperature and Surface Temperature in Stone Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Li, Y.; Wang, X.; Yuan, M.

    2013-12-01

    Urbanization is one of the most profound human activities that impact on climate change. In cities, where are highly artificial areas, the conflict between human activity and natural climate is particularly prominent. Urban areas always have the larger area of impervious land, the higher consumption of greenhouse gases, more emissions of anthropogenic heat and air pollution, all contribute to the urban warming phenomena. Understanding the mechanisms causing a variety of phenomena involved in the urban warming is critical to distinguish the anthropogenic effect and natural variation in the climate change. However, the exact dynamics of urban warming were poorly understood, and effective control strategies are not available. Here we present a study of the daily cycle of air temperature and surface temperature in Stone Forest. The specific heat of the stones in the Stone Forest and concrete of the man-made structures within the cities are approximate. Besides, the height of the Stone Forest and the height of buildings within the city are also similar. As a scenic area, the Stone Forest is being preserved and only opened for sightseeing. There is no anthropogenic heat, as well air pollution within the Stone Forest. The thermal environment in Stone Forest can be considered to be a simulation of thermal environment in the city, which can reveal the effect of man-made structures on urban thermal environment. We conducted the field studies and numerical analysis in the Stone Forest for 4 typical urban morphology and environment scenarios, including high-rise compact cities, low-rise sparse cities, garden cities and isolated single stone. Air temperature and relative humidity were measured every half an hour in 15 different locations, which within different spatial distribution of stones and can represent the four urban scenarios respectively. At the same time, an infrared camera was used to take thermal images and get the hourly surface temperatures of stones and

  20. Fish product quality evaluation based on temperature monitoring in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... sensory analysis and total volatile base-nitrogen (TVB-N) value. The result ... multiple businesses by starting/stopping the measure- ment and ... Comparing with three group samples, temperature history and the fluctuation ...

  1. Temperature evaluation of dental implant surface irradiated with high-power diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, F G; Viana, E R; Ribeiro, G M; González, J C; Abelenda, A; Peruzzo, D C

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of peri-implantitis and the absence of a standard approach for decontamination of the dental implant surface have led to searches for effective therapies. Since the source of diode lasers is portable, has reduced cost, and does not cause damage to the titanium surface of the implant, high-power diode lasers have been used for this purpose. The effect of laser irradiation on the implants is the elevation of the temperature surface. If this elevation exceeds 47 °C, the bone tissue is irreversibly damaged, so for a safety therapy, the laser parameters should be controlled. In this study, a diode laser of GaAsAl was used to irradiate titanium dental implants, for powers 1.32 to 2.64 W (real) or 2.00 to 4.00 W (nominal), in continuous/pulsed mode DC/AC, with exposure time of 5/10 s, with/without air flow for cooling. The elevation of the temperature was monitored in real time in two positions: cervical and apical. The best results for decontamination using a 968-nm diode laser were obtained for a power of 1.65 and 1.98 W (real) for 10 s, in DC or AC mode, with an air flow of 2.5 l/min. In our perspective in this article, we determine a suggested approach for decontamination of the dental implant surface using a 968-nm diode laser.

  2. Evaluation of a Novel Temperature Sensing Probe for Monitoring and Controlling Glass Temperature in a Joule-Heated Glass Melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, A. D.; Musick, C. A.; Cannon, C.; Carlson, N. M.; Mullenix, P.D.; Tillotson, R. D.

    1999-01-01

    A self-verifying temperature sensor that employs advanced contact thermocouple probe technology was tested in a laboratory-scale, joule-heated, refractory-lined glass melter used for radioactive waste vitrification. The novel temperature probe monitors melt temperature at any given level of the melt chamber. The data acquisition system provides the real-time temperature for molten glass. Test results indicate that the self-verifying sensor is more accurate and reliable than classic platinum/rhodium thermocouple and sheath assemblies. The results of this test are reported as well as enhancements being made to the temperature probe. To obtain more reliable temperature measurements of the molten glass for improving production efficiency and ensuring consistent glass properties, optical sensing was reviewed for application in a high temperature environment

  3. The Design of Temperature and Humidity Chamber Monitor and Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Tibebu, Simachew

    2016-01-01

    The temperature and humidity chamber, (climate chamber) is a device located at the Technobothnia Education and Research Center that simulates different climate conditions. The simulated environment is used to test the capabilities of electrical equipment in different temperature and humidity conditions. The climate chamber, among other things houses a dedicated computer, the control PC, and a control software running in it which together are responsible for running and control-ling these simu...

  4. Wintertime sea surface temperature fronts in the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi; Shimada, Teruhisa; Lee, Ming-An; Lu, Hsueh-Jung; Sakaida, Futoki; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2006-12-01

    We present wintertime variations and distributions of sea surface temperature (SST) fronts in the Taiwan Strait by applying an entropy-based edge detection method to 10-year (1996-2005) satellite SST images with grid size of 0.01°. From climatological monthly mean maps of SST gradient magnitude in winter, we identify four significant SST fronts in the Taiwan Strait. The Mainland China Coastal Front is a long frontal band along the 50-m isobath near the Chinese coast. The sharp Peng-Chang Front appears along the Peng-Hu Channel and extends northward around the Chang-Yuen Ridge. The Taiwan Bank Front evolves in early winter. As the winter progresses, the front becomes broad and moves toward the Chinese coast, connecting to the Mainland China Coastal Front. The Kuroshio Front extends northeastward from the northeastern tip of Taiwan with a semicircle-shape curving along the 100-m isobath.

  5. Water surface temperature profiles for the Rhine River derived from Landsat ETM+ data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Katharina; Baschek, Björn

    2013-10-01

    Water temperature influences physical and chemical parameters of rivers and streams and is an important parameter for water quality. It is a crucial factor for the existence and the growth of animal and plant species in the river ecosystem. The aim of the research project "Remote sensing of water surface temperature" at the Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Germany, is to supplement point measurements of water temperature with remote sensing methodology. The research area investigated here is the Upper and Middle Rhine River, where continuous measurements of water temperature are already available for several water quality monitoring stations. Satellite imagery is used to complement these point measurements and to generate longitudinal temperature profiles for a better systematic understanding of the changes in river temperature along its course. Several products for sea surface temperature derived from radiances in the thermal infrared are available, but for water temperature from rivers less research has been carried out. Problems arise from the characteristics of the river valley and morphology and the proximity to the riverbank. Depending on the river width, a certain spatial resolution of the satellite images is necessary to allow for an accurate identification of the river surface and the calculation of water temperature. The bands from the Landsat ETM+ sensor in the thermal infrared region offer a possibility to extract the river surface temperatures (RST) of a sufficiently wide river such as the Rhine. Additionally, problems such as cloud cover, shadowing effects, georeferencing errors, different emissivity of water and land, scattering of thermal radiation, adjacency and mixed pixel effects had to be accounted for and their effects on the radiance temperatures will be discussed. For this purpose, several temperature data sets derived from radiance and in situ measurements were com- pared. The observed radiance temperatures are strongly influenced by

  6. Surface temperature and evapotranspiration: application of local scale methods to regional scales using satellite data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguin, B.; Courault, D.; Guerif, M.

    1994-01-01

    Remotely sensed surface temperatures have proven useful for monitoring evapotranspiration (ET) rates and crop water use because of their direct relationship with sensible and latent energy exchange processes. Procedures for using the thermal infrared (IR) obtained with hand-held radiometers deployed at ground level are now well established and even routine for many agricultural research and management purposes. The availability of IR from meteorological satellites at scales from 1 km (NOAA-AVHRR) to 5 km (METEOSAT) permits extension of local, ground-based approaches to larger scale crop monitoring programs. Regional observations of surface minus air temperature (i.e., the stress degree day) and remote estimates of daily ET were derived from satellite data over sites in France, the Sahel, and North Africa and summarized here. Results confirm that similar approaches can be applied at local and regional scales despite differences in pixel size and heterogeneity. This article analyzes methods for obtaining these data and outlines the potential utility of satellite data for operational use at the regional scale. (author)

  7. Multi-functional surface acoustic wave sensor for monitoring enviromental and structural condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Y.; Kon, T.; Okazaki, T.; Saigusa, Y.; Nomura, T.

    2006-03-01

    As a first step to develop a health monitoring system with active and embedded nondestructive evaluation devices for the machineries and structures, multi-functional SAW (surface acoustic wave) device was developed. A piezoelectric LiNbO3(x-y cut) materials were used as a SAW substrate on which IDT(20μm pitch) was produced by lithography. On the surface of a path of SAW between IDTs, environmentally active material films of shape memory Ti50Ni41Cu(at%) with non-linear hysteresis and superelastic Ti48Ni43Cu(at%) with linear deformation behavior were formed by magnetron-sputtering technique. In this study, these two kinds of shape memory alloys SMA) system were used to measure 1) loading level, 2) phase transformation and 3)stress-strain hysteresis under cyclic loading by utilizing their linearity and non-linearity deformation behaviors. Temperature and stress dependencies of SAW signal were also investigated in the non-sputtered film state. Signal amplitude and phase change of SAW were chosen to measure as the sensing parameters. As a result, temperature, stress level, phase transformation in SMA depending on temperature and mechanical damage accumulation could be measured by the proposed multi-functional SAW sensor. Moreover, the wireless SAW sensing system which has a unique feature of no supplying electric battery was constructed, and the same characteristic evaluation is confirmed in comparison with wired case.

  8. Monitoring rock glacier dynamics and ground temperatures in the semiarid Andes (Chile, 30°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenning, Alexander; Azócar, Guillermo F.; Bodin, Xavier

    2013-04-01

    Rock glaciers and mountain permafrost are widespread in the high semiarid Andes of Chile, where they concentrate greater amounts of ice than glaciers. Rock glaciers are of particular interest because in some cases the permafrost they contain might be in a degrading in response to climatic warming. This could result in increased dynamics and even to destabilization, which has been observed on some rock glaciers in the studied area. Displacement rates and active-layer temperatures of two rock glaciers as well as ground surface temperatures of the periglacial environment in the upper Elqui valley have been monitored since summer 2009/10 with funding from the Chilean Dirección General de Aguas. Differential GPS measurements of 115 points on the surface of two rock glaciers since April 2010 showed horizontal displacements of up to 1.3 m/a on the Llano de las Liebres rock glacier and up to 1.2 m/a on the Tapado rock glacier. General velocity patterns are consistent with the morphological evidence of activity (e.g., front slopes, looseness of debris) and for the Tapado complex, a clearly distinct activity from the debris-covered glacier was observed. Temperature measurements in four boreholes indicate active-layer depths of about 2.5 m at the highest locations on the Tapado rock glacier (~4400 m a.s.l.) and about 8 m near the front of the Llano rock glacier (3786 m a.s.l.). Spatial patterns of mean ground surface temperature (MGST) were analyzed with regards to influences of elevation, potential incoming solar radiation, location on ice-debris landforms (rock and debris-covered glaciers), and snow cover duration using linear mixed-effects models. While accounting for the other variables, sites with long-lasting snow patches had ~0.4°C lower MGST, and ice-debris landforms had ~0.4-0.6°C lower MGST than general debris surfaces, highlighting important local modifications to the general topographic variation of ground thermal conditions.

  9. Sea Surface Temperature Products and Research Associated with GHRSST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser-Weiss, Andrea K.; Minnett, Peter J.; Kaplan, Alexey; Wick, Gary A.; Castro, Sandra; Llewellyn-Jones, David; Merchant, Chris; LeBorgne, Pierre; Beggs, Helen; Donlon, Craig J.

    2012-03-01

    GHRSST serves its user community through the specification of operational Sea Surface Temperature (SST) products (Level 2, Level 3 and Level 4) based on international consensus. Providers of SST data from individual satellites create and deliver GHRSST-compliant near-real time products to a global GHRSST data assembly centre and a long-term stewardship facility. The GHRSST-compliant data include error estimates and supporting data for interpretation. Groups organised within GHRSST perform research on issues relevant to applying SST for air-sea exchange, for instance the Diurnal Variability Working Group (DVWG) analyses the evolution of the skin temperature. Other GHRSST groups concentrate on improving the SST estimate (Estimation and Retrievals Working Group EARWiG) and on improving the error characterization, (Satellite SST Validation Group, ST-VAL) and on improving the methods for SST analysis (Inter-Comparison Technical Advisory Group, IC-TAG). In this presentation we cover the data products and the scientific activities associated with GHRSST which might be relevant for investigating ocean-atmosphere interactions.

  10. Ocular Surface Temperature in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sodi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to investigate the ocular thermographic profiles in age-related macular degeneration (AMD eyes and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities, which could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Methods. 32 eyes with early AMD, 37 eyes with atrophic AMD, 30 eyes affected by untreated neovascular AMD, and 43 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included. The control group consisted of 44 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, diabetes mellitus, and a body temperature higher than 37.5°C. A total of 186 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320. The ocular surface temperature (OST of three ocular points was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test were used for statistical analyses. Results. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P value >0.272. OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P>0.05. Conclusions. Considering the possible relationship between ocular blood flow and OST, these findings might support the central role of ischemia in the pathogenesis of AMD.

  11. AATSR: global-change and surface-temperature measurements from Envisat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Jones, D.; Edwards, M. C.; Mutlow, C. T.; Birks, A. R.; Barton, I. J.; Tait, H.

    2001-02-01

    The Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) onboard ESA's Envisat spacecraft is designed to meet the challenging task of monitoring and detecting climate change. It builds on the success of its predecessor instruments on the ERS-1 and ERS-2 satellites, and will lead to a 15+ year record of precise and accurate global Sea-Surface Temperature (SST) measurements, thereby making a valuable contribution to the long-term climate record. With its high-accuracy, high-quality imagery and channels in the visible, near-infrared and thermal wavelengths, AATSR data will support many applications in addition to oceanographic and climate research, including a wide range of land-surface, cryosphere and atmospheric studies.

  12. Rapid modification of urban land surface temperature during rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, H.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Song, J.; Yang, J.; Arwatz, G.; Wang, Z.; Hultmark, M.; Kaloush, K.

    2017-12-01

    We study the runoff dynamics and heat transfer over urban pavements during rainfall. A kinematic wave approach is combined with heat storage and transfer schemes to develop a model for impervious (with runoff) and pervious (without runoff) pavements. The resulting framework is a numerical prognostic model that can simulate the temperature fields in the subsurface and runoff layers to capture the rapid cooling of the surface, as well as the thermal pollution advected in the runoff. Extensive field measurements were then conducted over experimental pavements in Arizona to probe the physics and better represent the relevant processes in the model, and then to validate the model. The experimental data and the model results were in very good agreements, and their joint analysis elucidated the physics of the rapid heat transfer from the subsurface to the runoff layer. Finally, we apply the developed model to investigate how the various hydrological and thermal properties of the pavements, as well as ambient environmental conditions, modulate the surface and runoff thermal dynamics, what is the relative importance of each of them, and how we can apply the model mitigate the adverse impacts of urbanization.

  13. Agriculture pest and disease risk maps considering MSG satellite data and land surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques da Silva, J. R.; Damásio, C. V.; Sousa, A. M. O.; Bugalho, L.; Pessanha, L.; Quaresma, P.

    2015-06-01

    Pest risk maps for agricultural use are usually constructed from data obtained from in-situ meteorological weather stations, which are relatively sparsely distributed and are often quite expensive to install and difficult to maintain. This leads to the creation of maps with relatively low spatial resolution, which are very much dependent on interpolation methodologies. Considering that agricultural applications typically require a more detailed scale analysis than has traditionally been available, remote sensing technology can offer better monitoring at increasing spatial and temporal resolutions, thereby, improving pest management results and reducing costs. This article uses ground temperature, or land surface temperature (LST), data distributed by EUMETSAT/LSASAF (with a spatial resolution of 3 × 3 km (nadir resolution) and a revisiting time of 15 min) to generate one of the most commonly used parameters in pest modeling and monitoring: "thermal integral over air temperature (accumulated degree-days)". The results show a clear association between the accumulated LST values over a threshold and the accumulated values computed from meteorological stations over the same threshold (specific to a particular tomato pest). The results are very promising and enable the production of risk maps for agricultural pests with a degree of spatial and temporal detail that is difficult to achieve using in-situ meteorological stations.

  14. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Temperature Data from Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STRs) deployed at coral reef sites in the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2011 to 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature data are collected using subsurface temperature recorders (STRs) that aid in the monitoring of seawater temperature variability at permanent coral...

  15. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Temperature Data from Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STRs) deployed at coral reef sites in American Samoa from 2012 to 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature data are collected using subsurface temperature recorders (STRs) that aid in the monitoring of seawater temperature variability at permanent coral...

  16. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Temperature Data from Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STRs) deployed at coral reef sites in the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2010 to 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature data are collected using subsurface temperature recorders (STRs) that aid in the monitoring of seawater temperature variability at permanent coral...

  17. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Temperature Data from Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STRs) deployed at coral reef sites in the Marianas Archipelago from 2011 to 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature data are collected using subsurface temperature recorders (STRs) that aid in the monitoring of seawater temperature variability at permanent coral...

  18. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Sea Surface Temperature - WHOI, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Ocean Surface Bundle (OSB) Climate Data Record (CDR) consist of three parts: sea surface temperature, near-surface atmospheric properties, and heat fluxes....

  19. SAFARI 2000 AVHRR-derived Land Surface Temperature Maps, Africa, 1995-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a key indicator of land surface states, and can provide information on surface-atmosphere heat and mass fluxes, vegetation water...

  20. SAFARI 2000 AVHRR-derived Land Surface Temperature Maps, Africa, 1995-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a key indicator of land surface states, and can provide information on surface-atmosphere heat and mass fluxes,...

  1. On the use of temperature for online condition monitoring of geared systems - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touret, T.; Changenet, C.; Ville, F.; Lalmi, M.; Becquerelle, S.

    2018-02-01

    Gear unit condition monitoring is a key factor for mechanical system reliability management. When they are subjected to failure, gears and bearings may generate excessive vibration, debris and heat. Vibratory, acoustic or debris analyses are proven approaches to perform condition monitoring. An alternative to those methods is to use temperature as a condition indicator to detect gearbox failure. The review focuses on condition monitoring studies which use this thermal approach. According to the failure type and the measurement method, it exists a distinction whether it is contact (e.g. thermocouple) or non-contact temperature sensor (e.g. thermography). Capabilities and limitations of this approach are discussed. It is shown that the use of temperature for condition monitoring has a clear potential as an alternative to vibratory or acoustic health monitoring.

  2. Fundamental study of FC-72 pool boiling surface temperature fluctuations and bubble behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Alison R.

    A heater designed to monitor surface temperature fluctuations during pool boiling experiments while the bubbles were simultaneously being observed has been fabricated and tested. The heat source was a transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) layer commercially deposited on a fused quartz substrate. Four copper-nickel thin film thermocouples (TFTCs) on the heater surface measured the surface temperature, while a thin layer of sapphire or fused silica provided electrical insulation between the TFTCs and the ITO. The TFTCs were micro-fabricated using the liftoff process to deposit the nickel and copper metal films. The TFTC elements were 50 mum wide and overlapped to form a 25 mum by 25 mum junction. TFTC voltages were recorded by a DAQ at a sampling rate of 50 kHz. A high-speed CCD camera recorded bubble images from below the heater at 2000 frames/second. A trigger sent to the camera by the DAQ synchronized the bubble images and the surface temperature data. As the bubbles and their contact rings grew over the TFTC junction, correlations between bubble behavior and surface temperature changes were demonstrated. On the heaters with fused silica insulation layers, 1--2°C temperature drops on the order of 1 ms occurred as the contact ring moved over the TFTC junction during bubble growth and as the contact ring moved back over the TFTC junction during bubble departure. These temperature drops during bubble growth and departure were due to microlayer evaporation and liquid rewetting the heated surface, respectively. Microlayer evaporation was not distinguished as the primary method of heat removal from the surface. Heaters with sapphire insulation layers did not display the measurable temperature drops observed with the fused silica heaters. The large thermal diffusivity of the sapphire compared to the fused silica was determined as the reason for the absence of these temperature drops. These findings were confirmed by a comparison of temperature drops in a 2-D simulation of

  3. TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION MONITORING AND ANALYSES AT DIFFERENT HEATING CONTROL PRINCIPLES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Rode, Carsten; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2010-01-01

    under different control strategies of the heating system (Pseudo Random Binary Sequence signal controlling all the heaters (PRBS) or thermostatic control of the heaters (THERM)). A comparison of the measured temperatures within the room, for the five series of experiments, shows a better correlation...

  4. Design and Development of a PC- Based temperature monitoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design of the work involves a circuit that measures the surrounding temperature using appropriate sensors and the sensor output is then converted to digital signals after due processing and conditioning of the signals. There is also an interface circuit configured to make it compatible with the PC hardware. This design ...

  5. In-Situ Real-Time Temperature Monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program addresses the need for interfacial and in-depth temperature monitoring of thermal protection systems (TPS). Novel, linear drive, eddy current methods...

  6. Determination of Optimum Viewing Angles for the Angular Normalization of Land Surface Temperature over Vegetated Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huazhong Ren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multi-angular observation of land surface thermal radiation is considered to be a promising method of performing the angular normalization of land surface temperature (LST retrieved from remote sensing data. This paper focuses on an investigation of the minimum requirements of viewing angles to perform such normalizations on LST. The normally kernel-driven bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF is first extended to the thermal infrared (TIR domain as TIR-BRDF model, and its uncertainty is shown to be less than 0.3 K when used to fit the hemispheric directional thermal radiation. A local optimum three-angle combination is found and verified using the TIR-BRDF model based on two patterns: the single-point pattern and the linear-array pattern. The TIR-BRDF is applied to an airborne multi-angular dataset to retrieve LST at nadir (Te-nadir from different viewing directions, and the results show that this model can obtain reliable Te-nadir from 3 to 4 directional observations with large angle intervals, thus corresponding to large temperature angular variations. The Te-nadir is generally larger than temperature of the slant direction, with a difference of approximately 0.5~2.0 K for vegetated pixels and up to several Kelvins for non-vegetated pixels. The findings of this paper will facilitate the future development of multi-angular thermal infrared sensors.

  7. Fatigue crack growth from handling surface anomalies in a nickel based superalloy at high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourdin Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft engine manufacturers have to demonstrate that handling surface anomalies in sensitive areas of discs are not critical for in-service life of a component. Currently, the models used consider anomalies as long cracks propagating from the first cycle, which introduces a certain degree of conservatism when calculating the fatigue life of surface flaws. Preliminary studies have shown that the first stages of crack propagation from surface anomalies are responsible for the conservative results. Thus, the aim of the study is to characterize the crack propagation from typical surface anomalies and to establish a new crack growth model, which can account for the micro-propagation stage. To separate the effects of the geometry of the anomalies and the residual stress state after introduction of the surface flaws, two V-type anomalies are studied: scratches and dents. Different studies have shown that the residual stresses beneath the anomalies seem to control the fatigue life of samples exhibiting scratches and dents. In order to monitor the crack micro-propagation, a direct current potential drop technique, coupled with heat tints is used during fatigue tests at elevated temperature. Thermal treatments releasing the residual stresses are also used to decouple the effect of crack morphology and residual stresses.

  8. Design of online monitoring and forecasting system for electrical equipment temperature of prefabricated substation based on WSN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Weiran; Miao, Hongxia; Miao, Xuejiao; Xiao, Xuanxuan; Yan, Kuo

    2016-10-01

    In order to ensure the safe and stable operation of the prefabricated substations, temperature sensing subsystem, temperature remote monitoring and management subsystem, forecast subsystem are designed in the paper. Wireless temperature sensing subsystem which consists of temperature sensor and MCU sends the electrical equipment temperature to the remote monitoring center by wireless sensor network. Remote monitoring center can realize the remote monitoring and prediction by monitoring and management subsystem and forecast subsystem. Real-time monitoring of power equipment temperature, history inquiry database, user management, password settings, etc., were achieved by monitoring and management subsystem. In temperature forecast subsystem, firstly, the chaos of the temperature data was verified and phase space is reconstructed. Then Support Vector Machine - Particle Swarm Optimization (SVM-PSO) was used to predict the temperature of the power equipment in prefabricated substations. The simulation results found that compared with the traditional methods SVM-PSO has higher prediction accuracy.

  9. Low temperature co-fired ceramic packaging of CMOS capacitive sensor chip towards cell viability monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halonen, Niina; Kilpijärvi, Joni; Sobocinski, Maciej; Datta-Chaudhuri, Timir; Hassinen, Antti; Prakash, Someshekar B; Möller, Peter; Abshire, Pamela; Kellokumpu, Sakari; Lloyd Spetz, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Cell viability monitoring is an important part of biosafety evaluation for the detection of toxic effects on cells caused by nanomaterials, preferably by label-free, noninvasive, fast, and cost effective methods. These requirements can be met by monitoring cell viability with a capacitance-sensing integrated circuit (IC) microchip. The capacitance provides a measurement of the surface attachment of adherent cells as an indication of their health status. However, the moist, warm, and corrosive biological environment requires reliable packaging of the sensor chip. In this work, a second generation of low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology was combined with flip-chip bonding to provide a durable package compatible with cell culture. The LTCC-packaged sensor chip was integrated with a printed circuit board, data acquisition device, and measurement-controlling software. The packaged sensor chip functioned well in the presence of cell medium and cells, with output voltages depending on the medium above the capacitors. Moreover, the manufacturing of microfluidic channels in the LTCC package was demonstrated.

  10. Low temperature co-fired ceramic packaging of CMOS capacitive sensor chip towards cell viability monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niina Halonen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell viability monitoring is an important part of biosafety evaluation for the detection of toxic effects on cells caused by nanomaterials, preferably by label-free, noninvasive, fast, and cost effective methods. These requirements can be met by monitoring cell viability with a capacitance-sensing integrated circuit (IC microchip. The capacitance provides a measurement of the surface attachment of adherent cells as an indication of their health status. However, the moist, warm, and corrosive biological environment requires reliable packaging of the sensor chip. In this work, a second generation of low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC technology was combined with flip-chip bonding to provide a durable package compatible with cell culture. The LTCC-packaged sensor chip was integrated with a printed circuit board, data acquisition device, and measurement-controlling software. The packaged sensor chip functioned well in the presence of cell medium and cells, with output voltages depending on the medium above the capacitors. Moreover, the manufacturing of microfluidic channels in the LTCC package was demonstrated.

  11. TEMPERATURE MONITORING OPTIONS AVAILABLE AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY ADVANCED TEST REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.E. Daw; J.L. Rempe; D.L. Knudson; T. Unruh; B.M. Chase; K.L Davis

    2012-03-01

    As part of the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed in-house capabilities to fabricate, test, and qualify new and enhanced sensors for irradiation testing. To meet recent customer requests, an array of temperature monitoring options is now available to ATR users. The method selected is determined by test requirements and budget. Melt wires are the simplest and least expensive option for monitoring temperature. INL has recently verified the melting temperature of a collection of materials with melt temperatures ranging from 100 to 1000 C with a differential scanning calorimeter installed at INL’s High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL). INL encapsulates these melt wires in quartz or metal tubes. In the case of quartz tubes, multiple wires can be encapsulated in a single 1.6 mm diameter tube. The second option available to ATR users is a silicon carbide temperature monitor. The benefit of this option is that a single small monitor (typically 1 mm x 1 mm x 10 mm or 1 mm diameter x 10 mm length) can be used to detect peak irradiation temperatures ranging from 200 to 800 C. Equipment has been installed at INL’s HTTL to complete post-irradiation resistivity measurements on SiC monitors, a technique that has been found to yield the most accurate temperatures from these monitors. For instrumented tests, thermocouples may be used. In addition to Type-K and Type-N thermocouples, a High Temperature Irradiation Resistant ThermoCouple (HTIR-TC) was developed at the HTTL that contains commercially-available doped molybdenum paired with a niobium alloy thermoelements. Long duration high temperature tests, in furnaces and in the ATR and other MTRs, demonstrate that the HTIR-TC is accurate up to 1800 C and insensitive to thermal neutron interactions. Thus, degradation observed at temperatures above 1100 C with Type K and N thermocouples and decalibration due to transmutation with tungsten

  12. Data Acquisition for Low-Temperature Geothermal Well Tests and Long-Term Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P J

    1992-03-01

    Groundwater monitoring is an essential part of the development of a low-temperature geothermal field for production and injection wells. State water resource and environmental departments are requiring both geothermal well testing and long-term monitoring as a part of the permitting process for geothermal developments. This report covers water-level measurement methods, instruments used for well testing, geochemical sampling, examples of data acquisition and regulatory mandates on groundwater monitoring.

  13. Data acquisition for low-temperature geothermal well tests and long-term monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.

    1992-09-01

    Groundwater monitoring is an essential part of the development of a low-temperature geothermal field for production and injection wells. State water resource and environmental departments are requiring both geothermal well testing and long-term monitoring as a part of the permitting process for geothermal developments. This report covers water-level measurement methods, instruments used for well testing, geochemical sampling, examples of data acquisition and regulatory mandates on groundwater monitoring.

  14. NEC Hazardous classification and compliance regarding the surface moisture monitor measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussell, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    The National Electrical Code, NFPA 70, and National Fire Protection Association requirements for use of Surface Moisture Monitor Systems in classified locations are discussed. The design and configuration of the surface moisture monitor are analyzed with respect to how they comply with requirements of the National Electrical Code requirements, articles 500-504

  15. Temperature distribution and heat radiation of patterned surfaces at short wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emig, Thorsten

    2017-05-01

    We analyze the equilibrium spatial distribution of surface temperatures of patterned surfaces. The surface is exposed to a constant external heat flux and has a fixed internal temperature that is coupled to the outside heat fluxes by finite heat conductivity across the surface. It is assumed that the temperatures are sufficiently high so that the thermal wavelength (a few microns at room temperature) is short compared to all geometric length scales of the surface patterns. Hence the radiosity method can be employed. A recursive multiple scattering method is developed that enables rapid convergence to equilibrium temperatures. While the temperature distributions show distinct dependence on the detailed surface shapes (cuboids and cylinder are studied), we demonstrate robust universal relations between the mean and the standard deviation of the temperature distributions and quantities that characterize overall geometric features of the surface shape.

  16. Direct Monitoring and Control of Transformer Temperature in Order to Avoid its Breakdown Using FOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika YADAV

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript focuses on Direct Monitoring & Control of Transformer Temperature in order to avoid its Breakdown Using FOS (fiber optic sensor. Although there are various reasons for failure of transformer operation but mainly it is due to conductor loss and hysteresis losses which causes temperature rise in the internal structures of the transformer leading to burning of windings. A system for monitoring the temperature of transformers is required. Existing sensors cannot be used for monitoring the temperature of transformers because they are sensitive to electrical signals and can cause sparking which can trigger fire since there is oil in transformers cooling coils. Distributed FOS based on microbend is simulated on MATLAB7.5 in order to check the effectiveness of this sensor. Results in the form of graphs i.e., intensity modulation vs. the temperature has been shown in the manuscript.

  17. A temperature monitor circuit with small voltage sensitivity using a topology-reconfigurable ring oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Tadashi; Ishihara, Tohru; Onodera, Hidetoshi

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a temperature monitor circuit that exhibits a small supply voltage sensitivity adopting a circuit topology of a reconfigurable ring oscillator. The circuit topology of the monitor is crafted such that the oscillation frequency is determined by the amount of subthreshold leakage current, which has an exponential dependence on temperature. Another important characteristic of the monitor is its small supply voltage sensitivity. The measured oscillation frequency of a test chip fabricated in a 65 nm CMOS process varies only 2.6% under a wide range of supply voltages from 0.4 to 1.0 V at room temperature. The temperature estimation error ranges from -0.3 to 0.4 °C over a temperature range of 10 to 100 °C.

  18. Vicarious Calibration of sUAS Microbolometer Temperature Imagery for Estimation of Radiometric Land Surface Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Torres-Rua

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the availability of lightweight microbolometer thermal cameras compatible with small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS has allowed their use in diverse scientific and management activities that require sub-meter pixel resolution. Nevertheless, as with sensors already used in temperature remote sensing (e.g., Landsat satellites, a radiance atmospheric correction is necessary to estimate land surface temperature. This is because atmospheric conditions at any sUAS flight elevation will have an adverse impact on the image accuracy, derived calculations, and study replicability using the microbolometer technology. This study presents a vicarious calibration methodology (sUAS-specific, time-specific, flight-specific, and sensor-specific for sUAS temperature imagery traceable back to NIST-standards and current atmospheric correction methods. For this methodology, a three-year data collection campaign with a sUAS called “AggieAir”, developed at Utah State University, was performed for vineyards near Lodi, California, for flights conducted at different times (early morning, Landsat overpass, and mid-afternoon” and seasonal conditions. From the results of this study, it was found that, despite the spectral response of microbolometer cameras (7.0 to 14.0 μm, it was possible to account for the effects of atmospheric and sUAS operational conditions, regardless of time and weather, to acquire accurate surface temperature data. In addition, it was found that the main atmospheric correction parameters (transmissivity and atmospheric radiance significantly varied over the course of a day. These parameters fluctuated the most in early morning and partially stabilized in Landsat overpass and in mid-afternoon times. In terms of accuracy, estimated atmospheric correction parameters presented adequate statistics (confidence bounds under ±0.1 for transmissivity and ±1.2 W/m2/sr/um for atmospheric radiance, with a range of RMSE below 1.0 W/m2/sr

  19. Are Sea Surface Temperature satellite measurements reliable proxies of lagoon temperature in the South Pacific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wynsberge, Simon; Menkes, Christophe; Le Gendre, Romain; Passfield, Teuru; Andréfouët, Serge

    2017-12-01

    In remote coral reef environments, lagoon and reef in situ measurements of temperature are scarce. Sea Surface Temperature (SST) measured by satellite has been frequently used as a proxy of the lagoon temperature experienced by coral reef organisms (TL) especially during coral bleaching events. However, the link between SST and TL is poorly characterized. First, we compared the correlation between various SST series and TL from 2012 to 2016 in three atolls and one island in the Central South Pacific Ocean. Simple linear correlation between SST and TL ranged between 0.44 and 0.97 depending on lagoons, localities of sensors, and type of SST data. High-resolution-satellite-measurements of SST inside the lagoons did not outperform oceanic SST series, suggesting that SST products are not adapted for small lagoons. Second, we modelled the difference between oceanic SST and TL as a function of the drivers of lagoon water renewal and mixing, namely waves, tide, wind, and season. The multivariate models reduced significantly the bias between oceanic SST and TL. In atoll lagoons, and probably in other hydrodynamically semi-open systems, a correction taking into account these factors is necessary when SST are used to characterize organisms' thermal stress thresholds.

  20. ENHANCED MODELING OF REMOTELY SENSED ANNUAL LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Satellite thermal remote sensing provides access to acquire large-scale Land surface temperature (LST data, but also generates missing and abnormal values resulting from non-clear-sky conditions. Given this limitation, Annual Temperature Cycle (ATC model was employed to reconstruct the continuous daily LST data over a year. The original model ATCO used harmonic functions, but the dramatic changes of the real LST caused by the weather changes remained unclear due to the smooth sine curve. Using Aqua/MODIS LST products, NDVI and meteorological data, we proposed enhanced model ATCE based on ATCO to describe the fluctuation and compared their performances for the Yangtze River Delta region of China. The results demonstrated that, the overall root mean square errors (RMSEs of the ATCE was lower than ATCO, and the improved accuracy of daytime was better than that of night, with the errors decreased by 0.64 K and 0.36 K, respectively. The improvements of accuracies varied with different land cover types: the forest, grassland and built-up areas improved larger than water. And the spatial heterogeneity was observed for performance of ATC model: the RMSEs of built-up area, forest and grassland were around 3.0 K in the daytime, while the water attained 2.27 K; at night, the accuracies of all types significantly increased to similar RMSEs level about 2 K. By comparing the differences between LSTs simulated by two models in different seasons, it was found that the differences were smaller in the spring and autumn, while larger in the summer and winter.

  1. Surface temperature measurements on superconducting cavities in superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouaidy, T.; Junquera, T.; Caruette, A.

    1991-01-01

    Two thermometry systems have been developed: a scanning thermometer system routinely used for the 1.5 GHz monocell cavity studies and a fixed thermometer array used to investigate spatial surface resistance distribution on various SC removable endplates of a cylindrical TE011mode cavity. Thermometers used in these systems are thermally insulated from the surrounding HeII bath by an epoxy housing ('epoxy'thermometers). Accurate calibration of the fixed thermometers was conducted by using different test cells and the experimental results were compared to model calculations performed with a finite element computational code. Measured thermometer efficiency and linearity are in good agreement with numerical results. Some typical temperature maps of different Nb samples obtained with the TE011 array (40 epoxy thermometers) are discussed. On the basis of numerical modelling results, a new type of thermometer with an improved efficiency has been designed. The thermal insulation against Helium II has been drastically improved by placing the sensitive part of the thermometer in a small vacuum jacket ('vacuum' thermometers). Two main goals have been reached with the first prototypes: improved efficiency by a factor of 2.5 - 3, and a bath temperature dependence of the thermal response in good agreement with the expected Kapitza conductance behaviour. Fitting experimental results with numerical modelling data, allow us to estimate the Kapitza conductance. The obtained values are in good agreement with the previous results reported by several authors using a different measurement method. The 'vacuum' thermometers are currently used on the TE011 mode cavity with Nb and NbTiN plates and the first results are presented

  2. The approximate determination of the critical temperature of a liquid by measuring surface tension versus the temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroto, J A; Nieves, F J de las; Quesada-Perez, M

    2004-01-01

    A classical experience in a physics student laboratory is to determine the surface tension of a liquid versus the temperature and to check the linear appearance of the obtained graph. In this work we show a simple method to estimate the critical temperature of three liquids by using experimental data of surface tension at different temperatures. By a logarithm fitting between surface tension and temperature, the critical temperature can be determined and compared with data from the literature. For two liquids (butanol and nitrobenzene) the comparison is acceptable but the differences are too high for the third liquid (water). By discussing the results it seems to be clear that the difference between the critical temperature of the liquid and the maximum temperature of the surface tension measurements is the determining factor in obtaining acceptable results. From this study it is possible to obtain more information on the liquid characteristics from surface tension measurements that are currently carried out in a student laboratory. Besides, in this paper it is shown how to select the most suitable liquids which provide both acceptable values for the critical temperature and measurements of the surface tension at moderate temperatures. The complementary use of numerical methods permits us to offer a complete experience for the students with a simple laboratory experiment which we recommend for physics students in advanced university courses

  3. Auditory brainstem evoked responses and temperature monitoring during pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R A; Edmonds, H L; Auden, S M; Austin, E H

    1999-09-01

    To examine the effects of temperature on auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) in infants during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass for total circulatory arrest (TCA). The relationship between ABRs (as a surrogate measure of core-brain temperature) and body temperature as measured at several temperature monitoring sites was determined. In a prospective, observational study, ABRs were recorded non-invasively at normothermia and at every 1 or 2 degrees C change in ear-canal temperature during cooling and rewarming in 15 infants (ages: 2 days to 14 months) that required TCA. The ABR latencies and amplitudes and the lowest temperatures at which an ABR was identified (the threshold) were measured during both cooling and rewarming. Temperatures from four standard temperature monitoring sites were simultaneously recorded. The latencies of ABRs increased and amplitudes decreased with cooling (P < 0.01), but rewarming reversed these effects. The ABR threshold temperature as related to each monitoring site (ear-canal, nasopharynx, esophagus and bladder) was respectively determined as 23 +/- 2.2 degrees C, 20.8 +/- 1.7 degrees C, 14.6 +/- 3.4 degrees C, and 21.5 +/- 3.8 degrees C during cooling and 21.8 +/- 1.6 degrees C, 22.4 +/- 2.0 degrees C, 27.6 +/- 3.6 degrees C, and 23.0 +/- 2.4 degrees C during rewarming. The rewarming latencies were shorter and Q10 latencies smaller than the corresponding cooling values (P < 0.01). Esophageal and bladder sites were more susceptible to temperature variations as compared with the ear-canal and nasopharynx. No temperature site reliably predicted an electrophysiological threshold. A faster latency recovery during rewarming suggests that body temperature monitoring underestimates the effects of rewarming in the core-brain. ABRs may be helpful to monitor the effects of cooling and rewarming on the core-brain during pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass.

  4. Modeling seasonal surface temperature variations in secondary tropical dry forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Sen; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo

    2017-10-01

    Secondary tropical dry forests (TDFs) provide important ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, and nutrient cycle regulation. However, their biogeophysical processes at the canopy-atmosphere interface remain unknown, limiting our understanding of how this endangered ecosystem influences, and responds to the ongoing global warming. To facilitate future development of conservation policies, this study characterized the seasonal land surface temperature (LST) behavior of three successional stages (early, intermediate, and late) of a TDF, at the Santa Rosa National Park (SRNP), Costa Rica. A total of 38 Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) data and the Surface Reflectance (SR) product were utilized to model LST time series from July 2013 to July 2016 using a radiative transfer equation (RTE) algorithm. We further related the LST time series to seven vegetation indices which reflect different properties of TDFs, and soil moisture data obtained from a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Results showed that the LST in the dry season was 15-20 K higher than in the wet season at SRNP. We found that the early successional stages were about 6-8 K warmer than the intermediate successional stages and were 9-10 K warmer than the late successional stages in the middle of the dry season; meanwhile, a minimum LST difference (0-1 K) was observed at the end of the wet season. Leaf phenology and canopy architecture explained most LST variations in both dry and wet seasons. However, our analysis revealed that it is precipitation that ultimately determines the LST variations through both biogeochemical (leaf phenology) and biogeophysical processes (evapotranspiration) of the plants. Results of this study could help physiological modeling studies in secondary TDFs.

  5. T Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration -- Vadose Zone Monitoring FY07 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Keller, Jason M.; Wittreich, Curtis D.; Sydnor, Harold A.

    2008-01-01

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. is currently in the process of constructing a temporary surface barrier over a portion of the T Tank Farm as part of the T farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration Project. The surface barrier is designed to prevent the infiltration of precipitation into the contaminated soil zone created by the Tank T-106 leak and minimize movement of the contamination. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture monitoring is being performed to assess the effectiveness of the barrier at reducing soil moisture. A solar-powered and remotely-controlled system was installed to continuously monitor soil water conditions in four instrument nests (i.e., A, B, C, and D) and the site meteorological condition. Each instrument nest was composed of a capacitance probe with multiple sensors, multiple heat-dissipation units, a neutron probe access tube and a datalogger. Nests A and B also contained a drain gauge each. The principle variables monitored for this purpose are soil-water content, soil-water pressure, and soil-water flux. In addition to these, soil temperature, precipitation, and air temperature are measured. Data from each of the dataloggers were transmitted remotely to the receiving computer. The neutron probe access tube was used to perform quarterly manual measurements of soil-water content using a neutron probe. This monitoring system was used to assess the soil water conditions in the soil outside and within the footprint of the surface barrier to be emplaced in the Hanford T Tank Farm. Data to date is baseline under the condition without the interim surface barrier in place. All the instruments except the two drain gauges were functional in FY07. The capacitance-probe measurements showed that the soil-moisture content at relatively shallow depths (e.g., 0.6 and 0.9 m) was increasing since October 2006 and reached the highest in early January 2007 followed by a slight decrease. Soil-moisture contents at the depths of 1.3 m and

  6. Mapping Surface Heat Fluxes by Assimilating SMAP Soil Moisture and GOES Land Surface Temperature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Steele-Dunne, Susan C.; Farhadi, Leila; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-12-01

    Surface heat fluxes play a crucial role in the surface energy and water balance. In situ measurements are costly and difficult, and large-scale flux mapping is hindered by surface heterogeneity. Previous studies have demonstrated that surface heat fluxes can be estimated by assimilating land surface temperature (LST) and soil moisture to determine two key parameters: a neutral bulk heat transfer coefficient (CHN) and an evaporative fraction (EF). Here a methodology is proposed to estimate surface heat fluxes by assimilating Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) soil moisture data and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) LST data into a dual-source (DS) model using a hybrid particle assimilation strategy. SMAP soil moisture data are assimilated using a particle filter (PF), and GOES LST data are assimilated using an adaptive particle batch smoother (APBS) to account for the large gap in the spatial and temporal resolution. The methodology is implemented in an area in the U.S. Southern Great Plains. Assessment against in situ observations suggests that soil moisture and LST estimates are in better agreement with observations after assimilation. The RMSD for 30 min (daytime) flux estimates is reduced by 6.3% (8.7%) and 31.6% (37%) for H and LE on average. Comparison against a LST-only and a soil moisture-only assimilation case suggests that despite the coarse resolution, assimilating SMAP soil moisture data is not only beneficial but also crucial for successful and robust flux estimation, particularly when the uncertainties in the model estimates are large.

  7. GMDH and neural networks applied in temperature sensors monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, Elaine Inacio; Pereira, Iraci Martinez; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e

    2009-01-01

    In this work a monitoring system was developed based on the Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) and Neural Networks (ANNs) methodologies. This methodology was applied to the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN by using a database obtained from a theoretical model of the reactor. The IEA-R1 research reactor is a pool type reactor of 5 MW, cooled and moderated by light water, and uses graphite and beryllium as reflector. The theoretical model was developed using the Matlab GUIDE toolbox. The equations are based in the IEA-R1 mass and energy inventory balance and physical as well as operational aspects are taken into consideration. This methodology was developed by using the GMDH algorithm as input variables to the ANNs. The results obtained using the GMDH and ANNs were better than that obtained using only ANNs. (author)

  8. Temperature-dependent surface density of alkylthiol monolayers on gold nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuepeng; Lu, Pin; Zhai, Hua; Wu, Yucheng

    2018-03-01

    Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to study the surface density of passivating monolayers of alkylthiol chains on gold nanocrystals at temperatures ranging from 1 to 800 K. The results show that the surface density of alkylthiol monolayer reaches a maximum value at near room temperature (200-300 K), while significantly decreases with increasing temperature in the higher temperature region (> 300 {{K}}), and slightly decreases with decreasing temperature at low temperature (< 200 {{K}}). We find that the temperature dependence of surface ligand density in the higher temperature region is attributed to the substantial ligand desorption induced by the thermal fluctuation, while that at low temperature results from the reduction in entropy caused by the change in the ordering of passivating monolayer. These results are expected helpful to understand the temperature-dependent surface coverage of gold nanocrystals.

  9. Maximum surface level and temperature histories for Hanford waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, B.D.; Ha, N.D.; Huisingh, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive defense waste resulting from the chemical processing of spent nuclear fuel has been accumulating at the Hanford Site since 1944. This waste is stored in underground waste-storage tanks. The Hanford Site Tank Farm Facilities Interim Safety Basis (ISB) provides a ready reference to the safety envelope for applicable tank farm facilities and installations. During preparation of the ISB, tank structural integrity concerns were identified as a key element in defining the safety envelope. These concerns, along with several deficiencies in the technical bases associated with the structural integrity issues and the corresponding operational limits/controls specified for conduct of normal tank farm operations are documented in the ISB. Consequently, a plan was initiated to upgrade the safety envelope technical bases by conducting Accelerated Safety Analyses-Phase 1 (ASA-Phase 1) sensitivity studies and additional structural evaluations. The purpose of this report is to facilitate the ASA-Phase 1 studies and future analyses of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) and double-shell tanks (DSTs) by compiling a quantitative summary of some of the past operating conditions the tanks have experienced during their existence. This report documents the available summaries of recorded maximum surface levels and maximum waste temperatures and references other sources for more specific data

  10. Impact of Vegetation Cover Fraction Parameterization schemes on Land Surface Temperature Simulation in the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, M.; Li, C.; Lu, H.; Yang, K.; Chen, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The parameterization of vegetation cover fraction (VCF) is an important component of land surface models. This paper investigates the impacts of three VCF parameterization schemes on land surface temperature (LST) simulation by the Common Land Model (CoLM) in the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The first scheme is a simple land cover (LC) based method; the second one is based on remote sensing observation (hereafter named as RNVCF) , in which multi-year climatology VCFs is derived from Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index); the third VCF parameterization scheme derives VCF from the LAI simulated by LSM and clump index at every model time step (hereafter named as SMVCF). Simulated land surface temperature(LST) and soil temperature by CoLM with three VCF parameterization schemes were evaluated by using satellite LST observation and in situ soil temperature observation, respectively, during the period of 2010 to 2013. The comparison against MODIS Aqua LST indicates that (1) CTL produces large biases for both four seasons in early afternoon (about 13:30, local solar time), while the mean bias in spring reach to 12.14K; (2) RNVCF and SMVCF reduce the mean bias significantly, especially in spring as such reduce is about 6.5K. Surface soil temperature observed at 5 cm depth from three soil moisture and temperature monitoring networks is also employed to assess the skill of three VCF schemes. The three networks, crossing TP from West to East, have different climate and vegetation conditions. In the Ngari network, located in the Western TP with an arid climate, there are not obvious differences among three schemes. In Naqu network, located in central TP with a semi-arid climate condition, CTL shows a severe overestimates (12.1 K), but such overestimations can be reduced by 79% by RNVCF and 87% by SMVCF. In the third humid network (Maqu in eastern TP), CoLM performs similar to Naqu. However, at both Naqu and Maqu networks

  11. A surface acoustic wave passive and wireless sensor for magnetic fields, temperature, and humidity

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong; Yassine, Omar; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report an integrated single-chip surface acoustic wave sensor with the capability of measuring magnetic field, temperature, and humidity. The sensor is fabricated using a thermally sensitive LiNbO3 substrate, a humidity sensitive hydrogel coating, and a magnetic field sensitive impedance load. The sensor response to individually and simultaneously changing magnetic field, temperature and humidity is characterized by connecting a network analyzer directly to the sensor. Analytical models for each measurand are derived and used to compensate noise due to cross sensitivities. The results show that all three measurands can be monitored in parallel with sensitivities of 75 ppm/°C, 0.13 dB/%R.H. (at 50%R.H.), 0.18 dB/Oe and resolutions of 0.1 °C, 0.4%R.H., 1 Oe for temperature, humidity and magnetic field, respectively. A passive wireless measurement is also conducted on a current line using, which shows the sensors capability to measure both temperature and current signals simultaneously.

  12. Online Chip Temperature Monitoring Using υce-Load Current and IR Thermography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; Pedersen, Kristian Bonderup; Trintis, Ionut

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents on-state collector-emitter voltage (υce, on)-load current (Ic) method to monitor chip temperature on power insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules in converter operation. The measurement method is also evaluated using infrared (IR) thermography. Temperature dependencies...

  13. Surface Monitoring Data for PM2.5 and Ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — AIRNOW is an EPA program in collaboration with the States to gather and distribute hourly near-realtime data from several hundred continuous PM2.5 and ozone monitors.

  14. The EUSTACE project: delivering global, daily information on surface air temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghent, D.; Rayner, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, in the EUSTACE project (2015-2018, https://www.eustaceproject.eu) we have developed an understanding of the relationships between traditional (land and marine) surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. Here we discuss the science needed to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types. Information contained in the satellite retrievals is used to create globally-complete fields in the past, using statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. This includes developing new "Big Data" analysis methods as the data volumes involved are considerable. We will present recent progress along this road in the EUSTACE project, i.e.: • identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; • estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; • using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras. Information will also be given on how interested users can become involved.

  15. A compendium of results from long-range alpha detector soil surface monitoring: June 1992--May 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, S.E.; Bounds, J.A.; Allander, K.S.; Johnson, J.D.; MacArthur, D.W.; Caress, R.W.

    1994-11-01

    Soil surface monitors based on long-range alpha detector (LRAD) technology are being used to monitor alpha contamination at various sites in the Department of Energy complex. These monitors, the large soil-surface monitor (LSSM) and the small soil-surface monitor (SSSM), were used to help characterize sites at Fernald, Ohio, and active or inactive firing sites at Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratory. Monitoring results are presented herein in chronological order

  16. HadISDH: an updateable land surface specific humidity product for climate monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Willett

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available HadISDH is a near-global land surface specific humidity monitoring product providing monthly means from 1973 onwards over large-scale grids. Presented herein to 2012, annual updates are anticipated. HadISDH is an update to the land component of HadCRUH, utilising the global high-resolution land surface station product HadISD as a basis. HadISD, in turn, uses an updated version of NOAA's Integrated Surface Database. Intensive automated quality control has been undertaken at the individual observation level, as part of HadISD processing. The data have been subsequently run through the pairwise homogenisation algorithm developed for NCDC's US Historical Climatology Network monthly temperature product. For the first time, uncertainty estimates are provided at the grid-box spatial scale and monthly timescale. HadISDH is in good agreement with existing land surface humidity products in periods of overlap, and with both land air and sea surface temperature estimates. Widespread moistening is shown over the 1973–2012 period. The largest moistening signals are over the tropics with drying over the subtropics, supporting other evidence of an intensified hydrological cycle over recent years. Moistening is detectable with high (95% confidence over large-scale averages for the globe, Northern Hemisphere and tropics, with trends of 0.089 (0.080 to 0.098 g kg−1 per decade, 0.086 (0.075 to 0.097 g kg−1 per decade and 0.133 (0.119 to 0.148 g kg−1 per decade, respectively. These changes are outside the uncertainty range for the large-scale average which is dominated by the spatial coverage component; station and grid-box sampling uncertainty is essentially negligible on large scales. A very small moistening (0.013 (−0.005 to 0.031 g kg−1 per decade is found in the Southern Hemisphere, but it is not significantly different from zero and uncertainty is large. When globally averaged, 1998 is the moistest year since monitoring began in 1973, closely

  17. Utilization of local area network technology and decentralized structure for nuclear reactor core temperature monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casella, M.; Peirano, F.

    1986-01-01

    The present system concerns Superphenix type reactors. It is a new version of system for monitoring the reactor core temperatures. It has been designed to minimize the cost and the wiring complexity because of the large number of channels (800). For this, equipments are arranged on the roof slab of the reactor with a single link to the control room; from which the name Integrated Treatment of Core Temperatures: TITC 1500 and the natural choice of a distributed system. This system monitors permanently the thermal state of the core a Superphenix type reactor. This monitoring system aims at detecting anomalies of core temperature rise, releasing automatic shutdown (safety), and providing to the monitoring systems not concerned safety the information concerning the core [fr

  18. Standard Guide for Use of Melt Wire Temperature Monitors for Reactor Vessel Surveillance, E 706 (IIIE)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This guide describes the application of melt wire temperature monitors and their use for reactor vessel surveillance of light-water power reactors as called for in Practice E 185. 1.2 The purpose of this guide is to recommend the selection and use of the common melt wire technique where the correspondence between melting temperature and composition of different alloys is used as a passive temperature monitor. Guidelines are provided for the selection and calibration of monitor materials; design, fabrication, and assembly of monitor and container; post-irradiation examinations; interpretation of the results; and estimation of uncertainties. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. (See Note 1.)

  19. Current Options for Measuring the Surface Temperature of Dairy Cattle in a Stable Technology: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Švejdová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Regular measurement of the body surface temperature can help to assess the health status of animals. There are many technological possibilities of contactless temperature measurement of body surface. The important thing is to find the right part of the body whose temperature will point to the first possible symptoms and immediately react to the first signs of the disease. Disagreements about how to measure body surface temperature and accuracy of the method can occur when different measures are used. We review work showing possibilities of contactless surface temperature measurements using 1 thermography, 2 electronic transponders and 3 other possibilities of measuring the body surface temperature of dairy cattle. For example, when we scan the surface temperature with the thermal imager there can operate in individual animals confounding factors such as the nature or degree of muscular coat, which may significantly affect the results.

  20. High temperature flexible ultrasonic transducers for structural health monitoring and NDT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, J.L. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Kobayashi, M.; Jen, C.K.; Tatibouet, J. [National Research Council of Canada, Boucherville, PQ (Canada). Industrial Materials Inst.; Mrad, N. [Department of National Defence, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Air Vehicles Research Station

    2009-07-01

    Ultrasonic techniques are often used for non-destructive testing (NDT) and structural health monitoring (SHM) of pipes in nuclear and fossil fuel power plants, petrochemical plants and other structures as a method to improve safety and extend the service life of the structure. In such applications, ultrasonic transducers (UTs) must be able to operate at high temperature, and must come in contact with structures that have surfaces with different curvatures. As such, flexible UTs (FUTs) are most suitable because they ensure self-alignment to the object's surface. The purpose of this study was to develop FUTs that have high flexibility similar to commercially available polyvinylidene fluoride PVDF FUTs, but which can operate at up to at least 150 degrees C and have a high ultrasonic performance comparable to commercial broadband UTs. The fabrication of the FUT consisted of a sol-gel based sensor fabrication process. The substrate was a 75 {mu}m thick titanium (Ti) membrane, a piezoelectric composite with a thickness larger than 85 {mu}m and a top electrode. The ultrasonic performance of the FUT in terms of signal strength was found to be at least as good as commercially available broadband ultrasonic transducers at room temperature. Onsite gluing and brazing installation techniques which bond the FUTs onto steel pipes for SHM and NDT purposes up to 100 and 150 degrees C were developed, respectively. The best thickness measurement accuracy of FUT at 150 degrees C was estimated to be 26 {mu}m. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  1. Hardware/Software Data Acquisition System for Real Time Cell Temperature Monitoring in Air-Cooled Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Francisca; Bartolucci, Veronica; Andújar, José Manuel

    2017-07-09

    This work presents a hardware/software data acquisition system developed for monitoring the temperature in real time of the cells in Air-Cooled Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (AC-PEFC). These fuel cells are of great interest because they can carry out, in a single operation, the processes of oxidation and refrigeration. This allows reduction of weight, volume, cost and complexity of the control system in the AC-PEFC. In this type of PEFC (and in general in any PEFC), the reliable monitoring of temperature along the entire surface of the stack is fundamental, since a suitable temperature and a regular distribution thereof, are key for a better performance of the stack and a longer lifetime under the best operating conditions. The developed data acquisition (DAQ) system can perform non-intrusive temperature measurements of each individual cell of an AC-PEFC stack of any power (from watts to kilowatts). The stack power is related to the temperature gradient; i.e., a higher power corresponds to a higher stack surface, and consequently higher temperature difference between the coldest and the hottest point. The developed DAQ system has been implemented with the low-cost open-source platform Arduino, and it is completed with a modular virtual instrument that has been developed using NI LabVIEW. Temperature vs time evolution of all the cells of an AC-PEFC both together and individually can be registered and supervised. The paper explains comprehensively the developed DAQ system together with experimental results that demonstrate the suitability of the system.

  2. Hardware/Software Data Acquisition System for Real Time Cell Temperature Monitoring in Air-Cooled Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Segura

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a hardware/software data acquisition system developed for monitoring the temperature in real time of the cells in Air-Cooled Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (AC-PEFC. These fuel cells are of great interest because they can carry out, in a single operation, the processes of oxidation and refrigeration. This allows reduction of weight, volume, cost and complexity of the control system in the AC-PEFC. In this type of PEFC (and in general in any PEFC, the reliable monitoring of temperature along the entire surface of the stack is fundamental, since a suitable temperature and a regular distribution thereof, are key for a better performance of the stack and a longer lifetime under the best operating conditions. The developed data acquisition (DAQ system can perform non-intrusive temperature measurements of each individual cell of an AC-PEFC stack of any power (from watts to kilowatts. The stack power is related to the temperature gradient; i.e., a higher power corresponds to a higher stack surface, and consequently higher temperature difference between the coldest and the hottest point. The developed DAQ system has been implemented with the low-cost open-source platform Arduino, and it is completed with a modular virtual instrument that has been developed using NI LabVIEW. Temperature vs time evolution of all the cells of an AC-PEFC both together and individually can be registered and supervised. The paper explains comprehensively the developed DAQ system together with experimental results that demonstrate the suitability of the system.

  3. Monitoring Temperature in High Enthalpy Arc-heated Plasma Flows using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Marcel Nations; Chang, Leyen S.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.; Nawaz, Anuscheh; Taunk, Jaswinder S.; Driver, David M.; Raiche, George

    2013-01-01

    A tunable diode laser sensor was designed for in situ monitoring of temperature in the arc heater of the NASA Ames IHF arcjet facility (60 MW). An external cavity diode laser was used to generate light at 777.2 nm and laser absorption used to monitor the population of electronically excited oxygen atoms in an air plasma flow. Under the assumption of thermochemical equilibrium, time-resolved temperature measurements were obtained on four lines-of-sight, which enabled evaluation of the temperature uniformity in the plasma column for different arcjet operating conditions.

  4. Methods for accurate cold-chain temperature monitoring using digital data-logger thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacky, M. J.; Miller, W. M.; Strouse, G. F.

    2013-09-01

    Complete and accurate records of vaccine temperature history are vital to preserving drug potency and patient safety. However, previously published vaccine storage and handling guidelines have failed to indicate a need for continuous temperature monitoring in vaccine storage refrigerators. We evaluated the performance of seven digital data logger models as candidates for continuous temperature monitoring of refrigerated vaccines, based on the following criteria: out-of-box performance and compliance with manufacturer accuracy specifications over the range of use; measurement stability over extended, continuous use; proper setup in a vaccine storage refrigerator so that measurements reflect liquid vaccine temperatures; and practical methods for end-user validation and establishing metrological traceability. Data loggers were tested using ice melting point checks and by comparison to calibrated thermocouples to characterize performance over 0 °C to 10 °C. We also monitored logger performance in a study designed to replicate the range of vaccine storage and environmental conditions encountered at provider offices. Based on the results of this study, the Centers for Disease Control released new guidelines on proper methods for storage, handling, and temperature monitoring of vaccines for participants in its federally-funded Vaccines for Children Program. Improved temperature monitoring practices will ultimately decrease waste from damaged vaccines, improve consumer confidence, and increase effective inoculation rates.

  5. Monitoring of the temperature reactivity coefficient at the PWR nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostic, Lj.

    1996-01-01

    For monitoring temperature coefficient of reactivity of pressurized water reactor a method based on the correction of fluctuation in signals of i-core neutron detectors and core-exit thermocouples and neural network paradigm is used it is shown that the moderator temperature coefficient of relativity can be predicted with the aid of the back propagation neural network technique by measuring the frequency response function between the in-core neutron flux and the core-exit coolant temperature

  6. Monitoring system for accuracy and reliability characteristics of standard temperature measurements in WWER-440 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanc, S.; Repa, M.

    2001-01-01

    Description of a monitoring system for accuracy and reliability characteristics of standard temperature measurements in WWER-440 reactors and benefits obtained from its use are shown in the presentation. As standard reactor temperature measurement, coolant temperature measurement at fuel assembly outlets and in loops, entered into the In-Reactor Control System , are considered. Such systems have been implemented at two V-230 reactors and are under implementation at other four V-213 reactors. (Authors)

  7. Quantifying Surface Energy Flux Estimation Uncertainty Using Land Surface Temperature Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, A. N.; Hunsaker, D.; Thorp, K.; Bronson, K. F.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing with thermal infrared is widely recognized as good way to estimate surface heat fluxes, map crop water use, and detect water-stressed vegetation. When combined with net radiation and soil heat flux data, observations of sensible heat fluxes derived from surface temperatures (LST) are indicative of instantaneous evapotranspiration (ET). There are, however, substantial reasons LST data may not provide the best way to estimate of ET. For example, it is well known that observations and models of LST, air temperature, or estimates of transport resistances may be so inaccurate that physically based model nevertheless yield non-meaningful results. Furthermore, using visible and near infrared remote sensing observations collected at the same time as LST often yield physically plausible results because they are constrained by less dynamic surface conditions such as green fractional cover. Although sensitivity studies exist that help identify likely sources of error and uncertainty, ET studies typically do not provide a way to assess the relative importance of modeling ET with and without LST inputs. To better quantify model benefits and degradations due to LST observational inaccuracies, a Bayesian uncertainty study was undertaken using data collected in remote sensing experiments at Maricopa, Arizona. Visible, near infrared and thermal infrared data were obtained from an airborne platform. The prior probability distribution of ET estimates were modeled using fractional cover, local weather data and a Penman-Monteith mode, while the likelihood of LST data was modeled from a two-source energy balance model. Thus the posterior probabilities of ET represented the value added by using LST data. Results from an ET study over cotton grown in 2014 and 2015 showed significantly reduced ET confidence intervals when LST data were incorporated.

  8. The use of thermal imaging to monitoring skin temperature during cryotherapy: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Filipe; Neves, Eduardo Borba; Norte, Marco; Rosa, Claudio; Reis, Victor Machado; Vilaça-Alves, José

    2015-11-01

    Cryotherapy has been applied on clinical injuries and as a method for exercise recovery. It is aimed to reduce edema, nervous conduction velocity, and tissue metabolism, as well as to accelerate the recovery process of the muscle injury induced by exercise. Objective: This review aim to investigate the applicability of thermal imaging as a method for monitoring skin temperature during cryotherapy. Method: Search the Web of Science database using the terms "Cryotherapy", "Thermography", "Thermal Image" and "Cooling". Results: Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria and pass the PEDro scale quality evaluation. Evidence support the use of thermal imaging as a method for monitoring the skin temperature during cryotherapy, and it is superior to other contact methods and subjective methods of assessing skin temperature. Conclusion: Thermography seems to be an efficient, trustworthy and secure method in order to monitoring skin temperature during cryotherapy application. Evidence supports the use of thermography in detriment of contact methods as well as other subjective ones.

  9. The design of multi temperature and humidity monitoring system for incubator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junyu; Xu, Peng; Peng, Zitao; Qiang, Haonan; Shen, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is only one monitor of the temperature and humidity in an incubator, which may cause inaccurate or unreliable data, and even endanger the life safety of the baby. In order to solve this problem,we designed a multi-point temperature and humidity monitoring system for incubators. The system uses the STC12C5A60S2 microcontrollers as the sender core chip which is connected to four AM2321 temperature and humidity sensors. We select STM32F103ZET6 core development board as the receiving end,cooperating with Zigbee wireless transmitting and receiving module to realize data acquisition and transmission. This design can realize remote real-time observation data on the computer by communicating with PC via Ethernet. Prototype tests show that the system can effectively collect and display the information of temperature and humidity of multiple incubators at the same time and there are four monitors in each incubator.

  10. Monitoring and improving the effectiveness of surface cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2016-05-02

    Disinfection of noncritical environmental surfaces and equipment is an essential component of an infection prevention program. Noncritical environmental surfaces and noncritical medical equipment surfaces may become contaminated with infectious agents and may contribute to cross-transmission by acquisition of transient hand carriage by health care personnel. Disinfection should render surfaces and equipment free of pathogens in sufficient numbers to prevent human disease (ie, hygienically clean). Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimal Estimation of Sea Surface Temperature from AMSR-E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Nielsen-Englyst

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Optimal Estimation (OE technique is developed within the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA-CCI to retrieve subskin Sea Surface Temperature (SST from AQUA’s Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer—Earth Observing System (AMSR-E. A comprehensive matchup database with drifting buoy observations is used to develop and test the OE setup. It is shown that it is essential to update the first guess atmospheric and oceanic state variables and to perform several iterations to reach an optimal retrieval. The optimal number of iterations is typically three to four in the current setup. In addition, updating the forward model, using a multivariate regression model is shown to improve the capability of the forward model to reproduce the observations. The average sensitivity of the OE retrieval is 0.5 and shows a latitudinal dependency with smaller sensitivity for cold waters and larger sensitivity for warmer waters. The OE SSTs are evaluated against drifting buoy measurements during 2010. The results show an average difference of 0.02 K with a standard deviation of 0.47 K when considering the 64% matchups, where the simulated and observed brightness temperatures are most consistent. The corresponding mean uncertainty is estimated to 0.48 K including the in situ and sampling uncertainties. An independent validation against Argo observations from 2009 to 2011 shows an average difference of 0.01 K, a standard deviation of 0.50 K and a mean uncertainty of 0.47 K, when considering the best 62% of retrievals. The satellite versus in situ discrepancies are highest in the dynamic oceanic regions due to the large satellite footprint size and the associated sampling effects. Uncertainty estimates are available for all retrievals and have been validated to be accurate. They can thus be used to obtain very good retrieval results. In general, the results from the OE retrieval are very encouraging and demonstrate that passive microwave

  12. Daily changes of radon concentration in soil gas under influence of atmospheric factors: room temperature, soil surface temperature and relative humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, Evelise G.; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de, E-mail: evelise.lara@gmail.com, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Rocha, Zildete; Rios, Francisco Javier, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: javier@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work aims at relating the daily change in the radon concentration in soil gas in a Red Yellow Acrisol (SiBCS) under influence of atmospheric factors: room temperature, soil surface temperature and relative humidity. The {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, U content and permeability were also performed. The measurements of radon soil gas were carried out by using an AlphaGUARD monitor. The {sup 226}Ra activity concentration was made by Gamma Spectrometry (HPGe); the permeability was carried out using the RADON-JOK permeameter and ICP-MS analysis to {sup 232}Th and U content. The soil permeability is 5.0 x 10{sup -12}, which is considered average. The {sup 226}Ra (22.2 ± 0.3 Bq.m{sup -3}); U content (73.4 ± 3.6 Bq.kg{sup -1}) and {sup 232}Th content (55.3 ± 4.0 Bq.kg{sup -1}) were considered above of average concentrations, according to mean values for soils typical (~ 35.0 Bq.kg{sup -1}) by UNSCEAR. The results showed a difference of 26.0% between the highest and the lowest concentration of radon in soil gas: at midnight (15.5 ± 1.0 kBq.m{sup -3}) and 3:00 pm, the highest mean radon concentration (21.0 ± 1.0 kBq.m{sup -3}). The room temperature and surface soil temperature showed equivalent behavior and the surface soil temperature slightly below room temperature during the entire monitoring time. Nevertheless, the relative humidity showed the highest cyclical behavior, showing a higher relationship with the radon concentration in soil gas. (author)

  13. Daily changes of radon concentration in soil gas under influence of atmospheric factors: room temperature, soil surface temperature and relative humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, Evelise G.; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de

    2015-01-01

    This work aims at relating the daily change in the radon concentration in soil gas in a Red Yellow Acrisol (SiBCS) under influence of atmospheric factors: room temperature, soil surface temperature and relative humidity. The 226 Ra, 232 Th, U content and permeability were also performed. The measurements of radon soil gas were carried out by using an AlphaGUARD monitor. The 226 Ra activity concentration was made by Gamma Spectrometry (HPGe); the permeability was carried out using the RADON-JOK permeameter and ICP-MS analysis to 232 Th and U content. The soil permeability is 5.0 x 10 -12 , which is considered average. The 226 Ra (22.2 ± 0.3 Bq.m -3 ); U content (73.4 ± 3.6 Bq.kg -1 ) and 232 Th content (55.3 ± 4.0 Bq.kg -1 ) were considered above of average concentrations, according to mean values for soils typical (~ 35.0 Bq.kg -1 ) by UNSCEAR. The results showed a difference of 26.0% between the highest and the lowest concentration of radon in soil gas: at midnight (15.5 ± 1.0 kBq.m -3 ) and 3:00 pm, the highest mean radon concentration (21.0 ± 1.0 kBq.m -3 ). The room temperature and surface soil temperature showed equivalent behavior and the surface soil temperature slightly below room temperature during the entire monitoring time. Nevertheless, the relative humidity showed the highest cyclical behavior, showing a higher relationship with the radon concentration in soil gas. (author)

  14. Overstory removal and residue treatments affect soil surface, air, and soil temperature: implications for seedling survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Hungerford; Ronald E. Babbitt

    1987-01-01

    Potentially lethal ground surface temperatures were measured at three locations in the Northern Rocky Mountains but occurred more frequently under treatments with greater overstory removal. Observed maximum and minimum temperatures of exposed surfaces are directly related to the thermal properties of the surface materials. Survival of planted seedlings was consistent...

  15. Study of sea surface temperature distribution, in Angra dos Reis Nuclear Plant region - Mission Angra 01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, M.R.; Steffen, C.A.; Villagra, H.M.I.

    1982-03-01

    A study of spectral and temporal variations of sea surface temperature, using data obtained from level of satellite, aircraft and surface, with the purpose of evaluate and plot the small scale variations of sea surface temperature, due to thermal discharge from a nuclear the results of the first mission called Angra 1. (maps). (C.G.C.)

  16. Multielement surface plasmon resonance immunosensor for monitoring of blood circulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukevych, Sergey A.; Kostyukevych, Kateryna V.; Khristosenko, Roman V.; Lysiuk, Viktor O.; Koptyukh, Anastasiya A.; Moscalenko, Nadiya L.

    2017-12-01

    The problems related to the development of a multielement immunosensor device with the prism type of excitation of a surface plasmon resonance in the Kretschmann configuration and with the scanning of the incidence angle of monochromatic light aimed at the reliable determination of the levels of three molecular markers of the system of hemostasis (fibrinogen, soluble fibrin, and D-dimer) are considered. We have analyzed the influence of a technology for the production of a gold coating, modification of its surface, and noise effects on the enhancement of sensitivity and stability of the operation of devices. A means of oriented immobilization of monoclonal antibodies on the surface of gold using a multilayer film of copper aminopentacyanoferrate is developed. For the model proteins of studied markers, the calibrating curves (maximum sensitivity of 0.5 μg/ml) are obtained, and the level of fibrinogen in blood plasma of donors is determined. A four-channel modification of the device with an application of a reference channel for comparing the elimination of the noise of temperature fluctuations has been constructed. This device allows one to execute the express-diagnostics of prethrombotic states and the monitoring of the therapy of diseases of the blood circulation system.

  17. Computation of the temperatures of a fluid flowing through a pipe from temperature measurements on the pipe's outer surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, G.

    1999-01-01

    A method for computing the temperatures of a fluid flowing through a pipe on the basis of temperatures recorded at the pipe's outer surface is presented. The heat conduction in the pipe wall is described by one-dimensional heat conduction elements. Heat transfer between fluid, pipe and surrounding is allowed for. The equation system resulting from the standard finite element discretization is reformulated to enable the computation of temperature events preceding the recorded temperature in time. It is shown that the method can be used to identify the actual fluid temperature from temperature data obtained only at the outer surface of the pipe. The temperatures in the pipe wall are computed with good accuracy even in the case of a severe thermal shock. (orig.) [de

  18. Acoustic emission-based in-process monitoring of surface generation in robot-assisted polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The applicability of acoustic emission (AE) measurements for in-process monitoring of surface generation in the robot-assisted polishing (RAP) was investigated. Surface roughness measurements require interruption of the process, proper surface cleaning and measurements that sometimes necessitate...... automatic detection of optimal process endpoint allow intelligent process control, creating fundamental elements in development of robust fully automated RAP process for its widespread industrial application....... removal of the part from the machine tool. In this study, stabilisation of surface roughness during polishing rotational symmetric surfaces by the RAP process was monitored by AE measurements. An AE sensor was placed on a polishing arm in direct contact with a bonded abrasive polishing tool...

  19. Surface reconstruction and deformation monitoring of stratospheric airship based on laser scanning technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kai; Xie, Yongjie; Ye, Hu; Zhang, Song; Li, Yunfei

    2018-04-01

    Due to the uncertainty of stratospheric airship's shape and the security problem caused by the uncertainty, surface reconstruction and surface deformation monitoring of airship was conducted based on laser scanning technology and a √3-subdivision scheme based on Shepard interpolation was developed. Then, comparison was conducted between our subdivision scheme and the original √3-subdivision scheme. The result shows our subdivision scheme could reduce the shrinkage of surface and the number of narrow triangles. In addition, our subdivision scheme could keep the sharp features. So, surface reconstruction and surface deformation monitoring of airship could be conducted precisely by our subdivision scheme.

  20. An elapsed time-temperature monitor for blood storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, G E; Cloud, S; Myhre, B A

    1977-01-01

    Blood should not be allowed to exceed 10 C while being stored or transported. However, one cannot test the internal temperature of a unit of blood without contaminating it. Most blood banks have established an arbitrary time limit beyond which a blood unit cannot be kept out of the refrigerator. This method is ineffective if blood is stored in a satellite refrigerator, since the blood may be moved in and out of the refrigerator and the blood bank personnel will be unaware of it. An elapsed time indicator is described which employs a small condenser (E-Cell-Plessey Electronics) charged with a known amount of electricity. If the device is removed from the refrigerator, it begins to discharge at a known rate. The amount of time subsequently can be determined by the loss of charge. The prototype of this instrument has been found to be quite accurate and small (2 inches X 2 inches X 1 inch). It would be rather inexpensive if made in considerable numbers.

  1. Data-Model Comparison of Pliocene Sea Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, H. J.; Foley, K.; Robinson, M. M.; Bloemers, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    The mid-Piacenzian (late Pliocene) climate represents the most geologically recent interval of long-term average warmth and shares similarities with the climate projected for the end of the 21st century. As such, its fossil and sedimentary record represents a natural experiment from which we can gain insight into potential climate change impacts, enabling more informed policy decisions for mitigation and adaptation. We present the first systematic comparison of Pliocene sea surface temperatures (SST) between an ensemble of eight climate model simulations produced as part of PlioMIP (Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project) and the PRISM (Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping) Project mean annual SST field. Our results highlight key regional (mid- to high latitude North Atlantic and tropics) and dynamic (upwelling) situations where there is discord between reconstructed SST and the PlioMIP simulations. These differences can lead to improved strategies for both experimental design and temporal refinement of the palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. Scatter plot of multi-model-mean anomalies (squares) and PRISM3 data anomalies (large blue circles) by latitude. Vertical bars on data anomalies represent the variability of warm climate phase within the time-slab at each locality. Small colored circles represent individual model anomalies and show the spread of model estimates about the multi-model-mean. While not directly comparable in terms of the development of the means nor the meaning of variability, this plot provides a first order comparison of the anomalies. Encircled areas are a, PRISM low latitude sites outside of upwelling areas; b, North Atlantic coastal sequences and Mediterranean sites; c, large anomaly PRISM sites from the northern hemisphere. Numbers identify Ocean Drilling Program sites.

  2. Glass fibres reinforced polyester composites degradation monitoring by surface analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croitoru, Catalin [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Materials Engineering and Welding Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania); Patachia, Silvia, E-mail: st.patachia@unitbv.ro [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Product Design Environment and Mechatronics Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania); Papancea, Adina [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Product Design Environment and Mechatronics Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania); Baltes, Liana; Tierean, Mircea [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Materials Engineering and Welding Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Glass fibre-reinforced polyester composites surface analysis by photographic method. • The composites are submitted to accelerated ageing by UV irradiation at 254 nm. • The UV irradiation promotes differences in the surface chemistry of the composites. • MB dye is differently adsorbed on surfaces with different degradation degrees. • Good correlation between the colouring degree and surface chemistry. - Abstract: The paper presents a novel method for quantification of the modifications that occur on the surface of different types of gel-coated glass fibre-reinforced polyester composites under artificial UV-ageing at 254 nm. The method implies the adsorption of an ionic dye, namely methylene blue, on the UV-aged composite, and computing the CIELab colour space parameters from the photographic image of the coloured composite's surface. The method significantly enhances the colour differences between the irradiated composites and the reference, in contrast with the non-coloured ones. The colour modifications that occur represent a good indicative of the surface degradation, alteration of surface hydrophily and roughness of the composite and are in good correlation with the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and optical microscopy results. The proposed method is easier, faster and cheaper than the traditional ones.

  3. Sensor fabrication method for in situ temperature and humidity monitoring of light emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Su, Ay; Liu, Yin-Chieh; Chan, Pin-Cheng; Lin, Chia-Hung

    2010-01-01

    In this work micro temperature and humidity sensors are fabricated to measure the junction temperature and humidity of light emitting diodes (LED). The junction temperature is frequently measured using thermal resistance measurement technology. The weakness of this method is that the timing of data capture is not regulated by any standard. This investigation develops a device that can stably and continually measure temperature and humidity. The device is light-weight and can monitor junction temperature and humidity in real time. Using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), this study minimizes the size of the micro temperature and humidity sensors, which are constructed on a stainless steel foil substrate (40 μm-thick SS-304). The micro temperature and humidity sensors can be fixed between the LED chip and frame. The sensitivities of the micro temperature and humidity sensors are 0.06±0.005 (Ω/°C) and 0.033 pF/%RH, respectively.

  4. Strategies for Detecting Hidden Geothermal Systems by Near-Surface Gas Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2004-12-15

    ''Hidden'' geothermal systems are those systems above which hydrothermal surface features (e.g., hot springs, fumaroles, elevated ground temperatures, hydrothermal alteration) are lacking. Emissions of moderate to low solubility gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, He) may be one of the primary near-surface signals from these systems. Detection of anomalous gas emissions related to hidden geothermal systems may therefore be an important tool to discover new geothermal resources. This study investigates the potential for CO2 detection and monitoring in the subsurface and above ground in the near-surface environment to serve as a tool to discover hidden geothermal systems. We focus the investigation on CO2 due to (1) its abundance in geothermal systems, (2) its moderate solubility in water, and (3) the wide range of technologies available to monitor CO2 in the near-surface environment. However, monitoring in the near-surface environment for CO2 derived from hidden geothermal reservoirs is complicated by the large variation in CO2 fluxes and concentrations arising from natural biological and hydrologic processes. In the near-surface environment, the flow and transport of CO2 at high concentrations will be controlled by its high density, low viscosity, and high solubility in water relative to air. Numerical simulations of CO2 migration show that CO2 concentrations can reach very high levels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively low geothermal source CO2 fluxes. However, once CO2 seeps out of the ground into the atmospheric surface layer, surface winds are effective at dispersing CO2 seepage. In natural ecological systems in the absence of geothermal gas emissions, near-surface CO2 fluxes and concentrations are primarily controlled by CO2 uptake by photosynthesis, production by root respiration, and microbial decomposition of soil/subsoil organic matter, groundwater degassing, and exchange with the atmosphere. Available technologies for monitoring CO2 in

  5. Evaluation of broadband surface solar irradiance derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, P.; Sneep, M.; Veefkind, J.P.; Stammes, P.; Levelt, P.F.

    2014-01-01

    Surface solar irradiance (SSI) data are important for planning and estimating the production of solar power plants. Long-term high quality surface solar radiation data are needed for monitoring climate change. This paper presents a new surface solar irradiance dataset, the broadband (0.2–4 ?m)

  6. Molecular dynamics simulation of temperature effects on low energy near-surface cascades and surface damage in Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guo; Sun, Jiangping; Guo, Xiongxiong; Zou, Xixi; Zhang, Libin; Gan, Zhiyin

    2017-06-01

    The temperature effects on near-surface cascades and surface damage in Cu(0 0 1) surface under 500 eV argon ion bombardment were studied using molecular dynamics (MD) method. In present MD model, substrate system was fully relaxed for 1 ns and a read-restart scheme was introduced to save total computation time. The temperature dependence of damage production was calculated. The evolution of near-surface cascades and spatial distribution of adatoms at varying temperature were analyzed and compared. It was found that near-surface vacancies increased with temperature, which was mainly due to the fact that more atoms initially located in top two layers became adatoms with the decrease of surface binding energy. Moreover, with the increase of temperature, displacement cascades altered from channeling-like structure to branching structure, and the length of collision sequence decreased gradually, because a larger portion of energy of primary knock-on atom (PKA) was scattered out of focused chain. Furthermore, increasing temperature reduced the anisotropy of distribution of adatoms, which can be ascribed to that regular registry of surface lattice atoms was changed with the increase of thermal vibration amplitude of surface atoms.

  7. Molecular dynamics simulation of temperature effects on low energy near-surface cascades and surface damage in Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Guo; Sun, Jiangping; Guo, Xiongxiong; Zou, Xixi; Zhang, Libin; Gan, Zhiyin, E-mail: ganzhiyin@126.com

    2017-06-15

    The temperature effects on near-surface cascades and surface damage in Cu(0 0 1) surface under 500 eV argon ion bombardment were studied using molecular dynamics (MD) method. In present MD model, substrate system was fully relaxed for 1 ns and a read-restart scheme was introduced to save total computation time. The temperature dependence of damage production was calculated. The evolution of near-surface cascades and spatial distribution of adatoms at varying temperature were analyzed and compared. It was found that near-surface vacancies increased with temperature, which was mainly due to the fact that more atoms initially located in top two layers became adatoms with the decrease of surface binding energy. Moreover, with the increase of temperature, displacement cascades altered from channeling-like structure to branching structure, and the length of collision sequence decreased gradually, because a larger portion of energy of primary knock-on atom (PKA) was scattered out of focused chain. Furthermore, increasing temperature reduced the anisotropy of distribution of adatoms, which can be ascribed to that regular registry of surface lattice atoms was changed with the increase of thermal vibration amplitude of surface atoms.

  8. Global Drought Monitoring and Forecasting based on Satellite Data and Land Surface Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, J.; Lobell, D. B.; Wood, E. F.

    2010-12-01

    Monitoring drought globally is challenging because of the lack of dense in-situ hydrologic data in many regions. In particular, soil moisture measurements are absent in many regions and in real time. This is especially problematic for developing regions such as Africa where water information is arguably most needed, but virtually non-existent on the ground. With the emergence of remote sensing estimates of all components of the water cycle there is now the potential to monitor the full terrestrial water cycle from space to give global coverage and provide the basis for drought monitoring. These estimates include microwave-infrared merged precipitation retrievals, evapotranspiration based on satellite radiation, temperature and vegetation data, gravity recovery measurements of changes in water storage, microwave based retrievals of soil moisture and altimetry based estimates of lake levels and river flows. However, many challenges remain in using these data, especially due to biases in individual satellite retrieved components, their incomplete sampling in time and space, and their failure to provide budget closure in concert. A potential way forward is to use modeling to provide a framework to merge these disparate sources of information to give physically consistent and spatially and temporally continuous estimates of the water cycle and drought. Here we present results from our experimental global water cycle monitor and its African drought monitor counterpart (http://hydrology.princeton.edu/monitor). The system relies heavily on satellite data to drive the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface model to provide near real-time estimates of precipitation, evapotranspiraiton, soil moisture, snow pack and streamflow. Drought is defined in terms of anomalies of soil moisture and other hydrologic variables relative to a long-term (1950-2000) climatology. We present some examples of recent droughts and how they are identified by the system, including

  9. Loss of FliL alters Proteus mirabilis surface sensing and temperature-dependent swarming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Ying; Belas, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a dimorphic motile bacterium well known for its flagellum-dependent swarming motility over surfaces. In liquid, P. mirabilis cells are 1.5- to 2.0-μm swimmer cells with 4 to 6 flagella. When P. mirabilis encounters a solid surface, where flagellar rotation is limited, swimmer cells differentiate into elongated (10- to 80-μm), highly flagellated swarmer cells. In order for P. mirabilis to swarm, it first needs to detect a surface. The ubiquitous but functionally enigmatic flagellar basal body protein FliL is involved in P. mirabilis surface sensing. Previous studies have suggested that FliL is essential for swarming through its involvement in viscosity-dependent monitoring of flagellar rotation. In this study, we constructed and characterized ΔfliL mutants of P. mirabilis and Escherichia coli. Unexpectedly and unlike other fliL mutants, both P. mirabilis and E. coli ΔfliL cells swarm (Swr(+)). Further analysis revealed that P. mirabilis ΔfliL cells also exhibit an alteration in their ability to sense a surface: e.g., ΔfliL P. mirabilis cells swarm precociously over surfaces with low viscosity that normally impede wild-type swarming. Precocious swarming is due to an increase in the number of elongated swarmer cells in the population. Loss of fliL also results in an inhibition of swarming at <30°C. E. coli ΔfliL cells also exhibit temperature-sensitive swarming. These results suggest an involvement of FliL in the energetics and function of the flagellar motor. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Fiber‐optic distributed temperature sensing: A new tool for assessment and monitoring of hydrologic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John W.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Johnson, Carole D.; Dawson, Cian B.; Nelms, David L.; Miller, Cheryl; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Harvey, Charles F.; Karam, Hanan N.

    2008-01-01

    Fiber‐optic distributed temperature sensing (FO DTS) is an emerging technology for characterizing and monitoring a wide range of important earth processes. FO DTS utilizes laser light to measure temperature along the entire length of standard telecommunications optical fibers. The technology can measure temperature every meter over FO cables up to 30 kilometers (km) long. Commercially available systems can measure fiber temperature as often as 4 times per minute, with thermal precision ranging from 0.1 to 0.01 °C depending on measurement integration time. In 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a project to demonstrate and evaluate DTS as a technology to support hydrologic studies. This paper demonstrates the potential of the technology to assess and monitor hydrologic processes through case‐study examples of FO DTS monitoring of stream‐aquifer interaction on the Shenandoah River near Locke's Mill, Virginia, and on Fish Creek, near Jackson Hole, Wyoming, and estuary‐aquifer interaction on Waquoit Bay, Falmouth, Massachusetts. The ability to continuously observe temperature over large spatial scales with high spatial and temporal resolution provides a new opportunity to observe and monitor a wide range of hydrologic processes with application to other disciplines including hazards, climate‐change, and ecosystem monitoring.

  11. A review on remotely sensed land surface temperature anomaly as an earthquake precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anshuman; Singh, Shaktiman; Sam, Lydia; Joshi, P. K.; Bhardwaj, Akanksha; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Kumar, Rajesh

    2017-12-01

    The low predictability of earthquakes and the high uncertainty associated with their forecasts make earthquakes one of the worst natural calamities, capable of causing instant loss of life and property. Here, we discuss the studies reporting the observed anomalies in the satellite-derived Land Surface Temperature (LST) before an earthquake. We compile the conclusions of these studies and evaluate the use of remotely sensed LST anomalies as precursors of earthquakes. The arrival times and the amplitudes of the anomalies vary widely, thus making it difficult to consider them as universal markers to issue earthquake warnings. Based on the randomness in the observations of these precursors, we support employing a global-scale monitoring system to detect statistically robust anomalous geophysical signals prior to earthquakes before considering them as definite precursors.

  12. Sea Surface Temperature Modeling using Radial Basis Function Networks With a Dynamically Weighted Particle Filter

    KAUST Repository

    Ryu, Duchwan

    2013-03-01

    The sea surface temperature (SST) is an important factor of the earth climate system. A deep understanding of SST is essential for climate monitoring and prediction. In general, SST follows a nonlinear pattern in both time and location and can be modeled by a dynamic system which changes with time and location. In this article, we propose a radial basis function network-based dynamic model which is able to catch the nonlinearity of the data and propose to use the dynamically weighted particle filter to estimate the parameters of the dynamic model. We analyze the SST observed in the Caribbean Islands area after a hurricane using the proposed dynamic model. Comparing to the traditional grid-based approach that requires a supercomputer due to its high computational demand, our approach requires much less CPU time and makes real-time forecasting of SST doable on a personal computer. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. © 2013 American Statistical Association.

  13. Monitoring of endocrine disrupting chemicals in surface water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available monitored at 25°C in a CARY 110 UV-Vis spectrophotometer. A Beckman spectrophotometric plate reader was used to measure the activity of avidin conjugated peroxidase (Av-P). In the presence of sufficient affinity immobilized Av-P, the ABTS solution...

  14. Study of CMOS-SOI Integrated Temperature Sensing Circuits for On-Chip Temperature Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malits, Maria; Brouk, Igor; Nemirovsky, Yael

    2018-05-19

    This paper investigates the concepts, performance and limitations of temperature sensing circuits realized in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) silicon on insulator (SOI) technology. It is shown that the MOSFET threshold voltage ( V t ) can be used to accurately measure the chip local temperature by using a V t extractor circuit. Furthermore, the circuit's performance is compared to standard circuits used to generate an accurate output current or voltage proportional to the absolute temperature, i.e., proportional-to-absolute temperature (PTAT), in terms of linearity, sensitivity, power consumption, speed, accuracy and calibration needs. It is shown that the V t extractor circuit is a better solution to determine the temperature of low power, analog and mixed-signal designs due to its accuracy, low power consumption and no need for calibration. The circuit has been designed using 1 µm partially depleted (PD) CMOS-SOI technology, and demonstrates a measurement inaccuracy of ±1.5 K across 300 K⁻500 K temperature range while consuming only 30 µW during operation.

  15. [Monitoring radiofrequency ablation by ultrasound temperature imaging and elastography under different power intensities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiaonan; Li, Qiang; Tsui, Pohsiang; Wang, Chiaoyin; Liu, Haoli

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the reliability of diagnostic ultrasound-based temperature and elasticity imaging during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) through ex vivo experiments. Procine liver samples (n=7) were employed for RFA experiments with exposures of different power intensities (10 and 50w). The RFA process was monitored by a diagnostic ultrasound imager and the information were postoperatively captured for further temperature and elasticity image analysis. Infrared thermometry was concurrently applied to provide temperature change calibration during the RFA process. Results from this study demonstrated that temperature imaging was valid under 10 W RF exposure (r=0.95), but the ablation zone was no longer consistent with the reference infrared temperature distribution under high RF exposures. The elasticity change could well reflect the ablation zone under a 50 W exposure, whereas under low exposures, the thermal lesion could not be well detected due to the limited range of temperature elevation and incomplete tissue necrosis. Diagnostic ultrasound-based temperature and elastography is valid for monitoring thr RFA process. Temperature estimation can well reflect mild-power RF ablation dynamics, whereas the elastic-change estimation can can well predict the tissue necrosis. This study provide advances toward using diagnostic ultrasound to monitor RFA or other thermal-based interventions.

  16. Design and Evaluation of a Pressure and Temperature Monitoring System for Pressure Ulcer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farve Daneshvar Fard

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pressure ulcers are tissue damages resulting from blood flow restriction, which occurs when the tissue is exposed to high pressure for a long period of time. These painful sores are common in patients and elderly, who spend extended periods of time in bed or wheelchair. In this study, a continuous pressure and temperature monitoring system was developed for pressure ulcer prevention. Materials and Methods The monitoring system consists of 64 pressure and 64 temperature sensors on a 40×50 cm2 sheet. Pressure and temperature data and the corresponding maps were displayed on a computer in real-time. Risk assessment could be performed by monitoring and recording absolute pressure and temperature values, as well as deviations over time. Furthermore, a posture detection procedure was proposed for sitting posture identification. Information about the patient’s movement history may help caregivers make informed decisions about the patient’s repositioning and ulcer prevention strategies. Results Steady temporal behaviour of the designed system and repeatability of the measurements were evaluated using several particular tests. The results illustrated that the system could be utilized for continuous monitoring of interface pressure and temperature for pressure ulcer prevention. Furthermore, the proposed method for detecting sitting posture was verified using a statistical analysis. Conclusion A continuous time pressure and temperature monitoring system was presented in this study. This system may be suited for pressure ulcer prevention given its feasibility for simultaneous monitoring of pressure and temperature and alarming options. Furthermore, a method for detecting different sitting postures was proposed and verified. Pressure ulcers in wheelchair-bound patients may be prevented using this sitting posture detection method.

  17. Annual to Inter-Decadal Variability in Surface Air Temperature Along ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    instrumental sea surface temperature (SST) and. East African rainfall ... accelerated rise in minimum temperatures. The objectives of the ... Altitude above sea level (m) Urban/Exposed. Tanga. 05.05°S ...... Environmental Report, South Florida.

  18. Sub-Surface Oil Monitoring Cruise (GU1002, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives were to evaluate ability of acoustic echosounder measurements to detect and localize a sub-surface plume of oil or related hydrocarbons released from the...

  19. Quantification of temperature effect on impedance monitoring via PZT interface for prestressed tendon anchorage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Thanh-Canh; Kim, Jeong-Tae

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the quantification of temperature effect on impedance monitoring via a PZT interface for prestressed tendon-anchorage is presented. Firstly, a PZT interface-based impedance monitoring technique is selected to monitor impedance signatures by predetermining sensitive frequency bands. An analytical model is designed to represent coupled dynamic responses of the PZT interface-tendon anchorage system. Secondly, experiments on a lab-scaled tendon anchorage are described. Impedance signatures are measured via the PZT interface for a series of temperature and prestress-force changes. Thirdly, temperature effects on measured impedance responses of the tendon anchorage are estimated by quantifying relative changes in impedance features (such as RMSD and CCD indices) induced by temperature variation and prestress-force change. Finally, finite element analyses are conducted to investigate the mechanism of temperature variation and prestress-loss effects on the impedance responses of prestressed tendon anchorage. Temperature effects on impedance monitoring are filtered by effective frequency shift-based algorithm for distinguishing prestress-loss effects on impedance signatures.

  20. A quality-control procedure for surface temperature and surface layer inversion in the XBT data archive from the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Ghosh, A.K.; Pattanaik, J.; Ratnakaran, L.

    and surface layer temperature inversion. XBT surface temperatrues (XST) are compared with the surface temperature from simultaneous CTD observations from four cruises and the former were found to be erroneous in a number of stations. XSTs are usually corrected...

  1. Temporal and Spatial Variabilities of Japan Sea Surface Temperature and Atmospheric Forcings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Peter C; Chen, Yuchun; Lu, Shihua

    1998-01-01

    ...) and surface air temperature (SAT) data during 1982-1994 and the National Center for Atmospheric Research surface wind stress curl data during 1982-1989 to investigate the Japan Sea SST temporal and spatial variabilities...

  2. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal: Main characteristics and related mechanisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Suresh, I.; Gautham, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Lengaigne, M.; Rao, R.R.; Neetu, S.; Hegde, A.

    Surface layer temperature inversion (SLTI), a warm layer sandwiched between surface and subsurface colder waters, has been reported to frequently occur in conjunction with barrier layers in the Bay of Bengal (BoB), with potentially commensurable...

  3. On the sensitivity of Land Surface Temperature estimates in arid irrigated lands using MODTRAN

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas, Jorge; Houborg, Rasmus; McCabe, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) derived from thermal infrared (TIR) satellite data has been reliably used as a remote indicator of evapotranspiration (ET) and surface moisture status. However, in order to retrieve the ET with an accuracy approaching

  4. REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF SEA-SURFACE-TEMPERATURE PATTERNS FOR THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SEA WATER, *SURFACE TEMPERATURE, *OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA, PACIFIC OCEAN, REGRESSION ANALYSIS , STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, UNDERWATER EQUIPMENT, DETECTION, UNDERWATER COMMUNICATIONS, DISTRIBUTION, THERMAL PROPERTIES, COMPUTERS.

  5. Monitoring cell culture media degradation using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Amandine; Ryder, Alan G

    2014-08-20

    The quality of the cell culture media used in biopharmaceutical manufacturing is a crucial factor affecting bioprocess performance and the quality of the final product. Due to their complex composition these media are inherently unstable, and significant compositional variations can occur particularly when in the prepared liquid state. For example photo-degradation of cell culture media can have adverse effects on cell viability and thus process performance. There is therefore, from quality control, quality assurance and process management view points, an urgent demand for the development of rapid and inexpensive tools for the stability monitoring of these complex mixtures. Spectroscopic methods, based on fluorescence or Raman measurements, have now become viable alternatives to more time-consuming and expensive (on a unit analysis cost) chromatographic and/or mass spectrometry based methods for routine analysis of media. Here we demonstrate the application of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy for the simple, fast, analysis of cell culture media degradation. Once stringent reproducibility controls are implemented, chemometric data analysis methods can then be used to rapidly monitor the compositional changes in chemically defined media. SERS shows clearly that even when media are stored at low temperature (2-8°C) and in the dark, significant chemical changes occur, particularly with regard to cysteine/cystine concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. High-frequency fluctuations of surface temperatures in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Andreas; Meier, Fred; Scherer, Dieter

    2012-04-01

    This study presents an attempt to resolve fluctuations in surface temperatures at scales of a few seconds to several minutes using time-sequential thermography (TST) from a ground-based platform. A scheme is presented to decompose a TST dataset into fluctuating, high-frequency, and long-term mean parts. To demonstrate the scheme's application, a set of four TST runs (day/night, leaves-on/leaves-off) recorded from a 125-m-high platform above a complex urban environment in Berlin, Germany is used. Fluctuations in surface temperatures of different urban facets are measured and related to surface properties (material and form) and possible error sources. A number of relationships were found: (1) Surfaces with surface temperatures that were significantly different from air temperature experienced the highest fluctuations. (2) With increasing surface temperature above (below) air temperature, surface temperature fluctuations experienced a stronger negative (positive) skewness. (3) Surface materials with lower thermal admittance (lawns, leaves) showed higher fluctuations than surfaces with high thermal admittance (walls, roads). (4) Surface temperatures of emerged leaves fluctuate more compared to trees in a leaves-off situation. (5) In many cases, observed fluctuations were coherent across several neighboring pixels. The evidence from (1) to (5) suggests that atmospheric turbulence is a significant contributor to fluctuations. The study underlines the potential of using high-frequency thermal remote sensing in energy balance and turbulence studies at complex land-atmosphere interfaces.

  7. Soil surface temperatures reveal moderation of the urban heat island effect by trees and shrubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edmondson, Jill L; Stott, Iain; Davies, Zoe G

    2016-01-01

    months increased by 0.6 °C over the 5 km from the city outskirts to the centre. Trees and shrubs in non-domestic greenspace reduced mean maximum daily soil surface temperatures in the summer by 5.7 °C compared to herbaceous vegetation, but tended to maintain slightly higher temperatures in winter. Trees...... in domestic gardens, which tend to be smaller, were less effective at reducing summer soil surface temperatures. Our findings reveal that the UHI effects soil temperatures at a city-wide scale, and that in their moderating urban soil surface temperature extremes, trees and shrubs may help to reduce...

  8. Estimating the Ocean Flow Field from Combined Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Surface Height Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammer, Detlef; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This project was part of a previous grant at MIT that was moved over to the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) together with the principal investigator. The final report provided here is concerned only with the work performed at SIO since January 2000. The primary focus of this project was the study of the three-dimensional, absolute and time-evolving general circulation of the global ocean from a combined analysis of remotely sensed fields of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface height (SSH). The synthesis of those two fields was performed with other relevant physical data, and appropriate dynamical ocean models with emphasis on constraining ocean general circulation models by a combination of both SST and SSH data. The central goal of the project was to improve our understanding and modeling of the relationship between the SST and its variability to internal ocean dynamics, and the overlying atmosphere, and to explore the relative roles of air-sea fluxes and internal ocean dynamics in establishing anomalies in SST on annual and longer time scales. An understanding of those problems will feed into the general discussion on how SST anomalies vary with time and the extend to which they interact with the atmosphere.

  9. Real-time Monitoring on the Tunnel Wall Movement and Temperature Variation of KURT Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Bae, Dae Seok; Koh, Young Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2010-04-15

    The optical fiber cable acting as a sensor was embedded in the underground research tunnel and portal area in order to monitor their stability and the spatial temperature variation. This system includes two types of sensing function to monitor the distributed strain and temperature along the line, where sensor cable is installed, not a point sensing. The measurement resolution for rock mass displacement is 1 mm per 1 m and it covers 30 km length with every 1 m interval in minimum. In temperature, the cable measures the range of -160{approx}600 .deg. C with 0.01 .deg. C resolution according to the cable types. This means that it would be applicable to monitoring system for the safe operation of various kinds of facilities having static and/or dynamic characteristics, such as chemical plant, pipeline, rail, huge building, long and slim structures, bridge, subway and marine vessel. etc

  10. [The reaction of human surface and inside body temperature to extreme hypothermia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, O A; Onishchenko, V O; Liakh, Iu Ie

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of changes in the parameters of the surface and core body temperature under the systematic impact of ultra-low temperature is described in this article. As a source of ultra-low temperature was used (Cryo Therapy Chamber) Zimmer Medizin Systeme firm Zimmer Electromedizin (Germany) (-110 degrees C). Surface and internal body temperature was measured by infrared thermometer immediately before visiting cryochamber and immediately after exiting. In the study conducted 47,464 measurements of body temperature. It was established that the internal temperature of the human body under the influence of ultra-low temperatures in the proposed mode of exposure remains constant, and the surface temperature of the body reduces by an average of 11.57 degrees C. The time frame stabilization of adaptive processes of thermoregulation under the systematic impact of ultra-low temperature was defined in the study.

  11. Reassessment of urbanization effect on surface air temperature trends at an urban station of North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Tao; Ren, Guoyu

    2017-11-01

    Based on a homogenized data set of monthly mean temperature, minimum temperature, and maximum temperature at Shijiazhuang City Meteorological Station (Shijiazhuang station) and four rural meteorological stations selected applying a more sophisticated methodology, we reanalyzed the urbanization effects on annual, seasonal, and monthly mean surface air temperature (SAT) trends for updated time period 1960-2012 at the typical urban station in North China. The results showed that (1) urbanization effects on the long-term trends of annual mean SAT, minimum SAT, and diurnal temperature range (DTR) in the last 53 years reached 0.25, 0.47, and - 0.50 °C/decade, respectively, all statistically significant at the 0.001 confidence level, with the contributions from urbanization effects to the overall long-term trends reaching 67.8, 78.6, and 100%, respectively; (2) the urbanization effects on the trends of seasonal mean SAT, minimum SAT, and DTR were also large and statistically highly significant. Except for November and December, the urbanization effects on monthly mean SAT, minimum SAT, and DTR were also all statistically significant at the 0.05 confidence level; and (3) the annual, seasonal, and monthly mean maximum SAT series at the urban station registered a generally weaker and non-significant urbanization effect. The updated analysis evidenced that our previous work for this same urban station had underestimated the urbanization effect and its contribution to the overall changes in the SAT series. Many similar urban stations were being included in the current national and regional SAT data sets, and the results of this paper further indicated the importance and urgency for paying more attention to the urbanization bias in the monitoring and detection of global and regional SAT change based on the data sets.

  12. Study of temperature distribution of pipes heated by moving rectangular gauss distribution heat source. Development of pipe outer surface irradiated laser stress improvement process (L-SIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Takahiro; Kamo, Kazuhiko; Asada, Seiji; Terasaki, Toshio

    2009-01-01

    The new process called L-SIP (outer surface irradiated Laser Stress Improvement Process) is developed to improve the tensile residual stress of the inner surface near the butt welded joints of pipes in the compression stress. The temperature gradient occurs in the thickness of pipes in heating the outer surface rapidly by laser beam. By the thermal expansion difference between the inner surface and the outer surface, the compression stress occurs near the inner surface of pipes. In this paper, the theoretical equation for the temperature distributions of pipes heated by moving rectangular Gauss distribution heat source on the outer surface is derived. The temperature histories of pipes calculated by theoretical equation agree well with FEM analysis results. According to the theoretical equation, the controlling parameters of temperature distributions and histories are q/2a y , vh, a x /h and a y /h, where q is total heat input, a y is heat source length in the axial direction, a x is Gaussian radius of heat source in the hoop direction, ν is moving velocity, and h is thickness of the pipe. The essential variables for L-SIP, which are defined on the basis of the measured temperature histories on the outer surface of the pipe, are Tmax, F 0 =kτ 0 /h 2 , vh, W Q and L Q , where Tmax is maximum temperature on the monitor point of the outer surface, k is thermal diffusivity coefficient, τ 0 is the temperature rise time from 100degC to maximum temperature on the monitor point of the outer surface, W Q is τ 0 x ν, and L Q is the uniform temperature length in the axial direction. It is verified that the essential variables for L-SIP match the controlling parameters by the theoretical equation. (author)

  13. The MOST - Monitor for Oxygenation of Surface and Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    anesthesia Effectiveness of COR Bio-feedback for peripheral vasodilation Relationship of CPAP and PEEP to atelectasis Waveforms Diagnosis of irregularities...deliberate hypoxia in premature infants Servo-controlled saturation, prematures Converse 02 in home 02 therapy Determine optimal PEEP and CPAP Monitor...Kusakawa I, Ohata J, Kawano T, Honma Y. Use of Pulse Oximetry In Neonatal Anesthe- sia. J Perinatology. 1987:7;343-5. Nishimura S, Tomita Y, Horiuchi T

  14. A Multiscale Surface Water Temperature Data Acquisition Platform: Tests on Lake Geneva, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, D. A.; Irani Rahaghi, A.; Lemmin, U.; Riffler, M.; Wunderle, S.

    2015-12-01

    An improved understanding of surface transport processes is necessary to predict sediment, pollutant and phytoplankton patterns in large lakes. Lake surface water temperature (LSWT), which varies in space and time, reflects meteorological and climatological forcing more than any other physical lake parameter. There are different data sources for LSWT mapping, including remote sensing and in situ measurements. Satellite data can be suitable for detecting large-scale thermal patterns, but not meso- or small scale processes. Lake surface thermography, investigated in this study, has finer resolution compared to satellite images. Thermography at the meso-scale provides the ability to ground-truth satellite imagery over scales of one to several satellite image pixels. On the other hand, thermography data can be used as a control in schemes to upscale local measurements that account for surface energy fluxes and the vertical energy budget. Independently, since such data can be collected at high frequency, they can be also useful in capturing changes in the surface signatures of meso-scale eddies and thus to quantify mixing processes. In the present study, we report results from a Balloon Launched Imaging and Monitoring Platform (BLIMP), which was developed in order to measure the LSWT at meso-scale. The BLIMP consists of a small balloon that is tethered to a boat and equipped with thermal and RGB cameras, as well as other instrumentation for location and communication. Several deployments were carried out on Lake Geneva. In a typical deployment, the BLIMP is towed by a boat, and collects high frequency data from different heights (i.e., spatial resolutions) and locations. Simultaneous ground-truthing of the BLIMP data is achieved using an autonomous craft that collects a variety of data, including in situ surface/near surface temperatures, radiation and meteorological data in the area covered by the BLIMP images. With suitable scaling, our results show good consistency

  15. A smart surface from natural rubber: the mechanism of entropic control at the surface monitored by contact angle measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sureurg Khongtong

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface oxidation of crosslinked natural rubber provided a hydrophilic substrate (sticky surface that became more hydrophobic (less sticky when equilibrated against hot water. This unusual temperaturedependent surface reconstruction is interpreted as the result of recoiling of entropic unfavorable uncoiled chains induced when rubber surface was oxidized. Subsequent equilibration of these annealed samples against water at room temperature returned their original hydrophilicity. The degree of this surface reconstruction and its kinetics are also dependent on the amounts of crosslinking of the samples.

  16. Low temperature gaseous surface hardening of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present contribution gives an overview of some of the technological aspects of low temperature thermochemical treatment of stainless steel. Examples of low temperature gaseous nitriding, carburising and nitrocarburising of stainless steel are presented and discussed. In particular......, the morphology, microstructure and characteristics of so-called expanite “layers” on stainless steel are addressed....

  17. Surface electrostatic waves in bounded high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averkov, Yu.O.; Yakovenko, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    The dispersion relations of surface electrostatic waves propagating along the surface of semi bounded layered superconductor and in the slab of layered superconductor are theoretically investigated. An arbitrary inclination of superconductor layers to the interface of a vacuum - crystal and an arbitrary direction of propagation of surface waves in the plane of the interface are taking into account. The possibility of initiation of an absolute instability during the propagation of a non-relativistic plasma stream above the surface of the layered superconductor is shown

  18. Low Friction Surfaces for Low Temperature Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar and other extraterrestrial environments put extreme demands on moving mechanical components. Gears must continue to function and surfaces must continue to...

  19. Reintroducing radiometric surface temperature into the Penman-Monteith formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallick, Kaniska; Bøgh, Eva; Trebs, Ivonne

    2015-01-01

    ). It combines TR data with standard energy balance closure models for deriving a hybrid scheme that does not require parameterization of the surface (or stomatal) and aerodynamic conductances (gS and gB). STIC is formed by the simultaneous solution of four state equations and it uses TR as an additional data......E and H. The errors and uncertainties in both surface fluxes are comparable to the models that typically use land surface parameterizations for determining the unobserved components (gS and gB) of the surface energy balance models. However, the scheme is simpler, has the capabilities for generating...

  20. In-situ study of the gas-phase composition and temperature of an intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell anode surface fed by reformate natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, F.; Silva Mosqueda, D. M.; Pumiglia, D.; Viceconti, E.; Conti, B.; Boigues Muñoz, C.; Bosio, B.; Ulgiati, S.; McPhail, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    An innovative experimental setup is used for in-depth and in-operando characterization of solid oxide fuel cell anodic processes. This work focuses on the heterogeneous reactions taking place on a 121 cm2 anode-supported cell (ASC) running with a H2, CH4, CO2, CO and steam gas mixture as a fuel, using an operating temperature of 923 K. The results have been obtained by analyzing the gas composition and temperature profiles along the anode surface in different conditions: open circuit voltage (OCV) and under two different current densities, 165 mA cm-2 and 330 mA cm-2, corresponding to 27% and 54% of fuel utilization, respectively. The gas composition and temperature analysis results are consistent, allowing to monitor the evolution of the principal chemical and electrochemical reactions along the anode surface. A possible competition between CO2 and H2O in methane internal reforming is shown under OCV condition and low current density values, leading to two different types of methane reforming: Steam Reforming and Dry Reforming. Under a current load of 40 A, the dominance of exothermic reactions leads to a more marked increase of temperature in the portion of the cell close to the inlet revealing that current density is not uniform along the anode surface.

  1. Land Surface Temperature- Comparing Data from Polar Orbiting and Geostationary Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comyn-Platt, E.; Remedios, J. J.; Good, E. J.; Ghent, D.; Saunders, R.

    2012-04-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a vital parameter in Earth climate science, driving long-wave radiation exchanges that control the surface energy budget and carbon fluxes, which are important factors in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and the monitoring of climate change. Satellites offer a convenient way to observe LST consistently and regularly over large areas. A comparison between LST retrieved from a Geostationary Instrument, the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI), and a Polar Orbiting Instrument, the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) is presented. Both sensors offer differing benefits. AATSR offers superior precision and spatial resolution with global coverage but given its sun-synchronous platform only observes at two local times, ~10am and ~10pm. SEVIRI provides the high-temporal resolution (every 15 minutes) required for observing diurnal variability of surface temperatures but given its geostationary platform has a poorer resolution, 3km at nadir, which declines at higher latitudes. A number of retrieval methods are applied to the raw satellite data: First order coefficient based algorithms provided on an operational basis by the LandSAF (for SEVIRI) and the University of Leicester (for AATSR); Second order coefficient based algorithms put forward by the University of Valencia; and an optimal estimation method using the 1DVar software provided by the NWP SAF. Optimal estimation is an iterative technique based upon inverse theory, thus is very useful for expanding into data assimilation systems. The retrievals are assessed and compared on both a fine scale using in-situ data from recognised validation sites and on a broad scale using two 100x100 regions such that biases can be better understood. Overall, the importance of LST lies in monitoring daily temperature extremes, e.g. for estimating permafrost thawing depth or risk of crop damage due to frost, hence the ideal dataset would use a combination of observations

  2. From Space to the Rocky Intertidal: Using NASA MODIS Sea Surface Temperature and NOAA Water Temperature to Predict Intertidal Logger Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R. P. Sutton

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of satellite-derived datasets has greatly facilitated large-scale ecological studies, as in situ observations are spatially sparse and expensive undertakings. We tested the efficacy of using satellite sea surface temperature (SST collected by NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and local water temperature collected from NOAA buoys and onshore stations to estimate submerged intertidal mussel logger temperatures. Daily SST and local water temperatures were compared to mussel logger temperatures at five study sites located along the Oregon coastline. We found that satellite-derived SSTs and local water temperatures were similarly correlated to the submerged mussel logger temperatures. This finding suggests that satellite-derived SSTs may be used in conjunction with local water temperatures to understand the temporal and spatial variation of mussel logger temperatures. While there are limitations to using satellite-derived temperature for ecological studies, including issues with temporal and spatial resolution, our results are promising.

  3. Remote Multi-layer Soil Temperature Monitoring System Based on GPRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Kuo CHEN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There is the temperature difference between the upper and lower layer of the shallow soil in the forest. It is a potential energy that can be harvested by thermoelectric generator for the electronic device in the forest. The temperature distribution at different depths of the soil is the first step for thermoelectric generation. A remote multi-layer soil temperature monitoring system based on GPRS is proposed in this paper. The MSP430F149 MCU is used as the main controller of multi-layer soil temperature monitoring system. A temperature acquisition module is designed with DS18B20 and 4 core shielded twisted-pair cable. The GPRS module sends the measured data to remote server through wireless communication network. From the experiments in the campus of Beijing Forestry University, the maximum error of measured temperature in this system is 0.2°C by comparing with professional equipment in the same condition. The results of the experiments show that the system can accurately realize real-time monitoring of multi-layer soil temperature, and the data transmission is stable and reliable.

  4. Investigation of the Temperature Sensors Accuracy in the Temperature Monitoring System for the Welded Joints of the Industrial Power Supply Main Busways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivennaya, N. V.; Bazhenov, A. V.; Bondareva, G. A.; Malygin, S. V.; Knyaginin, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the substantiation of the technical solution of the remote monitoring system for the temperature changes of main and branch busways of power supply to industrial enterprises of increased environmental danger. When monitoring the temperature of trunk buses of AC mains up to 1000 V, heated by an electric current, errors occur due to various factors. Studies have been carried out to evaluate the effect of temperature of surrounding objects (including neighboring busbars) on the accuracy of temperature measurements. Conclusions are made about the possibility of using alternative versions of temperature sensors as the basis of the monitoring system.

  5. Holter monitoring of central and peripheral temperature: possible uses and feasibility study in outpatient settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Manuel; Cuesta, David; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Churruca, Juan; Miro, Pau; Ruiz, Raul; Martinez, Carlos

    2009-08-01

    Conventional clinical thermometry has important limitations. A continuous monitoring of temperature may offer significant advantages, including the use of chronobiological and complexity analysis of temperature profile and eventually the identification of a "pre-febrile" pattern. We present a clinical model designed to measure, store and/or transmit in real time a central and a peripheral temperature reading. The results of its use in a healthy, free-living population is reported. Thirty subjects (15 women, 15 men, 20-70 years old), were monitored for 24 h while following their normal life. Temperatures were recorded every minute at the external auditory channel (EAC) and on the skin, at the intersection of the 5th intercostal space and the anterior axillary line. A Cosinor analysis and Approximate Entropy (ApEn) (m = 2, r = 0.15*SD, N = 180) were calculated for both temperatures. Median temperature was 35.55 degrees C [interquartile range (IR) 0.77 degrees C] in the external auditory channel (EAC) and 34.62 degrees C (IR 1.61) in the specified skin location. Median gradient between AEC and skin was 0.93 (IR 1.57). A circadian rhythm was present both in EAC and skin temperature, with a mean amplitude of 0.44 degrees C and an acrophase at 21:02 for the EAC and 0.70 degrees C and 00:42 for the skin. During the night there was a sizable increase in peripheral temperature, with a decrease in gradient and a loss of complexity in the temperature profile, most significantly in the peripheral temperature. Continuous monitoring of central and peripheral temperature may be a helpful tool in both ambulatory and admitted patients and may offer new approaches in clinical thermometry.

  6. Monitoring of temperature fatigue failure mechanism for polyvinyl alcohol fiber concrete using acoustic emission sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongsheng; Cao, Hai

    2012-01-01

    The applicability of acoustic emission (AE) techniques to monitor the mechanism of evolution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber concrete damage under temperature fatigue loading is investigated. Using the temperature fatigue test, real-time AE monitoring data of PVA fiber concrete is achieved. Based on the AE signal characteristics of the whole test process and comparison of AE signals of PVA fiber concretes with different fiber contents, the damage evolution process of PVA fiber concrete is analyzed. Finally, a qualitative evaluation of the damage degree is obtained using the kurtosis index and b-value of AE characteristic parameters. The results obtained using both methods are discussed.

  7. Antarctic Temperature Extremes from MODIS Land Surface Temperatures: New Processing Methods Reveal Data Quality Puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, G.; Gallaher, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    New methods for processing massive remotely sensed datasets are used to evaluate Antarctic land surface temperature (LST) extremes. Data from the MODIS/Terra sensor (Collection 6) provides a twice-daily look at Antarctic LSTs over a 17 year period, at a higher spatiotemporal resolution than past studies. Using a data condensation process that creates databases of anomalous values, our processes create statistical images of Antarctic LSTs. In general, the results find few significant trends in extremes; however, they do reveal a puzzling picture of inconsistent cloud detection and possible systemic errors, perhaps due to viewing geometry. Cloud discrimination shows a distinct jump in clear-sky detections starting in 2011, and LSTs around the South Pole exhibit a circular cooling pattern, which may also be related to cloud contamination. Possible root causes are discussed. Ongoing investigations seek to determine whether the results are a natural phenomenon or, as seems likely, the results of sensor degradation or processing artefacts. If the unusual LST patterns or cloud detection discontinuities are natural, they point to new, interesting processes on the Antarctic continent. If the data artefacts are artificial, MODIS LST users should be alerted to the potential issues.

  8. Online Monitoring of Temperature Using Wireless Module in a Rotating Drum-Applicable to Leather Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Narayani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure safe and efficient operation of unit processes, foremost requirement is accurate measurement of process variables, with which quality can be monitored and controlled. Understanding the necessity of online monitoring of process temperature in tanning/dyeing process, the article is focused on wireless measurement of physical parameters involved in wet processing of hides/ skins and monitoring through digital computer for further analysis. It’s a challenging task to measure and communicate the process information from a closed rotating drum. Wireless communication is proposed because of its enhanced security, superfast operating speed, and increased mobility. The physical parameters which are predominant in tanning process are temperature, pH, conductivity etc. of the process fluid. It is necessary to carryout dyeing at 65 0C for producing raw to wet blue process. As a first attempt, wireless module for temperature measurement has been developed. The module includes signal transmitter and receiver section. In the transmitter section, the temperature which is measured by an integrated sensor is converted into frequency signal and imposed on a radio frequency signal (career signal and get transmitted in air. On the other side, receiver section receives the radio frequency signal and converts that into electrical signals to interface with the digital computer for online monitoring. The module is able to receive and control temperature of tanning drum within a distance of 100 meters. Real time experiments on the fabricated model show interesting results for commercialization.

  9. Climate change impact of livestock CH4 emission in India: Global temperature change potential (GTP) and surface temperature response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Shilpi; Hiloidhari, Moonmoon; Kumari, Nisha; Naik, S N; Dahiya, R P

    2018-01-01

    Two climate metrics, Global surface Temperature Change Potential (GTP) and the Absolute GTP (AGTP) are used for studying the global surface temperature impact of CH 4 emission from livestock in India. The impact on global surface temperature is estimated for 20 and 100 year time frames due to CH 4 emission. The results show that the CH 4 emission from livestock, worked out to 15.3 Tg in 2012. In terms of climate metrics GTP of livestock-related CH 4 emission in India in 2012 were 1030 Tg CO 2 e (GTP 20 ) and 62 Tg CO 2 e (GTP 100 ) at the 20 and 100 year time horizon, respectively. The study also illustrates that livestock-related CH 4 emissions in India can cause a surface temperature increase of up to 0.7mK and 0.036mK over the 20 and 100 year time periods, respectively. The surface temperature response to a year of Indian livestock emission peaks at 0.9mK in the year 2021 (9 years after the time of emission). The AGTP gives important information in terms of temperature change due to annual CH 4 emissions, which is useful when comparing policies that address multiple gases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Using Wireless Sensor Networks to Achieve Intelligent Monitoring for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghai Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR can incorporate wireless sensor network (WSN technology to improve safety and economic competitiveness. WSN has great potential in monitoring the equipment and processes within nuclear power plants (NPPs. This technology not only reduces the cost of regular monitoring but also enables intelligent monitoring. In intelligent monitoring, large sets of heterogeneous data collected by the WSN can be used to optimize the operation and maintenance of the HTGR. In this paper, WSN-based intelligent monitoring schemes that are specific for applications of HTGR are proposed. Three major concerns regarding wireless technology in HTGR are addressed: wireless devices interference, cybersecurity of wireless networks, and wireless standards selected for wireless platform. To process nonlinear and non-Gaussian data obtained by WSN for fault diagnosis, novel algorithms combining Kernel Entropy Component Analysis (KECA and support vector machine (SVM are developed.

  11. Monitoring and analysis of surface changes from undermining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kajzar, Vlastimil; Doležalová, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2013), s. 1-10 ISSN 1802-5420 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : undermining * surface changes * surveying methods Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining http://gse.vsb.cz/2013/LIX-2013-4-1-10.pdf

  12. Analysing Regional Land Surface Temperature Changes by Satellite Data, a Case Study of Zonguldak, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekertekin, A.; Kutoglu, S.; Kaya, S.; Marangoz, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, climate change is one of the most important problems that the ecological system of the world has been encountering. Global warming and climate change have been studied frequently by all disciplines all over the world and Geomatics Engineering also contributes to such studies by means of remote sensing, global positioning system etc. Monitoring Land Surface Temperature (LST) via remote sensing satellites is one of the most important contributions to climatology. LST is an important parameter governing the energy balance on the Earth and there are lots of algorithms to obtain LST by remote sensing techniques. The most commonly used algorithms are split-window algorithm, temperature/emissivity separation method, mono-window algorithm and single channel method. Generally three algorithms are used to obtain LST by using Landsat 5 TM data. These algorithms are radiative transfer equation method, single channel method and mono-window algorithm. Radiative transfer equation method is not applicable because during the satellite pass, atmospheric parameters must be measured in-situ. In this research, mono window algorithm was implemented to Landsat 5 TM image. Besides, meteorological data such as humidity and temperature are used in the algorithm. Acquisition date of the image is 28.08.2011 and our study area is Zonguldak, Turkey. High resolution images are used to investigate the relationships between LST and land cover type. As a result of these analyses, area with vegetation cover has approximately 5 ºC lower temperature than the city center and arid land. Because different surface properties like reinforced concrete construction, green zones and sandbank are all together in city center, LST differs about 10 ºC in the city center. The temperature around some places in thermal power plant region Çatalağzı, is about 5 ºC higher than city center. Sandbank and agricultural areas have highest temperature because of land cover structure. Thanks to this

  13. A multimodal optical and electrochemical device for monitoring surface reactions: redox active surfaces in porous silicon Rugate filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampi, Simone; Guan, Bin; Darwish, Nadim A; Zhu, Ying; Reece, Peter J; Gooding, J Justin

    2012-12-21

    Herein, mesoporous silicon (PSi) is configured as a single sensing device that has dual readouts; as a photonic crystal sensor in a Rugate filter configuration, and as a high surface area porous electrode. The as-prepared PSi is chemically modified to provide it with stability in aqueous media and to allow for the subsequent coupling of chemical species, such as via Cu(I)-catalyzed cycloaddition reactions between 1-alkynes and azides ("click" reactions). The utility of the bimodal capabilities of the PSi sensor for monitoring surface coupling procedures is demonstrated by the covalent coupling of a ferrocene derivative, as well as by demonstrating ligand-exchange reactions (LER) at the PSi surface. Both types of reactions were monitored through optical reflectivity measurements, as well as electrochemically via the oxidation/reduction of the surface tethered redox species.

  14. Monitoring and Modeling Temperature Variations Inside Silage Stack Using Novel Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Shahrak Nadimi, Esmaeil; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    the sensor nodes were successfully delivered to the gateway. The reliable performance of the network confirmed the correct choice of network characteristics (i.e., frequency range of 433 MHz, a handshaking communication protocol and 10 mW transmission power). The designed sensor housings were capable......Abstract: By monitoring silage temperature at different locations inside silage stacks, it is possible to detect any significant increases in temperature occurring during silage decomposition. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop novel noninvasive wireless sensor nodes for measuring...... the temperature inside silage stacks; (2) to design a suitable sensor protection housing that prevents physical and chemical damage to the sensor; and (3) to mathematically model temperature variations inside a silage stack, using system identification techniques. The designed wireless nodes were used to monitor...

  15. Monitoring and modeling temperature variations inside silage stacks using novel wireless sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, O.; Nadimi, E.S.; Blanes-Vidal, V.

    2009-01-01

    the sensor nodes were successfully delivered to the gateway. The reliable performance of the network confirmed the correct choice of network characteristics (i.e., frequency range of 433 MHz, a handshaking communication protocol, and 10 mW transmission power). The designed sensor housings were capable......By monitoring silage temperature at different locations inside silage stacks, it is possible to detect any significant increases in temperature occurring during silage decomposition. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop novel noninvasive wireless sensor nodes for measuring...... the temperature inside silage stacks; (2) to design a suitable sensor protection housing that prevents physical and chemical damage to the sensor: and (3) to mathematically model temperature variations inside a silage stack, using system identification techniques. The designed wireless nodes were used to monitor...

  16. Preparation and High-temperature Anti-adhesion Behavior of a Slippery Surface on Stainless Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Huawei, Chen; Liu, Guang; Zhang, Liwen; Zhang, Deyuan

    2018-03-29

    Anti-adhesion surfaces with high-temperature resistance have a wide application potential in electrosurgical instruments, engines, and pipelines. A typical anti-wetting superhydrophobic surface easily fails when exposed to a high-temperature liquid. Recently, Nepenthes-inspired slippery surfaces demonstrated a new way to solve the adhesion problem. A lubricant layer on the slippery surface can act as a barrier between the repelled materials and the surface structure. However, the slippery surfaces in previous studies rarely showed high-temperature resistance. Here, we describe a protocol for the preparation of slippery surfaces with high-temperature resistance. A photolithography-assisted method was used to fabricate pillar structures on stainless steel. By functionalizing the surface with saline, a slippery surface was prepared by adding silicone oil. The prepared slippery surface maintained the anti-wetting property for water, even when the surface was heated to 300 °C. Also, the slippery surface exhibited great anti-adhesion effects on soft tissues at high temperatures. This type of slippery surface on stainless steel has applications in medical devices, mechanical equipment, etc.

  17. Inverse estimation for temperatures of outer surface and geometry of inner surface of furnace with two layer walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-K.; Su, C.-R.

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an inverse analysis to estimate the boundary thermal behavior of a furnace with two layer walls. The unknown temperature distribution of the outer surface and the geometry of the inner surface were estimated from the temperatures of a small number of measured points within the furnace wall. The present approach rearranged the matrix forms of the governing differential equations and then combined the reversed matrix method, the linear least squares error method and the concept of virtual area to determine the unknown boundary conditions of the furnace system. The dimensionless temperature data obtained from the direct problem were used to simulate the temperature measurements. The influence of temperature measurement errors upon the precision of the estimated results was also investigated. The advantage of this approach is that the unknown condition can be directly solved by only one calculation process without initially guessed temperatures, and the iteration process of the traditional method can be avoided in the analysis of the heat transfer. Therefore, the calculation in this work is more rapid and exact than the traditional method. The result showed that the estimation error of the geometry increased with increasing distance between measured points and inner surface and in preset error, and with decreasing number of measured points. However, the geometry of the furnace inner surface could be successfully estimated by only the temperatures of a small number of measured points within and near the outer surface under reasonable preset error

  18. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Reddy, G.V.; Araligidad, N.

    Hydrographic and XBT data archived in the Indian Oceanographic Data Centre (IODC) are used to understand the process of temperature inversions occurring in the Bay of Bengal. The following aspects of the inversions are addressed: i) annual...

  19. Time-Resolved Surface Temperature Measurement for Pulsed Ablative Thrusters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonsen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    .... The diagnostic draws on heritage from the experimental dynamic crack propagation community which has used photovoltaic infrared detectors to measure temperature rise in materials in the process of fracture...

  20. Improving the performance of temperature index snowmelt model of SWAT by using MODIS land surface temperature data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Onishi, Takeo; Hiramatsu, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Simulation results of the widely used temperature index snowmelt model are greatly influenced by input air temperature data. Spatially sparse air temperature data remain the main factor inducing uncertainties and errors in that model, which limits its applications. Thus, to solve this problem, we created new air temperature data using linear regression relationships that can be formulated based on MODIS land surface temperature data. The Soil Water Assessment Tool model, which includes an improved temperature index snowmelt module, was chosen to test the newly created data. By evaluating simulation performance for daily snowmelt in three test basins of the Amur River, performance of the newly created data was assessed. The coefficient of determination (R (2)) and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) were used for evaluation. The results indicate that MODIS land surface temperature data can be used as a new source for air temperature data creation. This will improve snow simulation using the temperature index model in an area with sparse air temperature observations.

  1. Reliable temperature probe monitoring - Favorable esophageal motion for consistent probe contact during atrial fibrillation catheter ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Esato

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial-esophageal (LA-Eso fistula is now a well-recognized and fatal complication of percutaneous catheter ablation performed using radiofrequency energy for atrial fibrillation (AF. We noted an important esophageal motion during temperature monitoring by a multipolar sensing probe, which could resolve several potential concerns of accurate esophageal temperature measurement and could consequently minimize esophageal injuries including LA-Eso fistulas during catheter ablation for AF.

  2. New temperature monitoring devices for high-temperature irradiation experiments in the high flux reactor Petten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurie, M.; Futterer, M. A.; Lapetite, J. M. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Fourrez, S. [THERMOCOAX SAS, BP 26, Planquivon, 61438 Flers Cedex (France); Morice, R. [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais, 1 rue Gaston Boissier, 75724 Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Within the European High Temperature Reactor Technology Network (HTR-TN) and related projects a number of HTR fuel irradiations are planned in the High Flux Reactor Petten (HFR), The Netherlands, with the objective to explore the potential of recently produced fuel for even higher temperature and burn-up. Irradiating fuel under defined conditions to extremely high burn-ups will provide a better understanding of fission product release and failure mechanisms if particle failure occurs. After an overview of the irradiation rigs used in the HFR, this paper sums up data collected from previous irradiation tests in terms of thermocouple data. Some research and development work for further improvement of thermocouples and other on-line instrumentation will be outlined. (authors)

  3. Measurement of surface temperature and emissivity by a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform infrared spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Morgenstjerne, Axel; Rathmann, Ole

    1996-01-01

    Surface temperatures are estimated with high precision based on a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform spectrometers. The method is based on Planck's radiation law and a nonlinear least-squares fitting algorithm applied to two or more spectra at different sample temperatures and a single...... of blackbody sources are estimated with an uncertainty of 0.2-2 K. The method is demonstrated for measuring the spectral emissivity of a brass specimen and an oxidized nickel specimen. (C) 1996 Optical Society of America...... measurement at a known sample temperature, for example, at ambient temperature. The temperature of the sample surface can be measured rather easily at ambient temperature. The spectrum at ambient temperature is used to eliminate background effects from spectra as measured at other surface temperatures...

  4. Temperature-Responsive Anisotropic Slippery Surface for Smart Control of the Droplet Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, By Lili; Heng, Liping; Jiang, Lei

    2018-02-28

    Development of stimulus-responsive anisotropic slippery surfaces is important because of the high demand for such materials in the field of liquid directional-driven systems. However, current studies in the field of slippery surfaces are mainly conducted to prepare isotropic slippery surfaces. Although we have developed electric-responsive anisotropic slippery surfaces that enable smart control of the droplet motion, there remain challenges for designing temperature-responsive anisotropic slippery surfaces to control the liquid droplet motion on the surface and in the tube. In this work, temperature-responsive anisotropic slippery surfaces have been prepared by using paraffin, a thermo-responsive phase-transition material, as a lubricating fluid and directional porous polystyrene (PS) films as the substrate. The smart regulation of the droplet motion of several liquids on this surface was accomplished by tuning the substrate temperature. The uniqueness of this surface lies in the use of an anisotropic structure and temperature-responsive lubricating fluids to achieve temperature-driven smart control of the anisotropic motion of the droplets. Furthermore, this surface was used to design temperature-driven anisotropic microreactors and to manipulate liquid transfer in tubes. This work advances the understanding of the principles underlying anisotropic slippery surfaces and provides a promising material for applications in the biochip and microreactor system.

  5. Tunable Diode Laser Sensors to Monitor Temperature and Gas Composition in High-Temperature Coal Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Ronald [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Whitty, Kevin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) when combined with carbon capture and storage can be one of the cleanest methods of extracting energy from coal. Control of coal and biomass gasification processes to accommodate the changing character of input-fuel streams is required for practical implementation of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technologies. Therefore a fast time-response sensor is needed for real-time monitoring of the composition and ideally the heating value of the synthesis gas (here called syngas) as it exits the gasifier. The goal of this project was the design, construction, and demonstration an in situ laserabsorption sensor to monitor multiple species in the syngas output from practical-scale coal gasifiers. This project investigated the hypothesis of using laser absorption sensing in particulateladen syngas. Absorption transitions were selected with design rules to optimize signal strength while minimizing interference from other species. Successful in situ measurements in the dusty, high-pressure syngas flow were enabled by Stanford’s normalized and scanned wavelength modulation strategy. A prototype sensor for CO, CH4, CO2, and H2O was refined with experiments conducted in the laboratory at Stanford University, a pilot-scale at the University of Utah, and an engineering-scale gasifier at DoE’s National Center for Carbon Capture with the demonstration of a prototype sensor with technical readiness level 6 in the 2014 measurement campaign.

  6. Fabrication of Composite Microneedle Array Electrode for Temperature and Bio-Signal Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yiwei; Ren, Lei; Jiang, Lelun; Tang, Yong; Liu, Bin

    2018-04-13

    Body temperature and bio-signals are important health indicators that reflect the human health condition. However, monitoring these indexes is inconvenient and time-consuming, requires various instruments, and needs professional skill. In this study, a composite microneedle array electrode (CMAE) was designed and fabricated. It simultaneously detects body temperature and bio-signals. The CMAE consists of a 6 × 6 microneedles array with a height of 500 μm and a base diameter of 200 μm. Multiple insertion experiments indicate that the CMAE possesses excellent mechanical properties. The CMAE can pierce porcine skin 100 times without breaking or bending. A linear calibration relationship between temperature and voltage are experimentally obtained. Armpit temperature (35.8 °C) and forearm temperature (35.3 °C) are detected with the CMAE, and the measurements agree well with the data acquired with a clinical thermometer. Bio-signals including EII, ECG, and EMG are recorded and compared with those obtained by a commercial Ag/AgCl electrode. The CMAE continuously monitors bio-signals and is more convenient to apply because it does not require skin preparation and gel usage. The CMAE exhibits good potential for continuous and repetitive monitoring of body temperature and bio-signals.

  7. Monitoring Streambed Scour/Deposition Under Nonideal Temperature Signal and Flood Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeese, Timothy; Tonina, Daniele; Luce, Charles

    2017-12-01

    Streambed erosion and deposition are fundamental geomorphic processes in riverbeds, and monitoring their evolution is important for ecological system management and in-stream infrastructure stability. Previous research showed proof of concept that analysis of paired temperature signals of stream and pore waters can simultaneously provide monitoring scour and deposition, stream sediment thermal regime, and seepage velocity information. However, it did not address challenges often associated with natural systems, including nonideal temperature variations (low-amplitude, nonsinusoidal signal, and vertical thermal gradients) and natural flooding conditions on monitoring scour and deposition processes over time. Here we addressed this knowledge gap by testing the proposed thermal scour-deposition chain (TSDC) methodology, with laboratory experiments to test the impact of nonideal temperature signals under a range of seepage velocities and with a field application during a pulse flood. Both analyses showed excellent match between surveyed and temperature-derived bed elevation changes even under very low temperature signal amplitudes (less than 1°C), nonideal signal shape (sawtooth shape), and strong and changing vertical thermal gradients (4°C/m). Root-mean-square errors on predicting the change in streambed elevations were comparable with the median grain size of the streambed sediment. Future research should focus on improved techniques for temperature signal phase and amplitude extractions, as well as TSDC applications over long periods spanning entire hydrographs.

  8. Fabrication of Composite Microneedle Array Electrode for Temperature and Bio-Signal Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwei Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Body temperature and bio-signals are important health indicators that reflect the human health condition. However, monitoring these indexes is inconvenient and time-consuming, requires various instruments, and needs professional skill. In this study, a composite microneedle array electrode (CMAE was designed and fabricated. It simultaneously detects body temperature and bio-signals. The CMAE consists of a 6 × 6 microneedles array with a height of 500 μm and a base diameter of 200 μm. Multiple insertion experiments indicate that the CMAE possesses excellent mechanical properties. The CMAE can pierce porcine skin 100 times without breaking or bending. A linear calibration relationship between temperature and voltage are experimentally obtained. Armpit temperature (35.8 °C and forearm temperature (35.3 °C are detected with the CMAE, and the measurements agree well with the data acquired with a clinical thermometer. Bio-signals including EII, ECG, and EMG are recorded and compared with those obtained by a commercial Ag/AgCl electrode. The CMAE continuously monitors bio-signals and is more convenient to apply because it does not require skin preparation and gel usage. The CMAE exhibits good potential for continuous and repetitive monitoring of body temperature and bio-signals.

  9. Does quality control matter? Surface urban heat island intensity variations estimated by satellite-derived land surface temperature products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jiameng; Zhan, Wenfeng; Huang, Fan; Quan, Jinling; Hu, Leiqiu; Gao, Lun; Ju, Weimin

    2018-05-01

    The temporally regular and spatially comprehensive monitoring of surface urban heat islands (SUHIs) have been extremely difficult, until the advent of satellite-based land surface temperature (LST) products. However, these LST products have relatively higher errors compared to in situ measurements. This has resulted in comparatively inaccurate estimations of SUHI indicators and, consequently, may have distorted interpretations of SUHIs. Although reports have shown that LST qualities are important for SUHI interpretations, systematic investigations of the response of SUHI indicators to LST qualities across cities with dissimilar bioclimates are rare. To address this issue, we chose eighty-six major cities across mainland China and analyzed SUHI intensity (SUHII) derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data. The LST-based SUHII differences due to inclusion or exclusion of MODIS quality control (QC) flags (i.e., ΔSUHII) were evaluated. Our major findings included, but are not limited to, the following four aspects: (1) SUHIIs can be significantly impacted by MODIS QC flags, and the associated QC-induced ΔSUHIIs generally accounted for 24.3% (29.9%) of the total SUHII value during the day (night); (2) the ΔSUHIIs differed between seasons, with considerable differences between transitional (spring and autumn) and extreme (summer and winter) seasons; (3) significant discrepancies also appeared among cities located in northern and southern regions, with northern cities often possessing higher annual mean ΔSUHIIs. The internal variations of ΔSUHIIs within individual cities also showed high heterogeneity, with ΔSUHII variations that generally exceeded 5.0 K (3.0 K) in northern (southern) cities; (4) ΔSUHIIs were negatively related to SUHIIs and cloud cover percentages (mostly in transitional seasons). No significant relationship was found in the extreme seasons. Our findings highlight the need to be extremely cautious when using LST

  10. Monitoring RAYT activity by surface plasmon resonance biosensor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bocková, Markéta; Špringer, Tomáš; Nečasová, Iva; Nunvář, Jaroslav; Schneider, Bohdan; Homola, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 407, č. 14 (2015), s. 3985-3993 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/12/1801 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 ; RVO:86652036 Keywords : Surface plasmon resonance * Biosensor * REP-associated tyrosine transposase Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (BTO-N) Impact factor: 3.125, year: 2015

  11. Possibilities of surface waters monitoring at mining areas using UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisiecka, Ewa; Motyka, Barbara; Motyka, Zbigniew; Pierzchała, Łukasz; Szade, Adam

    2018-04-01

    The selected, remote measurement methods are discussed, useful for determining surface water properties using mobile unmanned aerial platforms (UAV). The possibilities of using this type of solutions in the scope of measuring spatial, physicochemical and biological parameters of both natural and anthropogenic water reservoirs, including flood polders, water-filled pits, settling tanks and mining sinks were analyzed. Methods of remote identification of the process of overgrowing this type of ecosystems with water and coastal plant formations have also been proposed.

  12. Temperature increases on the external root surface during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-25

    Feb 25, 2015 ... surface caused bone resorption and tooth ankyloses.[9] The .... thickness is important because it acts as a protective coating against thermal damage. .... heat stress proteins by human periodontal ligament cells. J Oral Pathol.

  13. Identifying anthropogenic anomalies in air, surface and groundwater temperatures in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Susanne A; Bayer, Peter; Blum, Philipp

    2017-04-15

    Human activity directly influences ambient air, surface and groundwater temperatures. The most prominent phenomenon is the urban heat island effect, which has been investigated particularly in large and densely populated cities. This study explores the anthropogenic impact on the thermal regime not only in selected urban areas, but on a countrywide scale for mean annual temperature datasets in Germany in three different compartments: measured surface air temperature, measured groundwater temperature, and satellite-derived land surface temperature. Taking nighttime lights as an indicator of rural areas, the anthropogenic heat intensity is introduced. It is applicable to each data set and provides the difference between measured local temperature and median rural background temperature. This concept is analogous to the well-established urban heat island intensity, but applicable to each measurement point or pixel of a large, even global, study area. For all three analyzed temperature datasets, anthropogenic heat intensity grows with increasing nighttime lights and declines with increasing vegetation, whereas population density has only minor effects. While surface anthropogenic heat intensity cannot be linked to specific land cover types in the studied resolution (1km×1km) and classification system, both air and groundwater show increased heat intensities for artificial surfaces. Overall, groundwater temperature appears most vulnerable to human activity, albeit the different compartments are partially influenced through unrelated processes; unlike land surface temperature and surface air temperature, groundwater temperatures are elevated in cultivated areas as well. At the surface of Germany, the highest anthropogenic heat intensity with 4.5K is found at an open-pit lignite mine near Jülich, followed by three large cities (Munich, Düsseldorf and Nuremberg) with annual mean anthropogenic heat intensities >4K. Overall, surface anthropogenic heat intensities >0K and

  14. Monitoring Evaporation/Transpiration in a Vineyard from Two-Source Energy Balance and Radiometric Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Doña, Carolina; Cuxart, Joan; Caselles, Vicente; Niclòs, Raquel

    2014-05-01

    Water management and understanding of irrigation efficiency could be significantly improved if the components of evapotranspiration (ET) in row-crop systems (plants and soil interrows) could be quantified separately. This evaporation/transpiration (E/T) partition, and its daily and seasonal evolution, depends on a variety of biophysical and environmental factors. In this work we present an operational method to provide continuous E/T results avoiding soil or canopy disturbance. This technique is based on the combination of the surface-atmosphere energy exchange modeling together with an accurate remote thermal characterization of the crop elements. An experiment was carried out in a row-crop vineyard in Mallorca, Spain, from June 2012 to May 2013. A set of 6 thermal-infrared radiometers (IRTs) were mounted in a mast placed in the middle of a vineyard N-S row. Two IRTs pointed to the soil between rows and other two pointed to the plants from a frontal view, measuring both east and west sides of the row. A fifth IRT pointed upward to collect the downwelling sky radiance and the remaining IRT was mounted at 4.5-m height over the canopy measuring the composed soil-canopy temperature. Measurements of the four components of the net radiation over the canopy and soil heat fluxes, as well as air temperature, humidity, wind speed, and soil moisture, were collected and stored in 15-min averages. A two-source energy balance approach was applied to the vineyard from its appropriate thermal characterization. Total and separate soil/canopy components of net radiation, soil, sensible and latent heat fluxes were obtained every 15 minutes and averaged at hourly and daily scales. Comparison between observed and modeled values of available surface energy showed relative errors below 15%. An analysis of the partition E/T was conducted along the vineyard growing season and the different phenological stages. In this experiment, interrow soil evaporation reached as much as 1/3 of the

  15. Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Headlight Surface Temperature in an Infrared Heated Stress Relieving Oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa MUTLU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the IR heated stress relieve oven was experimentally and theoretically examined. In experimental measurements, temperature was measured on headlight surface, placed in IR oven at various conveyor speeds and various distances between IR lamps and headlight surface. In theoretical study, a mathematical model was developed for the headlights surface temperature by using heat transfer theory. The results obtained by the mathematical model and the measurement showed very good agreement with a 6.5 % average error. It is shown that mathematical models can be used to estimate the surface temperatures when the oven is operated under different conditions.

  16. Monitoring moisture content, temperature, and humidity in whole-tree pine chip piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Klepac; Dana Mitchell; Jason Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Two whole-tree chip piles were monitored for moisture content, temperature, and relative humidity from October 8th, 2010 to March 16th, 2011 at a location in south Alabama. Initial moisture content samples were collected immediately after chips were delivered to the study location on October 8th for Pile 1 and October 22nd for Pile 2. During pile construction, Lascar...

  17. Monitoring Multidecadal satellite earth observation of soil moisture products through land surface reanalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albergel, C.; Dorigo, W.; Balsamo, G.; Sabatar, J; de Rosnay, P.; Isaksen, I; Brocca, L; de Jeu, R.A.M.; Wagner, W.

    2013-01-01

    Soil moisture from ERA-Land, a revised version of the land surface components of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim), is used to monitor at a global scale the consistency of a new microwave based multi-satellite surface soil moisture date set

  18. Possibilities of surface waters monitoring at mining areas using UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiecka Ewa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The selected, remote measurement methods are discussed, useful for determining surface water properties using mobile unmanned aerial platforms (UAV. The possibilities of using this type of solutions in the scope of measuring spatial, physicochemical and biological parameters of both natural and anthropogenic water reservoirs, including flood polders, water-filled pits, settling tanks and mining sinks were analyzed. Methods of remote identification of the process of overgrowing this type of ecosystems with water and coastal plant formations have also been proposed.

  19. Application for vibration monitoring of aspheric surface machining based on wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chun Guang; Guo, Yin Biao; Jiang, Chen

    2010-05-01

    Any kinds of tiny vibration of machine tool parts will have a great influence on surface quality of the workpiece at ultra-precise machining process of aspheric surface. At present the major way for decreasing influence of vibration is machining compensation technology. Therefore it is important for machining compensation control to acquire and transmit these vibration signals effectively. This paper presents a vibration monitoring system of aspheric surface machining machine tool based on wireless sensor networks (WSN). Some key issues of wireless sensor networks for vibration monitoring system of aspheric surface machining are discussed. The reliability of data transmission, network communication protocol and synchronization mechanism of wireless sensor networks are studied for the vibration monitoring system. The proposed system achieves multi-sensors vibration monitoring involving the grinding wheel, the workpiece and the workbench spindle. The wireless transmission of vibration signals is achieved by the combination with vibration sensor nodes and wireless network. In this paper, these vibration sensor nodes are developed. An experimental platform is structured which employs wireless sensor networks to the vibration monitoring system in order to test acquisition and wireless transmission of vibration signal. The test results show that the proposed system can achieve vibration data transmission effectively and reliability and meet the monitoring requirements of aspheric surface machining machine tool.

  20. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Arabian Sea during winter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Ghosh, A.K.

    picture of the actual inversion phenomena occurring in this area. Figure 1 illustrates the procedure adopted in finding the inversion stations. If the temperature difference (Del T) obtained from (T U –T L ) is greater than 0.2°C, then the station... is more or less consistent. Figure 3-A shows the frequency distribution of temperature difference of the inversion layer (Del T). Figure 3-B shows the frequency distribution of the thickness of the inversion layers in meters (Di). Del T is distributed over...