WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface temperature based

  1. Fiber-Optic Surface Temperature Sensor Based on Modal Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Musin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatially-integrated surface temperature sensing is highly useful when it comes to controlling processes, detecting hazardous conditions or monitoring the health and safety of equipment and people. Fiber-optic sensing based on modal interference has shown great sensitivity to temperature variation, by means of cost-effective image-processing of few-mode interference patterns. New developments in the field of sensor configuration, as described in this paper, include an innovative cooling and heating phase discrimination functionality and more precise measurements, based entirely on the image processing of interference patterns. The proposed technique was applied to the measurement of the integrated surface temperature of a hollow cylinder and compared with a conventional measurement system, consisting of an infrared camera and precision temperature probe. As a result, the optical technique is in line with the reference system. Compared with conventional surface temperature probes, the optical technique has the following advantages: low heat capacity temperature measurement errors, easier spatial deployment, and replacement of multiple angle infrared camera shooting and the continuous monitoring of surfaces that are not visually accessible.

  2. A Microring Temperature Sensor Based on the Surface Plasmon Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A structure of microring sensor suitable for temperature measurement based on the surface plasmon wave is put forward in this paper. The sensor uses surface plasmon multilayer waveguiding structure in the vertical direction and U-shaped microring structure in the horizontal direction and utilizes SOI as the thermal material. The transfer function derivation of the structure of surface plasmon microring sensor is according to the transfer matrix method. While the change of refractive index of Si is caused by the change of ambient temperature, the effective refractive index of the multilayer waveguiding structure is changed, resulting in the drifting of the sensor output spectrum. This paper focuses on the transmission characteristics of multilayer waveguide structure and the impact on the output spectrum caused by refractive index changes in temperature parts. According to the calculation and simulation, the transmission performance of the structure is stable and the sensitivity is good. The resonance wavelength shift can reach 0.007 μm when the temperature is increased by 100 k and FSR can reach about 60 nm. This structure achieves a high sensitivity in the temperature sense taking into account a wide range of filter frequency selections, providing a theoretical basis for the preparation of microoptics.

  3. Modeling Apple Surface Temperature Dynamics Based on Weather Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed was recorded for seven hours between 11:00–18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of “Fuji” apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.

  4. Ground-based measurement of surface temperature and thermal emissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owe, M.; Van De Griend, A. A.

    1994-01-01

    Motorized cable systems for transporting infrared thermometers have been used successfully during several international field campaigns. Systems may be configured with as many as four thermal sensors up to 9 m above the surface, and traverse a 30 m transect. Ground and canopy temperatures are important for solving the surface energy balance. The spatial variability of surface temperature is often great, so that averaged point measurements result in highly inaccurate areal estimates. The cable systems are ideal for quantifying both temporal and spatial variabilities. Thermal emissivity is also necessary for deriving the absolute physical temperature, and measurements may be made with a portable measuring box.

  5. A physically based model of global freshwater surface temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van L.P.H.; Eikelboom, T.; Vliet, van M.T.H.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2012-01-01

    Temperature determines a range of physical properties of water and exerts a strong control on surface water biogeochemistry. Thus, in freshwater ecosystems the thermal regime directly affects the geographical distribution of aquatic species through their growth and metabolism and indirectly through

  6. A physically based model of global freshwater surface temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van L.P.H.; Eikelboom, T.; Vliet, van M.T.H.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2012-01-01

    Temperature determines a range of physical properties of water and exerts a strong control on surface water biogeochemistry. Thus, in freshwater ecosystems the thermal regime directly affects the geographical distribution of aquatic species through their growth and metabolism and indirectly through

  7. Temperature-based and radiance-based validations of the V5 MODIS land surface temperature product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, CéSar; Wan, Zhengming; Galve, Joan M.

    2009-10-01

    The V5 level 2 land surface temperature (LST) product of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was validated over homogeneous rice fields in Valencia, Spain, and the Hainich forest in Germany. For the Valencia site, ground LST measurements were compared with the MOD11_L2 product in the conventional temperature-based (T-based) method. We also applied the alternative radiance-based (R-based) method, with in situ LSTs calculated from brightness temperatures in band 31 through radiative transfer simulations using temperature and water vapor profiles and surface emissivity data. At the Valencia site, profiles were obtained from local radiosonde measurements and from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) data. The R-based method was applied at the Hainich site using radiosonde profiles from a nearby sounding station and NCEP profiles. The T-based validation showed average bias (MODIS minus ground) of -0.3 K, standard deviation of 0.6 K and root mean square error (RMSE) of ±0.7 K. For the R-based method, the quality of the atmospheric profiles was assessed through the difference δ(T31-T32) between the actual MODIS and the profile-based calculated brightness temperature difference in bands 31 and 32. For the cases where -0.3 K studied. The good performance of the R-based method opens the possibility for a more complete validation including heterogeneous surfaces where the T-based method is not feasible.

  8. Effect of Grinding Temperatures on the Surface Integrity of a Nickel-based Superalloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigat e the influence of temperatures on workpiece surface integrity in surface grinding of a cast nickel-based superalloy with alumina abrasive wheels. Temperatur e response at the wheel-workpiece interface was measured using a grindable foil /workpiece thermocouple. Specimens with different grinding temperatures were obt ained through changing grinding conditions including depth of cut, workpiece fee d speed, and coolant supply. Changes in surface roughnes...

  9. SiGe Based Low Temperature Electronics for Lunar Surface Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Kolawa, Elizabeth; Blalock, Benjamin; Cressler, John

    2012-01-01

    The temperature at the permanently shadowed regions of the moon's surface is approximately -240 C. Other areas of the lunar surface experience temperatures that vary between 120 C and -180 C during the day and night respectively. To protect against the large temperature variations of the moon surface, traditional electronics used in lunar robotics systems are placed inside a thermally controlled housing which is bulky, consumes power and adds complexity to the integration and test. SiGe Based electronics have the capability to operate over wide temperature range like that of the lunar surface. Deploying low temperature SiGe electronics in a lander platform can minimize the need for the central thermal protection system and enable the development of a new generation of landers and mobility platforms with highly efficient distributed architecture. For the past five years a team consisting of NASA, university and industry researchers has been examining the low temperature and wide temperature characteristic of SiGe based transistors for developing electronics for wide temperature needs of NASA environments such as the Moon, Titan, Mars and Europa. This presentation reports on the status of the development of wide temperature SiGe based electronics for the landers and lunar surface mobility systems.

  10. Analysis of past surface temperature reconstructions based on the tree-ring chronologies and borehole temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagornov, O. V.; Nikitaev, V. G.; Pronichev, A. N.; Tyuflin, S. A.; Bukharova, T. I.

    2016-06-01

    There have been done many past surface temperature reconstructions based on the temperature measurements in rock and glacier boreholes. However, the reliability of these reconstructions connected with the uniqueness and stability properties is not studied. We carried out the reconstruction by search of the past surface temperature in form of the finite set of the Fourier series that provides the unique and stable solution. The tree-ring chronologies are used as the high-resolution proxy climate indicator to find out the dominant periods of the Fourier series. The Tikhonov regularization method is applied to solve the inverse problem.

  11. Global surface temperature change analysis based on MODIS data in recent twelve years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, K. B.; Ma, Y.; Tan, X. L.; Shen, X. Y.; Liu, G.; Li, Z. L.; Chen, J. M.; Xia, L.

    2017-01-01

    Global surface temperature change is one of the most important aspects in global climate change research. In this study, in order to overcome shortcomings of traditional observation methods in meteorology, a new method is proposed to calculate global mean surface temperature based on remote sensing data. We found that (1) the global mean surface temperature was close to 14.35 °C from 2001 to 2012, and the warmest and coldest surface temperatures of the global in the recent twelve years occurred in 2005 and 2008, respectively; (2) the warmest and coldest surface temperatures on the global land surface occurred in 2005 and 2001, respectively, and on the global ocean surface in 2010 and 2008, respectively; and (3) in recent twelve years, although most regions (especially the Southern Hemisphere) are warming, global warming is yet controversial because it is cooling in the central and eastern regions of Pacific Ocean, northern regions of the Atlantic Ocean, northern regions of China, Mongolia, southern regions of Russia, western regions of Canada and America, the eastern and northern regions of Australia, and the southern tip of Africa. The analysis of daily and seasonal temperature change indicates that the temperature change is mainly caused by the variation of orbit of celestial body. A big data model based on orbit position and gravitational-magmatic change of celestial body with the solar or the galactic system should be built and taken into account for climate and ecosystems change at a large spatial-temporal scale.

  12. Low temperature heating and high temperature cooling embedded water based surface heating and cooling systems

    CERN Document Server

    Babiak, Jan; Petras, Dusan

    2009-01-01

    This Guidebook describes the systems that use water as heat-carrier and when the heat exchange within the conditioned space is more than 50% radiant. Embedded systems insulated from the main building structure (floor, wall and ceiling) are used in all types of buildings and work with heat carriers at low temperatures for heating and relatively high temperature for cooling.

  13. Room Temperature Characteristics of Polymer-Based Low Ice Adhesion Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiwei; Vågenes, Elisabeth T.; Delabahan, Chrisrosemarie; He, Jianying; Zhang, Zhiliang

    2017-02-01

    Ice adhesion is mainly dictated by surface properties, and water wettability is frequently correlated with ice adhesion strength. However, these established correlations are limited to high ice adhesion and become invalid when the ice adhesion strength is low. Here we carried out an experimental study to explore the relationships between low ice adhesion strength and room temperature surface properties. A variety of room temperature properties of 22 polymer-based hydrophilic and hydrophobic samples consisting of both low and high ice adhesion surfaces were analysed. The properties investigated include water adhesion force, water wettability, roughness, elastic modulus and hardness. Our results show that low ice adhesion strength does not correlate well with water contact angle and its variants, surface roughness and hardness. Low elastic modulus does not guarantee low ice adhesion, however, surfaces with low ice adhesion always show low elastic modulus. Low ice adhesion (below 60 kPa) of tested surfaces may be determinative of small water adhesion force (from 180 to 270 μN). Therefore, measurement of water adhesion force may provide an effective strategy for screening anti-icing or icephobic surfaces, and surfaces within specific values of water adhesion force will possibly lead to a low ice adhesion.

  14. Core-top Analysis of Lipid-based Sea Surface Temperature Proxies from the California Borderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, M. O.; Castañeda, I. S.

    2016-12-01

    Accurately reconstructing past changes in sea surface temperature (SST) is essential to understanding the evolution of Earth's climatic history. The UK'37 Index, based on long-chain alkenones from haptophyte algae occupying the upper photic zone (Prahl and Wakeham, 1987), provides one of the oldest and most widely used organic geochemical proxies to reconstruct past SST [Method 1]. Whereas, the comparatively newer TEX86 (TetraEther index with 86 carbon atoms) temperature proxy, is based on the relative abundance of isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) from widespread marine ammonia-oxidizing archaea (Schouten et al., 2002) that span nearly the entire water column, thus the proxy may reflect surface or subsurface temperatures (Schouten et al., 2013; Tierney and Tingley, 2014) [Method 2]. Most recently, long-chain n-alkyl diols derived from marine alga and diatoms have also been utilized to create a long-chain diol index (LDI), based on the fractional abundance of C30 1, 15-diol relative to those of C28 1, 13-, C30 1,13- and C30 1, 15-diols, as a potential paleothermometer (Rampen et al., 2012) [Method 3]. While It is known that a number of factors in addition to temperature can influence UK'37 ratios (i.e., growth rate, light limitation, nutrient supply, and diagenesis), uncertainties influencing TEX86 values and the LDI index are currently not as well constrained. During February 2016 13 multicore stations spanning 84-nautical miles recovered surface sediments from three California Borderland basins: San Nicolas Basin, Catalina Basin, and San Pedro Basin as well as from a deep water site west of the borderlands associated with regional upwelling. Sediment samples were taken at the sediment-water interface of the upper 1 cm for at least 2 multicores per site when possible. We compare UK'37, TEX86 and LDI SST reconstructions against seasonal averages spanning 2005-2015.

  15. Surface Plasmon Resonance Temperature Sensor Based on Photonic Crystal Fibers Randomly Filled with Silver Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Luan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a temperature sensor design based on surface plasmon resonances (SPRs supported by filling the holes of a six-hole photonic crystal fiber (PCF with a silver nanowire. A liquid mixture (ethanol and chloroform with a large thermo-optic coefficient is filled into the PCF holes as sensing medium. The filled silver nanowires can support resonance peaks and the peak will shift when temperature variations induce changes in the refractive indices of the mixture. By measuring the peak shift, the temperature change can be detected. The resonance peak is extremely sensitive to temperature because the refractive index of the filled mixture is close to that of the PCF material. Our numerical results indicate that a temperature sensitivity as high as 4 nm/K can be achieved and that the most sensitive range of the sensor can be tuned by changing the volume ratios of ethanol and chloroform. Moreover, the maximal sensitivity is relatively stable with random filled nanowires, which will be very convenient for the sensor fabrication.

  16. Room-temperature attachment of PLGA microspheres to titanium surfaces for implant-based drug release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dongqin; Liu, Qing; Wang, Dongwei; Xie, Tao; Guo, Tailin; Duan, Ke; Weng, Jie

    2014-08-01

    Drug release from implant surfaces is an effective approach to impart biological activities, (e.g., antimicrobial and osteogenic properties) to bone implants. Coatings of polylactide-based polymer are a candidate for this purpose, but a continuous (fully covering) coating may be non-optimal for implant-bone fixation. This study reports a simple room-temperature method for attaching poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres to titanium (Ti) surfaces. Microspheres were prepared with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as the emulsifier. Microspheres were attached to Ti discs by pipetting as a suspension onto the surfaces followed by vacuum drying. After immersion in shaking water bath for 14 d, a substantial proportion of the microspheres remained attached to the discs. In contrast, if the vacuum-drying procedure was omitted, only a small fraction of the microspheres remained attached to the discs after immersion for only 5 min. Microspheres containing triclosan (a broad-spectrum antibiotic) were attached by porous-surfaced Ti discs. In vitro experiments showed that the microsphere-carrying discs were able to kill Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia Coli, and support the adhesion and growth of primary rat osteoblasts. This simple method may offer a flexible technique for bone implant-based drug release.

  17. Fabrication and evaluation of temperature responsive molecularly imprinted sorbents based on surface of yeast via surface-initiated AGET ATRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jianming; Hang, Hui; Li, Xiuxiu; Zhu, Wenjing; Meng, Minjia; Dai, Xiaohui; Dai, Jiangdong; Yan, Yongsheng

    2013-12-01

    Temperature responsive molecularly imprinted polymers (T-MIPs) were prepared based on the surface of yeast by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (AGET ATRP). The as-prepared T-MIPs were charcterized by FT-IR, SEM, TGA and elemental analysis, which indicated that T-MIPs exhibited thermal stability and composed of temperature responsive imprinted layer. Then T-MIPs were evaluated as sorbents to selectively recognise and release cefalexin (CFX) molecules. The results suggested binding properties of T-MIPs were related to the testing temperature. The maximum adsorption capacity of T-MIPs at 303 K was 59.4 mg g-1, and the maximum release proportion for T-MIPs at 293 K in water for 24 h was 71.08%. The selective recognition experiments demonstrated high affinity and selectivity of T-MIPs towards CFX over competitive compounds, and the specific recognition of binding sites may be based on the distinct size, structure and functional group to the template molecules.

  18. Fabrication and evaluation of temperature responsive molecularly imprinted sorbents based on surface of yeast via surface-initiated AGET ATRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Jianming, E-mail: pjm@ujs.edu.cn; Hang, Hui; Li, Xiuxiu; Zhu, Wenjing; Meng, Minjia; Dai, Xiaohui; Dai, Jiangdong; Yan, Yongsheng

    2013-12-15

    Temperature responsive molecularly imprinted polymers (T-MIPs) were prepared based on the surface of yeast by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (AGET ATRP). The as-prepared T-MIPs were charcterized by FT-IR, SEM, TGA and elemental analysis, which indicated that T-MIPs exhibited thermal stability and composed of temperature responsive imprinted layer. Then T-MIPs were evaluated as sorbents to selectively recognise and release cefalexin (CFX) molecules. The results suggested binding properties of T-MIPs were related to the testing temperature. The maximum adsorption capacity of T-MIPs at 303 K was 59.4 mg g{sup −1}, and the maximum release proportion for T-MIPs at 293 K in water for 24 h was 71.08%. The selective recognition experiments demonstrated high affinity and selectivity of T-MIPs towards CFX over competitive compounds, and the specific recognition of binding sites may be based on the distinct size, structure and functional group to the template molecules.

  19. Surface plasmon based thermo-optic and temperature sensor for microfluidic thermometry

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    We report on a non-interacting technique for thermal characterization of fluids based on surface plasmon resonance interrogation. Using liquid volumes less than 20 micro liters we have determined the materials' thermo-optic coefficients with an accuracy of better than 10^{-5} 1/{\\deg}C and demonstrated temperature sensing with an accuracy of 0.03 {\\deg}C. The apparatus employs a low-power probe laser, requiring only a single wavelength, polarization and interrogation angle for accurate characterization. The device is particularly suited for precise diagnostics of liquids and gases within microfluidic systems, and may also be readily integrated into a variety of lab-on-chip platforms, providing rapid and accurate temperature diagnostics.

  20. Towards a protocol for validating satellite-based Land Surface Temperature: Application to AATSR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghent, Darren; Schneider, Philipp; Remedios, John

    2013-04-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) retrieval accuracy can be challenging as a result of emissivity variability and atmospheric effects. Surface emissivities can be highly variable owing to the heterogeneity of the land; a problem which is amplified in regions of high topographic variance or for larger viewing angles. Atmospheric effects caused by the presence of aerosols and by water vapour absorption can give a bias to the underlying LST. Combined, atmospheric effects and emissivity variability can result in retrieval errors of several degrees. If though these are appropriately handled satellite-derived LST products can be used to improve our ability to monitor and to understand land surface and climate change processes, such as desertification, urbanization, deforestation and land/atmosphere coupling. Here we present validation of an improved LST data record from the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) and illustrate the improvements in accuracy and precision compared with the standard ESA LST product. Validation is a critical part of developing any satellite product, although over the land heterogeneity ensures this is a challenging undertaking. A substantial amount of previous effort has gone into the area of structuring and standardizing calibration and validation approaches within the field of Earth Observation. However, no unified approach for accomplishing this for LST has yet to be practised by the LST community. Recent work has attempted to address this situation with the development of a protocol for validating LST (Schneider et al., 2012) under the auspices of ESA and the support of the wider LST community. We report here on a first application of this protocol to satellite LST data. The approach can briefly be summarised thus: in situ validation is performed where ground-based observations are available - being predominantly homogeneous sites; heterogeneous pixels are validated by way of established radiometric-based techniques (Wan and Li

  1. Seasonal variation of surface temperature based on land cover in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Çiçek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the seasonal variation of the surface temperature of Ankara urban area and its enviroment have been analyzed by using Landsat 7 image. The Landsat 7 images of each month from 2007 to 2011 have been used to analyze the annually changes of the surface temperature. The land cover of the research area was defined with supervised classification method on the basis of the satellite image belonging to 2008 July. After determining the surface temperatures from 6-1 bands of satellite images, the monthly mean surface temperatures were calculated for land cover classification for the period between 2007 and 2011. Accordşng to the results obtained, the surface temperatures are high in summer and low in winter from the air temperatures. all satellite images were taken at 10:00 am, it is found that urban areas are cooler than rural areas at 10:00 am. Regarding the land cover classification, the water surfaces are the coolest surfaces during the whole year. The warmest areas are the grasslands and dry farming areas. While the parks are warmer than the urban areas during the winter, during the summer they are cooler than artificial land covers. The urban areas with higher building density are the cooler surfaces after water bodies.

  2. The use of screening effects in modelling route-based daytime road surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yumei; Almkvist, Esben; Lindberg, Fredrik; Bogren, Jörgen; Gustavsson, Torbjörn

    2016-07-01

    Winter road maintenance is essential for road safety. Accurate predictions of the road surface temperature (RST) and conditions can enhance the efficiency of winter road maintenance. Screening effects, which encompass shading effects and the influence of the sky-view factor ( ψ s ), influence RST distributions because they affect road surface radiation fluxes. In this work, light detection and ranging (Lidar) data are used to derive shadow patterns and ψ s values, and the resulting shadow patterns are used to model route-based RST distributions along two stretches of road in Sweden. The shading patterns and road surface radiation fluxes calculated from the Lidar data generally agreed well with measured RST values. Variation in land use types and the angle between the road direction and solar azimuth may introduce uncertainties, and accounting for these factors may improve the results obtained in certain cases. A simple shading model that only accounts for the direct radiation at the instant of measurement is often sufficient to provide reasonably accurate RST estimates. However, in certain cases, such as those involving measurements close to sunset, it is important to consider the radiation accumulated over several hours. The inclusion of ψ s improves the model performance even more in such cases. Overall, RST models based on the accumulated direct shortwave radiation offered an optimal balance of simplicity and accuracy. General radiation models were built for country road and highway environments, explaining up to 70 and 65 %, respectively, of the observed variation in RST along the corresponding stretches of road.

  3. An inverse method for flue gas shielded metal surface temperature measurement based on infrared radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Xu, C. L.; Wang, S. M.

    2016-07-01

    The infrared temperature measurement technique has been applied in various fields, such as thermal efficiency analysis, environmental monitoring, industrial facility inspections, and remote temperature sensing. In the problem of infrared measurement of the metal surface temperature of superheater surfaces, the outer wall of the metal pipe is covered by radiative participating flue gas. This means that the traditional infrared measurement technique will lead to intolerable measurement errors due to the absorption and scattering of the flue gas. In this paper, an infrared measurement method for a metal surface in flue gas is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The spectral emissivity of the metal surface, and the spectral absorption and scattering coefficients of the radiative participating flue gas are retrieved simultaneously using an inverse method called quantum particle swarm optimization. Meanwhile, the detected radiation energy simulated using a forward simulation method (named the source multi-flux method) is set as the input of the retrieval. Then, the temperature of the metal surface detected by an infrared CCD camera is modified using the source multi-flux method in combination with these retrieved physical properties. Finally, an infrared measurement system for metal surface temperature is built to assess the proposed method. Experimental results show that the modified temperature is closer to the true value than that of the direct measured temperature.

  4. A coral-based reconstruction of Atlantic sea surface temperature trends and variability since 1552 (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenger, C. P.; Cohen, A. L.; Oppo, D.; Carilli, J.; Halley, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    North Atlantic sea-surface temperature (SST) variability can have a near global impact on climate. Observed variability has been described as a natural multidecadal (65-100 year) oscillation superimposed upon a linearly- increasing, externally-forced background warming. The multidecadal portion of this variability may be persistent, suggesting useful decadal climate predictions may soon be possible. However, our understanding of multidecadal Atlantic SST variability prior to the brief instrumental record relies almost exclusively on high latitude tree-ring proxies. No proxy SST reconstruction from the Atlantic itself has the resolution, dating accuracy and length needed to assess the behavior of multidecadal variability. We present the first absolutely dated and annually-resolved multi-centennial record of Atlantic sea surface temperature. Our 439-year coral-based reconstruction suggests western low-latitude Atlantic SSTs were nearly as warm as today from ~1552-1570 A.D., cooled by more than 1°C from ~1650-1730 A.D. and generally warmed to the present. Estimates of externally-forced background variability suggest that anthropogenic forcing can account for most of the warming since 1850 A.D. Multidecadal variations superimposed upon this background disappear prior to ~1730 A.D. in favor of interdecadal (15-20 year) variability. This suggests observed multidecadal variability is not persistent and may be difficult to predict.

  5. Surface Temperature Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Ruedy, Reto

    2012-01-01

    Small global mean temperature changes may have significant to disastrous consequences for the Earth's climate if they persist for an extended period. Obtaining global means from local weather reports is hampered by the uneven spatial distribution of the reliably reporting weather stations. Methods had to be developed that minimize as far as possible the impact of that situation. This software is a method of combining temperature data of individual stations to obtain a global mean trend, overcoming/estimating the uncertainty introduced by the spatial and temporal gaps in the available data. Useful estimates were obtained by the introduction of a special grid, subdividing the Earth's surface into 8,000 equal-area boxes, using the existing data to create virtual stations at the center of each of these boxes, and combining temperature anomalies (after assessing the radius of high correlation) rather than temperatures.

  6. Effect of emissivity uncertainty on surface temperature retrieval over urban areas: Investigations based on spectral libraries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, F.; Yang, S.; Su, Zhongbo; Wang, K.

    2016-01-01

    Land surface emissivity (LSE) is a prerequisite for retrieving land surface temperature (LST) through single channel methods. According to error model, a 0.01 (1%) uncertainty of LSE may result in a 0.5 K error in LST under a moderate condition, while an obvious error (approximately 1 K) is possible

  7. Effect of emissivity uncertainty on surface temperature retrieval over urban areas: Investigations based on spectral libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Yang, Song; Su, Z.; Wang, Kai

    2016-04-01

    Land surface emissivity (LSE) is a prerequisite for retrieving land surface temperature (LST) through single channel methods. According to error model, a 0.01 (1%) uncertainty of LSE may result in a 0.5 K error in LST under a moderate condition, while an obvious error (approximately 1 K) is possible under a warmer and less humid situation. Significant emissivity variations are presented among the anthropogenic materials in three spectral libraries, which raise a critical question that whether urban LSE can be estimated accurately to meet the needs for LST retrieval. Methods widely used for urban LSE estimation are investigated, including the classification-based method, the spectral-index based method, and the linear spectral mixture model (LSMM). Results indicate that the classification-based method may not be effectively applicable for urban LSE estimation, due mainly to the insignificant relation between the short-wave multispectral reflectance and the long-wave thermal emissivity shown by the spectra. Compared with the classification-based method, the LSMM shows relatively more accurate predictions, whereas, the performance of the LSMM largely depends on the determination of endmembers. Obvious uncertainties in LSE estimation likely appear if endmembers are determined improperly. Increasing the spectra for endmembers is a practical and beneficial means for LSMM when there is not a priori knowledge, which emphasizes the necessity of building a comprehensive spectral library of urban materials. Furthermore, the LST retrieval from a single channel of Landsat 8 is more challenging as compared with the retrieval from the channels of its predecessors-Landsat 4/5/7.

  8. Core-shell nanowire based electrical surface fastener used for room-temperature electronic packaging bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Ju, Yang; Hosoi, Atsushi

    2014-03-01

    With the ongoing miniaturization in electronic packaging, the traditional solders suffer from severe performance degradation. In addition, the high temperature required in the traditional solder reflow process may damage electronic elements. Therefore, there is an increasing urgent need for a new kind of nontoxic solder that can afford good mechanical stress and electrical contact at low temperature. This paper presents a method of fabricating nanowire surface fastener for the application of microelectronic packaging bonding at room temperature. This surface fastener consists of copper core and polystyrene shell nanowire arrays. It showed an adhesive strength of ˜24 N/cm2 and an electrical resistance of ˜0.41 × 10-2 Ω·cm2. This kind of nanowire surface fastener may enable the exploration of wide range applications, involving assembly of components in the electronic packaging.

  9. Towards a protocol for validating satellite-based Land Surface Temperature: Theoretical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Ghent, Darren J.; Corlett, Gary C.; Prata, Fred; Remedios, John J.

    2013-04-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) and emissivity are important parameters for environmental monitoring and earth system modelling. LST has been observed from space for several decades using a wide variety of satellite instruments with different characteristics, including both platforms in low-earth orbit and in geostationary orbit. This includes for example the series of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) delivering a continuous thermal infrared (TIR) data stream since the early 1980s, the series of Along-Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSR) providing TIR data since 1991, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments onboard NASA's Terra and Aqua platforms, providing data since the year 2000. In addition, the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) onboard of the geostationary Meteosat satellites is now providing LST at unprecedented sub-hour frequency. The data record provided by such instruments is extremely valuable for a wide variety of applications, including climate change, land/atmosphere feedbacks, fire monitoring, modelling, land cover change, geology, crop- and water management. All of these applications, however, require a rigorous validation of the data in order to assess the product quality and the associated uncertainty. Here we report on recent work towards developing a protocol for validation of satellite-based Land Surface Temperature products. Four main validation categories are distinguished within the protocol: A) Comparison with in situ observations, B) Radiance-based validation, C) Inter-comparison with similar LST products, and D) Time-series analysis. Each category is further subdivided into several quality classes, which approximately reflect the validation accuracy that can be achieved by the different approaches, as well as the complexity involved with each method. Advice on best practices is given for methodology common to all categories. For each validation category, recommendations

  10. Spatial Downscaling Research of Satellite Land Surface Temperature Based on Spectral Normalization Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xiaojun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problem that the spatial and temporal resolution of land surface temperature (LST have the contradiction with each other, a new downscaling model was put forward, based on the TsHARP(an algorithm for sharpening thermal imagery downscaling method, this research makes improvements by selecting the better correlation of spectral index(normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI; normalized difference build-up index, NDBI; modified normalized difference water index, MNDWI; enhanced bare soil index, EBSI with LST, i.e., replaces the original NDVI with new spectral index according to the different surface land-cover types, to assess the accuracy of each downscaling method based on qualitative and quantitative analysis with synchronous Landsat 8 TIRS LST data. The results show that both models could effectively enhance the spatial resolution while simultaneously preserving the characteristics and spatial distribution of the original 1 km MODIS LST image, and also eliminate the “mosaic” effect in the original 1 km image, both models were proved to be effective and applicable in our study area; global scale analysis shows that the new model (RMSE:1.635℃ is better than the TsHARP method (RMSE:2.736℃ in terms of the spatial variability and accuracy of the results; the different land-cover types of downscaling statistical analysis shows that the TsHARP method has poor downscaling results in the low vegetation coverage area, especially for the bare land and building-up area(|MBE|>3℃, the new model has obvious advantages in the description of the low vegetation coverage area. Seasonal analysis shows that the downscaling results of two models in summer and autumn are superior to those in spring and winter, the new model downscaling results are better than the TsHARP method in the four seasons, in which the spring and winter downscaling improvement is better than summer and autumn.

  11. Development of MODIS data-based algorithm for retrieving sea surface temperature in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiao; Deng, Zhiqiang

    2017-06-01

    A new algorithm was developed for retrieving sea surface temperature (SST) in coastal waters using satellite remote sensing data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard Aqua platform. The new SST algorithm was trained using the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method and tested using 8 years of remote sensing data from MODIS Aqua sensor and in situ sensing data from the US coastal waters in Louisiana, Texas, Florida, California, and New Jersey. The ANN algorithm could be utilized to map SST in both deep offshore and particularly shallow nearshore waters at the high spatial resolution of 1 km, greatly expanding the coverage of remote sensing-based SST data from offshore waters to nearshore waters. Applications of the ANN algorithm require only the remotely sensed reflectance values from the two MODIS Aqua thermal bands 31 and 32 as input data. Application results indicated that the ANN algorithm was able to explaining 82-90% variations in observed SST in US coastal waters. While the algorithm is generally applicable to the retrieval of SST, it works best for nearshore waters where important coastal resources are located and existing algorithms are either not applicable or do not work well, making the new ANN-based SST algorithm unique and particularly useful to coastal resource management.

  12. A process-based decomposition of decadal-scale surface temperature evolutions over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junwen; Deng, Yi; Lin, Wenshi; Yang, Song

    2017-08-01

    This study partitions the observed decadal evolution of surface temperature and surface temperature differences between two decades (early 2000s and early 1980s) over the East Asian continent into components associated with individual radiative and non-radiative (dynamical) processes in the context of the coupled atmosphere-surface climate feedback-response analysis method (CFRAM). Rapid warming in this region occurred in late 1980s and early 2000s with a transient pause of warming between the two periods. The rising CO2 concentration provides a sustained, region-wide warming contribution and surface albedo effect, largely related to snow cover change, is important for warming/cooling over high-latitude and high-elevation regions. Sensible hear flux and surface dynamics dominates the evolution of surface temperature, with latent heat flux and atmospheric dynamics working against them mostly through large-scale and convective/turbulent heat transport. Cloud via its shortwave effect provides positive contributions to warming over southern Siberia and South China. The longwave effect associated with water vapor change contributes significant warming over northern India, Tibetan Plateau, and central Siberia. Impacts of solar irradiance and ozone changes are relatively small. The strongest year-to-year temperature fluctuation occurred at a rapid warming (1987-1988) and a rapid cooling (1995-1996) period. The pattern of the rapid warming receives major positive contributions from sensible heat flux with changes in atmospheric dynamics, water vapor, clouds, and albedo providing secondary positive contributions, while surface dynamics and latent heat flux providing negative contributions. The signs of the contributions from individual processes to the rapid cooling are almost opposite to those to the rapid warming.

  13. GODAE, SFCOBS - Surface Temperature Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GODAE, SFCOBS - Surface Temperature Observations: Ship, fixed/drifting buoy, and CMAN in-situ surface temperature. Global Telecommunication System (GTS) Data. The...

  14. A model of sea surface temperature front detection based on a threshold interval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PING Bo; SU Fenzhen; MENG Yunshan; FANG Shenghui; DU Yunyan

    2014-01-01

    A model (Bayesian oceanic front detection, BOFD) of sea surface temperature (SST) front detection in satel-lite-derived SST images based on a threshold interval is presented, to be used in different applications such as climatic and environmental studies or fisheries. The model first computes the SST gradient by using a Sobel algorithm template. On the basis of the gradient value, the threshold interval is determined by a gradi-ent cumulative histogram. According to this threshold interval, front candidates can be acquired and prior probability and likelihood can be calculated. Whether or not the candidates are front points can be deter-mined by using the Bayesian decision theory. The model is evaluated on the Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer images of part of the Kuroshio front region. Results are compared with those obtained by using several SST front detection methods proposed in the literature. This comparison shows that the BOFD not only suppresses noise and small-scale fronts, but also retains continuous fronts.

  15. Downscaling of Aircraft-, Landsat-, and MODIS-based Land Surface Temperature Images with Support Vector Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, W.; Gowda, P. H.; Oommen, T.; Howell, T. A.; Hernandez, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    High spatial resolution Land Surface Temperature (LST) images are required to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) at a field scale for irrigation scheduling purposes. Satellite sensors such as Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) can offer images at several spectral bandwidths including visible, near-infrared (NIR), shortwave-infrared, and thermal-infrared (TIR). The TIR images usually have coarser spatial resolutions than those from non-thermal infrared bands. Due to this technical constraint of the satellite sensors on these platforms, image downscaling has been proposed in the field of ET remote sensing. This paper explores the potential of the Support Vector Machines (SVM) to perform downscaling of LST images derived from aircraft (4 m spatial resolution), TM (120 m), and MODIS (1000 m) using normalized difference vegetation index images derived from simultaneously acquired high resolution visible and NIR data (1 m for aircraft, 30 m for TM, and 250 m for MODIS). The SVM is a new generation machine learning algorithm that has found a wide application in the field of pattern recognition and time series analysis. The SVM would be ideally suited for downscaling problems due to its generalization ability in capturing non-linear regression relationship between the predictand and the multiple predictors. Remote sensing data acquired over the Texas High Plains during the 2008 summer growing season will be used in this study. Accuracy assessment of the downscaled 1, 30, and 250 m LST images will be made by comparing them with LST data measured with infrared thermometers at a small spatial scale, upscaled 30 m aircraft-based LST images, and upscaled 250 m TM-based LST images, respectively.

  16. Estimation of Daily Air Temperature Based on MODIS Land Surface Temperature Products over the Corn Belt in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linglin Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Air temperature (Ta is a key input in a wide range of agroclimatic applications. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Ts (Land Surface Temperature (LST products are widely used to estimate daily Ta. However, only daytime LST (Ts-day or nighttime LST (Ts-night data have been used to estimate Tmax/Tmin (daily maximum or minimum air temperature, respectively. The relationship between Tmax and Ts-night, and the one between Tmin and Ts-day has not been studied. In this study, both the ability of Ts-night data to estimate Tmax and the ability of Ts-day data to estimate Tmin were tested and studied in the Corn Belt during the growing season (May–September from 2008 to 2012, using MODIS daily LST products from both Terra and Aqua. The results show that using Ts-night for estimating Tmax could result in a higher accuracy than using Ts-day for a similar estimate. Combining Ts-day and Ts-night, the estimation of Tmax was improved by 0.19–1.85, 0.37–1.12 and 0.26–0.93 °C for crops, deciduous forest and developed areas, respectively, when compared with using only Ts-day or Ts-night data. The main factors influencing the Ta estimation errors spatially and temporally were analyzed and discussed, such as satellite overpassing time, air masses, irrigation, etc.

  17. Temperature-stabilized silicon-based surface-acoustic-wave gas sensors for the detection of solvent vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Stefan; Mokwa, W.

    1998-12-01

    In the current paper a dual-delay-line- and a resonator- device based on CMOS-silicon-technology is presented. As a piezoelectric layer ZnO is used. The layer was deposited at room temperature in a RF magnetron sputter process. Using x- ray diffraction it could be shown that the crystals are mostly oriented with the c-axis (hexagonal structure) perpendicular to the surface which is necessary to conduct surface acoustic waves. Pt electrodes were designed for frequencies between 140 and 600 MHz and were deposited on top using a lift-off-process. A poly-silicon heating resistor was integrated as a sublayer for controlling and changing of the temperature of the SAW-device for studying the influence of temperature on the mass sensitive layer. A Pt thin film resistance served for temperature measurement. The performance of the devices were compared to standard quartz based SAWs.

  18. Surface Engineering of Mo-Base Alloys for Elevated-Temperature Environmental Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepezko, J. H.

    2015-07-01

    The synthesis of robust coatings that provide protection against environmental attack at ultrahigh temperatures is a difficult challenge. To achieve this goal for Mo-base alloys, the fundamental concepts of reactive diffusion pathway analysis and kinetic biasing are used to design a multilayer Mo-Si-B-base coating with a phase sequencing that allows for structural and thermodynamic compatibility and an underlying diffusion barrier to maintain coating integrity. The coating design concepts have a general applicability. The coating structure evolution during high-temperature exposure facilitates a prolonged lifetime as well as self-healing capability. The borosilicide coatings that can be synthesized by a pack cementation process yield superior environmental resistance for Mo-base systems at temperatures up to at least 1,700°C and can be adapted to apply to other refractory metal and ceramic systems.

  19. Response surface and neural network based predictive models of cutting temperature in hard turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozammel Mia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to develop the predictive models of average tool-workpiece interface temperature in hard turning of AISI 1060 steels by coated carbide insert. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM and Artificial Neural Network (ANN were employed to predict the temperature in respect of cutting speed, feed rate and material hardness. The number and orientation of the experimental trials, conducted in both dry and high pressure coolant (HPC environments, were planned using full factorial design. The temperature was measured by using the tool-work thermocouple. In RSM model, two quadratic equations of temperature were derived from experimental data. The analysis of variance (ANOVA and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE were performed to suffice the adequacy of the models. In ANN model, 80% data were used to train and 20% data were employed for testing. Like RSM, herein, the error analysis was also conducted. The accuracy of the RSM and ANN model was found to be ⩾99%. The ANN models exhibit an error of ∼5% MAE for testing data. The regression coefficient was found to be greater than 99.9% for both dry and HPC. Both these models are acceptable, although the ANN model demonstrated a higher accuracy. These models, if employed, are expected to provide a better control of cutting temperature in turning of hardened steel.

  20. Fatigue crack growth from handling surface anomalies in a nickel based superalloy at high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourdin Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft engine manufacturers have to demonstrate that handling surface anomalies in sensitive areas of discs are not critical for in-service life of a component. Currently, the models used consider anomalies as long cracks propagating from the first cycle, which introduces a certain degree of conservatism when calculating the fatigue life of surface flaws. Preliminary studies have shown that the first stages of crack propagation from surface anomalies are responsible for the conservative results. Thus, the aim of the study is to characterize the crack propagation from typical surface anomalies and to establish a new crack growth model, which can account for the micro-propagation stage. To separate the effects of the geometry of the anomalies and the residual stress state after introduction of the surface flaws, two V-type anomalies are studied: scratches and dents. Different studies have shown that the residual stresses beneath the anomalies seem to control the fatigue life of samples exhibiting scratches and dents. In order to monitor the crack micro-propagation, a direct current potential drop technique, coupled with heat tints is used during fatigue tests at elevated temperature. Thermal treatments releasing the residual stresses are also used to decouple the effect of crack morphology and residual stresses.

  1. GISS Surface Temperature Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GISTEMP dataset is a global 2x2 gridded temperature anomaly dataset. Temperature data is updated around the middle of every month using current data files from...

  2. Estimation of the radius of a star based on its effective temperature and surface gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichevskij, S. G.

    2016-06-01

    Amethod for determining the radius of a star using its effective temperature and surface gravity is proposed. The method assumes that the relationship between the radius, effective temperature, and surface gravity can be approximated using models for the internal structure and evolution of the star. The method is illustrated using the Geneva-Toulouse evolutionary computations for two metal abundances—solar and one-tenth of solar. Analysis of the systematic errors shows that the accuracy of the method is better than 10% over most part of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, and is about 5% for main-sequence stars. The maximum relative systematic error due to the simplifications underlying the method is about 15%. A test using eclipsing binaries confirms the viability of the proposed method for estimating stellar radii. In the region of the main sequence, systematic deviations do not exceed 2%, and the relative standard deviation is ≤4.7%. It is expected that th maximum relative error over the rest of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram will likewise be close to the systematic error, about 15-20%. The method is applied to estimate the radii of model stellar atmospheres. Such estimates can be used to synthesize the color index and luminosity of a star. The method can be used whenever accuracies of about 10% in the estimated stellar radius and luminosity are acceptable.

  3. Improving snow process modeling with satellite-based estimation of near-surface-air-temperature lapse rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Sun, Litao; Shrestha, Maheswor; Li, Xiuping; Liu, Wenbin; Zhou, Jing; Yang, Kun; Lu, Hui; Chen, Deliang

    2016-10-01

    In distributed hydrological modeling, surface air temperature (Tair) is of great importance in simulating cold region processes, while the near-surface-air-temperature lapse rate (NLR) is crucial to prepare Tair (when interpolating Tair from site observations to model grids). In this study, a distributed biosphere hydrological model with improved snow physics (WEB-DHM-S) was rigorously evaluated in a typical cold, large river basin (e.g., the upper Yellow River basin), given a mean monthly NLRs. Based on the validated model, we have examined the influence of the NLR on the simulated snow processes and streamflows. We found that the NLR has a large effect on the simulated streamflows, with a maximum difference of greater than 24% among the various scenarios for NLRs considered. To supplement the insufficient number of monitoring sites for near-surface-air-temperature at developing/undeveloped mountain regions, the nighttime Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer land surface temperature is used as an alternative to derive the approximate NLR at a finer spatial scale (e.g., at different elevation bands, different land covers, different aspects, and different snow conditions). Using satellite-based estimation of NLR, the modeling of snow processes has been greatly refined. Results show that both the determination of rainfall/snowfall and the snowpack process were significantly improved, contributing to a reduced summer evapotranspiration and thus an improved streamflow simulation.

  4. Assessing regional crop water demand using a satellite-based combination equation with a land surface temperature componen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyano, Carmen; Garcia, Monica; Tornos, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    consumption trends in the area. The results showed that the thermal-PT-JPL model is a suitable and simple tool requiring only air temperature and incoming solar radiation apart from standard satellites-products freely available. Our results show that in comparison with the hydrological model conceptual...... to estimate soil surface conductance based on an apparent thermal inertia index. A process-based model was applied to estimate surface energy fluxes including daily ET based on a modified version of the Priestley-Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL) model at 1km pixel resolution during a chrono......-sequence spanning for more than a decade (2002-2013). The thermal-PT-JPL model was forced with vegetation, albedo, reflectance and temperature products from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) from both Aqua and Terra satellites. The study region, B-XII Irrigation District of the Lower...

  5. Temperature dependence of surface nanobubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkelaar, R.P.; Seddon, James Richard Thorley; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Lohse, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    The temperature dependence of nanobubbles was investigated experimentally using atomic force microscopy. By scanning the same area of the surface at temperatures from 51 °C to 25 °C it was possible to track geometrical changes of individual nanobubbles as the temperature was decreased.

  6. The Effect of Surface Finish on Low-Temperature Acetylene-Based Carburization of 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yindong; Ernst, Frank; Kahn, Harold; Heuer, Arthur H.

    2014-12-01

    We observed a strong influence of surface finish on the efficacy of low-temperature acetylene-based carburization of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel. Steel coupons were prepared with different surface finishes prior to carburization, from P400 SiC grit paper to 1- µm-diameter-diamond-paste. The samples with the finer surface finish developed a thicker "case" (a carbon-rich hardened surface layer) and a larger surface carbon concentration. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the differences arose mainly from the nature of the deformation-induced disturbed layer on the steel surface. A thick (>400 nm) disturbed layer consisting of nano-crystalline grains (≈10 nm diameter) inhibits acetylene-based carburization. The experimental observations can be explained by assuming that during machining or coarse polishing, the surface oxide layer is broken up and becomes incorporated into the deformation-induced disturbed layer. The incorporated oxide-rich films retard or completely prevent the ingress of carbon into the stainless steel.

  7. Modeling of mean radiant temperature based on comparison of airborne remote sensing data with surface measured data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Chih-Yu; Matzarakis, Andreas; Liu, Jin-King; Lin, Tzu-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Assessment of outdoor thermal comfort is becoming increasingly important due to the urban heat island effect, which strongly affects the urban thermal environment. The mean radiant temperature (Tmrt) quantifies the effect of the radiation environment on humans, but it can only be estimated based on influencing parameters and factors. Knowledge of Tmrt is important for quantifying the heat load on human beings, especially during heat waves. This study estimates Tmrt using several methods, which are based on climatic data from a traditional weather station, microscale ground surface measurements, land surface temperature (LST) and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data measured using airborne devices. Analytical results reveal that the best means of estimating Tmrt combines information about LST and surface elevation information with meteorological data from the closest weather station. The application in this method can eliminate the inconvenience of executing a wide range ground surface measurement, the insufficient resolution of satellite data and the incomplete data of current urban built environments. This method can be used to map a whole city to identify hot spots, and can be contributed to understanding human biometeorological conditions quickly and accurately.

  8. Hurricane destructive power predictions based on historical storm and sea surface temperature data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogen, Kenneth T; Jones, Edwin D; Fischer, Larry E

    2007-12-01

    Forecasting destructive hurricane potential is complicated by substantial, unexplained intraannual variation in storm-specific power dissipation index (PDI, or integrated third power of wind speed), and interannual variation in annual accumulated PDI (APDI). A growing controversy concerns the recent hypothesis that the clearly positive trend in North Atlantic Ocean (NAO) sea surface temperature (SST) since 1970 explains increased hurricane intensities over this period, and so implies ominous PDI and APDI growth as global warming continues. To test this "SST hypothesis" and examine its quantitative implications, a combination of statistical and probabilistic methods were applied to National Hurricane Center HURDAT best-track data on NAO hurricanes during 1880-2002, and corresponding National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Extended Reconstruction SST estimates. Notably, hurricane behavior was compared to corresponding hurricane-specific (i.e., spatiotemporally linked) SST; previous similar comparisons considered only SST averaged over large NAO regions. Contrary to the SST hypothesis, SST was found to vary in a monthly pattern inconsistent with that of corresponding PDI, and to be at best weakly associated with PDI or APDI despite strong correlation with corresponding mean latitude (R(2)= 0.55) or with combined mean location and a approximately 90-year periodic trend (R(2)= 0.70). Over the last century, the lower 75% of APDIs appear randomly sampled from a nearly uniform distribution, and the upper 25% of APDIs from a nearly lognormal distribution. From the latter distribution, a baseline (SST-independent) stochastic model was derived predicting that over the next half century, APDI will not likely exceed its maximum value over the last half century by more than a factor of 1.5. This factor increased to 2 using a baseline model modified to assume SST-dependence conditioned on an upper bound of the increasing NAO SST trend observed since 1970. An

  9. Fatigue crack growth from handling surface anomalies in a Nickel based superalloy at high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourdin Stéphane

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft engine manufacturers have to demonstrate that handling surface anomalies in sensible areas of discs are not critical for in-service life of a component. Currently, the models used consider anomalies as long cracks propagating from the first cycle, which introduce a certain degree of conservatism when calculating the fatigue life of surface flaws. Preliminary studies have shown that the first stages of crack propagation from surface anomalies are responsible for the conservative results. Thus, the aim of the study is to characterize the crack propagation from typical surface anomalies and to establish a new crack growth model, which can account for the micro-propagation stage.

  10. A Bragg-Mirror-Based Semiconductor Saturable Absorption Mirror at 800 nm with Low Temperature and Surface State Hybrid Absorber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-Gang; MA Xiao-Yu; WANG Yi-Shan; CHEN Guo-Fu; ZHAO Wei; ZHANG Zhi-Gang

    2004-01-01

    We present a novel 800-nm Bragg-mirror-based semiconductor saturable absorption mirror with low temperature and surface state hybrid absorber, with which we can realize the passive soliton mode locking of a Ti:sapphire laser pumped by 532-nm green laser which produces pulses as short as 37fs. The reflection bandwidth of the mirror is 30nm and the pulse frequency is 107MHz. The average output power is 1.1 W at the pump power of 7.6W.

  11. Chemical etching of Tungsten thin films for high-temperature surface acoustic wave-based sensor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, M., E-mail: m.spindler@ifw-dresden.de [IFW Dresden, SAWLab Saxony, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Herold, S.; Acker, J. [BTU Cottbus – Senftenberg, Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 101548, 01968 Senftenberg (Germany); Brachmann, E.; Oswald, S.; Menzel, S.; Rane, G. [IFW Dresden, SAWLab Saxony, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    Surface acoustic wave devices are widely used as wireless sensors in different application fields. Recent developments aimed to utilize those devices as temperature sensors even in the high temperature range (T > 300 °C) and in harsh environmental conditions. Therefore, conventional materials, which are used for the substrate and for the interdigital transducer finger electrodes such as multilayers or alloys based on Al or Cu have to be exchanged by materials, which fulfill some important criteria regarding temperature related effects. Electron beam evaporation as a standard fabrication method is not well applicable for depositing high temperature stable electrode materials because of their very high melting points. Magnetron sputtering is an alternative deposition process but is also not applicable for lift-off structuring without any further improvement of the structuring process. Due to a relatively high Ar gas pressure of about 10{sup −1} Pa, the sidewalls of the photoresist line structures are also covered by the metallization, which subsequently prevents a successful lift-off process. In this study, we investigate the chemical etching of thin tungsten films as an intermediate step between magnetron sputtering deposition of thin tungsten finger electrodes and the lift-off process to remove sidewall covering for a successful patterning process of interdigital transducers. - Highlights: • We fabricated Tungsten SAW Electrodes by magnetron sputtering technology. • An etching process removes sidewall covering of photoresist, which allows lift-off. • Tungsten etching rates based on a hydrogen peroxide solutions were determined.

  12. A physics-based statistical algorithm for retrieving land surface temperature from AMSR-E passive microwave data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO KeBiao; SHI JianCheng; LI ZhaoLiang; QIN ZhiHao; LI ManChun; XU Bin

    2007-01-01

    AMSR-E and MODIS are two EOS (Earth Observing System) instruments on board the Aqua satellite. A regression analysis between the brightness of all AMSR-E bands and the MODIS land surface temperature product indicated that the 89 GHz vertical polarization is the best single band to retrieve land surface temperature. According to simulation analysis with AIEM, the difference of different frequencies can eliminate the influence of water in soil and atmosphere, and also the surface roughness partly. The analysis results indicate that the radiation mechanism of surface covered snow is different from others. In order to retrieve land surface temperature more accurately, the land surface should be at least classified into three types: water covered surface, snow covered surface, and non-water and non-snow covered land surface. In order to improve the practicality and accuracy of the algorithm, we built different equations for different ranges of temperature. The average land surface temperature error is about 2-3℃ relative to the MODIS LST product.

  13. A physics-based statistical algorithm for retrieving land surface temperature from AMSR-E passive microwave data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AMSR-E and MODIS are two EOS (Earth Observing System) instruments on board the Aqua satellite. A regression analysis between the brightness of all AMSR-E bands and the MODIS land surface tem-perature product indicated that the 89 GHz vertical polarization is the best single band to retrieve land surface temperature. According to simulation analysis with AIEM,the difference of different frequen-cies can eliminate the influence of water in soil and atmosphere,and also the surface roughness partly. The analysis results indicate that the radiation mechanism of surface covered snow is different from others. In order to retrieve land surface temperature more accurately,the land surface should be at least classified into three types:water covered surface,snow covered surface,and non-water and non-snow covered land surface. In order to improve the practicality and accuracy of the algorithm,we built different equations for different ranges of temperature. The average land surface temperature er-ror is about 2―3℃ relative to the MODIS LST product.

  14. A Control Strategy for Photovoltaic-Solid Polymer Electrolysis System Based on Surface Temperature of PV Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Muhida

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes to produce hydrogen from solar photovoltaic powered water electrolysis using solid polymer electrolysis are reported. An alternative control of maximum power point tracking method based on analysis of PV panel’s surface Temperature for the PV-SPE system was designed and implemented. From this analysis an optimal voltage of PV can be obtained and was realized as a reference voltage of Dc-DC converter. By maintenance the output voltage of PV using the reference voltage control, the output PV can be optimized at its MPP operation. The MPPT performance and hydrogen production performance of this method have been evaluated and discussed based on the results of the experiment.

  15. A radiance-based method for estimating uncertainties in the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) land surface temperature product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulley, Glynn C.; Hook, Simon J.

    2012-10-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) has been identified by NASA and other international organizations as an important Earth System Data Record (ESDR). An ESDR is defined as a long-term, well calibrated and validated data set. Identifying uncertainties in LST products with coarse spatial resolutions (>10 km) such as those from hyperspectral infrared sounders is notoriously difficult due to the challenges of making reliable in situ measurements representative of the spatial scales of the output products. In this study we utilize a Radiance-based (R-based) LST method for estimating uncertainties in the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) v5 LST product. The R-based method provides estimates of the true LST using a radiative closure simulation without the need for in situ measurements, and requires input air temperature, relative humidity profiles and emissivity data. The R-based method was employed at three validation sites over the Namib Desert, Gran Desierto, and Redwood National Park for all AIRS observations from 2002 to 2010. Results showed daytime LST root-mean square errors (RMSE) of 2-3 K at the Namib and Desierto sites, and 1.5 K at the Redwood site. Nighttime LST RMSEs at the two desert sites were a factor of two less when compared to daytime results. Positive daytime LST biases were found at each site due to an underestimation of the daytime AIRS v5 longwave spectral emissivity, while the reverse occurred at nighttime. In the AIRS v6 product (release 2012), LST biases and RMSEs will be reduced significantly due to improved methodologies for the surface retrieval and emissivity first guess.

  16. The surface temperature of Europa

    CERN Document Server

    Ashkenazy, Yosef

    2016-01-01

    Previous estimates of the surface temperature of Jupiter's moon, Europa, neglected the effect of the eccentricity of Jupiter's orbit around the Sun, the effect of the eclipse of Europa (i.e., the relative time that Europa is within the shadow of Jupiter), and the effect of Europa's internal heating. Here we estimate the surface temperature of Europa, when Europa's obliquity, eclipse and internal heating, as well as the eccentricity of Jupiter, are all taken into account. For a typical internal heating rate of 0.05 W/m$^2$ (corresponding to an ice thickness of about 10 kms), the equator, pole, and global mean surface temperatures are 101.7 K, 45.26 K, and 94.75 K, respectively. We found that the temperature at the high latitudes is significantly affected by the internal heating. We also studied the effect of the internal heating on the mean thickness of Europa's icy shell and conclude that the polar region temperature can be used to constrain the internal heating and the depth of the ice. Our approach and form...

  17. Highly sensitive room-temperature surface acoustic wave (SAW) ammonia sensors based on Co₃O₄/SiO₂ composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong-Liang; Li, Zhi-Jie; Ma, Jin-Yi; Su, Hai-Qiao; Guo, Yuan-Jun; Wang, Lu; Du, Bo; Chen, Jia-Jun; Zhou, Weilie; Yu, Qing-Kai; Zu, Xiao-Tao

    2014-09-15

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors based on Co3O4/SiO2 composite sensing films for ammonia detection were investigated at room temperature. The Co3O4/SiO2 composite films were deposited onto ST-cut quartz SAW resonators by a sol-gel method. SEM and AFM characterizations showed that the films had porous structures. The existence of SiO2 was found to enhance the ammonia sensing property of the sensor significantly. The sensor based on a Co3O4/SiO2 composite film, with 50% Co3O4 loading, which had the highest RMS value (3.72), showed the best sensing property. It exhibited a positive frequency shift of 3500 Hz to 1 ppm ammonia as well as excellent selectivity, stability and reproducibility at room temperature. Moreover, a 37% decrease in the conductance of the composite film as well as a positive frequency shift of 12,500 Hz were observed when the sensor was exposed to 20 ppm ammonia, indicating the positive frequency shift was derived from the decrease in film conductance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Process-Based Assessment of Decadal-Scale Surface Temperature Evolutions in the NCAR CCSM4's 25-Year Hindcast Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yi; Chen, Junwen

    2017-04-01

    This study represents an initial effort in the context of the coupled atmosphere-surface climate feedback-response analysis method (CFRAM) to partition the temporal evolution of the global surface temperature from 1981 to 2005 into components associated with individual radiative and non-radiative (dynamical) processes in the NCAR CCSM4's decadal hindcasts. When compared with the observation (ERA-Interim), the CCSM4 is able to predict an overall warming trend as well as the transient cooling occurring during the period 1989-1994. However, while the model captures fairly well the positive contributions of the CO2 and surface albedo change to the temperature evolution, it has an overly strong water vapor effect that dictates the temperature evolution in the hindcast. This is in contrast with the observation where changes in surface dynamics (mainly ocean circulation and heat content change) dominates the actual temperature evolution. Atmospheric dynamics in both the observation and model works against the surface temperature tendency through turbulent and convective heat transport, leading to an overall negative contribution to the evolution of the surface temperature. Impacts of solar forcing and ozone change on the surface temperature change are relatively weak during this period. The magnitude of cloud effect is considerably smaller compared to that in the observation and the spatial distribution of the cloud effect is also significantly different between the two especially over the equatorial Pacific. The value and limitations of this process-based temperature decomposition are discussed.

  19. Remote Sensing Based Analysis of the Role of Land Use/Land Cover on Surface Temperature and Temporal Changes in Temperature; a Case Study of Ajmer District, Rajasthan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, A.; Bhalla, P.; Palria, S.

    2014-12-01

    An attempt has been made in this research to analyze temporal variations in surface temperature in Ajmer District Rajasthan. The research is carried out to assess the relationship between the land surface temperatures (LST) and land cover (LC) changes both in quantitative and qualitative ways in Ajmer District area using Landsat TM/ETM+ data over the period 1989 to 2013.in this period we used three temporal TM/ETM data 1989, 2001 and 2013. Remote sensing of Land surface temperature (LST) has traditionally used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as the indicator of vegetation abundance to estimate the land surface temperature (LST)-vegetation relationship. Unsupervised classification methods have been taken to prepare the LC map. LST is derived from the thermal band of Landsat TM/ETM+ using the calibration of spectral radiance and emissivity correction of remote sensing. NDVI is derived from the NIR & RED Band using image enhancement technique (Indices). Arc-GIS have been utilized for data visualization. This procedure allowed analyzing whether LULC classes match LST classes. However, the results of such overlaying are hard to interpret. LST and LULC maps of these areas give the understanding on how the classes and corresponding LST have changed from one date to the other. Another option is to collect statistical data. it was impossible to calculate linear regression between LULC map and LST map. A solution to that matter is to use Normalized Vegetation Index (NDVI) instead of LULC classification result.

  20. Impact of satellite-based lake surface observations on the initial state of HIRLAM. Part I: evaluation of remotely-sensed lake surface water temperature observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Kheyrollah Pour

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lake Surface Water Temperature (LSWT observations are used to improve the lake surface state in the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM, a three-dimensional numerical weather prediction (NWP model. In this paper, satellite-derived LSWT observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR are evaluated against in-situ measurements collected by the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE for a selection of large- to medium-size lakes during the open-water season. Data assimilation of these LSWT observations into the HIRLAM is in the paper Part II. Results show a good agreement between MODIS and in-situ measurements from 22 Finnish lakes, with a mean bias of −1.13°C determined over five open-water seasons (2007–2011. Evaluation of MODIS during an overlapping period (2007–2009 with the AATSR-L2 product currently distributed by the European Space Agency (ESA shows a mean (cold bias error of −0.93°C for MODIS and a warm mean bias of 1.08°C for AATSR-L2. Two additional LSWT retrieval algorithms were applied to produce more accurate AATSR products. The algorithms use ESA's AATSR-L1B brightness temperature product to generate new L2 products: one based on Key et al. (1997 and the other on Prata (2002 with a finer resolution water mask than used in the creation of the AATSR-L2 product distributed by ESA. The accuracies of LSWT retrievals are improved with the Key and Prata algorithms with biases of 0.78°C and −0.11°C, respectively, compared to the original AATSR-L2 product (3.18°C.

  1. Calibration of surface temperature on rocky exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap Jagadeesh, Madhu

    2016-07-01

    Study of exoplanets and the search for life elsewhere has been a very fascinating area in recent years. Presently, lots of efforts have been channelled in this direction in the form of space exploration and the ultimate search for the habitable planet. One of the parametric methods to analyse the data available from the missions such as Kepler, CoRoT, etc, is the Earth Similarity Index (ESI), defined as a number between zero (no similarity) and one (identical to Earth), introduced to assess the Earth likeness of exoplanets. A multi-parameter ESI scale depends on the radius, density, escape velocity and surface temperature of exoplanets. Our objective is to establish how exactly the individual parameters, entering the interior ESI and surface ESI, are contributing to the global ESI, using the graphical analysis. Presently, the surface temperature estimates are following a correction factor of 30 K, based on the Earth's green-house effect. The main objective of this work in calculations of the global ESI using the HabCat data is to introduce a new method to better estimate the surface temperature of exoplanets, from theoretical formula with fixed albedo factor and emissivity (Earth values). From the graphical analysis of the known data for the Solar System objects, we established the calibration relation between surface and equilibrium temperatures for the Solar System objects. Using extrapolation we found that the power function is the closest description of the trend to attain surface temperature. From this we conclude that the correction term becomes very effective way to calculate the accurate value of the surface temperature, for further analysis with our graphical methodology.

  2. Real-Time Thermographic-Phosphor-Based Temperature Measurements of Thermal Barrier Coating Surfaces Subjected to a High-Velocity Combustor Burner Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Jenkins, Thomas P.; Allison, Stephen W.; Cruzen, Scott; Condevaux, J. J.; Senk, J. R.; Paul, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    Surface temperature measurements were conducted on metallic specimens coated with an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coating (TBC) with a YAG:Dy phosphor layer that were subjected to an aggressive high-velocity combustor burner environment. Luminescence-based surface temperature measurements of the same TBC system have previously been demonstrated for specimens subjected to static furnace or laser heating. Surface temperatures were determined from the decay time of the luminescence signal of the YAG:Dy phosphor layer that was excited by a pulsed laser source. However, the furnace and laser heating provides a much more benign environment than that which exists in a turbine engine, where there are additional challenges of a highly radiant background and high velocity gases. As the next step in validating the suitability of luminescence-based temperature measurements for turbine engine environments, new testing was performed where heating was provided by a high-velocity combustor burner rig at Williams International. Real-time surface temperature measurements during burner rig heating were obtained from the decay of the luminescence from the YAG:Dy surface layer. The robustness of several temperature probe designs in the sonic velocity, high radiance flame environment was evaluated. In addition, analysis was performed to show whether the luminescence decay could be satisfactorily extracted from the high radiance background.

  3. Delimitation of the warm and cold period of the year based on the variation of the Aegean sea surface temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MAVRAKIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the warm and cold season onset is important for the living conditions and the occupational activities of the inhabitants of a given area, and especially for agriculture and tourism. This paper presents a way to estimate the onset/end of the cold and warm period of the year, based on the sinusoidal annual variation of the Sea Surface Temperature. The method was applied on data from 8 stations of the Hellenic Navy Hydrographic Service, covering the period from 1965-1995. The results showed that the warm period starts sometime between April 28th and May 21st while it ends between October 27th and November 19th in accordance with the findings of other studies. Characteristic of the nature of the parameter used is the very low variance per station – 15 days at maximum. The average date of warm period onset is statistically the same for the largest part of the Aegean, with only one differentiation, that between Kavala and the southern stations ( Thira and Heraklion.

  4. Infrared thermography - a non-invasive tool to evaluate thermal status of neonatal pigs based on surface temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund Kammersgaard, Trine; Malmkvist, Jens; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2013-01-01

    Hypothermia is a major cause of mortality in neonatal pigs. Infrared (IR) thermography is a promising non-invasive method to assess thermal status, but has not been evaluated for use on neonatal pigs from birth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of IR thermography as a non......-invasive tool to estimate body temperature and assess the thermal status in newborn pigs by (1) estimating the relationship between surface temperature and rectal temperature (RT) in neonatal pigs; and (2) estimating the influence of air temperature (AT), birth weight and the time from birth on the relationship...... between surface temperature and RT. The method was evaluated on the basis of 1695 thermograms and 915 RTs on 91 neonatal pigs born in loose farrowing pens with floor heating at 34°C, and three different ATs (15°C, 20°C and 25°C). Full-body thermograms of the back and the side of the pigs and RT were...

  5. Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) dataset is a global monthly sea surface temperature analysis derived from the International Comprehensive...

  6. NOAA Global Surface Temperature (NOAAGlobalTemp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Global Surface Temperature Dataset (NOAAGlobalTemp) is a merged land–ocean surface temperature analysis (formerly known as MLOST) (link is external). It is...

  7. Impact of satellite-based lake surface observations on the initial state of HIRLAM. Part II: Analysis of lake surface temperature and ice cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Kheyrollah Pour

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from a study on the impact of remote-sensing Lake Surface Water Temperature (LSWT observations in the analysis of lake surface state of a numerical weather prediction (NWP model. Data assimilation experiments were performed with the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM, a three-dimensional operational NWP model. Selected thermal remote-sensing LSWT observations provided by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR sensors onboard the Terra/Aqua and ENVISAT satellites, respectively, were included into the assimilation. The domain of our experiments, which focussed on two winters (2010–2011 and 2011–2012, covered northern Europe. Validation of the resulting objective analyses against independent observations demonstrated that the description of the lake surface state can be improved by the introduction of space-borne LSWT observations, compared to the result of pure prognostic parameterisations or assimilation of the available limited number of in-situ lake temperature observations. Further development of the data assimilation methods and solving of several practical issues are necessary in order to fully benefit from the space-borne observations of lake surface state for the improvement of the operational weather forecast. This paper is the second part of a series of two papers aimed at improving the objective analysis of lake temperature and ice conditions in HIRLAM.

  8. Space-based observation of chlorophyll, sea surface temperature, nitrate, and sea surface height anomaly over the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, R. K.; Devi, K. Nanthini

    2017-01-01

    Monthly chlorophyll and sea surface temperature (SST) images were generated using MODIS-Aqua data sets during 2014 and 2015 in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea. The in situ data-based nitrate algorithm was used to generate nitrate images by using the satellite-derived chlorophyll and SST images. To link ocean productivity with the sea surface features and sea level anomaly, the Indo-French altimeter mission SARAL-ALTIKA-derived sea surface height anomaly (SSHa) data sets were processed and maps were generated. The monthly average chlorophyll concentration ranged from 0.001 to 3.0 mg m-3, SST ranged from 24 to 32 °C, nitrate concentration ranged from 0.01 to 6.0 μM, and overall SSH anomaly ranged from -52 to +40 cm. Nitrate concentration was observed to be high (3-5 μM) during December-January, possibly due to convective eddies and winter cooling as well as atmospheric aerosols and dust inducing ocean productivity. The nitrate concentration was observed to be associated more with chlorophyll than SST, as nitrate inherently enhances the ocean chlorophyll and productivity, acting as proxy. The SSH anomaly showed irregular features and depicting few eddies, upwelling, and ocean circulation features. The low SSHa was mostly due to high chlorophyll concentration. It was observed that the low SST (∼24-26 °C) is attributed to high chlorophyll concentration (1.5-3.0 mg m-3) over the study area. The lag phase and enhancement in chlorophyll mean during September was due to the decrease in average SST during August. The SSHa showed seasonal trend over the study area during the monsoon period with observation of negative anomaly. Arabian Sea was found to have more negative SSH anomaly monthly mean values than Bay of Bengal. The impact and interrelationship of SSHa indicated better relationship with chlorophyll than with nitrate and SST, as observed from multiple regression analysis. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) results between the 2-year monthly data showed that the

  9. Comparing robust and physics-based sea surface temperature retrievals for high resolution, multi-spectral thermal sensors using one or multiple looks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.B.; Szymanski, J.J.; Theiler, J.P.

    1999-04-04

    With the advent of multi-spectral thermal imagers such as EOS's ASTER high spatial resolution thermal imagery of the Earth's surface will soon be a reality. Previous high resolution sensors such as Landsat 5 had only one spectral channel in the thermal infrared and its utility to determine absolute sea surface temperatures was limited to 6-8 K for water warmer than 25 deg C. This inaccuracy resulted from insufficient knowledge of the atmospheric temperature and water vapor, inaccurate sensor calibration, and cooling effects of thin high cirrus clouds. The authors will present two studies of algorithms and compare their performance. The first algorithm they call robust since it retrieves sea surface temperatures accurately over a fairly wide range of atmospheric conditions using linear combinations of nadir and off-nadir brightness temperatures. The second they call physics-based because it relies on physics-based models of the atmosphere. It attempts to come up with a unique sea surface temperature which fits one set of atmospheric parameters.

  10. The Pacific sea surface temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglass, David H., E-mail: douglass@pas.rochester.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States)

    2011-12-05

    The Pacific sea surface temperature data contains two components: N{sub L}, a signal that exhibits the familiar El Niño/La Niña phenomenon and N{sub H}, a signal of one-year period. Analysis reveals: (1) The existence of an annual solar forcing F{sub S}; (2) N{sub H} is phase locked directly to F{sub S} while N{sub L} is frequently phase locked to the 2nd or 3rd subharmonic of F{sub S}. At least ten distinct subharmonic time segments of N{sub L} since 1870 are found. The beginning or end dates of these segments have a near one-to-one correspondence with the abrupt climate changes previously reported. Limited predictability is possible. -- Highlights: ► El Niño/La Niña consists of 2 components phase-locked to annual solar cycle. ► The first component N{sub L} is the familiar El Niño/La Niña effect. ► The second N{sub H} component has a period of 1 cycle/year. ► N{sub L} can be phase-locked to 2nd or 3rd subharmonic of annual cycle. ► Ends of phase-locked segments correspond to abrupt previously reported climate changes.

  11. Analysis of teleconnections between AVHRR-based sea surface temperature and vegetation productivity in the semi-arid Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber Gharib, Silvia; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation productivity across the Sahel is known to be affected by a variety of global sea surface temperature (SST) patterns. Often climate indices are used to relate Sahelian vegetation variability to large-scale ocean–atmosphere phenomena. However, previous research findings reporting...... on the Sahelian vegetation response to climate indices have been inconsistent and contradictory, which could partly be caused by the variations in spatial extent/definitions of climate indices and size of the region studied. The aim of this study was to analyze the linkage between climate indices, pixel...... Sahelian vegetation productivity....

  12. Land surface temperature changes in Northern Iberia since 4000 yr BP, based on δ13C of speleothems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Chivelet, Javier; Muñoz-García, M. Belén; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Turrero, María J.; Ortega, Ana I.

    2011-05-01

    The surface temperature changes for the last 4000 years in northern inland Iberia (an area particularly sensitive to climate change) are determined by a high resolution study of carbon stable isotope records of stalagmites from three caves (Kaite, Cueva del Cobre, and Cueva Mayor) separated several tens of kilometers away in N Spain. Despite the local conditions of each cave, the isotopic series show a good overall coherence, and resulted to be strongly sensitive to surface temperature changes. The record reflects alternating warmer and colder intervals, always within a temperature range of 1.6 °C. The timing and duration of the intervals were provided by 43 230Th- 234U (ICP-MS) ages. Main climatic recognized periods are: (1) 3950-3000 yr BP: warm period punctuated by cool events around ~ 3950, 3550 and 3250 yr BP; (2) 2850-2500 yr BP cold interval (Iron Age Cold Period); (3) 2500-1650 yr BP moderate warm period (Roman Warm Period), with maximum temperatures between 2150 and 1750 yr BP; (4) 1650-1350 yr BP cold interval (Dark Ages Cold Period), with a thermal minimum at ~ 1500 yr BP; (5) 1350-750 yr BP warm period (Medieval Warm Period) punctuated by two cooler events at ~ 1250 and ~ 850 yr BP; (6) 750-100 yr BP cold period (Little Ice Age) with extremes occurring at 600-500 yr BP, 350-300 yr BP, and 150-100 yr BP; and (7) the last 150 years, characterized by rapid but no linear warming (Modern Warming). Remarkably, the presented records allow direct comparison of recent warming with former warm intervals such as the Roman or the Medieval periods. That comparison reveals the 20th century as the time with highest surface temperatures of the last 4000 years for the studied area. Spectral analysis of the time series shows consistent climatic cycles of ~ 400, ~ 900 and ~ 1300 yr, comparable with those recognized in the North Atlantic marine record, the Greenland ice cores, and other terrestrial records for the middle-late Holocene, suggesting common climate forcing

  13. Surface recrystallization of a Ni_3Al based single crystal superalloy at different annealing temperatures and blasting pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The effects of annealing temperature and grit blasting pressure on the recrystallization behavior of a Ni3Al based single crystal superalloy were studied in this work. The results show that the precipitation of the Y-NiMo phase occurs at 900 and 1000 °C, which precedes recrystallization. The initial recrystallization temperature was between 1000 and 1100 °C. Cellular recrystallization was formed at 1100 and 1200 °C, which consisted of large columnar γ′ and fine γ + γ′. The dendrite arm closed to the interde...

  14. Wireless SAW Based Temperature Gradient Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prime Photonics proposes design and development of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) based temperature gradient sensor for instrumentation of thermal protection systems...

  15. Surface temperature measurements of diamond

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masina, BN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available ) and the waist position (z0) 3. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS There are many methods to measure the temperature of a body. Here we used a thermocou- ple and a pyrometer, while future plans involve emission spectroscopy. A thermocouple is a temperature... sensor that consists of two wires con- nected together made from different metals, which produces an electrical voltage that is dependant on tem- perature. A Newport electronic thermocou- ple was used to meas- ured temperature. It can measure...

  16. A stable, unbiased, long-term satellite based data record of sea surface temperature from ESA's Climate Change Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Nick; Good, Simon; Merchant, Chris

    2013-04-01

    The study of climate change demands long-term, stable observational records of climate variables such as sea surface temperature (SST). ESA's Climate Change Initiative was set up to unlock the potential of satellite data records for this purpose. As part of this initiative, 13 projects were established to develop the data records for different essential climate variables - aerosol, cloud, fire, greenhouse gases, glaciers, ice sheets, land cover, ocean colour, ozone, sea ice, sea level, soil moisture and SST. In this presentation we describe the development work that has taken place in the SST project and present new prototype data products that are available now for users to trial. The SST project began in 2010 and has now produced two prototype products. The first is a long-term product (covering mid-1991 - 2010 currently, but with a view to update this in the future), which prioritises length of data record and stability over other considerations. It is based on data from the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) and Advanced Very-High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) series of satellite instruments. The product aims to combine the favourable stability and bias characteristics of ATSR data with the geographical coverage achieved with the AVHRR series. Following an algorithm selection process, an optimal estimation approach to retrieving SST from the satellite measurements from both sensors was adopted. The retrievals do not depend on in situ data and so this data record represents an independent assessment of SST change. In situ data are, however, being used to validate the resulting data. The second data product demonstrates the coverage that can be achieved using the modern satellite observing system including, for example, geostationary satellite data. Six months worth of data have been processed for this demonstration product. The prototype SST products will be released in April to users to trial in their work. The long term product will be available as

  17. Surface thermal perturbations of the recent past at low latitudes – inferences based on borehole temperature data from Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. C. Benyosef

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Borehole temperature data from the eastern parts of Brazil has been examined in an attempt to extract information on surface thermal perturbations of the recent past at low latitudes. Forward models were employed in the analysis of temperature logs from 17 localities and, in addition, Bayesian inverse modeling was carried out for data from 14 selected sites. The model results have allowed determination of the magnitude as well as the duration of ground surface temperature (GST changes in three major geographic zones of Brazil. Prominent among such changes are the warming episodes that occurred over much of the subtropical highland regions in the southeastern parts of Brazil. The present magnitude of GST changes in this region are in the range of 2 to 3.5°C but have had their beginning during the early decades of the 20th century. Nearly similar trends are also seen in temperature-depth profiles of bore holes in the subtropical humid zones of the interior and coastal areas of southern Brazil. The data from semi arid zones of northeast Brazil also indicate occurrence of surface warming events but the magnitudes are in the range of 1.4 to 2.2°C while the duration of the warming event is larger, extending back into the last decades of the 19th century. There are indications that changes in both climate and vegetation cover contribute to variations in GST. Thus the magnitudes of GST variations are relatively large in localities which have undergone changes in vegetation cover. Also there are indications that GST changes are practically insignificant in areas of tropical rain forest. Another important result emerging from model studies is that the climate was relatively cooler during the 17th and 18th centuries. The climate histories, deduced from geothermal data, are found to be consistent with results of available meteorological records in southern Brazil. Comparative studies also indicate that the magnitudes and duration of recent climate changes

  18. Surface thermal perturbations of the recent past at low latitudes – inferences based on borehole temperature data from Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. C. Benyosef

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Borehole temperature data from the eastern parts of Brazil has been examined in an attempt to extract information on surface thermal perturbations of the recent past at low latitudes. Forward models were employed in the analysis of temperature logs from 16 localities and, in addition, inverse modeling was carried out for data from 10 selected sites. The model results have allowed determination of the magnitude as well as the duration of ground surface temperature (GST changes in three major geographic zones of Brazil. Prominent among such events are the warming episodes that occurred over much of the subtropical highland regions in the southeastern parts of Brazil. The present magnitude of GST changes in this region are in the range of 2 to 3.5°C but have had their beginning during the early decades of the 20th century. Nearly similar trends are also seen in temperature-depth profiles of bore holes in the subtropical humid zones of the interior and coastal areas of southern Brazil. The data from semi arid zones of northeast Brazil also indicate occurrence of surface warming events but the magnitudes are in the range of 1.4 to 2.2°C while the duration of the warming event is larger, extending back into the last decades of the 19th century. There are indications that changes in both climate and vegetation cover contribute to variations in GST. Thus the magnitudes of GST variations are relatively large in localities which have undergone changes in vegetation cover. Also there are indications that GST changes are practically insignificant in areas of tropical rain forest. Another important result emerging from model studies is that the climate was relatively cooler during the 17th and 18th centuries. The climate histories, deduced from geothermal data, are found to be consistent with results of available meteorological records in southern Brazil. Comparative studies also indicate that the magnitudes and duration of recent climate changes in

  19. Noninvasive Temperature Measurement Based on Microwave Temperature Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Shoucheng Ding

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have a research of the noninvasive temperature measurement based on microwave temperature sensor. Moreover, in order to solve the surface temperature measurement for designing microwave temperature sensor, the microwave was issued by the transmitting antenna. Microwave encountered by the measured object to return back to the measured object and then convert it into electrical signals, the use of the quantitative relationship between this signal and input noise temperature to...

  20. Modelling global fresh surface water temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, L.P.H. van; Eikelboom, T.; Vliet, M.T.H. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Temperature directly determines a range of water physical properties including vapour pressure, surface tension, density and viscosity, and the solubility of oxygen and other gases. Indirectly water temperature acts as a strong control on fresh water biogeochemistry, influencing sediment

  1. Modelling global fresh surface water temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, L.P.H. van; Eikelboom, T.; Vliet, M.T.H. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Temperature directly determines a range of water physical properties including vapour pressure, surface tension, density and viscosity, and the solubility of oxygen and other gases. Indirectly water temperature acts as a strong control on fresh water biogeochemistry, influencing sediment concentrati

  2. Improvements of a COMS Land Surface Temperature Retrieval Algorithm Based on the Temperature Lapse Rate and Water Vapor/Aerosol Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A-Ra Cho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The National Meteorological Satellite Center in Korea retrieves land surface temperature (LST by applying the split-window LST algorithm (CSW_v1.0 to Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS data. Considerable errors were detected under conditions of high water vapor content or temperature lapse rates during validation with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS LST because of the too simplified LST algorithm. In this study, six types of LST retrieval equations (CSW_v2.0 were developed to upgrade the CSW_v1.0. These methods were developed by classifying “dry,” “normal,” and “wet” cases for day and night and considering the relative sizes of brightness temperature difference (BTD values. Similar to CSW_v1.0, the LST retrieved by CSW_v2.0 had a correlation coefficient of 0.99 with the prescribed LST and a slightly larger bias of −0.03 K from 0.00K; the root mean square error (RMSE improved from 1.41 K to 1.39 K. In general, CSW_v2.0 improved the retrieval accuracy compared to CSW_v1.0, especially when the lapse rate was high (mid-day and dawn and the water vapor content was high. The spatial distributions of LST retrieved by CSW_v2.0 were found to be similar to the MODIS LST independently of the season, day/night, and geographic locations. The validation using one year’s MODIS LST data showed that CSW_v2.0 improved the retrieval accuracy of LST in terms of correlations (from 0.988 to 0.989, bias (from −1.009 K to 0.292 K, and RMSEs (from 2.613 K to 2.237 K.

  3. Role of surface temperature in fluorocarbon plasma-surface interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Caleb T.; Overzet, Lawrence J.; Goeckner, Matthew J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, PO Box 830688, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    This article examines plasma-surface reaction channels and the effect of surface temperature on the magnitude of those channels. Neutral species CF{sub 4}, C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, and C{sub 3}F{sub 8} are produced on surfaces. The magnitude of the production channel increases with surface temperature for all species, but favors higher mass species as the temperature is elevated. Additionally, the production rate of CF{sub 2} increases by a factor of 5 as the surface temperature is raised from 25 Degree-Sign C to 200 Degree-Sign C. Fluorine density, on the other hand, does not change as a function of either surface temperature or position outside of the plasma glow. This indicates that fluorine addition in the gas-phase is not a dominant reaction. Heating reactors can result in higher densities of depositing radical species, resulting in increased deposition rates on cooled substrates. Finally, the sticking probability of the depositing free radical species does not change as a function of surface temperature. Instead, the surface temperature acts together with an etchant species (possibly fluorine) to elevate desorption rates on that surface at temperatures lower than those required for unassisted thermal desorption.

  4. Room-temperature Surface Modification of Cu nanowires and Their Applications in Transparent Electrodes, SERS-based Sensors and Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Wang, Ranran; Zhai, Haitao; Shen, Xi; Wang, Tao; Shi, Liangjing; Yu, Richeng; Sun, Jing

    2016-10-05

    Cu nanowires (Copper nanowires) have attracted lots of attention recently due to their potential applications in transparent electrodes, SERS sensors and solar cells. However, as the surface composition and morphology of Cu nanowires severely influence the performance of the devices based on them, facial surface modification methods need to be developed. Herein, we propose a room-temperature, time-saving aqueous solution method, which can simultaneously clean the surface of copper nanowires and decorate them with Ag nanoparticles at room temperature without any atmospheric control. The unique "sesame-candy-bar" structure brought about significant enhancement on the electrical, optical and mechanical performances of Cu nanowire networks. Transparent electrodes with ideal opto-electrical performance (47  sq-1 @ 89.1 % T) and high anti-oxidation, anti-thermal and electrical stability were fabricated. Stretchable electrodes based on the modified Cu nanowire networks showed superior stretch ability and cycling stability. SERS sensors and organic solar cells constructed based on Cu nanowire networks exhibited higher performance due to the enhanced surface plasmonic coupling and light scattering effect. We believe that the method will shed light on the large-scale fabrication and application of Cu nanowire based devices.

  5. Use of satellite land surface temperatures in the EUSTACE global surface air temperature analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghent, D.; Good, E.; Rayner, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    EUSTACE (EU Surface Temperatures for All Corners of Earth) is a Horizon2020 project that will produce a spatially complete, near-surface air temperature (NSAT) analysis for the globe for every day since 1850. The analysis will be based on both satellite and in situ surface temperature observations over land, sea, ice and lakes, which will be combined using state-of-the-art statistical methods. The use of satellite data will enable the EUSTACE analysis to offer improved estimates of NSAT in regions that are poorly observed in situ, compared with existing in-situ based analyses. This presentation illustrates how satellite land surface temperature (LST) data - sourced from the European Space Agency (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) GlobTemperature project - will be used in EUSTACE. Satellite LSTs represent the temperature of the Earth's skin, which can differ from the corresponding NSAT by several degrees or more, particularly during the hottest part of the day. Therefore the first challenge is to develop an approach to estimate global NSAT from satellite observations. Two methods will be trialled in EUSTACE, both of which are summarised here: an established empirical regression-based approach for predicting NSAT from satellite data, and a new method whereby NSAT is calculated from LST and other parameters using a physics-based model. The second challenge is in estimating the uncertainties for the satellite NSAT estimates, which will determine how these data are used in the final blended satellite-in situ analysis. This is also important as a key component of EUSTACE is in delivering accurate uncertainty information to users. An overview of the methods to estimate the satellite NSATs is also included in this presentation.

  6. Temperature dependent droplet impact dynamics on flat and textured surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azar Alizadeh; Vaibhav Bahadur; Sheng Zhong; Wen Shang; Ri Li; James Ruud; Masako Yamada; Liehi Ge; Ali Dhinojwala; Manohar S Sohal (047160)

    2012-03-01

    Droplet impact dynamics determines the performance of surfaces used in many applications such as anti-icing, condensation, boiling and heat transfer. We study impact dynamics of water droplets on surfaces with chemistry/texture ranging from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic and across a temperature range spanning below freezing to near boiling conditions. Droplet retraction shows very strong temperature dependence especially for hydrophilic surfaces; it is seen that lower substrate temperatures lead to lesser retraction. Physics-based analyses show that the increased viscosity associated with lower temperatures can explain the decreased retraction. The present findings serve to guide further studies of dynamic fluid-structure interaction at various temperatures.

  7. Surface-Layer Similarity Functions for Dissipation Rate and Structure Parameters of Temperature and Humidity Based on Eleven Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijmans, Linda M. J.; Hartogensis, Oscar K.

    2016-09-01

    In the literature, no consensus can be found on the exact form of the universal funtions of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) for the structure parameters of temperature, {C_T}^2, and humidity, {C_q}^2, and the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, ɛ. By combining 11 datasets and applying data treatment with spectral data filtering and error-weighted curve-fitting we first derived robust MOST functions of {C_T}^2, {C_q}^2 and ɛ that cover a large stability range for both unstable and stable conditions. Second, as all data were gathered with the same instrumentation and were processed in the same way—in contrast to earlier studies—we were able to investigate the similarity of MOST functions across different datasets by defining MOST functions for all datasets individually. For {C_T}^2 and ɛ we found no substantial differences in MOST functions for datasets over different surface types or moisture regimes. MOST functions of {C_q}^2 differ from that of {C_T}^2, but we could not relate these differences to turbulence parameters often associated with non-local effects. Furthermore, we showed that limited stability ranges and a limited number of data points are plausible reasons for variations of MOST functions in the literature. Last, we investigated the sensitivity of fluxes to the uncertainty of MOST functions. We provide an overview of the uncertainty range for MOST functions of {C_T}^2, {C_q}^2 and ɛ, and suggest their use in determining the uncertainty in surface fluxes.

  8. The study of temperature effect on the performance characteristics of the InGaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) by solving the rate equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goharrizi, A. Zandi; Alahyarizadeh, Gh.

    2016-08-01

    The use of semiconductor lasers is beneficial in long-distance communications. Practical communication systems based on these lasers need high ambient temperature, with temperature changes between 40∘C and 85∘C. The study of the temperature-dependent response of these lasers is important to improve them. This study investigates the effect of temperature on InGaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL). The active region in this structure includes a single quantum well (SQW). The rate equations of carriers and densities are numerically solved. The time variations of carrier density, photon density and output power (N, S and P) at 25∘C and the current injection of 0.04 A are obtained. Values obtained for threshold current and output power include 7 mA and 44 mW, respectively. The effect of temperature on the time variations of N, S and P from 10∘C to 35∘C is studied. Results show that these parameters decrease and the threshold current increases with an increase in temperature. Furthermore, the investigation of the effect of injection current on N, S and P shows that raising the injection current can increase these parameters. Moreover, an increase in the injection current reduces the time response.

  9. Inferring Land Surface Model Parameters for the Assimilation of Satellite-Based L-Band Brightness Temperature Observations into a Soil Moisture Analysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission provides global measurements of L-band brightness temperatures at horizontal and vertical polarization and a variety of incidence angles that are sensitive to moisture and temperature conditions in the top few centimeters of the soil. These L-band observations can therefore be assimilated into a land surface model to obtain surface and root zone soil moisture estimates. As part of the observation operator, such an assimilation system requires a radiative transfer model (RTM) that converts geophysical fields (including soil moisture and soil temperature) into modeled L-band brightness temperatures. At the global scale, the RTM parameters and the climatological soil moisture conditions are still poorly known. Using look-up tables from the literature to estimate the RTM parameters usually results in modeled L-band brightness temperatures that are strongly biased against the SMOS observations, with biases varying regionally and seasonally. Such biases must be addressed within the land data assimilation system. In this presentation, the estimation of the RTM parameters is discussed for the NASA GEOS-5 land data assimilation system, which is based on the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and the Catchment land surface model. In the GEOS-5 land data assimilation system, soil moisture and brightness temperature biases are addressed in three stages. First, the global soil properties and soil hydraulic parameters that are used in the Catchment model were revised to minimize the bias in the modeled soil moisture, as verified against available in situ soil moisture measurements. Second, key parameters of the "tau-omega" RTM were calibrated prior to data assimilation using an objective function that minimizes the climatological differences between the modeled L-band brightness temperatures and the corresponding SMOS observations. Calibrated parameters include soil roughness parameters, vegetation structure parameters

  10. Spraying spin coating silanization at room temperature of a SiO2 surface for silicon-based integrated light emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkouk, C; Rebohle, L; Skorupa, W; Strache, T; Reuther, H; Helm, M

    2009-09-15

    A new silanization method for SiO(2) surfaces has been developed for Si-based light emitters which are intended to serve as light sources in smart biosensors relying on fluorescence analysis. This method uses a special silanization chamber and is based on spraying and spin coating (SSC) in nitrogen atmosphere at room temperature for 10 min. It avoids processes like sonication and the use of certain chemicals being harmful to integrated light emitters. The surface of a SiO(2) layer serving as a passivation layer for the light emitters was hydrolyzed to silanols using an in situ-hybridization chamber and catalyzed with MES (2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfone acid hydrate) buffer solution. Subsequently, the substrates were silanized with the SSC method using two coupling agents as (3-Aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APMS), and N'-(3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyl)-diethylenetriamine (triamino-APMS). The structure of the SiO(2) surface, the APMS and the triamino-APMS layers was controlled and characterized by Infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show a covalent binding of the silane coupling agents on the surface. Atomic force microscopy was used to investigate the roughness of the surface. The silanized samples exhibit smooth and densely covered surfaces. Finally, the suitability of the SSC method was verified on real light emitters.

  11. Thermal Fatigue Behaviour of Co-Based Alloy Coating Obtained by Laser Surface Melt-Casting on High Temperature Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A thermal fatigue behaviour of C o-based alloy coating obtained by laser surface melt-casting on the high tempe rature alloy GH33 was studied. The results show that after each time of thermal cycling, the final residual stress was formed in the melt-casting layer which is attributed to the thermal stress and structural stress. Through the first 50 times of thermal cycling, the morphology of coating still inherits the laser casting one, but the dendrites get bigger; After the second 50 times of thermal cycling, corrosion pits emerge from coating, and mostly in the places where coating and substrate meet. The fatigue damage type of coating belongs to stress corrosi on.

  12. In situ Raman spectroscopic analysis of surface oxide films on Ni-base alloy/low alloy steel dissimilar metal weld interfaces in high-temperature water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongjin; Choi, Kyung Joon; Bahn, Chi Bum; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2014-06-01

    In situ Raman spectroscopy has been applied to analyze the surface oxide films formed on dissimilar metal weld (DMW) interfaces of nickel-base alloy/low alloy steel under hydrogenated high-temperature water condition. For the analysis of the oxide films under high temperature/pressure aqueous conditions, an in situ Raman spectroscopy system was developed by constructing a hydrothermal cell where the entire optics including the excitation laser and the Raman light collection system were located at the nearest position to the specimen by means of immersion optics. In situ Raman spectra of the DMW interfaces were collected in hydrogenated water condition at different temperatures up to 300 °C. The measured in situ Raman spectra showed peaks of Cr2O3, NiCr2O4 and Fe3O4 at the DMW interface. It is considered that differences in the oxide chemistry originated from the chemical element distribution inside of the DMW interface region.

  13. Gravity increased by lunar surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, James

    2013-04-01

    Quantitatively large effects of lunar surface temperature on apparent gravitational force measured by lunar laser ranging (LLR) and lunar perigee may challenge widely accepted theories of gravity. LLR data grouped by days from full moon shows the moon is about 5 percent closer to earth at full moon compared to 8 days before or after full moon. In a second, related result, moon perigees were least distant in days closer to full moon. Moon phase was used as proxy independent variable for lunar surface temperature. The results support the prediction by binary mechanics that gravitational force increases with object surface temperature.

  14. A study on the direct effect of anthropogenic aerosols on near surface air temperature over Southeastern Europe during summer 2000 based on regional climate modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zanis

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work it is investigated the direct shortwave effect of anthropogenic aerosols on the near surface temperature over Southeastern Europe and the atmospheric circulation during summer 2000. In summer 2000, a severe heat-wave and droughts affected many countries in the Balkans. The study is based on two yearly simulations with and without the aerosol feedback of the regional climate model RegCM3 coupled with a simplified aerosol model. The surface radiative forcing associated with the anthropogenic aerosols is negative throughout the European domain with the more negative values in Central and Central-eastern Europe. A basic pattern of the aerosol induced changes in air temperature at the lower troposphere is a decrease over Southeastern Europe and the Balkan Peninsula (up to about 1.2°C thus weakening the pattern of the climatic temperature anomalies of summer 2000. The aerosol induced changes in air temperature from the lower troposphere to upper troposphere are not correlated with the respective pattern of the surface radiative forcing implying the complexity of the mechanisms linking the aerosol radiative forcing with the induced atmospheric changes through dynamical feedbacks of aerosols on atmospheric circulation. Investigation of the aerosol induced changes in the circulation indicates a southward shift of the subtropical jet stream playing a dominant role for the decrease in near surface air temperature over Southeastern Europe and the Balkan Peninsula. The southward shift of the jet exit region over the Balkan Peninsula causes a relative increase of the upward motion at the northern flank of the jet exit region, a relative increase of clouds, less solar radiation absorbed at the surface and hence relative cooler air temperatures in the lower troposphere between 45° N and 50° N. The southward extension of the lower troposphere aerosol induced negative temperature changes in the latitudinal band 35° N–45° N over the

  15. Characterizing Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance via assimilation of spaceborne surface temperature, albedo, and passive microwave data into a physically-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navari, M.; Bateni, S.; Margulis, S. A.; Alexander, P. M.; Tedesco, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has been the focus of climate studies due to its significant impact on sea level rise and Arctic climate. Accurate estimates of space-time maps of surface mass balance (SMB) components including precipitation, runoff, and evaporation over the GrIS would contribute to understanding the cause of its recent unprecedented changes (e.g., increase in melt amount and duration, thickening of ice sheet interior, and thinning at the margins) and forecasting its changes in the future. In situ measurement of the SMB components across the GrIS is difficult and costly, and thus there are only a limited number of sparse measurements. Remote sensing retrievals are capable of providing some estimates of SMB terms and/or SMB indicators (i.e. melt onset), but generally provide an incomplete picture of the SMB. Additional efforts have focused on the use of regional climate models coupled to surface models in an effort to obtain spatially and temporally continuous estimates of the SMB. However, these estimates are prone to model errors and are generally unconstrained by the remote sensing record. To overcome these uncertainties and consequently improve estimates of the GrIS SMB, an ensemble data assimilation approach is developed for characterizing the SMB and its uncertainty. The EnBS consists of two steps: forecast and update. In the forecast step, an unconditional estimate of SMB using the MAR regional climate model and an ensemble implementation of the CROCUS snow is obtained that includes appropriate uncertainty in key SMB forcings. In the update step, the estimate is conditioned on remotely sensed land surface temperature (LST), albedo, and passive microwave (1.4, 6.9, 18.7, 36.5, and 89 GHz) measurements to provide a posterior estimate of the GrIS SMB components. The end result is an estimate that benefits from the regional atmospheric and snow models, but is also constrained by remote sensing data streams. The assimilation approach is tested for

  16. Assessment of surface dryness due to deforestation using satellite-based temperature-vegetation dryness index (TVDI) in Rondônia, Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, J. H.; Cho, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Rondônia is the most deforested region in the Amazon due to human activities such as forest lumbering for the several decades. The deforestation affects to water cycle because evapotranspiration was reduced, and then soil moisture and precipitation will be changed. In this study, we assess surface dryness using satellite-based data such as moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), albedo, TRMM Multi-sensor Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) precipitation from 2002 to 2014, and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) sun-induced fluorescence (SIF) from 2007 to 2014. Temperature-vegetation dryness index (TVDI) was calculated using LST and NDVI to evaluate surface dryness during dry season (June-July). TVDI relatively represents the surface dryness on specific area and period. Forest, deforesting and deforested regions were selected in the Rondônia to assess the relative changes on surface dryness occurred from human activity. The relative TVDI (rTVDI) at deforesting region increased because of deforestation, it means that surface in deforesting region became more dryness. We also found that to assess the impact of deforestation using satellite-based precipitation and vegetation conditions such as NDVI and sun-induced fluorescence (SIF) is possible. The relative NDVI (rNDVI) and SIF decreased when TVDI increased, and two variables (rTVDI-rNDVI, rTVDI-SIF) had linear correlation. Thesis results can be helpful to comprehend impact of deforestation in Amazon, and to validate simulations of deforestation from hydrological models.

  17. Low Temperature Surface Carburization of Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Sunniva R; Heuer, Arthur H; Sikka, Vinod K

    2007-12-07

    Thermodynamic modeling to explain the high degree of carbon solubility possible in austenitic grades under the LTCSS process and experimental validation of model results • Corrosion testing to determine the corrosion resistance improvement possible from the LTCSS process • Erosion testing to determine the erosion resistance improvement possible from the LTCSS process • Wear testing to quantify the wear resistance improvement possible from the LTCSS process • Fatigue testing for quantifying the extent of improvement from the LTCSS process • Component treating and testing under simulated and in-line commercial operations XRD verified expanded austenite lattice, with no evidence of carbide precipitation. Carbon concentration profiles via Auger and electron dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) showed carbon levels in excess of 12 at. % in treated, type 316 SS. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of pulled-to-failure treated tensile specimens showed slip bands and no de-cohesion of the treated layer, verifying that the layer remains ductile. Compressive stresses in excess of 2 GPa (300 ksi) have been calculated at the surface of the case. Phase diagram (CALPHAD) (ThermoCalc) and Wagner dilute solution thermodynamic models were developed that calculate the solubility of carbon in austenite as a function of alloying content for the process time and temperature. Several commercial alloys have been modeled, and the model has been used to design experimental alloys with enhanced affinity for carbon solubility at treatment temperatures. Four experimental alloys were melted, rolled, and manufactured into test specimens, and the LTCSS treatment indicated successfully enhanced results and validated the predictions based on thermodynamic modeling. Electrochemical polarization curves show a 600 to 800 mV increase in pitting potential in treated (900-1000 mV) versus non-treated (200-300 mV) type 316 in chloride solutions. Treated 316L showed crevice-corrosion behavior similar to that of Ti-6

  18. Sea Surface Temperature Average_SST_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea surface temperature collected via satellite imagery from http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.noaa.ersst.html and averaged for each region using ArcGIS...

  19. OW NOAA GOES Sea-Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains satellite-derived sea-surface temperature measurements collected by means of the Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellite. The data is...

  20. evaluation of land surface temperature parameterization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1 DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS, ADEYEMI COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, ONDO, ... Surface temperature (Ts) is vital to the study of land-atmosphere interactions and climate variabilities. .... value = 0.167 m3m-3), and very low for dry days (mean.

  1. Monthly Near-Surface Air Temperature Averages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global surface temperatures in 2010 tied 2005 as the warmest on record. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) was established in 1982 as part...

  2. Sea Surface Temperature (14 KM North America)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Product shows local sea surface temperatures (degrees C). It is a composite gridded-image derived from 8-km resolution SST Observations. It is generated every 48...

  3. Analysed foundation sea surface temperature, global

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The through-cloud capabilities of microwave radiometers provide a valuable picture of global sea surface temperature (SST). To utilize this, scientists at Remote...

  4. Urban aerosol effects on surface insolation and surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, M.; Burian, S. J.; Remer, L. A.; Shepherd, M. J.

    2007-12-01

    Urban aerosol particulates may play a fundamental role in urban microclimates and city-generated mesoscale circulations via its effects on energy balance of the surface. Key questions that need to be addressed include: (1) How do these particles affect the amount of solar energy reaching the surface and resulting surface temperature? (2) Is the effect the same in all cities? and (3) How does it vary from city to city? Using NASA AERONET in-situ observations, a radiative transfer model, and a regional climate mode (MM5), we assess aerosol effects on surface insolation and surf ace temperature for dense urban-polluted regions. Two big cities, one in a developing country (Beijing, P.R. China) and another in developed country (New York City, USA), are selected for inter-comparison. The study reveals that aerosol effects on surface temperature depends largely on aerosols' optical and chemical properties as well as atmosphere and land surface conditions, such as humidity and land cover. Therefore, the actual magnitudes of aerosol effects differ from city to city. Aerosol measurements from AERONET show both average and extreme cases for aerosol impacts on surface insolation. In general, aerosols reduce surface insolation by 30Wm-2. Nevertheless, in extreme cases, such reduction can exceed 100 Wm-2. Consequently, this reduces surface skin temperature 2-10C in an urban environment.

  5. Modeling of global surface air temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakova, M. A.; Karlin, L. N.

    2012-04-01

    A model to assess a number of factors, such as total solar irradiance, albedo, greenhouse gases and water vapor, affecting climate change has been developed on the basis of Earth's radiation balance principle. To develop the model solar energy transformation in the atmosphere was investigated. It's a common knowledge, that part of the incoming radiation is reflected into space from the atmosphere, land and water surfaces, and another part is absorbed by the Earth's surface. Some part of outdoing terrestrial radiation is retained in the atmosphere by greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide) and water vapor. Making use of the regression analysis a correlation between concentration of greenhouse gases, water vapor and global surface air temperature was obtained which, it is turn, made it possible to develop the proposed model. The model showed that even smallest fluctuations of total solar irradiance intensify both positive and negative feedback which give rise to considerable changes in global surface air temperature. The model was used both to reconstruct the global surface air temperature for the 1981-2005 period and to predict global surface air temperature until 2030. The reconstructions of global surface air temperature for 1981-2005 showed the models validity. The model makes it possible to assess contribution of the factors listed above in climate change.

  6. Age-surface temperature estimation model: When will oil palm plantation reach the same surface temperature as natural forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushayati, S. B.; Hermawan, R.; Meilani, R.

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm plantation has often been accused as the cause of global warming. However, along with its growth, it would be able to decrease surface temperature. The question is ‘when will the plantation be able to reach the same surface temperature as natural forest’. This research aimed to estimate the age of oil palm plantation that create similar surface temperature to those in natural forest (land cover before the opening and planting of oil palm). The method used in this research was spatial analysis of land cover and surface temperature distribution. Based on the spatial analysis of surface temperature, five points was randomly taken from each planting age (age 1 15 years). Linear regression was then employed in the analysis. The linear regression formula between surface temperature and age of oil palm plantation was Y = 26.002 – 0.1237X. Surface temperature will decrease as much as 0.1237 ° C with one year age growth oil palm. Surface temperature that was similar to the initial temperature, when the land cover was natural forest (23.04 °C), was estimated to occur when the oil palm plantation reach the age 24 year.

  7. Middle Pliocene sea surface temperature variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, H.J.; Chandler, M.A.; Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    Estimates of sea surface temperature (SST) based upon foraminifer, diatom, and ostracod assemblages from ocean cores reveal a warm phase of the Pliocene between about 3.3 and 3.0 Ma. Pollen records and plant megafossils, although not as well dated, show evidence for a warmer climate at about the same time. Increased greenhouse forcing and altered ocean heat transport are the leading candidates for the underlying cause of Pliocene global warmth. Despite being a period of global warmth, this interval encompasses considerable variability. Two new SST reconstructions are presented that are designed to provide a climatological error bar for warm peak phases of the Pliocene and to document the spatial distribution and magnitude of SST variability within the mid-Pliocene warm period. These data suggest long-term stability of low-latitude SST and document greater variability in regions of maximum warming. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Development of an improved urban emissivity model based on sky view factor for retrieving effective emissivity and surface temperature over urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinxin; Wong, Man Sing; Menenti, Massimo; Nichol, Janet; Voogt, James; Krayenhoff, E. Scott; Chan, P. W.

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of urban geometry on retrieval of emissivity and surface temperature in urban areas. An improved urban emissivity model based on sky view factor (IUEM-SVF) was further enhanced to consider all radiance contributions leaving the urban canopy, including (i) emission by all facets within an instantaneous field of view (IFOV); (ii) reflection by all facets of emission from surrounding facets; and (iii) propagation of emitted and reflected radiation with multiple reflections (scattering) within a complex 3D array of urban objects. The effective emissivity derived from IUEM-SVF was evaluated with a microscale radiative transfer and energy balance model: Temperatures of Urban Facets in 3-D (TUF-3D). IUEM-SVF performs well when urban facets have uniform emissivity and temperature; e.g., root mean square deviations (RMSD) are less than 0.005 when material emissivity is larger than 0.80 (ɛ ⩾ 0.80). However, when material emissivities are variable within the observed target, differences of effective emissivity between IUEM-SVF and TUF-3D become larger, e.g., RMSD of 0.010. When the effect of geometry is not considered and a mixed pixel emissivity is defined, the difference is even much larger (i.e. 0.02) and this difference increases with the decrease of sky view factor. Thus, the geometry effect should be considered in the determination of effective emissivity. Effective emissivity derived from IUEM-SVF was used to retrieve urban surface temperature from a nighttime ASTER thermal infrared image. Promising results were achieved in comparison with standard LST products retrieved with the Temperature and Emissivity Separation (TES) algorithm. IUEM-SVF shows promise as a means to improve the accuracy of urban surface temperature retrieval. The effect of thermal heterogeneity on the effective emissivity was also evaluated by TUF-3D, and results show that the thermal heterogeneity cannot be neglected since the RMSD between the effective

  9. Land Surface Temperature Retrieval from Landsat 8 TIRS—Comparison between Radiative Transfer Equation-Based Method, Split Window Algorithm and Single Channel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Yu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate inversion of land surface geo/biophysical variables from remote sensing data for earth observation applications is an essential and challenging topic for the global change research. Land surface temperature (LST is one of the key parameters in the physics of earth surface processes from local to global scales. The importance of LST is being increasingly recognized and there is a strong interest in developing methodologies to measure LST from the space. Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS is the newest thermal infrared sensor for the Landsat project, providing two adjacent thermal bands, which has a great benefit for the LST inversion. In this paper, we compared three different approaches for LST inversion from TIRS, including the radiative transfer equation-based method, the split-window algorithm and the single channel method. Four selected energy balance monitoring sites from the Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD were used for validation, combining with the MODIS 8 day emissivity product. For the investigated sites and scenes, results show that the LST inverted from the radiative transfer equation-based method using band 10 has the highest accuracy with RMSE lower than 1 K, while the SW algorithm has moderate accuracy and the SC method has the lowest accuracy.

  10. Retrieving Snow Surface Temperature Based on MODIS Data%基于MODIS数据的雪面温度遥感反演

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周纪; 陈云浩; 李京; 唐艳

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of simplification of the Planck function in a low temperature range,this paper revises the practical split-window algorithm and presents a method for retrieving snow surface temperature (Ts) based on MODIS data in the mid-dle-latitude region.The application of this method in Qinghai Lake region reveals that it is feasible for the retrieval of Ts.Re-sults of correlation analysis indicate that there was strong negative relationship between Ts and altitude.By analyzing three typical areas in which land cover was relatively homogenous,this paper discusses the relationship between Tsand normalized difference snow index (NDSI) and then presents a new concept named "NDSI-Ts space".

  11. High-temperature corrosion and wear properties of HVOF coatings of cobalt-based (CoCr) surfacing alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghu, D.; Lee, D.A.; Singh, P.M.

    1999-07-01

    High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying is extensively used in industry to produce high-density, low porosity functional coatings to resist severe wear and corrosion. Increasingly there is a need to provide high-quality coatings that resist both wear and corrosion at high temperatures at the same time. Very few engineering data exist on such coatings. In this paper, a study of HVOF coatings of Co-Cr-Mo alloys, that relies on Laves phases or on carbides for wear and corrosion resistance is reported. The paper covers the basic metallurgy of the alloys, their design and microstructure. The oxidation and sulfidation resistances of the coatings are evaluated at 600 C. The high-temperature hardness and the room-temperature abrasion resistance, hardness and bond strengths are compared to assess their utility in high-temperature corrosion and wear-resistant applications. The test results indicate that these alloys are strong candidate materials for providing protection in the form of HVOF coatings, in high-temperature wear and corrosion environments.

  12. Long chain diol index (LDI) as an organic-based sea surface temperature proxy in the Korean East Sea (NW Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Jong-Ku; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kang, Su-Jin; Lee, Dong-Hun; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2016-04-01

    Long chain diol index (LDI) was introduced as an organic-based sea surface temperature (SST) proxy. LDI is expressed as the C30 1,15-diol abundance relative to those of C28 1,13-, C30 1,13- and C30 1,15-diols. There were a few studies which accessed the potential of LDI based on the culture, core top sediments, suspended particulate organic matters, and down-core sediments. However it is still unknown about the source of the diols and robustness as the SST proxy in the various marine environments. In the current study, we examined the applicability of the LDI in the East Sea of Korea where productivity and thus sedimentation rates are high. We will compare the LDI data with those of alkenone-based UK'37 by analyzing two multicores covering the last 100 year.

  13. International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) Global Land Surface Temperature Databank - Stage 2 Monthly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global land surface temperature databank contains monthly timescale mean, max, and min temperature for approximately 40,000 stations globally. It was developed...

  14. International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) Global Land Surface Temperature Databank - Stage 2 Daily

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global land surface temperature databank contains monthly timescale mean, max, and min temperature for approximately 40,000 stations globally. It was developed...

  15. International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) Global Land Surface Temperature Databank - Stage 3 Monthly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Land Surface Temperature Databank contains monthly timescale mean, maximum, and minimum temperature for approximately 40,000 stations globally. It was...

  16. International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) Global Land Surface Temperature Databank - Stage 1 Daily

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global land surface temperature databank contains monthly timescale mean, max, and min temperature for approximately 40,000 stations globally. It was developed...

  17. International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) Global Land Surface Temperature Databank - Stage 1 Monthly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global land surface temperature databank contains monthly timescale mean, max, and min temperature for approximately 40,000 stations globally. It was developed...

  18. Satellite Sensed Skin Sea Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlon, Craig

    1997-01-01

    Quantitative predictions of spatial and temporal changes the global climate rely heavily on the use of computer models. Unfortunately, such models cannot provide the basis for climate prediction because key physical processes are inadequately treated. Consequently, fine tuning procedures are often used to optimize the fit between model output and observational data and the validation of climate models using observations is essential if model based predictions of climate change are to be treated with any degree of confidence. Satellite Sea Surface Temperature (SST) observations provide high spatial and temporal resolution data which is extremely well suited to the initialization, definition of boundary conditions and, validation of climate models. In the case of coupled ocean-atmosphere models, the SST (or more correctly the 'Skin' SST (SSST)) is a fundamental diagnostic variable to consider in the validation process. Daily global SST maps derived from satellite sensors also provide adequate data for the detection of global patterns of change which, unlike any other SST data set, repeatedly extend into the southern hemisphere extra-tropical regions. Such data are essential to the success of the spatial 'fingerprint' technique, which seeks to establish a north-south asymmetry where warming is suppressed in the high latitude Southern Ocean. Some estimates suggest that there is a greater than 80% chance of directly detecting significant change (97.5 % confidence level) after 10-12 years of consistent global observations of mean sea surface temperature. However, these latter statements should be qualified with the assumption that a negligible drift in the observing system exists and that biases between individual instruments required to derive a long term data set are small. Given that current estimates for the magnitude of global warming of 0.015 K yr(sup -1) - 0.025 K yr(sup -1), satellite SST data sets need to be both accurate and stable if such a warming trend is to

  19. Global Monitoring RSEM System for Crop Production by Incorporating Satellite-based Photosynthesis Rates and Anomaly Data of Sea Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, D.; Sakuma, H.

    2014-12-01

    The first author has been developing RSEM crop-monitoring system using satellite-based assessment of photosynthesis, incorporating meteorological conditions. Crop production comprises of several stages and plural mechanisms based on leaf photosynthesis, surface energy balance, and the maturing of grains after fixation of CO2, along with water exchange through soil vegetation-atmosphere transfer. Grain production in prime countries appears to be randomly perturbed regionally and globally. Weather for crop plants reflects turbulent phenomena of convective and advection flows in atmosphere and surface boundary layer. It has been difficult for scientists to simulate and forecast weather correctly for sufficiently long terms to crop harvesting. However, severely poor harvests related to continental events must originate from a consistent mechanism of abnormal energetic flow in the atmosphere through both land and oceans. It should be remembered that oceans have more than 100 times of energy storage compared to atmosphere and ocean currents represent gigantic energy flows, strongly affecting climate. Anomalies of Sea Surface Temperature (SST), globally known as El Niño, Indian Ocean dipole, and Atlantic Niño etc., affect the seasonal climate on a continental scale. The authors aim to combine monitoring and seasonal forecasting, considering such mechanisms through land-ocean biosphere transfer. The present system produces assessments for all continents, specifically monitoring agricultural fields of main crops. Historical regions of poor and good harvests are compared with distributions of SST anomalies, which are provided by NASA GSFC. Those comparisons fairly suggest that the Worst harvest in 1993 and the Best in 1994 relate to the offshore distribution of low temperature anomalies and high gaps in ocean surface temperatures. However, high-temperature anomalies supported good harvests because of sufficient solar radiation for photosynthesis, and poor harvests because

  20. Integrative inversion of land surface component temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Wenjie; XU Xiru

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the row winter wheat was selected as the example to study the component temperature inversion method of land surface target in detail. The result showed that the structural pattern of row crop can affect the inversion precision of component temperature evidently. Choosing appropriate structural pattern of row crop can improve the inversion precision significantly. The iterative method combining inverse matrix was a stable method that was fit for inversing component temperature of land surface target. The result of simulation and field experiment showed that the integrative method could remarkably improve the inversion accuracy of the lighted soil surface temperature and the top layer canopy temperature, and enhance inversion stability of components temperature. Just two parameters were sufficient for accurate atmospheric correction of multi-angle and multi-spectral thermal infrared data: atmospheric transmittance and the atmospheric upwelling radiance. If the atmospheric parameters and component temperature can be inversed synchronously, the really and truly accurate atmospheric correction can be achieved. The validation using ATSRII data showed that the method was useful.

  1. Projections of high resolution climate changes for South Korea using multiple-regional climate models based on four RCP scenarios. Part 1: surface air temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Myoung-Seok; Oh, Seok-Geun; Lee, Young-Suk; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Hong, Song-You; Min, Seung-Ki; Park, Seong-Chan; Kang, Hyun-Suk

    2016-05-01

    We projected surface air temperature changes over South Korea during the mid (2026-2050) and late (2076-2100) 21st century against the current climate (1981-2005) using the simulation results from five regional climate models (RCMs) driven by Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model, version 2, coupled with the Atmosphere- Ocean (HadGEM2-AO), and two ensemble methods (equal weighted averaging, weighted averaging based on Taylor's skill score) under four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios. In general, the five RCM ensembles captured the spatial and seasonal variations, and probability distribution of temperature over South Korea reasonably compared to observation. They particularly showed a good performance in simulating annual temperature range compared to HadGEM2-AO. In future simulation, the temperature over South Korea will increase significantly for all scenarios and seasons. Stronger warming trends are projected in the late 21st century than in the mid-21st century, in particular under RCP8.5. The five RCM ensembles projected that temperature changes for the mid/late 21st century relative to the current climate are +1.54°C/+1.92°C for RCP2.6, +1.68°C/+2.91°C for RCP4.5, +1.17°C/+3.11°C for RCP6.0, and +1.75°C/+4.73°C for RCP8.5. Compared to the temperature projection of HadGEM2-AO, the five RCM ensembles projected smaller increases in temperature for all RCP scenarios and seasons. The inter-RCM spread is proportional to the simulation period (i.e., larger in the late-21st than mid-21st century) and significantly greater (about four times) in winter than summer for all RCP scenarios. Therefore, the modeled predictions of temperature increases during the late 21st century, particularly for winter temperatures, should be used with caution.

  2. Sensitivity of Satellite-Based Skin Temperature to Different Surface Emissivity and NWP Reanalysis Sources Demonstrated Using a Single-Channel, Viewing-Angle-Corrected Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarino, B. R.; Minnis, P.; Yost, C. R.; Chee, T.; Palikonda, R.

    2015-12-01

    Single-channel algorithms for satellite thermal-infrared- (TIR-) derived land and sea surface skin temperature (LST and SST) are advantageous in that they can be easily applied to a variety of satellite sensors. They can also accommodate decade-spanning instrument series, particularly for periods when split-window capabilities are not available. However, the benefit of one unified retrieval methodology for all sensors comes at the cost of critical sensitivity to surface emissivity (ɛs) and atmospheric transmittance estimation. It has been demonstrated that as little as 0.01 variance in ɛs can amount to more than a 0.5-K adjustment in retrieved LST values. Atmospheric transmittance requires calculations that employ vertical profiles of temperature and humidity from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Selection of a given NWP model can significantly affect LST and SST agreement relative to their respective validation sources. Thus, it is necessary to understand the accuracies of the retrievals for various NWP models to ensure the best LST/SST retrievals. The sensitivities of the single-channel retrievals to surface emittance and NWP profiles are investigated using NASA Langley historic land and ocean clear-sky skin temperature (Ts) values derived from high-resolution 11-μm TIR brightness temperature measured from geostationary satellites (GEOSat) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR). It is shown that mean GEOSat-derived, anisotropy-corrected LST can vary by up to ±0.8 K depending on whether CERES or MODIS ɛs sources are used. Furthermore, the use of either NOAA Global Forecast System (GFS) or NASA Goddard Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) for the radiative transfer model initial atmospheric state can account for more than 0.5-K variation in mean Ts. The results are compared to measurements from the Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD), an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program ground

  3. TEMPERATURE CONTROL CIRCUIT FOR SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE (SAW RESONATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Mohamad Ashari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW resonators are key components in oscillators, frequency synthesizers and transceivers. One of the drawbacks of SAW resonators are that its piezoelectric substrates are highly sensitive to ambient temperature resulting in performance degradation. This work propose a simple circuit design which stabalizes the temperature of the SAW resonator, making it independet of temperature change. This circuit is based on the oven control method which elevates the temperature of the resonator to a high temperature, making it tolerant to minor changes in ambient temperature.This circuit consist of a temperature sensor, heaters and a comparator which turn the heater on or off depending on the ambient temperature. Several SAW resonator were tested using this circuit. Experimental results indicate the temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF decreases from maximum of 130.44/°C to a minimum of -1.11/°C. 

  4. Dryness Indices Based on Remotely Sensed Vegetation and Land Surface Temperature for Evaluating the Soil Moisture Status in Cropland-Forest-Dominant Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heewon Moon and Minha Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI was derived from the relationship between remotely sensed vegetation indices and land surface temperature (TS in this study for assessing the soil moisture status at regional scale in South Korea. The Leaf Area Index (LAI is newly applied in this method to overcome the increasing uncertainty of using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI at high vegetation conditions. Both dryness indices were found to be well correlated with in situ soil moisture and 8-day average precipitation at most of the in situ measurement sites. The dryness indices accuracy was found to be influenced by rainfall events. An average correlation coefficient was improved from -0.253 to -0.329 when LAI was used instead of NDVI in calculating the TVDI. In the spatial analysis between the dryness indices and Advanced SCATterometer (ASCAT surface soil moisture (SSM using geographically weighted regression (GWR, the results showed the average negative correlation (R between the variables, while LAI-induced TVDI was more strongly correlated with SSM on average with the R value improved from -0.59 to -0.62. Both dryness indices and ASCAT SSM mappings generally showed coherent patterns under low vegetation and dry conditions. Based on these results, the LAI-induced TVDI accuracy as an index for soil moisture status was validated and found appropriate for use as an alternative and complementary method for NDVI-induced TVDI.

  5. Inkjet printed paper based frequency selective surfaces and skin mounted RFID tags: The interrelation between silver nanoparticle ink, paper substrate and low temperature sintering technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Romaguera, V.; Wünscher, S.; Turki, B.M.; Abbel, R.; Barbosa, S.; Tate, D.J.; Oyeka, D.; Batchelor, J.C.; Parker, E.A.; Schubert, U.S.; Yeates, S.G.

    2015-01-01

    Inkjet printing of functional frequency selective surfaces (FSS) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags on commercial paper substrates using silver nanoparticle inks sintered using low temperature thermal, plasma and photonic techniques is reported. Printed and sintered FSS devices demonstra

  6. Applications of a thermal-based two-source energy balance model using Priestley-Taylor approach for surface temperature partitioning under advective conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lisheng; Kustas, William P.; Liu, Shaomin; Colaizzi, Paul D.; Nieto, Hector; Xu, Ziwei; Ma, Yanfei; Li, Mingsong; Xu, Tongren; Agam, Nurit; Tolk, Judy A.; Evett, Steven R.

    2016-09-01

    In this study ground measured soil and vegetation component temperatures and composite temperature from a high spatial resolution thermal camera and a network of thermal-IR sensors collected in an irrigated maize field and in an irrigated cotton field are used to assess and refine the component temperature partitioning approach in the Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model. A refinement to TSEB using a non-iterative approach based on the application of the Priestley-Taylor formulation for surface temperature partitioning and estimating soil evaporation from soil moisture observations under advective conditions (TSEB-A) was developed. This modified TSEB formulation improved the agreement between observed and modeled soil and vegetation temperatures. In addition, the TSEB-A model output of evapotranspiration (ET) and the components evaporation (E), transpiration (T) when compared to ground observations using the stable isotopic method and eddy covariance (EC) technique from the HiWATER experiment and with microlysimeters and a large monolithic weighing lysimeter from the BEAREX08 experiment showed good agreement. Difference between the modeled and measured ET measurements were less than 10% and 20% on a daytime basis for HiWATER and BEAREX08 data sets, respectively. The TSEB-A model was found to accurately reproduce the temporal dynamics of E, T and ET over a full growing season under the advective conditions existing for these irrigated crops located in arid/semi-arid climates. With satellite data this TSEB-A modeling framework could potentially be used as a tool for improving water use efficiency and conservation practices in water limited regions. However, TSEB-A requires soil moisture information which is not currently available routinely from satellite at the field scale.

  7. Low Temperature Surface Carburization of Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Sunniva R; Heuer, Arthur H; Sikka, Vinod K

    2007-12-07

    Thermodynamic modeling to explain the high degree of carbon solubility possible in austenitic grades under the LTCSS process and experimental validation of model results • Corrosion testing to determine the corrosion resistance improvement possible from the LTCSS process • Erosion testing to determine the erosion resistance improvement possible from the LTCSS process • Wear testing to quantify the wear resistance improvement possible from the LTCSS process • Fatigue testing for quantifying the extent of improvement from the LTCSS process • Component treating and testing under simulated and in-line commercial operations XRD verified expanded austenite lattice, with no evidence of carbide precipitation. Carbon concentration profiles via Auger and electron dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) showed carbon levels in excess of 12 at. % in treated, type 316 SS. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of pulled-to-failure treated tensile specimens showed slip bands and no de-cohesion of the treated layer, verifying that the layer remains ductile. Compressive stresses in excess of 2 GPa (300 ksi) have been calculated at the surface of the case. Phase diagram (CALPHAD) (ThermoCalc) and Wagner dilute solution thermodynamic models were developed that calculate the solubility of carbon in austenite as a function of alloying content for the process time and temperature. Several commercial alloys have been modeled, and the model has been used to design experimental alloys with enhanced affinity for carbon solubility at treatment temperatures. Four experimental alloys were melted, rolled, and manufactured into test specimens, and the LTCSS treatment indicated successfully enhanced results and validated the predictions based on thermodynamic modeling. Electrochemical polarization curves show a 600 to 800 mV increase in pitting potential in treated (900-1000 mV) versus non-treated (200-300 mV) type 316 in chloride solutions. Treated 316L showed crevice-corrosion behavior similar to that of Ti-6

  8. A satellite-based climatology (1989-2012) of lake surface water temperature from AVHRR 1-km for Central European water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffler, Michael; Wunderle, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The temperature of lakes is an important parameter for lake ecosystems influencing the speed of physio-chemical reactions, the concentration of dissolved gazes (e.g. oxygen), and vertical mixing. Even small temperature changes might have irreversible effects on the lacustrine system due to the high specific heat capacity of water. These effects could alter the quality of lake water depending on parameters like lake size and volume. Numerous studies mention lake water temperature as an indicator of climate change and in the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) requirements it is listed as an essential climate variable. In contrast to in situ observations, satellite imagery offers the possibility to derive spatial patterns of lake surface water temperature (LSWT) and their variability. Moreover, although for some European lakes long in situ time series are available, the temperatures of many lakes are not measured or only on a non-regular basis making these observations insufficient for climate monitoring. However, only few satellite sensors offer the possibility to analyze time series which cover more than 20 years. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is among these and has been flown on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and on the Meteorological Operational Satellites (MetOp) from the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) as a heritage instrument for almost 35 years. It will be carried on for at least ten more years finally offering a unique opportunity for satellite-based climate studies. Herein we present the results from a study initiated by the Swiss GCOS office to generate a satellite-based LSWT climatology for the pre-alpine water bodies in Switzerland. It relies on the extensive AVHRR 1-km data record (1985-2012) of the Remote Sensing Research Group at the University of Bern (RSGB) and has been derived from the AVHRR/2

  9. In situ Raman spectroscopic analysis of surface oxide films on Ni-base alloy/low alloy steel dissimilar metal weld interfaces in high-temperature water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongjin; Choi, Kyung Joon [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Bahn, Chi Bum [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University 2, 63-gil, Geumjeong-Gu, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hyun, E-mail: kimjh@unist.ac.kr [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    In situ Raman spectroscopy has been applied to analyze the surface oxide films formed on dissimilar metal weld (DMW) interfaces of nickel-base alloy/low alloy steel under hydrogenated high-temperature water condition. For the analysis of the oxide films under high temperature/pressure aqueous conditions, an in situ Raman spectroscopy system was developed by constructing a hydrothermal cell where the entire optics including the excitation laser and the Raman light collection system were located at the nearest position to the specimen by means of immersion optics. In situ Raman spectra of the DMW interfaces were collected in hydrogenated water condition at different temperatures up to 300 °C. The measured in situ Raman spectra showed peaks of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} at the DMW interface. It is considered that differences in the oxide chemistry originated from the chemical element distribution inside of the DMW interface region.

  10. Temperature limit values for gripping cold surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malchaire, J.; Geng, Q.; Den Hartog, E.; Havenith, G.; Holmer, I.; Piette, A.; Powell, S.L.; Rintamäki, H.; Rissanen, S.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. At the request of the European Commission and in the framework of the European Machinery Directive, research was conducted jointly in five different laboratories to develop specifications for surface temperature limit values for the gripping and handling of cold items. Methods. Four

  11. Temperature limit values for gripping cold surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malchaire, J.; Geng, Q.; Den Hartog, E.; Havenith, G.; Holmer, I.; Piette, A.; Powell, S.L.; Rintamäki, H.; Rissanen, S.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. At the request of the European Commission and in the framework of the European Machinery Directive, research was conducted jointly in five different laboratories to develop specifications for surface temperature limit values for the gripping and handling of cold items. Methods. Four hund

  12. Surface temperature excess in heterogeneous catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, L.

    2005-01-01

    In this dissertation we study the surface temperature excess in heterogeneous catalysis. For heterogeneous reactions, such as gas-solid catalytic reactions, the reactions take place at the interfaces between the two phases: the gas and the solid catalyst. Large amount of reaction heats are released

  13. Surface temperature excess in heterogeneous catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, L.

    2005-01-01

    In this dissertation we study the surface temperature excess in heterogeneous catalysis. For heterogeneous reactions, such as gas-solid catalytic reactions, the reactions take place at the interfaces between the two phases: the gas and the solid catalyst. Large amount of reaction heats are released

  14. Trend patterns in global sea surface temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, S.M.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2009-01-01

    Isolating long-term trend in sea surface temperature (SST) from El Nino southern oscillation (ENSO) variability is fundamental for climate studies. In the present study, trend-empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, a robust space-time method for extracting trend patterns, is applied...

  15. Land Surface Component Temperature Retrieval for Urban Scale Based on ASTER Image%城市尺度组分温度的ASTER数据遥感反演

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑文武; 曾永年

    2012-01-01

    Land surface component temperature has mote significant physical meaning, and it reflects the actual distribution of temperature more significantly. Meanwhile, its retrieval algorithms have no need for hypothesis that components in pixels have the same temperature. Although the multi-angle retrieval algorithm of component temperature has become mature gradually, its application in the studies on urban thermal environment is restricted due to the difficulty in acquiring urban-scale multi-angle thermal infrared data. Therefore, based on the existing multi-band remote sensing data, access to appropriate urban-scale component temperature is an urgent issue to be solved in current studies on urban thermal infrared remote sensing. In this paper, a new algorithm to retrieve land surface component temperature for urban area had been proposed. It took advantage of ASTER data, and evaluated mean emissivity of pixels based on linear spectral unmixing, retrieved atmospheric water vapor content from MODIS NIR bands, and used Newton 's iterative method to obtain atmosphere average temperature. Finally, an experimental study of this algorithm had been conducted and the retrieval result had been validated using some measured data. The results showed that; (1) the results of component temperature retrieval algorithm and split window algorithm of pure pixels have high correlation coefficient and the correlation coefficient of vegetation is the highest; (2) compared with the measured data, biases of the retrieval result ranged between 0. 2 and 1. 4℃, and the vegetation component temperature among different components had the smallest bias value.%为了获取城市尺度组分温度,实现城市水热平衡的高精度反演,探索了一种多波段热红外遥感影像的城市尺度组分温度反演算法.算法选取了植被、土壤和不透水表面等3种组分,并且针对ASTER数据,利用线性混合像元分解方法获取像元平均比辐射率,以MODIS近红外数据

  16. Matlab based automatization of an inverse surface temperature modelling procedure for Greenland ice cores using an existing firn densification and heat diffusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Michael; Kobashi, Takuro; Kindler, Philippe; Guillevic, Myriam; Leuenberger, Markus

    2016-04-01

    In order to study Northern Hemisphere (NH) climate interactions and variability, getting access to high resolution surface temperature records of the Greenland ice sheet is an integral condition. For example, understanding the causes for changes in the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and related effects for the NH [Broecker et al. (1985); Rahmstorf (2002)] or the origin and processes leading the so called Dansgaard-Oeschger events in glacial conditions [Johnsen et al. (1992); Dansgaard et al., 1982] demand accurate and reproducible temperature data. To reveal the surface temperature history, it is suitable to use the isotopic composition of nitrogen (δ15N) from ancient air extracted from ice cores drilled at the Greenland ice sheet. The measured δ15N record of an ice core can be used as a paleothermometer due to the nearly constant isotopic composition of nitrogen in the atmosphere at orbital timescales changes only through firn processes [Severinghaus et. al. (1998); Mariotti (1983)]. To reconstruct the surface temperature for a special drilling site the use of firn models describing gas and temperature diffusion throughout the ice sheet is necessary. For this an existing firn densification and heat diffusion model [Schwander et. al. (1997)] is used. Thereby, a theoretical δ15N record is generated for different temperature and accumulation rate scenarios and compared with measurement data in terms of mean square error (MSE), which leads finally to an optimization problem, namely the finding of a minimal MSE. The goal of the presented study is a Matlab based automatization of this inverse modelling procedure. The crucial point hereby is to find the temperature and accumulation rate input time series which minimizes the MSE. For that, we follow two approaches. The first one is a Monte Carlo type input generator which varies each point in the input time series and calculates the MSE. Then the solutions that fulfil a given limit

  17. DISAGGREGATION OF GOES LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURES USING SURFACE EMISSIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate temporal and spatial estimation of land surface temperatures (LST) is important for modeling the hydrological cycle at field to global scales because LSTs can improve estimates of soil moisture and evapotranspiration. Using remote sensing satellites, accurate LSTs could be routine, but unfo...

  18. Surface defects and temperature on atomic friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajardo, O Y; Mazo, J J, E-mail: yovany@unizar.es [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-09-07

    We present a theoretical study of the effect of surface defects on atomic friction in the stick-slip dynamical regime of a minimalistic model. We focus on how the presence of defects and temperature change the average properties of the system. We have identified two main mechanisms which modify the mean friction force of the system when defects are considered. As expected, defects change the potential profile locally and thus affect the friction force. But the presence of defects also changes the probability distribution function of the tip slip length and thus the mean friction force. We corroborated both effects for different values of temperature, external load, dragging velocity and damping. We also show a comparison of the effects of surface defects and surface disorder on the dynamics of the system. (paper)

  19. Surface temperature distribution in broiler houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Baracho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Brazilian meat production scenario broiler production is the most dynamic segment. Despite of the knowledge generated in the poultry production chain, there are still important gaps on Brazilian rearing conditions as housing is different from other countries. This research study aimed at analyzing the variation in bird skin surface as function of heat distribution inside broiler houses. A broiler house was virtually divided into nine sectors and measurements were made during the first four weeks of the grow-out in a commercial broiler farm in the region of Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brazil. Rearing ambient temperature and relative humidity, as well as light intensity and air velocity, were recorded in the geometric center of each virtual sector to evaluate the homogeneity of these parameters. Broiler surface temperatures were recorded using infrared thermography. Differences both in surface temperature (Ts and dry bulb temperature (DBT were significant (p<0.05 as a function of week of rearing. Ts was different between the first and fourth weeks (p<0.05 in both flocks. Results showed important variations in rearing environment parameters (temperature and relative humidity and in skin surface temperature as a function of week and house sector. Air velocity data were outside the limits in the first and third weeks in several sectors. Average light intensity values presented low variation relative to week and house sector. The obtained values were outside the recommended ranges, indicating that broilers suffered thermal distress. This study points out the need to record rearing environment data in order to provide better environmental control during broiler grow-out.

  20. Evaluation of ESTARFM based algorithm for generating land surface temperature products by fusing ASTER and MODIS data during the HiWATER-MUSOEXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land surface temperature (LST) is an important parameter that is highly responsive to surface energy fluxes and has become valuable to many disciplines. However, it is difficult to acquire satellite LSTs with both high spatial and temporal resolutions due to tradeoffs between them. Thus, various alg...

  1. Noninvasive Temperature Measurement Based on Microwave Temperature Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoucheng Ding

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the noninvasive temperature measurement based on microwave temperature sensor. Moreover, in order to solve the surface temperature measurement for designing microwave temperature sensor, the microwave was issued by the transmitting antenna. Microwave encountered by the measured object to return back to the measured object and then convert it into electrical signals, the use of the quantitative relationship between this signal and input noise temperature to real-time calibration. In order to calculate the antenna brightness temperature and then after signal conditioning circuit, which can show the temperature value, in order to achieve the detection of microwave temperature. Microwave-temperature measurement system hardware based on 89C51 microcontroller consists of the microwave temperature sensor, signal conditioning circuitry and chip control circuit, AD converter circuit and display circuit. The system software is by the main program, the AD conversion routines, subroutines and delay subprogram. The microwave temperature measurement characterize has: without gain fluctuations, without the impact of changes in the noise of the machine, to provide continuous calibration, wide dynamic range.

  2. High temperature photoelectron emission and surface photovoltage in semiconducting diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. T.; Cooil, S. P.; Roberts, O. R.; Evans, S.; Langstaff, D. P.; Evans, D. A.

    2014-08-01

    A non-equilibrium photovoltage is generated in semiconducting diamond at above-ambient temperatures during x-ray and UV illumination that is sensitive to surface conductivity. The H-termination of a moderately doped p-type diamond (111) surface sustains a surface photovoltage up to 700 K, while the clean (2 × 1) reconstructed surface is not as severely affected. The flat-band C 1s binding energy is determined from 300 K measurement to be 283.87 eV. The true value for the H-terminated surface, determined from high temperature measurement, is (285.2 ± 0.1) eV, corresponding to a valence band maximum lying 1.6 eV below the Fermi level. This is similar to that of the reconstructed (2 × 1) surface, although this surface shows a wider spread of binding energy between 285.2 and 285.4 eV. Photovoltage quantification and correction are enabled by real-time photoelectron spectroscopy applied during annealing cycles between 300 K and 1200 K. A model is presented that accounts for the measured surface photovoltage in terms of a temperature-dependent resistance. A large, high-temperature photovoltage that is sensitive to surface conductivity and photon flux suggests a new way to use moderately B-doped diamond in voltage-based sensing devices.

  3. Geomagnetic effects on the average surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballatore, P.

    Several results have previously shown as the solar activity can be related to the cloudiness and the surface solar radiation intensity (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 59, 1225, 1997; Veretenenkoand Pudovkin, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 61, 521, 1999). Here, the possible relationships between the averaged surface temperature and the solar wind parameters or geomagnetic activity indices are investigated. The temperature data used are the monthly SST maps (generated at RAL and available from the related ESRIN/ESA database) that represent the averaged surface temperature with a spatial resolution of 0.5°x0.5° and cover the entire globe. The interplanetary data and the geomagnetic data are from the USA National Space Science Data Center. The time interval considered is 1995-2000. Specifically, possible associations and/or correlations of the average temperature with the interplanetary magnetic field Bz component and with the Kp index are considered and differentiated taking into account separate geographic and geomagnetic planetary regions.

  4. Comparison of MODIS Land Surface Temperature and Air Temperature over the Continental USA Meteorological Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Thome, Kurtis

    2014-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Impervious Surface Area (ISA) and MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) are used in a spatial analysis to assess the surface-temperature-based urban heat island's (UHIS) signature on LST amplitude over the continental USA and to make comparisons to local air temperatures. Air-temperature-based UHIs (UHIA), calculated using the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) daily air temperatures, are compared with UHIS for urban areas in different biomes during different seasons. NLCD ISA is used to define urban and rural temperatures and to stratify the sampling for LST and air temperatures. We find that the MODIS LST agrees well with observed air temperature during the nighttime, but tends to overestimate it during the daytime, especially during summer and in nonforested areas. The minimum air temperature analyses show that UHIs in forests have an average UHIA of 1 C during the summer. The UHIS, calculated from nighttime LST, has similar magnitude of 1-2 C. By contrast, the LSTs show a midday summer UHIS of 3-4 C for cities in forests, whereas the average summer UHIA calculated from maximum air temperature is close to 0 C. In addition, the LSTs and air temperatures difference between 2006 and 2011 are in agreement, albeit with different magnitude.

  5. Research Prowess in Retrieving Land Surface Temperature Based on Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Technologies%热红外遥感反演地表温度研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桥驿; 蔡宜泳

    2013-01-01

    介绍在遥感技术支持下用热红外波段反演地表温度的各种方法及其优缺点和适用情况;总结目前通道法反演地表温度的问题所在,引出其研究新方向:组分温度反演;最后,对热红外遥感反演地表温度作出总结和提出展望.%The methods of retrieving land surface temperature based on thermal infrared remote sensing technologies were introduced. The features of the methods and application range were also discussed. The disadvantages in the channel algorithm of retrieving land surface temperature were summarized. The new direction of component temperature retrieving was introduced. Finally, retrieving land surface temperature based on thermal infrared remote sensing temperature was summarized and forecasted.

  6. Comparison of MTI and Ground Truth Sea Surface Temperatures at Nauru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurzeja, R.

    2002-09-05

    This report evaluates MTI-derived surface water temperature near the tropical Pacific island of Nauru. The MTI sea-surface temperatures were determined by the Los Alamos National Laboratory based on the robust retrieval.

  7. A model of the ground surface temperature for micrometeorological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Julian S.; Erell, Evyatar

    2017-07-01

    Micrometeorological models at various scales require ground surface temperature, which may not always be measured in sufficient spatial or temporal detail. There is thus a need for a model that can calculate the surface temperature using only widely available weather data, thermal properties of the ground, and surface properties. The vegetated/permeable surface energy balance (VP-SEB) model introduced here requires no a priori knowledge of soil temperature or moisture at any depth. It combines a two-layer characterization of the soil column following the heat conservation law with a sinusoidal function to estimate deep soil temperature, and a simplified procedure for calculating moisture content. A physically based solution is used for each of the energy balance components allowing VP-SEB to be highly portable. VP-SEB was tested using field data measuring bare loess desert soil in dry weather and following rain events. Modeled hourly surface temperature correlated well with the measured data (r 2 = 0.95 for a whole year), with a root-mean-square error of 2.77 K. The model was used to generate input for a pedestrian thermal comfort study using the Index of Thermal Stress (ITS). The simulation shows that the thermal stress on a pedestrian standing in the sun on a fully paved surface, which may be over 500 W on a warm summer day, may be as much as 100 W lower on a grass surface exposed to the same meteorological conditions.

  8. Application of remote sensing-based two-source energy balance model for mapping field surface fluxes with composite and component surface temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operational application of a remote sensing-based two source energy balance model (TSEB) to estimate evaportranspiration (ET) and the components evaporation (E), transpiration (T) at a range of space and time scales is very useful for managing water resources in arid and semiarid watersheds. The TSE...

  9. Surface Plasmon Based Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, Andrew; Passian, Ali; Boudreaux, Philip; Ferrell, Tom

    2008-03-01

    A spectrometer that uses surface plasmon excitation in thin metal films to separate light into its component wavelengths is described. The use of surface plasmons as a dispersive medium sets this spectrometer apart from prism, grating, and interference based variants and allows for the miniaturization of this device. Theoretical and experimental results are presented for two different operation models. In the first case surface plasmon tunneling in the near field is used to provide transmission spectra of different broad band-pass, glass filters across the visible wavelength range with high stray-light rejection at low resolution as well as absorption spectra of chlorophyll extracted from a spinach leaf. The second model looks at the far field components of surface plasmon scattering.

  10. Multi-species coral Sr/Ca-based sea-surface temperature reconstruction using Orbicella faveolata and Siderastrea siderea from the Florida Straits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Jennifer A.; Richey, Julie N.; Thirumalai, Kaustubh; Poore, Richard Z.; DeLong, Kristine L.

    2017-01-01

    We present new, monthly-resolved Sr/Ca-based sea-surface temperature (SST) records from two species of massive coral, Orbicella faveolata and Siderastrea siderea, from the Dry Tortugas National Park, FL, USA (DTNP). We combine these new records with published data from three additional S. siderea coral colonies to generate a 278-year long multi-species stacked Sr/Ca-SST record from DTNP. The composite record of mean annual Sr/Ca-SST at DTNP shows pronounced decadal-scale variability with a range of 1 to 2°C. Notable cool intervals in the Sr/Ca-derived SST lasting about a decade centered at ~1845, ~1935, and ~1965 are associated with reduced summer Sr/Ca-SST (monthly maxima < 29°C), and imply a reduction in the spatial extent of the Atlantic Warm Pool (AWP). There is significant coherence between the composite DTNP Sr/Ca-SST record and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index, with the AMO lagging Sr/Ca-SST at DTNP by 9 years. Low frequency variability in the Gulf Stream surface transport, which originates near DTNP, may provide a link for the lagged relationship between multidecadal variability at DTNP and the AMO.

  11. Using compute unified device architecture-enabled graphic processing unit to accelerate fast Fourier transform-based regression Kriging interpolation on a MODIS land surface temperature image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongda; Shu, Hong; Hu, Zhiyong; Xu, Jianhui

    2016-04-01

    Kriging interpolation provides the best linear unbiased estimation for unobserved locations, but its heavy computation limits the manageable problem size in practice. To address this issue, an efficient interpolation procedure incorporating the fast Fourier transform (FFT) was developed. Extending this efficient approach, we propose an FFT-based parallel algorithm to accelerate regression Kriging interpolation on an NVIDIA® compute unified device architecture (CUDA)-enabled graphic processing unit (GPU). A high-performance cuFFT library in the CUDA toolkit was introduced to execute computation-intensive FFTs on the GPU, and three time-consuming processes were redesigned as kernel functions and executed on the CUDA cores. A MODIS land surface temperature 8-day image tile at a resolution of 1 km was resampled to create experimental datasets at eight different output resolutions. These datasets were used as the interpolation grids with different sizes in a comparative experiment. Experimental results show that speedup of the FFT-based regression Kriging interpolation accelerated by GPU can exceed 1000 when processing datasets with large grid sizes, as compared to the traditional Kriging interpolation running on the CPU. These results demonstrate that the combination of FFT methods and GPU-based parallel computing techniques greatly improves the computational performance without loss of precision.

  12. MRO/CRISM Retrieval of Surface Lambert Albedos for Multispectral Mapping of Mars with DISORT-based Rad. Transfer Modeling: Phase 1 - Using Historical Climatology for Temperatures, Aerosol Opacities, & Atmo. Pressures

    CERN Document Server

    McGuire, P C; Smith, M D; Arvidson, R E; Murchie, S L; Clancy, R T; Roush, T L; Cull, S C; Lichtenberg, K A; Wiseman, S M; Green, R O; Martin, T Z; Milliken, R E; Cavender, P J; Humm, D C; Seelos, F P; Seelos, K D; Taylor, H W; Ehlmann, B L; Mustard, J F; Pelkey, S M; Titus, T N; Hash, C D; Malaret, E R

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the DISORT-based radiative transfer pipeline ('CRISM_LambertAlb') for atmospheric and thermal correction of MRO/CRISM data acquired in multispectral mapping mode (~200 m/pixel, 72 spectral channels). Currently, in this phase-one version of the system, we use aerosol optical depths, surface temperatures, and lower-atmospheric temperatures, all from climatology derived from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS-TES) data, and surface altimetry derived from MGS Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). The DISORT-based model takes as input the dust and ice aerosol optical depths (scaled to the CRISM wavelength range), the surface pressures (computed from MOLA altimetry, MGS-TES lower-atmospheric thermometry, and Viking-based pressure climatology), the surface temperatures, the reconstructed instrumental photometric angles, and the measured I/F spectrum, and then outputs a Lambertian albedo spectrum. The Lambertian albedo spectrum is valuable geologically since it allows the mineralogical ...

  13. MODIS Surface Temperatures for Cryosphere Studies (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D. K.; Comiso, J. C.; DiGirolamo, N. E.; Shuman, C. A.; Riggs, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    We have used Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land-surface temperature (LST) and ice-surface temperature (IST) products for several applications in studies of the cryosphere. A climate-quality climate data record (CDR) of the IST of the Greenland ice sheet has been developed and was one of the data sources used to monitor the extreme melt event covering nearly the entire Greenland ice sheet on 11 - 12 July 2012. The IST CDR is available online for users to employ in models, and to study temperature distributions and melt trends on the ice sheet. We continue to assess accuracy of the IST product through comparative analysis with air temperature data from the NOAA Logan temperature sensor at Summit Station, Greenland. We find a small offset between the air temperature and the IST with the IST being slightly lower which is consistent with findings of other studies. The LST data product has been applied in studies of snow melt in regions where snow is a significant water resource. We have used LST data in seasonally snow-covered areas such as the Wind River Range, Wyoming, to monitor the relationship between LST and seasonal streamflow. A close association between a sudden and sustained increase in LST and complete snowmelt, and between melt-season maximum LST and maximum daily streamflow has been documented. Use of LST and MODIS snow-cover and products in hydrological models increases the accuracy of the modeled prediction of runoff. The IST and LST products have also been applied to study of sea ice, e.g. extent and concentration, and lake ice, such as determining ice-out dates, and these efforts will also be described.

  14. Satellite-Based Surface Heat Budgets and Sea Surface Temperature Tendency in the Tropical Eastern Indian and Western Pacific Oceans for the 1997/98 El Nino and 1998/99 La Nina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shu-Hsien; Chou, Ming-Dah; Chan, Pui-King; Lin, Po-Hsiung

    2002-01-01

    The 1997/98 is a strong El Nino warm event, while the 1998/99 is a moderate La Nina cold event. We have investigated surface heat budgets and sea surface temperature (SST) tendency for these two events in the tropical western Pacific and eastern Indian Oceans using satellite-retrieved surface radiative and turbulent fluxes. The radiative fluxes are taken from the Goddard Satellite-retrieved Surface Radiation Budget (GSSRB), derived from radiance measurements of the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellite 5. The GSSRB covers the domain 40 deg S - 4 deg N, 90 deg E-17 deg W and a period from October 1997 to December 2000. The spatial resolution is 0.5 deg x 0.5 deg lat-long and the temporal resolution is 1 day. The turbulent fluxes are taken from Version 2 of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes (GSSTF-2). The GSSTF-2 has a spatial resolution of 1 deg x 1 deg lat-long over global Oceans and a temporal resolution of 1 day covering the period July 1987-December 2000. Daily turbulent fluxes are derived from the S S M (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) surface wind and surface air humidity, and the SST and 2-m air temperature of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, using a stability-dependent bulk flux algorithm. The changes of surface heat budgets, SST and tendency, cloudiness, wind speed, and zonal wind stress of the 1997/98 El Nino relative to the1998/99 La Nina for the northern winter and spring seasons are analyzed. The relative changes of surface heat budgets and SST tendency of the two events are quite different between the tropical eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans. For the tropical western Pacific, reduced solar heating (more clouds) is generally associated with decreased evaporative cooling (weaker winds), and vise versa. The changes in evaporative cooling over-compensate that of solar heating and dominate the spatial variability of the changes in net surface heating. Both solar heating and evaporative cooling offset each other to reduce

  15. Lake surface water temperatures of European Alpine lakes (1989–2013 based on the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR 1 km data set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Riffler

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lake water temperature (LWT is an important driver of lake ecosystems and it has been identified as an indicator of climate change. Thus, the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS lists LWT as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV. Although for some European lakes long in situ time series of LWT do exist, many lakes are not observed or only on a non-regular basis making these observations insufficient for climate monitoring. Satellite data can provide the information needed. However, only few satellite sensors offer the possibility to analyse time series which cover 25 years or more. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR is among these and has been flown as a heritage instrument for almost 35 years. It will be carried on for at least ten more years finally offering a unique opportunity for satellite-based climate studies. Herein we present a satellite-based lake surface water temperature (LSWT data set for European (pre-alpine water bodies based on the extensive AVHRR 1 km data record (1989–2013 of the Remote Sensing Research Group at the University of Bern. It has been compiled out of AVHRR/2 (NOAA-07, -09, -11, -14 and AVHRR/3 (NOAA-16, -17, -18, -19 and Metop-A data. The high accuracy needed for climate related studies requires careful pre-processing and consideration of the atmospheric state. Especially data from NOAA-16 and prior satellites were prone to noise, e.g., due to transmission errors or fluctuations in the instrument's thermal state. This has resulted in partly corrupted thermal calibration data and may cause errors of up to several Kelvin in the final resulting LSWT. Thus, a multi-stage correction scheme has been applied to the data to minimize these artefacts. The LSWT retrieval is based on a simulation-based scheme making use of the Radiative Transfer for TOVS (RTTOV Version 10 together with operational analysis and reanalysis data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. The resulting LSWTs

  16. TOWARD CALIBRATED MODULAR WIRELESS SYSTEM BASED AD HOC SENSORS FOR IN SITU LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS AS SUPPORT TO SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASAAD CHAHBOUN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for in situ Land Surface Temperature (LST measurements' campaigns for satellite algorithms validations. The proposed method based on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is constituted by modules of node arrays. Each of which is constituted by 25 smart nodes scattered throughout a target field. Every node represents a Thermal Infra Red (TIR radiation sensor and keeps a minimum size while ensuring the functions of communication, sensing, and processing. This Wireless-LST (Wi-LST system is convenient to beinstalled on a field pointing to any type of targets (e.g. bare soil, grass, water, etc.. Ad hoc topology is adopted among the TIR nodes with multi-hop mesh routing protocol for communication, acquisition data are transmitted to the client tier wirelessly. Using these emergent technologies, we propose a practical method for Wi-LSTsystem calibration. TIR sensor (i.e. OSM101 from OMEGA society measures temperature, which is conditioned and amplified by an AD595 within a precision of 0.1 °C. Assessed LST is transmitted over thedeveloped ad hoc WSN modules (i.e. MICA2DOT from CROSSBOW society, and collected at in situ base station (i.e. PANASONIC CF19 laptop using an integrated database. LST is evaluated with a polynomialalgorithm structure as part of developed software. Finally, the comparison of the mean values of LST(Wi-LST in each site with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS sensor, obtained from the daily LST product (MOD11C1 developed by the MODIS-NASA Science Team, on board TERRA satellite during the campaign period is provided.

  17. Daytime sensible heat flux estimation over heterogeneous surfaces using multitemporal land-surface temperature observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellví, F.; Cammalleri, C.; Ciraolo, G.; Maltese, A.; Rossi, F.

    2016-05-01

    Equations based on surface renewal (SR) analysis to estimate the sensible heat flux (H) require as input the mean ramp amplitude and period observed in the ramp-like pattern of the air temperature measured at high frequency. A SR-based method to estimate sensible heat flux (HSR-LST) requiring only low-frequency measurements of the air temperature, horizontal mean wind speed, and land-surface temperature as input was derived and tested under unstable conditions over a heterogeneous canopy (olive grove). HSR-LST assumes that the mean ramp amplitude can be inferred from the difference between land-surface temperature and mean air temperature through a linear relationship and that the ramp frequency is related to a wind shear scale characteristic of the canopy flow. The land-surface temperature was retrieved by integrating in situ sensing measures of thermal infrared energy emitted by the surface. The performance of HSR-LST was analyzed against flux tower measurements collected at two heights (close to and well above the canopy top). Crucial parameters involved in HSR-LST, which define the above mentioned linear relationship, were explained using the canopy height and the land surface temperature observed at sunrise and sunset. Although the olive grove can behave as either an isothermal or anisothermal surface, HSR-LST performed close to H measured using the eddy covariance and the Bowen ratio energy balance methods. Root mean square differences between HSR-LST and measured H were of about 55 W m-2. Thus, by using multitemporal thermal acquisitions, HSR-LST appears to bypass inconsistency between land surface temperature and the mean aerodynamic temperature. The one-source bulk transfer formulation for estimating H performed reliable after calibration against the eddy covariance method. After calibration, the latter performed similar to the proposed SR-LST method.

  18. Radiolarian artificial neural network based paleo sea surface water temperature and salinity changes during the last glacial cycle in the Timor Sea, Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S. M.; Malmgren, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    The western Pacific water enters into the Timor Sea (tropical Indian Ocean) by the thermohaline conveyor belt, and this region is under the influence of the SW monsoon. The higher precipitation during the monsoon rains lower the surface salinity in the north-eastern Indian Ocean towards the Bay of Bengal; whereas, the Arabian Sea remains highly saline due to higher evaporation in the region surrounding Arabian deserts. The salinity contrast in the northern Indian Ocean is very unique, and the radiolarian micro-zooplanktons living in the surface water serve a very good proxy for the monsoonal changes in the surface sea-water temperature (SST) and salinity in the geological past. We studied radiolarian faunal variation in the core MD01-2378, located at ~13oS and ~121oE (1783 m water depth), at the inlet of the thermohaline circulation into the Timor Sea. We applied the modern radiolarian based artificial neural networks (ANNs) (Gupta and Malmgren, 2009) to derive the SST and salinity during August-October for the last 140 ka (the full last glacial cycle). Based on the mean estimates of the 10 ANNs, the root mean square error in prediction (RMSEP) for SST is ~1.4oC with correlation between observed and estimated values r=0.98 (Gupta and Malmgren, 2009). Similarly, the RMSEP is 0.3 psu (r=0.94) for the salinity estimates. We derived paleo-SSTs and salinity values using modern radiolarian ANNs and the fossil radiolarian data generated from the core for the last 140-ka (Fig.1). The age model of the core is based on δ18O benthic oxygen isotope stratigraphy and 21 AMS 14C ages up to ~30-ka (Holbourn et al., 2005). Paleo SST-summer varied between 22-28.5oC, and it is in very good agreement with the δ18O benthic record of Holbourn et al. (2005) defining the Last Glacial Maximum (~24 ka) and the Eemian (~125 ka) stages. The salinity fluctuated between 34-35 psu, and compared well with oxygen isotope record representing the LGM and Eemian periods. We gratefully acknowledge

  19. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Global Land Surface Air Temperature Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A station observation-based global land monthly mean surface air temperature dataset at 0.5 x 0.5 latitude-longitude resolution for the period from 1948 to the...

  20. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Global Land Surface Air Temperature Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A station observation-based global land monthly mean surface air temperature dataset at 0.5 0.5 latitude-longitude resolution for the period from 1948 to the present...

  1. The international surface temperature initiative's global land surface databank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrimore, J. H.; Rennie, J.; Gambi de Almeida, W.; Christy, J.; Flannery, M.; Gleason, B.; Klein-Tank, A.; Mhanda, A.; Ishihara, K.; Lister, D.; Menne, M. J.; Razuvaev, V.; Renom, M.; Rusticucci, M.; Tandy, J.; Thorne, P. W.; Worley, S.

    2013-09-01

    The International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) consists of an end-to-end process for land surface air temperature analyses. The foundation is the establishment of a global land surface Databank. This builds upon the groundbreaking efforts of scientists in the 1980s and 1990s. While using many of their principles, a primary aim is to improve aspects including data provenance, version control, openness and transparency, temporal and spatial coverage, and improved methods for merging disparate sources. The initial focus is on daily and monthly timescales. A Databank Working Group is focused on establishing Stage-0 (original observation forms) through Stage-3 data (merged dataset without quality control). More than 35 sources of data have already been added and efforts have now turned to development of the initial version of the merged dataset. Methods have been established for ensuring to the extent possible the provenance of all data from the point of observation through all intermediate steps to final archive and access. Databank submission procedures were designed to make the process of contributing data as easy as possible. All data are provided openly and without charge. We encourage the use of these data and feedback from interested users.

  2. Deposition temperature dependence of material and Si surface passivation properties of O{sub 3}-based atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based films and stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordihn, Stefan, E-mail: s.bordihn2@q-cells.com [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands and Hanwha Q CELLS GmbH, Sonnenallee 17-21, 06766 Bitterfeld-Wolfen (Germany); Mertens, Verena; Müller, Jörg W. [Hanwha Q CELLS GmbH, Sonnenallee 17-21, 06766 Bitterfeld-Wolfen (Germany); Kessels, W. M. M., E-mail: w.m.m.kessels@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-01-15

    The material composition and the Si surface passivation of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) films prepared by atomic layer deposition using Al(CH{sub 3}){sub 3} and O{sub 3} as precursors were investigated for deposition temperatures (T{sub Dep}) between 200 °C and 500 °C. The growth per cycle decreased with increasing deposition temperature due to a lower Al deposition rate. In contrast the material composition was hardly affected except for the hydrogen concentration, which decreased from [H] = 3 at. % at 200 °C to [H] < 0.5 at. % at 400 °C and 500 °C. The surface passivation performance was investigated after annealing at 300 °C–450 °C and also after firing steps in the typical temperature range of 800 °C–925 °C. A similar high level of the surface passivation performance, i.e., surface recombination velocity values <10 cm/s, was obtained after annealing and firing. Investigations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiN{sub x} stacks complemented the work and revealed similar levels of surface passivation as single-layer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films, both for the chemical and field-effect passivation. The fixed charge density in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiN{sub x} stacks, reflecting the field-effect passivation, was reduced by one order of magnitude from 3·10{sup 12} cm{sup −2} to 3·10{sup 11} cm{sup −2} when T{sub Dep} was increased from 300 °C to 500 °C. The level of the chemical passivation changed as well, but the total level of the surface passivation was hardly affected by the value of T{sub Dep}. When firing films prepared at of low T{sub Dep}, blistering of the films occurred and this strongly reduced the surface passivation. These results presented in this work demonstrate that a high level of surface passivation can be achieved for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based films and stacks over a wide range of conditions when the combination of deposition temperature and annealing or firing temperature is carefully chosen.

  3. The surface temperature of free evaporating drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodulin, V. Y.; Letushko, V. N.; Nizovtsev, M. I.; Sterlyagov, A. N.

    2016-10-01

    Complex experimental and theoretical investigation of heat and mass transfer processes was performed at evaporation of free liquid drops. For theoretical calculation the emission-diffusion model was proposed. This allowed taking into account the characteristics of evaporation of small droplets, for which heat and mass transfer processes are not described in the conventional diffusion model. The calculation results of evaporation of droplets of different sizes were compared using two models: the conventional diffusion and emission-diffusion models. To verify the proposed physical model, the evaporation of droplets suspended on a polypropylene fiber was experimentally investigated. The form of droplets in the evaporation process was determined using microphotographing. The temperature was measured on the surfaces of evaporating drops using infrared thermography. The experimental results have showed good agreement with the numerical data for the time of evaporation and the temperature of evaporating drops.

  4. Low temperature surface conductivity of hydrogenated diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerer, C.; Ertl, F.; Nebel, C.E.; Stutzmann, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Walter-Schottky-Inst. fuer Physikalische Grundlagen der Halbleiterelektronik; Bergonzo, P. [LIST(CEA-Recherche Technology)/DIMIR/SIAR/Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Williams, O.A.; Jackman, R.A. [University Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    2001-07-23

    Conductivity and Hall experiments are performed on hydrogenated poly-CVD, atomically flat homoepitaxially grown Ib and natural type IIa diamond layers in the regime 0.34 to 400 K. For all experiments hole transport is detected with sheet resistivities at room temperature in the range 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} {omega}/{radical}. We introduce a transport model where a disorder induced tail of localized states traps holes at very low temperatures (T < 70 K). The characteristic energy of the tail is in the range of 6 meV. Towards higher temperatures (T > 70 K) the hole density is approximately constant and the hole mobility {mu} is increasing two orders of magnitude. In the regime 70 K < T < 200 K, {mu} is exponentially activated with 22 meV, above it follows a {proportional_to}T{sup 3/2} law. The activation energy of the hole density at T < 70 K is governed by the energy gap between holes trapped in the tail and the mobility edge which they can propagate. In the temperature regime T < 25 K an increasing hole mobility is detected which is attributed to transport in delocalized states at the surface. (orig.)

  5. Prediction of Turbulent Heat Fluxes by Assimilation of Remotely Sensed Land Surface Temperature and Soil Moisture Data into an Ensemble-Based Data Assimilation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T.; Bateni, S. M.; Liu, S.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate estimation of turbulent heat fluxes is important for water resources planning and management, irrigation scheduling, and weather forecast. Land surface models (LSMs) can be used to simulate turbulent heat fluxes over large-scale domains. However, the application of LSMs is hindered due to the high uncertainty in model parameters and state variables. In this study, a dual-pass ensemble-based data assimilation (DA) approach is developed to estimate turbulent heat fluxes. Initially, the common land model (CoLM) is used as the LSM (open-loop), and thereafter the ensemble Kalman filter is employed to optimize the CoLM parameters and variables. The first pass of the DA scheme optimizes vegetation parameters of CoLM (which are related to the leaf stomatal conductance) on a weekly-basis by assimilating the MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data. The second pass optimizes the soil moisture state of CoLM on a daily-basis by assimilating soil moisture observations from Cosmic-ray instrument. The ultimate goal is to improve turbulent heat fluxes estimates from CoLM by optimizing its vegetation parameters and soil moisture state via assimilation of LST and soil moisture data into the proposed DA system. The DA approach is tested over a wet and densely vegetated site, called Daman in northwest of China. Results indicate that the CoLM (open-loop) model typically underestimates latent heat flux and overestimates sensible heat flux. By assimilation of LST in the first pass, the turbulent heat fluxes are improved compared to those of the open-loop. These fluxes become even more accurate by assimilation of soil moisture in the second pass of the DA approach. These findings illustrate that the introduced DA approach can successfully extract information in LST and soil moisture data to optimize the CoLM parameters and states and improve the turbulent heat fluxes estimates.

  6. Storm impact on sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a in the Gulf of Mexico and Sargasso Sea based on daily cloud-free satellite data reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shropshire, Taylor; Li, Yizhen; He, Ruoying

    2016-12-01

    Upper ocean responses to tropical storms/hurricanes have been extensively studied using satellite observations. However, resolving concurrent sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll a (chl a) responses along storm tracks remains a major challenge due to extensive cloud coverage in satellite images. Here we produce daily cloud-free SST and chl a reconstructions based on the Data INterpolating Empirical Orthogonal Function method over a 10 year period (2003-2012) for the Gulf of Mexico and Sargasso Sea regions. Daily reconstructions allow us to characterize and contrast previously obscured subweekly SST and chl a responses to storms in the two main storm-impacted regions of the Atlantic Ocean. Statistical analyses of daily SST and chl a responses revealed regional differences in the response time as well as the response sensitivity to maximum sustained wind speed and translation speed. This study demonstrates that SST and chl a responses clearly depend on regional ocean conditions and are not as universal as might have been previously suggested.

  7. Surface temperature evolution and the location of maximum and average surface temperature of a lithium-ion pouch cell under variable load profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutam, Shovon; Timmermans, Jean-Marc; Omar, Noshin;

    2014-01-01

    , manganese and cobalt (NMC) based and the anode is graphite based. In order to measure the surface temperature, thermal infrared (IR) camera and contact thermocouples were used. A fairly uniform temperature distribution was observed over the cell surface in case of continuous charge and discharge up to 100A...

  8. High-resolution, high-linearity temperature sensor using surface acoustic wave device based on LiNbO3/SiO2/Si substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiang-Guang; Liu, Heng; Tao, Lu-Qi; Yang, Yi; Jiang, Hanjun; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2016-09-01

    A high-resolution and high-linearity surface acoustic wave (SAW) temperature sensor, consisting of a SAW resonator device fabricated on novel X-cut LiNbO3/SiO2/Si piezoelectric substrate and a resonance frequency readout chip using standard 180 nm CMOS technology, is presented for the first time. High temperature performance substrate LiNbO3/SiO2/Si is prepared mainly by ion implantation and wafer bonding at first. RF SAW device with resonance frequency near 900 MHz is designed and fabricated on the substrate. Traditional probe method using network analyzer and the readout chip method are both implemented to characterize the fabricated SAW device. Further measurement of temperature using resonance frequency shift of SAW device demonstrates the feasibility of the combined system as a portable SAW temperature sensor. The obtained frequency-temperature relation of the fabricated device is almost linear. The frequency resolution of the readout chip is 733 Hz and the corresponding temperature accuracy is 0.016 ° C. Resolution of the sensor in this work is superior to most of the commercial temperature measurement sensors. Theory analysis and finite element simulation are also presented to prove the mechanism and validity of using SAW device for temperature detection applications. We conclude that the high-linearity frequency-temperature relation is achieved by the offset between high-order coefficients of LiNbO3 and SiO2 with opposite signs. This work offers the possibility of temperature measuring in ultra-high precision sensing and control applications.

  9. High-resolution, high-linearity temperature sensor using surface acoustic wave device based on LiNbO3/SiO2/Si substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Guang Tian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution and high-linearity surface acoustic wave (SAW temperature sensor, consisting of a SAW resonator device fabricated on novel X-cut LiNbO3/SiO2/Si piezoelectric substrate and a resonance frequency readout chip using standard 180 nm CMOS technology, is presented for the first time. High temperature performance substrate LiNbO3/SiO2/Si is prepared mainly by ion implantation and wafer bonding at first. RF SAW device with resonance frequency near 900 MHz is designed and fabricated on the substrate. Traditional probe method using network analyzer and the readout chip method are both implemented to characterize the fabricated SAW device. Further measurement of temperature using resonance frequency shift of SAW device demonstrates the feasibility of the combined system as a portable SAW temperature sensor. The obtained frequency-temperature relation of the fabricated device is almost linear. The frequency resolution of the readout chip is 733 Hz and the corresponding temperature accuracy is 0.016 ° C. Resolution of the sensor in this work is superior to most of the commercial temperature measurement sensors. Theory analysis and finite element simulation are also presented to prove the mechanism and validity of using SAW device for temperature detection applications. We conclude that the high-linearity frequency-temperature relation is achieved by the offset between high-order coefficients of LiNbO3 and SiO2 with opposite signs. This work offers the possibility of temperature measuring in ultra-high precision sensing and control applications.

  10. A comparison of all-weather land surface temperature products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Joao; Trigo, Isabel F.; Ghilain, Nicolas; Goettche, Frank-M.; Ermida, Sofia; Olesen, Folke-S.; Gellens-Meulenberghs, Françoise; Arboleda, Alirio

    2017-04-01

    The Satellite Application Facility on Land Surface Analysis (LSA-SAF, http://landsaf.ipma.pt) has been providing land surface temperature (LST) estimates using SEVIRI/MSG on an operational basis since 2006. The LSA-SAF service has since been extended to provide a wide range of satellite-based quantities over land surfaces, such as emissivity, albedo, radiative fluxes, vegetation state, evapotranspiration, and fire-related variables. Being based on infra-red measurements, the SEVIRI/MSG LST product is limited to clear-sky pixels only. Several all-weather LST products have been proposed by the scientific community either based on microwave observations or using Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer models to fill the gaps caused by clouds. The goal of this work is to provide a nearly gap-free operational all-weather LST product and compare these approaches. In order to estimate evapotranspiration and turbulent energy fluxes, the LSA-SAF solves the surface energy budget for each SEVIRI pixel, taking into account the physical and physiological processes occurring in vegetation canopies. This task is accomplished with an adapted SVAT model, which adopts some formulations and parameters of the Tiled ECMWF Scheme for Surface Exchanges over Land (TESSEL) model operated at the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), and using: 1) radiative inputs also derived by LSA-SAF, which includes surface albedo, down-welling fluxes and fire radiative power; 2) a land-surface characterization obtained by combining the ECOCLIMAP database with both LSA-SAF vegetation products and the H(ydrology)-SAF snow mask; 3) meteorological fields from ECMWF forecasts interpolated to SEVIRI pixels, and 4) soil moisture derived by the H-SAF and LST from LSA-SAF. A byproduct of the SVAT model is surface skin temperature, which is needed to close the surface energy balance. The model skin temperature corresponds to the radiative temperature of the interface between soil and atmosphere

  11. Evaluation of MODIS Land Surface Temperature with In Situ Snow Surface Temperature from CREST-SAFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Diaz, C. L.; Lakhankar, T.; Romanov, P.; Munoz, J.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Yu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the procedure and results of a temperature-based validation approach for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Land Surface Temperature (LST) product provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Terra and Aqua Earth Observing System satellites using in situ LST observations recorded at the Cooperative Remote Sensing Science and Technology Center - Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE) during the years of 2013 (January-April) and 2014 (February-April). A total of 314 day and night clear-sky thermal images, acquired by the Terra and Aqua satellites, were processed and compared to ground-truth data from CREST-SAFE with a frequency of one measurement every 3 min. Additionally, this investigation incorporated supplementary analyses using meteorological CREST-SAFE in situ variables (i.e. wind speed, cloud cover, incoming solar radiation) to study their effects on in situ snow surface temperature (T-skin) and T-air. Furthermore, a single pixel (1km2) and several spatially averaged pixels were used for satellite LST validation by increasing the MODIS window size to 5x5, 9x9, and 25x25 windows for comparison. Several trends in the MODIS LST data were observed, including the underestimation of daytime values and nighttime values. Results indicate that, although all the data sets (Terra and Aqua, diurnal and nocturnal) showed high correlation with ground measurements, day values yielded slightly higher accuracy ( 1°C), both suggesting that MODIS LST retrievals are reliable for similar land cover classes and atmospheric conditions. Results from the CREST-SAFE in situ variables' analyses indicate that T-air is commonly higher than T-skin, and that a lack of cloud cover results in: lower T-skin and higher T-air minus T-skin difference (T-diff). Additionally, the study revealed that T-diff is inversely proportional to cloud cover, wind speed, and incoming solar radiation. Increasing the MODIS window size

  12. High-Temperature Surface-Acoustic-Wave Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoliang; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft-engine rotating equipment usually operates at high temperature and stress. Non-invasive inspection of microcracks in those components poses a challenge for the non-destructive evaluation community. A low-profile ultrasonic guided wave sensor can detect cracks in situ. The key feature of the sensor is that it should withstand high temperatures and excite strong surface wave energy to inspect surface/subsurface cracks. As far as the innovators know at the time of this reporting, there is no existing sensor that is mounted to the rotor disks for crack inspection; the most often used technology includes fluorescent penetrant inspection or eddy-current probes for disassembled part inspection. An efficient, high-temperature, low-profile surface acoustic wave transducer design has been identified and tested for nondestructive evaluation of structures or materials. The development is a Sol-Gel bismuth titanate-based surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) sensor that can generate efficient surface acoustic waves for crack inspection. The produced sensor is very thin (submillimeter), and can generate surface waves up to 540 C. Finite element analysis of the SAW transducer design was performed to predict the sensor behavior, and experimental studies confirmed the results. One major uniqueness of the Sol-Gel bismuth titanate SAW sensor is that it is easy to implement to structures of various shapes. With a spray coating process, the sensor can be applied to surfaces of large curvatures. Second, the sensor is very thin (as a coating) and has very minimal effect on airflow or rotating equipment imbalance. Third, it can withstand temperatures up to 530 C, which is very useful for engine applications where high temperature is an issue.

  13. Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST), Version 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) dataset is a global monthly sea surface temperature analysis on a 2x2 degree grid derived from the...

  14. NOAA Global Surface Temperature Dataset, Version 4.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Global Surface Temperature Dataset (NOAAGlobalTemp) is derived from two independent analyses: the Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST)...

  15. HTPro: Low-temperature Surface Hardening of Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Low-temperature surface hardening of stainless steel provides the required performance properties without affecting corrosion resistance.......Low-temperature surface hardening of stainless steel provides the required performance properties without affecting corrosion resistance....

  16. Merged Land and Ocean Surface Temperature, Version 3.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The historical Merged Land-Ocean Surface Temperature Analysis (MLOST) is derived from two independent analyses, an Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature...

  17. Modeling the surface temperature of Earth-like planets

    CERN Document Server

    Vladilo, G; Murante, G; Filippi, L; Provenzale, A

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a novel Earth-like planet surface temperature model (ESTM) for habitability studies based on the spatial-temporal distribution of planetary surface temperatures. The ESTM adopts a surface Energy Balance Model complemented by: radiative-convective atmospheric column calculations, a set of physically-based parameterizations of meridional transport, and descriptions of surface and cloud properties more refined than in standard EBMs. The parameterization is valid for rotating terrestrial planets with shallow atmospheres and moderate values of axis obliquity (epsilon >= 45^o). Comparison with a 3D model of atmospheric dynamics from the literature shows that the equator-to-pole temperature differences predicted by the two models agree within ~5K when the rotation rate, insolation, surface pressure and planet radius are varied in the intervals 0.5 <= Omega/Omega_o <= 2, 0.75 <= S/S_o <= 1.25, 0.3 <= p/(1 bar) <= 10, and 0.5 <= R/R_o <= 2, respectively. The ESTM has an extremely l...

  18. The Land Surface Temperature Impact to Land Cover Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, I.; Abu Samah, A.; Fauzi, R.; Noor, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Land cover type is an important signature that is usually used to understand the interaction between the ground surfaces with the local temperature. Various land cover types such as high density built up areas, vegetation, bare land and water bodies are areas where heat signature are measured using remote sensing image. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of land surface temperature on land cover types. The objectives are 1) to analyse the mean temperature for each land cover types and 2) to analyse the relationship of temperature variation within land cover types: built up area, green area, forest, water bodies and bare land. The method used in this research was supervised classification for land cover map and mono window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) extraction. The statistical analysis of post hoc Tukey test was used on an image captured on five available images. A pixel-based change detection was applied to the temperature and land cover images. The result of post hoc Tukey test for the images showed that these land cover types: built up-green, built up-forest, built up-water bodies have caused significant difference in the temperature variation. However, built up-bare land did not show significant impact at p<0.05. These findings show that green areas appears to have a lower temperature difference, which is between 2° to 3° Celsius compared to urban areas. The findings also show that the average temperature and the built up percentage has a moderate correlation with R2 = 0.53. The environmental implications of these interactions can provide some insights for future land use planning in the region.

  19. Impact of Atlantic sea surface temperatures on the warmest global surface air temperature of 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Riyu

    2005-03-01

    The year 1998 is the warmest year in the record of instrumental measurements. In this study, an atmospheric general circulation model is used to investigate the role of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in this warmth, with a focus on the role of the Atlantic Ocean. The model forced with the observed global SSTs captures the main features of land surface air temperature anomalies in 1998. A sensitivity experiment shows that in comparison with the global SST anomalies, the Atlantic SST anomalies can explain 35% of the global mean surface air temperature (GMAT) anomaly, and 57% of the land surface air temperature anomaly in 1998. The mechanisms through which the Atlantic Ocean influences the GMAT are likely different from season to season. Possible detailed mechanisms involve the impact of SST anomalies on local convection in the tropical Atlantic region, the consequent excitation of a Rossby wave response that propagates into the North Atlantic and the Eurasian continent in winter and spring, and the consequent changes in tropical Walker circulation in summer and autumn that induce changes in convection over the tropical Pacific. This in turn affects climate in Asia and Australia. The important role of the Atlantic Ocean suggests that attention should be paid not only to the tropical Pacific Ocean, but also to the tropical Atlantic Ocean in understanding the GMAT variability and its predictability.

  20. Temperature based Restricted Boltzmann Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqi; Deng, Lei; Xu, Yi; Wen, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping

    2016-01-13

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs), which apply graphical models to learning probability distribution over a set of inputs, have attracted much attention recently since being proposed as building blocks of multi-layer learning systems called deep belief networks (DBNs). Note that temperature is a key factor of the Boltzmann distribution that RBMs originate from. However, none of existing schemes have considered the impact of temperature in the graphical model of DBNs. In this work, we propose temperature based restricted Boltzmann machines (TRBMs) which reveals that temperature is an essential parameter controlling the selectivity of the firing neurons in the hidden layers. We theoretically prove that the effect of temperature can be adjusted by setting the parameter of the sharpness of the logistic function in the proposed TRBMs. The performance of RBMs can be improved by adjusting the temperature parameter of TRBMs. This work provides a comprehensive insights into the deep belief networks and deep learning architectures from a physical point of view.

  1. Turbulent Flow past High Temperature Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmedagic, Igbal; Thangam, Siva; Carlucci, Pasquale; Buckley, Liam; Carlucci, Donald

    2014-11-01

    Flow over high-temperature surfaces subject to wall heating is analyzed with applications to projectile design. In this study, computations are performed using an anisotropic Reynolds-stress model to study flow past surfaces that are subject to radiative flux. The model utilizes a phenomenological treatment of the energy spectrum and diffusivities of momentum and heat to include the effects of wall heat transfer and radiative exchange. The radiative transport is modeled using Eddington approximation including the weighted effect of nongrayness of the fluid. The time-averaged equations of motion and energy are solved using the modeled form of transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy and the scalar form of turbulence dissipation with an efficient finite-volume algorithm. The model is applied for available test cases to validate its predictive capabilities for capturing the effects of wall heat transfer. Computational results are compared with experimental data available in the literature. Applications involving the design of projectiles are summarized. Funded in part by U.S. Army, ARDEC.

  2. A New Estimate of the Earth's Land Surface Temperature History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, R. A.; Curry, J. A.; Groom, D.; Jacobsen, B.; Perlmutter, S.; Rohde, R. A.; Rosenfeld, A.; Wickham, C.; Wurtele, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature team has re-evaluated the world's atmospheric land surface temperature record using a linear least-squares method that allow the use of all the digitized records back to 1800, including short records that had been excluded by prior groups. We use the Kriging method to estimate an optimal weighting of stations to give a world average based on uniform weighting of the land surface. We have assembled a record of the available data by merging 1.6 billion temperature reports from 16 pre-existing data archives; this data base will be made available for public use. The former Global Historic Climatology Network (GHCN) monthly data base shows a sudden drop in the number of stations reporting monthly records from 1980 to the present; we avoid this drop by calculating monthly averages from the daily records. By using all the data, we reduce the effects of potential data selection bias. We make an independent estimate of the urban heat island effect by calculating the world land temperature trends based on stations chosen to be far from urban sites. We calculate the effect of poor station quality, as documented in the US by the team led by Anthony Watts by estimating the temperature trends based solely on the stations ranked good (1,2 or 1,2,3 in the NOAA ranking scheme). We avoid issues of homogenization bias by using raw data; at times when the records are discontinuous (e.g. due to station moves) we break the record into smaller segments and analyze those, rather than attempt to correct the discontinuity. We estimate the uncertainties in the final results using the jackknife procedure developed by J. Tukey. We calculate spatial uncertainties by measuring the effects of geographical exclusion on recent data that have good world coverage. The results we obtain are compared to those published by the groups at NOAA, NASA-GISS, and Hadley-CRU in the UK.

  3. Room-Temperature Ammonia Sensor Based on ZnO Nanorods Deposited on ST-Cut Quartz Surface Acoustic Wave Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Guo, Yuanjun; Tang, Yongliang; Zu, Xiaotao; Ma, Jinyi; Wang, Lu; Fu, Yong Qing

    2017-05-17

    Using a seed layer-free hydrothermal method, ZnO nanorods (NRs) were deposited on ST-cut quartz surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices for ammonia sensing at room temperature. For a comparison, a ZnO film layer with a thickness of 30 nm was also coated onto an ST-cut quartz SAW device using a sol-gel and spin-coating technique. The ammonia sensing results showed that the sensitivity, repeatability and stability of the ZnO NR-coated SAW device were superior to those of the ZnO film-coated SAW device due to the large surface-to-volume ratio of the ZnO NRs.

  4. New Measurements from Old Boreholes: A Look at Interaction Between Surface Air Temperature and Ground Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinle, S. M.; Gosnold, W. D.

    2007-12-01

    We recently logged new field measurements of several boreholes throughout the Midwest, including North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska. We then compared these new measurements against measurements previously obtained. Our comparisons included inverse modeling of past and recent measurements as well as climate modeling based on past surface air temperatures obtained from the weather stations. The data show a good correlation between climate warming in the last century and ground surface warming. Of particular importance is that cooling of air temperatures beginning in the mid 1990s reflects in the ground surface temperatures. The boreholes included in the study consist of three boreholes located in north central North Dakota, including two deeper than 200 meters. Two boreholes in the southwestern part of South Dakota, and two from southeastern South Dakota, all approximately 180 meters deep. Also included, were two boreholes (135 meters and over 200 meters deep) located in southwestern Nebraska, and two boreholes in the panhandle of Nebraska, each over 100 meters deep. We obtained historical surface air temperature from climate stations located near the boreholes, both from the United States Historical Climatology Network and from the Western Regional Climate Center.

  5. Using distributed temperature sensing to monitor field scale dynamics of ground surface temperature and related substrate heat flux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bense, V.F.; Read, T.; Verhoef, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present one of the first studies of the use of distributed temperature sensing (DTS) along fibre-optic cables to purposely monitor spatial and temporal variations in ground surface temperature (GST) and soil temperature, and provide an estimate of the heat flux at the base of the canopy layer

  6. Monitoring temperature and pressure over surfaces using sensitive paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Viramontes, J. Ascención; Moreno Hernández, David; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; Morán Loza, José Miguel; García Arreola, Alicia

    2007-03-01

    Two techniques for monitoring temperature and pressure variations over surfaces using sensitive paints are presented. The analysis is done by the acquisition of a set of images of the surface under analysis. The surface is painted by a paint called Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) for pressure measurements and Temperature Sensitive Paints (TSP) for temperature measurements. These kinds of paints are deposited over the surface under analysis. The recent experimental advances in calibration process are presented in this paper.

  7. Surface emissivity and temperature retrieval for a hyperspectral sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borel, C.C.

    1998-12-01

    With the growing use of hyper-spectral imagers, e.g., AVIRIS in the visible and short-wave infrared there is hope of using such instruments in the mid-wave and thermal IR (TIR) some day. The author believes that this will enable him to get around using the present temperature-emissivity separation algorithms using methods which take advantage of the many channels available in hyper-spectral imagers. A simple fact used in coming up with a novel algorithm is that a typical surface emissivity spectrum are rather smooth compared to spectral features introduced by the atmosphere. Thus, a iterative solution technique can be devised which retrieves emissivity spectra based on spectral smoothness. To make the emissivities realistic, atmospheric parameters are varied using approximations, look-up tables derived from a radiative transfer code and spectral libraries. One such iterative algorithm solves the radiative transfer equation for the radiance at the sensor for the unknown emissivity and uses the blackbody temperature computed in an atmospheric window to get a guess for the unknown surface temperature. By varying the surface temperature over a small range a series of emissivity spectra are calculated. The one with the smoothest characteristic is chosen. The algorithm was tested on synthetic data using MODTRAN and the Salisbury emissivity database.

  8. Estimation of sea surface temperature (SST) using marine seismic data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sinha, S.K.; Dewangan, P.; Sain, K.

    .g. Wu et al. [1999]). However, due to the skin effect, sea surface temperatures as measured by satellites can be very different from temperatures a few centimeters below the sea surface (i.e. in-situ temperatures) [Emery et al., 1994]. Therefore...

  9. Noncontact Monitoring of Surface Temperature Distribution by Laser Ultrasound Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Kosugi, Akira; Ihara, Ikuo

    2011-07-01

    A laser ultrasound scanning method for measuring a surface temperature distribution of a heated material is presented. An experiment using an aluminum plate heated up to 120 °C is carried out to verify the feasibility of the proposed method. A series of one-dimensional surface acoustic wave (SAW) measurements within an area of a square on the aluminum surface are performed by scanning a pulsed laser for generating SAW using a galvanometer system, where the SAWs are detected at a fixed location on the surface. An inverse analysis is then applied to SAW data to determine the surface temperature distribution in a certain direction. The two-dimensional distribution of the surface temperature in the square is constructed by combining the one-dimensional surface temperature distributions obtained within the square. The surface temperature distributions obtained by the proposed method almost agrees with those obtained using an infrared radiation camera.

  10. Actual evaporation estimation from infrared measurement of soil surface temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Pognant

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the hydrological cycle, actual evaporation represents the second most important process in terms of volumes of water transported, second only to the precipitation phenomena. Several methods for the estimation of the Ea were proposed by researchers in scientific literature, but the estimation of the Ea from potential evapotranspiration often requires the knowledge of hard-to-find parameters (e.g.: vegetation morphology, vegetation cover, interception of rainfall by the canopy, evaporation from the canopy surface and uptake of water by plant roots and many existing database are characterized by missing or incomplete information that leads to a rough estimation of the actual evaporation amount. Starting from the above considerations, the aim of this study is to develop and validate a method for the estimation of the Ea based on two steps: i the potential evaporation estimation by using the meteorological data (i.e. Penman-Monteith; ii application of a correction factor based on the infrared soil surface temperature measurements. The dataset used in this study were collected during two measurement campaigns conducted both in a plain testing site (Grugliasco, Italy, and in a mountain South-East facing slope (Cogne, Italy. During those periods, hourly measurement of air temperature, wind speed, infrared surface temperature, soil heat flux, and soil water content were collected. Results from the dataset collected in the two testing sites show a good agreement between the proposed method and reference methods used for the Ea estimation.

  11. Land surface temperature shaped by urban fractions in megacity region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Hu, Yonghong; Jia, Gensuo; Hou, Meiting; Fan, Yanguo; Sun, Zhongchang; Zhu, Yuxiang

    2017-02-01

    Large areas of cropland and natural vegetation have been replaced by impervious surfaces during the recent rapid urbanization in China, which has resulted in intensified urban heat island effects and modified local or regional warming trends. However, it is unclear how urban expansion contributes to local temperature change. In this study, we investigated the relationship between land surface temperature (LST) change and the increase of urban land signals. The megacity of Tianjin was chosen for the case study because it is representative of the urbanization process in northern China. A combined analysis of LST and urban land information was conducted based on an urban-rural transect derived from Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), and QuickBird images. The results indicated that the density of urban land signals has intensified within a 1-km2 grid in the urban center with an impervious land fraction >60 %. However, the construction on urban land is quite different with low-/mid-rise buildings outnumbering high-rise buildings in the urban-rural transect. Based on a statistical moving window analysis, positive correlation ( R 2 > 0.9) is found between LST and urban land signals. Surface temperature change (ΔLST) increases by 0.062 °C, which was probably caused by the 1 % increase of urbanized land (ΔIF) in this case region.

  12. Reconstruction of MODIS daily land surface temperature under clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Gao, F.; Chen, Z.; Song, L.; Xie, D.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST), generally defined as the skin temperature of the Earth's surface, controls the process of evapotranspiration, surface energy balance, soil moisture change and climate change. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) is equipped with 1km resolution thermal sensor andcapable of observing the earth surface at least once per day.Thermal infrared bands cannot penetrate cloud, which means we cannot get consistency drought monitoring condition at one area. However, the cloudy-sky conditions represent more than half of the actual day-to-day weather around the global. In this study, we developed an LST filled model based on the assumption that under good weather condition, LST difference between two nearby pixels are similar among the closest 8 days. We used all the valid pixels covered by a 9*9 window to reconstruct the gap LST. Each valid pixel is assigned a weight which is determined by the spatial distance and the spectral similarity. This model is applied in the Middle-East of China including Gansu, Ningxia, Shaanxi province. The terrain is complicated in this area including plain and hill. The MODIS daily LST product (MOD11A3) from 2000 to 2004 is tested. Almost all the gap pixels are filled, and the terrain information is reconstructed well and smoothly. We masked two areas in order to validate the model, one located in the plain, another located in the hill. The correlation coefficient is greater than 0.8, even up to 0.92 in a few days. We also used ground measured day maximum and mean surface temperature to valid our model. Although both the temporal and spatial scale are different between ground measured temperature and MODIS LST, they agreed well in all the stations. This LST filled model is operational because it only needs LST and reflectance, and does not need other auxiliary information such as climate factors. We will apply this model to more regions in the future.

  13. 基于Web Services的海洋表面温度场数据应用服务框架与实现%Design and Implementation of a Web Services-based Application Framework for Sea Surface Temperature Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何亚文; 杜云艳; 肖如林; 侯立媛; 孙晓丹

    2009-01-01

    分析了海洋表面温度场数据应用研究现状,结合Web服务技术,提出了海洋表面温度场数据应用服务框架,把海温数据及应用模型均封装成Web服务,从而提高了分布式环境下,数据的互操作性、应用的可移植性及透明性.基于该框架,开发设计了"中国南海海温数据应用服务平台",该平台可以集成异构、分布式环境中的数据服务和应用服务,从而为用户提供透明的、"一站式"的海温数据Web应用,可为其它海洋信息的集成与应用提供借鉴.%Based on analysis of the study of the sea surface temperature data and application, the author put forward a Web Service-based application framework for sea surface temperature information. The use of Web service was proposed to solve the problems in heterogeneity, distribution, and efficiency triggered by networking. A prototype application was successfully designed based on the framework, namely: The Application Service Platform of Sea Surface Temperature Information in the South China Sea. It can integrate heterogeneous sea surface temperature data services and application services, and provide users with transparent, "one-stop" web applications on sea surface temperature. Users can access the platform to search and fetch valuable information and value-added applications. On the platform, all of the heterogeneous and distributed sea surface temperature information is encrypted, decrypted, monitored, and hence interchangeable according to international standards. The results confirm the feasibility of the application of Web Services to sea surface temperature information integration, and this study can also be referenced by other marine information.

  14. A study of the coupling relationship between concrete surface temperature and concrete surface emissivity in natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lin-Ling; Chen, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Jia-Ning; Zhao, Hong-Mei; Huang, Qi-Ting

    2014-07-01

    Land surface emissivity (LSE) has already been recognized as a crucial parameter for the determination of land surface temperature (LST). There is an ill-posed problem for the retrieval of LST and LSE. And laboratory-based emissivity is measured in natural constant conditions, which is limited in the application in thermal remote sensing. To solve the above problems, the coupling of LST and LSE is explored to eliminate temperature effects and improve the accuracy of LES. And then, the estimation accuracy of LST from passive remote sensing images will be improved. For different land surface materials, the coupling of land surface emissivity and land surface temperature is various. This paper focuses on studying concrete surface that is one of the typical man-made materials in urban. First the experiments of measuring concrete surface emissivity and concrete surface temperature in natural conditions are arranged reasonably and the suitable data are selected under ideal atmosphere conductions. Then to improve the determination accuracy of concrete surface emissivity, the algorithm worked on the computer of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroradiometer (FTIR) has been improved by the most adapted temperature and emissivity separation algorithm. Finally the coupling of concrete surface temperature and concrete surface emissivity is analyzed and the coupling model of concrete surface temperature and concrete surface emissivity is established. The results show that there is a highest correlation coefficient between the second derivative of emissivity spectra and concrete surface temperature, and the correlation coefficient is -0.925 1. The best coupling model is the stepwise regression model, whose determination coefficient (R2) is 0.886. The determination coefficient (R2) is 0.905 and the root mean squares error (RMSE) is 0.292 1 in the validation of the model. The coupling model of concrete surface temperature and concrete surface emissivity under natural conditions

  15. The EUSTACE project: delivering global, daily information on surface air temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018, https://www.eustaceproject.eu) we are developing an understanding of the relationships between traditional (land and marine) surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. Here we discuss the science needed to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types. Information contained in the satellite retrievals is used to create globally-complete fields in the past, using statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. As the data volumes involved are considerable, such work needs to include development of new "Big Data" analysis methods. We will present recent progress along this road in the EUSTACE project: 1. providing new, consistent, multi-component estimates of uncertainty in surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; 2. identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; 3. estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; 4. using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras. Information will also be given on how interested users can become involved.

  16. The EUSTACE project: delivering global, daily information on surface air temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, C. P.; Rayner, N. A.; Auchmann, R.; Bessembinder, J.; Bronnimann, S.; Brugnara, Y.; Conway, E. A.; Ghent, D.; Good, E.; Herring, K.; Kennedy, J.; Lindgren, F.; Madsen, K. S.; Merchant, C. J.; van der Schrier, G.; Stephens, A.; Tonboe, R. T.; Waterfall, A. M.; Mitchelson, J.; Woolway, I.

    2015-12-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, we must develop an understanding of the relationships between traditional (land and marine) surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. These relationships can be derived either empirically or with the help of a physical model.Here we discuss the science needed to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types. Information contained in the satellite retrievals would be used to create globally-complete fields in the past, using statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. As the data volumes involved are considerable, such work needs to include development of new "Big Data" analysis methods.We will present plans and progress along this road in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018), i.e.: • providing new, consistent, multi-component estimates of uncertainty in surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; • identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; • estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; • using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras.Information will also be given on how interested users can become

  17. Technique for the estimation of surface temperatures from embedded temperature sensing for rapid, high energy surface deposition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Tyson R.; Schunk, Peter Randall; Roberts, Scott Alan

    2014-07-01

    Temperature histories on the surface of a body that has been subjected to a rapid, highenergy surface deposition process can be di cult to determine, especially if it is impossible to directly observe the surface or attach a temperature sensor to it. In this report, we explore two methods for estimating the temperature history of the surface through the use of a sensor embedded within the body very near to the surface. First, the maximum sensor temperature is directly correlated with the peak surface temperature. However, it is observed that the sensor data is both delayed in time and greatly attenuated in magnitude, making this approach unfeasible. Secondly, we propose an algorithm that involves tting the solution to a one-dimensional instantaneous energy solution problem to both the sensor data and to the results of a one-dimensional CVFEM code. This algorithm is shown to be able to estimate the surface temperature 20 C.

  18. 基于多源信息可信度的高炉料面温度检测方法%Temperature Detection Method of Blast Furnace Burden Surface Based on the Reliability of Multi-source Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安剑奇; 吴敏; 何勇; 曹卫华

    2012-01-01

    针对高炉料面温度难以准确检测的问题,提出一种基于多源信息可信度的高炉料面温度在线检测方法.根据高炉3种异类检测信息的各自特点分别估计料面温度,采用可信度理论通过融合单一信息的估计值计算高炉料面温度.在某钢铁企业2 200m3高炉应用结果表明,所提出的方法能够准确地检测高炉料面温度,为复杂冶金过程状态检测提供了新的解决思路.%Focusing on the difficulty of precisely detecting blast furnace(BF) burden surface temperature,a novel temperature detection method of BF burden surface based on the reliability of multi-source information was proposed.Firstly,the burden surface temperature is estimated respectively according to the individual features of three kinds of singular heterogeneous information;then the BF burden surface temperature is calculated by fusing the results estimated by the three kinds of singular information based on reliability theory.The application on a 2 200 m3 B F in some steel enterprise shows the method proposed can realize the real-time and precise detection of burden surface temperature,which eventually provides an effective solution for the status monitoring of complicated metallurgy process.

  19. Determination of Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Potential Urban Heat Island Effect in Parts of Lagos State using Satellite ... Changes in temperature appear to be closely related to concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  20. Preparation and high-temperature oxidation behavior of plasma Cr-Ni alloying on Ti6Al4V alloy based on double glow plasma surface metallurgy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dong-Bo; Zhang, Ping-Ze; Yao, Zheng-Jun; Wei, Xiang-Fei; Zhou, Jin-Tang; Chen, Xiao-Hu

    2016-12-01

    To improve the oxidation resistance of Ti6Al4V alloy, it was coated with a Cr-Ni alloy with 20, 40, 60, and 80 at.% Ni content using the double-glow plasma surface metallurgy technology. The coatings were dense, uniform, and compact, including a complete structure of deposited layer, interdiffusion layer, and sputtering-affected zone. The effect of Ni content on the isothermal oxidation behavior of coating was investigated at 750, 850, and 950 °C. The results show that the oxide scale consisted of NiO and Cr2O3. The morphology and distribution of NiO in oxide scale were affected by oxidation temperature and Ni content. When the Ni content was ≤40 at.%, the oxidation resistance of the Cr-Ni alloy coating was enhanced.

  1. A surface acoustic wave ICP sensor with good temperature stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Hu, Hong; Ye, Aipeng; Zhang, Peng

    2017-07-20

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is very important for assessing and monitoring hydrocephalus, head trauma and hypertension patients, which could lead to elevated ICP or even devastating neurological damage. The mortality rate due to these diseases could be reduced through ICP monitoring, because precautions can be taken against the brain damage. This paper presents a surface acoustic wave (SAW) pressure sensor to realize ICP monitoring, which is capable of wireless and passive transmission with antenna attached. In order to improve the temperature stability of the sensor, two methods were adopted. First, the ST cut quartz was chosen as the sensor substrate due to its good temperature stability. Then, a differential temperature compensation method was proposed to reduce the effects of temperature. Two resonators were designed based on coupling of mode (COM) theory and the prototype was fabricated and verified using a system established for testing pressure and temperature. The experiment result shows that the sensor has a linearity of 2.63% and hysteresis of 1.77%. The temperature stability of the sensor has been greatly improved by using the differential compensation method, which validates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Gaia FGK Benchmark Stars: Effective temperatures and surface gravities

    CERN Document Server

    Heiter, U; Gustafsson, B; Korn, A J; Soubiran, C; Thévenin, F

    2015-01-01

    Large Galactic stellar surveys and new generations of stellar atmosphere models and spectral line formation computations need to be subjected to careful calibration and validation and to benchmark tests. We focus on cool stars and aim at establishing a sample of 34 Gaia FGK Benchmark Stars with a range of different metallicities. The goal was to determine the effective temperature and the surface gravity independently from spectroscopy and atmospheric models as far as possible. Fundamental determinations of Teff and logg were obtained in a systematic way from a compilation of angular diameter measurements and bolometric fluxes, and from a homogeneous mass determination based on stellar evolution models. The derived parameters were compared to recent spectroscopic and photometric determinations and to gravity estimates based on seismic data. Most of the adopted diameter measurements have formal uncertainties around 1%, which translate into uncertainties in effective temperature of 0.5%. The measurements of bol...

  3. Surface Tensions and Their Variations with Temperature and Impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, S. C.; Fine, J.

    1985-01-01

    The surface tensions in this work were determined using the sessile drop technique. This method is based on a comparison of the profile of a liquid drop with the profile calculated by solving the Young-Laplace equation. The comparison can be made in several ways; the traditional Bashforth-Adams procedure was used in conjunction with recently calculated drop shape tables which virtually eliminate interpolation errors. Although previous study has found little difference in measurements with pure and oxygen doped silicon, there is other evidence suggesting that oxygen in dilute concentrations severely depresses the surface tension of silicon. The surface tension of liquid silicon in purified argon atmospheres was measured. A temperature coefficient near -0.28 mJ/square meters K was found. The experiments show a high sensitivity of the surface tension to what is believed are low concentrations of oxygen. Thus one cannot rule out some effect of low levels of oxygen in the results. However, the highest surface tension values obtained in conditions which minimized the residual oxygen pressure are in good agreement with a previous measurement in pure hydrogen. Therefore, depression of the surface tension by oxygen is insignificant in these measurements.

  4. A new algorithm for microwave radiometer remote sensing of sea surface salinity and temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN; Xiaobin; LIU; Yuguang; WANG; Zhenzhan

    2006-01-01

    The microwave radiation of the sea surface, which is denoted by the sea surface brightness temperature, is not only related with sea surface salinity (SSS) and temperature (SST), but also influenced by sea surface wind. The errors of wind detected by satellite sensor have significant influences on the accuracy of SSS and SST retrieval. The effects of sea surface wind on sea surface brightness temperature, i.e. △Th,v, and the relations among △Th,v, wind speed, sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity and incidence angle of observation are investigated. Based on the investigations, a new algorithm depending on the design of a single radiometer with double polarizations and multi-incidence angles is proposed. The algorithm excludes the influence of sea surface wind on SSS and SST retrieval, and provides a new method for remote sensing of SSS and SST.

  5. High Efficiency, High Temperature Foam Core Heat Exchanger for Fission Surface Power Systems, Phase II Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fission-based power systems with power levels of 30 to ≥100 kWe will be needed for planetary surface bases. Development of high temperature, high efficiency...

  6. Estimation of Surface Heat Flux and Surface Temperature during Inverse Heat Conduction under Varying Spray Parameters and Sample Initial Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aamir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27 mm and thickness (mm 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 1.8 MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600°C to 900°C. Beck’s sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024 MW/m2 was estimated for a thickness of 8.5 mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900°C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8 MPa.

  7. Estimation of surface heat flux and surface temperature during inverse heat conduction under varying spray parameters and sample initial temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Aqeel-ur-Rehman; Wang, Hong; Zubair, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27 mm and thickness (mm) 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 1.8 MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600°C to 900°C. Beck's sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF) within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024 MW/m(2) was estimated for a thickness of 8.5 mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900°C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8 MPa.

  8. The impact of heterogeneous surface temperatures on the 2-m air temperature over the Arctic Ocean in spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tetzlaff

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of spatial surface temperature changes over the Arctic Ocean on the 2-m air temperature variability is estimated using backward trajectories based on ERA-Interim and the JRA25 wind fields. They are initiated at Alert, Barrow and at the Tara drifting station. Three different methods are used. The first one compares mean ice surface temperatures along the trajectories to the observed 2-m air temperatures at the stations. The second one correlates the observed temperatures to air temperatures obtained using a simple Lagrangian box model which only includes the effect of sensible heat fluxes. For the third method, mean sensible heat fluxes from the model are correlated with the difference of the air temperatures at the model starting point and the observed temperatures at the stations. The calculations are based on MODIS ice surface temperatures and four different sets of ice concentration derived from SSM/I and AMSR-E data. Under nearly cloud free conditions, up to 90% of the 2-m air temperature variance can be explained for Alert, and 60% for Barrow using these methods. The differences are attributed to the different ice conditions, which are characterized by high ice concentration around Alert and lower ice concentration near Barrow. These results are robust for the different sets of reanalyses and ice concentration data. Near-surface winds of both reanalyses show a large inconsistency in the Central Arctic, which leads to a large difference in the correlations between modeled and observed 2-m air temperatures at Tara. Explained variances amount to 70% using JRA and only 45% using ERA. The results also suggest that near-surface temperatures at a given site are influenced by the variability of surface temperatures in a domain of about 150 to 350 km radius around the site.

  9. Predicting monsoon rainfall and pressure indices from sea surface temperature

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.

    The relationship between the sea surface temperature (SST) in the Indian Ocean and monsoon rainfall has been examined by using 21 years data set (1967-87) of MOHSST.6 (Met. Office Historical Sea Surface Temperature data set, obtained from U.K. Met...

  10. Metal surface temperature induced by moving laser beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, G.R.B.E.; Meijer, J.

    1995-01-01

    Whenever a metal is irradiated with a laser beam, electromagnetic energy is transformed into heat in a thin surface layer. The maximum surface temperature is the most important quantity which determines the processing result. Expressions for this maximum temperature are provided by the literature fo

  11. Recent trends in sea surface temperature off Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lluch-Cota, S.E.; Tripp-Valdéz, M.; Lluch-Cota, D.B.; Lluch-Belda, D.; Verbesselt, J.; Herrera-Cervantes, H.; Bautista-Romero, J.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in global mean sea surface temperature may have potential negative implications for natural and socioeconomic systems; however, measurements to predict trends in different regions have been limited and sometimes contradictory. In this study, an assessment of sea surface temperature change si

  12. Recent trends in sea surface temperature off Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lluch-Cota, S.E.; Tripp-Valdéz, M.; Lluch-Cota, D.B.; Lluch-Belda, D.; Verbesselt, J.; Herrera-Cervantes, H.; Bautista-Romero, J.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in global mean sea surface temperature may have potential negative implications for natural and socioeconomic systems; however, measurements to predict trends in different regions have been limited and sometimes contradictory. In this study, an assessment of sea surface temperature change

  13. Reintroducing radiometric surface temperature into the Penman-Monteith formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallick, Kaniska; Bøgh, Eva; Trebs, Ivonne;

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate a novel method to physically integrate radiometric surface temperature (TR) into the Penman-Monteith (PM) formulation for estimating the terrestrial sensible and latent heat fluxes (H and λE) in the framework of a modified Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC). It combi...

  14. Interferometric measurements of sea surface temperature and emissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Lars; Bakan, Stephan

    1997-09-01

    A new multispectral method to derive sea surface emissivity and temperature by using interferometer measurements of the near surface upwelling radiation in the infrared window region is presented. As reflected sky radiation adds substantial spectral variability to the otherwise spectrally smooth surface radiation, an appropriate estimate of surface emissivity allows the measured upwelling radiation to be corrected for the reflected sky component. The remaining radiation, together with the estimated surface emissivity, yields an estimate of the sea surface temperature. Measurements from an ocean pier in the Baltic Sea in October 1995 indicate an accuracy of about 0.1 K for the sea surface temperature thus derived. A strong sea surface skin effect of about 0.6 K is found in that particular case.

  15. The mechanism for the impact of sea surface temperature anomaly on the ridgeline surface of Western Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Based on the atmospheric circulation data provided by ECMWF and the sea surface temperature data by NOAA, we studied the mechanism for the impact of sea surface temperature anomaly on the ridgeline surface of western Pacific using an improved high truncated spectral model. Our results show that the wave-wave interaction and the wave-mean flow interactions are weaker in the inner dynamic process of atmospheric circulation, when atmospheric circulation is forced by the sea surface temperature of El Ni-o pattern. With the external thermal forcing changed from winter to summer pattern, the range of ridgeline surface of western Pacific moving northward is smaller, which causes the ridgeline surface of western Pacific on south of normal. On the contrary, the wave-wave interaction and the wave-mean flow interaction are stronger, when atmospheric circulation is forced by the sea surface temperature of La Ni-a pattern. With the external thermal forcing turning from winter to summer pattern, the ridgeline surface of western Pacific shifts northward about 19 latitude degrees, which conduces the ridgeline surface of western Pacific on north of normal. After moving to certain latitude, the ridgeline surface of western Pacific oscillates with the most obvious 30-60 d period and the 4°-7° amplitude. It is one of the important reasons for the interannual variation of ridgeline surface of Western Pacific that the at- mospheric inner dynamical process forced out by different sea surface temperature anomaly pattern is different.

  16. Low-temperature gaseous surface hardening of stainless steel: the current status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2009-01-01

    The present review addresses the state of the art of low-temperature gaseous surface engineering of (austenitic) stainless steel and is largely based on the authors' own work in the last 10 years. The main purpose of low temperature gaseous surface engineering of stainless steel is to develop a h...

  17. A simple interpretation of the surface temperature/vegetation index space for assessment of surface moisture status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Inge; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Andersen, Jens Asger

    2002-01-01

    A simplified land surface dryness index (Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index, TVDI) based on an empirical parameterisation of the relationship between surface temperature (T-s) and vegetation index (NDVI) is suggested. The index is related to soil moisture and, in comparison to existing interpre......A simplified land surface dryness index (Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index, TVDI) based on an empirical parameterisation of the relationship between surface temperature (T-s) and vegetation index (NDVI) is suggested. The index is related to soil moisture and, in comparison to existing...... interpretations of the T-s/NDVI space, the index is conceptually and computationally straightforward. It is based on satellite derived information only, and the potential for operational application of the index is therefore large. The spatial pattern and temporal evolution in TVDI has been analysed using 37 NOAA...

  18. Sea Surface Temperature Reconstruction Period 1993 - 2007 Based on Content Analysis of Coral Sr/Ca from the Region Labuan Bajo, Simeulue Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Yudawati Cahyarini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i3.121Sea surface temperature (SST is one of the important parameters for (paleo climate studies. The long time series of SST data are required to understand more the climate change. Coral geochemical proxy such as Sr/Ca overcomes this problem. Coral can provide long time series of climate data continuously from present till hundreds years ago, even fossil (dead coral can do it till thousand years ago. In this study, Sr/Ca content of Porites coral within 10 m deep from Labuan Bajo, Simeulue Island was analyzed to reconstruct SST. Coral Sr/Ca shows a strong correlation with local SST in seasonal scale as well as in the annual mean scale. Reconstructed SST data show that the monsoon between 1993 2007 strongly influence the SST variation in the Simeulue region. It supposed that the seasonal variation signal strongly influence local SST than the annual mean signal such as El Nino.

  19. Sea Surface Temperature Reconstruction Period 1993 - 2007 Based on Content Analysis of Coral Sr/Ca from the Region Labuan Bajo, Simeulue Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Yudawati Cahyarini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i3.121Sea surface temperature (SST is one of the important parameters for (paleo climate studies. The long time series of SST data are required to understand more the climate change. Coral geochemical proxy such as Sr/Ca overcomes this problem. Coral can provide long time series of climate data continuously from present till hundreds years ago, even fossil (dead coral can do it till thousand years ago. In this study, Sr/Ca content of Porites coral within 10 m deep from Labuan Bajo, Simeulue Island was analyzed to reconstruct SST. Coral Sr/Ca shows a strong correlation with local SST in seasonal scale as well as in the annual mean scale. Reconstructed SST data show that the monsoon between 1993 2007 strongly influence the SST variation in the Simeulue region. It supposed that the seasonal variation signal strongly influence local SST than the annual mean signal such as El Nino.

  20. Correlation-based temperature and emissivity separation algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jie; LIU QinHuo; LI XiaoWen; XIAO Qing; LIU Qiang; DU YongMing

    2008-01-01

    Based on analyzing the relationship between the atmospheric downward radiance and surface emissivity, this paper proposes a correlation criterion to optimize surface temperature during the process of temperature and emissivity separation from thermal infrared hyperspectral data, and puts forward the correlation-based temperature and emissivity separation algorithm (CBTES). The algorithm uses the correlation between the atmospheric downward radiance and surface emissivity to optimize surface temperature, and obtains surface emissivity with this temperature. The accuracy of CBTES was evaluated by the simulated thermal infrared hyperspectral data. The simulated results show that the CBTES can achieve high accuracy of temperature and emissivity inversion. CBTES has been compared with the iterative spectrally smooth temperature/emissivity separation (ISSTES), and the comparison results show that they have relative accuracy. Besides, CBTES is insensitive to the instrumental random noise and the change of atmospheric downward radiance during the measurements. As regards the nonisothermal pixel, its radiometric temperature changes slowly with the wavenumber when its emissivity is defined as r-emissivity. The CBTES can be used to derive the equivalent temperature of nonisothermal pixel in a narrow spectral region when we assumed that the radiometric temperature is invariable in the narrow spectral region. The derived equivalent temperatures in multi-spectral regions in 714-250cm-1 can characterize the change trend of nonisothermal pixel's radiometric temperature.

  1. Correlation-based temperature and emissivity separation algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on analyzing the relationship between the atmospheric downward radiance and surface emis- sivity, this paper proposes a correlation criterion to optimize surface temperature during the process of temperature and emissivity separation from thermal infrared hyperspectral data, and puts forward the correlation-based temperature and emissivity separation algorithm (CBTES). The algorithm uses the correlation between the atmospheric downward radiance and surface emissivity to optimize surface temperature, and obtains surface emissivity with this temperature. The accuracy of CBTES was evalu- ated by the simulated thermal infrared hyperspectral data. The simulated results show that the CBTES can achieve high accuracy of temperature and emissivity inversion. CBTES has been compared with the iterative spectrally smooth temperature/emissivity separation (ISSTES), and the comparison results show that they have relative accuracy. Besides, CBTES is insensitive to the instrumental random noise and the change of atmospheric downward radiance during the measurements. As regards the noniso- thermal pixel, its radiometric temperature changes slowly with the wavenumber when its emissivity is defined as r-emissivity. The CBTES can be used to derive the equivalent temperature of nonisothermal pixel in a narrow spectral region when we assumed that the radiometric temperature is invariable in the narrow spectral region. The derived equivalent temperatures in multi-spectral regions in 714―1250 cm?1 can characterize the change trend of nonisothermal pixel’s radiometric temperature.

  2. A protocol for validating Land Surface Temperature from Sentinel-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghent, D.

    2015-12-01

    One of the main objectives of the Sentinel-3 mission is to measure sea- and land-surface temperature with high-end accuracy and reliability in support of environmental and climate monitoring in an operational context. Calibration and validation are thus key criteria for operationalization within the framework of the Sentinel-3 Mission Performance Centre (S3MPC).Land surface temperature (LST) has a long heritage of satellite observations which have facilitated our understanding of land surface and climate change processes, such as desertification, urbanization, deforestation and land/atmosphere coupling. These observations have been acquired from a variety of satellite instruments on platforms in both low-earth orbit and in geostationary orbit. Retrieval accuracy can be a challenge though; surface emissivities can be highly variable owing to the heterogeneity of the land, and atmospheric effects caused by the presence of aerosols and by water vapour absorption can give a bias to the underlying LST. As such, a rigorous validation is critical in order to assess the quality of the data and the associated uncertainties. The Sentinel-3 Cal-Val Plan for evaluating the level-2 SL_2_LST product builds on an established validation protocol for satellite-based LST. This set of guidelines provides a standardized framework for structuring LST validation activities, and is rapidly gaining international recognition. The protocol introduces a four-pronged approach which can be summarised thus: i) in situ validation where ground-based observations are available; ii) radiance-based validation over sites that are homogeneous in emissivity; iii) intercomparison with retrievals from other satellite sensors; iv) time-series analysis to identify artefacts on an interannual time-scale. This multi-dimensional approach is a necessary requirement for assessing the performance of the LST algorithm for SLSTR which is designed around biome-based coefficients, thus emphasizing the importance of

  3. MEaSUREs Land Surface Temperature from GOES Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Rachel T.; Chen, Wen; Ma, Yingtao; Islam, Tanvir; Borbas, Eva; Hain, Chris; Hulley, Glynn; Hook, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Information on Land Surface Temperature (LST) can be generated from observations made from satellites in low Earth orbit (LEO) such as MODIS and ASTER and by sensors in geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) such as GOES. Under a project titled: "A Unified and Coherent Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Earth System Data Record for Earth Science" led by Jet Propulsion Laboratory, an effort is underway to develop long term consistent information from both such systems. In this presentation we will describe an effort to derive LST information from GOES satellites. Results will be presented from two approaches: 1) based on regression developed from a wide range of simulations using MODTRAN, SeeBor Version 5.0 global atmospheric profiles and the CAMEL (Combined ASTER and MODIS Emissivity for Land) product based on the standard University of Wisconsin 5 km emissivity values (UWIREMIS) and the ASTER Global Emissivity Database (GED) product; 2) RTTOV radiative transfer model driven with MERRA-2 reanalysis fields. We will present results of evaluation of these two methods against various products, such as MOD11, and ground observations for the five year period of (2004-2008).

  4. Mapping Soil Texture of a Plain Area Using Fuzzy-c-Means Clustering Method Based on Land Surface Diurnal Temperature Difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG De-Cai; ZHANG Gan-Lin; PAN Xian-Zhang; ZHAO Yu-Guo; ZHAO Ming-Song; WANG Gai-Fen

    2012-01-01

    The use of landscape covariates to estimate soil properties is not suitable for the areas of low relief due to the high variability of soil properties in similar topographic and vegetation conditions.A new method was implemented to map regional soil texture (in terms of sand,silt and clay contents) by hypothesizing that the change in the land surface diurnal temperature difference (DTD) is related to soil texture in case of a relatively homogeneous rainfall input.To examine this hypothesis,the DTDs from moderate resolution imagine spectroradiometer (MODIS) during a selected time period,i.e.,after a heavy rainfall between autumn harvest and autumn sowing,were classified using fuzzy-c-means (FCM) clustering.Six classes were generated,and for each class,the sand (> 0.05 mm),silt (0.002-0.05 mm) and clay (< 0.002 mm) contents at the location of maximum membership value were considered as the typical values of that class.A weighted average model was then used to digitally map soil texture.The results showed that the predicted map quite accurately reflected the regional soil variation.A validation dataset produced estimates of error for the predicted maps of sand,silt and clay contents at root mean of squared error values of 8.4%,7.8% and 2.3%,respectively,which is satisfactory in a practical context.This study thus provided a methodology that can help improve the accuracy and efficiency of soil texture mapping in plain areas using easily available data sources.

  5. Estimation of minimum surface temperature at stage ll (Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Dimri

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting minimum surface temperature at a station, Stage II, located in mountainous region requires information on the meteorological fields. An attempt has been made to develop a statistical model for forecasting minimum temperature at ground level using previous years' data. Surface data were collected at StageII (longitude 73 oB, latitude 34 oN, and altitude 2650 m. Atmospheric variables are influenced by complex orography and surface features to a great extent. In the present study, statistical relationship between atmosphere parameters and minimum temperature at the site has been established. Multivariate linear regression analysis has been used to establish the relationship to predict the minimum surface temperature for the following day. A comparison between the observed and the calculated forecast minimum temperature has been made. Most of the cases are well predicted (multiple correlation coefficient of 0.94.

  6. Temperature Calculation in Respect of Basic Elements of Power Oil Transformer on the Basis of Its Tank Surface Temperature Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zalizny

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a real-time calculation algorithm of oil, winding and magnetic core temperature of power transformer on the basis of measured values of tank surface temperature and air temperature without measuring current. The algorithm is based on the calculation of the equivalent load factor of the transformer. Imitation simulation has confirmed efficiency of the algorithm. After tests on functioning transformers the algorithm can be used in thermal protection devices and diagnostic devices for power oil transformers.

  7. North American regional climate reconstruction from ground surface temperature histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaume-Santero, Fernando; Pickler, Carolyne; Beltrami, Hugo; Mareschal, Jean-Claude

    2016-12-01

    Within the framework of the PAGES NAm2k project, 510 North American borehole temperature-depth profiles were analyzed to infer recent climate changes. To facilitate comparisons and to study the same time period, the profiles were truncated at 300 m. Ground surface temperature histories for the last 500 years were obtained for a model describing temperature changes at the surface for several climate-differentiated regions in North America. The evaluation of the model is done by inversion of temperature perturbations using singular value decomposition and its solutions are assessed using a Monte Carlo approach. The results within 95 % confidence interval suggest a warming between 1.0 and 2.5 K during the last two centuries. A regional analysis, composed of mean temperature changes over the last 500 years and geographical maps of ground surface temperatures, show that all regions experienced warming, but this warming is not spatially uniform and is more marked in northern regions.

  8. METABALL-BASED TRANSITION SURFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Lingfeng; Tan Jianrong; Chen Yuanpeng

    2005-01-01

    Metaball-based constraint deformation technique is used to change the definition of r, the straight-line distance from a space point to a constraint center in the original calculation of the potential function. By replacing the parameter of the parametrized surface w with the straight-line distance r, a method of building transition surfaces according to connected boundary curves and skeleton curves is proposed. The method has no restrictions on boundary curves that control the space shapes of transition surfaces or on types of skeleton curves, thus transition surfaces, which reach C1 continuity and are more abundant in shapes and natural, can be obtained.

  9. Reevaluation of mid-Pliocene North Atlantic sea surface temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Marci M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Dwyer, Gary S.; Lawrence, Kira T.

    2008-01-01

    Multiproxy temperature estimation requires careful attention to biological, chemical, physical, temporal, and calibration differences of each proxy and paleothermometry method. We evaluated mid-Pliocene sea surface temperature (SST) estimates from multiple proxies at Deep Sea Drilling Project Holes 552A, 609B, 607, and 606, transecting the North Atlantic Drift. SST estimates derived from faunal assemblages, foraminifer Mg/Ca, and alkenone unsaturation indices showed strong agreement at Holes 552A, 607, and 606 once differences in calibration, depth, and seasonality were addressed. Abundant extinct species and/or an unrecognized productivity signal in the faunal assemblage at Hole 609B resulted in exaggerated faunal-based SST estimates but did not affect alkenone-derived or Mg/Ca–derived estimates. Multiproxy mid-Pliocene North Atlantic SST estimates corroborate previous studies documenting high-latitude mid-Pliocene warmth and refine previous faunal-based estimates affected by environmental factors other than temperature. Multiproxy investigations will aid SST estimation in high-latitude areas sensitive to climate change and currently underrepresented in SST reconstructions.

  10. 基于翼表温度测量的光纤Bragg光栅传感器研究%Research of FBG Sensor Based on Morphing Wings' Surface Temperature Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓钢; 曾捷; 梁大开; 刘宏月; 徐海伟

    2011-01-01

    根据可变体机翼翼表温度检测范围-60~+80℃的要求,提出了一种基于铝板片封装的光纤Bragg光栅(FBG)温度增敏传感装置.该装置采用耐高温环氧树脂胶将FBG粘贴在铝板片U槽中,并预热60℃、保持30 min以保证FBG温度传感增敏装置线性和重复性.研究及试验结果表明,在翼表工作环境温度范围内,该模型理论与实测温度灵敏度分别为28.16 pm/℃和29.03 pm/℃.与裸光栅相比,其增敏倍数分别为2.540倍和2.636倍,增敏倍数误差为3.78%,反射波长与温度的线性度达到0.999 3.因此,在翼体工作环境温度范围内尤其低温环境-60~0℃间,该温度增敏传感装置能满足检测所需精度.%According to the requirements of the morphing wings' surface temperature testing range between - 60~ + 80 ℃, this paper proposes a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensing device based on the aluminum packaging. We use a high-temperature endurable epoxy resin glue to paste the FBG in the U-groove of aluminum sheet, then preheat it to 60 ℃ and keep that temperature for 30 min, in order to make sure that this FBG temperature sensor has good linearity and repeatability. Within the range of morphing wings' surface operating temperature, the experimental results show that the theory and the measured temperature sensitivity of model are 28. 16 pm /℃ and 29.03 pm/℃ respectively, and compared with the bare grating sensitivity, the theory sensitiza-tion multiple of this model is 2. 540 and the measured result is 2. 636, the error is 3. 78%. Besides, the linearity between the reflection wavelength and the temperature reaches 0. 999 3, so at the range of the wings' working environment temperature, especially at a low temperature range between -60 ~ 0 ℃ , the sensing device for temperature sensitivity can meet the need for detection accuracy.

  11. Effect of milling temperatures on surface area, surface energy and cohesion of pharmaceutical powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Umang V; Wang, Zihua; Olusanmi, Dolapo; Narang, Ajit S; Hussain, Munir A; Tobyn, Michael J; Heng, Jerry Y Y

    2015-11-10

    Particle bulk and surface properties are influenced by the powder processing routes. This study demonstrates the effect of milling temperatures on the particle surface properties, particularly surface energy and surface area, and ultimately on powder cohesion. An active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of industrial relevance (brivanib alaninate, BA) was used to demonstrate the effect of two different, but most commonly used milling temperatures (cryogenic vs. ambient). The surface energy of powders milled at both cryogenic and room temperatures increased with increasing milling cycles. The increase in surface energy could be related to the generation of surface amorphous regions. Cohesion for both cryogenic and room temperature milled powders was measured and found to increase with increasing milling cycles. For cryogenic milling, BA had a surface area ∼ 5× higher than the one obtained at room temperature. This was due to the brittle nature of this compound at cryogenic temperature. By decoupling average contributions of surface area and surface energy on cohesion by salinization post-milling, the average contribution of surface energy on cohesion for powders milled at room temperature was 83% and 55% at cryogenic temperature.

  12. Simulations on the influence of lunar surface temperature profiles on CE-1 lunar microwave sounder brightness temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Surface temperature profile is an important parameter in lunar microwave remote sensing. Based on the analysis of physical properties of the lunar samples brought back by the Apollo and Luna missions, we modeled temporal and spatial variation of lunar surface temperature with the heat conduction equation, and produced temperature distribution in top 6.0 m of lunar regolith of the whole Moon surface. Our simulation results show that the profile of lunar surface temperature varies mainly within the top 20 cm, except at the lunar polar regions where the changes can reach to about 1.0 m depth. The temperature is stable beyond that depth. The variations of lunar surface temperature lead to main changes in brightness temperature (TB) at different channels of the lunar microwave sounder (CELMS) on Chang’E-1 (CE-1). The results of this paper show that the temperature profile influenced CELMS TB, which provides strong validation on the CELMS data, and lays a solid basis for future interpretation and utilization of the CELMS data.

  13. Eddy-Induced Ekman Pumping from Sea-Surface Temperature and Surface Current Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaube, P.; Chelton, D. B.; O'Neill, L. W.

    2011-12-01

    Numerous past studies have discussed the biological importance of upwelling of nutrients into the interiors of nonlinear eddies. Such upwelling can occur during the transient stages of formation of cyclones from shoaling of the thermocline. In their mature stages, upwelling can occur from Ekman pumping driven by eddy-induced wind stress curl. Previous investigations of ocean-atmosphere interaction in regions of persistent sea-surface temperature (SST) frontal features have shown that the wind field is locally stronger over warm water and weaker over cold water. Spatial variability of the SST field thus results in a wind stress curl and an associated Ekman pumping in regions of crosswind temperature gradients. It can therefore be anticipated that any SST anomalies associated with eddies can generate Ekman pumping in the eddy interiors. Another mechanism for eddy-induced Ekman pumping is the curl of the stress on the sea surface that arises from the difference between the surface wind velocity and the surface ocean velocity. While SST-induced Ekman upwelling can occur over eddies of either polarity surface current effects on Ekman upwelling occur only over anticyclonic eddies The objective of this study is to determine the spatial structures and relative magnitudes of the two mechanisms for eddy-induced Ekman pumping within the interiors of mesoscale eddies. This is achieved by collocating satellite-based measurements of SST, surface winds and wind stress curl to the interiors of eddies identified and tracked with an automated procedure applied to the sea-surface height (SSH) fields in the Reference Series constructed by AVISO from the combined measurements by two simultaneously operating altimeters. It is shown that, on average, the wind stress curl from eddy-induced surface currents is largest at the eddy center, resulting in Ekman pumping velocities of order 10 cm day-1. While this surface current-induced Ekman pumping depends only weakly on the wind direction

  14. Applications of a thermal-based two-source energy balance model using Priestley-Taylor approach for surface temperature partitioning under advective conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study ground measured soil and vegetation component temperatures and composite temperature from a high spatial resolution thermal camera and a network of thermal-IR sensors collected in an irrigated maize field and in an irrigated cotton field are used to assess and refine the component temp...

  15. Measurement of surface temperature and emissivity by a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform infrared spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Morgenstjerne, Axel; Rathmann, Ole

    1996-01-01

    Surface temperatures are estimated with high precision based on a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform spectrometers. The method is based on Planck's radiation law and a nonlinear least-squares fitting algorithm applied to two or more spectra at different sample temperatures and a single...

  16. Theoretical study of cathode surfaces and high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Wolfgang

    1995-01-01

    Calculations are presented for the work functions of BaO on W, Os, Pt, and alloys of Re-W, Os-W, and Ir-W that are in excellent agreement with experiment. The observed emission enhancement for alloy relative to tungsten dispenser cathodes is attributed to properties of the substrate crystal structure and explained by the smaller depolarization of the surface dipole on hexagonal as compared to cubic substrates. For Ba and BaO on W(100), the geometry of the adsorbates has been determined by a comparison of inverse photoemission spectra with calculated densities of unoccupied states based on the fully relativistic embedded cluster approach. Results are also discussed for models of scandate cathodes and the electronic structure of oxygen on W(100) at room and elevated temperatures. A detailed comparison is made for the surface electronic structure of the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7 as obtained with non-, quasi-, and fully relativistic cluster calculations.

  17. A New Global Climatology of Annual Land Surface Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Bechtel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST is an important parameter in various fields including hydrology, climatology, and geophysics. Its derivation by thermal infrared remote sensing has long tradition but despite substantial progress there remain limited data availability and challenges like emissivity estimation, atmospheric correction, and cloud contamination. The annual temperature cycle (ATC is a promising approach to ease some of them. The basic idea to fit a model to the ATC and derive annual cycle parameters (ACP has been proposed before but so far not been tested on larger scale. In this study, a new global climatology of annual LST based on daily 1 km MODIS/Terra observations was processed and evaluated. The derived global parameters were robust and free of missing data due to clouds. They allow estimating LST patterns under largely cloud-free conditions at different scales for every day of year and further deliver a measure for its accuracy respectively variability. The parameters generally showed low redundancy and mostly reflected real surface conditions. Important influencing factors included climate, land cover, vegetation phenology, anthropogenic effects, and geology which enable numerous potential applications. The datasets will be available at the CliSAP Integrated Climate Data Center pending additional processing.

  18. Mapping the body surface temperature of cattle by infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Marcia Saladini Vieira; da Silva, Suelen Corrêa; Salles, Fernando André; Roma, Luiz Carlos; El Faro, Lenira; Bustos Mac Lean, Priscilla Ayleen; Lins de Oliveira, Celso Eduardo; Martello, Luciane Silva

    2016-12-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) is an alternative non-invasive method that has been studied as a tool for identifying many physiological and pathological processes related to changes in body temperature. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the body surface temperature of Jersey dairy cattle in a thermoneutral environment in order to contribute to the determination of a body surface temperature pattern for animals of this breed in a situation of thermal comfort. Twenty-four Jersey heifers were used over a period of 35 days at APTA Brazil. Measurements were performed on all animals, starting with the physiological parameters. Body surface temperature was measured by IRT collecting images in different body regions: left and right eye area, right and left eye, caudal left foreleg, cranial left foreleg, right and left flank, and forehead. High correlations were observed between temperature and humidity index (THI) and right flank, left flank and forehead temperatures (0.85, 0.81, and 0.81, respectively). The IRT variables that exhibited the five highest correlation coefficients in principal component 1 were, in decreasing order: forehead (0.90), right flank (0.87), left flank (0.84), marker 1 caudal left foreleg (0.83), marker 2 caudal left foreleg (0.74). The THI showed a high correlation coefficient (0.88) and moderate to low correlations were observed for the physiological variables rectal temperature (0.43), and respiratory frequency (0.42). The thermal profile obtained indicates a surface temperature pattern for each region studied in a situation of thermal comfort and may contribute to studies investigating body surface temperature. Among the body regions studied, IRT forehead temperature showed the highest association with rectal temperature, and forehead and right and left flank temperatures are strongly associated with THI and may be adopted in future studies on thermoregulation and body heat production.

  19. eMODIS Global Land Surface Temperature Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The EROS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (eMODIS) Aqua Land Surface Temperature (LST) product is similar to the Land Processes Distributed Active...

  20. 2002 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...

  1. 2003 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...

  2. Sea surface temperature anomalies in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.

    . Further analysis has shown that the sea surface anomalies are well correlated to the anomalies of air temperature and latent heat flux values; whereas they are least correlated to the anomalies of wind stress and net radiation values, except over...

  3. An Estimation of Land Surface Temperatures from Landsat ETM+ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr-Adeline

    2 National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences, Cairo, Egypt. 3University of ... Keywords: Urban growth, urban heat Island, land surface temperatures, satellite remote sensing .... observed target includes green vegetation or not.

  4. Global 1-km Sea Surface Temperature (G1SST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — JPL OurOcean Portal: A daily, global Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data set is produced at 1-km (also known as ultra-high resolution) by the JPL ROMS (Regional Ocean...

  5. COBE-SST2 Sea Surface Temperature and Ice

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A new sea surface temperature (SST) analysis on a centennial time scale is presented. The dataset starts in 1850 with monthly 1x1 means and is periodically updated....

  6. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Arabian Sea during winter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Ghosh, A.K.

    Surface layer temperature inversion in the south eastern Arabian Sea, during winter has been studied using Bathythermograph data collected from 1132 stations. It is found that the inversion in this area is a stable seasonal feature...

  7. Seasonal Sea Surface Temperature Averages, 1985-2001 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of four images showing seasonal sea surface temperature (SST) averages for the entire earth. Data for the years 1985-2001 are averaged to...

  8. 1996 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...

  9. 2000 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...

  10. OW NOAA Pathfinder/GAC Sea-Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains satellite-derived sea-surface temperature measurements collected by means of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer - Global Area Coverage...

  11. OW NOAA AVHRR-GAC Sea-Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains satellite-derived sea-surface temperature measurements collected by means of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer - Global Area Coverage...

  12. NOAA High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Analysis Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archive covers two high resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis products developed using an optimum interpolation (OI) technique. The analyses have a...

  13. Tropical sea surface temperatures and the earth's orbital eccentricity cycles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, S.M.; Fernandes, A.A.; Mohan, R.

    The tropical oceanic warm pools are climatologically important regions because their sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are positively related to atmospheric greenhouse effect and the cumulonimbus-cirrus cloud anvil. Such a warm pool is also present...

  14. Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) Monthly Analysis, Version 3b

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Version 3b (v3b) of the Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) dataset is a monthly SST analysis on a 2-degree global grid based on the International...

  15. Temperature Distribution Measurement of The Wing Surface under Icing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isokawa, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Takeshi; Kimura, Shigeo; Sakaue, Hirotaka; Morita, Katsuaki; Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Collaboration; Univ of Notre Dame Collaboration; Kanagawa Institute of Technology Collaboration; Univ of Electro-(UEC) Team, Comm

    2016-11-01

    De- or anti-icing system of an aircraft is necessary for a safe flight operation. Icing is a phenomenon which is caused by a collision of supercooled water frozen to an object. For the in-flight icing, it may cause a change in the wing cross section that causes stall, and in the worst case, the aircraft would fall. Therefore it is important to know the surface temperature of the wing for de- or anti-icing system. In aerospace field, temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) has been widely used for obtaining the surface temperature distribution on a testing article. The luminescent image from the TSP can be related to the temperature distribution. (TSP measurement system) In icing wind tunnel, we measured the surface temperature distribution of the wing model using the TSP measurement system. The effect of icing conditions on the TSP measurement system is discussed.

  16. A temperature prediction-correction method for estimating surface soil heat flux from soil temperature and moisture data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Surface soil heat flux is a component of surface energy budget and its estimation is needed in land-atmosphere interaction studies. This paper develops a new simple method to estimate soil heat flux from soil temperature and moisture observations. It gives soil temperature profile with the thermal diffusion equation and, then, adjusts the temperature profile with differences between observed and computed soil temperatures. The soil flux is obtained through integrating the soil temperature profile. Compared with previous methods, the new method does not require accurate thermal conductivity. Case studies based on observations, synthetic data, and sensitivity analyses show that the new method is preferable and the results obtained with it are not sensitive to the availability of temperature data in the topsoil. In addition, we pointed out that the soil heat flux measured with a heat-plate can be quite erroneous in magnitude though its phase is accurate.

  17. Surface stress-based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Shengbo; Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Wendong; Li, Pengwei; Hu, Jie; Li, Gang

    2014-01-15

    Surface stress-based biosensors, as one kind of label-free biosensors, have attracted lots of attention in the process of information gathering and measurement for the biological, chemical and medical application with the development of technology and society. This kind of biosensors offers many advantages such as short response time (less than milliseconds) and a typical sensitivity at nanogram, picoliter, femtojoule and attomolar level. Furthermore, it simplifies sample preparation and testing procedures. In this work, progress made towards the use of surface stress-based biosensors for achieving better performance is critically reviewed, including our recent achievement, the optimally circular membrane-based biosensors and biosensor array. The further scientific and technological challenges in this field are also summarized. Critical remark and future steps towards the ultimate surface stress-based biosensors are addressed.

  18. Temperature Compensation of Surface Acoustic Waves on Berlinite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, David Michael Marshall

    The surface acoustic wave properties of Berlinite (a-AlPO4) have been investigated theoretically and experimentally, for a variety of crystallographic orientations, to evaluate its possible use as a substrate material for temperature compensated surface acoustic wave devices. A computer program has been developed to calculate the surface wave properties of a material from its elastic, piezoelectric, dielectric and lattice constants and their temperature derivatives. The program calculates the temperature coefficient of delay, the velocity of the surface wave, the direction of power flow and a measure of the electro-mechanical coupling. These calculations have been performed for a large number of orientations using a modified form of the data given by Chang and Barsch for Berlinite and predict several new temperature compensated directions. Experimental measurements have been made of the frequency-temperature response of a surface acoustic wave oscillator on an 80° X axis boule cut which show it to be temperature compensated in qualitative agreement with the theoretical predictions. This orientation shows a cubic frequency-temperature dependence instead of the expected parabolic response. Measurements of the electro-mechanical coupling coefficient k gave a value lower than predicted. Similar measurements on a Y cut plate gave a value which is approximately twice that of ST cut quartz, but again lower than predicted. The surface wave velocity on both these cuts was measured to be slightly higher than predicted by the computer program. Experimental measurements of the lattice parameters a and c are also presented for a range of temperatures from 25°C to just above the alpha-beta transition at 584°C. These results are compared with the values obtained by Chang and Barsch. The results of this work indicate that Berlinite should become a useful substrate material for the construction of temperature compensated surface acoustic wave devices.

  19. SURFACE TEMPERATURES ON TITAN DURING NORTHERN WINTER AND SPRING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Romani, P. N.; Samuelson, R. E. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Mamoutkine, A. [ADNET Systems, Inc., Bethesda, MD 20817 (United States); Gorius, N. J. P. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Coustenis, A. [Laboratoire d’Etudes Spatiales et d’Instrumentation en Astrophysique (LESIA), Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, 5, place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon Cedex (France); Tokano, T., E-mail: donald.e.jennings@nasa.gov [Universität zu Köln, Albertus-Magnus-Platz, D-50923 Köln (Germany)

    2016-01-01

    Meridional brightness temperatures were measured on the surface of Titan during the 2004–2014 portion of the Cassini mission by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer. Temperatures mapped from pole to pole during five two-year periods show a marked seasonal dependence. The surface temperature near the south pole over this time decreased by 2 K from 91.7 ± 0.3 to 89.7 ± 0.5 K while at the north pole the temperature increased by 1 K from 90.7 ± 0.5 to 91.5 ± 0.2 K. The latitude of maximum temperature moved from 19 S to 16 N, tracking the sub-solar latitude. As the latitude changed, the maximum temperature remained constant at 93.65 ± 0.15 K. In 2010 our temperatures repeated the north–south symmetry seen by Voyager one Titan year earlier in 1980. Early in the mission, temperatures at all latitudes had agreed with GCM predictions, but by 2014 temperatures in the north were lower than modeled by 1 K. The temperature rise in the north may be delayed by cooling of sea surfaces and moist ground brought on by seasonal methane precipitation and evaporation.

  20. Temperature dependence of surface enhanced Raman scattering on C70

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ying; Zhang Zhenlong; DU Yinxiao; DONG Hua; MO Yujun

    2005-01-01

    The temperature dependence of surface enhanced Raman scattering of the C70 molecule is reported.The Raman scattering of C70 molecules adsorbed on the surface of a silver mirror was measured at different temperatures. The experimental results indicate that the relative intensities of the Raman features vary with the temperature of the sample. When the temperature decreases from room temperature to 0℃, the relative intensities of certain Raman bands decrease abruptly. If we take the strongest band 1565cm-1 as a standard value 100, the greatest decrease approaches to 43%. However, with the further decrease in the temperature these relative intensities increase and resume the value at room temperature. And such a temperature dependence is reversible. Our results show that the adsorption state of the C70 molecules on the silver surface around 0℃changes greatly with the temperature, resulting in a decrease in relative intensities for some main Raman features of C70molecule. When the temperature is lower than 0℃, the adsorption state changes continually and more slowly. Synchronously, eight new Raman featu res, which have not ever been reported in literature, are observed in our experiment and this enriches the basic information of the vibrational modes for C70 molecule.

  1. Sea Surface Temperature from EUMETSAT Including Sentinel-3 SLSTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, Anne; Bonekamp, Hans; Montagner, Francois; Santacesaria, Vincenzo; Tomazic, Igor

    2015-12-01

    The paper gives an overview of sea surface temperature (SST) activities at EUMETSAT including information on SST planned from the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR). Operational oceanography activities within the Marine Applications group at EUMETSAT continue with a focus on SST, sea surface winds, sea-ice products, radiative fluxes, significant wave height and sea surface topography. These are achieved through the mandatory, optional and third-party programmes, and for some products with the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea-Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI SAF). Progress towards products from sea-ice surface temperature, ocean colour products, turbidity and aerosol optical depth over water continue. Information on oceanography products from EUMETSAT can be found through the product navigator (http://navigator.eumetsat.int). EUMETSAT have been collaborating with ESA for a number of years on the development of SST for SLSTR.

  2. Determination of temperature of moving surface by sensitivity analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Farhanieh, B

    2002-01-01

    In this paper sensitivity analysis in inverse problem solutions is employed to estimate the temperature of a moving surface. Moving finite element method is used for spatial discretization. Time derivatives are approximated using Crank-Nicklson method. The accuracy of the solution is assessed by simulation method. The convergence domain is investigated for the determination of the temperature of a solid fuel.

  3. A new interpolation method for Antarctic surface temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yetang Wang; Shugui Hou

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new methodology for the spatial interpolation of annual mean temperature into a regular grid with a geographic resolution of 0.01° for Antarctica by applying a recent compilation of the Antarctic temperature data.A multiple linear regression model of the dependence of temperature on some geographic parameters (i.e.,latitude,longitude,and elevation) is proposed empirically,and the kriging method is used to determine the spatial distribution of regional and local deviations from the temperature calculated from the multiple linear regression model.The modeled value and residual grids are combined to derive a high-resolution map of surface air temperature.The performance of our new methodology is superior to a variety of benchmark methods (e.g.,inverse distance weighting,kriging,and spline methods) via cross-validation techniques.Our simulation resembles well with those distinct spatial features of surface temperature,such as the decrease in annual mean surface temperature with increasing latitude and the distance away from the coast line;and it also reveals the complex topographic effects on the spatial distribution of surface temperature.

  4. A Preliminary Study of Surface Temperature Cold Bias in COAMPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, H-N S; Leach, M J; Sugiyama, G A; Aluzzi, F J

    2001-04-27

    It is well recognized that the model predictability is more or less hampered by the imperfect representations of atmospheric state and model physics. Therefore, it is a common problem for any numerical models to exhibit some sorts of biases in the prediction. In this study, the emphasis is focused on the cold bias of surface temperature forecast in Naval Research Laboratory's three-dimensional mesoscale model, COAMPS (Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System). Based on the comparison with the ground station data, there were two types of ground temperature cold biases identified in LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) operational forecasts of COAMPS over the California and Nevada regions during the 1999 winter and the 2000 spring. The first type of cold bias appears at high elevation regions covered by snow, and its magnitude can be as large as 30 F - 40 F lower than observed. The second type of cold bias mainly exists in the snow-free clear-sky regions, where the surface temperature is above the freezing point, and its magnitude can be up to 5 F - 10 F lower than observed. These cold biases can affect the low-level stratification, and even the diurnal variation of winds in the mountain regions, and therefore impact the atmospheric dispersion forecast. The main objective of this study is to explore the causes of such cold bias, and to further the improvement of the forecast performance in COAMPS. A series of experiments are performed to gauge the sensitivity of the model forecast due to the physics changes and large-scale data with various horizontal and vertical resolutions.

  5. Analysis of Anomaly in Land Surface Temperature Using MODIS Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorozu, K.; Kodama, T.; Kim, S.; Tachikawa, Y.; Shiiba, M.

    2011-12-01

    Atmosphere-land surface interaction plays a dominant role on the hydrologic cycle. Atmospheric phenomena cause variation of land surface state and land surface state can affect on atmosphereic conditions. Widely-known article related in atmospheric-land interaction was published by Koster et al. in 2004. The context of this article is that seasonal anomaly in soil moisture or soil surface temperature can affect summer precipitation generation and other atmospheric processes especially in middle North America, Sahel and south Asia. From not only above example but other previous research works, it is assumed that anomaly of surface state has a key factor. To investigate atmospheric-land surface interaction, it is necessary to analyze anomaly field in land surface state. In this study, soil surface temperature should be focused because it can be globally and continuously observed by satellite launched sensor. To land surface temperature product, MOD11C1 and MYD11C1 products which are kinds of MODIS products are applied. Both of them have 0.05 degree spatial resolution and daily temporal resolution. The difference of them is launched satellite, MOD11C1 is Terra and MYD11C1 is Aqua. MOD11C1 covers the latter of 2000 to present and MYD11C1 covers the early 2002 to present. There are unrealistic values on provided products even if daily product was already calibrated or corrected. For pre-analyzing, daily data is aggregated into 8-days data to remove irregular values for stable analysis. It was found that there are spatial and temporal distribution of 10-years average and standard deviation for each 8-days term. In order to point out extreme anomaly in land surface temperature, standard score for each 8-days term is applied. From the analysis of standard score, it is found there are large anomaly in land surface temperature around north China plain in early April 2005 and around Bangladesh in early May 2009.

  6. Radar Backscatter Across the Gulf Stream Sea Surface Temperature Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Li, F. K.; Walsh, E. J.; Lou, S. H.

    1998-01-01

    Ocean backscatter signatures were measured by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne NUSCAT K(sub u)-band scatterometer across the Gulf Stream sea surface temperature front. The measurements were made during the Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment (SWADE) off the coast of Virginia and Maryland in the winter of 1991.

  7. estimation of land surface temperature of kaduna metropolis, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zaharaddeen et. al

    Understanding the spatial variation of Land Surface Temperature. (LST), will be ... positive correlation between mean of surface emissivity with date and ... deviation of 1.92 of LST and coefficient determinant R2 (0.46) show a ... (LST), as the prime and basic physical parameter of the earth's ..... thorough review of the paper.

  8. ESTIMATION OF PV MODULE SURFACE TEMPERATURE USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Coskun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to use the artificial neural network (ANN method to estimate the surface temperature of a photovoltaic (PV panel. Using the experimentally obtained PV data, the accuracy of the ANN model was evaluated. To train the artificial neural network (ANN, outer temperature solar radiation and wind speed values were inputs and surface temperature was an output. The ANN was used to estimate PV panel surface temperature. Using the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM algorithm the feed forward artificial neural network was trained. Two back propagation type ANN algorithms were used and their performance was compared with the estimate from the LM algorithm. To train the artificial neural network, experimental data were used for two thirds with the remaining third used for testing. Additionally scaled conjugate gradient (SCG back propagation and resilient back propagation (RB type ANN algorithms were used for comparison with the LM algorithm. The performances of these three types of artificial neural network were compared and mean error rates of between 0.005962 and 0.012177% were obtained. The best estimate was produced by the LM algorithm. Estimation of PV surface temperature with artificial neural networks provides better results than conventional correlation methods. This study showed that artificial neural networks may be effectively used to estimate PV surface temperature.

  9. The Hourly Surface Temperature Forecasting Techniques Based on Circulation Types%基于环流分型的逐时气温预报技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施萧; 裴军林; 江晓华; 党建涛; 杨道勇

    2013-01-01

      In this paper the Kalman filtering and circulation type classification were introduced, the interpretative forecasting model of hourly temperature in 72 hours was established according to the temperature increase rate due to the different circulation types in terms of T213 prediction products from January to February at 2009, conventional observation data and hourly temperature records at the site area more than 30 years. Testing from March to July in 2009 for the site area was demonstrated. The results show that with Kalman filtering relatively accurate results of the maximum and minimum of temperature can be obtained,while with circulation types classification the accurate rate of hourly temperature forecast can reach 73.2 percent. The method in this paper can play well for hourly temperature forcasting .%  利用2009年1—2月T213模式产品38 a来的常规观测报文以及场区逐时气温记录,综合运用环流分型和Kalman滤波方法,基于逐月环流型的气温增率建立了场区72 h逐时气温释用预报模型,并针对场区2009年3—7月各天72 h逐时气温进行了具体的预报。结果表明:Kalman滤波算法能够得到较为精确的最高、最底温度预报,通过环流分型得到的逐时气温预报准确率能够达到73.2%,可以作为逐时气温预报一种较好的方法。

  10. A physically based analytical spatial air temperature and humidity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang Yang; Theodore A. Endreny; David J. Nowak

    2013-01-01

    Spatial variation of urban surface air temperature and humidity influences human thermal comfort, the settling rate of atmospheric pollutants, and plant physiology and growth. Given the lack of observations, we developed a Physically based Analytical Spatial Air Temperature and Humidity (PASATH) model. The PASATH model calculates spatial solar radiation and heat...

  11. Mathematical model of the metal mould surface temperature optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mlynek, Jaroslav, E-mail: jaroslav.mlynek@tul.cz; Knobloch, Roman, E-mail: roman.knobloch@tul.cz [Department of Mathematics, FP Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 2, 461 17 Liberec, The Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Srb, Radek, E-mail: radek.srb@tul.cz [Institute of Mechatronics and Computer Engineering Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 2, 461 17 Liberec, The Czech Republic (Czech Republic)

    2015-11-30

    The article is focused on the problem of generating a uniform temperature field on the inner surface of shell metal moulds. Such moulds are used e.g. in the automotive industry for artificial leather production. To produce artificial leather with uniform surface structure and colour shade the temperature on the inner surface of the mould has to be as homogeneous as possible. The heating of the mould is realized by infrared heaters located above the outer mould surface. The conceived mathematical model allows us to optimize the locations of infrared heaters over the mould, so that approximately uniform heat radiation intensity is generated. A version of differential evolution algorithm programmed in Matlab development environment was created by the authors for the optimization process. For temperate calculations software system ANSYS was used. A practical example of optimization of heaters locations and calculation of the temperature of the mould is included at the end of the article.

  12. An Open and Transparent Databank of Global Land Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, J.; Thorne, P.; Lawrimore, J. H.; Gleason, B.; Menne, M. J.; Williams, C.

    2013-12-01

    The International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) consists of an effort to create an end-to-end process for land surface air temperature analyses. The foundation of this process is the establishment of a global land surface databank. The databank builds upon the groundbreaking efforts of scientists who led efforts to construct global land surface datasets in the 1980's and 1990's. A primary aim of the databank is to improve aspects including data provenance, version control, temporal and spatial coverage, and improved methods for bringing dozens of source data together into an integrated dataset. The databank consists of multiple stages, with each successive stage providing a higher level of processing, quality and integration. Currently more than 50 sources of data have been added to the databank. An automated algorithm has been developed that merges these sources into one complete dataset by removing duplicate station records, identifying two or more station records that can be merged into a single record, and incorporating new and unique stations. The program runs iteratively through all the sources which are ordered based upon criteria established by the ISTI. The highest preferred source, known as the target, runs through all the candidate sources, calculating station comparisons that are acceptable for merging. The process is probabilistic in approach, and the final fate of a candidate station is based upon metadata matching and data equivalence criteria. If there is not enough information, the station is withheld for further investigation. The algorithm has been validated using a pseudo-source of stations with a known time of observation bias, and correct matches have been made nearly 95% of the time. The final product, endorsed and recommended by ISTI, contains over 30,000 stations, however slight changes in the algorithm can perturb results. Subjective decisions, such as the ordering of the sources, or changing metadata and data matching thresholds

  13. Influence of Annealing Temperature on CZTS Thin Film Surface Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenmei; Han, Junfeng; Ge, Jun; Peng, Xianglin; Liu, Yunong; Jian, Yu; Yuan, Lin; Xiong, Xiaolu; Cha, Limei; Liao, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    In this work, copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) films were deposited by direct current sputtering and the samples were annealed in different oven-set temperatures and atmosphere (Ar and H2S). The surface evolution was investigated carefully by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface of the as-sputtered precursor contained little Cu and large amounts of Zn and Sn. The metallic precursor was continuous and compact without pinholes or cracks. With the increase of the temperature from room temperature to 250°C, Cu atoms diffused to the film surface to form Cu1- x S and covered other compounds. Some small platelets were smaller than 500 nm spreading randomly in the holes of the film surfaces. When the temperature reached 350°C, Zn and Sn atoms began to diffuse to the surface and react with S or Cu1- x S. At 400°C, SEM showed the melting of large particles and small particles with a size from 100 nm to 200 nm in the background of the film surface. Excess Zn segregated towards the surface regions and formed ZnS phase on the surface. In addition, the signal of sodium in the CZTS surface was observed above 400°C. At 600°C, a large amount of regular structures with clear edges and corners were observed in the film surface in SEM images. A clear recrystallized process on the surface was assumed from those observations.

  14. Estimation of Land Surface Temperature under Cloudy Skies Using Combined Diurnal Solar Radiation and Surface Temperature Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST is a key parameter in the interaction of the land-atmosphere system. However, clouds affect the retrieval of LST data from thermal-infrared remote sensing data. Thus, it is important to determine a method for estimating LSTs at times when the sky is overcast. Based on a one-dimensional heat transfer equation and on the evolution of daily temperatures and net shortwave solar radiation (NSSR, a new method for estimating LSTs under cloudy skies (Tcloud from diurnal NSSR and surface temperatures is proposed. Validation is performed against in situ measurements that were obtained at the ChangWu ecosystem experimental station in China. The results show that the root-mean-square error (RMSE between the actual and estimated LSTs is as large as 1.23 K for cloudy data. A sensitivity analysis to the errors in the estimated LST under clear skies (Tclear and in the estimated NSSR reveals that the RMSE of the obtained Tcloud is less than 1.5 K after adding a 0.5 K bias to the actual Tclear and 10 percent NSSR errors to the actual NSSR. Tcloud is estimated by the proposed method using Tclear and NSSR products of MSG-SEVIRI for southern Europe. The results indicate that the new algorithm is practical for retrieving the LST under cloudy sky conditions, although some uncertainty exists. Notably, the approach can only be used during the daytime due to the assumption of the variation in LST caused by variations in insolation. Further, if there are less than six Tclear observations on any given day, the method cannot be used.

  15. Climate Change Signal Analysis for Northeast Asian Surface Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeong-Hyeong LEE; Byungsoo KIM; Keon-Tae SOHN; Won-Tae KOWN; Seung-Ki MIN

    2005-01-01

    Climate change detection, attribution, and prediction were studied for the surface temperature in the Northeast Asian region using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and three coupled-model simulations from ECHAM4/OPYC3, HadCM3, and CCCma GCMs (Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis general circulation model). The Bayesian fingerprint approach was used to perform the detection and attribution test for the anthropogenic climate change signal associated with changes in anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfate aerosol (SO42-) concentrations for the Northeast Asian temperature. It was shown that there was a weak anthropogenic climate change signal in the Northeast Asian temperature change. The relative contribution of CO2 and SOl- effects to total temperature change in Northeast Asia was quantified from ECHAM4/OPYC3 and CCCma GCM simulations using analysis of variance. For the observed temperature change for the period of 1959-1998, the CO2 effect contributed 10%-21% of the total variance and the direct cooling effect of SO42- played a less important role (0% 7%) than the CO2effect. The prediction of surface temperature change was estimated from the second CO2+SO24- scenario run of ECHAM4/OPYC3 which has the least error in the simulation of the present-day temperature field near the Korean Peninsula. The result shows that the area-mean surface temperature near the Korean Peninsula will increase by about 1.1° by the 2040s relative to the 1990s.

  16. Validation of AIRS V6 Surface Temperature over Greenland with GCN and NOAA Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae N.; Hearty, Thomas; Cullather, Richard; Nowicki, Sophie; Susskind, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This work compares the temporal and spatial characteristics of the AIRSAMSU (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A) Version 6 and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Collection 5 derived surface temperatures over Greenland. To estimate uncertainties in space-based surface temperature measurements, we re-projected the MODIS Ice Surface Temperature (IST) to 0.5 by 0.5 degree spatial resolution. We also re-gridded AIRS Skin Temperature (Ts) into the same grid but classified with different cloud conditions and surface types. These co-located data sets make intercomparison between the two instruments relatively straightforward. Using this approach, the spatial comparison between the monthly mean AIRS Ts and MODIS IST is in good agreement with RMS 2K for May 2012. This approach also allows the detection of any long-term calibration drift and the careful examination of calibration consistency in the MODIS and AIRS temperature data record. The temporal correlations between temperature data are also compared with those from in-situ measurements from GC-Net (GCN) and NOAA stations. The coherent time series of surface temperature evident in the correlation between AIRS Ts and GCN temperatures suggest that at monthly time scales both observations capture the same climate signal over Greenland. It is also suggested that AIRS surface air temperature (Ta) can be used to estimate the boundary layer inversion.

  17. Heterogeneity of soil surface temperature induced by xerophytic shrub in a revegetated desert ecosystem, northwestern China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ya-Feng Zhang; Xin-Ping Wang; Yan-Xia PAN; Rui Hu; Hao Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Variation characteristics of the soil surface temperature induced by shrub canopy greatly affects the nearsurface biological and biochemical processes in desert ecosystems. However, information regarding the effects of shrub upon the heterogeneity of soil surface temperature is scarce. Here we aimed to characterize the effects of shrub (Caragana korshinskii) canopy on the soil surface temperature heterogeneity at areas under shrub canopy and the neighbouring bare ground. Diurnal variations of soil surface temperature were measured at areas adjacent to the shrub base (ASB), beneath the midcanopy (BMC), and in the bare intershrub spaces (BIS) at the eastern, southern, western and northern aspects of shrub, respectively. Results indicated that diurnal mean soil surface temperature under the C. korshinskii canopy (ASB and BMC) was significantly lower than in the BIS, with the highest in the BIS, followed by the BMC and ASB. The diurnal maximum and diurnal variations of soil surface temperatures under canopy vary strongly with different aspects of shrub with the diurnal variation in solar altitude, which could be used as cues to detect safe sites for under-canopy biota. A significant empirical linear relationship was found between soil surface temperature and solar altitude, suggesting an empirical predicator that solar altitude can serve for soil surface temperature. Lower soil surface temperatures under the canopy than in the bare intershrub spaces imply that shrubs canopy play a role of ‘cool islands’ in the daytime in terms of soil surface temperature during hot summer months in the desert ecosystems characterized by a mosaic of sparse vegetation and bare ground.

  18. Assessment of broiler surface temperature variation when exposed to different air temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR Nascimento

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of the air temperature variation on the mean surface temperature (MST of 7- to 35-day-old broiler chickens using infrared thermometry to estimate MST, and to study surface temperature variation of the wings, head, legs, back and comb as affected by air temperature and broiler age. One hundred Cobb® broilers were used in the experiment. Starting on day 7, 10 birds were weekly selected at random, housed in an environmental chamber and reared under three distinct temperatures (18, 25 and 32 ºC to record their thermal profile using an infrared thermal camera. The recorded images were processed to estimate MST by selecting the whole area of the bird within the picture and comparing it with the values obtained using selected equations in literature, and to record the surface temperatures of the body parts. The MST estimated by infrared images were not statistically different (p > 0.05 from the values obtained by the equations. MST values significantly increased (p < 0.05 when the air temperature increased, but were not affected by bird age. However, age influenced the difference between MST and air temperature, which was highest on day 14. The technique of infrared thermal image analysis was useful to estimate the mean surface temperature of broiler chickens.

  19. Investigating the effect of surface water - groundwater interactions on stream temperature using Distributed temperature sensing and instream temperature model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karthikeyan, Matheswaran; Blemmer, Morten; Mortensen, Julie Flor;

    2011-01-01

    Surface water–groundwater interactions at the stream interface influences, and at times controls the stream temperature, a critical water property driving biogeochemical processes. This study investigates the effects of these interactions on temperature of Stream Elverdamsåen in Denmark using...... the Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) system and instream temperature modelling. Locations of surface water–groundwater interactions were identified from the temperature data collected over a 2-km stream reach using a DTS system with 1-m spatial and 5-min temporal resolution. The stream under consideration...... exhibits three distinct thermal regimes within a 2 km reach length due to two major interactions. An energy balance model is used to simulate the instream temperature and to quantify the effect of these interactions on the stream temperature. This research demonstrates the effect of reach level small scale...

  20. On-Line Life Monitoring Technique for Tube Bundles of Boiler High-Temperature Heating Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Dong; Wang Zhongyuan

    2005-01-01

    High-temperature heating surface such as superheater and reheater of large-sized utility boiler all experiences a relatively severe working conditions. The failure of boiler tubes will directly impact the safe and economic operation of boiler. An on-line life monitoring model of high-temperature heating surface was set up according to the well-known L-M formula of the creep damages. The tube wall metal temperature and working stress was measured by on-line monitoring, and with this model, the real-time calculation of the life expenditure of the heating surface tube bundles were realized. Based on the technique the on-line life monitoring and management system of high-temperature heating surface was developed for a 300 MW utility boiler. An effective device was thus suggested for the implementation of the safe operation and the condition-based maintenance of utility boilers.

  1. Heat waves measured with MODIS land surface temperature data predict changes in avian community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Albright; Anna M. Pidgeon; Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Murray K. Clayton; Curtis H. Flather; Patrick D. Culbert; Volker C. Radeloff

    2011-01-01

    Heat waves are expected to become more frequent and severe as climate changes, with unknown consequences for biodiversity. We sought to identify ecologically-relevant broad-scale indicators of heat waves based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) and interpolated air temperature data and assess their associations with avian community structure. Specifically, we...

  2. Uncertainties and shortcomings of ground surface temperature histories derived from inversion of temperature logs

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Andreas; Rath, Volker

    2008-01-01

    Analysing borehole temperature data in terms of ground surface history can add useful information to reconstructions of past climates. Therefore, a rigorous assessment of uncertainties and error sources is a necessary prerequisite for the meaningful interpretation of such ground surface temperature histories. This study analyses the most prominent sources of uncertainty. The diffusive nature of the process makes the inversion relatively robust against incomplete knowledge of the thermal diffu...

  3. MODIS/TERRA MOD11A2 Land Surface Temperature & Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based to...

  4. MODIS/TERRA MOD11_L2 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity 5-Minute L2 Swath 1 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based to...

  5. MODIS/TERRA MOD11A2 Land Surface Temperature & Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  6. MODIS/COMBINED MOD11A1 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1 km Grid SIN

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based to...

  7. Seasonal Spatial Patterns of Surface Water Temperature, Surface Heat Fluxes and Meteorological Forcing Over Lake Geneva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani Rahaghi, A.; Lemmin, U.; Bouffard, D.; Riffler, M.; Wunderle, S.; Barry, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    In many lakes, surface heat flux (SHF) is the most important component controlling the lake's energy content. Accurate methods for the determination of SHF are valuable for water management, and for use in hydrological and meteorological models. Large lakes, not surprisingly, are subject to spatially and temporally varying meteorological conditions, and hence SHF. Here, we report on an investigation for estimating the SHF of a large European lake, Lake Geneva. We evaluated several bulk formulas to estimate Lake Geneva's SHF based on different data sources. A total of 64 different surface heat flux models were realized using existing representations for different heat flux components. Data sources to run the models included meteorological data (from an operational numerical weather prediction model, COSMO-2) and lake surface water temperature (LSWT, from satellite imagery). Models were calibrated at two points in the lake for which regular depth profiles of temperature are available, and which enabled computation of the total heat content variation. The latter, computed for 03.2008-12.2012, was the metric used to rank the different models. The best calibrated model was then selected to calculate the spatial distribution of SHF. Analysis of the model results shows that evaporative and convective heat fluxes are the dominant terms controlling the spatial pattern of SHF. The former is significant in all seasons while the latter plays a role only in fall and winter. Meteorological observations illustrate that wind-sheltering, and to some extent relative humidity variability, are the main reasons for the observed large-scale spatial variability. In addition, both modeling and satellite observations indicate that, on average, the eastern part of the lake is warmer than the western part, with a greater temperature contrast in spring and summer than in fall and winter whereas the SHF spatial splitting is stronger in fall and winter. This is mainly due to negative heat flux

  8. Investigation of surface properties of high temperature nitrided titanium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Koyuncu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of paper is to investigate surface properties of high temperature nitrided titanium alloys.Design/methodology/approach: In this study, surface modification of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy was made at various temperatures by plasma nitriding process. Plasma nitriding treatment was performed in 80% N2-20% H2 gas mixture, for treatment times of 2-15 h at the temperatures of 700-1000°C. Surface properties of plasma nitrided Ti6Al4V alloy were examined by metallographic inspection, X-Ray diffraction and Vickers hardness.Findings: Two layers were determined by optic inspection on the samples that were called the compound and diffusion layers. Compound layer contain TiN and Ti2N nitrides, XRD results support in this formations. Maximum hardness was obtained at 10h treatment time and 1000°C treatment temperature. Micro hardness tests showed that hardness properties of the nitrided samples depend on treatment time and temperature.Practical implications: Titanium and its alloys have very attractive properties for many industries. But using of titanium and its alloys is of very low in mechanical engineering applications because of poor tribological properties.Originality/value: The nitriding of titanium alloy surfaces using plasma processes has already reached the industrial application stage in the biomedical field.

  9. Surface Intermediates on Metal Electrodes at High Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Jacobsen, Torben; Bay, Lasse

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms widely suggested for the O2-reduc-tion or H2-oxidation SOFC reactions involve inter-mediate O/H species adsorbed on the electrode surface. The presence of these intermediates is investigated by linear sweep voltammetry. In airat moderate temperatures (500øC) Pt in contact with YSZ ...... is covered with adsorbed oxygen which vanishes at high temperature (1000øC). On Ni (YSZ) a specific layer of NiO is observed abovethe equilibrium potential while no surface species can identified at SOFC anode conditions....

  10. Determination of sea surface temperatures from microwave and IR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, S.; Grover, J.

    1982-01-01

    Microwave measurements from the Nimbus 7 SMMR were used to derive the atmospheric precipitable water, which was then used to obtain the atmospheric correction for use with AVHRR thermal IR measurements to obtain sea surface temperature (SST). The resulting SST's were compared with the NOAA operational sea surface temperature measurements, and the two sets of measurements were found to be in reasonable agreement. The average residuals between the two sets of measurements was 0.15 K with the NOAA operational SST's being slightly greater.

  11. Surface intermediates on metal electrodes at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Jacobsen, Torben; Bay, Lasse;

    1998-01-01

    in contact with YSZ is covered with adsorbed oxygen which vanishes at high temperature (1000 degrees C). On Ni (YSZ) a specific layer of NiO is observed above the equilibrium potential while no surface species involving hydrogen can be identified at SOFC anode conditions. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier......The mechanisms widely conceived for the O(2)-reduction or H(2)-oxidation reactions in SOFC's involve intermediate O/H species adsorbed on the electrode surface. The presence of these intermediates is investigated by linear sweep voltammetry. In air at moderate temperatures (500 degrees C) Pt...

  12. Surface air temperature variability in global climate models

    CERN Document Server

    Davy, Richard

    2012-01-01

    New results from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) and multiple global reanalysis datasets are used to investigate the relationship between the mean and standard deviation in the surface air temperature. A combination of a land-sea mask and orographic filter were used to investigate the geographic region with the strongest correlation and in all cases this was found to be for low-lying over-land locations. This result is consistent with the expectation that differences in the effective heat capacity of the atmosphere are an important factor in determining the surface air temperature response to forcing.

  13. Flat meridional temperature gradient in the early Eocene in the subsurface rather than surface ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sze Ling; Laepple, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    The early Eocene (49-55 million years ago) is a time interval characterized by elevated surface temperatures and atmospheric CO2 (refs ,), and a flatter-than-present latitudinal surface temperature gradient. The multi-proxy-derived flat temperature gradient has been a challenge to reproduce in model simulations, especially the subtropical warmth at the high-latitude surface oceans, inferred from the archaeal lipid-based palaeothermometry, . Here we revisit the interpretation by analysing a global collection of multi-proxy temperature estimates from sediment cores spanning millennia to millions of years. Comparing the variability between proxy types, we demonstrate that the present interpretation overestimates the magnitude of past climate changes on all timescales. We attribute this to an inappropriate calibration, which reflects subsurface ocean but is calibrated to the sea surface, where the latitudinal temperature gradient is steeper. Recalibrating the proxy to the temperatures of subsurface ocean, where the signal is probably formed, yields colder -temperatures and latitudinal gradient consistent with standard climate model simulations of the Eocene climate, invalidating the apparent, extremely warm polar sea surface temperatures. We conclude that there is a need to reinterpret -inferred marine temperature records in the literature, especially for reconstructions of past warm climates that rely heavily on this proxy as reflecting subsurface ocean.

  14. Influence of Participating Media on the Radiation Thermometry for Surface Temperature Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuying LIU; Xinxin ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    A temperature measurement model of radiation thermometry for the surface covered by participating media was developed. The model was based on the radiation heat transfer of participating media and principles of radiation pyrometers, and solved by integral formulation of discrete ordinate method on spectral waveband. The influence of water mist on the indicated temperature of Raytek MR1SB one/two color pyrometer was discussed. Mie theory was used to calculate the radiative properties of water mist. In order to verify the model, a laboratory temperature measurement experiment was executed. The result shows that temperature of radiation thermometry is sensitive to the spectral response wavelength of pyrometer, and the simulated temperature of pyrometer agrees well with the experimental measurements on a suitable wavelength. The simulated temperature was lower than the real temperature of surface for one-color pyrometer, and it could be higher or lower than the real one for two-color pyrometer with the influence of participating media.

  15. Observing the Agulhas Current with sea surface temperature and altimetry data: challenges and perspectives

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Krug, Marjolaine, J

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available -Red Sea Surface Temperature datasets still suffer from inadequate cloud masking algorithms, particularly in regions of strong temperature gradient. Despite both Sea Surface Height and Sea Surface Temperature observations being severely compromised...

  16. New indexing and surface temperature analysis of exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Kashyap, J M; Safonova, M

    2016-01-01

    Study of exoplanets is the holy grail of present research in planetary sciences and astrobiology. Analysis of huge planetary data from space missions such as CoRoT and Kepler is directed ultimately at finding a planet similar to Earth\\-the Earth's twin, and answering the question of potential exo-habitability. The Earth Similarity Index (ESI) is a first step in this quest, ranging from 1 (Earth) to 0 (totally dissimilar to Earth). It was defined for the four physical parameters of a planet: radius, density, escape velocity and surface temperature. The ESI is further sub-divided into interior ESI (geometrical mean of radius and density) and surface ESI (geometrical mean of escape velocity and surface temperature). The challenge here is to determine which exoplanet parameter(s) is important in finding this similarity; how exactly the individual parameters entering the interior ESI and surface ESI are contributing to the global ESI. Since the surface temperature entering surface ESI is a non-observable quantity,...

  17. INVESTIGATION OF SURFACE TEMPERATURE IN HIGH-EFFICIENCY DEEP GRINDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Henghua; Cai Guangqi; Jin Tan

    2005-01-01

    A new thermal model with triangular heat flux distribution is given in high-efficiency deep grinding. The mathematical expressions are driven to calculate the surface temperature. The transient behavior of the maximum temperature on contact area is investigated in different grinding conditions with a J-type thermocouple. The maximum contact temperatures measured in different conditions are found to be between 1 000 ℃ and 1 500 ℃ in burn-out conditions. The experiment results show good agreement with the new thermal model.

  18. Investigation of transient temperature's influence on damage of high-speed sliding electrical contact rail surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuyan; Sun, Shasha; Guo, Quanli; Yang, Degong; Sun, Dongtao

    2016-11-01

    In the high speed sliding electrical contact with large current, the temperature of contact area rises quickly under the coupling action of the friction heating, the Joule heating and electric arc heating. The rising temperature seriously affects the conductivity of the components and the yield strength of materials, as well affects the contact state and lead to damage, so as to shorten the service life of the contact elements. Therefore, there is vital significance to measure the temperature accurately and investigate the temperature effect on damage of rail surface. Aiming at the problem of components damage in high speed sliding electrical contact, the transient heat effect on the contact surface was explored and its influence and regularity on the sliding components damage was obtained. A kind of real-time temperature measurement method on rail surface of high speed sliding electrical contact is proposed. Under the condition of 2.5 kA current load, based on the principle of infrared radiation non-contact temperature sensor was used to measure the rail temperature. The dynamic distribution of temperature field was obtained through the simulation analysis, further, the connection between temperature changes and the rail surface damage morphology, the damage volume was analyzed and established. Finally, the method to reduce rail damage and improve the life of components by changing the temperature field was discussed.

  19. Effects of Doubled CO2 on Tropical Sea-Surface Temperature (SSTs) for Onset of Deep Convection and Maximum SST-GCM Simulations Based Inferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.; Zhou, Y. P.; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Lau, K. M.; Cahalan, R. F.

    2008-01-01

    A primary concern of CO2-induced warming is the associated rise of tropical (10S-10N) seasurface temperatures (SSTs). GISS Model-E was used to produce two sets of simulations-one with the present-day and one with doubled CO2 in the atmosphere. The intrinsic usefulness of model guidance in the tropics was confirmed when the model simulated realistic convective coupling between SSTs and atmospheric soundings and that the simulated-data correlations between SSTs and 300 hPa moiststatic energies were found to be similar to the observed. Model predicted SST limits: (i) one for the onset of deep convection and (ii) one for maximum SST, increased in the doubled C02 case. Changes in cloud heights, cloud frequencies, and cloud mass-fractions showed that convective-cloud changes increased the SSTs, while warmer mixed-layer of the doubled CO2 contained approximately 10% more water vapor; clearly that would be conducive to more intense storms and hurricanes.

  20. Finite element simulation for mechanical response of surface mounted solder joints under different temperature cycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鑫; 钱乙余

    2001-01-01

    Nonlinear finite element simulation for mechanical response of surface mounted solder joint under different temperature cycling was carried out. Seven sets of parameters were used in order to evaluate the influence of temperature cycling profile parameters. The results show that temperature cycling history has significant effect on the stress response of the solder joint. Based on the concept of relative damage stress proposed by the authors, it is found that enough high temperature holding time is necessary for designing the temperature cycling profile in accelerated thermal fatigue test.

  1. A Peltier-based variable temperature source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molki, Arman; Roof Baba, Abdul

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we propose a simple and cost-effective variable temperature source based on the Peltier effect using a commercially purchased thermoelectric cooler. The proposed setup can be used to quickly establish relatively accurate dry temperature reference points, which are necessary for many temperature applications such as thermocouple calibration.

  2. The Remote Sensing of Surface Radiative Temperature over Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    remote sensing of surface radiative temperature over Barbados was undertaken using a PRT-5 attached to a light aircraft. Traverses across the centre of the island, over the rugged east coast area, and the urban area of Bridgetown were undertaken at different times of day and night in the last week of June and the first week of December, 1969. These traverses show that surface variations in long-wave radiation emission lie within plus or minus 5% of the observations over grass at a representative site. The quick response of the surface to sunset and sunrise was

  3. Enzyme surface rigidity tunes the temperature dependence of catalytic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, Geir Villy; Åqvist, Johan; Brandsdal, Bjørn Olav

    2016-07-12

    The structural origin of enzyme adaptation to low temperature, allowing efficient catalysis of chemical reactions even near the freezing point of water, remains a fundamental puzzle in biocatalysis. A remarkable universal fingerprint shared by all cold-active enzymes is a reduction of the activation enthalpy accompanied by a more negative entropy, which alleviates the exponential decrease in chemical reaction rates caused by lowering of the temperature. Herein, we explore the role of protein surface mobility in determining this enthalpy-entropy balance. The effects of modifying surface rigidity in cold- and warm-active trypsins are demonstrated here by calculation of high-precision Arrhenius plots and thermodynamic activation parameters for the peptide hydrolysis reaction, using extensive computer simulations. The protein surface flexibility is systematically varied by applying positional restraints, causing the remarkable effect of turning the cold-active trypsin into a variant with mesophilic characteristics without changing the amino acid sequence. Furthermore, we show that just restraining a key surface loop causes the same effect as a point mutation in that loop between the cold- and warm-active trypsin. Importantly, changes in the activation enthalpy-entropy balance of up to 10 kcal/mol are almost perfectly balanced at room temperature, whereas they yield significantly higher rates at low temperatures for the cold-adapted enzyme.

  4. Temperature limit values for touching cold surfaces with the fingertip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geng, Q.; Holme, I.; Hartog, E.A. den; Havenith, G.; Jay, O.; Malchaires, J.; Piette, A.; Rintama, H.; Rissanen, S.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: At the request of the European Commission and in the framework of the European Machinery Directive, research was performed in five different laboratories to develop specifications for surface temperature limit values for the short-term accidental touching of the fingertip with cold

  5. Temperature limit values for touching cold surfaces with the fingertip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geng, Q.; Holme, I.; Hartog, E.A. den; Havenith, G.; Jay, O.; Malchaires, J.; Piette, A.; Rintama, H.; Rissanen, S.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: At the request of the European Commission and in the framework of the European Machinery Directive, research was performed in five different laboratories to develop specifications for surface temperature limit values for the short-term accidental touching of the fingertip with cold surfa

  6. Quantifying and specifying the solar influence on terrestrial surface temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, C.; Duhau, S.; van Geel, B.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation is a follow-up of a paper in which we showed that both major magnetic components of the solar dynamo, viz. the toroidal and the poloidal ones, are correlated with average terrestrial surface temperatures. Here, we quantify, improve and specify that result and search for their caus

  7. Processes of India's offshore summer intraseasonal sea surface temperature variability

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kurian, N.; Lengaigne, M.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Vialard, J.; Pous, S.; Peter, A-C.; Durand; Naik, Shweta

    ., vol.63; 2013; 329-346 Processes of India’s offshore summer intraseasonal sea surface temperature variability K. Nisha1, M. Lengaigne1,2, V.V. Gopalakrishna,1 J. Vialard2, S. Pous2, A.-C. Peter2, F. Durand3, S.Naik1 1. NIO, CSIR, Goa, India 2...

  8. Surface temperature maps for II Peg during 1999-2002

    CERN Document Server

    Lindborg, M; Tuominen, I; Hackman, T; Ilyin, I; Piskunov, N

    2009-01-01

    The active RS CVn star II Peg has been spectroscopically monitored for almost 18 years with the SOFIN spectrograph at NOT, La Palma, Spain. In this paper we present five new surface temperature maps of the object for the years 1999 (two maps), 2001 (one map) and 2002 (two maps).

  9. A model of the tropical Pacific sea surface temperature climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Richard; Zebiak, Stephen E.; Cane, Mark A.

    1988-01-01

    A model for the climatological mean sea surface temperature (SST) of the tropical Pacific Ocean is developed. The upper ocean response is computed using a time dependent, linear, reduced gravity model, with the addition of a constant depth frictional surface layer. The full three-dimensional temperature equation and a surface heat flux parameterization that requires specification of only wind speed and total cloud cover are used to evaluate the SST. Specification of atmospheric parameters, such as air temperature and humidity, over which the ocean has direct influence, is avoided. The model simulates the major features of the observed tropical Pacific SST. The seasonal evolution of these features is generally captured by the model. Analysis of the results demonstrates the control the ocean has over the surface heat flux from ocean to atmosphere and the crucial role that dynamics play in determining the mean SST in the equatorial Pacific. The sensitivity of the model to perturbations in the surface heat flux, cloud cover specification, diffusivity, and mixed layer depth is discussed.

  10. Temperature maps measurements on 3D surfaces with infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardone, Gennaro; Ianiro, Andrea [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Aerospace Engineering (DIAS), Naples (Italy); Ioio, Gennaro dello [University of Cambridge, BP Institute for Multiphase Flow, Cambridge, England (United Kingdom); Passaro, Andrea [Alta SpA, Ospedaletto, PI (Italy)

    2012-02-15

    The use of the infrared camera as a temperature transducer in wind tunnel applications is convenient and widespread. Nevertheless, the infrared data are available in the form of 2D images while the observed surfaces are often not planar and the reconstruction of temperature maps over them is a critical task. In this work, after recalling the principles of IR thermography, a methodology to rebuild temperature maps on the surfaces of 3D object is proposed. In particular, an optical calibration is applied to the IR camera by means of a novel target plate with control points. The proposed procedure takes also into account the directional emissivity by estimating the viewing angle. All the needed steps are described and analyzed. The advantages given by the proposed method are shown with an experiment in a hypersonic wind tunnel. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of Satellite-Derived Land Surface Temperature and Air Temperature from Meteorological Stations on the Pan-Arctic Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Schmullius

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based temperature measurements are an important indicator for global climate change studies over large areas. Records from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR and (Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer ((AATSR are providing long-term time series information. Assessing the quality of remote sensing-based temperature measurements provides feedback to the climate modeling community and other users by identifying agreements and discrepancies when compared to temperature records from meteorological stations. This paper presents a comparison of state-of-the-art remote sensing-based land surface temperature data with air temperature measurements from meteorological stations on a pan-arctic scale (north of 60° latitude. Within this study, we compared land surface temperature products from (AATSR, MODIS and AVHRR with an in situ air temperature (Tair database provided by the National Climate Data Center (NCDC. Despite analyzing the whole acquisition time period of each land surface temperature product, we focused on the inter-annual variability comparing land surface temperature (LST and air temperature for the overlapping time period of the remote sensing data (2000–2005. In addition, land cover information was included in the evaluation approach by using GLC2000. MODIS has been identified as having the highest agreement in comparison to air temperature records. The time series of (AATSR is highly variable, whereas inconsistencies in land surface temperature data from AVHRR have been found.

  12. Highly-controllable imprinted polymer nanoshell at the surface of silica nanoparticles based room-temperature phosphorescence probe for detection of 2,4-dichlorophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xiao; Zhou, Zhiping; Hao, Tongfan [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Li, Hongji; Xu, Yeqing [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Lu, Kai [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Wu, Yilin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Dai, Jiangdong [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Pan, Jianming [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Yan, Yongsheng, E-mail: jdwxtx@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2015-04-22

    Highlights: • Highly-controllable core–shell MIPs@SiO{sub 2}–ZnS:Mn QDs were prepared. • The MIPs@SiO{sub 2}–ZnS:Mn QDs integrated the advantages of molecular imprinting and QDs. • We used MIPs@SiO{sub 2}–ZnS:Mn QDs as phosphorescence probes for detection of 2,4-DCP. • MIPs@SiO{sub 2}–ZnS:Mn QDs were successfully applied to detect 2,4-DCP in real samples. - Abstract: This paper reports a facile and general method for preparing an imprinted polymer thin shell with Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) at the surface of silica nanoparticles by stepwise precipitation polymerization to form the highly-controllable core–shell nanoparticles (MIPs@SiO{sub 2}–ZnS:Mn QDs) and sensitively recognize the target 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). Acrylamide (AM) and ethyl glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) were used as the functional monomer and the cross-linker, respectively. The MIPs@SiO{sub 2}–ZnS:Mn QDs had a controllable shell thickness and a high density of effective recognition sites, and the thickness of uniform core–shell 2,4-DCP-imprinted nanoparticles was controlled by the total amounts of monomers. The MIPs@SiO{sub 2}–ZnS:Mn QDs with a shell thickness of 45 nm exhibited the largest quenching efficiency to 2,4-DCP by using the spectrofluorometer. After the experimental conditions were optimized, a linear relationship was obtained covering the linear range of 1.0–84 μmol L{sup −1} with a correlation coefficient of 0.9981 and the detection limit (3σ/k) was 0.15 μmol L{sup −1}. The feasibility of the developed method was successfully evaluated through the determination of 2,4-DCP in real samples. This study provides a general strategy to fabricate highly-controllable core–shell imprinted polymer-contained QDs with highly selective recognition ability.

  13. A Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC) for surface energy balance fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallick, Kaniska; Jarvis, Andrew J.; Boegh, Eva;

    2014-01-01

    of four state equations. Taking advantage of the psychrometric relationship between temperature and vapor pressure, the present method also estimates the near surface moisture availability (M) from TS, air temperature (TA) and relative humidity (RH), thereby being capable of decomposing λ...

  14. Lubricant-infused micro/nano-structured surfaces with tunable dynamic omniphobicity at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, D; Mankin, MN; Belisle, RA; Wong, TS; Aizenberg, J

    2013-06-10

    Omniphobic surfaces that can repel fluids at temperatures higher than 100 degrees C are rare. Most state-of-the-art liquid-repellent materials are based on the lotus effect, where a thin air layer is maintained throughout micro/nanotextures leading to high mobility of liquids. However, such behavior eventually fails at elevated temperatures when the surface tension of test liquids decreases significantly. Here, we demonstrate a class of lubricant-infused structured surfaces that can maintain a robust omniphobic state even for low-surface-tension liquids at temperatures up to at least 200 degrees C. We also demonstrate how liquid mobility on such surfaces can be tuned by a factor of 1000. (C) 2013 Author(s).

  15. Lubricant-infused micro/nano-structured surfaces with tunable dynamic omniphobicity at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Daniel; Max, Mankin N.; Belisle, Rebecca A.; Wong, Tak-Sing; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-06-12

    Omniphobic surfaces that can repel fluids at temperatures higher than 100 °C are rare. Most stateof- the-art liquid-repellent materials are based on the lotus effect, where a thin air layer is maintained throughout micro/nanotextures leading to high mobility of liquids. However, such behavior eventually fails at elevated temperatures when the surface tension of test liquids decreases significantly. Here, we demonstrate a class of lubricant-infused structured surfaces that can maintain a robust omniphobic state even for low-surface-tension liquids at temperatures up to at least 200 °C. We also demonstrate how liquid mobility on such surfaces can be tuned by a factor of 1000.

  16. Lubricant-infused micro/nano-structured surfaces with tunable dynamic omniphobicity at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Daniel; Mankin, Max N.; Belisle, Rebecca A.; Wong, Tak-Sing; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-06-01

    Omniphobic surfaces that can repel fluids at temperatures higher than 100 °C are rare. Most state-of-the-art liquid-repellent materials are based on the lotus effect, where a thin air layer is maintained throughout micro/nanotextures leading to high mobility of liquids. However, such behavior eventually fails at elevated temperatures when the surface tension of test liquids decreases significantly. Here, we demonstrate a class of lubricant-infused structured surfaces that can maintain a robust omniphobic state even for low-surface-tension liquids at temperatures up to at least 200 °C. We also demonstrate how liquid mobility on such surfaces can be tuned by a factor of 1000.

  17. Seasonal variability of diurnal temperature range in Egypt with links to atmospheric circulations and sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kenawy, A.; Lopez Moreno, J. I.; Vicente-Serrano, S.

    2010-09-01

    The diurnal temperature range (DTR) is an important climate-change variable. Seasonal and annual variability of DTR in Egypt was investigated based on a monthly dataset of 40 observatories distributing across the country. The trends were calculated using the Rho spearman rank test at the 95 % level of significance. The trends at the independent individual scale were compared with a regional series created for the whole country following the Thiessen polygon approach. A cross-tabulation analysis was performed between the trends of the DTR and the trends of maximum and minimum temperatures to account for directional causes of variability of the DTR at seasonal and annual scales. The physical processes controlling the DTR variability were also assessed in terms of large atmospheric circulations representing in the indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the East Atlantic (EA) pattern, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index and the EAWR (East Atlantic/West Russia) Pattern. Also, the variability of the DTR was linked with anomaly of Sea Surface Temperature (SST). A cooling trend was observed in Egypt with strong behavior in winter and summer rather than fall and spring. The upwarding trend of the mean minimum temperature was mainly responsible for variability of the DTR rather than the mean maximum temperature. Also, the EA and the EAWR indices were the main indices accounted for most of variation in the DTR in Egypt, particularly in summer. Key words: trend analysis, temperature variability, Diurnal temperature range, atmospheric circulation, sea surface temperature, Egypt.

  18. Comparison of Four Models of Radiative Heat Transfer Between Flat Surface to Evaluate the Temperature Field Based on Example of the Continuous Casting Mould

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rywotycki M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research concerning the influence of radiative heat transfer on the strand and mould interface. The four models for determining the heat transfer boundary conditions within the primary cooling zone for the continuous casting process of steel have been presented. A cast slab - with dimensions of 1280×220 mm - has been analysed. Models describing the heat transfer by radiation have been specified and applied in the numerical calculations. The problem has been solved by applying the finite element method and the self-developed software. The simulation results, along with their analysis, have been presented. The developed models have been verified based on the data obtained from the measurements at the industrial facility.

  19. Climate Variability in Coastal Ecosystems - Use of MODIS Land Surface and Sea Surface Temperature Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintalapati, S.; Lakshmi, V.

    2007-12-01

    The intertidal zone, with its complex blend of marine and terrestrial environments, is one of the intensively studied ecosystems, in understanding the effects of climate change on species abundance and distribution. As climatic conditions change, the geographic limits of the intertidal species will likely move towards more tolerable coastal conditions. Traditionally, understanding climate change effects through species physiologic response have involved use of in situ measurements and thermal engineering models. But these approaches are constrained by their data intensive requirements and may not be suitable for predicting change patterns relevant to large scale species distributions. Satellite remote sensing provides an alternate approach, given the regular global coverage at moderate spatial resolutions. The present study uses six years of land surface temperature (LST) and sea surface temperature (SST) data from MODIS/Terra instrument along various coastlines around the globe - East and West Coast US, Southern Africa, Northern Japan and New Zealand. Apart from the dominant annual cycle in LST and SST, the other seasonal cycles vary from dominant semi-annual cycles in lower latitudes to 1.5 and 2 year cycles at higher latitudes. The monthly anomalies show strong spatial structure at lower latitudes when compared to higher latitudes, with the exception of US east coast, where the spatial structure extended almost along the whole coastline, indicating strong regulation from the Gulf Stream. The patterns along different coast lines are consistent with the atmospheric and ocean circulation patterns existing at those regions. These results suggest that the climatology at the coastal regions can be adequately represented using satellite-based temperature data, thus enabling further research in understanding the effects of climate change on species abundance and distribution at larger scales.

  20. Analytic computation on the forcible thawing temperature field formed by a single heat transfer pipe with unsteady outer surface temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chi; YANG Wei-hao; QI Jia-gen; ZHANG Tao

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive and systematic research on the forcible thawing temperature field formed by a single heat transfer pipe with unsteady outer surface temperature was carried out by analytic computation according to the theory of similitude.The distribution law of thawing temperature field,calculation formulas of thawing radius b,heat flux density q and average thawing temperature (T) were obtained.It theoretically explains that the main influential factors of thawing radius b,heat flux density q and thawing average temperature (T) are K,f,Lλ and ω(f),but Lc affects little.Finally,based on the forcible thawing project of Hulusu air shaft lining,the field data indicate that the analytical formulas of this article are comparatively accurate.

  1. Designing high-temperature steels via surface science and thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Cameron T.; Jiang, Zilin; Mathai, Allan; Chung, Yip-Wah

    2016-06-01

    Electricity in many countries such as the US and China is produced by burning fossil fuels in steam-turbine-driven power plants. The efficiency of these power plants can be improved by increasing the operating temperature of the steam generator. In this work, we adopted a combined surface science and computational thermodynamics approach to the design of high-temperature, corrosion-resistant steels for this application. The result is a low-carbon ferritic steel with nanosized transition metal monocarbide precipitates that are thermally stable, as verified by atom probe tomography. High-temperature Vickers hardness measurements demonstrated that these steels maintain their strength for extended periods at 700 °C. We hypothesize that the improved strength of these steels is derived from the semi-coherent interfaces of these thermally stable, nanosized precipitates exerting drag forces on impinging dislocations, thus maintaining strength at elevated temperatures.

  2. Spatial Statistical Estimation for Massive Sea Surface Temperature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Y.; Vazquez, J.; Nguyen, H.; Braverman, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    We combine several large remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST) datasets to create a single high-resolution SST dataset that has no missing data and provides an uncertainty associated with each value. This high resolution dataset will optimize estimates of SST in critical parts of the world's oceans, such as coastal upwelling regions. We use Spatial Statistical Data Fusion (SSDF), a statistical methodology for predicting global spatial fields by exploiting spatial correlations in the data. The main advantages of SSDF over spatial smoothing methodologies include the provision of probabilistic uncertainties, the ability to incorporate multiple datasets with varying footprints, measurement errors and biases, and estimation at any desired resolution. In order to accommodate massive input and output datasets, we introduce two modifications of the existing SSDF algorithm. First, we compute statistical model parameters based on coarse resolution aggregated data. Second, we use an adaptive spatial grid that allows us to perform estimation in a specified region of interest, but incorporate spatial dependence between locations in that region and all locations globally. Finally, we demonstrate with a case study involving estimations on the full globe at coarse resolution grid (30 km) and a high resolution (1 km) inset for the Gulf Stream region.

  3. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thadathil, Pankajakshan; Gopalakrishna, V. V.; Muraleedharan, P. M.; Reddy, G. V.; Araligidad, Nilesh; Shenoy, Shrikant

    2002-10-01

    Surface layer temperature inversion occurring in the Bay of Bengal has been addressed. Hydrographic data archived in the Indian Oceanographic Data Center are used to understand various aspects of the temperature inversion of surface layer in the Bay of Bengal, such as occurrence time, characteristics, stability, inter-annual variability and generating mechanisms. Spatially organized temperature inversion occurs in the coastal waters of the western and northeastern Bay during winter (November-February). Although the inversion in the northeastern Bay is sustained until February (with remnants seen even in March), in the western Bay it becomes less organized in January and almost disappears by February. Inversion is confined to the fresh water induced seasonal halocline of the surface layer. Inversions of large temperature difference (of the order of 1.6-2.4°C) and thin layer thickness (10-20 m) are located adjacent to major fresh water inputs from the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, Krishna and Godavari rivers. The inversion is stable with a mean stability of 3600×10 -8 m -1. Inter-annual variability of the inversion is significantly high and it is caused by the inter-annual variability of fresh water flux and surface cooling in the northern Bay. Fresh water flux leads the occurrence process in association with surface heat flux and advection. The leading role of fresh water flux is understood from the observation that the two occurrence regions of inversion (the western and northeastern Bay) have proximity to the two low salinity (with values about 28-29‰) zones. In the western Bay, the East India Coastal Current brings less saline and cold water from the head of the Bay to the south-west Bay, where it advects over warm, saline water, promoting temperature inversion in this region in association with the surface heat loss. For inversion occurring in the northeastern Bay (where the surface water gains heat from atmosphere), surface advection of the less saline

  4. Ocean Surface Current Vectors from MODIS Terra/Aqua Sea Surface Temperature Image Pairs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellites that record imagery of the same sea surface area, at times separated by a few hours, can be used to estimate ocean surface velocity fields based on the...

  5. Statistical Seasonal Sea Surface based Prediction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Roberto; Rodriguez-Fonseca, Belen; Diouf, Ibrahima

    2014-05-01

    The interannual variability of the sea surface temperature (SST) plays a key role in the strongly seasonal rainfall regime on the West African region. The predictability of the seasonal cycle of rainfall is a field widely discussed by the scientific community, with results that fail to be satisfactory due to the difficulty of dynamical models to reproduce the behavior of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). To tackle this problem, a statistical model based on oceanic predictors has been developed at the Universidad Complutense of Madrid (UCM) with the aim to complement and enhance the predictability of the West African Monsoon (WAM) as an alternative to the coupled models. The model, called S4CAST (SST-based Statistical Seasonal Forecast) is based on discriminant analysis techniques, specifically the Maximum Covariance Analysis (MCA) and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA). Beyond the application of the model to the prediciton of rainfall in West Africa, its use extends to a range of different oceanic, atmospheric and helth related parameters influenced by the temperature of the sea surface as a defining factor of variability.

  6. Using microwave observations to estimate land surface temperature during cloudy conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land surface temperature (LST), a key ingredient for physically-based retrieval algorithms of hydrological states and fluxes, remains a poorly constrained parameter for global scale studies. The main two observational methods to remotely measure T are based on thermal infrared (TIR) observations and...

  7. Sea-surface temperature and salinity mapping from remote microwave radiometric measurements of brightness temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans-Juergen, C. B.; Kendall, B. M.; Fedors, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    A technique to measure remotely sea surface temperature and salinity was demonstrated with a dual frequency microwave radiometer system. Accuracies in temperature of 1 C and in salinity of part thousand for salinity greater than 5 parts per thousand were attained after correcting for the influence of extraterrestrial background radiation, atmospheric radiation and attenuation, sea-surface roughness, and antenna beamwidth. The radiometers, operating at 1.43 and 2.65 GHz, comprise a third-generation system using null balancing and feedback noise injection. Flight measurements from an aircraft at an altitude of 1.4 km over the lower Chesapeake Bay and coastal areas of the Atlantic Ocean resulted in contour maps of sea-surface temperature and salinity with a spatial resolution of 0.5 km.

  8. Ultraviolet surface plasmon-mediated low temperature hydrazine decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Siying; Sheldon, Matthew T.; Atwater, Harry A. [Thomas J. Watson Laboratories of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Liu, Wei-Guang; Jaramillo-Botero, Andres; Goddard, William Andrew [Materials and Process Simulation Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2015-01-12

    Conventional methods require elevated temperatures in order to dissociate high-energy nitrogen bonds in precursor molecules such as ammonia or hydrazine used for nitride film growth. We report enhanced photodissociation of surface-absorbed hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) molecules at low temperature by using ultraviolet surface plasmons to concentrate the exciting radiation. Plasmonic nanostructured aluminum substrates were designed to provide resonant near field concentration at λ = 248 nm (5 eV), corresponding to the maximum optical cross section for hydrogen abstraction from N{sub 2}H{sub 4}. We employed nanoimprint lithography to fabricate 1 mm × 1 mm arrays of the resonant plasmonic structures, and ultraviolet reflectance spectroscopy confirmed resonant extinction at 248 nm. Hydrazine was cryogenically adsorbed to the plasmonic substrate in a low-pressure ambient, and 5 eV surface plasmons were resonantly excited using a pulsed KrF laser. Mass spectrometry was used to characterize the photodissociation products and indicated a 6.2× overall enhancement in photodissociation yield for hydrazine adsorbed on plasmonic substrates compared with control substrates. The ultraviolet surface plasmon enhanced photodissociation demonstrated here may provide a valuable method to generate reactive precursors for deposition of nitride thin film materials at low temperatures.

  9. The dependence of surface temperature on IGBTs load and ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Čaja; Marek, Patsch

    2015-05-01

    Currently, older power electronics and electrotechnics are improvement and at the same time developing new and more efficient devices. These devices produce in their activities a significant part of the heat which, if not effectively drained, causing damage to these elements. In this case, it is important to develop new and more efficient cooling system. The most widespread of modern methods of cooling is the cooling by heat pipe. This contribution is aimed at cooling the insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) elements by loop heat pipe (LHP). IGBTs are very prone to damage due to high temperatures, and therefore is the important that the surface temperature was below 100°C. It was therefore created a model that examined what impact of surface temperature on the IGBT element and heat removal at different load and constant ambient temperature.

  10. The dependence of surface temperature on IGBTs load and ambient temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Čaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, older power electronics and electrotechnics are improvement and at the same time developing new and more efficient devices. These devices produce in their activities a significant part of the heat which, if not effectively drained, causing damage to these elements. In this case, it is important to develop new and more efficient cooling system. The most widespread of modern methods of cooling is the cooling by heat pipe. This contribution is aimed at cooling the insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT elements by loop heat pipe (LHP. IGBTs are very prone to damage due to high temperatures, and therefore is the important that the surface temperature was below 100°C. It was therefore created a model that examined what impact of surface temperature on the IGBT element and heat removal at different load and constant ambient temperature.

  11. Piglets’ Surface Temperature Change at Different Weights at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; dos Santos, Luan Sousa; Machado, Sivanilza Teixeira; Moi, Marta; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Foppa, Luciana; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Kássia Silva dos Santos, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets’ weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST) after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW): T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorded (TFS). Images of piglets’ surface by thermal imaging camera were recorded at birth (STB) and 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after birth. The air temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 30 min and the indexes of temperature and humidity (THI) were calculated. A ST drop after 15 min from birth was observed, increasing again after sixty minutes. Positive correlations were found between the PBW and the ST at 30 and 45 min after birth. The PBW was negatively correlated with the TFS. The THI showed high negative correlations (−0.824 and −0.815) with STB and after 15 min from birth. The piglet’s surface temperature at birth was positively correlated with temperature thereof to 15 min, influencing therefore the temperatures in the interval of 45 to 120 min. The birth weight contributes significantly to postnatal hypothermia and consequently to the time it takes for piglets ingest colostrum, requiring special attention to those of low birth weight. PMID:25049971

  12. Piglets' surface temperature change at different weights at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Luan Sousa; Machado, Sivanilza Teixeira; Moi, Marta; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Foppa, Luciana; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Kássia Silva Dos Santos, Rita

    2014-03-01

    The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets' weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST) after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW): T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorded (TFS). Images of piglets' surface by thermal imaging camera were recorded at birth (STB) and 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after birth. The air temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 30 min and the indexes of temperature and humidity (THI) were calculated. A ST drop after 15 min from birth was observed, increasing again after sixty minutes. Positive correlations were found between the PBW and the ST at 30 and 45 min after birth. The PBW was negatively correlated with the TFS. The THI showed high negative correlations (-0.824 and -0.815) with STB and after 15 min from birth. The piglet's surface temperature at birth was positively correlated with temperature thereof to 15 min, influencing therefore the temperatures in the interval of 45 to 120 min. The birth weight contributes significantly to postnatal hypothermia and consequently to the time it takes for piglets ingest colostrum, requiring special attention to those of low birth weight.

  13. Piglets’ Surface Temperature Change at Different Weights at Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Ribeiro Caldara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets’ weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW: T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorded (TFS. Images of piglets’ surface by thermal imaging camera were recorded at birth (STB and 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after birth. The air temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 30 min and the indexes of temperature and humidity (THI were calculated. A ST drop after 15 min from birth was observed, increasing again after sixty minutes. Positive correlations were found between the PBW and the ST at 30 and 45 min after birth. The PBW was negatively correlated with the TFS. The THI showed high negative correlations (−0.824 and −0.815 with STB and after 15 min from birth. The piglet’s surface temperature at birth was positively correlated with temperature thereof to 15 min, influencing therefore the temperatures in the interval of 45 to 120 min. The birth weight contributes significantly to postnatal hypothermia and consequently to the time it takes for piglets ingest colostrum, requiring special attention to those of low birth weight.

  14. The surface temperatures of the earth: steps towards integrated understanding of variability and change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, C. J.; Matthiesen, S.; Rayner, N. A.; Remedios, J. J.; Jones, P. D.; Olesen, F.; Trewin, B.; Thorne, P. W.; Auchmann, R.; Corlett, G. K.; Guillevic, P. C.; Hulley, G. C.

    2013-06-01

    Surface temperature is a key aspect of weather and climate, but the term may refer to different quantities that play interconnected roles and are observed by different means. In a community-based activity in June 2012, the EarthTemp Network brought together 55 researchers from five continents to improve the interaction between scientific communities who focus on surface temperature in particular domains, to exploit the strengths of different observing systems and to better meet the needs of different communities. The workshop identified key needs for progress towards meeting scientific and societal requirements for surface temperature understanding and information which are presented in this community paper. A "whole-Earth" perspective is required with more integrated, collaborative approaches to observing and understanding Earth's various surface temperatures. It is necessary to build understanding of the relationships between different surface temperatures, where presently inadequate, and undertake large-scale systematic intercomparisons. Datasets need to be easier to obtain and exploit for a wide constituency of users, with the differences and complementarities communicated in readily understood terms, and realistic and consistent uncertainty information provided. Steps were also recommended to curate and make available data that are presently inaccessible, develop new observing systems and build capacities to accelerate progress in the accuracy and usability of surface temperature datasets.

  15. The surface temperatures of Earth: steps towards integrated understanding of variability and change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, C. J.; Matthiesen, S.; Rayner, N. A.; Remedios, J. J.; Jones, P. D.; Olesen, F.; Trewin, B.; Thorne, P. W.; Auchmann, R.; Corlett, G. K.; Guillevic, P. C.; Hulley, G. C.

    2013-12-01

    Surface temperature is a key aspect of weather and climate, but the term may refer to different quantities that play interconnected roles and are observed by different means. In a community-based activity in June 2012, the EarthTemp Network brought together 55 researchers from five continents to improve the interaction between scientific communities who focus on surface temperature in particular domains, to exploit the strengths of different observing systems and to better meet the needs of different communities. The workshop identified key needs for progress towards meeting scientific and societal requirements for surface temperature understanding and information, which are presented in this community paper. A "whole-Earth" perspective is required with more integrated, collaborative approaches to observing and understanding Earth's various surface temperatures. It is necessary to build understanding of the relationships between different surface temperatures, where presently inadequate, and undertake large-scale systematic intercomparisons. Datasets need to be easier to obtain and exploit for a wide constituency of users, with the differences and complementarities communicated in readily understood terms, and realistic and consistent uncertainty information provided. Steps were also recommended to curate and make available data that are presently inaccessible, develop new observing systems and build capacities to accelerate progress in the accuracy and usability of surface temperature datasets.

  16. Temperature-Induced Switchable Adhesion using Nickel–Titanium–Polydimethylsiloxane Hybrid Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frensemeier, Mareike; Kaiser, Jessica S; Frick, Carl P; Schneider, Andreas S; Arzt, Eduard; Fertig, Ray S; Kroner, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    A switchable dry adhesive based on a nickel–titanium (NiTi) shape-memory alloy with an adhesive silicone rubber surface has been developed. Although several studies investigate micropatterned, bioinspired adhesive surfaces, very few focus on reversible adhesion. The system here is based on the indentation-induced two-way shape-memory effect in NiTi alloys. NiTi is trained by mechanical deformation through indentation and grinding to elicit a temperature-induced switchable topography with protrusions at high temperature and a flat surface at low temperature. The trained surfaces are coated with either a smooth or a patterned adhesive polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, resulting in a temperature-induced switchable surface, used for dry adhesion. Adhesion tests show that the temperature-induced topographical change of the NiTi influences the adhesive performance of the hybrid system. For samples with a smooth PDMS layer the transition from flat to structured state reduces adhesion by 56%, and for samples with a micropatterned PDMS layer adhesion is switchable by nearly 100%. Both hybrid systems reveal strong reversibility related to the NiTi martensitic phase transformation, allowing repeated switching between an adhesive and a nonadhesive state. These effects have been discussed in terms of reversible changes in contact area and varying tilt angles of the pillars with respect to the substrate surface. PMID:26120295

  17. 基于料面温度场的高炉煤气流分布识别方法%A Recognition Method for Gas Flow Distribution Based on Temperature Field of Burden Surface in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴敏; 王昌军; 安剑奇; 何勇

    2011-01-01

    针对高炉内部环境复杂、煤气流分布实时检测困难的问题,提出了一种基于料面温度场的高炉煤气流分布的识别方法.首先,充分利用高炉生产过程检测信息建立料面温度场.其次,对高炉中心和边缘煤气流发展水平进行提取,采用模糊C均值聚类方法对高炉煤气流分布模式进行识别.实验表明:该方法能有效反映高炉煤气流分布状态,有利于指导高炉的料面操作.%Considering the complex inner environment of blast furnace (BF) and difficulty in measuring the real-time gas flow distribution of BF, a recognition method for the gas flow distribution of BF is proposed based on the temperature field of burden surface.Firstly, the measuring information of BF process is fully utilized to establish the temperature field of burden surface.Secondly, the gas flow developing level in the central and peripheral regions of BF is extracted in order to employ fuzzy C-means clustering to recognize distribution pattern of gas flow.The experiments show that the method proposed can achieve the distribution status of the gas flow accurately, so that it provides an efficient way to guide burden operation.

  18. The impact of climatic and non-climatic factors on land surface temperature in southwestern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roşca, Cristina Florina; Harpa, Gabriela Victoria; Croitoru, Adina-Eliza; Herbel, Ioana; Imbroane, Alexandru Mircea; Burada, Doina Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Land surface temperature is one of the most important parameters related to global warming. It depends mainly on soil type, discontinuous vegetation cover, or lack of precipitation. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between high LST, synoptic conditions and air masses trajectories, vegetation cover, and soil type in one of the driest region in Romania. In order to calculate the land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index, five satellite images of LANDSAT missions 5 and 7, covering a period of 26 years (1986-2011), were selected, all of them collected in the month of June. The areas with low vegetation density were derived from normalized difference vegetation index, while soil types have been extracted from Corine Land Cover database. HYSPLIT application was employed to identify the air masses origin based on their backward trajectories for each of the five study cases. Pearson, logarithmic, and quadratic correlations were used to detect the relationships between land surface temperature and observed ground temperatures, as well as between land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index. The most important findings are: strong correlation between land surface temperature derived from satellite images and maximum ground temperature recorded in a weather station located in the area, as well as between areas with land surface temperature equal to or higher than 40.0 °C and those with lack of vegetation; the sandy soils are the most prone to high land surface temperature and lack of vegetation, followed by the chernozems and brown soils; extremely severe drought events may occur in the region.

  19. Near–surface air temperature and snow skin temperature comparison from CREST-SAFE station data with MODIS land surface temperature data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Pérez Díaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is a key variable (commonly studied to understand the hydrological cycle that helps drive the energy balance and water exchange between the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. One observable constituent of much importance in the land surface water balance model is snow. Snow cover plays a critical role in the regional to global scale hydrological cycle because rain-on-snow with warm air temperatures accelerates rapid snow-melt, which is responsible for the majority of the spring floods. Accurate information on near-surface air temperature (T-air and snow skin temperature (T-skin helps us comprehend the energy and water balances in the Earth's hydrological cycle. T-skin is critical in estimating latent and sensible heat fluxes over snow covered areas because incoming and outgoing radiation fluxes from the snow mass and the air temperature above make it different from the average snowpack temperature. This study investigates the correlation between MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS LST data and observed T-air and T-skin data from NOAA-CREST-Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE for the winters of 2013 and 2014. LST satellite validation is imperative because high-latitude regions are significantly affected by climate warming and there is a need to aid existing meteorological station networks with the spatially continuous measurements provided by satellites. Results indicate that near-surface air temperature correlates better than snow skin temperature with MODIS LST data. Additional findings show that there is a negative trend demonstrating that the air minus snow skin temperature difference is inversely proportional to cloud cover. To a lesser extent, it will be examined whether the surface properties at the site are representative for the LST properties within the instrument field of view.

  20. Near-surface air temperature and snow skin temperature comparison from CREST-SAFE station data with MODIS land surface temperature data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Díaz, C. L.; Lakhankar, T.; Romanov, P.; Muñoz, J.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Yu, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a key variable (commonly studied to understand the hydrological cycle) that helps drive the energy balance and water exchange between the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. One observable constituent of much importance in the land surface water balance model is snow. Snow cover plays a critical role in the regional to global scale hydrological cycle because rain-on-snow with warm air temperatures accelerates rapid snow-melt, which is responsible for the majority of the spring floods. Accurate information on near-surface air temperature (T-air) and snow skin temperature (T-skin) helps us comprehend the energy and water balances in the Earth's hydrological cycle. T-skin is critical in estimating latent and sensible heat fluxes over snow covered areas because incoming and outgoing radiation fluxes from the snow mass and the air temperature above make it different from the average snowpack temperature. This study investigates the correlation between MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data and observed T-air and T-skin data from NOAA-CREST-Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE) for the winters of 2013 and 2014. LST satellite validation is imperative because high-latitude regions are significantly affected by climate warming and there is a need to aid existing meteorological station networks with the spatially continuous measurements provided by satellites. Results indicate that near-surface air temperature correlates better than snow skin temperature with MODIS LST data. Additional findings show that there is a negative trend demonstrating that the air minus snow skin temperature difference is inversely proportional to cloud cover. To a lesser extent, it will be examined whether the surface properties at the site are representative for the LST properties within the instrument field of view.

  1. GHRSST Level 2P Global Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  2. GHRSST Level 2P Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-18 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  3. GHRSST Level 2P Global Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Level 2P Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals from the...

  4. GHRSST Level 2P Global Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-16 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Level 2P Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals from the...

  5. GHRSST Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  6. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of surface-engineered silicon nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Somak; Švrček, Vladimir; Macias-Montero, Manual; Velusamy, Tamilselvan; Mariotti, Davide

    2016-01-01

    In this work we report on temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements (15–300 K), which have allowed probing radiative transitions and understanding of the appearance of various transitions. We further demonstrate that transitions associated with oxide in SiNCs show characteristic vibronic peaks that vary with surface characteristics. In particular we study differences and similarities between silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) derived from porous silicon and SiNCs that were surface-treated using a radio-frequency (RF) microplasma system. PMID:27296771

  7. Biological control of surface temperature in the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyendranath, Shubha; Gouveia, Albert D.; Shetye, Satish R.; Ravindran, P.; Platt, Trevor

    1991-01-01

    In the Arabian Sea, the southwest monsoon promotes seasonal upwelling of deep water, which supplies nutrients to the surface layer and leads to a marked increase in phytoplankton growth. Remotely sensed data on ocean color are used here to show that the resulting distribution of phytoplankton exerts a controlling influence on the seasonal evolution of sea surface temperature. This results in a corresponding modification of ocean-atmosphere heat exchange on regional and seasonal scales. It is shown that this biological mechanism may provide an important regulating influence on ocean-atmosphere interactions.

  8. Estimating Temperature Fields from MODIS Land Surface Temperature and Air Temperature Observations in a Sub-Arctic Alpine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott N. Williamson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatially continuous satellite infrared temperature measurements are essential for understanding the consequences and drivers of change, at local and regional scales, especially in northern and alpine environments dominated by a complex cryosphere where in situ observations are scarce. We describe two methods for producing daily temperature fields using MODIS “clear-sky” day-time Land Surface Temperatures (LST. The Interpolated Curve Mean Daily Surface Temperature (ICM method, interpolates single daytime Terra LST values to daily means using the coincident diurnal air temperature curves. The second method calculates daily mean LST from daily maximum and minimum LST (MMM values from MODIS Aqua and Terra. These ICM and MMM models were compared to daily mean air temperatures recorded between April and October at seven locations in southwest Yukon, Canada, covering characteristic alpine land cover types (tundra, barren, glacier at elevations between 1,408 m and 2,319 m. Both methods for producing mean daily surface temperatures have advantages and disadvantages. ICM signals are strongly correlated with air temperature (R2 = 0.72 to 0.86, but have relatively large variability (RMSE = 4.09 to 4.90 K, while MMM values had a stronger correlation to air temperature (R2 = 0.90 and smaller variability (RMSE = 2.67 K. Finally, when comparing 8-day LST averages, aggregated from the MMM method, to air temperature, we found a high correlation (R2 = 0.84 with less variability (RMSE = 1.54 K. Where the trend was less steep and the y-intercept increased by 1.6 °C compared to the daily correlations. This effect is likely a consequence of LST temperature averages being differentially affected by cloud cover over warm and cold surfaces. We conclude that satellite infrared skin temperature (e.g., MODIS LST, which is often aggregated into multi-day composites to mitigate data reductions caused by cloud cover, changes in its relationship to air temperature

  9. Structure and stability of pyrophyllite edge surfaces: Effect of temperature and water chemical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kideok D.; Newton, Aric G.

    2016-10-01

    The surfaces of clay minerals, which are abundant in atmospheric mineral dust, serve as an important medium to catalyze ice nucleation. The lateral edge surface of 2:1 clay minerals is postulated to be a potential site for ice nucleation. However, experimental investigations of the edge surface structure itself have been limited compared to the basal planes of clay minerals. Density functional theory (DFT) computational studies have provided insights into the pyrophyllite edge surface. Pyrophyllite is an ideal surrogate mineral for the edge surfaces of 2:1 clay minerals as it possesses no or little structural charge. Of the two most-common hydrated edge surfaces, the AC edge, (1 1 0) surface in the monoclinic polytype notation, is predicted to be more stable than the B edge, (0 1 0) surface. These stabilities, however, were determined based on the total energies calculated at 0 K and did not consider environmental effects such as temperature and humidity. In this study, atomistic thermodynamics based on periodic DFT electronic calculations was applied to examine the effects of environmental variables on the structure and thermodynamic stability of the common edge surfaces in equilibrium with bulk pyrophyllite and water vapor. We demonstrate that the temperature-dependent vibrational energy of sorbed water molecules at the edge surface is a significant component of the surface free energy and cannot be neglected when determining the surface stability of pyrophyllite. The surface free energies were calculated as a function of temperature from 240 to 600 K and water chemical potential corresponding to conditions from ultrahigh vacuum to the saturation vapor pressure of water. We show that at lower water chemical potentials (dry conditions), the AC and B edge surfaces possessed similar stabilities; at higher chemical potentials (humid conditions) the AC edge surface was more stable than the B edge surface. At high temperatures, both surfaces showed similar stabilities

  10. Calibration plan for the sea and land surface temperature radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David L.; Nightingale, Tim J.; Mortimer, Hugh; Middleton, Kevin; Edeson, Ruben; Cox, Caroline V.; Mutlow, Chris T.; Maddison, Brian J.

    2013-10-01

    The Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) to be flown on ESA's Sentinel-3 mission is a multichannel scanning radiometer that will continue the 21-year datasets of the Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) series. As its name implies, measurements from SLSTR will be used to retrieve global sea surface temperatures to an uncertainty of SLSTR instrument, infrared calibration sources and alignment equipment. The calibration rig has been commissioned and results of these tests will be presented. Finally the authors will present the planning for the on-orbit monitoring and calibration activities to ensure that calibration is maintained. These activities include vicarious calibration techniques that have been developed through previous missions, and the deployment of ship-borne radiometers.

  11. Changes in zonal surface temperature gradients and Walker circulations in a wide range of climates

    CERN Document Server

    Merlis, Timothy M

    2010-01-01

    Variations in zonal surface temperature gradients and zonally asymmetric tropical overturning circulations (Walker circulations) are examined over a wide range of climates simulated with an idealized atmospheric general circulation model (GCM). The asymmetry in the tropical climate is generated by an imposed ocean energy flux, which does not vary with climate. The range of climates is simulated by modifying the optical thickness of an idealized longwave absorber (representing greenhouse gases). The zonal surface temperature gradient in low latitudes generally decreases as the climate warms in the idealized GCM simulations. A scaling relationship based on a two-term balance in the surface energy budget accounts for the changes in the zonally asymmetric component of the GCM-simulated surface temperature gradients. As in comprehensive simulations of climate change, the Walker circulation weakens as the climate warms in the idealized simulations. The wide range of climates allows a systematic test of energetic ar...

  12. Effect of floor surface temperature on blood flow and skin temperature in the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, G-S

    2008-12-01

    A total of 16 healthy college students participated as subjects to elucidate the hypothesis that blood flow and skin temperature in foot are affected by the floor surface temperature. The floor surface temperature was controlled by varying the temperature of water (tw) flowing underneath the floor, and it ranged from tw 15 to 40 degrees C at 5 degrees C intervals. The blood flow rate was measured in the dorsal right toe, and skin temperatures were measured for 60 min at 8 points: the neck, right scapular, left hand, right shin, left bottom of the toe, right instep, left finger, and rectum. The blood flow rate in the foot tissue was increased until the foot skin temperature warmed up to 34 degrees C (P = 0.000). The final skin temperatures on the bottom of the toe were 19.4 +/- 2.44 degrees C for tw 15 degrees C, 22.4 +/- 2.45 degrees C for tw 20 degrees C, 24.8 +/- 2.80 degrees C for tw 25 degrees C, 27.7 +/- 2.13 degrees C for tw 30 degrees C, 30.6 +/- 2.06 degrees C for tw 35 degrees C, 33.2 +/- 1.45 degrees C for tw 40 degrees C, 34.2 +/- 1.55 degrees C for tw 45 degrees C, and 35.2 +/- 1.65 degrees C for tw 50 degrees C. Considering blood flow and comfort, the partial floor heating system is suggested and the recommended floor surface temperature range is 27-33 degrees C. A warm floor surface can serve to satisfy occupants when the ambient temperature maintained at 20 degrees C which represents an energy conscious temperature. A warm floor can induce high blood perfusion in the feet and consequently improve an occupant's health by treating many vascular-related disorders. Even in a well-insulated residential building, a partially heated floor system could prevent overheating while providing surface warmth.

  13. High temperature surface degradation of III-V nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartuli, C.B.; Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.; MacKenzie, J.D.; Lambers, E.S. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Zolper, J.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The surface stoichiometry, surface morphology and electrical conductivity of AlN, GaN, InN, InGaN and InAlN was examined at rapid thermal annealing temperatures up to 1,150 C. The sheet resistance of the AlN dropped steadily with annealing, but the surface showed signs of roughening only above 1,000 C. Auger Electronic Spectroscopy (AES) analysis showed little change in the surface stoichiometry even at 1,150 C. GaN root mean square (RMS) surface roughness showed an overall improvement with annealing, but the surface became pitted at 1,000 C, at which point the sheet resistance also dropped by several orders of magnitude, and AES confirmed a loss of N from the surface. The InN surface had roughened considerably even at 650 C, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed significant degradation. In contrast to the binary nitrides the sheet resistance of InAlN was found to increase by {approximately} 10{sup 2} from the as grown value after annealing at 800 C and then remain constant up to 1,000 C, while that of InGaN increased rapidly above 700 C. The RMS roughness increased above 800 C and 700 C respectively for InAlN and InGaN samples. In droplets began to form on the surface at 900 C for InAlN and at 800 C for InGaN, and then evaporate at 1,000 C leaving pits. AES analysis showed a decrease in the N concentration in the top 500 {angstrom} of the sample for annealing {ge} 800 C in both materials.

  14. Integrated Temperature Sensors based on Heat Diffusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vroonhoven, C.P.L.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the theory, design and implementation of a new class of integrated temperature sensors, based on heat diffusion. In such sensors, temperature is sensed by measuring the time it takes for heat to diffuse through silicon. An on-chip thermal delay can be determined by geometry and

  15. The Sensitivity of African Easterly Waves to Eastern Tropical Atlantic Sea-Surface Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The results of two regional atmospheric model simulations are compared to assess the influence of the eastern tropical Atlantic sea-surface temperature maximum on local precipitation, transient easterly waves and the West African summer monsoon. Both model simulations were initialized with reanalysis 2 data (US National Center for Environmental Prediction and Department of Energy) on 15 May 2006 and extended through 6 October 2006, forced by synchronous reanalysis 2 lateral boundary conditions introduced four times daily. One simulation uses 2006 reanalysis 2 sea-surface temperatures, also updated four times daily, while the second simulation considers ocean forcing absent the sea-surface temperature maximum, achieved here by subtracting 3 K at every ocean grid point between 0 and 15 N during the entire simulation. The simulation with 2006 sea-surface temperature forcing produces a realistic distribution of June-September mean precipitation and realistic westward propagating swaths of maximum rainfall, based on validation against Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) estimates. The simulation without the sea-surface temperature maximum produces only 57% of the control June-September total precipitation over the eastern tropical Atlantic and about 83% of the Sahel precipitation. The simulation with warmer ocean temperatures generates generally stronger circulation, which in turn enhances precipitation by increasing moisture convergence. Some local precipitation enhancement is also attributed to lower vertical thermal stability above the warm water. The study shows that the eastern tropical Atlantic sea-surface temperature maximum enhances the strength of transient easterly waves and broadens the spatial extent of associated precipitation. However, large-scale circulation and its interaction with the African continent, and not sea-surface temperatures, control the timing and trajectories of the waves.

  16. A review of progress towards understanding the transient global mean surface temperature response to radiative perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimori, Masakazu; Watanabe, Masahiro; Shiogama, Hideo; Oka, Akira; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Ohgaito, Rumi; Kamae, Youichi

    2016-12-01

    The correct understanding of the transient response to external radiative perturbation is important for the interpretation of observed climate change, the prediction of near-future climate change, and committed warming under climate stabilization scenarios, as well as the estimation of equilibrium climate sensitivity based on observation data. It has been known for some time that the radiative damping rate per unit of global mean surface temperature increase varies with time, and this inconstancy affects the transient response. Knowledge of the equilibrium response alone is insufficient, but understanding the transient response of the global mean surface temperature has made rapid progress. The recent progress accompanies the relatively new concept of the efficacies of ocean heat uptake and forcing. The ocean heat uptake efficacy associates the temperature response induced by ocean heat uptake with equilibrium temperature response, and the efficacy of forcing compares the temperature response caused by non-CO2 forcing with that by CO2 forcing.

  17. Semi-empirical Model for Retrieving Land Surface Temperature Based on AMSR-E Data%一种基于AMSR-E的地表温度半经验反演模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈修治; 李勇; 韩留生; 苏泳娴; 陈水森

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a semi-empirical model for retrieving land surface temperature ( sT ) using AMSR-E data based on the passive microwave radiative transfer equation, in combination with the relation between vegetation depth and MPDI, and that between precipitable water content and land surface temperature. With this model, sT can be easily simulated from the brightness temperatures of AMSR-E 6.9GHz band and 10.7GHz band without any ancillary data. The sT mapping and validation results of China in 2009 prove that the average sT retrieval accuracy reaches about 2.51 (R℃ 2=0.79). It can be considered that the model is a simple and also effective algorithm to retrieve sT with passive microwave remote sensing data.%  基于被动微波辐射传输方程,结合De Jeu建立的透过率与微波极化差异指数的通用关系式,以及Smiths建立的地表温度与大气总可降水量的经验关系,构建了一套基于AMSR-E影像的地表温度半经验反演模型,该模型无需借助其他辅助数据,便可从AMSR-E 6.9GHz和10.7GHz两个波段的亮度温度模拟得到地表温度变量。对2009年我国地表温度进行实例模拟和验证,结果显示,该地表温度模型的平均反演精度达到2.54℃(R2=0.79),是一种简单有效的被动微波遥感地表温度模拟方法。

  18. Evolution of Surface Oxide Film of Typical Aluminum Alloy During Medium-Temperature Brazing Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程方杰; 赵海微; 王颖; 肖兵; 姚俊峰

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the surface oxide film along the depth direction of typical aluminum alloy under medium-temperature brazing was investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For the alloy with Mg content below 2.0wt%, whether under cold rolling condition or during medium-temperature brazing process, the en-richment of Mg element on the surface was not detected and the oxide film was pure Al2O3. However, the oxide film grew obviously during medium-temperature brazing process, and the thickness was about 80 nm. For the alloy with Mg content above 2.0wt%, under cold rolling condition, the original surface oxide film was pure Al2O3. However, the Mg element was significantly enriched on the outermost surface during medium-temperature brazing process, and MgO-based oxide film mixed with small amount of MgAl2O4 was formed with a thickness of about 130 nm. The alloy-ing elements of Mn and Si were not enriched on the surface neither under cold rolling condition nor during medium-temperature brazing process for all the selected aluminum alloy, and the surface oxide film was similar to that of pure aluminum, which was almost entire Al2O3.

  19. Temperature Sensors Based on WGM Optical Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Yu, Nan; Maleki, Lute; Itchenko, Vladimir; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2008-01-01

    A proposed technique for measuring temperature would exploit differences between the temperature dependences of the frequencies of two different electromagnetic modes of a whispering gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonator. An apparatus based on this technique was originally intended to be part of a control system for stabilizing a laser frequency in the face of temperature fluctuations. When suitably calibrated, apparatuses based on this technique could also serve as precise temperature sensors for purposes other than stabilization of lasers. A sensor according to the proposal would include (1) a transparent WGM dielectric resonator having at least two different sets of modes characterized by different thermo-optical constants and (2) optoelectronic instrumentation for measuring the difference between the temperature-dependent shifts of the resonance frequencies of the two sets of modes.

  20. Approximating snow surface temperature from standard temperature and humidity data: new possibilities for snow model and remote sensing validation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raleigh, M. S.; Landry, C.; Hayashi, M.; Quinton, W. L.; Lundquist, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The snow surface skin temperature (Ts) is important in the snowmelt energy balance, land-atmosphere interactions, weak layer formation (avalanche risk), and winter recreation, but is rarely measured at observational networks. Reliable Ts datasets are needed to validate remote sensing and distributed modeling, in order to represent land-atmosphere feedbacks. Previous research demonstrated that the dew point temperature (Td) close to the snow surface approximates Ts well because air is saturated immediately above snow. However, standard height (2 to 4 m) measurements of the saturation temperatures, Td and wet-bulb temperature (Tw), are much more readily available than measurements of Ts or near-surface Td. There is limited understanding of how these standard height variables approximate Ts, and how the approximations vary with climate, seasonality, time of day, and atmospheric conditions (stability and radiation). We used sub-daily measurements from seven sites in varying snow climates and environments to test Ts approximations with standard height temperature and moisture. Td produced the lowest bias (-2.2 °C to +2.6 °C) and root mean squared error (RMSE) when approximating mean daily Ts, but tended to underestimate daily extremes in Ts. For comparison, air temperature (Ta) was biased +3.2 °C to +6.8 °C. Ts biases increased with increasing frequency in nighttime stability and daytime clear sky conditions. We illustrate that mean daily Td can be used to detect systematic input data bias in physically-based snowmelt modeling, a useful tool when validating spatially distributed snow models in data sparse regions. Thus, improved understanding of Td variations can advance understanding of Ts in space and time, providing a simple yet robust measure of surface feedback to the atmospheric energy budget.

  1. Spatial-temporal analysis of building surface temperatures in Hung Hom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ying; Shen, Yueqian

    2015-12-01

    This thesis presents a study on spatial-temporal analysis of building surface temperatures in Hung Hom. Observations were collected from Aug 2013 to Oct 2013 at a 30-min interval, using iButton sensors (N=20) covering twelve locations in Hung Hom. And thermal images were captured in PolyU from 05 Aug 2013 to 06 Aug 2013. A linear regression model of iButton and thermal records is established to calibrate temperature data. A 3D modeling system is developed based on Visual Studio 2010 development platform, using ArcEngine10.0 component, Microsoft Access 2010 database and C# programming language. The system realizes processing data, spatial analysis, compound query and 3D face temperature rendering and so on. After statistical analyses, building face azimuths are found to have a statistically significant relationship with sun azimuths at peak time. And seasonal building temperature changing also corresponds to the sun angle and sun azimuth variations. Building materials are found to have a significant effect on building surface temperatures. Buildings with lower albedo materials tend to have higher temperatures and larger thermal conductivity material have significant diurnal variations. For the geographical locations, the peripheral faces of campus have higher temperatures than the inner faces during day time and buildings located at the southeast are cooler than the western. Furthermore, human activity is found to have a strong relationship with building surface temperatures through weekday and weekend comparison.

  2. Static Formation Temperature Prediction Based on Bottom Hole Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwei Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Static formation temperature (SFT is required to determine the thermophysical properties and production parameters in geothermal and oil reservoirs. However, it is not easy to determine SFT by both experimental and physical methods. In this paper, a mathematical approach to predicting SFT, based on a new model describing the relationship between bottom hole temperature (BHT and shut-in time, has been proposed. The unknown coefficients of the model were derived from the least squares fit by the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. Additionally, the ability to predict SFT using a few BHT data points (such as the first three, four, or five points of a data set was evaluated. The accuracy of the proposed method to predict SFT was confirmed by a deviation percentage less than ±4% and a high regression coefficient R2 (>0.98. The proposed method could be used as a practical tool to predict SFT in both geothermal and oil wells.

  3. Decadal trends in Red Sea maximum surface temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Chaidez, Veronica

    2017-08-09

    Ocean warming is a major consequence of climate change, with the surface of the ocean having warmed by 0.11 °C decade-1 over the last 50 years and is estimated to continue to warm by an additional 0.6 - 2.0 °C before the end of the century1. However, there is considerable variability in the rates experienced by different ocean regions, so understanding regional trends is important to inform on possible stresses for marine organisms, particularly in warm seas where organisms may be already operating in the high end of their thermal tolerance. Although the Red Sea is one of the warmest ecosystems on earth, its historical warming trends and thermal evolution remain largely understudied. We characterized the Red Sea\\'s thermal regimes at the basin scale, with a focus on the spatial distribution and changes over time of sea surface temperature maxima, using remotely sensed sea surface temperature data from 1982 - 2015. The overall rate of warming for the Red Sea is 0.17 ± 0.07 °C decade-1, while the northern Red Sea is warming between 0.40 and 0.45 °C decade-1, all exceeding the global rate. Our findings show that the Red Sea is fast warming, which may in the future challenge its organisms and communities.

  4. THE EFFECT OF ACTIVATED CARBON SURFACE MOISTURE ON LOW TEMPERATURE MERCURY ADSORPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments with elemental mercury (Hg0) adsorption by activated carbons were performed using a bench-scale fixed-bed reactor at room temperature (27 degrees C) to determine the role of surface moisture in capturing Hg0. A bituminous-coal-based activated carbon (BPL) and an activ...

  5. Cloud tolerance of remote sensing technologies to measure land surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional means to estimate land surface temperature (LST) from space relies on the thermal infrared (TIR) spectral window and is limited to cloud-free scenes. To also provide LST estimates during periods with clouds, a new method was developed to estimate LST based on passive microwave (MW) obse...

  6. Satellite‐derived surface temperature and in situ measurement at Solfatara of Pozzuoli (Naples, Italy)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silvestri, M; Cardellini, C; Chiodini, G; Buongiorno, M. F

    2016-01-01

    ... and their spatial distribution, providing insights into a particular volcano's activity status, impending changes in activity, and subsurface processes generating thermal anomalies. In this framework, satellite‐based TIR remote sensing provides a very powerful tool with which to study surface temperature, providing global coverage and a suitable data frequency (...

  7. A Study on the Relationships among Surface Variables to Adjust the Height of Surface Temperature for Data Assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J. H.; Song, H. J.; Han, H. J.; Ha, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    The observation processing system, KPOP (KIAPS - Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems - Package for Observation Processing) have developed to provide optimal observations to the data assimilation system for the KIAPS Integrated Model (KIM). Currently, the KPOP has capable of processing almost all of observations for the KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration) operational global data assimilation system. The height adjustment of SURFACE observations are essential for the quality control due to the difference in height between observation station and model topography. For the SURFACE observation, it is usual to adjust the height using lapse rate or hypsometric equation, which decides values mainly depending on the difference of height. We have a question of whether the height can be properly adjusted following to the linear or exponential relationship solely with regard to the difference of height, with disregard the atmospheric conditions. In this study, firstly we analyse the change of surface variables such as temperature (T2m), pressure (Psfc), humidity (RH2m and Q2m), and wind components (U and V) according to the height difference. Additionally, we look further into the relationships among surface variables . The difference of pressure shows a strong linear relationship with difference of height. But the difference of temperature according to the height shows a significant correlation with difference of relative humidity than with the height difference. A development of reliable model for the height-adjustment of surface temperature is being undertaken based on the preliminary results.

  8. Temperature-mediated transition from Dyakonov-Tamm surface waves to surface-plasmon-polariton waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiadini, Francesco; Fiumara, Vincenzo; Mackay, Tom G.; Scaglione, Antonio; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2017-08-01

    The effect of changing the temperature on the propagation of electromagnetic surface waves (ESWs), guided by the planar interface of a homogeneous isotropic temperature-sensitive material (namely, InSb) and a temperature-insensitive structurally chiral material (SCM) was numerically investigated in the terahertz frequency regime. As the temperature rises, InSb transforms from a dissipative dielectric material to a dissipative plasmonic material. Correspondingly, the ESWs transmute from Dyakonov-Tamm surface waves into surface-plasmon-polariton waves. The effects of the temperature change are clearly observed in the phase speeds, propagation distances, angular existence domains, multiplicity, and spatial profiles of energy flow of the ESWs. Remarkably large propagation distances can be achieved; in such instances the energy of an ESW is confined almost entirely within the SCM. For certain propagation directions, simultaneous excitation of two ESWs with (i) the same phase speeds but different propagation distances or (ii) the same propagation distances but different phase speeds are also indicated by our results.

  9. Global Surface Temperature Response Explained by Multibox Energy Balance Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, H. B.; Rypdal, M.

    2016-12-01

    We formulate a multibox energy balance model, from which global temperature evolution can be described by convolving a linear response function and a forcing record. We estimate parameters in the response function from instrumental data and historic forcing, such that our model can produce a response to both deterministic forcing and stochastic weather forcing consistent with observations. Furthermore, if we make separate boxes for upper ocean layer and atmosphere over land, we can also make separate response functions for global land and sea surface temperature. By describing internal variability as a linear response to white noise, we demonstrate that the power-law form of the observed temperature spectra can be described by linear dynamics, contrary to a common belief that these power-law spectra must arise from nonlinear processes. In our multibox model, the power-law form can arise due to the multiple response times. While one of our main points is that the climate system responds over a wide range of time scales, we cannot find one set of time scales that can be preferred compared to other choices. Hence we think the temperature response can best be characterized as something that is scale-free, but still possible to approximate by a set of well separated time scales.

  10. The Surface Temperatures of the Earth: Steps towards Integrated Understanding of Variability and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiesen, Stephan; Merchant, Chris; Rayner, Nick; Remedios, John; Høyer, Jacob L.; Jones, Phil; Olesen, Folke; Roquet, Hervé; Sobrino, José; Thorne, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Surface temperature is a key aspect of weather and climate, relevant to human health, agriculture and leisure, ecosystem services, infrastructure development and economic activity. In a community-based activity, the EarthTemp Network brought together 55 researchers from 5 continents to improve the interaction between scientific communities who focus on particular domains, to exploit the strengths of different observing systems and to better meet the needs of different communities. The Network idenitified key needs for progress towards meeting societal needs for surface temperature understanding and information, which will be reviewed and discussed in this contribution. A "whole-Earth" perspective is required with more integrated, collaborative approaches to observing and understanding Earth's various surface temperatures. It is necessary to build understanding of the relationships of different surface temperatures, where presently inadequate, and undertake large-scale systematic intercomparisons. Datasets need to be easier to obtain and exploit for a wide constituency of users, with the differences and complementarities communicated in readily understood terms, and realistic and consistent uncertainty information. Steps are also recommended to curate and make available data that are presently inaccessible, develop new observing systems and build capacities to accelerate progress in the accuracy and usability of surface temperature datasets.

  11. Surface chemistry of alanine on Cu{111}: Adsorption geometry and temperature dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldanza, Silvia; Cornish, Alix; Nicklin, Richard E. J.; Zheleva, Zhasmina V.; Held, Georg

    2014-11-01

    Adsorption of L-alanine on the Cu{111} single crystal surface was investigated as a model system for interactions between small chiral modifier molecules and close-packed metal surfaces. Synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy are used to determine the chemical state, bond coordination and out-of-plane orientation of the molecule on the surface. Alanine adsorbs in its anionic form at room temperature, whilst at low temperature the overlayer consists of anionic and zwitterionic molecules. NEXAFS spectra exhibit a strong angular dependence of the π* resonance associated with the carboxylate group, which allows determining the tilt angle of this group with respect to the surface plane (48° ± 2°) at room temperature. Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) shows a p(2√{ 13} × 2√{ 13}) R 13 ° superstructure with only one domain, which breaks the mirror symmetry of the substrate and, thus, induces global chirality to the surface. Temperature-programmed XPS (TP-XPS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments indicate that the zwitterionic form converts into the anionic species (alaninate) at 293 K. The latter desorbs/decomposes between 435 K and 445 K.

  12. An Investigation into Surface Temperature Distributions of High-B Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Yasutake, Nobutoshi; Kutsuna, Masamichi; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Bearing in mind the application to high-magnetic-field (high-B) radio pulsars, we investigate two-dimensional (2D) thermal evolutions of neutron stars (NSs). We pay particular attention to the influence of different equilibrium configurations on the surface temperature distributions. The equilibrium configurations are constructed in a systematic manner, in which both toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields are determined self-consistently with the inclusion of general relativistic effects. To solve the 2D heat transfer inside the NS interior out to the crust, we have developed an implicit code based on a finite-difference scheme that deals with anisotropic thermal conductivity and relevant cooling processes in the context of a standard cooling scenario. In agreement with previous studies, the surface temperatures near the pole become higher than those in the vicinity of the equator as a result of anisotropic heat transfer. Our results show that the ratio of the highest to the lowest surface temperatures changes...

  13. In situ high temperature microscopy study of the surface oxidation and phase transformations in titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinov, S; Sha, W; Voon, C S

    2002-09-01

    Two popular commercial titanium alloys, Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-0.08Si, were used for in situ high temperature microscopy study. The experiments were performed on an optical microscope equipped with high temperature stage using both normal and florescence lights. Two kinds of experiments were performed, at continuous heating/cooling with different rates and in isothermal conditions at different temperatures. The changes taking place on the sample surface during the experiments were monitored. The morphology of the alpha ==> beta ==> alpha phase transformation was recorded at different heat treatment conditions using the effect of thermal etching. An effect of sample surface oxidation and deoxidation was observed during continuous heating. The appearance and disappearance of ordered titanium oxides Ti3O and Ti2O are discussed based on the phase equilibrium diagram. The kinetics of the surface oxidation was monitored in both isothermal and continuous cooling conditions.

  14. Surface morphology evolution of Si(110) by ion sputtering as a function of sample temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Le-Jun; Ling Li; Li Wei-Qing; Yang Xin-Ju; Gu Chang-Xin; Lu Ming

    2005-01-01

    Si(110) surface morphology evolution under normal-incident Ar+ ion sputtering has been studied as a function of Si temperature with the ion energy of 1.5keV and the ion flux 20μA/cm2. During temperature rising from room temperature to 800℃, Si(110) surface morphology changes from a dim dot/hole pattern to a distinct dot one, meanwhile the surface roughness increases steadily. The usually-accepted Bradley-Harper model fails to explain these data. By taking into account the Ehrlich-Schwoebel effect in the nanostructuring process, a simulation work was conducted based on a continuum dynamic model, which reproduces the experimental results.

  15. Geostatistical Solutions for Downscaling Remotely Sensed Land Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Rodriguez-Galiano, V.; Atkinson, P. M.

    2017-09-01

    Remotely sensed land surface temperature (LST) downscaling is an important issue in remote sensing. Geostatistical methods have shown their applicability in downscaling multi/hyperspectral images. In this paper, four geostatistical solutions, including regression kriging (RK), downscaling cokriging (DSCK), kriging with external drift (KED) and area-to-point regression kriging (ATPRK), are applied for downscaling remotely sensed LST. Their differences are analyzed theoretically and the performances are compared experimentally using a Landsat 7 ETM+ dataset. They are also compared to the classical TsHARP method.

  16. Spatial assessment of land surface temperature and land use/land cover in Langkawi Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Suzana Binti; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Salihu Lay, Usman; Abdullahi, Saleh

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the relationship between Land Surface Temperature and Land Use/Land Cover in Langkawi Island by using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Build-Up Index (NDBI) and Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) qualitatively by using Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 (OLI/TIRS) over the period 2002 and 2015. Pixel-based classifiers Maximum Likelihood (MLC) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), has been performed to prepare the Land Use/ Land Cover map (LU/LC) and the result shows that Support Vector Machine (SVM) achieved maximum accuracy with 90% and 90.46% compared to Maximum Likelihood (MLC) classifier with 86.62% and 86.98% respectively. The result revealed that as the impervious surface (built-up /roads) increases, the surface temperature of the area increased. However, land surface temperature decreased in the vegetated areas. Based from the linear regression between LST and NDVI, NDBI and MNDWI, these indices can be used as an indicator to monitor the impact of Land Use/Land Cover on Land Surface Temperature.

  17. Finite Elements on Point Based Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarenz, U.; Rumpf, M.; Telea, A.

    2004-01-01

    We present a framework for processing point-based surfaces via partial differential equations (PDEs). Our framework efficiently and effectively brings well-known PDE-based processing techniques to the field of point-based surfaces. Our method is based on the construction of local tangent planes and

  18. Effect of surface nanostructure on temperature programmed reaction spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Michael; Rogal, Jutta; Reuter, Karsten

    2008-03-01

    Using the catalytic CO oxidation at RuO2(110) as a showcase, we employ first-principles kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to illustrate the intricate effects on temperature programmed reaction (TPR) spectroscopy data brought about by the mere correlations between the locations of the active sites at a nanostructured surface. Even in the absence of lateral interactions, this nanostructure alone can cause inhomogeneities that cannot be grasped by prevalent mean-field data analysis procedures, which thus lead to wrong conclusions on the reactivity of the different surface species. The RuO2(110) surface studied here exhibits only two prominent active sites, arranged in simple alternating rows. Yet, the mere neglection of this still quite trivial nanostructure leads mean-field TPR data analysis [1] to extract kinetic parameters that are in error by several orders of magnitude and that do not even reflect the relative reactivity of the different surface species correctly [2].[1] S. Wendt, M. Knapp, and H. Over, JACS 126, 1537 (2004).[2] M. Rieger, J. Rogal, and K. Reuter, Phys. Rev. Lett (in press).

  19. Hot-forging Die Cavity Surface Layer Temperature Gradient Distribution and Determinant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huachang; WANG Guan; XIAO Han; WANG Hongfu

    2011-01-01

    Based on the car front-wheel-hub forging forming process of numerical simulation,the temperature gradient expression of forging model cavity near the surface layer was got ten,which illustrates that the forging temperature gradient is related to forging die materials thermal conductivity,specific heat and impact speed,and the correlation coefficient is 0.97.Under the different thermal conductivity,heat capacity and forging speed,the temperature gradient was compared with each other.The paper obtained the relevant laws,which illustrates the temperature gradient relates to these three parameters in a sequence of thermal conductivity > impact speed> specific heat capacity.To reduce thermal stress in the near-surface layer of hot forging cavity,the material with greater thermal conductivity coefficient and specific heat capacity should be used.

  20. Temperature and phase transformations fields during surfacing by welding of CCS machine roll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Winczek

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In work have been presented models of temperature fields and kinetics of phase transformations in continuous casting steel machine roll surfacing spiral welding sequence with swinging motion of welding head. The temperature field was determined by analytical solution for massive body heated by moving voluminal heat source. The progress of diffusional phase transformations was described basing on equation of kinetics JMA-K and Koistinen-Marburger’s for martensitic transfomation. Deliberations were illustrated by computational example of surfaced roll made from steel 13CrMo4. The temperature field and structural components fraction was calcualated in section of regenerated area of material decline (along the roll axis. Considering critical temperatures, heat-affected zones have been determined: A1 and A3 – austenitic transformation, and solidus - fusion line. Accepted technological parameters of rebuilding gave results that reproduce geometry of padding weld heat-affected zones confirmed experimentally.

  1. Detection and attribution of near surface temperature changes over homogenous temperature zones in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achutarao, K. M.; R, D.

    2015-12-01

    The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report concluded, "More than half of the observed increase in global mean surface temperature (GMST) from 1951 to 2010 is very likely due to the observed anthropogenic increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations." Detecting and attributing the changes over regional scales can provide more relevant information to policymakers at the national level but the low signal-to-noise ratios at smaller spatial scales make this a harder problem. In this study, we analyze changes in temperature (annual and seasonal means of mean, minimum, and maximum temperatures) over 7 homogeneous temperature zones of India from 1901 -2005 using models from the CMIP5 database and multiple observational datasets (CRU-3.22, and IITM). We perform Detection and Attribution (D&A) analysis using fingerprint methods by defining a signal that concisely express both spatial and temporal changes found in the model runs with the CMIP5 individual forcing runs; greenhouse (historicalGHG), natural (historicalNat), anthropogenic (historicalAnthro), and anthropogenic aerosols (historicalAA). We are able to detect changes in annual mean temperature over many of the homogenous temperature zones as well as seasonal means in some of the homogenous zones. We quantify the contributions resulting from individual forcings in these cases. Preliminary results indicate large contributions from anthropogenic, forcings with a negligible contribution from natural forcings.

  2. The impact of heterogeneous surface temperatures on the 2-m air temperature over the Arctic Ocean under clear skies in spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tetzlaff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of spatial surface temperature changes over the Arctic Ocean on the 2-m air temperature variability is estimated using backward trajectories based on ERA-Interim and JRA25 wind fields. They are initiated at Alert, Barrow and at the Tara drifting station. Three different methods are used. The first one compares mean ice surface temperatures along the trajectories to the observed 2-m air temperatures at the stations. The second one correlates the observed temperatures to air temperatures obtained using a simple Lagrangian box model that only includes the effect of sensible heat fluxes. For the third method, mean sensible heat fluxes from the model are correlated with the difference of the air temperatures at the model starting point and the observed temperatures at the stations. The calculations are based on MODIS ice surface temperatures and four different sets of ice concentration derived from SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager and AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS data. Under nearly cloud-free conditions, up to 90% of the 2-m air temperature variance can be explained for Alert, and 70% for Barrow, using these methods. The differences are attributed to the different ice conditions, which are characterized by high ice concentration around Alert and lower ice concentration near Barrow. These results are robust for the different sets of reanalyses and ice concentration data. Trajectories based on 10-m wind fields from both reanalyses show large spatial differences in the Central Arctic, leading to differences in the correlations between modeled and observed 2-m air temperatures. They are most pronounced at Tara, where explained variances amount to 70% using JRA and 80% using ERA. The results also suggest that near-surface temperatures at a given site are influenced by the variability of surface temperatures in a domain of about 200 km radius around the site.

  3. Examination of surface phenomena of V₂O₅ loaded on new nanostructured TiO₂ prepared by chemical vapor condensation for enhanced NH₃-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Woojoon; Yun, Seong-Taek; Jurng, Jongsoo

    2014-09-01

    In this article, we describe the investigation and surface characterization of a chemical vapor condensation (CVC)-TiO2 support material used in a V2O5/TiO2 catalyst for enhanced selective catalytic reduction (SCR) activity and confirm the mechanism of surface reactions. On the basis of previous studies and comparison with a commercial TiO2 catalyst, we examine four fundamental questions: first, the reason for increased surface V(4+) ion concentrations; second, the origin of the increase in surface acid sites; third, a basis for synergistic influences on improvements in SCR activity; and fourth, a reason for improved catalytic activity at low reaction temperatures. In this study, we have cited the result of SCR with NH3 activity for removing NOx and analyzed data using the reported result and data from previous studies on V2O5/CVC-TiO2 for the SCR catalyst. In order to determine the properties of suitable CVC-TiO2 surfaces for efficient SCR catalysis at low temperatures, CVC-TiO2 specimens were prepared and characterized using techniques such as XRD, BET, HR-TEM, XPS, FT-IR, NH3-TPD, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, H2-TPR, and cyclic voltammetry. The results obtained for the CVC-TiO2 materials were also compared with those of commercial TiO2.

  4. Afforestation in China cools local land surface temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shu-Shi; Piao, Shilong; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Ciais, Philippe; Zhou, Liming; Li, Laurent Z X; Myneni, Ranga B; Yin, Yi; Zeng, Hui

    2014-02-25

    China has the largest afforested area in the world (∼62 million hectares in 2008), and these forests are carbon sinks. The climatic effect of these new forests depends on how radiant and turbulent energy fluxes over these plantations modify surface temperature. For instance, a lower albedo may cause warming, which negates the climatic benefits of carbon sequestration. Here, we used satellite measurements of land surface temperature (LST) from planted forests and adjacent grasslands or croplands in China to understand how afforestation affects LST. Afforestation is found to decrease daytime LST by about 1.1 ± 0.5 °C (mean ± 1 SD) and to increase nighttime LST by about 0.2 ± 0.5 °C, on average. The observed daytime cooling is a result of increased evapotranspiration. The nighttime warming is found to increase with latitude and decrease with average rainfall. Afforestation in dry regions therefore leads to net warming, as daytime cooling is offset by nighttime warming. Thus, it is necessary to carefully consider where to plant trees to realize potential climatic benefits in future afforestation projects.

  5. Effect of chain end group on surface glass transition temperature of thin polymer film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiqun; Yang, Chang Zheng; Tanaka, Keiji; Takahara, Atsushi; Kajiyama, Tisato

    2001-04-01

    Surface glass transition behaviors of proton end capped poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP-H) and perfluoroalkyl end capped poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP-C 2C 8F) thin films were investigated based on temperature-dependent lateral force microscopic (TDLFM) measurement. It is found that the species of chain end groups have significant influence on the surface glass transition temperature of the thin polymer film. For both samples, it is revealed that the surface glass transition temperatures decrease significantly in comparison to the bulk ones, and the magnitude order of reduction in surface Tg for P2VP-C 2C 8F is larger than that for P2VP-H. The apparent activation energy of surface α-relaxation calculated from the Arrhenius plot is ca. 292±40 and 212±40 kJ/mol for P2VP-H and P2VP-C 2C 8F, respectively, and is much smaller than the bulk one. The depression of the surface Tg for thin polymer films is explained by the excess free volume induced by the enrichment of chain end groups at the surface.

  6. The Land Surface Temperature Synergistic Processor in BEAM: A Prototype towards Sentinel-3

    CERN Document Server

    Ruescas, Ana Belen; Fomferra, Norman; Brockmann, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is one of the key parameters in the physics of land-surface processes on regional and global scales, combining the results of all surface-atmosphere interactions and energy fluxes between the surface and the atmosphere. With the advent of the European Space Agency (ESA) Sentinel 3 (S3) satellite, accurate LST retrieval methodologies are being developed by exploiting the synergy between the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) and the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR). In this paper we explain the implementation in the Basic ENVISAT Toolbox for (A)ATSR and MERIS (BEAM) and the use of one LST algorithm developed in the framework of the Synergistic Use of The Sentinel Missions For Estimating And Monitoring Land Surface Temperature (SEN4LST) project. The LST algorithm is based on the split-window technique with an explicit dependence on the surface emissivity. Performance of the methodology is assessed by using MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer/Advanced Alo...

  7. Martian Surface Temperature and Spectral Response from the MSL REMS Ground Temperature Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Torres, Javier; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Zorzano, María-Paz; Serrano, María; Mendaza, Teresa; Hamilton, Vicky; Sebastián, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; REMS Team

    2013-04-01

    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) offers the opportunity to explore the near surface atmospheric conditions and, in particular will shed new light into the heat budget of the Martian surface. This is important for studies of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), as the ground and air temperatures measured directly by REMS control the coupling of the atmosphere with the surface [Zurek et al., 1992]. This coupling is driven by solar insolation. The ABL plays an important role in the general circulation and the local atmospheric dynamics of Mars. One of the REMS sensors, the ground temperature sensor (GTS), provides the data needed to study the thermal inertia properties of the regolith and rocks beneath the MSL rover. The GTS includes thermopile detectors, with infrared bands of 8-14 µm and 16-20 µm [Gómez-Elvira et al., 2012]. These sensors are clustered in a single location on the MSL mast and the 8-14 µm thermopile sounds the surface temperature. The infrared radiation reaching the thermopile is proportional to the emissivity of the surface minerals across these thermal wavelengths. We have developed a radiative transfer retrieval method for the REMS GTS using a database of thermal infrared laboratory spectra of analogue minerals and their mixtures. [Martín Redondo et al. 2009, Martínez-Frías et al. 2012 - FRISER-IRMIX database]. This method will be used to assess the perfomance of the REMS GTS as well as determine, through the error analysis, the surface temperature and emissivity values where MSL is operating. Comparisons with orbiter data will be performed. References Gómez-Elvira et al. [2012], REMS: The Environmental Sensor Suite for the Mars Science Laboratory Rover, Space Science Reviews, Volume 170, Issue 1-4, pp. 583-640. Martín-Redondo et al. [2009] Journal of Environmental Monitoring 11:, pp. 1428-1432. Martínez-Frías et al. [2012] FRISER-IRMIX database http

  8. SAGA GIS based processing of spatial high resolution temperature data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlitz, Lars; Bechtel, Benjamin; Kawohl, Tobias; Boehner, Juergen [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geography; Zaksek, Klemen [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geophysics

    2013-07-01

    Many climate change impact studies require surface and near surface temperature data with high spatial and temporal resolution. The resolution of state of the art climate models and remote sensing data is often by far to coarse to represent the meso- and microscale distinctions of temperatures. This is particularly the case for regions with a huge variability of topoclimates, such as mountainous or urban areas. Statistical downscaling techniques are promising methods to refine gridded temperature data with limited spatial resolution, particularly due to their low demand for computer capacity. This paper presents two downscaling approaches - one for climate model output and one for remote sensing data. Both are methodically based on the FOSS-GIS platform SAGA. (orig.)

  9. Implant Surface Temperature Changes during Er:YAG Laser Irradiation with Different Cooling Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Monzavi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Peri-implantitis is one of the most common reasons for implant failure. Decontamination of infected implant surfaces can be achieved effectively by laser irradiation; although the associated thermal rise may cause irreversible bone damage and lead to implant loss. Temperature increments of over 10ºC during laser application may suffice for irreversible bone damage.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature increment of implant surface during Er:YAG laser irradiation with different cooling systems.Three implants were placed in a resected block of sheep mandible and irradiated with Er:YAG laser with 3 different cooling systems namely water and air spray, air spray alone and no water or air spray. Temperature changes of the implant surface were monitored during laser irradiation with a K-type thermocouple at the apical area of the fixture.In all 3 groups, the maximum temperature rise was lower than 10°C. Temperature changes were significantly different with different cooling systems used (P<0.001.Based on the results, no thermal damage was observed during implant surface decontamination by Er:YAG laser with and without refrigeration. Thus, Er:YAG laser irradiation can be a safe method for treatment of periimplantitis.

  10. Measuring surface temperature of isolated neutron stars and related problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, Marcus Alton

    New and exciting results for measuring neutron star surface temperatures began with the successful launch of the Chandra X-ray observatory. Among these results are new detections of neutron star surface temperatures which have made it possible to seriously test neutron star thermal evolution theories. The important new temperature determination of the Vela pulsar (Pavlov, et al., 2001a) requires a non-standard cooling scenario to explain it. Apart from this result, we have measured PSR B1055-52's surface temperature in this thesis, determining that it can be explained by standard cooling with heating. Our spectral fit of the combined data from ROSAT and Chandra have shown that a three component model, two thermal blackbodies and an non-thermal power-law, is required to explain the data. Furthermore, our phase resolved spectroscopy has begun to shed light on the geometry of the hot spot on PSR B1055-52's surface as well as the structure of the magnetospheric radiation. Also, there is strong evidence for a thermal distribution over its surface. Most importantly, the fact that PSR B1055-52 does not have a hydrogen atmosphere has been firmly established. To reconcile these two key observations, on the Vela pulsar and PSR B1055-52, we tested neutron star cooling with neutrino processes including the Cooper pair neutrino emission process. Overall, it has been found that a phase change associated with pions being present in the cores of more massive neutron stars explains all current of the data. A transition from neutron matter to pion condensates in the central stellar core explains the difference between standard and non-standard cooling scenarios, because the superfluid suppression of pion cooling will reduce the emissivity of the pion direct URCA process substantially. A neutron star with a mass of [Special characters omitted.] with a medium stiffness equation of state and a T72 type neutron superfluid models the standard cooling case well. A neutron star of [Special

  11. Rayleigh surface acoustic wave as an efficient heating system for biological reactions: investigation of microdroplet temperature uniformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux-Marchand, Thibaut; Beyssen, Denis; Sarry, Frederic; Elmazria, Omar

    2015-04-01

    When a microdroplet is put on the Rayleigh surface acoustic wave path, longitudinal waves are radiated into the liquid and induce several phenomena such as the wellknown surface acoustic wave streaming. At the same time, the temperature of the microdroplet increases as it has been shown. In this paper, we study the temperature uniformity of a microdroplet heated by Rayleigh surface acoustic wave for discrete microfluidic applications such as biological reactions. To precisely ascertain the temperature uniformity and not interfere with the biological reaction, we used an infrared camera. We then tested the temperature uniformity as a function of three parameters: the microdroplet volume, the Rayleigh surface acoustic wave frequency, and the continuous applied radio frequency power. Based on these results, we propose a new device structure to develop a future lab on a chip based on reaction temperatures.

  12. Warm tropical sea surface temperatures in the Late Cretaceous and Eocene epochs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, P N; Ditchfield, P W; Singano, J; Harcourt-Brown, K G; Nicholas, C J; Olsson, R K; Shackleton, N J; Hall, M A

    2001-10-04

    Climate models with increased levels of carbon dioxide predict that global warming causes heating in the tropics, but investigations of ancient climates based on palaeodata have generally indicated cool tropical temperatures during supposed greenhouse episodes. For example, in the Late Cretaceous and Eocene epochs there is abundant geological evidence for warm, mostly ice-free poles, but tropical sea surface temperatures are generally estimated to be only 15-23 degrees C, based on oxygen isotope palaeothermometry of surface-dwelling planktonic foraminifer shells. Here we question the validity of most such data on the grounds of poor preservation and diagenetic alteration. We present new data from exceptionally well preserved foraminifer shells extracted from impermeable clay-rich sediments, which indicate that for the intervals studied, tropical sea surface temperatures were at least 28-32 degrees C. These warm temperatures are more in line with our understanding of the geographical distributions of temperature-sensitive fossil organisms and the results of climate models with increased CO2 levels.

  13. Detecting climate rationality and homogeneities of sea surface temperature data in Longkou marine station using surface air temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Li, Huan; Wang, Qingyuan; Wang, Guosong; Fan, Wenjing

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a systematic evaluation of the climate rationality and homogeneity of monthly sea surface temperature (SST) in Longkou marine station from 1960 to 2011. The reference series are developed using adjacent surface air temperature (SAT) on a monthly timescale. The results suggest SAT as a viable option for use in evaluating climate rationality and homogeneity in the SST data on the coastal China Seas. According to the large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns and SAT of the adjacent meteorological stations, we confirm that there is no climate shift in 1972/1973 and then the climate shift in 1972/1973 is corrected. Besides, the SST time series has serious problems of inhomogeneity. Three documented break points have been checked using penalized maximum T (PMT) test and metadata. The changes in observation instruments and observation system are the main causes of the break points. For the monthly SST time series, the negative adjustments may be greatly due to the SST decreasing after automation. It is found that the increasing trend of annual mean SST after adjustment is higher than before, about 0.24 °C/10 yr.

  14. GHRSST Level 4 ODYSSEA Mediterranean Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at Ifremer/CERSAT...

  15. GHRSST Level 4 GAMSSA Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Australian Bureau...

  16. GHRSST Level 4 RAMSSA Australian Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Australian Bureau...

  17. GHRSST Level 4 EUR Mediterranean Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily by Ifremer/CERSAT (France) using optimal...

  18. GHRSST Level 4 ODYSSEA Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at Ifremer/CERSAT...

  19. GHRSST Level 4 ODYSSEA Eastern Central Pacific Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at Ifremer/CERSAT...

  20. GHRSST Level 4 G1SST Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis by the JPL OurOcean...

  1. GHRSST Level 4 DMI_OI Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis by the Danish...

  2. GHRSST Level 4 OSTIA Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the UK Met Office...

  3. GHRSST Level 4 MW_OI Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) global Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on a 0.25 degree grid at Remote Sensing...

  4. GHRSST Level 4 MUR North America Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced as a retrospective dataset at the JPL Physical...

  5. Assessment of surface temperatures of buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) raised under tropical conditions using infrared thermography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barros, D.V; Silva, L.K.X; Kahwage, P.R; Lourenço Júnior, J.B; Sousa, J.S; Silva, A.G.M; Franco, I.M; Martorano, L.G; Garcia, A.R

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed to evaluate the surface temperatures of buffalo bulls using infrared thermography, considering four distinct anatomical parts over time, and to correlate surface temperatures and thermal comfort indexes...

  6. GHRSST Level 4 OSPO Global Nighttime Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Office of...

  7. GHRSST Level 4 OSPO Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Office of...

  8. GHRSST Level 4 AVHRR_AMSR_OI Global Blended Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) global Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on a 0.25 degree grid at the NOAA...

  9. GHRSST Level 4 K10_SST Global 1 meter Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Naval...

  10. Analyzing the Effects of Climate Change on Sea Surface Temperature in Monitoring Coral Reef Health in the Florida Keys Using Sea Surface Temperature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason; Burbank, Renane; Billiot, Amanda; Schultz, Logan

    2011-01-01

    This presentation discusses use of 4 kilometer satellite-based sea surface temperature (SST) data to monitor and assess coral reef areas of the Florida Keys. There are growing concerns about the impacts of climate change on coral reef systems throughout the world. Satellite remote sensing technology is being used for monitoring coral reef areas with the goal of understanding the climatic and oceanic changes that can lead to coral bleaching events. Elevated SST is a well-documented cause of coral bleaching events. Some coral monitoring studies have used 50 km data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) to study the relationships of sea surface temperature anomalies to bleaching events. In partnership with NOAA's Office of National Marine Sanctuaries and the University of South Florida's Institute for Marine Remote Sensing, this project utilized higher resolution SST data from the Terra's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and AVHRR. SST data for 2000-2010 was employed to compute sea surface temperature anomalies within the study area. The 4 km SST anomaly products enabled visualization of SST levels for known coral bleaching events from 2000-2010.

  11. Surface Functionalization of Graphene-based Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathkar, Akshay

    Graphene-based materials have generated tremendous interest in the past decade. Manipulating their characteristics using wet-chemistry methods holds distinctive value, as it provides a means towards scaling up, while not being limited by yield. The majority of this thesis focuses on the surface functionalization of graphene oxide (GO), which has drawn tremendous attention as a tunable precursor due to its readily chemically manipulable surface and richly functionalized basal plane. Firstly, a room-temperature based method is presented to reduce GO stepwise, with each organic moiety being removed sequentially. Characterization confirms the carbonyl group to be reduced first, while the tertiary alcohol is reduced last, as the optical gap decrease from 3.5 eV down to 1 eV. This provides greater control over GO, which is an inhomogeneous system, and is the first study to elucidate the order of removal of each functional group. In addition to organically manipulating GO, this thesis also reports a chemical methodology to inorganically functionalize GO and tune its wetting characteristics. A chemical method to covalently attach fluorine atoms in the form of tertiary alkyl fluorides is reported, and confirmed by MAS 13C NMR, as two forms of fluorinated graphene oxide (FGO) with varying C/F and C/O ratios are synthesized. Introducing C-F bonds decreases the overall surface free energy, which drastically reduces GO's wetting behavior, especially in its highly fluorinated form. Ease of solution processing leads to development of sprayable inks that are deposited on a range of porous and nonporous surfaces to impart amphiphobicity. This is the first report that tunes the wetting characteristics of GO. Lastly as a part of a collaboration with ConocoPhillips, another class of carbon nanomaterials - carbon nanotubes (CNTs), have been inorganically functionalized to repel 30 wt% MEA, a critical solvent in CO 2 recovery. In addition to improving the solution processability of CNTs

  12. A One-Source Approach for Estimating Land Surface Heat Fluxes Using Remotely Sensed Land Surface Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The partitioning of available energy between sensible heat and latent heat is important for precise water resources planning and management in the context of global climate change. Land surface temperature (LST is a key variable in energy balance process and remotely sensed LST is widely used for estimating surface heat fluxes at regional scale. However, the inequality between LST and aerodynamic surface temperature (Taero poses a great challenge for regional heat fluxes estimation in one-source energy balance models. To address this issue, we proposed a One-Source Model for Land (OSML to estimate regional surface heat fluxes without requirements for empirical extra resistance, roughness parameterization and wind velocity. The proposed OSML employs both conceptual VFC/LST trapezoid model and the electrical analog formula of sensible heat flux (H to analytically estimate the radiometric-convective resistance (rae via a quartic equation. To evaluate the performance of OSML, the model was applied to the Soil Moisture-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX in United States and the Multi-Scale Observation Experiment on Evapotranspiration (MUSOEXE in China, using remotely sensed retrievals as auxiliary data sets at regional scale. Validated against tower-based surface fluxes observations, the root mean square deviation (RMSD of H and latent heat flux (LE from OSML are 34.5 W/m2 and 46.5 W/m2 at SMACEX site and 50.1 W/m2 and 67.0 W/m2 at MUSOEXE site. The performance of OSML is very comparable to other published studies. In addition, the proposed OSML model demonstrates similar skills of predicting surface heat fluxes in comparison to SEBS (Surface Energy Balance System. Since OSML does not require specification of aerodynamic surface characteristics, roughness parameterization and meteorological conditions with high spatial variation such as wind speed, this proposed method shows high potential for routinely acquisition of latent heat flux estimation

  13. Intermetallic-based high-temperature materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.

    1999-07-01

    The intermetallic-based alloys for high-temperature applications are introduced. General characteristics of intermetallics are followed by identification of nickel and iron aluminides as the most practical alloys for commercial applications. An overview of the alloy compositions, melting processes, and mechanical properties for nickel and iron aluminizes are presented. The current applications and commercial producers of nickel and iron aluminides are given. A brief description of the future prospects of intermetallic-based alloys is also given.

  14. Intermetallic-Based High-Temperature Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.

    1999-04-25

    The intermetallic-based alloys for high-temperature applications are introduced. General characteristics of intermetallics are followed by identification of nickel and iron aluminides as the most practical alloys for commercial applications. An overview of the alloy compositions, melting processes, and mechanical properties for nickel and iron aluminizes are presented. The current applications and commercial producers of nickel and iron aluminizes are given. A brief description of the future prospects of intermetallic-based alloys is also given.

  15. Nanoresonator based dielectric surfaces for light manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestri, F.; Pisano, E.; Gerini, G.; Lancellotti, V.; Galdi, V.

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, increasing interest has grown on the synthesis of light-weight, miniaturized surfaces for light manipulation based on metamaterials. These surfaces can be easily integrated in photonic systems and they can be used as high numerical aperture lenses, light-deflection surfaces and

  16. Infrared diagnosis of contact wire abrasion based on surface temperature method%基于表面温度法的接触线磨耗红外诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎玲玲; 金立军; 张文豪; 杨政勃

    2011-01-01

    为解决接触网接触线磨耗检测问题,将红外技术应用到接触线磨耗检测中.开展了接触线磨耗缺陷处温升分析,建立了接触线的表面温度与其横截面积之间的关系,提出了利用接触线缺陷处温度计算横截面积的方法,在测量误差上对接触线磨耗的判断方法进行了评价,在实验室模拟了接触线温升的试验.研究结果表明,利用表面温度法对接触线磨耗的测量误差不超过10%,证明了该方法的可用性.%In order to solve the problems of defect of contact wire abrasion,the infrared technique was investigated. After the analysis of the surface temperature of the defect, the relationship of the surface temperature and its cross-sectional area was established. A method was presented to calculate the cross-sectional area of contact wire abrasion with the temperature of the surface. The judgment of contact wire abrasion was evaluated by the index of measurement error,the temperature rises of contact wire were tested in the laboratory. The experimental results show that the maximum measurement error is less than 10%, so the method proposed is practicable.

  17. Impacts of wind farms on surface air temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidya Roy, Somnath; Traiteur, Justin J.

    2010-01-01

    Utility-scale large wind farms are rapidly growing in size and numbers all over the world. Data from a meteorological field campaign show that such wind farms can significantly affect near-surface air temperatures. These effects result from enhanced vertical mixing due to turbulence generated by wind turbine rotors. The impacts of wind farms on local weather can be minimized by changing rotor design or by siting wind farms in regions with high natural turbulence. Using a 25-y-long climate dataset, we identified such regions in the world. Many of these regions, such as the Midwest and Great Plains in the United States, are also rich in wind resources, making them ideal candidates for low-impact wind farms. PMID:20921371

  18. Change point detection of the Persian Gulf sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvani, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the Student's t parametric and Mann-Whitney nonparametric change point models (CPMs) were applied to detect change point in the annual Persian Gulf sea surface temperature anomalies (PGSSTA) time series for the period 1951-2013. The PGSSTA time series, which were serially correlated, were transformed to produce an uncorrelated pre-whitened time series. The pre-whitened PGSSTA time series were utilized as the input file of change point models. Both the applied parametric and nonparametric CPMs estimated the change point in the PGSSTA in 1992. The PGSSTA follow the normal distribution up to 1992 and thereafter, but with a different mean value after year 1992. The estimated slope of linear trend in PGSSTA time series for the period 1951-1992 was negative; however, that was positive after the detected change point. Unlike the PGSSTA, the applied CPMs suggested no change point in the Niño3.4SSTA time series.

  19. Mechanism for orientation dependence of blisters on W surface exposed to D plasma at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Y. Z.; Liu, W.; Xu, B.; Luo, G.-N.; Qu, S. L.; Morgan, T. W.; De Temmerman, G.

    2016-08-01

    The orientation dependence of blister formation induced by D plasma exposure at low temperature (about 523 K) on rolled tungsten and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) W samples was studied by scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. Severe blistering was observed on grains with surface normal directions close to [111], while the [001] surfaces are the most resistant to blister formation. Cavities induced by D2 gas were observed beneath [111], [110] and [001] surfaces, independently on whether blisters were observed on the surface or not. The [111] surface is more prone to blister formation, because it is easily plastically deformed by the D2 gas pressure. Some blister edges and steps were perpendicular to [110] directions, which may be induced by the slipping of dislocations on {110} planes. The blister morphology induced by D plasma can be well explained by the blister model based on plastic deformation mechanism.

  20. Investigation of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies over Cyprus area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Andreas; Akçit, Nuhcan

    2016-08-01

    The temperature of the sea surface has been identified as an important parameter of the natural environment, governing processes that occur in the upper ocean. This paper focuses on the analysis of the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies at the greater area of Cyprus. For that, SST data derived from MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on board both Aqua and Terra sun synchronous satellites were used. A four year period was chosen as a first approach to address and describe this phenomenon. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) has been used as an integrated platform of analysis and presentation in addition of the support of MATLAB®. The methodology consists of five steps: (i) Collection of MODIS SST imagery, (ii) Development of the digital geo-database; (iii) Model and run the methodology in GIS as a script; (iv) Calculation of SST anomalies; and (v) Visualization of the results. The SST anomaly values have presented a symmetric distribution over the study area with an increase trend through the years of analysis. The calculated monthly and annual average SST anomalies (ASST) make more obvious this trend, with negative and positive SST changes to be distributed over the study area. In terms of seasons, the same increase trend presented during spring, summer, autumn and winter with 2013 to be the year with maximum ASST observed values. Innovative aspects comprise of straightforward integration and modeling of available tools, providing a versatile platform of analysis and semi-automation of the operation. In addition, the fine resolution maps that extracted from the analysis with a wide spatial coverage, allows the detail representation of SST and ASST respectively in the region.

  1. Spatial Distribution and Pattern Persistence of Surface Soil Moisture and Temperature Over Prairie from Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daoyi; Engman, Edwin T.; Brutsaert, Wilfried

    1997-01-01

    Images remotely sensed aboard aircraft during FIFE, namely, PBMR (microwave) soil moisture and NS001 thermal infrared surface temperature, were mapped on the same coordinate system covering the 20 km x 20 km experimental site. For both kinds of image data, the frequency distributions were close to symmetric, and the area average compared reasonably well with the ground based measurements. For any image on any given day, the correlation between the remotely sensed values and collocated ground based measurements over the area was usually high in the case of NS001 surface temperature but low in the case of PBMR soil moisture. On the other hand, at any given flux station the correlation between the PBMR and gravimetric soil moisture over all available days was usually high. The correlation pixel by pixel between images of PBMR on different days was generally high. The preservation of the spatial patterns of soil moisture was also evaluated by considering the correlation station by station between ground-based soil moisture measurements on different days; no persistence of spatial pattern was apparent during wet periods, but a definite pattern gradually established itself toward the end of each drying episode. The spatial patterns of surface temperature revealed by NS001 were not preserved even within a single day. The cross-correlations among the two kinds of images and the vegetation index NDVI were normally poor. This suggests that different processes of vegetation growth, and of the near-surface soil water and energy budgets.

  2. Ocular Surface Temperature in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sodi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to investigate the ocular thermographic profiles in age-related macular degeneration (AMD eyes and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities, which could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Methods. 32 eyes with early AMD, 37 eyes with atrophic AMD, 30 eyes affected by untreated neovascular AMD, and 43 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included. The control group consisted of 44 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, diabetes mellitus, and a body temperature higher than 37.5°C. A total of 186 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320. The ocular surface temperature (OST of three ocular points was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test were used for statistical analyses. Results. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P value >0.272. OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P>0.05. Conclusions. Considering the possible relationship between ocular blood flow and OST, these findings might support the central role of ischemia in the pathogenesis of AMD.

  3. Long-term Variability of Sea Surface Temperature in the East China Sea: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hak Lee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The long-term variability of sea surface temperature in the East China Sea was reviewed based mainly on published literatures. Though the quantitative results are not the same, it is generally shown that sea surface temperature is increasing especially in recent years with the rate of increase about 0.03oC/year. Other meaningful results presented in the literatures is that the difference of water properties between layers upper and lower than the thermocline in summer shows an increasing trend both in temperature and salinity, suggesting that the stratification has been intensified. As a mechanism by which to evaluate the wintertime warming trend in the region, the weakening of wind strength, which is related to the variation of sea level pressure and atmospheric circulation in the western North Pacific and northern Asian continent, is suggested in the most of related studies.

  4. The emergence of surface-based Arctic amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Serreze

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Rises in surface and lower troposphere air temperatures through the 21st century are projected to be especially pronounced over the Arctic Ocean during the cold season. This Arctic amplification is largely driven by loss of the sea ice cover, allowing for strong heat transfers from the ocean to the atmosphere. Consistent with observed reductions in sea ice extent, fields from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis suggest emergence of surface-based Arctic amplification in the last decade.

  5. The emergence of surface-based Arctic amplification

    OpenAIRE

    SERREZE, M. C.; A. P. Barrett; J. C. Stroeve; Kindig, D. N.; Holland, M. M.

    2009-01-01

    Rises in surface and lower troposphere air temperatures through the 21st century are projected to be especially pronounced over the Arctic Ocean during the cold season. This Arctic amplification is largely driven by loss of the sea ice cover, allowing for strong heat transfers from the ocean to the atmosphere. Consistent with observed reductions in sea ice extent, fields from both the NCEP/NCAR and JRA-25 reanalyses point to emergence of surface-based Arctic amplification in the last decade.

  6. Decadal modulation of global surface temperature by internal climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Aiguo; Fyfe, John C.; Xie, Shang-Ping; Dai, Xingang

    2015-06-01

    Despite a steady increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs), global-mean surface temperature (T) has shown no discernible warming since about 2000, in sharp contrast to model simulations, which on average project strong warming. The recent slowdown in observed surface warming has been attributed to decadal cooling in the tropical Pacific, intensifying trade winds, changes in El Niño activity, increasing volcanic activity and decreasing solar irradiance. Earlier periods of arrested warming have been observed but received much less attention than the recent period, and their causes are poorly understood. Here we analyse observed and model-simulated global T fields to quantify the contributions of internal climate variability (ICV) to decadal changes in global-mean T since 1920. We show that the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) has been associated with large T anomalies over both ocean and land. Combined with another leading mode of ICV, the IPO explains most of the difference between observed and model-simulated rates of decadal change in global-mean T since 1920, and particularly over the so-called `hiatus' period since about 2000. We conclude that ICV, mainly through the IPO, was largely responsible for the recent slowdown, as well as for earlier slowdowns and accelerations in global-mean T since 1920, with preferred spatial patterns different from those associated with GHG-induced warming or aerosol-induced cooling. Recent history suggests that the IPO could reverse course and lead to accelerated global warming in the coming decades.

  7. Air Temperature estimation from Land Surface temperature and solar Radiation parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarini, Michele; Eissa, Yehia; Marpu, Prashanth; Ghedira, Hosni

    2013-04-01

    Air Temperature (AirT) is a fundamental parameter in a wide range of applications such as climate change studies, weather forecast, energy balance modeling, efficiency of Photovoltaic (PV) solar cells, etc. Air temperature data are generally obtained through regular measurements from meteorological stations. The distribution of these stations is normally sparse, so the spatial pattern of this parameter cannot be accurately estimated by interpolation methods. This work investigated the relationship between Air Temperature measured at meteorological stations and spatially contiguous measurements derived from Remote Sensing techniques, such as Land Surface Temperature (LST) maps, emissivity maps and shortwave radiation maps with the aim of creating a continuous map of AirT. For LST and emissivity, MSG-SEVIRI LST product from Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA-SAF) has been used. For shortwave radiation maps, an Artificial Neural Networks ensemble model has been developed and previously tested to create continuous maps from Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) point measurements, utilizing six thermal channels of MSG-SEVIRI. The testing sites corresponded to three meteorological stations located in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), where in situ measurements of Air Temperature were available. From the starting parameters, energy fluxes and net radiation have been calculated, in order to have information on the incoming and outgoing long-wave radiation and the incoming short-wave radiation. The preliminary analysis (day and Night measurements, cloud free) showed a strong negative correlation (0.92) between Outgoing long-wave radiation - GHI and LST- AirT, with a RMSE of 1.84 K in the AirT estimation from the initial parameters. Regression coefficients have been determined and tested on all the ground stations. The analysis also demonstrated the predominant impact of the incoming short-wave radiation in the AirT hourly variation, while the incoming

  8. Inter-annual variability of sea surface temperature, wind speed and sea surface height anomaly over the tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; Pankajakshan, T.; Sathe, P.V.

    have made an attempt to study the annual and inter-annual variability of certain prominent processes occurring over the tropical Indian Ocean. The monthly mean values of Wind Speed (FSU), Sea Surface Temperature (REYNOLDS) and Sea Surface Height Anomaly...

  9. Computer Modeling of Planetary Surface Temperatures in Introductory Astronomy Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Timothy; Goodman, J.

    2013-01-01

    Barker, T., and Goodman, J. C., Wheaton College, Norton, MA Computer modeling is an essential part of astronomical research, and so it is important that students be exposed to its powers and limitations in the first (and, perhaps, only) astronomy course they take in college. Building on the ideas of Walter Robinson (“Modeling Dynamic Systems,” Springer, 2002) we have found that STELLA software (ISEE Systems) allows introductory astronomy students to do sophisticated modeling by the end of two classes of instruction, with no previous experience in computer programming or calculus. STELLA’s graphical interface allows students to visualize systems in terms of “flows” in and out of “stocks,” avoiding the need to invoke differential equations. Linking flows and stocks allows feedback systems to be constructed. Students begin by building an easily understood system: a leaky bucket. This is a simple negative feedback system in which the volume in the bucket (a “stock”) depends on a fixed inflow rate and an outflow that increases in proportion to the volume in the bucket. Students explore how changing inflow rate and feedback parameters affect the steady-state volume and equilibration time of the system. This model is completed within a 50-minute class meeting. In the next class, students are given an analogous but more sophisticated problem: modeling a planetary surface temperature (“stock”) that depends on the “flow” of energy from the Sun, the planetary albedo, the outgoing flow of infrared radiation from the planet’s surface, and the infrared return from the atmosphere. Students then compare their STELLA model equilibrium temperatures to observed planetary temperatures, which agree with model ones for worlds without atmospheres, but give underestimates for planets with atmospheres, thus introducing students to the concept of greenhouse warming. We find that if we give the students part of this model at the start of a 50-minute class they are

  10. Doping effects of CuO additives on the properties of low-temperature-sintered PMnN-PZT-based piezoelectric ceramics and their applications on surface acoustic wave devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Che; Chu, Sheng-Yuan; Lu, Chun-Hsien

    2009-03-01

    To develop the anisotropic ceramic substrate with low sintering temperature for surface acoustic wave (SAW) applications, the low cost and feasible material with moderate piezoelectric properties, good dielectric properties, and higher Curie temperature were explored. The piezoelectric ceramics with compositions of Pb[(Mn(1/3)Nb(2/3))(0.06-) (Zr(0.52)Ti(0.48))0.94] O(3) (PMnN-PZT) + 0.5 wt.% PbO + x wt.% CuO (0.05 = x = 0.3) had been prepared by the conventional mixed-oxides method. CuO dopants were used as the sintering aid to improve the bulk density under low sintering temperature (i.e., 980-1040 degrees C). The phase structures, microstructures, frequency behavior of dielectric properties (up to 50 MHz), piezoelectric properties, ferroelectric properties, and temperature stability with the amount of CuO additive were systematically investigated. Experimental results showed that the sintering temperature could be lowered down to 1020 degrees C and still keep reasonably good piezoelectric activity (i.e., high electromechanical coupling factor (k(p)), (k(t)) and dielectric and ferroelectric properties. The preferable composition, obtained at x = 0.1, presented the values of the electromechanical coupling factor (k(p)) (k(t)), mechanical quality factor (Q(m)), piezoelectric charge constant (d(33)), dielectric constant, dielectric loss, temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (TCF(B)), and Curie point (T(c)) of 0.54, 0.48, 850, 238 pc/N, 1450, 0.0023, 1.1 kV/mm, 26 coul/cm(2), -150 ppm/ degrees C, and 348 degrees C. Using this developed low-temperature-sintered material to make the piezoelectric substrate, the SAW filter was fabricated and its properties were measured. Results showed that this device possessed very high value of k(2)(7.13%) with a good TCF (-40.15 ppm/ degrees C), and a surface wave velocity (V(P)) of 2196 m/s.

  11. Ice surface temperatures: seasonal cycle and daily variability from in-situ and satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kristine S.; Dybkjær, Gorm; Høyer, Jacob L.; Nielsen-Englyst, Pia; Rasmussen, Till A. S.; Tonboe, Rasmus T.

    2016-04-01

    Surface temperature is an important parameter for understanding the climate system, including the Polar Regions. Yet, in-situ temperature measurements over ice- and snow covered regions are sparse and unevenly distributed, and atmospheric circulation models estimating surface temperature may have large biases. To change this picture, we will analyse the seasonal cycle and daily variability of in-situ and satellite observations, and give an example of how to utilize the data in a sea ice model. We have compiled a data set of in-situ surface and 2 m air temperature observations over land ice, snow, sea ice, and from the marginal ice zone. 2523 time series of varying length from 14 data providers, with a total of more than 13 million observations, have been quality controlled and gathered in a uniform format. An overview of this data set will be presented. In addition, IST satellite observations have been processed from the Metop/AVHRR sensor and a merged analysis product has been constructed based upon the Metop/AVHRR, IASI and Modis IST observations. The satellite and in-situ observations of IST are analysed in parallel, to characterize the IST variability on diurnal and seasonal scales and its spatial patterns. The in-situ data are used to estimate sampling effects within the satellite observations and the good coverage of the satellite observations are used to complete the geographical variability. As an example of the application of satellite IST data, results will be shown from a coupled HYCOM-CICE ocean and sea ice model run, where the IST products have been ingested. The impact of using IST in models will be assessed. This work is a part of the EUSTACE project under Horizon 2020, where the ice surface temperatures form an important piece of the puzzle of creating an observationally based record of surface temperatures for all corners of the Earth, and of the ESA GlobTemperature project which aims at applying surface temperatures in models in order to

  12. Modeled Seasonal Variations of Firn Density Induced by Steady State Surface Air Temperature Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Li; Zwally, H. Jay; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Seasonal variations of firn density in ice-sheet firn layers have been attributed to variations in deposition processes or other processes within the upper firn. A recent high-resolution (mm scale) density profile, measured along a 181 m core from Antarctica, showed small-scale density variations with a clear seasonal cycle that apparently was not-related to seasonal variations in deposition or known near-surface processes (Gerland and others 1999). A recent model of surface elevation changes (Zwally and Li, submitted) produced a seasonal variation in firn densification, and explained the seasonal surface elevation changes observed by satellite radar altimeters. In this study, we apply our 1-D time-dependent numerical model of firn densification that includes a temperature-dependent formulation of firn densification based on laboratory measurements of grain growth. The model is driven by a steady-state seasonal surface temperature and a constant accumulation rate appropriate for the measured Antarctic ice core. The modeled seasonal variations in firn density show that the layers of snow deposited during spring to mid-summer with the highest temperature history compress to the highest density, and the layers deposited during later summer to autumn with the lowest temperature history compress to the lowest density. The initial amplitude of the seasonal difference of about 0.13 reduces to about 0.09 in five years and asymptotically to 0.92 at depth, which is consistent with the core measurements.

  13. Temperature dependent surface electrochemistry on Pt singlecrystals in alkaline electrolyte: Part 3: The oxygen reductionreaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    tom.schmidt@psi.ch

    2002-08-01

    The kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was studied in alkaline electrolyte at 293-333K on Pt(hkl) surfaces by means of the rotating ring-disk electrode technique with solution phase peroxide detected at the ring electrode. The ORR on Pt(hkl) was found to be highly structure sensitive with activities increasing in the sequence (111) > (100) > (110)(1x2). Very similar apparent activation energies (37-45 {+-} 5 kJmol-1, {eta} = 0.35 V) were found on all three surfaces. Furthermore, at elevated temperature, significantly smaller amounts of peroxide are formed in agreement with enhanced peroxide reduction rates by increasing temperature. We found that the Tafel slopes on all three single crystal surfaces decrease with increasing temperature, indicating that the logi-E relationship is not represented by a classical Butler-Volmer expression. Based on the kinetic analysis of the polarization curves and from simulations of logi-E curves, we propose that the rate of the ORR on Pt(hkl) in alkaline solution is mainly determined by the potential/temperature dependent surface coverage by OH{sub ad}. We propose two modes of action of the OH{sub ad}: (i) OH{sub ad} blocks the adsorption of O{sub 2} on active platinum sites; and (ii) OH{sub ad} alters the adsorption energy of intermediates which are formed during the ORR on Pt sites.

  14. Temperature Mapping of Air Film-Cooled Thermal Barrier Coated Surfaces Using Phosphor Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    2016-01-01

    While the effects of thermal barrier coating (TBC) thermal protection and air film cooling effectiveness for jet engine components are usually studied separately, their contributions to combined cooling effectiveness are interdependent and are not simply additive. Therefore, combined cooling effectiveness must be measured to achieve an optimum balance between TBC thermal protection and air film cooling. Phosphor thermometry offers several advantages for mapping temperatures of air film cooled surfaces. While infrared thermography has been typically applied to study air film cooling effectiveness, temperature accuracy depends on knowing surface emissivity (which may change) and correcting for effects of reflected radiation. Because decay time-based full-field phosphor thermometry is relatively immune to these effects, it can be applied advantageously to temperature mapping of air film-cooled TBC-coated surfaces. In this presentation, an overview will be given of efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center to perform temperature mapping of air film-cooled TBC-coated surfaces in a burner rig test environment. The effects of thermal background radiation and flame chemiluminescence on the measurements are investigated, and the strengths and limitations of this method for studying air film cooling effectiveness are discussed.

  15. Greenland ice sheet surface temperature, melt and mass loss: 2000-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D.K.; Williams, R.S.; Luthcke, S.B.; DiGirolamo, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    A daily time series of 'clear-sky' surface temperature has been compiled of the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) using 1 km resolution moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) land-surface temperature (LST) maps from 2000 to 2006. We also used mass-concentration data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to study mass change in relationship to surface melt from 2003 to 2006. The mean LST of the GIS increased during the study period by ???0.27??Ca-1. The increase was especially notable in the northern half of the ice sheet during the winter months. Melt-season length and timing were also studied in each of the six major drainage basins. Rapid (meltwater is flowing rapidly to the base of the ice sheet, causing acceleration of outlet glaciers, thus highlighting the metastability of parts of the GIS and the vulnerability of the ice sheet to air-temperature increases. If air temperatures continue to rise over Greenland, increased surface melt will play a large role in ice-sheet mass loss.

  16. Palladium nanoparticle-based surface acoustic wave hydrogen sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Devika; Hines, Jacqueline; Udeoyo, Uduak; Borguet, Eric

    2015-03-18

    Palladium (Pd) nanoparticles (5-20 nm) are used as the sensing layer on surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices for detecting H2. The interaction with hydrogen modifies the conductivity of the Pd nanoparticle film, producing measurable changes in acoustic wave propagation, which allows for the detection of this explosive gas. The nanoparticle-based SAW sensor responds rapidly and reversibly at room temperature.

  17. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Sea Surface Temperature -WHOI, Version 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Ocean Surface Bundle (OSB) Climate Data Record (CDR) consist of three parts: sea surface temperature, near-surface atmospheric properties, and heat fluxes....

  18. Inferring snow pack ripening and melt out from distributed ground surface temperature measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-O. Schmid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal snow cover and its melting are heterogeneous both in space and time. Describing and modelling this variability are important because it affects divers phenomena such as runoff, ground temperatures or slope movements. This study investigates the derivation of melting characteristics based on spatial clusters of temperature measurements. Results are based on data from Switzerland where ground surface temperatures were measured with miniature loggers (iButtons at 40 locations, referred to as footprints. At each footprint, ten iButtons have been distributed randomly few cm below the ground surface over an area of 10 m × 10 m. Footprints span elevations of 2100–3300 m a.s.l. and slope angles of 0–55°, as well as diverse slope expositions and types of surface cover and ground material. Based on two years of temperature data, the basal ripening date and the melt-out date are determined for each iButton, aggregated to the footprint level and further analysed. The date of melt out could be derived for nearly all iButtons, the ripening date could be extracted for only approximately half of them because it requires ground freezing below the snow pack. The variability within a footprint is often considerable and one to three weeks difference between melting or ripening of the points in one footprint is not uncommon. The correlation of mean annual ground surface temperatures, ripening date and melt-out date is moderate, making them useful intuitive complementary measured for model evaluation.

  19. Pristine carbon nanotubes based resistive temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Bayazeed; Saini, Sudhir Kumar; Sharma, Daya Shankar; Agarwal, Pankaj B.

    2016-04-01

    A good sensor must be highly sensitive, faster in response, of low cost cum easily producible, and highly reliable. Incorporation of nano-dimensional particles/ wires makes conventional sensors more effective in terms of fulfilling the above requirements. For example, Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are promising sensing element because of its large aspect ratio, unique electronic and thermal properties. In addition to their use for widely reported chemical sensing, it has also been explored for temperature sensing. This paper presents the fabrication of CNTs based temperature sensor, prepared on silicon substrate using low cost spray coating method, which is reliable and reproducible method to prepare uniform CNTs thin films on any substrate. Besides this, simple and inexpensive method of preparation of dispersion of single walled CNTs (SWNTs) in 1,2 dichlorobenzene by using probe type ultrasonicator for debundling the CNTs for improving sensor response were used. The electrical contacts over the dispersed SWNTs were taken using silver paste electrodes. Fabricated sensors clearly show immediate change in resistance as a response to change in temperature of SWNTs. The measured sensitivity (change in resistance with temperature) of the sensor was found ˜ 0.29%/°C in the 25°C to 60°C temperature range.

  20. UAS Observations of Polynya Wave Height and Surface Temperature During the September 2012 Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A. C.; Palo, S. E.; Knuth, S. L.; Cassano, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    A 2012 campaign flew Aerosonde unmanned aerial systems (UASs) over the Terra Nova Bay polynya in Antarctica to study air-sea fluxes in this environment. Sea ice forms over the open water of the polynya and is pushed out from the coast by strong offshore winds, resulting in significant heat and moisture flux out of the area. The Aerosonde UAS payloads contained a number of instruments, including the Everest IR surface temperature sensor and the CULPIS LIDAR profilometer system, for the purpose of measuring these fluxes. Wave heights were extracted from the CULPIS data and compared to wind speed measurements collected onboard the Aerosonde and to wind speed measurements from AWS stations upwind. Wave height showed minimal correlation to the co-located UAS wind speed measurements, but high geographic predictability. High moisture flux out of polynyas often results in cloud formation, limiting the utility of satellite-based IR measurement of surface temperatures and ice extent. This study compares sea surface temperature measurements from the Everest instrument to the MODIS sea ice surface temperature data product. Surface temperature measurements from the Everest system show high agreement with concurrent MODIS data over a variety of ice surface conditions. The sample time of the UAV instrument relative to the time of the MODIS data provides an estimate of the time rate of change of the surface temperatures of different ice surface types (thin ice, thick ice, open water), which is related to air temperature.

  1. Changes in Skin Surface Temperature during Muscular Endurance indicated Strain – An Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fröhlich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-contact thermography enables the diagnosis of the distribution of skin surface temperature during athletic movement. Resistance exercise results in stress of required musculature, which is supposed to be measurable thermographically in terms of skin surface temperature change. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the application of thermography to analyze changes in skin temperature, representing specific muscle groups, during and after resistance exercise. Method: Thirteen male participants (age: 27.1 ± 4.9 years, height: 181.5 ± 5.7 cm, mass: 74.8 ± 7.4 kg completed the study. On 5 separate visits to the laboratory, participants performed one of 5 resistance exercise to target specific muscles (M. pectoralis major, M. rectus abdominis, M. trapezius, M. erector spinae, M. quadriceps femoris. The exercise protocol consisted of 3 sets of 20 repetitions, with 1 minute rest between exercise sets. The average skin surface temperature above the muscle groups used was thermographically determined using standard methods at 7 time points; pre-exercise, immediately following each exercise set, and post exercise (2, 3, and 6 minutes after the finale exercise set. The measurement areas were standardized using anatomic reference points. Results: From an inferential statistical point of view, no significant change in the average temperature caused by the applied resistance training was found for the individual muscle groups over time at the individual measurement times (all P>0.08. However, thermography showed a characteristic chronological temperature curve for the five body areas between measurement times, as well as a distinctive spatial temperature distribution over the measurement areas. Discussion: Based on the thermographic image data and the characteristic temperature curve, it is possible to identify the primarily used functional musculature after device-controlled resistance training. Therefore, thermography seems to be

  2. Pore-level numerical analysis of the infrared surface temperature of metallic foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Xia, Xin-Lin; Sun, Chuang; Tan, He-Ping; Wang, Jing

    2017-10-01

    Open-cell metallic foams are increasingly used in various thermal systems. The temperature distributions are significant for the comprehensive understanding of these foam-based engineering applications. This study aims to numerically investigate the modeling of the infrared surface temperature (IRST) of open-cell metallic foam measured by an infrared camera placed above the sample. Two typical approaches based on Backward Monte Carlo simulation are developed to estimate the IRSTs: the first one, discrete-scale approach (DSA), uses a realistic discrete representation of the foam structure obtained from a computed tomography reconstruction while the second one, continuous-scale approach (CSA), assumes that the foam sample behaves like a continuous homogeneous semi-transparent medium. The radiative properties employed in CSA are directly determined by a ray-tracing process inside the discrete foam representation. The IRSTs for different material properties (material emissivity, specularity parameter) are computed by the two approaches. The results show that local IRSTs can vary according to the local compositions of the foam surface (void and solid). The temperature difference between void and solid areas is gradually attenuated with increasing material emissivity. In addition, the annular void space near to the foam surface behaves like a black cavity for thermal radiation, which is ensued by copious neighboring skeletons. For most of the cases studied, the mean IRSTs computed by the DSA and CSA are close to each other, except when the material emissivity is highly weakened and the sample temperature is extremely high.

  3. Surface-temperature trends and variability in the low-latitude North Atlantic since 1552

    KAUST Repository

    Saenger, Casey

    2009-06-21

    Sea surface temperature variability in the North Atlantic Ocean recorded since about 1850 has been ascribed to a natural multidecadal oscillation superimposed on a background warming trend1-6. It has been suggested that the multidecadal variability may be a persistent feature6-8, raising the possibility that the associated climate impacts may be predictable7,8. owever, our understanding of the multidecadal ocean variability before the instrumental record is based on interpretations of high-latitude terrestrial proxy records. Here we present an absolutely dated and annually resolved record of sea surface temperature from the Bahamas, based on a 440-year time series of coral growth rates. The reconstruction indicates that temperatures were as warm as today from about 1552 to 1570, then cooled by about 1° C from 1650 to 1730 before warming until the present. Our estimates of background variability suggest that much of the warming since 1900 was driven by anthropogenic forcing. Interdecadal variability with a period of 15-25 years is superimposed on most of the record, but multidecadal variability becomes significant only after 1730. We conclude that the multidecadal variability in sea surface temperatures in the low-latitude western Atlantic Ocean may not be persistent, potentially making accurate decadal climate forecasts more difficult to achieve. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  4. Surface-temperature trends and variability in the low-latitude North Atlantic since 1552

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenger, Casey; Cohen, Anne L.; Oppo, Delia W.; Halley, Robert B.; Carilli, Jessica E.

    2009-07-01

    Sea surface temperature variability in the North Atlantic Ocean recorded since about 1850 has been ascribed to a natural multidecadal oscillation superimposed on a background warming trend. It has been suggested that the multidecadal variability may be a persistent feature, raising the possibility that the associated climate impacts may be predictable. However, our understanding of the multidecadal ocean variability before the instrumental record is based on interpretations of high-latitude terrestrial proxy records. Here we present an absolutely dated and annually resolved record of sea surface temperature from the Bahamas, based on a 440-year time series of coral growth rates. The reconstruction indicates that temperatures were as warm as today from about 1552 to 1570, then cooled by about 1∘C from 1650 to 1730 before warming until the present. Our estimates of background variability suggest that much of the warming since 1900 was driven by anthropogenic forcing. Interdecadal variability with a period of 15-25years is superimposed on most of the record, but multidecadal variability becomes significant only after 1730. We conclude that the multidecadal variability in sea surface temperatures in the low-latitude western Atlantic Ocean may not be persistent, potentially making accurate decadal climate forecasts more difficult to achieve.

  5. New Stainless Steel Alloys for Low Temperature Surface Hardening?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2015-01-01

    The present contribution showcases the possibility for developing new surface hardenable stainless steels containing strong nitride/carbide forming elements (SNCFE). Nitriding of the commercial alloys, austenitic A286, and ferritic AISI 409 illustrates the beneficial effect of having SNCFE present...... in the stainless steel alloys. The presented computational approach for alloy design enables “screening” of hundreds of thousands hypothetical alloy systems by use of Thermo-Calc. Promising compositions for new stainless steel alloys can be selected based on imposed criteria, i.e. facilitating easy selection...

  6. The Influence Study of Ultrasonic honing parameters to workpiece surface temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic vibration honing(UVH, a machine technology, has a lot of advantages. Lower grinding temperature is a significant character and is beneficial for both processing and workpiece surface. But the high temperature caused by big honing pressure becomes the main factor to produce workpiece heat damage in grinding zone. In various honing parameter combinations, the showing effect is different. Based on the thermodynamics classical theory, established the heat transfer equation for grinding zone, simplified the model and obtained the two-dimenssion temperature field expression for workpiece, then simulated the temperature changing trend in a variety of conditions. It is shown that themain temp is in a range of 700K to 1200K. In addition, the variation is huge for every parameter. The study provides a theoretical basis for deeply seeking reasonable machining parameter and obtaining better workpiece quality.

  7. The impact of built-up surfaces on land surface temperatures in Italian urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Marco; Crisci, Alfonso; Messeri, Alessandro; Orlandini, Simone; Raschi, Antonio; Maracchi, Giampiero; Munafò, Michele

    2016-05-01

    Urban areas are characterized by the very high degree of soil sealing and continuous built-up areas: Italy is one of the European countries with the highest artificial land cover rate, which causes a substantial spatial variation in the land surface temperature (LST), modifying the urban microclimate and contributing to the urban heat island effect. Nevertheless, quantitative data regarding the contribution of different densities of built-up surfaces in determining urban spatial LST changes is currently lacking in Italy. This study, which aimed to provide clear and quantitative city-specific information on annual and seasonal spatial LST modifications resulting from increased urban built-up coverage, was conducted generally throughout the whole year, and specifically in two different periods (cool/cold and warm/hot periods). Four cities (Milan, Rome, Bologna and Florence) were included in the study. The LST layer and the built-up-surface indicator were obtained via use of MODIS remote sensing data products (1km) and a very high-resolution map (5m) of built-up surfaces recently developed by the Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research. The relationships between the dependent (mean daily, daytime and nighttime LST values) and independent (built-up surfaces) variables were investigated through linear regression analyses, and comprehensive built-up-surface-related LST maps were also developed. Statistically significant linear relationships (pcities studied, with a higher impact during the warm/hot period than in the cool/cold ones. Daytime and nighttime LST slope patterns depend on the city size and relative urban morphology. If implemented in the existing city plan, the urban maps of built-up-surface-related LST developed in this study might be able to support more sustainable urban land management practices by identifying the critical areas (Hot-Spots) that would benefit most from mitigation actions by local authorities, land-use decision

  8. Spatial pattern of impervious surfaces and their impacts on land surface temperature in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Rong-bo; OUYANG Zhi-yun; ZHENG Hua; LI Wei-feng; SCHIENKE Erich W; WANG Xiao-ke

    2007-01-01

    Land surface temperature (LST), which is heavily influenced by urban surface structures, is a significant parameter in urban environmental analysis. This study examined the effect impervious surfaces (IS) spatial patterns have on LST in Beijing, China. A classification and regression tree model (CART) was adopted to estimate IS as a continuous variable using Landsat images from two seasons combined with QuickBird. LST was retrieved from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image to examine the relationships between IS and LST. The results revealed that CART was capable of consistently predicting LST with acceptable accuracy (correlation coefficient of 0.94 and the average error of 8.59%). Spatial patterns of IS exhibited changing gradients across the various urban-rural transects, with LST values showing a concentric shape that increased as you moved from the outskirts towards the downtown areas.Transect analysis also indicated that the changes in both IS and LST patterns were similar at various resolution levels, which suggests a distinct linear relationship between them. Results of correlation analysis further showed that IS tended to be positively correlated with LST, and that the correlation coefficients increased from 0.807 to 0.925 with increases in IS pixel size. The findings identified in this study provide a theoretical basis for improving urban planning efforts to lessen urban temperatures and thus dampen urban heat island effects.

  9. Hot roller embossing system equipped with a temperature margin-based controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seyoung, E-mail: seyoungkim@kimm.re.kr; Son, Youngsu; Lee, Sunghee; Ham, Sangyong; Kim, Byungin [Department of Robotics and Mechatronics, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    A temperature control system was proposed for hot roller embossing. The roll surface was heated using induction coils and cooled with a circulating chilled water system. The temperature of the roll surface was precisely controlled by a temperature margin-based control algorithm that we developed. Implementation of the control system reduced deviations in the roll surface temperature to less than ±2 °C. The tight temperature control and the ability to rapidly increase and decrease the roll temperature will allow optimum operating parameters to be developed quickly. The temperature margin-based controller could also be used to optimize the time course of electrical power and shorten the cooling time by choosing an appropriate temperature margin, possibly for limited power consumption. The chiller-equipped heating roll with the proposed control algorithm is expected to decrease the time needed to determine the optimal embossing process.

  10. Hot roller embossing system equipped with a temperature margin-based controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seyoung; Son, Youngsu; Lee, Sunghee; Ham, Sangyong; Kim, Byungin

    2014-08-01

    A temperature control system was proposed for hot roller embossing. The roll surface was heated using induction coils and cooled with a circulating chilled water system. The temperature of the roll surface was precisely controlled by a temperature margin-based control algorithm that we developed. Implementation of the control system reduced deviations in the roll surface temperature to less than ±2 °C. The tight temperature control and the ability to rapidly increase and decrease the roll temperature will allow optimum operating parameters to be developed quickly. The temperature margin-based controller could also be used to optimize the time course of electrical power and shorten the cooling time by choosing an appropriate temperature margin, possibly for limited power consumption. The chiller-equipped heating roll with the proposed control algorithm is expected to decrease the time needed to determine the optimal embossing process.

  11. Direct On-Surface Patterning of a Crystalline Laminar Covalent Organic Framework Synthesized at Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña Ruigómez, Alejandro; Rodríguez-San-Miguel, David; Stylianou, Kyriakos C; Cavallini, Massimiliano; Gentili, Denis; Liscio, Fabiola; Milita, Silvia; Roscioni, Otello Maria; Ruiz-González, Maria Luisa; Carbonell, Carlos; Maspoch, Daniel; Mas-Ballesté, Rubén; Segura, José Luis; Zamora, Félix

    2015-07-20

    We report herein an efficient, fast, and simple synthesis of an imine-based covalent organic framework (COF) at room temperature (hereafter, RT-COF-1). RT-COF-1 shows a layered hexagonal structure exhibiting channels, is robust, and is porous to N2 and CO2 . The room-temperature synthesis has enabled us to fabricate and position low-cost micro- and submicropatterns of RT-COF-1 on several surfaces, including solid SiO2 substrates and flexible acetate paper, by using lithographically controlled wetting and conventional ink-jet printing.

  12. Surface mapping of field-induced piezoelectric strain at elevated temperature employing full-field interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Tim; Quast, Tatjana; Bartl, Guido; Schmitz-Kempen, Thorsten; Weaver, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric actuators and sensors are widely used for flow control valves, including diesel injectors, ultrasound generation, optical positioning, printing, pumps, and locks. Degradation and failure of material and electrical properties at high temperature typically limits these applications to operating temperatures below 200°C, based on the ubiquitous Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramic. There are, however, many applications in sectors such as automotive, aerospace, energy and process control, and oil and gas, where the ability to operate at higher temperatures would open up new markets for piezoelectric actuation. Presented here is a review of recent progress and initial results toward a European effort to develop measurement techniques to characterize high-temperature materials. Full-field, multi-wavelength absolute length interferometry has, for the first time, been used to map the electric-field-induced piezoelectric strain across the surface of a PZT ceramic. The recorded variation as a function of temperature has been evaluated against a newly developed commercial single-beam system. Conventional interferometry allows measurement of the converse piezoelectric effect with high precision and resolution, but is often limited to a single point, average measurement and to limited sample environments because of optical aberrations in varying atmospheres. Here, the full-field technique allows the entire surface to be analyzed for strain and, in a bespoke sample chamber, for elevated temperatures.

  13. Quantifying sea surface temperature ranges of the Arabian Sea for the past 20 000 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Ganssen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifera tests is one of the widest used geochemical tools to reconstruct past changes of physical parameters of the upper ocean. It is common practice to analyze multiple individuals from a mono-specific population and assume that the outcome reflects a mean value of the environmental conditions during calcification of the analyzed individuals. Here we present the oxygen isotope composition of individual specimens of the surface-dwelling species Globigerinoides ruber and Globigerina bulloides from sediment cores in the Western Arabian Sea off Somalia, inferred as indicators of past seasonal ranges in temperature. Combining the δ18O measurements of individual specimens to obtain temperature ranges with Mg/Ca based mean calcification temperatures allows us to reconstruct temperature extrema. Our results indicate that over the past 20 kyr the seasonal temperature range has fluctuated from its present value of 16 °C to mean values of 13 °C and 11 °C for the Holocene and LGM, respectively. The data for the LGM suggest that the maximum temperature was lower, whilst minimum temperature remained approximately constant. The rather minor variability in lowest summer temperatures during the LGM suggests roughly constant summer monsoon intensity, while upwelling-induced productivity was lowered.

  14. Sea surface temperature for climate from the along-track scanning radiometers

    OpenAIRE

    Embury, Owen

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the construction of a sea surface temperature (SST) dataset from Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) observations suitable for climate applications. The algorithms presented here are now used at ESA for reprocessing of historical ATSR data and will be the basis of the retrieval used on the forthcoming SLSTR instrument on ESA’s Sentinel-3 satellite. In order to ensure independence of ATSR SSTs from in situ measurements, the retrieval uses physics-based m...

  15. Long-term surface temperature modeling of Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Alissa M.; Binzel, Richard P.; Young, Leslie A.; Stern, S. A.; Ennico, K.; Grundy, W.; Olkin, C. B.; Weaver, H. A.

    2017-05-01

    NASA's New Horizons' reconnaissance of the Pluto system has revealed at high resolution the striking albedo contrasts from polar to equatorial latitudes on Pluto, as well as the sharpness of boundaries for longitudinal variations. These contrasts suggest that Pluto must undergo dynamic evolution that drives the redistribution of volatiles. Using the New Horizons results as a template, we explore the surface temperature variations driven seasonally on Pluto considering multiple timescales. These timescales include the current orbit (248 years) as well as the timescales for obliquity precession (peak-to-peak amplitude of 23° over 3 million years) and regression of the orbital longitude of perihelion (3.7 million years). These orbital variations create epochs of ;Extreme Seasons; where one pole receives a short, relatively warm summer and long winter, while the other receives a much longer, but less intense summer and short winter. We use thermal modeling to build upon the long-term insolation history model described by Earle and Binzel (2015) and investigate how these seasons couple with Pluto's albedo contrasts to create temperature effects. From this study we find that a bright region at the equator, once established, can become a site for net deposition. We see the region informally known as Sputnik Planitia as an example of this, and find it will be able to perpetuate itself as an ;always available; cold trap, thus having the potential to survive on million year or substantially longer timescales. Meanwhile darker, low-albedo, regions near the equator will remain relative warm and generally not attract volatile deposition. We argue that the equatorial region is a ;preservation zone; for whatever albedo is seeded there. This offers insight as to why the equatorial band of Pluto displays the planet's greatest albedo contrasts.

  16. High-temperature vesuvianite: crystal chemistry and surface considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi, Chiara; Brigatti, Maria Franca; Pasquali, Luca; Montecchi, Monica; Laurora, Angela; Malferrari, Daniele; Nannarone, Stefano

    2011-06-01

    A multi-methodical approach has been applied for characterizing the bulk and surface crystal chemical features of a high-temperature vesuvianite crystal from skarns of Mount Somma-Vesuvius Volcano (Naples, Italy). Vesuvianite belongs to the space group P4/ nnc with unit cell parameters a = 15.633(1) Å, c = 11.834(1) Å and chemical formula (Ca18.858 Na0.028 Ba0.004 K0.006 Sr0.005 □0.098)19.000 (Al8.813 Ti0.037 Mg2.954 Mn0.008 Fe{0.114/2+} Fe{1.375/3+} Cr0.008 B0.202)13.511 Si18.000(O0.261 F0.940 OH7.799)9.000. Structure refinement, which converges at R = 0.0328, demonstrates a strong positional disorder down the fourfold axes, indicating that the Y1 site is split into two positions (Y1A and Y1B) alternatively occupied. However, because of X4 proximity to Y1B and Y1A, X4 cannot be occupied if Y1B or Y1A are. Overall Y1 occupancy (Y1A + Y1B) reaches approximately 0.5, as common in vesuvianite and occupancy of Y1B site is extremely limited. Moreover, T1 position, limitedly occupied, accommodates the excess of cations generally related to Y position. A small quantity (0.202 apfu) of boron is sited at the T2 site that, like T1, is poorly occupied. The determination of the amount of each element on the (100) vesuvianite surface, obtained through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy high-resolution spectra in the region of the Si2p, Al2p, Mg1s, and Ca2p core levels, evidences that a greater amount of aluminum and a smaller amount of calcium characterize the surface with respect to the bulk. Although both of these features require further investigation, we may consider the Al increase can be related to preferential orientation of Al-rich sites on the (100) plane. Furthermore, the surface structure of vesuvianite suggests that Al, Ca, and Mg cations maintain coordination features at the surface similar to the bulk. Silica, however, while presenting fourfold coordination, shows also a [1]-fold small coordinated component at binding energy 99.85 eV, due to broken Si-O bonds at

  17. MODIS/TERRA MOD11C3 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Monthly L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based to...

  18. MODIS/Aqua MYD11_L2 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity 5-Minute L2 Swath 1 km Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  19. MODIS/Aqua MYD11C2 Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  20. MODIS/TERRA MOD11C2 Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  1. MODIS/TERRA MOD11B3 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3 Global 5 km Grid SIN Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  2. MODIS/Aqua MYD11A2 Land Surface Temperature & Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km Gird SIN Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  3. MODIS/Aqua MYD11C3 Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Monthly L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  4. MODIS/TERRA MOD11B2 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3 Global 5 km Grid SIN Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  5. MODIS/TERRA MOD11_L2 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity 5-Minute L2 Swath 1 km Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  6. MODIS/Aqua MYD11C1 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  7. MODIS/TERRA MOD11C1 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  8. MODIS/Aqua MYD11A1 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1 km Grid SIN Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  9. MODIS/TERRA MOD11C3 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Monthly L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  10. MODIS/COMBINED MOD11A1 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1 km Grid SIN Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  11. MODIS/TERRA MOD11B1 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3 Global 5 km Grid SIN Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  12. MODIS/Aqua MYD11B1 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3 Global 5 km Grid SIN Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  13. MODIS/TERRA MYD11B3 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3 Global 5 km Grid SIN Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  14. MODIS/TERRA MYD11B2 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3 Global 5 km Grid SIN Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  15. Statistical analysis of global surface air temperature and sea level using cointegration methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmith, Torben; Johansen, Søren; Thejll, Peter

    Global sea levels are rising which is widely understood as a consequence of thermal expansion and melting of glaciers and land-based ice caps. Due to physically-based models being unable to simulate observed sea level trends, semi-empirical models have been applied as an alternative for projecting...... of future sea levels. There is in this, however, potential pitfalls due to the trending nature of the time series. We apply a statistical method called cointegration analysis to observed global sea level and surface air temperature, capable of handling such peculiarities. We find a relationship between sea...... level and temperature and find that temperature causally depends on the sea level, which can be understood as a consequence of the large heat capacity of the ocean. We further find that the warming episode in the 1940s is exceptional in the sense that sea level and warming deviates from the expected...

  16. Statistical analysis of global surface temperature and sea level using cointegration methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Torben; Johansen, Søren; Thejll, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Global sea levels are rising which is widely understood as a consequence of thermal expansion and melting of glaciers and land-based ice caps. Due to the lack of representation of ice-sheet dynamics in present-day physically-based climate models being unable to simulate observed sea level trends......, semi-empirical models have been applied as an alternative for projecting of future sea levels. There is in this, however, potential pitfalls due to the trending nature of the time series. We apply a statistical method called cointegration analysis to observed global sea level and land-ocean surface air...... temperature, capable of handling such peculiarities. We find a relationship between sea level and temperature and find that temperature causally depends on the sea level, which can be understood as a consequence of the large heat capacity of the ocean. We further find that the warming episode in the 1940s...

  17. Green monolithic II-VI vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser operating at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, C.; Ulrich, S. M.; Alexe, G.; Roventa, E.; Kröger, R.; Brendemühl, B.; Michler, P.; Gutowski, J.; Hommel, D.

    2004-02-01

    The realization of a monolithic all II-VI-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) for the green spectral region is reported. Optically pumped lasing operation was achieved up to room temperature using a planar VCSEL structure. Taking advantage of distributed Bragg-reflectors based on MgS/Zn(Cd)Se superlattices as the low-refractive index material and ZnS0.06Se0.94 layers as the high-index material with a refractive index contrast of n = 0.6, a quality factor exceeding Q = 2000 is reached by using only 18 Bragg periods for the bottom DBR and 15 Bragg periods for the top DBR. The threshold power density is 0.32 MW/cm2 at a temperature of 10 K (emission wavelength 498.5 nm) and 1.9 MW/cm2 at room temperature (emission wavelength 502.3 nm).

  18. Validation of the Suomi NPP VIIRS Ice Surface Temperature Environmental Data Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous monitoring of the surface temperature is critical to understanding and forecasting Arctic climate change; as surface temperature integrates changes in the surface energy budget. The sea-ice surface temperature (IST has been measured with optical and thermal infrared sensors for many years. With the IST Environmental Data Record (EDR available from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP and future Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS satellites; we can continue to monitor and investigate Arctic climate change. This work examines the quality of the VIIRS IST EDR. Validation is performed through comparisons with multiple datasets; including NASA IceBridge measurements; air temperature from Arctic drifting ice buoys; Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS IST; MODIS IST simultaneous nadir overpass (SNO; and surface air temperature from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Results show biases of −0.34; −0.12; 0.16; −3.20; and −3.41 K compared to an aircraft-mounted downward-looking pyrometer; MODIS; MODIS SNO; drifting buoy; and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis; respectively; root-mean-square errors of 0.98; 1.02; 0.95; 4.89; and 6.94 K; and root-mean-square errors with the bias removed of 0.92; 1.01; 0.94; 3.70; and 6.04 K. Based on the IceBridge and MODIS results; the VIIRS IST uncertainty (RMSE meets or exceeds the JPSS system requirement of 1.0 K. The product can therefore be considered useful for meteorological and climatological applications.

  19. Method of determination of temperature and heat resistance of the points on the integrated circuit crystal surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov V. M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Method for visualization of integrated circuit (IC surface temperature by means of the liquid crystal film deposited from solution on its surface is proposed. The boundaries of local regions represent isotherms with corresponding phase transitions. On the base of isotherms positions and consumed by IC power thermal resistances between crystal and environment are determined.

  20. Mechanism for orientation dependence of blisters on W surface exposed to D plasma at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Y.Z. [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, W., E-mail: liuw@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, B. [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Luo, G.-N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Qu, S.L. [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Morgan, T.W. [FOM Institute DIFFER-Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, 5612AJ Eindhoven (Netherlands); De Temmerman, G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon-CS90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2016-08-15

    The orientation dependence of blister formation induced by D plasma exposure at low temperature (about 523 K) on rolled tungsten and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) W samples was studied by scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. Severe blistering was observed on grains with surface normal directions close to [111], while the [001] surfaces are the most resistant to blister formation. Cavities induced by D{sub 2} gas were observed beneath [111], [110] and [001] surfaces, independently on whether blisters were observed on the surface or not. The [111] surface is more prone to blister formation, because it is easily plastically deformed by the D{sub 2} gas pressure. Some blister edges and steps were perpendicular to [110] directions, which may be induced by the slipping of dislocations on {110} planes. The blister morphology induced by D plasma can be well explained by the blister model based on plastic deformation mechanism. - Highlights: • The blistering behavior was severe on the [111] surface, while the [001] surfaces are the most resistant to blister formation. The CVD samples with [001] texture showed good resistance to blister formation, so it is suggested that it may be effective to alleviate blisters by texturing of W. • The blister formation model based on the plastic deformation of W can well explain the heterogeneity of blister formation and the different shapes of blisters on surfaces with different normal directions. The [111] surface is more prone to blister formation, because the surface layer is easily deformed by the D{sub 2} gas pressure beneath the surface. The blister edges and steps were speculated to be induced by the slipping of dislocations.

  1. Effects of temperature on surface modification of W exposed to He particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C. [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Greuner, H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Yuan, Y. [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Luo, G.N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Böswirth, B. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Fu, B.Q.; Xu, H.Y.; Jia, Y.Z. [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, W., E-mail: liuw@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Blisters were observed on W surface under He beam heating at ∼950 °C. • He-induced blistering shows a clear grain orientation dependence. • An evolution to a coral-like structure was observed under loading at ∼2700 °C. • A texture with 〈0 0 1〉 parallel to the surface normal direction will be beneficial. - Abstract: The effect of combined heating and helium particle flux on annealed tungsten samples has been studied in the neutral beam facility GLADIS. He beams with power densities of 2.4 MW/m{sup 2} and 9.5 MW/m{sup 2} were used to adiabatically load the samples to peak surface temperatures from ∼950 °C (1223 K) to ∼2700 °C (2973 K). Changes in the surface morphology resulting from combined heat and the flux exposure were studied for He fluences up to 3 × 10{sup 22}/m{sup 2}. Typical structures for the sample loaded at ∼950 °C (1223 K) were blisters with a clear grain orientation dependence and the largest blisters formed on grains with 〈0 0 1〉 surface normal. However at higher temperatures, blistering was more easily suppressed for grains near this orientation because the growth of larger blister takes place more slowly. An evolution from a “porous structure” to a “coral-like structure” with increasing fluence was observed on the samples loaded at the highest temperature. Based on these results mechanisms for surface modification at different temperatures are discussed and a texture with 〈0 0 1〉 parallel to the normal direction of the grains is suggested to optimize the plasma facing material due to their stronger resistance to early stage blistering.

  2. GHRSST Level 2P Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Level 2P Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the Atlantic Ocean and nearby regions based on multi-channel sea surface...

  3. GHRSST Level 2P Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-16 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Level 2P Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the Atlantic Ocean and nearby regions based on multi-channel sea surface...

  4. Love-mode surface acoustic wave devices based on multilayers of TeO2/ZnO(112¯0)/Si(100) with high sensitivity and temperature stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing-Ting; Quan, Ao-Jie; Liang, Guang-Xing; Zheng, Zhuang-Hao; Ramadan, Sami; Fu, Chen; Li, Hong-Lang; Fu, Yong-Qing

    2017-03-01

    A multilayer structure of TeO2/interdigital transducers (IDTs)/ZnO(112¯0)/Si(100) was proposed and investigated to achieve both high sensitivity and temperature-stability for bio-sensing applications. Dispersions of phase velocities, electromechanical coupling coefficients K(2), temperature coefficient of delay (TCD) and sensitivity in the multilayer structures were simulated as functions of normalized thicknesses of ZnO (hZnO/λ) and TeO2 (hTeO2/λ) films. The fundamental mode of Love mode (LM) - surface acoustic wave (SAW) shows a larger value of K(2) and higher sensitivity compared with those of the first mode. TeO2 film with a positive TCD not only compensates the temperature effect induced due to the negative TCD of ZnO(112¯0)/Si(100), but also enhances the sensitivity of the love mode device. The optimal normalized thickness ratios were identified to be hTeO2/λ=0.021 and hZnO/λ=0.304, and the devices with such structures can which generate a normalized sensitivity of -1.04×10(-3)m(3)/kg, a TCD of 0.009ppm/°C, and a K(2) value of 2.76%.

  5. Downscaling MODIS Land Surface Temperature for Urban Public Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Crosson, W. L.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Estes, S. M.; Quattrochi, D. A.; Johnson, D.

    2013-12-01

    This study is part of a project funded by the NASA Applied Sciences Public Health Program, which focuses on Earth science applications of remote sensing data for enhancing public health decision-making. Heat related death is currently the number one weather-related killer in the United States. Mortality from these events is expected to increase as a function of climate change. This activity sought to augment current Heat Watch/Warning Systems (HWWS) with NASA remotely sensed data, and models used in conjunction with socioeconomic and heat-related mortality data. The current HWWS do not take into account intra-urban spatial variations in risk assessment. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate a potential method to improve spatial delineation of risk from extreme heat events in urban environments by integrating sociodemographic risk factors with land surface temperature (LST) estimates derived from thermal remote sensing data. In order to further improve the assessment of intra-urban variations in risk from extreme heat, we developed and evaluated a number of spatial statistical techniques for downscaling the 1-km daily MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data to 60 m using Landsat-derived LST data, which have finer spatial but coarser temporal resolution than MODIS. We will present these techniques, which have been demonstrated and validated for Phoenix, AZ using data from the summers of 2000-2006.

  6. Quality control methods for KOOS operational sea surface temperature products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chansu; KIM Sunhwa

    2016-01-01

    Sea surface temperature SST obtained from the initial version of the Korea Operational Oceanographic System (KOOS) SST satellite have low accuracy during summer and daytime. This is attributed to the diurnal warming effect. Error estimation of SST data must be carried out to use the real-time forecasting numerical model of the KOOS. This study suggests two quality control methods for the KOOS SST system. To minimize the diurnal warming effect, SSTs of areas where wind speed is higher than 5 m/s were used. Depending on the wind threshold value, KOOS SST data for August 2014 were reduced by 0.15°C. Errors in SST data are considered to be a combination of random, sampling, and bias errors. To estimate bias error, the standard deviation of bias between KOOS SSTs and climatology SSTs were used. KOOS SST data yielded an analysis error standard deviation value similar to OSTIA and NOAA NCDC (OISST) data. The KOOS SST shows lower random and sampling errors with increasing number of observations using six satellite datasets. In further studies, the proposed quality control methods for the KOOS SST system will be applied through more long-term case studies and comparisons with other SST systems.

  7. Bias correction methods for decadal sea-surface temperature forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandrudu Narapusetty

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Two traditional bias correction techniques: (1 systematic mean correction (SMC and (2 systematic least-squares correction (SLC are extended and applied on sea-surface temperature (SST decadal forecasts in the North Pacific produced by Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2 to reduce large systematic biases. The bias-corrected forecast anomalies exhibit reduced root-mean-square errors and also significantly improve the anomaly correlations with observations. The spatial pattern of the SST anomalies associated with the Pacific area average (PAA index (spatial average of SST anomalies over 20°–60°N and 120°E–100°W is improved after employing the bias correction methods, particularly SMC. Reliability diagrams show that the bias-corrected forecasts better reproduce the cold and warm events well beyond the 5-yr lead-times over the 10 forecasted years. The comparison between both correction methods indicates that: (1 prediction skill of SST anomalies associated with the PAA index is improved by SMC with respect to SLC and (2 SMC-derived forecasts have a slightly higher reliability than those corrected by SLC.

  8. Downscaling MODIS Land Surface Temperature for Urban Public Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Estes, Sue; Quattrochi, Dale; Johnson, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study is part of a project funded by the NASA Applied Sciences Public Health Program, which focuses on Earth science applications of remote sensing data for enhancing public health decision-making. Heat related death is currently the number one weather-related killer in the United States. Mortality from these events is expected to increase as a function of climate change. This activity sought to augment current Heat Watch/Warning Systems (HWWS) with NASA remotely sensed data, and models used in conjunction with socioeconomic and heatrelated mortality data. The current HWWS do not take into account intra-urban spatial variation in risk assessment. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate a potential method to improve spatial delineation of risk from extreme heat events in urban environments by integrating sociodemographic risk factors with estimates of land surface temperature (LST) derived from thermal remote sensing data. In order to further improve the consideration of intra-urban variations in risk from extreme heat, we also developed and evaluated a number of spatial statistical techniques for downscaling the 1-km daily MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data to 60 m using Landsat-derived LST data, which have finer spatial but coarser temporal resolution than MODIS. In this paper, we will present these techniques, which have been demonstrated and validated for Phoenix, AZ using data from the summers of 2000-2006.

  9. Impact of sea surface temperature on satellite retrieval of sea surface salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xuchen; Zhu, Qiankun; He, Xianqiang; Chen, Peng; Wang, Difeng; Hao, Zengzhou; Huang, Haiqing

    2016-10-01

    Currently, global sea surface salinity (SSS) can be retrieved by the satellite microwave radiometer onboard the satellite, such as the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity(SMOS) and the Aqurius. SMOS is an Earth Explorer Opportunity Mission from the European Space Agency(ESA). It was launched at a sun-synchronous orbit in 2009 and one of the payloads is called MIRAS(Microwave Imaging Radiometer using Aperture Synthesis), which is the first interferometric microwave radiometer designed for observing SSS at L-band(1.41 GHz).The foundation of the salinity retrieval by microwave radiometer is that the sea surface radiance at L-band has the most suitable sensitivity with the variation of the salinity. It is well known that the sensitivity of brightness temperatures(TB) to SSS depends on the sea surface temperature (SST), but the quantitative impact of the SST on the satellite retrieval of the SSS is still poorly known. In this study, we investigate the impact of the SST on the accuracy of salinity retrieval from the SMOS. First of all, The dielectric constant model proposed by Klein and Swift has been used to estimate the vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures(TV and TH) of a smooth sea water surface at L-band and derive the derivatives of TV and TH as a function of SSS to show the relative sensitivity at 45° incident angle. Then, we use the GAM(generalized additive model) method to evaluate the association between the satellite-measured brightness temperature and in-situ SSS at different SST. Moreover, the satellite-derived SSS from the SMOS is validated using the ARGO data to assess the RMSE(root mean squared error). We compare the SMOS SSS and ARGO SSS over two regions of Pacific ocean far from land and ice under different SST. The RMSE of retrieved SSS at different SST have been estimated. Our results showed that SST is one of the most significant factors affecting the accuracy of SSS retrieval. The satellite-measured brightness temperature has a

  10. Molecular Dynamics of Carbon Nanotubes Deposited on a Silicon Surface via Collision: Temperature Dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Leton C.; Mian, Shabeer A.; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Saha, Joyanta K.; Matin, Mohammad A.; Jang, Joon Kyung [Pusan National University, Miryang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    We investigated how temperature influences the structural and energetic dynamics of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) undergoing a high-speed impact with a Si (110) surface. By performing molecular dynamics simulations in the temperature range of 100 - 300 K, we found that a low temperature CNT ends up with a higher vibrational energy after collision than a high temperature CNT. The vibrational temperature of CNT increases by increasing the surface temperature. Overall, the structural and energy relaxation of low temperature CNTs are faster than those of high temperature CNTs.

  11. Reaction temperature sensing (RTS)-based control for Li-ion battery safety

    OpenAIRE

    Guangsheng Zhang; Lei Cao; Shanhai Ge; Chao-Yang Wang; Shaffer, Christian E.; Christopher D. Rahn

    2015-01-01

    We report reaction temperature sensing (RTS)-based control to fundamentally enhance Li-ion battery safety. RTS placed at the electrochemical interface inside a Li-ion cell is shown to detect temperature rise much faster and more accurately than external measurement of cell surface temperature. We demonstrate, for the first time, that RTS-based control shuts down a dangerous short-circuit event 3 times earlier than surface temperature- based control and prevents cell overheating by 50 °C and t...

  12. Nanoparticle Based Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talley, C E; Huser, T R; Hollars, C W; Jusinski, L; Laurence, T; Lane, S M

    2005-01-03

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering is a powerful tool for the investigation of biological samples. Following a brief introduction to Raman and surface-enhanced Raman scattering, several examples of biophotonic applications of SERS are discussed. The concept of nanoparticle based sensors using SERS is introduced and the development of these sensors is discussed.

  13. Detecting and Adjusting Temporal Inhomogeneity in Chinese Mean Surface Air Temperature Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qingxiang(李庆祥); LIU Xiaoning(刘小宁); ZHANG Hongzheng(张洪政); Thomas C. PETERSON; David R. EASTERLING

    2004-01-01

    Adopting the Easterling-Peterson (EP) techniques and considering the reality of Chinese meteorological observations, this paper designed several tests and tested for inhomogeneities in all Chinese historical surface air temperature series from 1951 to 2001. The result shows that the time series have been widely impacted by inhomogeneities resulting from the relocation of stations and changes in local environment such as urbanization or some other factors. Among these factors, station relocations caused the largest magnitude of abrupt changes in the time series, and other factors also resulted in inhomogeneities to some extent. According to the amplitude of change of the difference series and the monthly distribution features of surface air temperatures, discontinuities identified by applying both the E-P technique and supported by China's station history records, or by comparison with other approaches, have been adjusted. Based on the above processing, the most significant temporal inhomogeneities were eliminated, and China's most homogeneous surface air temperature series has thus been created. Results show that the inhomogeneity testing captured well the most important change of the stations, and the adjusted dataset is more reliable than ever. This suggests that the adjusted temperature dataset has great value of decreasing the uncertaities in the study of observed climate change in China.

  14. Trends of urban surface temperature and heat island characteristics in the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benas, Nikolaos; Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Cartalis, Constantinos

    2016-09-01

    Urban air temperature studies usually focus on the urban canopy heat island phenomenon, whereby the city center experiences higher near surface air temperatures compared to its surrounding non-urban areas. The Land Surface Temperature (LST) is used instead of urban air temperature to identify the Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI). In this study, the nighttime LST and SUHI characteristics and trends in the seventeen largest Mediterranean cities were investigated, by analyzing satellite observations for the period 2001-2012. SUHI averages and trends were based on an innovative approach of comparing urban pixels to randomly selected non-urban pixels, which carries the potential to better standardize satellite-derived SUHI estimations. A positive trend for both LST and SUHI for the majority of the examined cities was documented. Furthermore, a 0.1 °C decade-1 increase in urban LST corresponded to an increase in SUHI by about 0.04 °C decade-1. A longitudinal differentiation was found in the urban LST trends, with higher positive values appearing in the eastern Mediterranean. Examination of urban infrastructure and development factors during the same period revealed correlations with SUHI trends, which can be used to explain differences among cities. However, the majority of the cities examined show considerably increased trends in terms of the enhancement of SUHI. These findings are considered important so as to promote sustainable urbanization, as well as to support the development of heat island adaptation and mitigation plans in the Mediterranean.

  15. Surface temperature measurements of a levitated water drop during laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Cody; Tracey, Timothy

    2016-11-01

    Simulation of high energy laser propagation and scattering in the maritime environment is problematic, due to the high liklihood of turbulence, fog, and rain or sea spray within the beam path. Laser interactions with large water drops (diameters of approximately 1-mm), such as those found in a light rain, have received relatively less attention. In this regime a high energy laser will rapidly heat and vaporize a water drop as it traverses the beam path, but the exact heating / vaporization rate, its dependence on impurities, and ancillary effects on the drop or surroundings are unclear. In this work we present surface temperature measurements of a water drop obtained using a FLIR IR camera. The drop is acoustically levitated, and subject to a continuous wave laser with a wavelength of 1070-nm and a mean irradiance of approximately 500 W/cm2. These measurements show that the steady-state surface temperature of the drop is well below the saturation temperature, yet based on the time history of the drop volume vaporization begins almost immediately upon laser strike. Inferences on the turbulence characteristics within the drop are also made from measurements of the fluctuations in the surface temperature. Supported by ONR, HEL-JTO, and USNA Trident Scholar Program.

  16. Temperature Measurements On Semi-Permanent Mold Surfaces Using Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Ronald G.

    1983-03-01

    Die surface temperature and internal die thermal balance are critical to the quality of semi-permanent mold die castings. Measurements of the surface temperature are currently made using either hand-held contact temperature probes or optical pyrometers. Neither measurement technique provides a thermal map of the entire die surface. This paper discusses the use of infrared thermography for die surface temperature measurement. Using infrared thermographic techniques, scans were made over the surface of an experimental 302 CID semi-permanent mold cylinder head die during several casting cycles. The results obtained were in reasonable agreement with the temperature measurements made using optical pyrometers and the contact probes. In addition, using gray-level conversion the IR technique provided a measure of the temperature gradient over the surface of the die. Such thermal mapping has not been practical using optical or contact temperature probes.

  17. Reducing interior temperature resulting from solar energy using three-dimensional surface patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiang-Jiun Lin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Excessive solar energy can significantly increase interior temperatures and yield great energy demands for air conditioning. Whereas reducing energy consumptions is very crucial today, this article employs patterned glass technology which incorporates linear patterns throughout the exterior surface of glass to attenuate the solar effect on the interior thermal field based on theoretical and experimental studies. By periodically imposing linearly three-dimensional patterns over the outer surface of window glass, the analytical results indicate that the interior solar heat is able to be reduced, as the surface patterns increase the incident angle and/or decrease the solar energy loading on the patterned glass material. Moreover, the interior solar heat can be strongly affected by the pattern design. According to thermally measured results, the trapezoidal patterned glass having 3-mm-top-edged patterned members yields lower temperature on the interior surface of glass comparing with that for the trapezoidal patterns having 6-mm-top edges. Therefore, making the least non-sloped feature or flat plane appearing on the patterned glass helps decrease the interior temperature resulting from solar energy.

  18. Understanding the effects of the impervious surfaces pattern on land surface temperature in an urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qin; Xu, Jianhua

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that urban impervious surface (IS) has a warming effect on urban land surface temperature (LST). However, the influence of an IS's structure, components, and spatial distribution on LST has rarely been quantitatively studied within strictly urban areas. Using ETM+ remote sensing images from the downtown area of Shanghai, China in 2010, this study characterized and quantified the influence of the IS spatial pattern on LST by selecting the percent cover of each IS cover feature and ten configuration metrics. The IS fraction was estimated by linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA), and LST was retrieved using a mono-window algorithm. The results indicate that high fraction IS cover features account for the majority of the study area. The high fraction IS cover features are widely distributed and concentrated in groups, which is similar with that of high temperature zones. Both the percent composition and the configuration of IS cover features greatly affect the magnitude of LST, but the percent composition is a more important factor in determining LST than the configuration of those features. The significances and effects of the given configuration variables on LST vary greatly among IS cover features.

  19. Bases for cluster algebras from surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Musiker, Gregg; Williams, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    We construct two bases for each cluster algebra coming from a triangulated surface without punctures. We work in the context of a coefficient system coming from a full-rank exchange matrix, for example, principal coefficients.

  20. Reducing the temperature sensitivity of SOI waveguide-based biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gylfason, Kristinn B.; Mola Romero, Albert; Sohlström, Hans

    2012-06-01

    Label-free photonic biosensors fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) can provide compact size, high evanescent field strength at the silicon waveguide surface, and volume fabrication potential. However, due to the large thermo optic coefficient of water-based biosamples, the sensors are temperature-sensitive. Consequently, active temperature control is usually used. However, for low cost applications, active temperature control is often not feasible. Here, we use the opposite polarity of the thermo-optic coefficients of silicon and water to demonstrate a photonic slot waveguide with a distribution of power between sample and silicon that aims to give athermal operation in water. Based on simulations, we made three waveguide designs close to the athermal point, and asymmetric integrated Mach- Zehnder interferometers for their characterization. The devices were fabricated on SOI with a 220 nm device layer and 2 μm buried oxide, by electron beam lithography of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) resist, and etching in a Cl2/HBr/O2/He plasma. With Cargile 50350 fused silica matching oil as top cladding, the group index of the three guides varies from 1.9 to 2.8 at 1550 nm. The temperature sensitivity of the devices varied from -70 to -160 pm/K under the same conditions. A temperature sensitivity of -2 pm/K is projected with water as top cladding.