WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface systems development

  1. Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Green, Jennifer L.; Chau, Savio N.; Curell, Philip C.; Dempsey, Cathy A.; Patterson, Linda P.; Robbins, William; Steele, Michael A.; DAnnunzio, Anthony; hide

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap is a guide for developing the technologies needed to enable the supportable, sustainable, and affordable exploration of the Moon and other destinations beyond Earth. Supportability is defined in terms of space maintenance, repair, and related logistics. This report considers the supportability lessons learned from NASA and the Department of Defense. Lunar Outpost supportability needs are summarized, and a supportability technology strategy is established to make the transition from high logistics dependence to logistics independence. This strategy will enable flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. The supportability roadmap defines the general technology selection criteria. Technologies are organized into three categories: diagnostics, test, and verification; maintenance and repair; and scavenge and recycle. Furthermore, "embedded technologies" and "process technologies" are used to designate distinct technology types with different development cycles. The roadmap examines the current technology readiness level and lays out a four-phase incremental development schedule with selection decision gates. The supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop technologies with the widest possible capability and utility while minimizing the impact on crew time and training and remaining within the time and cost constraints of the program.

  2. Development of a calibration system for surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marechal, M.H.H.; Barbosa, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A calibration system for surface contamination monitors is developed, aiming supply the existence demand of these instruments. A experimental arrangement and a methodology are described. The advantages of use this system for calibration routine optimization are also discussed. (C.G.C.)

  3. Plane development of lateral surfaces for inspection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francini, F.; Fontani, D.; Jafrancesco, D.; Mercatelli, L.; Sansoni, P.

    2006-08-01

    The problem of developing the lateral surfaces of a 3D object can arise in item inspection using automated imaging systems. In an industrial environment, these control systems typically work at high rate and they have to assure a reliable inspection of the single item. For compactness requirements it is not convenient to utilise three or four CCD cameras to control all the lateral surfaces of an object. Moreover it is impossible to mount optical components near the object if it is placed on a conveyor belt. The paper presents a system that integrates on a single CCD picture the images of both the frontal surface and the lateral surface of an object. It consists of a freeform lens mounted in front of a CCD camera with a commercial lens. The aim is to have a good magnification of the lateral surface, maintaining a low aberration level for exploiting the pictures in an image processing software. The freeform lens, made in plastics, redirects the light coming from the object to the camera lens. The final result is to obtain on the CCD: - the frontal and lateral surface images, with a selected magnification (even with two different values for the two images); - a gap between these two images, so an automatic method to analyse the images can be easily applied. A simple method to design the freeform lens is illustrated. The procedure also allows to obtain the imaging system modifying a current inspection system reducing the cost.

  4. Development of a Modified Vacuum Cleaner for Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lee, Steve A.; Edgerly, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to expand space exploration will return humans to the Moon with the goal of maintaining a long-term presence. One challenge that NASA will face returning to the Moon is managing the lunar regolith found on the Moon's surface, which will collect on extravehicular activity (EVA) suits and other equipment. Based on the Apollo experience, the issues astronauts encountered with lunar regolith included eye/lung irritation, and various hardware failures (seals, screw threads, electrical connectors and fabric contamination), which were all related to inadequate lunar regolith mitigation. A vacuum cleaner capable of detaching, transferring, and efficiently capturing lunar regolith has been proposed as a method to mitigate the lunar regolith problem in the habitable environment on lunar surface. In order to develop this vacuum, a modified "off-the-shelf' vacuum cleaner will be used to determine detachment efficiency, vacuum requirements, and optimal cleaning techniques to ensure efficient dust removal in habitable lunar surfaces, EVA spacesuits, and air exchange volume. During the initial development of the Lunar Surface System vacuum cleaner, systematic testing was performed with varying flow rates on multiple surfaces (fabrics and metallics), atmospheric (14.7 psia) and reduced pressures (10.2 and 8.3 psia), different vacuum tool attachments, and several vacuum cleaning techniques in order to determine the performance requirements for the vacuum cleaner. The data recorded during testing was evaluated by calculating particulate removal, relative to the retained simulant on the tested surface. In addition, optical microscopy was used to determine particle size distribution retained on the surface. The scope of this paper is to explain the initial phase of vacuum cleaner development, including historical Apollo mission data, current state-of-the-art vacuum cleaner technology, and vacuum cleaner testing that has

  5. A Lunar Surface System Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Taleghani, barmac K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the establishment of a Supportability Technology Development Roadmap as a guide for developing capabilities intended to allow NASA s Constellation program to enable a supportable, sustainable and affordable exploration of the Moon and Mars. Presented is a discussion of supportability, in terms of space facility maintenance, repair and related logistics and a comparison of how lunar outpost supportability differs from the International Space Station. Supportability lessons learned from NASA and Department of Defense experience and their impact on a future lunar outpost is discussed. A supportability concept for future missions to the Moon and Mars that involves a transition from a highly logistics dependent to a logistically independent operation is discussed. Lunar outpost supportability capability needs are summarized and a supportability technology development strategy is established. The resulting Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Strategy defines general criteria that will be used to select technologies that will enable future flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. This strategy also introduces the concept of exploiting flight hardware as a supportability resource. The technology roadmap involves development of three mutually supporting technology categories, Diagnostics Test and Verification, Maintenance and Repair, and Scavenging and Recycling. The technology roadmap establishes two distinct technology types, "Embedded" and "Process" technologies, with different implementation and thus different criteria and development approaches. The supportability technology roadmap addresses the technology readiness level, and estimated development schedule for technology groups that includes down-selection decision gates that correlate with the lunar program milestones. The resulting supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop a set

  6. Development of resonance ionization spectroscopy system for fusion material surface analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, Tetsuo [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.; Satoh, Yasushi; Nakazawa, Masaharu

    1996-10-01

    A Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) system is now under development aiming at in-situ observation and analysis neutral particles emitted from fusion material surfaces under irradiation of charged particles and neutrons. The basic performance of the RIS system was checked through a preliminary experiment on Xe atom detection. (author)

  7. System safety engineering in the development of advanced surface transportation vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnzen, H. E.

    1971-01-01

    Applications of system safety engineering to the development of advanced surface transportation vehicles are described. As a pertinent example, the paper describes a safety engineering efforts tailored to the particular design and test requirements of the Tracked Air Cushion Research Vehicle (TACRV). The test results obtained from this unique research vehicle provide significant design data directly applicable to the development of future tracked air cushion vehicles that will carry passengers in comfort and safety at speeds up to 300 miles per hour.

  8. Surface Habitat Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2009-01-01

    The Surface Habitat Systems (SHS) Focused Investment Group (FIG) is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) effort to provide a focused direction and funding to the various projects that are working on human surface habitat designs and technologies for the planetary exploration missions. The overall SHS-FIG effort focuses on directing and guiding those projects that: 1) develop and demonstrate new surface habitat system concepts, innovations, and technologies to support human exploration missions, 2) improve environmental systems that interact with human habitats, 3) handle and emplace human surface habitats, and 4) focus on supporting humans living and working in habitats on planetary surfaces. The activity areas of the SHS FIG described herein are focused on the surface habitat project near-term objectives as described in this document. The SHS-FIG effort focuses on mitigating surface habitat risks (as identified by the Lunar Surface Systems Project Office (LSSPO) Surface Habitat Element Team; and concentrates on developing surface habitat technologies as identified in the FY08 gap analysis. The surface habitat gap assessment will be updated annually as the surface architecture and surface habitat definition continues to mature. These technologies are mapped to the SHS-FIG Strategic Development Roadmap. The Roadmap will bring to light the areas where additional innovative efforts are needed to support the development of habitat concepts and designs and the development of new technologies to support of the LSSPO Habitation Element development plan. Three specific areas of development that address Lunar Architecture Team (LAT)-2 and Constellation Architecture Team (CxAT) Lunar habitat design issues or risks will be focused on by the SHS-FIG. The SHS-FIG will establish four areas of development that will help the projects prepare in their planning for surface habitat systems development. Those development areas are

  9. Development of a flagellin surface display expression system in a moderate thermophile, Bacillus halodurans Alk36

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Crampton, Michael C

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available BIOTECHNOLOGY The development of a flagellin surface display expression system in a moderate thermophile, Bacillus halodurans Alk36 Michael Crampton & Eldie Berger & Sharon Reid & Maureen Louw Received: 3 October 2006 /Revised: 29 January 2007 /Accepted... techniques Plasmid DNA was isolated using a Plasmid Midi Kit (Qiagen). Restriction enzymes were used as specified by the manufacturer (Fermentas and Roche Diagnostics). All mini-preps were done using Perfectprep Plasmid Mini Kit (Eppendorf). All DNA...

  10. Infrared surface analysis using a newly developed thin-sample preparation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Naoto; Nishiyama, Itsuo; Kishima, Yoshio; Iida, Katsuhiko; Mori, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    We developed a new sampling system, the Nano Catcher, for measuring the surface chemical structure of polymers or industrial products and we evaluated the performance of the system. The system can directly pick up surface species whose depth is on the order of approximately 100 nm and can easily provide a sample for a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) system without the necessity of passing it over to a measurement plate. The FT-IR reflection data obtained from the Nano Catcher were compared with those obtained using the attenuated total reflection (ATR) method and sampling by hand. Chemical structural analysis of a depth region from a few tens of nanometers to a few hundred nanometers can be directly performed using this system. Such depths are beyond the scope of conventional X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ATR methods. We can expect the use of the Nano Catcher system to lead to a great improvement in the detection of signals of surface species in these depth regions.

  11. Development of low cost and accurate homemade sensor system based on Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksono, F. D.; Supardianningsih; Arifin, M.; Abraha, K.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we developed homemade and computerized sensor system based on Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). The developed systems consist of mechanical system instrument, laser power sensor, and user interface. The mechanical system development that uses anti-backlash gear design was successfully able to enhance the angular resolution angle of incidence laser up to 0.01°. In this system, the laser detector acquisition system and stepper motor controller utilizing Arduino Uno which is easy to program, flexible, and low cost, was used. Furthermore, we employed LabView’s user interface as the virtual instrument for facilitating the sample measurement and for transforming the data recording directly into the digital form. The test results using gold-deposited half-cylinder prism showed the Total Internal Reflection (TIR) angle of 41,34°± 0,01° and SPR angle of 44,20°± 0,01°, respectively. The result demonstrated that the developed system managed to reduce the measurement duration and data recording errors caused by human error. Also, the test results also concluded that the system’s measurement is repeatable and accurate.

  12. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development, Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Isaacs, James; Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen. Steve

    2010-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." The proposed future C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface communication system, referred to as the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS), is anticipated to increase overall air-to-ground data communications systems capacity by using a new spectrum (i.e., not very high frequency (VHF)). Although some critical services could be supported, AeroMACS will also target noncritical services, such as weather advisory and aeronautical information services as part of an airborne System Wide Information Management (SWIM) program. AeroMACS is to be designed and implemented in a manner that will not disrupt other services operating in the C-band. This report defines the AeroMACS concepts of use, high-level system requirements, and architecture; the performance of supporting system analyses; the development of AeroMACS test and demonstration plans; and the establishment of an operational AeroMACS capability in support of C-band aeronautical data communications standards to be advanced in both international (International Civil Aviation Organization, ICAO) and national (RTCA) forums. This includes the development of system parameter profile recommendations for AeroMACS based on existing Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IEEE) 802.16e- 2009 standards

  13. The Development of a Sub-Surface Monitoring System for Organic Contamination in Soils and Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Huntley

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem when dealing with environmental contamination is the early detection and subsequent surveillance of the contamination. This paper describes the potential of sub-surface sensor technology for the early detection of organic contaminants in contaminated soils, sediments, and landfill sites. Rugged, low-power hydrocarbon sensors have been developed, along with a data-logging system, for the early detection of phase hydrocarbons in soil. Through laboratory-based evaluation, the ability of this system to monitor organic contamination in water-based systems is being evaluated. When used in conjunction with specific immunoassays, this can provide a sensitive and low-cost solution for long-term monitoring and analysis, applicable to a wide range of field applications.

  14. Development of the automatic measuring system to survey the surface contamination on equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Akira; Matsumura, Hidekatsu; Nawa, Takao; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Yamada, Tadashi.

    1980-01-01

    The inspection of surface contamination carried out when things are taken out of the control areas in nuclear power stations requires considerable labor and time because it is carried out manually. In order to make the inspection of surface contamination more efficiently and to standardize it, the development of an automatic inspection apparatus was carried out. This apparatus inspects the surface contamination due to radio isotopes which do not emit α-ray, and the objects to be measured are the large things with definite forms, such as boards and pipes for scaffolding. The method of measuring β-ray with a gas flow counter was adopted for the apparatus in view of the good detection sensitivity, relatively simple shielding against background, and easy conversion to surface contamination density. The measuring system was composed of the gas flow counters and a rate meter. The outline of the apparatus made for trial is explained. As the result of the performance test, the lowest detection sensitivity was 1.29 x 10 -5 μCi/cm 2 at the moving speed of an object of 1 cm/sec. The detection sensitivity is improved by the flattening of the sensitivity distribution. The evaluation of the error, the reduction of measuring time and the prevention of contamination were also made. (Kako, I.)

  15. Development of Surface Modification Methods for Religaheart® Cardiac Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major R.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The work is a review of the methods of the surface modification performed by the authors dedicated for for cardiac support system. It presents the evolution of designing the surface dedicated to direct contact with blood. Initially thin and ultrathin coatings were developed. They were designed as a blood-polymer barrier. The pneumatic heart assist devices are made of a medical grade polyurethane. A major milestone was to create advanced ceramic thin films expressing the flexible effects deposited by physical techniques. Coatings have evolved. Another milestone was the surface reproducing the microenvironment to capture progenitor cells from the bloodstream. Thin coatings were prepared, using methods of ion been, controlled residual stresses were introduced. Wrinkles appeared without cracking. This enabled taking control over the process of cell differentiation. Alternatively, the tissue inspired structure resulted of the coating in the form of extracellular matrix. The outer surface was modified with synthetic materials. This enabled the effective proteins docking to induce cell growth, recreating the luminal side of the blood vessel. Coagulation processes have been slowed down. In addition, it was found pro-angiogenic effect.

  16. Development of a coincidence system for radio-nuclide standardization using surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinas, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    A system for the standardization of alpha-gamma or electron-X radionuclide emitters has been developed in the present work. The system consists of one or two surface barrier detectors for alpha or electron detection which are coupled to thin-window NaI (T1) crystals suitable for low energy X or gamma ray detection. The performance of the system has been verified by means of the standardization of 241 Am, 137 Cs and 109 Cd solutions. The activity has been obtained using the extrapolation method applied to the 4Πα-γ and 2Πe c -X coincidence technique. The surface barrier detection efficiency was varied by placing absorbers over the radioactive sources or by changing the source to detector distance. The results were compared to those obtained using conventional absolute systems based on gas-flow and pressurized 4Π proportional counters, or using radioactive solutions standardized in international comparisons spondored by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. The expect and measured activities agree within the experimental uncertainties which were: 0.2 % for 241 Am, 0.7% for 137 Cs and 0.6% for 109 Cd. The ratio between the probabilities of (electron capture + internal conversion) and internal conversion for the K-shell of 109 Cd has been determined. The result is: 2.8883 ± 0.016. (author) [pt

  17. Development of an integrated laboratory system for the monitoring of cyanotoxins in surface and drinking waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantis, Theodoros; Tsimeli, Katerina; Kaloudis, Triantafyllos; Thanassoulias, Nicholas; Lytras, Efthymios; Hiskia, Anastasia

    2010-05-01

    A system of analytical processes has been developed in order to serve as a cost-effective scheme for the monitoring of cyanobacterial toxins on a quantitative basis, in surface and drinking waters. Five cyclic peptide hepatotoxins, microcystin-LR, -RR, -YR, -LA and nodularin were chosen as the target compounds. Two different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were validated in order to serve as primary quantitative screening tools. Validation results showed that the ELISA methods are sufficiently specific and sensitive with limits of detection (LODs) around 0.1 microg/L, however, matrix effects should be considered, especially with surface water samples or bacterial mass methanolic extracts. A colorimetric protein phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA) utilizing protein phosphatase 2A and p-nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate, was applied in microplate format in order to serve as a quantitative screening method for the detection of the toxic activity associated with cyclic peptide hepatotoxins, at concentration levels >0.2 microg/L of MC-LR equivalents. A fast HPLC/PDA method has been developed for the determination of microcystins, by using a short, 50mm C18 column, with 1.8 microm particle size. Using this method a 10-fold reduction of sample run time was achieved and sufficient separation of microcystins was accomplished in less than 3 min. Finally, the analytical system includes an LC/MS/MS method that was developed for the determination of the 5 target compounds after SPE extraction. The method achieves extremely low limits of detection (<0.02 microg/L), in both surface and drinking waters and it is used for identification and verification purposes as well as for determinations at the ppt level. An analytical protocol that includes the above methods has been designed and validated through the analysis of a number of real samples. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of Advanced Wear and Corrosion Resistant Systems Through Laser Surface Alloying and Materials Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Martukanitz and S. Babu

    2007-05-03

    precipitation of titanium carbonitrides during laser surface alloying provided there was sufficient amount of dissolved titanium, carbon, and nitrogen in the liquid steel. This was confirmed experimentally by using a powder mixture of 431-martensitic steel, titanium carbide powder, and nitrogen shielding, during laser deposition to produce deposits exhibiting relatively high hardness (average surface hardness of 724 HV). The same approach was extended to direct diode laser processing and similar microstructures were attained. The above analysis was extended to develop an in-situ precipitation of Ti(CN) during laser deposition. The Ti addition was achieving by mixing the 431 martensitic steel powders with ferro-titanium. The dissolution of nitrogen was achieved by using 100% nitrogen shielding gas, which was indicated by thermodynamic analysis. Demonstrations were also conducted utilizing the tools developed during the program and resulted in several viable composite coating systems being identified. This included the use of TiC and ferro-titanium in martensitic-grade stainless steel matrix material with and without the use of active N2 shielding gas, WC hard particles in a martensitic-grade stainless steel matrix material, WC and BN in a nickel-based matrix material, and WC in highly alloyed iron-based matrix. Although these demonstrations indicated the potential of forming composite coatings, in certain instances, the intended industrial applications involved unique requirements, such as coating of internal surfaces, which hindered the full development of the improved coating technology. However, it is believed that the addition of common hard particles, such as WC or TiC, to matrix material representing martensitic grades of stainless steel offer opportunities for improved performance at relatively low material cost.

  19. Development of a alpha spectrometer system with the surface barrier detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alencar, Marcus Alexandre Vallini de

    1994-04-01

    The aim of this work is the development of an α spectrometer of low cost and home made technology. The spectrometer is mounted in a double NIM module and includes a surface barrier detector and dedicate electronic system. Six barrier surface detectors were made, three of which with η type silicon wafer 3350 Ω.cm, 270mm 2 and three other with ρ type silicon wafer 5850 Ω.cm and 220mm 2 . The rectifier and the ohmic contacts were prepared at high vacuum (10 -2 to 10 -3 Pa) evaporation with 40μg/cm 2 of Au and Al respectively for the η type detectors, and with Al and Au respectively for the ρ type detectors. The electronic system is composed by a low noise charge sensitive preamplifier with the operational amplifier LF-356 mounted with 1OOMΩ feedback resistor and a 0.5 pF capacitor. The linear amplifier is also based in the LF-356 and the LM-310 operational amplifier. The bipolar output is formatted through a (CR) 2- (RC) 4 shaping network and the unipolar output is obtained through a CR-(RC) 4 shaping system which is sufficient to realize a almost true Gaussian shaping pulse with a time constant of 3.0μs. This format was chosen because we can expect a low counting rate and the gaussian pulse can improve the signal/noise ratio. The first CR differentiation has also a active pole-zero cancellation network.The resolution of detectors for 241 Am α particles at room temperature (24 degree) vary 21 to 44 keV FWHM. The electronic noise of the noise of the system is 7.5 keV FWHM at OpF input capacitance. The overall resolution of the spectrometer was found to be 62 keV FWHM at room temperature. The simplicity of the electronic system, the low cost of the construction and the overall resolution show that this alpha spectrometer can be readily used in measurements where high resolution is not a premium. (author)

  20. Development of a test system for the determination of biodegradability in surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsch, W.; Knacker, T.; Robertz, M.; Schallnass, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The study presented here describes the development of a laboratory test system for the determination of aerobic biodegradability of substances at low concentrations in surface water. It was aimed to prepare a draft guideline for a biodegradation simulation test according to OECD format. The experimental approach was based on a literature study conducted within the frame of this project. Further useful information on the possible test design was derived from the German BBA guideline 5-1. Natural water and sediments were collected. Radiolabelled Lindane or 4-Nitrophenol was added. The test vessels (reactors) were aerated and incubated under controlled conditions for up to 92 days. The results showed biological stability of the sediment/water systems even without addition of nutrients and adherence to non-reducing conditions. Mineralisation of 4-Nitrophenol was influenced by the sediment type, the method of aeration and temperature. Factors affecting the mineralisation of Lindane were the method of application and again, the sediment type and temperature. Considerable amounts of the radioactivity were bound to the sediment and were to a large extent unextractable. The potential of a reactor to mineralise a test substance could not be correlated with the biological parameters measured. (orig.) [de

  1. Development of high-efficiency laser Thomson scattering measurement system for the investigation of EEDF in surface wave plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramaki, M.; Kobayashi, J.; Kono, A.; Stamate, E.; Sugai, H.

    2006-01-01

    A high-efficiency multichannel Thomson scattering measurement system was developed as a tool for studying the electron heating mechanisms in a surface wave plasma. By improving the output power and repetition rate of the Nd:YAG laser, an F-number of spectrograph, and a quantum efficiency of ICCD camera, the overall Thomson signal collection efficiency per unit measurement time has been improved by a factor larger than 40 in comparison with the previous measurement system developed by the authors. The one-dimensional electron velocity distribution functions were measured in the vicinity of the dielectric window of a surface wave plasma

  2. Development of a high-precision selenodetic coordinate system for the physical surface of the Moon based on LED beacons on its surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirenin, A. M.; Mazurova, E. M.; Bagrov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents a mathematical algorithm for processing an array of angular measurements of light beacons on images of the lunar surface onboard a polar artificial lunar satellite (PALS) during the Luna-Glob mission and coordinate-time referencing of the PALS for the development of reference selenocentric coordinate systems. The algorithm makes it possible to obtain angular positions of point light beacons located on the surface of the Moon in selenocentric celestial coordinates. The operation of measurement systems that determine the position and orientation of the PALS during its active existence have been numerically simulated. Recommendations have been made for the optimal use of different types of measurements, including ground radio trajectory measurements, navigational star sensors based on the onboard star catalog, gyroscopic orientation systems, and space videos of the lunar surface.

  3. [Ocular surface system integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonova, T N; Pateyuk, L S

    2015-01-01

    The interplay of different structures belonging to either the anterior segment of the eye or its accessory visual apparatus, which all share common embryological, anatomical, functional, and physiological features, is discussed. Explanation of such terms, as ocular surface, lacrimal functional unit, and ocular surface system, is provided.

  4. Scanning Electron Microscope Mapping System Developed for Detecting Surface Defects in Fatigue Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kantzos, Peter T.

    2002-01-01

    An automated two-degree-of-freedom specimen positioning stage has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to map and monitor defects in fatigue specimens. This system expedites the examination of the entire gauge section of fatigue specimens so that defects can be found using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Translation and rotation stages are driven by microprocessor-based controllers that are, in turn, interfaced to a computer running custom-designed software. This system is currently being used to find and record the location of ceramic inclusions in powder metallurgy materials. The mapped inclusions are periodically examined during interrupted fatigue experiments. The number of cycles to initiate cracks from these inclusions and the rate of growth of initiated cracks can then be quantified. This information is necessary to quantify the effect of this type of defect on the durability of powder metallurgy materials. This system was developed with support of the Ultra Safe program.

  5. Towards the development of a rapid, portable, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy based cleaning verification system for the drug nelarabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Damion K; Salton, Neale A; Preston, Chris; Piletsky, Sergey

    2010-09-01

    Cleaning verification is a scientific and economic problem for the pharmaceutical industry. A large amount of potential manufacturing time is lost to the process of cleaning verification. This involves the analysis of residues on spoiled manufacturing equipment, with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) being the predominantly employed analytical technique. The aim of this study was to develop a portable cleaning verification system for nelarabine using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). SERS was conducted using a portable Raman spectrometer and a commercially available SERS substrate to develop a rapid and portable cleaning verification system for nelarabine. Samples of standard solutions and swab extracts were deposited onto the SERS active surfaces, allowed to dry and then subjected to spectroscopic analysis. Nelarabine was amenable to analysis by SERS and the necessary levels of sensitivity were achievable. It is possible to use this technology for a semi-quantitative limits test. Replicate precision, however, was poor due to the heterogeneous drying pattern of nelarabine on the SERS active surface. Understanding and improving the drying process in order to produce a consistent SERS signal for quantitative analysis is desirable. This work shows the potential application of SERS for cleaning verification analysis. SERS may not replace HPLC as the definitive analytical technique, but it could be used in conjunction with HPLC so that swabbing is only carried out once the portable SERS equipment has demonstrated that the manufacturing equipment is below the threshold contamination level.

  6. Development of multi-axis laser micromachining system suitable for machining non-linear contoured surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kerimoğlu, Serhat

    2016-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Thesis (M.S.): Bilkent University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2016. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 82-84). In recent years, studies on manufacturing systems have proved the importance of cooperation of positioning systems with laser cutting technology. The performance of the manufacturing system can be improved by utilizing both laser and positioning systems together. In thi...

  7. Development of a high precision dosimetry system for the measurement of surface dose rate distribution for eye applicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichmann, Marion; Fluehs, Dirk; Spaan, Bernhard [Fakultaet Physik, Technische Universitaet Dortmund, D 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Klinische Strahlenphysik, Universitaetsklinikum Essen, D 45122 Essen (Germany); Fakultaet Physik, Technische Universitaet Dortmund, D 44221 Dortmund (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: The therapeutic outcome of the therapy with ophthalmic applicators is highly dependent on the application of a sufficient dose to the tumor, whereas the dose applied to the surrounding tissue needs to be minimized. The goal for the newly developed apparatus described in this work is the determination of the individual applicator surface dose rate distribution with a high spatial resolution and a high precision in dose rate with respect to time and budget constraints especially important for clinical procedures. Inhomogeneities of the dose rate distribution can be detected and taken into consideration for the treatment planning. Methods: In order to achieve this, a dose rate profile as well as a surface profile of the applicator are measured and correlated with each other. An instrumental setup has been developed consisting of a plastic scintillator detector system and a newly designed apparatus for guiding the detector across the applicator surface at a constant small distance. It performs an angular movement of detector and applicator with high precision. Results: The measurements of surface dose rate distributions discussed in this work demonstrate the successful operation of the measuring setup. Measuring the surface dose rate distribution with a small distance between applicator and detector and with a high density of measuring points results in a complete and gapless coverage of the applicator surface, being capable of distinguishing small sized spots with high activities. The dosimetrical accuracy of the measurements and its analysis is sufficient (uncertainty in the dose rate in terms of absorbed dose to water is <7%), especially when taking the surgical techniques in positioning of the applicator on the eyeball into account. Conclusions: The method developed so far allows a fully automated quality assurance of eye applicators even under clinical conditions. These measurements provide the basis for future calculation of a full 3D dose rate

  8. Development of a high precision dosimetry system for the measurement of surface dose rate distribution for eye applicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Marion; Flühs, Dirk; Spaan, Bernhard

    2009-10-01

    The therapeutic outcome of the therapy with ophthalmic applicators is highly dependent on the application of a sufficient dose to the tumor, whereas the dose applied to the surrounding tissue needs to be minimized. The goal for the newly developed apparatus described in this work is the determination of the individual applicator surface dose rate distribution with a high spatial resolution and a high precision in dose rate with respect to time and budget constraints especially important for clinical procedures. Inhomogeneities of the dose rate distribution can be detected and taken into consideration for the treatment planning. In order to achieve this, a dose rate profile as well as a surface profile of the applicator are measured and correlated with each other. An instrumental setup has been developed consisting of a plastic scintillator detector system and a newly designed apparatus for guiding the detector across the applicator surface at a constant small distance. It performs an angular movement of detector and applicator with high precision. The measurements of surface dose rate distributions discussed in this work demonstrate the successful operation of the measuring setup. Measuring the surface dose rate distribution with a small distance between applicator and detector and with a high density of measuring points results in a complete and gapless coverage of the applicator surface, being capable of distinguishing small sized spots with high activities. The dosimetrical accuracy of the measurements and its analysis is sufficient (uncertainty in the dose rate in terms of absorbed dose to water is <7%), especially when taking the surgical techniques in positioning of the applicator on the eyeball into account. The method developed so far allows a fully automated quality assurance of eye applicators even under clinical conditions. These measurements provide the basis for future calculation of a full 3D dose rate distribution, which then can be used as input for

  9. Developing a multi-Kinect-system for monitoring in dairy cows: object recognition and surface analysis using wavelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salau, J; Haas, J H; Thaller, G; Leisen, M; Junge, W

    2016-09-01

    Camera-based systems in dairy cattle were intensively studied over the last years. Different from this study, single camera systems with a limited range of applications were presented, mostly using 2D cameras. This study presents current steps in the development of a camera system comprising multiple 3D cameras (six Microsoft Kinect cameras) for monitoring purposes in dairy cows. An early prototype was constructed, and alpha versions of software for recording, synchronizing, sorting and segmenting images and transforming the 3D data in a joint coordinate system have already been implemented. This study introduced the application of two-dimensional wavelet transforms as method for object recognition and surface analyses. The method was explained in detail, and four differently shaped wavelets were tested with respect to their reconstruction error concerning Kinect recorded depth maps from different camera positions. The images' high frequency parts reconstructed from wavelet decompositions using the haar and the biorthogonal 1.5 wavelet were statistically analyzed with regard to the effects of image fore- or background and of cows' or persons' surface. Furthermore, binary classifiers based on the local high frequencies have been implemented to decide whether a pixel belongs to the image foreground and if it was located on a cow or a person. Classifiers distinguishing between image regions showed high (⩾0.8) values of Area Under reciever operation characteristic Curve (AUC). The classifications due to species showed maximal AUC values of 0.69.

  10. Options for Affordable Fission Surface Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; Van Dyke, Melissa; Martin, Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

    2006-01-01

    Fission surface power systems could provide abundant power anywhere on the surface of the moon or Mars. Locations could include permanently shaded regions on the moon and high latitudes on Mars. To be fully utilized, however, fission surface power systems must be safe, have adequate performance, and be affordable. This paper discusses options for the design and development of such systems. (authors)

  11. Development and assessment of two decontamination processes: closed electropolishing system for decontamination of underwater surfaces -vibratory decontamination with abrasives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavides, E.; Fajardo, M.

    1992-01-01

    Two decontamination processes have been developed to decontaminate the stainless steel components of nuclear power plants. The first process uses an underwater closed electropolishing system for the decontamination of large stainless steel surfaces in flooded systems without loss of electrolyte. Large underwater contaminated areas can be treated with an electropolishing head covering an area of 2 m 2 in one step. The decontamination factors achieved with this technique range between 100 and 1000. The second process consists in the decontamination of nuclear components using vibratory equipment with self-cleaning abrasives generating a minimum quantity of waste. This technique may reach contamination factors similar to those obtained with other abrasive methods (brush abrasion, abrasive blasting, etc...). The obtained decontamination factors range between 5 and 50. Only a small quantity of waste is generated, which is treated and reduced in volume by filtration and evaporation

  12. Development of a miRNA surface-enhanced Raman scattering assay using benchtop and handheld Raman systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechinger, Monika; Marks, Haley; Locke, Andrea; Choudhury, Mahua; Cote, Gerard

    2018-01-01

    DNA-functionalized nanoparticles, when paired with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), can rapidly detect microRNA. However, widespread use of this approach is hindered by drawbacks associated with large and expensive benchtop Raman microscopes. MicroRNA-17 (miRNA-17) has emerged as a potential epigenetic indicator of preeclampsia, a condition that occurs during pregnancy. Biomarker detection using an SERS point-of-care device could enable prompt diagnosis and prevention as early as the first trimester. Recently, strides have been made in developing portable Raman systems for field applications. An SERS assay for miRNA-17 was assessed and translated from traditional benchtop Raman microscopes to a handheld system. Three different photoactive molecules were compared as potential Raman reporter molecules: a chromophore, malachite green isothiocyanate (MGITC), a fluorophore, tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate, and a polarizable small molecule 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB). For the benchtop Raman microscope, the DTNB-labeled assay yielded the greatest sensitivity under 532-nm laser excitation, but the MGITC-labeled assay prevailed at 785 nm. Conversely, DTNB was preferable for the miniaturized 785-nm Raman system. This comparison showed significant SERS enhancement variation in response to 1-nM miRNA-17, implying that the sensitivity of the assay may be more heavily dependent on the excitation wavelength, instrumentation, and Raman reporter chosen than on the plasmonic coupling from DNA/miRNA-mediated nanoparticle assemblies. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  13. Development of a miRNA surface-enhanced Raman scattering assay using benchtop and handheld Raman systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechinger, Monika; Marks, Haley; Locke, Andrea; Choudhury, Mahua; Cote, Gerard

    2018-01-01

    DNA-functionalized nanoparticles, when paired with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), can rapidly detect microRNA. However, widespread use of this approach is hindered by drawbacks associated with large and expensive benchtop Raman microscopes. MicroRNA-17 (miRNA-17) has emerged as a potential epigenetic indicator of preeclampsia, a condition that occurs during pregnancy. Biomarker detection using an SERS point-of-care device could enable prompt diagnosis and prevention as early as the first trimester. Recently, strides have been made in developing portable Raman systems for field applications. An SERS assay for miRNA-17 was assessed and translated from traditional benchtop Raman microscopes to a handheld system. Three different photoactive molecules were compared as potential Raman reporter molecules: a chromophore, malachite green isothiocyanate (MGITC), a fluorophore, tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate, and a polarizable small molecule 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB). For the benchtop Raman microscope, the DTNB-labeled assay yielded the greatest sensitivity under 532-nm laser excitation, but the MGITC-labeled assay prevailed at 785 nm. Conversely, DTNB was preferable for the miniaturized 785-nm Raman system. This comparison showed significant SERS enhancement variation in response to 1-nM miRNA-17, implying that the sensitivity of the assay may be more heavily dependent on the excitation wavelength, instrumentation, and Raman reporter chosen than on the plasmonic coupling from DNA/miRNA-mediated nanoparticle assemblies.

  14. An estimated potentiometric surface of the Death Valley region, Nevada and California, developed using geographic information system and automated interpolation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.; Turner, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    An estimated potentiometric surface was constructed for the Death Valley region, Nevada and California, from numerous, disparate data sets. The potentiometric surface was required for conceptualization of the ground-water flow system and for construction of a numerical model to aid in the regional characterization for the Yucca Mountain repository. Because accurate, manual extrapolation of potentiometric levels over large distances is difficult, a geographic-information-system method was developed to incorporate available data and apply hydrogeologic rules during contour construction. Altitudes of lakes, springs, and wetlands, interpreted as areas where the potentiometric surface intercepts the land surface, were combined with water levels from well data. Because interpreted ground-water recharge and discharge areas commonly coincide with groundwater basin boundaries, these areas also were used to constrain a gridding algorithm and to appropriately place local maxima and minima in the potentiometric-surface map. The resulting initial potentiometric surface was examined to define areas where the algorithm incorrectly extrapolated the potentiometric surface above the land surface. A map of low-permeability rocks overlaid on the potentiometric surface also indicated areas that required editing based on hydrogeologic reasoning. An interactive editor was used to adjust generated contours to better represent the natural water table conditions, such as large hydraulic gradients and troughs, or ''vees''. The resulting estimated potentiometric-surface map agreed well with previously constructed maps. Potentiometric-surface characteristics including potentiometric-surface mounds and depressions, surface troughs, and large hydraulic gradients were described

  15. Development of novel series and parallel sensing system based on nanostructured surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate for biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Te-Wei

    With the advance of nanofabrication, the capability of nanoscale metallic structure fabrication opens a whole new study in nanoplasmonics, which is defined as the investigation of photon-electron interaction in the vicinity of nanoscale metallic structures. The strong oscillation of free electrons at the interface between metal and surrounding dielectric material caused by propagating surface plasmon resonance (SPR) or localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) enables a variety of new applications in different areas, especially biological sensing techniques. One of the promising biological sensing applications by surface resonance polariton is surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), which significantly reinforces the feeble signal of traditional Raman scattering by at least 104 times. It enables highly sensitive and precise molecule identification with the assistance of a SERS substrate. Until now, the design of new SERS substrate fabrication process is still thriving since no dominant design has emerged yet. The ideal process should be able to achieve both a high sensitivity and low cost device in a simple and reliable way. In this thesis two promising approaches for fabricating nanostructured SERS substrate are proposed: thermal dewetting technique and nanoimprint replica technique. These two techniques are demonstrated to show the capability of fabricating high performance SERS substrate in a reliable and cost efficient fashion. In addition, these two techniques have their own unique characteristics and can be integrated with other sensing techniques to build a serial or parallel sensing system. The breakthrough of a combination system with different sensing techniques overcomes the inherent limitations of SERS detection and leverages it to a whole new level of systematic sensing. The development of a sensing platform based on thermal dewetting technique is covered as the first half of this thesis. The process optimization, selection of substrate material

  16. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 1: Concepts of Use, Initial System Requirements, Architecture, and AeroMACS Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Isaacs, James; Henriksen, Steve; Zelkin, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this document) is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  17. Development of chipless, wireless current sensor system based on giant magnetoimpedance magnetic sensor and surface acoustic wave transponder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondalkar, Vijay V; Li, Xiang; Park, Ikmo; Yang, Sang Sik; Lee, Keekeun

    2018-02-05

    A chipless, wireless current sensor system was developed using a giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) magnetic sensor and one-port surface acoustic wave (SAW) reflective delay line for real-time power monitoring in a current-carrying conductor. The GMI sensor has a high-quality crystalline structure in each layer, which contributes to a high sensitivity and good linearity in a magnetic field of 3-16 Oe. A 400 MHz RF energy generated from the interdigital transducer (IDT)-type reflector on the one-port SAW delay line was used as an activation source for the GMI magnetic sensor. The one-port SAW delay line replaces the presently existing transceiver system, which is composed of thousands of transistors, thus enabling chipless and wireless operation. We confirmed a large variation in the amplitude of the SAW reflection peak with a change in the impedance of the GMI sensor caused by the current flow through the conductor. Good linearity and sensitivity of ~0.691 dB/A were observed for currents in the range 1-12 A. Coupling of Mode (COM) modeling and impedance matching analysis were also performed to predict the device performance in advance and these were compared with the experimental results.

  18. Interactive Design of Developable Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Chengcheng

    2016-01-15

    We present a new approach to geometric modeling with developable surfaces and the design of curved-creased origami. We represent developables as splines and express the nonlinear conditions relating to developability and curved folds as quadratic equations. This allows us to utilize a constraint solver, which may be described as energy-guided projection onto the constraint manifold, and which is fast enough for interactive modeling. Further, a combined primal-dual surface representation enables us to robustly and quickly solve approximation problems.

  19. Interactive Design of Developable Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Chengcheng; Bo, Pengbo; Wallner, Johannes; Pottmann, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    We present a new approach to geometric modeling with developable surfaces and the design of curved-creased origami. We represent developables as splines and express the nonlinear conditions relating to developability and curved folds as quadratic equations. This allows us to utilize a constraint solver, which may be described as energy-guided projection onto the constraint manifold, and which is fast enough for interactive modeling. Further, a combined primal-dual surface representation enables us to robustly and quickly solve approximation problems.

  20. Fission Surface Power Technology Development Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palac, Donald T.; Mason, Lee S.; Houts, Michael G.; Harlow, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Power is a critical consideration in planning exploration of the surfaces of the Moon, Mars, and places beyond. Nuclear power is an important option, especially for locations in the solar system where sunlight is limited or environmental conditions are challenging (e.g., extreme cold, dust storms). NASA and the Department of Energy are maintaining the option for fission surface power for the Moon and Mars by developing and demonstrating technology for a fission surface power system. The Fission Surface Power Systems project has focused on subscale component and subsystem demonstrations to address the feasibility of a low-risk, low-cost approach to space nuclear power for surface missions. Laboratory demonstrations of the liquid metal pump, reactor control drum drive, power conversion, heat rejection, and power management and distribution technologies have validated that the fundamental characteristics and performance of these components and subsystems are consistent with a Fission Surface Power preliminary reference concept. In addition, subscale versions of a non-nuclear reactor simulator, using electric resistance heating in place of the reactor fuel, have been built and operated with liquid metal sodium-potassium and helium/xenon gas heat transfer loops, demonstrating the viability of establishing system-level performance and characteristics of fission surface power technologies without requiring a nuclear reactor. While some component and subsystem testing will continue through 2011 and beyond, the results to date provide sufficient confidence to proceed with system level technology readiness demonstration. To demonstrate the system level readiness of fission surface power in an operationally relevant environment (the primary goal of the Fission Surface Power Systems project), a full scale, 1/4 power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) is under development. The TDU will consist of a non-nuclear reactor simulator, a sodium-potassium heat transfer loop, a power

  1. Development of a Remotely Operated, Field-Deployable Tritium Analysis System for Surface and Ground Water Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Cable, P.R.; Noakes, J.E.; Spaulding, J.D.; Neary, M. P.; Wasyl, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The environmental contamination resulting from decades of testing and manufacturing of nuclear materials for a national defense purposes is a problem now being faced by the United States. The Center for Applied Isotope Studies at the University of Georgia, in cooperation with the Westinghouse Savannah River Company and Packard Instrument Company, have developed a prototype unit for remote, near real time, in situ analysis of tritium in surface and ground water samples

  2. Development and characterization of membrane surface display system using molecular chaperon, prsA, of Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, June-Hyung; Park, In-Suk; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2005-01-01

    We report a new membrane surface display system based on molecular chaperon, prsA, of Bacillus subtilis. Clostridium thermocellum cellulase, celA, was fused to C-terminal end of PrsA. Cellulase activity of B. subtilis protoplast, which expressed PrsA-CelA was 15 times higher compared to control strain. More than 85% of total cellulase activity was observed in surface displayed format and less than 15% of total cellulase activity was found in supernatant. Flow cytometric analysis of protoplast of PrsA-CelA fusion expressing bacteria provided another proof of uniform expression of fusion protein onto cytoplasmic membrane of B. subtilis. Without lysozyme treatment, only part of cellulase activity (10%) was observed in whole cell fraction

  3. Seismic Technology Adapted to Analyzing and Developing Geothermal Systems Below Surface-Exposed High-Velocity Rocks Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardage, Bob A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; DeAngelo, Michael V. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Ermolaeva, Elena [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Hardage, Bob A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Remington, Randy [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Sava, Diana [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Wagner, Donald [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Wei, Shuijion [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology

    2013-02-01

    The objective of our research was to develop and demonstrate seismic data-acquisition and data-processing technologies that allow geothermal prospects below high-velocity rock outcrops to be evaluated. To do this, we acquired a 3-component seismic test line across an area of exposed high-velocity rocks in Brewster County, Texas, where there is high heat flow and surface conditions mimic those found at numerous geothermal prospects. Seismic contractors have not succeeded in creating good-quality seismic data in this area for companies who have acquired data for oil and gas exploitation purposes. Our test profile traversed an area where high-velocity rocks and low-velocity sediment were exposed on the surface in alternating patterns that repeated along the test line. We verified that these surface conditions cause non-ending reverberations of Love waves, Rayleigh waves, and shallow critical refractions to travel across the earth surface between the boundaries of the fast-velocity and slow-velocity material exposed on the surface. These reverberating surface waves form the high level of noise in this area that does not allow reflections from deep interfaces to be seen and utilized. Our data-acquisition method of deploying a box array of closely spaced geophones allowed us to recognize and evaluate these surface-wave noise modes regardless of the azimuth direction to the surface anomaly that backscattered the waves and caused them to return to the test-line profile. With this knowledge of the surface-wave noise, we were able to process these test-line data to create P-P and SH-SH images that were superior to those produced by a skilled seismic data-processing contractor. Compared to the P-P data acquired along the test line, the SH-SH data provided a better detection of faults and could be used to trace these faults upward to the boundaries of exposed surface rocks. We expanded our comparison of the relative value of S-wave and P-wave seismic data for geothermal

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF EVALUATION OF A QUANTITATIVE VIDEO-FLUORESCENCE IMAGING SYSTEM AND FLUORESCENT TRACER FOR MEASURING TRANSFER OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES FROM SURFACES TO HANDS WITH REPEATED CONTACTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A video imaging system and the associated quantification methods have been developed for measurement of the transfers of a fluorescent tracer from surfaces to hands. The highly fluorescent compound riboflavin (Vitamin B2), which is also water soluble and non-toxic, was chosen as...

  5. Development of sub-surface drainage data base system for use in water logging and salinity managements issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar, A.H.; Alam, M.M; Rafiq, M.

    2005-01-01

    A simple user-friendly menu-driven database management system pertinent to the Impact of Subsurface Drainage Systems on land and Water Conditions (ISLaW) has been developed for use in water logging and salinity management issues of drainage areas. This database has been developed by integrating four software viz; Microsoft Excel, MS Word, Acrobat and MS Access. The information in the form of tables and figures with respect to various drainage projects has been presented in MS Word files. The major data sets of various subsurface drainage projects included in the ISLaW database are: i) technical aspects, ii) groundwater and soil salinity aspects, iii) socio-technical aspects, iv) agro-economic aspects, and v) operation and maintenance aspects. The various ISLaW files can be accessed just by clicking at the Menu buttons of the database system. This database not only gives feedback on the functioning of different subsurface drainage projects with respect to above mentioned various aspects, but also serves as a resource document for these data for future studies at other drainage projects. The developed database system is useful for planners, designers and Farmers' Organizations for improved operation of existing as well as development of future drainage projects. (author)

  6. Development of a smart backboard system for real-time feedback during CPR chest compression on a soft back support surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohier, Francis; Dellimore, Kiran; Scheffer, Cornie

    2013-01-01

    The quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is often inconsistent and frequently fails to meet recommended guidelines. One promising approach to address this problem is for clinicians to use an active feedback device during CPR. However, one major deficiency of existing feedback systems is that they fail to account for the displacement of the back support surface during chest compression (CC), which can be important when CPR is performed on a soft surface. In this study we present the development of a real-time CPR feedback system based on an algorithm which uses force and dual-accelerometer measurements to provide accurate estimation of the CC depth on a soft surface, without assuming full chest decompression. Based on adult CPR manikin tests it was found that the accuracy of the estimated CC depth for a dual accelerometer feedback system is significantly better (7.3% vs. 24.4%) than for a single accelerometer system on soft back support surfaces, in the absence or presence of a backboard. In conclusion, the algorithm used was found to be suitable for a real-time, dual accelerometer CPR feedback application since it yielded reasonable accuracy in terms of CC depth estimation, even when used on a soft back support surface.

  7. Decision support system for surface irrigation design

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, José M.; Pereira, L.S.

    2009-01-01

    The SADREG decision support system was developed to help decision makers in the process of design and selection of farm surface irrigation systems to respond to requirements of modernization of surface irrigation—furrow, basin, and border irrigation. It includes a database, simulation models, user-friendly interfaces, and multicriteria analysis models. SADREG is comprised of two components: design and selection. The first component applies database information, and through several si...

  8. Design, development, and evaluation of an automatic guidance system for tractor tracking along the contour line on inclined surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dehghani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Automatic guidance of tractors in the mechanized farming practice has taken the attention of agricultural engineers in the last two decades. For this to be truly practical on the farm, it should be economical, simple to operate and entirely contained on the vehicle. Different types of steering systems such as leader- cable, laser- controlled, radio- operated and contactor- type have been developed for automatic guidance. The automatic leveling system is used on hillside machines to keep the separator level when operating on hillsides. This system has three parts: fluid level system, electrical system and hydraulic system. The fluid level system consists of fluid reservoir and a leveling control switch box. The fluid level system actuates the electrical system of the leveling unit. The electrical system which actuated by the fluid system consist of four micro switches in the leveling control switch box, two micro switches in the limit control box, a solenoid in the hydraulic control level, manual leveling control switch, and a leveling limit warning light. The hydraulic system maintains the level of the separator when the machine is operating on a hillside. The present study was aimed to develop a reliable, versatile and easy to maintain system to fit our economy and low technology level of farmers for hillside- range development or fallow farming. The automatic guidance system has been implemented successfully on agricultural vehicles on the basis of three components, i.e. sensors, processors and actuator elements. The study site (N, latitude; E, longitude; and 1810 m above sea level was located at the Agricultural Research Center, Shiraz University, 15 km northwest of Shiraz, Fars Province, Iran. MF-399 agricultural tractor manufactured by ITMCO, Tabriz, Iran was used for doing the experiments. Materials and Methods:The Level Sensing System: The biaxial tilt industrial sensor (ZCT245AL- China with digital output can be connected

  9. Developing an integrated digitizing and display surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipple, James D.; Wedding, Daniel K.; Wedding, Donald K., Sr.

    1995-04-01

    The development of an integrated digitizing and display surface, which utilizes touch entry and flat panel display (FPD) technology, is a significant hardware advance in the field of geographic information systems (GIS). Inherent qualities of the FPD, notably the ac gas plasma display, makes such a marriage inevitable. Large diagonal sizes, high resolution color, screen flatness, and monitor thickness are desirable features of an integrated digitizing and display surface. Recently, the GIS literature has addressed a need for such an innovation. The development of graphics displays based on sophisticated technologies include `photorealistic' (or high definition) imaging at resolutions of 2048 X 2048 or greater, palates of 16.7 million colors, formats greater than 30 inches diagonal, and integrated touch entry. In this paper, there is an evaluation of FPDs and data input technologies in the development of such a product.

  10. Monitoring System for ALICE Surface Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Demirbasci, Oguz

    2016-01-01

    I have been at CERN for 12 weeks within the scope of Summer Student Programme working on a monitoring system project for surface areas of the ALICE experiment during this period of time. The development and implementation of a monitoring system for environmental parameters in the accessible areas where a cheap hardware setup can be deployed were aim of this project. This report explains how it was developed by using Arduino, Raspberry PI, WinCC OA and DIM protocol.

  11. Recent airborne EM system (helicopter VTEM and fixed-wing ZTEM) development for near-surface and regional applications for oil and gas exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legault, Jean; Prikhodko, Alexander; Kumar, Harish; Genereux, Jim [Geotech Ltd., Aurora, ON (Canada)], email: jean@geotech.ca, email: alexander@geotech.ca, email: harish@geotech.ca, email: jim.genereux@geotech.ca

    2011-07-01

    The helicopter-borne VTEM (versatile time-domain electromagnetic) system is a geophysical instrument, whose development has been ongoing since 2002, and which was designed to improve detection of many kinds of conductive targets, primarily for mining. However, although deep penetration characteristics of this system have progressively achieved significant improvements, its capacity for near-surface imaging has been limited by its early-time data. To solve this problem, Geotech has undertaken a system design strategy in order to improve the early-channel VTEM data and to obtain quantitative measurements closer to the transmitter current turn-off. With this development, a new model of the VTEM system could be designed specifically for near-surface, high-resolution applications, while deep penetration characteristics still remained reasonably optimal. The standard ZTEM (z-axis tipper electromagnetic) acquisition system obtains vertical-component data by means of an aircoil receiver that is suspended below the aircraft. Then the z-axis data are proportioned to fixed horizontal field measurements obtained with identical reference coils.

  12. Heterologous expression of carcinoembryonic antigen in Lactococcus lactis via LcsB-mediated surface displaying system for oral vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Hu, Shumin; Du, Xue; Li, Tiejun; Han, Lanlan; Kong, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is an attractive target for immunotherapy because it is expressed minimally in normal tissue, but is overexpressed in a wide variety of malignant epithelial tissues. Lactic acid bacteria (LABs), widely used in food processes, are attractive candidates for oral vaccination. Thus, we examined whether LABs could be used as a live vaccine vector to deliver CEA antigen. CEA was cloned into an Escherichia coli/Lactococcus lactis shuttle vector pSEC:LEISS under the control of a nisin promoter. For displaying the CEA on the cell surface of the L. lactis strain, the anchor motif LcsB from the S-layer protein of Lactobacillus crispatus was fused with CEA. Intracellular and cell surface expression of the CEA-LcsB fusion was confirmed by western blot analysis. Significantly higher levels of CEA-specific secretory immunoglobulin A in the sera of mice were observed upon oral administration of strain cultures containing the CEA-LcsB fused protein. In addition, the CEA-LcsB antigen group showed a higher spleen index compared to the CEA antigen alone or negative control, demonstrating that surface-displayed CEA antigen could induce a higher immune response. These results provided the first evidence for displaying CEA antigen on the cell surfaces of LABs as oral vaccines against cancer or infectious diseases. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 2: Test Bed Performance Evaluation and Final AeroMACS Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Magner, James

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II (this document) describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  14. New developments in surface technology and prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmer, Thomas; Beyer, Eckhard

    2003-03-01

    Novel lightweight applications in the automotive and aircraft industries require advanced materials and techniques for surface protection as well as direct and rapid manufacturing of the related components and tools. The manufacturing processes presented in this paper are based on multiple additive and subtractive technologies such as laser cutting, laser welding, direct laser metal deposition, laser/plasma hybrid spraying technique or CNC milling. The process chain is similar to layer-based Rapid Prototyping Techniques. In the first step, the 3D CAD geometry is sliced into layers by a specially developed software. These slices are cut by high speed laser cutting and then joined together. In this way laminated tools or parts are built. To improve surface quality and to increase wear resistance a CNC machining center is used. The system consists of a CNC milling machine, in which a 3 kW Nd:YAG laser, a coaxial powder nozzle and a digitizing system are integrated. Using a new laser/plasma hybrid spraying technique, coatings can be deposited onto parts for surface protection. The layers show a low porosity and high adhesion strength, the thickness is up to 0.3 mm, and the lower effort for preliminary surface preparation reduces time and costs of the whole process.

  15. Advanced Space Surface Systems Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Zachary Lynn; Mueller, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of advanced surface systems is becoming increasingly relevant in the modern age of space technology. Specifically, projects pursued by the Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations (GMRO) Lab are unparalleled in the field of planetary resourcefulness. This internship opportunity involved projects that support properly utilizing natural resources from other celestial bodies. Beginning with the tele-robotic workstation, mechanical upgrades were necessary to consider for specific portions of the workstation consoles and successfully designed in concept. This would provide more means for innovation and creativity concerning advanced robotic operations. Project RASSOR is a regolith excavator robot whose primary objective is to mine, store, and dump regolith efficiently on other planetary surfaces. Mechanical adjustments were made to improve this robot's functionality, although there were some minor system changes left to perform before the opportunity ended. On the topic of excavator robots, the notes taken by the GMRO staff during the 2013 and 2014 Robotic Mining Competitions were effectively organized and analyzed for logistical purposes. Lessons learned from these annual competitions at Kennedy Space Center are greatly influential to the GMRO engineers and roboticists. Another project that GMRO staff support is Project Morpheus. Support for this project included successfully producing mathematical models of the eroded landing pad surface for the vertical testbed vehicle to predict a timeline for pad reparation. And finally, the last project this opportunity made contribution to was Project Neo, a project exterior to GMRO Lab projects, which focuses on rocket propulsion systems. Additions were successfully installed to the support structure of an original vertical testbed rocket engine, thus making progress towards futuristic test firings in which data will be analyzed by students affiliated with Rocket University. Each project will be explained in

  16. Surface generation of a cobalt-derived water oxidation electrocatalyst developed in a neutral HCO3 -/CO2 system

    KAUST Repository

    Joya, Khurram Saleem

    2014-06-04

    Neutral HCO3 -/CO2 is a new electrolyte system for in situ generation of robust and efficient Co-derived (Co-Ci) water oxidation electrocatalysts. The Co-Ci/indium tin oxide system shows a remarkable 2.0 mA cm-2 oxygen evolution current density that is sustained for several hours. 7.5 nmol of electroactive species per cm2 generates about 109 μmol of O2 at a rate of 0.51 per mol of catalyst per second.

  17. Surface generation of a cobalt-derived water oxidation electrocatalyst developed in a neutral HCO3 -/CO2 system

    KAUST Repository

    Joya, Khurram Saleem; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; De Groot, Huub J M

    2014-01-01

    Neutral HCO3 -/CO2 is a new electrolyte system for in situ generation of robust and efficient Co-derived (Co-Ci) water oxidation electrocatalysts. The Co-Ci/indium tin oxide system shows a remarkable 2.0 mA cm-2 oxygen evolution current density that is sustained for several hours. 7.5 nmol of electroactive species per cm2 generates about 109 μmol of O2 at a rate of 0.51 per mol of catalyst per second.

  18. Quantitative assessment of radionuclide retention in the near-surface system at Forsmark. Development of a reactive transport model using Forsmark 1.2 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandia, Fidel; Sena, Clara; Arcos, David; Molinero, Jorge; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi

    2007-12-01

    The main objective of this work is to assess the migration behaviour of selected long-lived radionuclides through the near-surface system of Forsmark, with special focus on the evaluation of the capacity of the Quaternary deposits and sediments for radionuclide retention. The work reported here is based on data and information from Forsmark Site Descriptive Model version 1.2. From the geological point of view, the near-surface systems in the Forsmark area consist of Quaternary deposits and sediments that overlay the granitic bedrock. Glacial till is the more abundant outcropping Quaternary deposit and the remainder is made of clayey deposits. These types of near-surface sediments show distinctive hydraulic and geochemical features. The main reactive mineral in the till deposits, for the time horizons considered in this work, is calcium carbonate together with minor amounts of clay minerals (e.g. illite). The till deposits forms aquifers with relatively high hydraulic conductivities. In contrast, glacial and post-glacial clays are basically composed of illite with low to very low amounts of calcium carbonate, and containing organic matter-rich layers (gyttja), which can promote reducing conditions in the porewaters. All these clays exhibits relatively low hydraulic conductivity values. Five radionuclides have been selected for conceptualization and qualitative evaluation of retention process: U as an actinide, Se as a redox-sensitive radionuclide, Cs as a monovalent cation, Sr as a divalent cation, and I as an anion radionuclide. Overall, radionuclide retention capacity in the surface systems at Forsmark can be provided by sorption on charged surfaces of clays and oxyhydroxides, co-precipitation with sulphates, sulphides, oxyhydroxides and carbonates, and sorption on organic matter. Two-dimensional coupled hydrogeological and reactive solute transport models have been developed to simulate the geochemical behaviour of U, Cs and Sr. These three radionuclides have

  19. Fission Surface Power System Initial Concept Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Under the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) and in partnership with the Department of Energy (DOE), NASA has embarked on a project to develop Fission Surface Power (FSP) technology. The primary goals of the project are to 1) develop FSP concepts that meet expected surface power requirements at reasonable cost with added benefits over other options, 2) establish a hardwarebased technical foundation for FSP design concepts and reduce overall development risk, 3) reduce the cost uncertainties for FSP and establish greater credibility for flight system cost estimates, and 4) generate the key products to allow NASA decision-makers to consider FSP as a preferred option for flight development. The FSP project was initiated in 2006 as the Prometheus Program and the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission were phased-out. As a first step, NASA Headquarters commissioned the Affordable Fission Surface Power System Study to evaluate the potential for an affordable FSP development approach. With a cost-effective FSP strategy identified, the FSP team evaluated design options and selected a Preliminary Reference Concept to guide technology development. Since then, the FSP Preliminary Reference Concept has served as a point-of-departure for several NASA mission architecture studies examining the use of nuclear power and has provided the foundation for a series of "Pathfinder" hardware tests. The long-term technology goal is a Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) integrated system test using full-scale components and a non-nuclear reactor simulator. The FSP team consists of Glenn Research Center (GRC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the DOE National Laboratories at Los Alamos (LANL), Idaho (INL), Oak Ridge (ORNL), and Sandia (SNL). The project is organized into two main elements: Concept Definition and Risk Reduction. Under Concept Definition, the team performs trade studies, develops analytical tools, and formulates system concepts. Under Risk

  20. Complementary modelling of radionuclide retention in the near-surface system at Forsmark. Development of a reactive transport model using Forsmark 1.2 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sena, Clara; Grandia, Fidel; Arcos, David; Molinero, Jorge; Duro, Lara (Amphos XXI Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain))

    2008-10-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is conducting a comprehensive geoscientific characterization of two alternative sites to allocate a deep geological repository of high level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Program also includes the near-surface systems, which are expected to constitute the last geological barrier between the repository system and the earth's surface. The evaluation of the retention capacity of the near surface systems is, therefore, very relevant for the site characterization program. From the geological point of view, near-surface systems in the Forsmark area consist of Quaternary deposits that overlay a granitic bedrock. Glacial till is the most abundant outcropping Quaternary deposit (approx75% of surface extension) and the remainder is made up of clayey materials (glacial and post-glacial clays). These types of near-surface sediments show distinctive hydraulic and geochemical features. The main reactive mineral in the till deposits, for the time scale considered in this work, is calcium carbonate (calcite). This mineral is found along with clay minerals (e.g. illite) and Fe(III) hydroxides. In contrast, glacial and post-glacial clays are basically composed of illite with minor amounts of calcium carbonate, and containing organic matter-rich levels (gyttja) which can promote reducing conditions in the system. The assessment of the migration behaviour of selected long-lived radionuclides through the near-surface system of Forsmark was developed in an earlier work, that focused on the evaluation of the capacity of the Quaternary deposits for radionuclide retention. The work reported here is an improvement of the geochemical conceptual and numerical model already presented, based on data available in the Site Descriptive Model v 1.2 (Forsmark). Regarding the geochemical variability of the Quaternary deposits present at Forsmark and its implications on radionuclide mobility through the near-surface systems, a

  1. Three-dimensional quantification of cardiac surface motion: a newly developed three-dimensional digital motion-capture and reconstruction system for beating heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Toshiki; Omata, Sadao; Odamura, Motoki; Okada, Masahumi; Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Yokoyama, Hitoshi

    2006-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate our newly developed 3-dimensional digital motion-capture and reconstruction system in an animal experiment setting and to characterize quantitatively the three regional cardiac surface motions, in the left anterior descending artery, right coronary artery, and left circumflex artery, before and after stabilization using a stabilizer. Six pigs underwent a full sternotomy. Three tiny metallic markers (diameter 2 mm) coated with a reflective material were attached on three regional cardiac surfaces (left anterior descending, right coronary, and left circumflex coronary artery regions). These markers were captured by two high-speed digital video cameras (955 frames per second) as 2-dimensional coordinates and reconstructed to 3-dimensional data points (about 480 xyz-position data per second) by a newly developed computer program. The remaining motion after stabilization ranged from 0.4 to 1.01 mm at the left anterior descending, 0.91 to 1.52 mm at the right coronary artery, and 0.53 to 1.14 mm at the left circumflex regions. Significant differences before and after stabilization were evaluated in maximum moving velocity (left anterior descending 456.7 +/- 178.7 vs 306.5 +/- 207.4 mm/s; right coronary artery 574.9 +/- 161.7 vs 446.9 +/- 170.7 mm/s; left circumflex 578.7 +/- 226.7 vs 398.9 +/- 192.6 mm/s; P heart surface movement. This helps us better understand the complexity of the heart, its motion, and the need for developing a better stabilizer for beating heart surgery.

  2. Flat Surface Damage Detection System (FSDDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Lewis, Mark; Gibson, Tracy; Lane, John; Medelius, Pedro; Snyder, Sarah; Ciarlariello, Dan; Parks, Steve; Carrejo, Danny; Rojdev, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The Flat Surface Damage Detection system (FSDDS} is a sensory system that is capable of detecting impact damages to surfaces utilizing a novel sensor system. This system will provide the ability to monitor the integrity of an inflatable habitat during in situ system health monitoring. The system consists of three main custom designed subsystems: the multi-layer sensing panel, the embedded monitoring system, and the graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI LABVIEW software uses a custom developed damage detection algorithm to determine the damage location based on the sequence of broken sensing lines. It estimates the damage size, the maximum depth, and plots the damage location on a graph. Successfully demonstrated as a stand alone technology during 2011 D-RATS. Software modification also allowed for communication with HDU avionics crew display which was demonstrated remotely (KSC to JSC} during 2012 integration testing. Integrated FSDDS system and stand alone multi-panel systems were demonstrated remotely and at JSC, Mission Operations Test using Space Network Research Federation (SNRF} network in 2012. FY13, FSDDS multi-panel integration with JSC and SNRF network Technology can allow for integration with other complementary damage detection systems.

  3. Quantitative assessment of radionuclide retention in the near-surface system at Forsmark. Development of a reactive transport model using Forsmark 1.2 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandia, Fidel; Sena, Clara; Arcos, David; Molinero, Jorge; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi (Amphos XXI Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain))

    2007-12-15

    The main objective of this work is to assess the migration behaviour of selected long-lived radionuclides through the near-surface system of Forsmark, with special focus on the evaluation of the capacity of the Quaternary deposits and sediments for radionuclide retention. The work reported here is based on data and information from Forsmark Site Descriptive Model version 1.2. From the geological point of view, the near-surface systems in the Forsmark area consist of Quaternary deposits and sediments that overlay the granitic bedrock. Glacial till is the more abundant outcropping Quaternary deposit and the remainder is made of clayey deposits. These types of near-surface sediments show distinctive hydraulic and geochemical features. The main reactive mineral in the till deposits, for the time horizons considered in this work, is calcium carbonate together with minor amounts of clay minerals (e.g. illite). The till deposits forms aquifers with relatively high hydraulic conductivities. In contrast, glacial and post-glacial clays are basically composed of illite with low to very low amounts of calcium carbonate, and containing organic matter-rich layers (gyttja), which can promote reducing conditions in the porewaters. All these clays exhibits relatively low hydraulic conductivity values. Five radionuclides have been selected for conceptualization and qualitative evaluation of retention process: U as an actinide, Se as a redox-sensitive radionuclide, Cs as a monovalent cation, Sr as a divalent cation, and I as an anion radionuclide. Overall, radionuclide retention capacity in the surface systems at Forsmark can be provided by sorption on charged surfaces of clays and oxyhydroxides, co-precipitation with sulphates, sulphides, oxyhydroxides and carbonates, and sorption on organic matter. Two-dimensional coupled hydrogeological and reactive solute transport models have been developed to simulate the geochemical behaviour of U, Cs and Sr. These three radionuclides have

  4. METHODS TO DEVELOP A TOROIDAL SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANAILA Ligia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper work presents two practical methods to draw the development of a surface unable to be developed applying classical methods of Descriptive Geometry, the toroidal surface, frequently met in technical practice. The described methods are approximate ones; the development is obtained with the help of points. The accuracy of the methods is given by the number of points used when drawing. As for any other approximate method, when practically manufactured the development may need to be adjusted on site.

  5. Primer: Using Watershed Modeling System (WMS) for Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) Data Development - WMS 6.1 and GSSHA 1.43C

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Downer, Charles

    2003-01-01

    This document is a primer for use of the Watershed Modeling System (WMS) interface with the physically based, distributed-parameter hydrologic model Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA...

  6. Automotive System for Remote Surface Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrov, Aleksandr; Hoare, Edward; Tran, Thuy-Yung; Clarke, Nigel; Gashinova, Marina; Cherniakov, Mikhail

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we shall discuss a novel approach to road surface recognition, based on the analysis of backscattered microwave and ultrasonic signals. The novelty of our method is sonar and polarimetric radar data fusion, extraction of features for separate swathes of illuminated surface (segmentation), and using of multi-stage artificial neural network for surface classification. The developed system consists of 24 GHz radar and 40 kHz ultrasonic sensor. The features are extracted from backscattered signals and then the procedures of principal component analysis and supervised classification are applied to feature data. The special attention is paid to multi-stage artificial neural network which allows an overall increase in classification accuracy. The proposed technique was tested for recognition of a large number of real surfaces in different weather conditions with the average accuracy of correct classification of 95%. The obtained results thereby demonstrate that the use of proposed system architecture and statistical methods allow for reliable discrimination of various road surfaces in real conditions.

  7. Development and field example of multi channel surface wave data acquisition and processing system (SWS-1); Multi channel hyomenha data shutoku shori system (SWS-1) no kaihatsu to jikkenrei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y [Huashui Institute of Geophysical Exploration, (China); Wang, Z [Bureauof Engineering MGMR, (China); Zhang, Z [STG Corp., (China); Tanaka, Y

    1996-05-01

    A report is given here about the use of a newly-developed multi-channel surface wave data acquisition and processing system different from the conventional surface wave exploration device. This system enables the on-site pickup of a dispersion curve out of the multi-component surface wave data and, in the analysis of underground structure, performs the forward modeling and inversion. The system, furthermore, acquires and analyzes the data obtained from reflection earthquake exploration and constant microtremor observation. During a survey conducted along the highway from Port Ren-un to Xuzhou, China, estimation of the basement boundary was made by use of dynamite, and what was obtained agreed with the result of boring though with an error of 3m. In addition, this system could probe levels deeper than 100m using the instantaneous Rayleigh wave exploration method. This system and the conventional surface exploration device were compared in a soft ground in Fukui Prefecture, the former using a 10kg hammer and the latter using a 350kg exciter, when it was verified that the results produced by both techniques excellently agree with the geologic columnar section and changes in the N-value. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  8. A computer-aided surface roughness measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, F.J.; Schankula, M.H.

    1983-11-01

    A diamond stylus profilometer with computer-based data acquisitions/analysis system is being used to characterize surfaces of reactor components and materials, and to examine the effects of surface topography on thermal contact conductance. The current system is described; measurement problems and system development are discussed in general terms and possible future improvements are outlined

  9. APPROXIMATE DEVELOPMENTS FOR SURFACES OF REVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Roxana Buneci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is provide a set of Maple procedures to construct approximate developments of a general surface of revolution generalizing the well-known gore method for sphere

  10. Development of Biomimetic and Functionally Responsive Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadis, Spiros H.

    2010-03-01

    Controlling the surface morphology of solids and manufacturing of functional surfaces with special responsive properties has been the subject of intense research. We report a methodology for creating multifunctionally responsive surfaces by irradiating silicon wafers with femtosecond laser pulses and subsequently coating them with different types of functional conformal coatings. Such surfaces exhibit controlled dual-scale roughness at the micro- and the nano-scale, which mimics the hierarchical morphology of water repellent natural surfaces. When a simple alkylsilane coating is utilized, highly water repellent surfaces are produced that quantitatively compare to those of the Lotus leaf. When a polymer brush is ``grafted from" these surfaces based on a pH-sensitive polymer, the surfaces can alter their behavior from super-hydrophilic (after immersion in a low pH buffer) to super-hydrophobic and water-repellent (following immersion to a high pH buffer). We quantify the water repellency of such responsive systems by drop elasticity measurements whereas we demonstrate that the water repellent state of such surface requires appropriate hydrophobicity of the functionalizing polymer. When a photo-responsive azobenzene-type polymer is deposited, a dynamic optical control of the wetting properties is obtained and the surface can be switched from super-hydrophilic (following UV irradiation) to hydrophobic (following green irradiation). In all the above cases we show that the principal effect of roughness is to cause amplification of the response to the different external stimuli.

  11. Surface sedimentation at permeable pavement systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Jan; Dam, Torben; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2018-01-01

    Newly installed permeable pavement (PP) systems provide high surface infiltration capacity, but the accumulation of sediments causes a decrease in capacity over time, eventually leading to surface clogging. With the aim of investigating local sedimentation processes and the importance of restorat......Newly installed permeable pavement (PP) systems provide high surface infiltration capacity, but the accumulation of sediments causes a decrease in capacity over time, eventually leading to surface clogging. With the aim of investigating local sedimentation processes and the importance...

  12. Switchable host-guest systems on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying-Wei; Sun, Yu-Long; Song, Nan

    2014-07-15

    CONSPECTUS: For device miniaturization, nanotechnology follows either the "top-down" approach scaling down existing larger-scale devices or the "bottom-up' approach assembling the smallest possible building blocks to functional nanoscale entities. For synthetic nanodevices, self-assembly on surfaces is a superb method to achieve useful functions and enable their interactions with the surrounding world. Consequently, adaptability and responsiveness to external stimuli are other prerequisites for their successful operation. Mechanically interlocked molecules such as rotaxanes and catenanes, and their precursors, that is, molecular switches and supramolecular switches including pseudorotaxanes, are molecular machines or prototypes of machines capable of mechanical motion induced by chemical signals, biological inputs, light or redox processes as the external stimuli. Switching of these functional host-guest systems on surfaces becomes a fundamental requirement for artificial molecular machines to work, mimicking the molecular machines in nature, such as proteins and their assemblies operating at dynamic interfaces such as the surfaces of cell membranes. Current research endeavors in material science and technology are focused on developing either a new class of materials or materials with novel/multiple functionalities by shifting host-guest chemistry from solution phase to surfaces. In this Account, we present our most recent attempts of building monolayers of rotaxanes/pseudorotaxanes on surfaces, providing stimuli-induced macroscopic effects and further understanding on the switchable host-guest systems at interfaces. Biocompatible versions of molecular machines based on synthetic macrocycles, such as cucurbiturils, pillararenes, calixarenes, and cyclodextrins, have been employed to form self-assembled monolayers of gates on the surfaces of mesoporous silica nanoparticles to regulate the controlled release of cargo/drug molecules under a range of external stimuli

  13. Prospects for the Development of Innovative Technology of Supersonic Gas-Powder Surfacing Coatings from Alloys of the System Ni-Cr-B-Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, Mikhail V.; Kiselev, Vadim S.; Shevtsov, Yuri O.; Radchenko, Tatyana B.

    2017-10-01

    The article is devoted to the research and development of technological recommendations of supersonic gas-powder surfacing, an example of the practical use of the developed technology is given. Market research indicates that demand for these products is stable due to the growing quality requirements of components and parts produced by the largest machine-building enterprises of Russia.

  14. Research and development of photovoltaic power system. Research on surface passivation for high-efficiency silicon solar cells; Taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Hyomen passivation no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Technology

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the result obtained during fiscal 1994 on research on surface passivation of high-efficiency silicon solar cells. In research on carrier recombination on SiO2/doped silicon interface, measurements were carried out on minority carrier life with respect to p-type silicon substrates with which phosphorus with high and low concentrations are diffused uniformly on the surface and non-uniformly on the back and then oxidized. The measurements were performed for the purpose of evaluating the carrier recombination at p-n junctions. Effective life time of oxidized test samples increased longer than that of prior to the oxidization as a result of effect of surface passivation contributing remarkably. In research on reduction in carrier recombination on SiO2/Si interface by using H radical annealing, experiments were conducted by using a method that uses more active H-atoms. As a result, it was revealed that the reduction effect is recognized at as low temperature as 200{degree}C, and photo-bias effect is also noticeable. Other research activities included analytic research on minority carrier recombination on micro crystalline silicon/crystalline silicon interface, and experimental research on evaluation of minority carrier life of poly-crystalline silicon wafers. 6 figs.

  15. DESIGNING OF DEVELOPED SURFACES OF COMPLEX PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Tyshchenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper focuses on ensuring the rational choice of parameters of the mating surfaces of parts when designing process equipment based on the methods of artificial intelligence. Methodology. The paper considers the geometric model of a ruled developed surface, the conditions of existence of such a surface and provides a generalized algorithm for surface plotting regardless of the type of the working element or the machine-building product. One of the most common technical surfaces are the ruled ones, among which a special position is occupied by developed surfaces (thanks to their differential-parametric properties: surface tangent plane is n contact along the rectilinear generator and does not change its position in space when changing the point of contact; surfaces can be produced by bending sheet metal. These provisions enable a product manufacturer to save significant material and energy means, therefore, the development of geometric models of such surfaces is an important task. Findings. We analyzed the geometrical model of the developed surface which is incident to two guides. Experimental studies have shown the applicationprospectivity of semi-digger moldboards on moldboard plows, particularly on the double-deck ones. Taking into account the operating speed of the plow 2.8 m/s, the plant residues plowing percentage for plow with semi-digger moldboards is 98.9%, and with the digger ones – 96.1%. Originality. According to results: 1 the approaches to solving the problem of recognition of wear conditions of the tested interface, depicted by its conceptual model, were elaborated; 2 the corresponding algorithms of the computational procedures were built; 3 the mathematical model that determines the effect of the parameters of the contacting surfaces on their performance properties – linear wear rate during the normal wear and tear was developed; 4 for this model the theoretical prerequisite of use for the random mating study were

  16. Development of an Operational System for the Retrieval of Aerosol and Land Surface Properties from the Terra Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crean, Kathleen A.

    2003-01-01

    An operational system to retrieve atmospheric aerosol and land surface properties using data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument, currently flying onboard NASA's Terra spacecraft, has been deployed. The system is in full operation, with new data products generated daily and distributed to science users worldwide. This paper describes the evolution of the system, from initial requirements definition and prototyping through design, implementation, testing, operational deployment, checkout and maintenance activities. The current status of the system and future plans for enhancement are described. Major challenges encountered during implementation are detailed.

  17. Microbial Surface Colonization and Biofilm Development in Marine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Biotic and abiotic surfaces in marine waters are rapidly colonized by microorganisms. Surface colonization and subsequent biofilm formation and development provide numerous advantages to these organisms and support critical ecological and biogeochemical functions in the changing marine environment. Microbial surface association also contributes to deleterious effects such as biofouling, biocorrosion, and the persistence and transmission of harmful or pathogenic microorganisms and their genetic determinants. The processes and mechanisms of colonization as well as key players among the surface-associated microbiota have been studied for several decades. Accumulating evidence indicates that specific cell-surface, cell-cell, and interpopulation interactions shape the composition, structure, spatiotemporal dynamics, and functions of surface-associated microbial communities. Several key microbial processes and mechanisms, including (i) surface, population, and community sensing and signaling, (ii) intraspecies and interspecies communication and interaction, and (iii) the regulatory balance between cooperation and competition, have been identified as critical for the microbial surface association lifestyle. In this review, recent progress in the study of marine microbial surface colonization and biofilm development is synthesized and discussed. Major gaps in our knowledge remain. We pose questions for targeted investigation of surface-specific community-level microbial features, answers to which would advance our understanding of surface-associated microbial community ecology and the biogeochemical functions of these communities at levels from molecular mechanistic details through systems biological integration. PMID:26700108

  18. Development of a test system for the determination of biodegradability in surface waters; Entwicklung eines Testsystems fuer die Pruefung des biologischen Abbaus in Oberflaechengewaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsch, W; Knacker, T; Robertz, M; Schallnass, H J

    1997-04-01

    The study presented here describes the development of a laboratory test system for the determination of aerobic biodegradability of substances at low concentrations in surface water. It was aimed to prepare a draft guideline for a biodegradation simulation test according to OECD format. The experimental approach was based on a literature study conducted within the frame of this project. Further useful information on the possible test design was derived from the German BBA guideline 5-1. Natural water and sediments were collected. Radiolabelled Lindane or 4-Nitrophenol was added. The test vessels (reactors) were aerated and incubated under controlled conditions for up to 92 days. The results showed biological stability of the sediment/water systems even without addition of nutrients and adherence to non-reducing conditions. Mineralisation of 4-Nitrophenol was influenced by the sediment type, the method of aeration and temperature. Factors affecting the mineralisation of Lindane were the method of application and again, the sediment type and temperature. Considerable amounts of the radioactivity were bound to the sediment and were to a large extent unextractable. The potential of a reactor to mineralise a test substance could not be correlated with the biological parameters measured. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Studie beschreibt die Entwicklung eines Labortestverfahrens zur Pruefung des aeroben Abbaus niedrig konzentrierter Stoffe in Oberflaechengewaessern. Dabei war es ein Ziel, das Verfahren so weit abzusichern, dass ein Entwurf fuer eine Pruefrichtlinie als Simulationstest im Format der OECD-Richtlinien abgefasst werden konnte. Grundlage fuer die Konzeption war eine zuvoerderst durchgefuehrte Literaturstudie. Hinweise auf ein moegliches Testdesign ergaben sich auch aus der BBA-Richtlinie 5-1. Wasser und Sediment wurden der Natur entnommen und nach Zugabe der radioaktiven Pruefsubstanz Lindan oder 4-Nitrophenol in einem beluefteten Gefaess unter

  19. Surface Systems R&D in NASA's Planetary Exploration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbin, C.; Rodriguez, G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on activities being supported by the Surface Systems Thrust of the NASA Cross Enterprise Technology Development Program, a research program whithin the NASA office of Space Science.

  20. SURFACES OF HARD-SPHERE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Stoyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In various situations surfaces appear that are formed by systems of hard spheres. Examples are porous layers as surfaces of sand heaps and biofilms or fracture surfaces of concrete. The present paper considers models where a statistically homogeneous system of hard spheres with random radii is intersected by a plane and the surface is formed by the spheres with centers close to this plane. Formulae are derived for various characteristics of such surfaces: for the porosity profile, i.e. the local porosity in dependence on the distance from the section plane and for the geometry of the sphere caps that look above the section plane.It turns out that these characteristics only depend on the first-order characteristics of the sphere system, its sphere density and the sphere radius distribution.Comparison with empirically studied biofilms shows that the model is realistic.

  1. Mobile systems development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Kristiansen, Martin Lund; Kammersgaard, Marc N.

    2007-01-01

    in XP. In general, we find XP well-suited for mobile systems development projects. However, based on our experiences and an analytical comparison we propose the following modifications to XP: Make an essential design to avoid the worst time waste during refactoring. For faster development, reuse code......Development of mobile software is Surrounded by much uncertainty. Immature software platforms on mobile clients, a highly competitive market calling for innovation, efficiency and effectiveness in the development life cycle, and lacking end-user adoption are just some of the realities facing...... development teams in the mobile software industry. By taking a process view on development of mobile systems we seek to explore the strengths and limitations of eXtreme Programming (XP) in the context of mobile software development. Following an experimental approach a mobile systems development project...

  2. Doing Systems Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Mathiasen, John Bang

    2014-01-01

    Systems development of wind turbine control is competitive with respect to innovation, time and cost. So how can learning possibly occur under such circumstances? Dewey’s pragmatist approach to learning is adopted, emphasising reciprocity between the systems developer’s individual experience...... and the sociotechnical practice. The framework involves the concepts of sociotechnical practice, anchoring of indeterminate situation, and strip of doings towards determinate situation. An ethnographic study was made of four cases of systems development and learning do occur in the cases, enabled by converging anchoring...... of the indeterminate situation and the systems developers different experience. However, an extreme case reveals initiated learning processes and that the interchanges between materiality of the artefacts and systems developers block the learning processes due to a customer with imprecise demands and unclear system...

  3. Wireless sensing on surface hydrocarbon production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, D; McStay, D; Mulholland, J; Costello, L

    2009-01-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks for monitoring and optimising the performance of surface hydrocarbon production systems is reported. Wireless sensor networks are shown to be able to produce comprehensively instrumented XTs and other equipment that generate the data required by Intelligent Oilfield systems. The information produced by such systems information can be used for real-time operational control, production optimization and troubleshooting.

  4. Surface Waters Information Management System (SWIMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Surface Waters Information Management System (SWIMS) has been designed to meet multi-agency hydrologic database needs for Kansas. The SWIMS project was supported...

  5. Surface Operations Systems Improve Airport Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    With Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Ames Research Center, Mosaic ATM of Leesburg, Virginia created software to analyze surface operations at airports. Surface surveillance systems, which report locations every second for thousands of air and ground vehicles, generate massive amounts of data, making gathering and analyzing this information difficult. Mosaic?s Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation (SODAA) tool is an off-line support tool that can analyze how well the airport surface operation is working and can help redesign procedures to improve operations. SODAA helps researchers pinpoint trends and correlations in vast amounts of recorded airport operations data.

  6. Industrialized Information Systems Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havn, Erling; Bansler, Jørgen P.

    1996-01-01

    The production of application software is rapidly being industrialized. Computer manufacturers and software houses produce a rapidly growing number of generic software applications and systems, and more and more user companies choose to build their computer-based information systems...... with such generic products, instead of custom made software. We discuss how the move away from traditional in-house development and the increasing use of generic software is likely to transform IS development in the near future. We conclude that these developments will make new demands on the information systems...

  7. Development of radioactive surface contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Tadao; Hasegawa, Toru; Fukumoto, Keisuke; Ooki, Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    In the radiation facilities such as nuclear power plants, surface contamination of the people accessing or articles conveyed in and out of the radiation controlled areas is detected and monitored by installing contamination monitors at the boundary of controlled areas and uncontrolled areas against the expansion of the radioactive materials to out of the facilities. It is required for the surface contamination of articles to be tightened of control criteria as 'Guidelines for discrimination ways of nonradioactive waste (not classified as radioactive waste) generated from nuclear power plants' (hereinafter referred to as 'the Guideline') was established by the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry in August, 2005. It predicts that the control criteria of monitors other than article monitors are also tightened in the future. Fuji electric has been fabricating and delivering surface contamination detecting monitors. Now we are developing the new contamination monitor corresponding to the tightening of the control criteria. 'Large article transfer monitor', 'Clothing monitor' and 'Body surface contamination monitor' are introduced in this article. (author)

  8. Permanent isolation surface barrier development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    The exhumation and treatment of wastes may not always be the preferred alternative in the remediation of a waste site. In-place disposal alternatives, under certain circumstances, may be the most desirable alternatives to use in the protection of human health and the environment. The implementation of an in-place disposal alternative will likely require some type of protective covering that will provide long-term isolation of the wastes from the accessible environment. Even if the wastes are exhumed and treated, a long-term barrier may still be needed to adequately dispose of the treated wastes or any remaining waste residuals. Currently, no open-quotes provenclose quotes long-term barrier is available. The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site. The permanent isolation barrier technology also could be used at other sites. Permanent isolation barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with redundant protective features. Drawings of conceptual permanent isolation surface barriers are shown. The natural construction materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity. The objective of current designs is to use natural materials to develop a maintenance-free permanent isolation surface barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1,000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling the exhalation of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion-related problems

  9. Permanent isolation surface barrier development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wing, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    The exhumation and treatment of wastes may not always be the preferred alternative in the remediation of a waste site. In-place disposal alternatives, under certain circumstances, may be the most desirable alternatives to use in the protection of human health and the environment. The implementation of an in-place disposal alternative will likely require some type of protective covering that will provide long-term isolation of the wastes from the accessible environment. Even if the wastes are exhumed and treated, a long-term barrier may still be needed to adequately dispose of the treated wastes or any remaining waste residuals. Currently, no {open_quotes}proven{close_quotes} long-term barrier is available. The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site. The permanent isolation barrier technology also could be used at other sites. Permanent isolation barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with redundant protective features. Drawings of conceptual permanent isolation surface barriers are shown. The natural construction materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity. The objective of current designs is to use natural materials to develop a maintenance-free permanent isolation surface barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1,000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling the exhalation of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion-related problems.

  10. Reference reactor module for NASA's lunar surface fission power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, David I.; Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.; Werner, James; Qualls, Louis; Radel, Ross

    2009-01-01

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) study was completed by NASA/DOE to determine the cost of a modest performance, low-technical risk surface power system. The AFSPS concept is now being further developed within the Fission Surface Power (FSP) Project, which is a near-term technology program to demonstrate system-level TRL-6 by 2013. This paper describes the reference FSP reactor module concept, which is designed to provide a net power of 40 kWe for 8 years on the lunar surface; note, the system has been designed with technologies that are fully compatible with a Martian surface application. The reactor concept uses stainless-steel based. UO 2 -fueled, pumped-NaK fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a 'workhorse' power system that NASA can utilize in near-term and future Lunar and Martian mission architectures, with the eventual capability to evolve to very high power, low mass systems, for either surface, deep space, and/or orbital missions.

  11. Surface crack testing - state of technique and trends in development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Seminar contains 12 lectures on the following subjects: State of technique in magnetic powder testing (K. Goebbels); Recognisability of faults and probability of faults in surface crack testing (W. Morgner); Requirements for picture processing systems for proving and assessing crack indications (M. Stadthaus); Possibilities and limits of automatic crack recognition in magnetic powder testing (V. Deutsch); Development of equipment for eddy current testing (M. Junger); Signal processing - a way of improving the recognisability of faults in eddy current testing (R. Becker); Methods of testing steel products for surface faults and their practical limits of fault recognisability (D. Thiery); Surface crack testing in pipe manufacture (R. Pawelletz); Surface crack testing in powerstation construction (L. v. Bernus); Trends in automation in surface crack testing (G. Maier); Eddy current testing in engine construction (E. Dickhaut); Eddy current testing in aircraft repair (F. Schur). (orig.) [de

  12. Combined sputtering yield and surface topography development studies on Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.; Lewis, G.W.; Whitton, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The sputtering yield-incidence angle function has been measured for 8 keV Ar + ions incident on Si by direct scanning electron microscope observation of the depths of sputtered craters on substrate boundaries. This function displays a maximum sputtering yield at an angle thetasub(p) approximately equal to 40 0 to the surface normal. The sequential ion fluence dependence of features developed beneath local surface contaminant was then studied, quasi dynamically, in the same on-line ion source-S.E.M. system. During erosion of the contaminant a steeply elevated pillar of Si forms, which then transforms to a cone, again of high elevation angle >>thetasub(p). This cone is gradually eroded into the surrounding surface with no special significance associated with orientations of angle thetasub(p). Pedal depressions surrounding the pillar-cone system are also noted. The reasons for these observations and their relevance to ion beam surface channel etching are discussed. (Auth.)

  13. Power Systems Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2009-01-31

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, has routinely demonstrated gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This final report summarizes the results of the technology development work conducted at the PSDF through January 31, 2009. Twenty-one major gasification test campaigns were completed, for a total of more than 11,000 hours of gasification operation. This operational experience has led to significant advancements in gasification technologies.

  14. Development of a LabVIEW-based surface with innovative controls for the control system of the spin-polarized electron test source Photo-CATCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, Heidi Ayse; Enders, Joachim; Espig, Martin; Fritzsche, Yuliya; Wagner, Markus [TU Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Operations of the spin-polarized electron source of the S-DALINAC will be supported by a photo-cathode activation, test and cleaning system, Photo-CATCH. Besides cathode-performance studies, this teststand produces spin-polarized electron bunches from a GaAs photo-cathode that are then transported, manipulated, and characterized by devices in a low-energy beam line. To set and monitor the various components of the beamline, a control system was developed, based on the EPICS framework. As interfaces, LabVIEW was used in combination with a gamepad as a controlling device.

  15. RSMASS system model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, A.C.; Gallup, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    RSMASS system mass models have been used for more than a decade to make rapid estimates of space reactor power system masses. This paper reviews the evolution of the RSMASS models and summarizes present capabilities. RSMASS has evolved from a simple model used to make rough estimates of space reactor and shield masses to a versatile space reactor power system model. RSMASS uses unique reactor and shield models that permit rapid mass optimization calculations for a variety of space reactor power and propulsion systems. The RSMASS-D upgrade of the original model includes algorithms for the balance of the power system, a number of reactor and shield modeling improvements, and an automatic mass optimization scheme. The RSMASS-D suite of codes cover a very broad range of reactor and power conversion system options as well as propulsion and bimodal reactor systems. Reactor choices include in-core and ex-core thermionic reactors, liquid metal cooled reactors, particle bed reactors, and prismatic configuration reactors. Power conversion options include thermoelectric, thermionic, Stirling, Brayton, and Rankine approaches. Program output includes all major component masses and dimensions, efficiencies, and a description of the design parameters for a mass optimized system. In the past, RSMASS has been used as an aid to identify and select promising concepts for space power applications. The RSMASS modeling approach has been demonstrated to be a valuable tool for guiding optimization of the power system design; consequently, the model is useful during system design and development as well as during the selection process. An improved in-core thermionic reactor system model RSMASS-T is now under development. The current development of the RSMASS-T code represents the next evolutionary stage of the RSMASS models. RSMASS-T includes many modeling improvements and is planned to be more user-friendly. RSMASS-T will be released as a fully documented, certified code at the end of

  16. Development of a He/CdI$_2$ gas-jet system coupled to a surface-ionization type ion-source in JAEA-ISOL: towards determination of the first ionization potential of Lr (Z = 103)

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, T K; Sato, N; Tsukada, K; Toyoshima, A; Ooe, K; Miyashita, S; Kaneya, Y; Osa, A; Schädel, M; Nagame, Y; Ichikawa, S; Stora, T; Kratz, J V

    2015-01-01

    We report on development of a gas-jet transport system coupled to a surface ionization ion-source in the JAEA-ISOL (Isotope Separator On-Line) system. As a new aerosol material for the gas-jet system, CdI2, which has a low boiling point of 713 °C, is exploited to prevent deposition of the aerosol material on the surface of the ion-source. An additional filament is newly installed in the previous ion-source to provide uniform heating of an ionizer. The present system is applied to the measurement of absolute efficiencies of various short-lived lanthanide isotopes produced in nuclear reactions.

  17. Development of Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Bøhm

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the initial considerations related to a Ph.D. study initiated at IPV, DTU in February 1997, concerning the research subject "Development of Production Systems". The content and aim of this paper is to 1) to introduce the study by......This paper presents the initial considerations related to a Ph.D. study initiated at IPV, DTU in February 1997, concerning the research subject "Development of Production Systems". The content and aim of this paper is to 1) to introduce the study by...

  18. Surface Moisture Measurement System Operation and Maintenance Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.; Pearce, K.L.; Stokes, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    This operations and maintenance manual addresses deployment, equipment and field hazards, operating instructions, calibration verification, removal, maintenance, and other pertinent information necessary to safely operate and store the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) and Liquid Observation Well Moisture Measurement System (LOWMMS). These systems were developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks

  19. Integrated system of production information processing for surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K.; Wang, S.; Zeng, Z.; Wei, J.; Ren, Z. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). Dept of Mining Engineering

    2000-09-01

    Based on the concept of geological statistic, mathematical program, condition simulation, system engineering, and the features and duties of each main department in surface mine production, an integrated system for surface mine production information was studied systematically and developed by using the technology of data warehousing, CAD, object-oriented and system integration, which leads to the systematizing and automating of the information management, data processing, optimization computing and plotting. In this paper, its overall object, system design, structure and functions and some key techniques were described. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  20. A surface-mediated siRNA delivery system developed with chitosan/hyaluronic acid-siRNA multilayer films through layer-by-layer self-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Lijuan [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Suzhou Novovita Bio-products Co., Ltd., Suzhou 215300 (China); Wu, Changlin, E-mail: Ph.Dclwu1314@sina.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Suzhou Novovita Bio-products Co., Ltd., Suzhou 215300 (China); Liu, Guangwan [Suzhou Novovita Bio-products Co., Ltd., Suzhou 215300 (China); Liao, Nannan [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Suzhou Novovita Bio-products Co., Ltd., Suzhou 215300 (China); Zhao, Fang; Yang, Xuxia; Qu, Hongyuan [Suzhou Novovita Bio-products Co., Ltd., Suzhou 215300 (China); Peng, Bo [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Chen, Li [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Suzhou Novovita Bio-products Co., Ltd., Suzhou 215300 (China); Yang, Guang [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • We prepared Chitosan/Hyaluronic acid-siRNA multilayer as carrier to effectively load and protect siRNAs. • The stability and integrity of the siRNA was verified in the siRNA-loaded films. • The siRNA-loaded films showed good cells adhesion and gene silencing effect in eGFP-HEK 293T cells. • This is a new type of surface-mediated non-viral multilayer films. - Abstract: siRNA delivery remains highly challenging because of its hydrophilic and anionic nature and its sensitivity to nuclease degradation. Effective siRNA loading and improved transfection efficiency into cells represents a key problem. In our study, we prepared Chitosan/Hyaluronic acid-siRNA multilayer films through layer-by-layer self-assembly, in which siRNAs can be effectively loaded and protected. The construction process was characterized by FTIR, {sup 13}C NMR (CP/MAS), UV–vis spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We presented the controlled-release performance of the films during incubation in 1 M NaCl solution for several days through UV–vis spectroscopy and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Additionally, we verified the stability and integrity of the siRNA loaded on multilayer films. Finally, the biological efficacy of the siRNA delivery system was evaluated via cells adhesion and gene silencing analyses in eGFP-HEK 293T cells. This new type of surface-mediated non-viral multilayer films may have considerable potential in the localized and controlled-release delivery of siRNA in mucosal tissues, and tissue engineering application.

  1. Dry cooling systems with plastic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roma, Carlo; Leonelli, Vincenzo

    1975-01-01

    Research and experiments made on dry cooling systems with plastic surfaces are described. The demonstration program planned in Italy for a 100Gcal/h dry cooling system is exposed, and an installation intended for a large 1300Mwe nuclear power station is described with reference to the assembly (exploitation and maintenance included). The performance and economic data relating to this installation are also exposed [fr

  2. Developing systems engineers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goncalves, D

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available will have rendered him incapable of dealing with the majority of problems that will face him.” (Quoted in [12]). UP has applied the SPICES model, proposed by Harden et al. [12], for developing their medical curriculum. Some aspects of the model... are useful to developing systems engineers and will be considered in SE terms at a relevant level of detail. The SPICES model is contrasted against traditional medical curriculum approaches in TABLE 1. These are two extremes on a continuum. Traditional...

  3. Mobile systems development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosbond, Jens Henrik

    2005-01-01

    and how are they dealt with? Analysis of the empirical data is done following a structured and inductive approach. A framework showing the segmentation of the mobile industry into five layers is proposed and challenges are presented according to two dimensions, namely a business dimension......This paper takes a systems development perspective on mobility, building on preliminary findings of an on-going multiple case study covering 7 companies. The questions driving this paper are: What are the challenges facing development practice in the mobile industry, how do they affect practice...

  4. Adamantane in Drug Delivery Systems and Surface Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Adela Štimac; Marina Šekutor; Kata Mlinarić-Majerski; Leo Frkanec; Ruža Frkanec

    2017-01-01

    The adamantane moiety is widely applied in design and synthesis of new drug delivery systems and in surface recognition studies. This review focuses on liposomes, cyclodextrins, and dendrimers based on or incorporating adamantane derivatives. Our recent concept of adamantane as an anchor in the lipid bilayer of liposomes has promising applications in the field of targeted drug delivery and surface recognition. The results reported here encourage the development of novel adamantane-based struc...

  5. Energy efficiency system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Rahman, K. A.; Chong, Haw Jie; Salleh, Mohd Najib Mohd; Yusof, M. Z. M.

    2017-09-01

    By subjecting to the massive usage of electrical energy in Malaysia, energy efficiency is now one of the key areas of focus in climate change mitigation. This paper focuses on the development of an energy efficiency system of household electrical appliances for residential areas. Distribution of Questionnaires and pay a visit to few selected residential areas are conducted during the fulfilment of the project as well as some advice on how to save energy are shared with the participants. Based on the collected data, the system developed by the UTHM Energy Team is then evaluated from the aspect of the consumers' behaviour in using electrical appliances and the potential reduction targeted by the team. By the end of the project, 60% of the participants had successfully reduced the electrical power consumption set by the UTHM Energy Team. The reasons for whether the success and the failure is further analysed in this project.

  6. Development of Surfaces Optically Suitable for Flat Solar Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, D.; Jason, A.

    1978-01-01

    Three areas of research in the development of flat solar panels are described. (1) A reflectometer which can separately evaluate the spectral and diffuse reflectivities of surfaces was developed. The reflectometer has a phase locked detection system. (2) A coating composed of strongly bound copper oxide that is formed by an etching process performed on an aluminum alloy with high copper content was also developed. Because of this one step fabrication process, fabrication costs are expected to be small. (3) A literature search was conducted and conclusions on the required optical properties of flat plate solar collectors are presented.

  7. Environmental Control System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Arroyo, Elvin A.

    2018-01-01

    Since before the first men landed on the moon, human beings have aspired to reach farther into space, to discover and answer the great mysteries that exist beyond imagination. To reach where no one has gone before. To able to see all the wonderful things that can be found in space and that only satellites have revealed to us during all this time. Considering the last trip to the moon, mankind has been evolving and improving their technology to reach destinations whose distances had been impossible to transit. To reach that goal, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has designed and developed the largest and most powerful rocket ever created by the human race, the Space Launch System - better known as the SLS. To be able to send this large rocket to space, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is doing upgrades to their existing facilities and equipment. At Launch Pad 39B, they are setting up a new Environmental Control System (ECS) developed to supply the rocket with the correct gases and mixtures that will be needed for the rocket to launch. The ECS is similar to an air conditioning unit. The main functionality of it is to supply the SLS with the correct gas mixture for it to launch. Also the ECS has been required to reduce or eliminate the possibility of a complete system failure. The system is part of the Ground Support Equipment (GSE) for the SLS that will be going to the Moon and Mars.

  8. System for removing contaminated surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Kozo.

    1987-04-01

    The object of the present invention is to offer a new type of useful decontamination system, with which the contaminated surface layers can be removed effectively by injection of such solid microparticles. Liquid carbon dioxide is passed from a liquid carbon dioxide tank via the carbon dioxide supply line into the system for injecting solid carbon dioxide particles. Part of the liquid carbon dioxide introduced into the system is converted to solid carbon dioxide particles by the temperature drop resulting from adiabatic expansion in the carbon dioxide expansion space of the injection system. The solid carbon dioxide particles reach the injection nozzle, which is connected through the expansion space. The carbon dioxide microparticles are further cooled and accelerated by nitrogen gas injected from the nitrogen gas nozzle at the tip of the nitrogen gas supply line, which is connected to a liquid nitrogen tank. The cooled and accelerated solid carbon dioxide microparticles are injected from the injection nozzle for the solid carbon dioxide and directed against the contaminated surface to be cleaned, and, as a result, the surface contamination is removed

  9. Surface properties of functional polymer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Derek

    Polymer surface modification typically involves blending with other polymers or chemical modification of the parent polymer. Such strategies inevitably result in polymer systems that are spatially and chemically heterogeneous, and which exhibit the phenomenon of surface segregation. This work investigates the effects of chain architecture on the surface segregation behavior of such functionally modified polymers using a series of end- and center-fluorinated poly(D,L-lactide). Surface segregation of the fluorinated functional groups was observed in both chain architectures via AMPS and water contact angle. Higher surface segregation was noted for functional groups located at the chain end as opposed to those in the middle of the chain. A self-consistent mean-field lattice theory was used to model the composition depth profiles of functional groups and excellent agreement was found between the model predictions and the experimental AMPS data in both chain architectures. Polymer properties are also in general dependent on both time and temperature, and exhibit a range of relaxation times in response to environmental stimuli. This behavior arises from the characteristic frequencies of molecular motions of the polymer chain and the interrelationship between time and temperature has been widely established for polymer bulk properties. There is evidence that surface properties also respond in a manner that is time and temperature dependent and that this dependence may not be the same as that observed for bulk properties. AMPS and water contact angle experiments were used to investigate the surface reorganization behavior of functional groups using a series of anionically synthesized end-fluorinated and end-carboxylated poly(styrene). It was found that both types of functional end-groups reorganized upon a change in the polarity of the surface environment in order to minimize the surface free energy. ADXPS and contact angle results suggest that the reorganization depth was

  10. SURFACE INDUSTRIAL HVAC SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.M. Ansari

    2005-04-05

    The purpose of this system description document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the surface industrial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and its bases to allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This SDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This SDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential to performing the design process. The SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description that provided in this SDD reflects the current results of the design process.

  11. Development of a nondestructive testing method and facility for investigation of surface reactions appearing in damage, corrosion, adsorption and catalytic processes encountered in the heat transfer systems of nuclear power plants and the energy storage problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumhalter, G.

    1986-08-01

    Studies of corrosion, oxide layer growth, etc., necessitate the investigation of processes which take place at surfaces: adsorption and desorption. Two problems are of major importance: i) initial stages of oxidative attack, e.g. the adsorptive properties of oxygen for a given system and possible synergetic effects of coadsorbed species like CO, H 2 O, OH, H 2 , SH 2 , impurities, and ii) the influence of surface conditions (crystalography, defects, pores, impurities, segregates) on the oxidative attack. An apparatus has been developed with three surface sensitive techniques: a) quartzcrystal micro-balance as a method for measuring the kinetics of deposition of thin metal films and gas adsorption, b) diode probe for the measurement of work function change caused by gas adsorption at metallic surfaces, and c) thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) which gives information on adsorption/desorption properties of a system studied: activation energy, preexponential factors for desorption, coverage, precursor states, lateral interaction, etc. The system investigated was oxygen/palladium foil (polycrystalline) by means of TDS and the following conclusions have been drawn: 1. Oxygen adsorbs on Pd foil both dissociatively and nondissociatively - depending on the adsorption temperature. 2. Certain amounts of oxygen penetrates into the surface and subsurface region, giving rise to a desorption peak around 1350K. 3. There are two groups of desorption peaks corresponding to atomically adsorbed oxygen (730K and 800K). The analysis of these peaks show the existence of strong lateral interactions between oxygen atoms at high coverages, which is not the case for low coverages. The position of the peaks and the dynamics of their evolution is consistent with the data obtained for Pd(111) and Pd(100) single crystal surfaces

  12. A continuous surface reconstruction method on point cloud captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenyang; Cheung, Yam; Sabouri, Pouya; Arai, Tatsuya J; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan

    2015-11-01

    To accurately and efficiently reconstruct a continuous surface from noisy point clouds captured by a surface photogrammetry system (VisionRT). The authors have developed a level-set based surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured by a surface photogrammetry system (VisionRT). The proposed method reconstructs an implicit and continuous representation of the underlying patient surface by optimizing a regularized fitting energy, offering extra robustness to noise and missing measurements. By contrast to explicit/discrete meshing-type schemes, their continuous representation is particularly advantageous for subsequent surface registration and motion tracking by eliminating the need for maintaining explicit point correspondences as in discrete models. The authors solve the proposed method with an efficient narrowband evolving scheme. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both phantom and human subject data with two sets of complementary experiments. In the first set of experiment, the authors generated a series of surfaces each with different black patches placed on one chest phantom. The resulting VisionRT measurements from the patched area had different degree of noise and missing levels, since VisionRT has difficulties in detecting dark surfaces. The authors applied the proposed method to point clouds acquired under these different configurations, and quantitatively evaluated reconstructed surfaces by comparing against a high-quality reference surface with respect to root mean squared error (RMSE). In the second set of experiment, the authors applied their method to 100 clinical point clouds acquired from one human subject. In the absence of ground-truth, the authors qualitatively validated reconstructed surfaces by comparing the local geometry, specifically mean curvature distributions, against that of the surface extracted from a high-quality CT obtained from the same patient. On phantom point clouds, their method achieved submillimeter

  13. A continuous surface reconstruction method on point cloud captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenyang [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Cheung, Yam; Sabouri, Pouya; Arai, Tatsuya J.; Sawant, Amit [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Ruan, Dan, E-mail: druan@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To accurately and efficiently reconstruct a continuous surface from noisy point clouds captured by a surface photogrammetry system (VisionRT). Methods: The authors have developed a level-set based surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured by a surface photogrammetry system (VisionRT). The proposed method reconstructs an implicit and continuous representation of the underlying patient surface by optimizing a regularized fitting energy, offering extra robustness to noise and missing measurements. By contrast to explicit/discrete meshing-type schemes, their continuous representation is particularly advantageous for subsequent surface registration and motion tracking by eliminating the need for maintaining explicit point correspondences as in discrete models. The authors solve the proposed method with an efficient narrowband evolving scheme. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both phantom and human subject data with two sets of complementary experiments. In the first set of experiment, the authors generated a series of surfaces each with different black patches placed on one chest phantom. The resulting VisionRT measurements from the patched area had different degree of noise and missing levels, since VisionRT has difficulties in detecting dark surfaces. The authors applied the proposed method to point clouds acquired under these different configurations, and quantitatively evaluated reconstructed surfaces by comparing against a high-quality reference surface with respect to root mean squared error (RMSE). In the second set of experiment, the authors applied their method to 100 clinical point clouds acquired from one human subject. In the absence of ground-truth, the authors qualitatively validated reconstructed surfaces by comparing the local geometry, specifically mean curvature distributions, against that of the surface extracted from a high-quality CT obtained from the same patient. Results: On phantom point clouds, their method

  14. Geological disposal system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected

  15. Geological disposal system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected.

  16. Development of teleoperated cleanup system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Ho; Park, J. J.; Yang, M. S.; Kwon, H. J.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the development of a teleoperated cleanup system for use in a highly radioactive environment of DFDF(DUPIC Fuel Demonstration Facility) at KAERI where direct human access to the in-cell is strictly limited. The teleoperated cleanup system was designed to remotely remove contaminants placed or fixed on the floor surface of the hot-cell by mopping them with wet cloth. This cleanup system consists of a mopping slave, a mopping master and a control console. The mopping slave located at the in-cell comprises a mopping tool with a mopping cloth and a mobile platform, which were constructed in modules to facilitate maintenance. The mopping master that is an input device to control the mopping slave has kinematic dissimilarity with the mopping slave. The control console provides a means of bilateral control flows and communications between the mopping master and the mopping slave. In operation, the human operator from the out-of-cell performs a series of decontamination tasks remotely by manipulating the mopping slave located in-cell via a mopping master, having a sense of real mopping. The environmental and mechanical design considerations, and control systems of the developed teleoperated cleanup system are also described

  17. Development of exosome surface display technology in living human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stickney, Zachary, E-mail: zstickney@scu.edu; Losacco, Joseph, E-mail: jlosacco@scu.edu; McDevitt, Sophie, E-mail: smmcdevitt@scu.edu; Zhang, Zhiwen, E-mail: zzhang@scu.edu; Lu, Biao, E-mail: blu2@scu.edu

    2016-03-25

    Surface display technology is an emerging key player in presenting functional proteins for targeted drug delivery and therapy. Although a number of technologies exist, a desirable mammalian surface display system is lacking. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that facilitate cell–cell communication and can be engineered as nano-shuttles for cell-specific delivery. In this study, we report the development of a novel exosome surface display technology by exploiting mammalian cell secreted nano-vesicles and their trans-membrane protein tetraspanins. By constructing a set of fluorescent reporters for both the inner and outer surface display on exosomes at two selected sites of tetraspanins, we demonstrated the successful exosomal display via gene transfection and monitoring fluorescence in vivo. We subsequently validated our system by demonstrating the expected intracellular partitioning of reporter protein into sub-cellular compartments and secretion of exosomes from human HEK293 cells. Lastly, we established the stable engineered cells to harness the ability of this robust system for continuous production, secretion, and uptake of displayed exosomes with minimal impact on human cell biology. In sum, our work paved the way for potential applications of exosome, including exosome tracking and imaging, targeted drug delivery, as well as exosome-mediated vaccine and therapy.

  18. Development of exosome surface display technology in living human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stickney, Zachary; Losacco, Joseph; McDevitt, Sophie; Zhang, Zhiwen; Lu, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Surface display technology is an emerging key player in presenting functional proteins for targeted drug delivery and therapy. Although a number of technologies exist, a desirable mammalian surface display system is lacking. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that facilitate cell–cell communication and can be engineered as nano-shuttles for cell-specific delivery. In this study, we report the development of a novel exosome surface display technology by exploiting mammalian cell secreted nano-vesicles and their trans-membrane protein tetraspanins. By constructing a set of fluorescent reporters for both the inner and outer surface display on exosomes at two selected sites of tetraspanins, we demonstrated the successful exosomal display via gene transfection and monitoring fluorescence in vivo. We subsequently validated our system by demonstrating the expected intracellular partitioning of reporter protein into sub-cellular compartments and secretion of exosomes from human HEK293 cells. Lastly, we established the stable engineered cells to harness the ability of this robust system for continuous production, secretion, and uptake of displayed exosomes with minimal impact on human cell biology. In sum, our work paved the way for potential applications of exosome, including exosome tracking and imaging, targeted drug delivery, as well as exosome-mediated vaccine and therapy.

  19. A Practical Approach to Starting Fission Surface Power Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Lee

    2006-01-01

    The Prometheus Power and Propulsion Program has been reformulated to address NASA needs relative to lunar and Mars exploration. Emphasis has switched from the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) flight system development to more generalized technology development addressing Fission Surface Power (FSP) and Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). Current NASA budget priorities and the deferred mission need date for nuclear systems prohibit a fully funded reactor Flight Development Program. However, a modestly funded Advanced Technology Program can and should be conducted to reduce the risk and cost of future flight systems. A potential road-map for FSP technology development leading to possible flight applications could include three elements: 1) Conceptual Design Studies, 2) Advanced Component Technology, and 3) Non-Nuclear System Testing. The Conceptual Design Studies would expand on recent NASA and DOE analyses while increasing the depth of study in areas of greatest uncertainty such as reactor integration and human-rated shielding. The Advanced Component Technology element would address the major technology risks through development and testing of reactor fuels, structural materials, primary loop components, shielding, power conversion, heat rejection, and power management and distribution (PMAD). The Non-Nuclear System Testing would provide a modular, technology test-bed to investigate and resolve system integration issues. (author)

  20. The development of surface topography by heavy ion sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitton, J.L.; Carter, G.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a detailed, systematic investigation of the development of energetic argon ion bombardment induced surface features on polycrystal and single crystal copper are presented. It is shown that the crystal structure itself is the dominant factor deciding the final form of surface topography. The earlier proposed ''necessary conditions'' for development of surface topography, viz. surface impurity, asperities, growth, surface migration and redeposition are shown to be unimportant under the clean conditions of the experiments. (Auth.)

  1. Advanced biofeedback from surface electromyography signals using fuzzy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a fuzzy inference-based biofeedback system and investigate its effects when inducing active (shoulder elevation) and passive (relax) pauses on the trapezius muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity during computer work. Surface EMG signals were recorded from...

  2. Development of surface-engineered PLGA nanoparticulate-delivery system of Tet-1-conjugated nattokinase enzyme for inhibition of Aβ40 plaques in Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt PC

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Prakash Chandra Bhatt,1 Amita Verma,2 Fahad A Al-Abbasi,3 Firoz Anwar,3 Vikas Kumar,4 Bibhu Prasad Panda1 1Microbial and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Laboratory, Centre for Advanced Research in Pharmaceutical Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India; 2Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India; 3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 4Natural Product Drug Discovery Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India Abstract: According to the World Health Organization, globally there are around 18 million patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and this number is expected to double by 2025. The pathophysiology of AD includes selective deposition of Aβ peptide in the mitochondria of cells, which inhibits uptake of glucose by neurons and key enzyme functions. Current drug treatments for AD are unable to rectify the underlying pathology of the disease; they only provide short-term symptomatic relief, so there is a need for the development of newer treatment regimes. The antiamyloid activity, antifibrinolytic activity, and antithrombotic activity of nattokinase holds potential for the treatment of AD. As nattokinase is a protein, its stability restricts its usage to a greater extent, but this limitation can be overcome by nanoencapsulation. In this work, we successfully synthesized polymeric nanoparticles of nattokinase and characterized its use by different techniques: transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, DTS Nano, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thioflavin T-binding assay, in vitro drug

  3. Power Systems Development Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The objective of the PSDF would be to provide a modular facility which would support the development of advanced, pilot-scale, coal-based power systems and hot gas clean-up components. These pilot-scale components would be designed to be large enough so that the results can be related and projected to commercial systems. The facility would use a modular approach to enhance the flexibility and capability for testing; consequently, overall capital and operating costs when compared with stand-alone facilities would be reduced by sharing resources common to different modules. The facility would identify and resolve technical barrier, as well as-provide a structure for long-term testing and performance assessment. It is also intended that the facility would evaluate the operational and performance characteristics of the advanced power systems with both bituminous and subbituminous coals. Five technology-based experimental modules are proposed for the PSDF: (1) an advanced gasifier module, (2) a fuel cell test module, (3) a PFBC module, (4) a combustion gas turbine module, and (5) a module comprised of five hot gas cleanup particulate control devices. The final module, the PCD, would capture coal-derived ash and particles from both the PFBC and advanced gasifier gas streams to provide for overall particulate emission control, as well as to protect the combustion turbine and the fuel cell

  4. Power Systems Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-07-01

    This report discusses Test Campaign TC12 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SW) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). While operating as a gasifier, either air or oxygen can be used as the oxidant. Test run TC12 began on May 16, 2003, with the startup of the main air compressor and the lighting of the gasifier start-up burner. The Transport Gasifier operated until May 24, 2003, when a scheduled outage occurred to allow maintenance crews to install the fuel cell test unit and modify the gas clean-up system. On June 18, 2003, the test run resumed when operations relit the start-up burner, and testing continued until the scheduled end of the run on July 14, 2003. TC12 had a total of 733 hours using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. Over the course of the entire test run, gasifier temperatures varied between 1,675 and 1,850 F at pressures from 130 to 210 psig.

  5. Adamantane in Drug Delivery Systems and Surface Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štimac, Adela; Šekutor, Marina; Mlinarić-Majerski, Kata; Frkanec, Leo; Frkanec, Ruža

    2017-02-16

    The adamantane moiety is widely applied in design and synthesis of new drug delivery systems and in surface recognition studies. This review focuses on liposomes, cyclodextrins, and dendrimers based on or incorporating adamantane derivatives. Our recent concept of adamantane as an anchor in the lipid bilayer of liposomes has promising applications in the field of targeted drug delivery and surface recognition. The results reported here encourage the development of novel adamantane-based structures and self-assembled supramolecular systems for basic chemical investigations as well as for biomedical application.

  6. Adamantane in Drug Delivery Systems and Surface Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Štimac

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The adamantane moiety is widely applied in design and synthesis of new drug delivery systems and in surface recognition studies. This review focuses on liposomes, cyclodextrins, and dendrimers based on or incorporating adamantane derivatives. Our recent concept of adamantane as an anchor in the lipid bilayer of liposomes has promising applications in the field of targeted drug delivery and surface recognition. The results reported here encourage the development of novel adamantane-based structures and self-assembled supramolecular systems for basic chemical investigations as well as for biomedical application.

  7. Conflict simulation for surface transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeton, S.C.; De Laquil, P. III.

    1977-07-01

    An important element in the analysis of transportation safeguards systems is the determination of the outcome of an armed attack against the system. Such information is necessary to understand relationships among the various defender tactics, weapons systems, and adversary attributes. A battle model, SABRES, which can simulate safeguards engagements is under development. This paper briefly describes the first phase of SABRES and presents some examples of its capabilities

  8. Advanced Dewatering Systems Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell

    2008-07-31

    A new fine coal dewatering technology has been developed and tested in the present work. The work was funded by the Solid Fuels and Feedstocks Grand Challenge PRDA. The objective of this program was to 'develop innovative technical approaches to ensure a continued supply of environmentally sound solid fuels for existing and future combustion systems with minimal incremental fuel cost.' Specifically, this solicitation is aimed at developing technologies that can (i) improve the efficiency or economics of the recovery of carbon when beneficiating fine coal from both current production and existing coal slurry impoundments and (ii) assist in the greater utilization of coal fines by improving the handling characteristics of fine coal via dewatering and/or reconstitution. The results of the test work conducted during Phase I of the current project demonstrated that the new dewatering technologies can substantially reduce the moisture from fine coal, while the test work conducted during Phase II successfully demonstrated the commercial viability of this technology. It is believed that availability of such efficient and affordable dewatering technology is essential to meeting the DOE's objectives.

  9. Land surface sensitivity of mesoscale convective systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournay, Robert C.

    Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) are important contributors to the hydrologic cycle in many regions of the world as well as major sources of severe weather. MCSs continue to challenge forecasters and researchers alike, arising from difficulties in understanding system initiation, propagation, and demise. One distinct type of MCS is that formed from individual convective cells initiated primarily by daytime heating over high terrain. This work is aimed at improving our understanding of the land surface sensitivity of this class of MCS in the contiguous United States. First, a climatology of mesoscale convective systems originating in the Rocky Mountains and adjacent high plains from Wyoming southward to New Mexico is developed through a combination of objective and subjective methods. This class of MCS is most important, in terms of total warm season precipitation, in the 500 to 1300m elevations of the Great Plains (GP) to the east in eastern Colorado to central Nebraska and northwest Kansas. Examining MCSs by longevity, short lasting MCSs (15 hrs) reveals that longer lasting systems tend to form further south and have a longer track with a more southerly track. The environment into which the MCS is moving showed differences across commonly used variables in convection forecasting, with some variables showing more favorable conditions throughout (convective inhibition, 0-6 km shear and 250 hPa wind speed) ahead of longer lasting MCSs. Other variables, such as convective available potential energy, showed improving conditions through time for longer lasting MCSs. Some variables showed no difference across longevity of MCS (precipitable water and large-scale vertical motion). From subsets of this MCS climatology, three regions of origin were chosen based on the presence of ridgelines extending eastward from the Rocky Mountains known to be foci for convection initiation and subsequent MCS formation: Southern Wyoming (Cheyenne Ridge), Colorado (Palmer divide) and

  10. System for supporting conception in the field of surface treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evrard, J.M.; Gras, M.

    1989-01-01

    The application of the techniques issued from artificial intelligence for assisting the development of a computer technical memory on a representative subject, which is the surface treatments and coating in tribology, is illustrated. The development of the system is composed of several steps: data acquisition and formatting representation, data validation and software. Particular attention is given to the dialogue between the user and the system. The study shows that the development of the following points are indispensable: the possibility of following the user's reasoning and coming back to previous steps or exploring several parallel ways [fr

  11. Development and validation of satellite based estimates of surface visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J.; Pierce, R. B.; Lenzen, A.

    2015-10-01

    A satellite based surface visibility retrieval has been developed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements as a proxy for Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) data from the next generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-R). The retrieval uses a multiple linear regression approach to relate satellite aerosol optical depth, fog/low cloud probability and thickness retrievals, and meteorological variables from numerical weather prediction forecasts to National Weather Service Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) surface visibility measurements. Validation using independent ASOS measurements shows that the GOES-R ABI surface visibility retrieval (V) has an overall success rate of 64.5% for classifying Clear (V ≥ 30 km), Moderate (10 km ≤ V United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Park Service (NPS) Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network, and provide useful information to the regional planning offices responsible for developing mitigation strategies required under the EPA's Regional Haze Rule, particularly during regional haze events associated with smoke from wildfires.

  12. POWER SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-11-01

    This report discusses test campaign GCT4 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) transport reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The transport reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using one of two possible particulate control devices (PCDs). The transport reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during GCT4. GCT4 was planned as a 250-hour test run to continue characterization of the transport reactor using a blend of several Powder River Basin (PRB) coals and Bucyrus limestone from Ohio. The primary test objectives were: Operational Stability--Characterize reactor loop and PCD operations with short-term tests by varying coal-feed rate, air/coal ratio, riser velocity, solids-circulation rate, system pressure, and air distribution. Secondary objectives included the following: Reactor Operations--Study the devolatilization and tar cracking effects from transient conditions during transition from start-up burner to coal. Evaluate the effect of process operations on heat release, heat transfer, and accelerated fuel particle heat-up rates. Study the effect of changes in reactor conditions on transient temperature profiles, pressure balance, and product gas composition. Effects of Reactor Conditions on Synthesis Gas Composition--Evaluate the effect of air distribution, steam/coal ratio, solids-circulation rate, and reactor temperature on CO/CO{sub 2} ratio, synthesis gas Lower Heating Value (LHV), carbon conversion, and cold and hot gas efficiencies. Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) Testing--Provide syngas in support of the DSRP commissioning. Loop Seal Operations--Optimize loop seal operations and investigate increases to previously achieved maximum solids-circulation rate.

  13. New Developments in Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Yağcı

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocular surface squamous neoplasia originates from conjunctiva epithelium and covers a broad spectrum of disease ranging from dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. Clinical features may vary from case to case. Traditional treatment of excision with no-touch technique combined with adjuvant therapies because of high recurrence rate. Main adjuvant treatments are cryotherapy and chemotherapy. In this review, clinical forms, differential diagnosis, American Joint Committee on Cancer classification and recent approaches to the management of ocular surface squamous dysplasia were described. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 8-14

  14. Airport Surface Traffic Control Visual Ground Aids Engineering and Development Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The plan described in this document supports the overall program at the Transportation Systems Center to define, design, develop, and evaluate systems that meet the requirements of airport surface traffic control. This plan is part of documentation s...

  15. RZP 202 - a modular system for surface density measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, L.; Merinsky, J.

    The sensing element is an ionization chamber of the type that has maximum sensitivity to beta radiation of the used radionuclide ( 147 Pm, 85 Kr, 90 Sr- 90 Y) or to gamma radiation of radionuclide 241 Am. Collimation shields were developed for the said sources. Measurement of the ionization currents is made with an electrometer with a vibration capacitor. Invariable configuration is secured by a measuring arm. The modular units are of the CAMAC system design. The surface density meters measure deviations from the rated surface density. The scale for inputting surface density is linear. The configuration, functional continuity of the individual parts and the possibility of variant designs of surface density meters are described and the technical parameters of RZP 202 and its configuration and design are given

  16. Research and development of photovoltaic power system. Characterization and control of surface/interface recombination velocity of crystalline silicon thin films; Taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Silicon kessho usumaku ni okeru hyomen kaimen saiketsugo sokudo no hyoka to seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the result obtained during fiscal 1994 on characterization and control of surface/interface recombination velocity of crystalline silicon thin films. To optimize design and manufacture of solar cells, it is necessary to identify correctly resistance factor (or doping) of bulk of materials, bulk minority carrier life, and recombination velocity on surface, passivation interface and electrode interface. A group in the Hokkaido University has been working since a few years ago on development of non-contact and non-destructive photo-luminescence surface level spectroscopy (PLS{sup 3}). A new non-contact C-V method was also introduced. Using these methods, basic discussions were given on possibility of separate measurements on surface/interface and bulk characteristics of solar cell materials. The PLS{sup 3} method and the non-contact C-V method were used for experimental discussions on evaluation of silicon mono-crystalline and poly-crystalline materials. Discussions were given on separate evaluations by using the DLTS method. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Exploration Technology Development including Surface Acoustic Wave RFID chips

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project is focused on maturing future surface exploration technologies and instrumentation and working towards flight instrumentation and systems to support...

  18. Habitats and Surface Construction Technology and Development Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marc; Kennedy, Kriss J.

    1997-01-01

    The vision of the technology and development teams at NASA Ames and Johnson Research Centers is to provide the capability for automated delivery and emplacement of habitats and surface facilities. The benefits of the program are as follows: Composites and Inflatables: 30-50% (goal) lighter than Al Hard Structures; Capability for Increased Habitable Volume, Launch Efficiency; Long Term Growth Potential; and Supports initiation of commercial and industrial expansion. Key Habitats and Surface Construction (H&SC) technology issues are: Habitat Shell Structural Materials; Seals and Mechanisms; Construction and Assembly: Automated Pro-Deploy Construction Systems; ISRU Soil/Construction Equipment: Lightweight and Lower Power Needs; Radiation Protection (Health and Human Performance Tech.); Life Support System (Regenerative Life Support System Tech.); Human Physiology of Long Duration Space Flight (Health and Human Performance Tech.); and Human Psychology of Long Duration Space Flight (Health and Human Performance Tech.) What is being done regarding these issues?: Use of composite materials for X-38 CRV, RLV, etc.; TransHAB inflatable habitat design/development; Japanese corporations working on ISRU-derived construction processes. What needs to be done for the 2004 Go Decision?: Characterize Mars Environmental Conditions: Civil Engineering, Material Durability, etc.; Determine Credibility of Inflatable Structures for Human Habitation; and Determine Seal Technology for Mechanisms and Hatches, Life Cycle, and Durability. An overview encompassing all of the issues above is presented.

  19. Chlorine stress mediates microbial surface attachment in drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Le, Yang; Jin, Juliang; Zhou, Yuliang; Chen, Guowei

    2015-03-01

    Microbial attachment to drinking water pipe surfaces facilitates pathogen survival and deteriorates disinfection performance, directly threatening the safety of drinking water. Notwithstanding that the formation of biofilm has been studied for decades, the underlying mechanisms for the origins of microbial surface attachment in biofilm development in drinking water pipelines remain largely elusive. We combined experimental and mathematical methods to investigate the role of environmental stress-mediated cell motility on microbial surface attachment in chlorination-stressed drinking water distribution systems. Results show that at low levels of disinfectant (0.0-1.0 mg/L), the presence of chlorine promotes initiation of microbial surface attachment, while higher amounts of disinfectant (>1.0 mg/L) inhibit microbial attachment. The proposed mathematical model further demonstrates that chlorination stress (0.0-5.0 mg/L)-mediated microbial cell motility regulates the frequency of cell-wall collision and thereby controls initial microbial surface attachment. The results reveal that transport processes and decay patterns of chlorine in drinking water pipelines regulate microbial cell motility and, thus, control initial surface cell attachment. It provides a mechanistic understanding of microbial attachment shaped by environmental disinfection stress and leads to new insights into microbial safety protocols in water distribution systems.

  20. Data Analysis Techniques for a Lunar Surface Navigation System Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelmins, David; Sands, O. Scott; Swank, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in finding new methods of surface navigation to allow astronauts to navigate on the lunar surface. In support of the Vision for Space Exploration, the NASA Glenn Research Center developed the Lunar Extra-Vehicular Activity Crewmember Location Determination System and performed testing at the Desert Research and Technology Studies event in 2009. A significant amount of sensor data was recorded during nine tests performed with six test subjects. This paper provides the procedure, formulas, and techniques for data analysis, as well as commentary on applications.

  1. Surface moisture measurement system hardware acceptance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this acceptance test procedure is to verify that the mechanical and electrical features of the Surface Moisture Measurement System are operating as designed and that the unit is ready for field service. This procedure will be used in conjunction with a software acceptance test procedure, which addresses testing of software and electrical features not addressed in this document. Hardware testing will be performed at the 306E Facility in the 300 Area and the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility in the 400 Area. These systems were developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks

  2. Surface Management System Departure Event Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Gilena A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a data analysis of the Surface Management System (SMS) performance of departure events, including push-back and runway departure events.The paper focuses on the detection performance, or the ability to detect departure events, as well as the prediction performance of SMS. The results detail a modest overall detection performance of push-back events and a significantly high overall detection performance of runway departure events. The overall detection performance of SMS for push-back events is approximately 55%.The overall detection performance of SMS for runway departure events nears 100%. This paper also presents the overall SMS prediction performance for runway departure events as well as the timeliness of the Aircraft Situation Display for Industry data source for SMS predictions.

  3. Development and evaluation of targeting ligands surface modified paclitaxel nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Jeong Sun [Division of Undeclared Majors, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Doo-Soo; Sohn, Jun Youn [Department of Bioenvironmental & Chemical Engineering, Chosun College of Science & Technology, Gwangju 501-744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong-Sook, E-mail: eicosa@cnu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy and Institute of Drug Research and Development, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jin-Seok, E-mail: c34281@gmail.com [College of Pharmacy and Institute of Drug Research and Development, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-01

    To overcome the toxicity of excipient or blank nanoparticles for drug delivery nano-system, the surface modified paclitaxel nanocrystals (PTX-NC) have been developed. PTX-NCs were prepared by nano-precipitation method. The surface of PTX-NCs were modified by grafting with apo-transferrin (Tf) or hyaluronic acid (HA). The physical properties of PTX-NCs were evaluated by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), zeta-sizer, zeta-potential, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry. In vitro drug release study was performed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) with or without 0.5% (w/v) Tween 80 for 24 h. Cellular uptake was studied at time intervals of 0.5, 1, and 2 h in MCF-7 cells, and cell growth inhibition study was performed for 24 h using MCF-7 cells (cancer cells), and HaCaT cells (normal cells). Three different types of PTX-NCs with a mean size of 236.0 ± 100.6 nm (PTX-NC), 302.0 ± 152.0 nm (Tf-PTX-NC) and 339 ± 180.6 nm (HA-PTX-NC) were successfully prepared. The drug release profiles showed 29.1%/6.9% (PTX (pure)), 40.7%/23.9% (PTX-NC), 50.5%/25.1% (Tf-PTX-NC) and 46.8/24.8% (HA-PTX-NC) in PBS with/without 0.5% (w/v) Tween 80 for 24 h, respectively. As per the results, the drug release of PTX-NCs showed the faster release as compared to that of PTX (pure). Surface modified PTX-NCs exhibited higher values for cell permeability than unmodified PTX-NC in the cellular uptake study. Surface modified PTX-NCs inhibited the cell growth approximately to 60% in MCF-7 cells, however effect of surface modified PTX-NCs on normal cell line was lower than the PTX-NC and PTX (pure). In conclusion, biological macromolecules (Tf or HA) surface modified PTX-NC enhanced the cellular uptake and the cell growth inhibition. - Highlights: • Surface modified PTX-NCs with HA and Tf are successfully prepared by adsorption method. • Enhanced cellular uptake of modified PTX-NCs compared to unmodified PTX-NC • Improved

  4. An intelligent navigation system for an unmanned surface vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Xu , Tao

    2007-01-01

    Merged with duplicate record 10026.1/2768 on 27.03.2017 by CS (TIS) A multi-disciplinary research project has been carried out at the University of Plymouth to design and develop an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) named ýpringer. The work presented herein relates to formulation of a robust, reliable, accurate and adaptable navigation system to enable opringei to undertake various environmental monitoring tasks. Synergistically, sensor mathematical modelling, fuzzy logic, Multi-S...

  5. FY1995 study of the development of high resolution sub-surface fluid monitoring system using accurately controlled routine operated seismic system; 1995 nendo seimitsu seigyo shingen ni yoru chika ryutai koseido monitoring no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The development of new seismic sounding system based on the new concept of ACROSS (Accurately Controlled Routine-Operated Signal System) are aimed. The system includes not only new seismic sources but also the analyzing software specialize for the monitoring of the change in subsurface velocity structure, especially in the area of fluid resources. Powerful sources with good portability are strongly required for the practical data acquisition. Portable ACROSS sources (HIT) are developed. The system is mainly used to obtain the high resolution structure with relatively short penetration distance. The principal specifications are as follows: (1) 100Hz in maximum. (2) Linearly oscillating single force. This is generated by the combined two rotator moving opposite directions. (3) Variable force with little work. (4) Very simple source-ground coupler just put even on the soft ground. The system was operated at Yamagawa geothermal plant for two months. The result of the experiments are: (1) We confirmed the stability of the source over wide frequency range up to 100Hz. (2) We confirmed that amplitude and phase of ACROSS signal can be obtained very precisely. (3) Very small change of signal which arise from subsurface velocity change are detected. This indicates that the system can detect the slight velocity change due to variation of subsurface fluid system. (NEDO)

  6. Rapid surface sampling and archival record system (RSSAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barren, E.; Bracco, A.; Dorn, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose is to develop a rapid surface (concrete, steel) contamination measurement system that will provide a ''quick-look'' indication of contamination areas, an archival record, and an automated analysis. A bulk sampling oven is also being developed. The sampling device consists of a sampling head, a quick look detector, and an archiving system (sorbent tube). The head thermally desorbs semi-volatiles, such as PCBs, oils, etc., from concrete and steel surfaces; the volatilized materials are passed through a quick-look detector. Sensitivity of the detector can be attenuated for various contaminant levels. Volatilized materials are trapped in a tube filled with adsorbent. The tubes are housed in a magazine which also archives information about sampling conditions. Analysis of the tubes can be done at a later date. The concrete sampling head is fitted with a tungsten-halogen lamp; in laboratory experiments it has extracted model contaminants by heating the top 4mm of the surface to 250 C within 100-200 s. The steel sampling head has been tested on different types of steels and has extracted model contaminants within 30 s. A mathematical model of heat and mass transport in concrete has been developed. Rate of contaminant removal is at maximum when the moisture content is about 100 kg/m 3 . The system will be useful during decontamination and decommissioning operations

  7. Development and Utilization of Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). Delicacy, Imprecision, and Uncertainty of Oceanic Simulations: An Investigation with the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). Mixing in the Ocean Surface Layer Using the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    community use for ROMS is biogeochemisty: chemical cycles, water quality, blooms , micro-nutrients, larval dispersal, biome transitions, and coupling to...J.C. McWilliams, X. Capet, and J. Kurian, 2010: Heat balance and eddies in the Peru- Chile Current System. Climate Dynamics, 37, in press. doi10.1007

  8. System design description for surface moisture measurement system (SMMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, G.F.

    1996-09-23

    The SMMS has been developed to measure moisture in the top few centimeters of tank waste. The SMMS development was initiated by the preliminary findings of SAR-033, and does not necessarily fulfill any established DQO. After the SAR-033 is released, if no significant changes are made, moisture measurements in the organic waste tanks will rapidly become a DQO. The SMMS was designed to be installed in any 4 inch or larger riser, and to allow maximum adjustability for riser lengths, and is used to deploy a sensor package on the waste surface within a 6 foot radius about the azimuth. The first sensor package will be a neutron probe.

  9. Behavior of aircraft antiskid braking systems on dry and wet runway surfaces: Hydromechanically controlled system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J. A.; Stubbs, S. M.; Smith, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    The investigation utilized one main gear wheel, brake, and tire assembly of a McDonnell Douglas DC-9 series 10 airplane. The landing-gear strut was replaced by a dynamometer. During maximum braking, average braking behavior indexes based upon brake pressure, brake torque, and drag-force friction coefficient developed by the antiskid system were generally higher on dry surfaces than on wet surfaces. The three braking behavior indexes gave similar results but should not be used interchangeably as a measure of the braking of this antiskid sytem. During the transition from a dry to a flooded surface under heavy braking, the wheel entered into a deep skid but the antiskid system reacted quickly by reducing brake pressure and performed normally during the remainder of the run on the flooded surface. The brake-pressure recovery following transition from a flooded to a dry surface was shown to be a function of the antiskid modulating orifice.

  10. Development of surface-engineered PLGA nanoparticulate-delivery system of Tet1-conjugated nattokinase enzyme for inhibition of Aβ40 plaques in Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Prakash Chandra; Verma, Amita; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A; Anwar, Firoz; Kumar, Vikas; Panda, Bibhu Prasad

    2017-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, globally there are around 18 million patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and this number is expected to double by 2025. The pathophysiology of AD includes selective deposition of Aβ peptide in the mitochondria of cells, which inhibits uptake of glucose by neurons and key enzyme functions. Current drug treatments for AD are unable to rectify the underlying pathology of the disease; they only provide short-term symptomatic relief, so there is a need for the development of newer treatment regimes. The antiamyloid activity, antifibrinolytic activity, and antithrombotic activity of nattokinase holds potential for the treatment of AD. As nattokinase is a protein, its stability restricts its usage to a greater extent, but this limitation can be overcome by nanoencapsulation. In this work, we successfully synthesized polymeric nanoparticles of nattokinase and characterized its use by different techniques: transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, DTS Nano, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thioflavin T-binding assay, in vitro drug release, antifibrinolytic activity, and in vivo antiamyloid activity. As brain targeting of hydrophilic drugs is complicated due to the stringent nature of blood–brain barrier, in the current experimental study, we conjugated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-encapsulated nattokinase with Tet1 peptide, which exhibits retrograde transportation properties because of its affinity to neurons. Our study suggests that PLGA-encapsulated nattokinase polymeric nanoparticles are able to downregulate amyloid aggregation and exhibit antifibrinolytic activity. The encapsulation of nattokinase in PLGA did not affect its enzyme activity, so the prepared nanoformulation containing nattokinase can be used as an effective drug treatment against AD. PMID:29263666

  11. Development of surface-engineered PLGA nanoparticulate-delivery system of Tet1-conjugated nattokinase enzyme for inhibition of Aβ40 plaques in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Prakash Chandra; Verma, Amita; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A; Anwar, Firoz; Kumar, Vikas; Panda, Bibhu Prasad

    2017-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, globally there are around 18 million patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD), and this number is expected to double by 2025. The pathophysiology of AD includes selective deposition of Aβ peptide in the mitochondria of cells, which inhibits uptake of glucose by neurons and key enzyme functions. Current drug treatments for AD are unable to rectify the underlying pathology of the disease; they only provide short-term symptomatic relief, so there is a need for the development of newer treatment regimes. The antiamyloid activity, antifibrinolytic activity, and antithrombotic activity of nattokinase holds potential for the treatment of AD. As nattokinase is a protein, its stability restricts its usage to a greater extent, but this limitation can be overcome by nanoencapsulation. In this work, we successfully synthesized polymeric nanoparticles of nattokinase and characterized its use by different techniques: transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, DTS Nano, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thioflavin T-binding assay, in vitro drug release, antifibrinolytic activity, and in vivo antiamyloid activity. As brain targeting of hydrophilic drugs is complicated due to the stringent nature of blood-brain barrier, in the current experimental study, we conjugated poly(lactic- co -glycolic acid) (PLGA)-encapsulated nattokinase with Tet1 peptide, which exhibits retrograde transportation properties because of its affinity to neurons. Our study suggests that PLGA-encapsulated nattokinase polymeric nanoparticles are able to downregulate amyloid aggregation and exhibit antifibrinolytic activity. The encapsulation of nattokinase in PLGA did not affect its enzyme activity, so the prepared nanoformulation containing nattokinase can be used as an effective drug treatment against AD.

  12. Framework for control system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cork, C.; Nishimura, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    Control systems being developed for the present generation of accelerators will need to adapt to changing machine and operating state conditions. Such systems must also be capable of evolving over the life of the accelerator operation. In this paper we present a framework for the development of adaptive control systems

  13. Framework for control system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cork, C.; Nishimura, Hiroshi.

    1991-11-01

    Control systems being developed for the present generation of accelerators will need to adapt to changing machine and operating state conditions. Such systems must also be capable of evolving over the life of the accelerator operation. In this paper we present a framework for the development of adaptive control systems

  14. Evolutionary Information System Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jan

    and necessary items that must be taken into account are pointed out by narrating two stories of e-commerce implementation processes in wholesale companies. The empirical evidence suggests the following: Managing the continued development on an operational level requires operational insight and understanding...

  15. Integrable systems twistors, loop groups, and Riemann surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Hitchin, NJ; Ward, RS

    2013-01-01

    This textbook is designed to give graduate students an understanding of integrable systems via the study of Riemann surfaces, loop groups, and twistors. The book has its origins in a series of lecture courses given by the authors, all of whom are internationally known mathematicians and renowned expositors. It is written in an accessible and informal style, and fills a gap in the existing literature. The introduction by Nigel Hitchin addresses the meaning of integrability: how do werecognize an integrable system? His own contribution then develops connections with algebraic geometry, and inclu

  16. Surface moisture measurement system hardware acceptance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-28

    This document summarizes the results of the hardware acceptance test for the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS). This test verified that the mechanical and electrical features of the SMMS functioned as designed and that the unit is ready for field service. The bulk of hardware testing was performed at the 306E Facility in the 300 Area and the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility in the 400 Area. The SMMS was developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks.

  17. Using impulses to control the convergence toward invariant surfaces of continuous dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marão, José; Liu Xinzhi; Figueiredo, Annibal

    2012-01-01

    Let us consider a smooth invariant surface S of a given ordinary differential equations system. In this work we develop an impulsive control method in order to assure that the trajectories of the controlled system converge toward the surface S. The method approach is based on a property of a certain class of invariant surfaces whose the dynamics associated to their transverse directions can be described by a non-autonomous linear system. This fact allows to define an impulsive system which drives the trajectories toward the surface S. Also, we set up a definition of local stability exponents which can be associated to such kind of invariant surface.

  18. RASSOR - Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Tracy R.; Mueller, Rob

    2015-01-01

    The Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR) is a lightweight excavator for mining in reduced gravity. RASSOR addresses the need for a lightweight (robot that is able to overcome excavation reaction forces while operating in reduced gravity environments such as the moon or Mars. A nominal mission would send RASSOR to the moon to operate for five years delivering regolith feedstock to a separate chemical plant, which extracts oxygen from the regolith using H2 reduction methods. RASSOR would make 35 trips of 20 kg loads every 24 hours. With four RASSORs operating at one time, the mission would achieve 10 tonnes of oxygen per year (8 t for rocket propellant and 2 t for life support). Accessing craters in space environments may be extremely hard and harsh due to volatile resources - survival is challenging. New technologies and methods are required. RASSOR is a product of KSC Swamp Works which establishes rapid, innovative and cost effective exploration mission solutions by leveraging partnerships across NASA, industry and academia.

  19. Liferay Portal Systems Development

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Jonas X

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on teaching by example. Every chapter provides an overview, and then dives right into hands-on examples so you can see and play with the solution in your own environment. This book is for Java developers who don't need any prior experience with Liferay portal. Although Liferay portal makes heavy use of open source frameworks, no prior experience of using these is assumed.

  20. Geometric Description of Fibre Bundle Surface for Birkhoff System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Mei, Cao; Hua-Fei, Sun; Zhen-Ning, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A fibre bundle surface for the Birkhoff system is constructed. The metric and the Riemannian connection of the surface are defined and the representation of the Gaussian curvature of this surface is presented. Finally, three examples for the Birkhoff system are given to illustrate our results. (general)

  1. Architecture Approach in System Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Burita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe a practical solution of architecture approach in system development. The software application is the system which optimizes the transport service. The first part of the paper defines the enterprise architecture, its parts and frameworks. Next is explained the NATO Architecture Framework (NAF, a tool for command and control systems development in military environment. The NAF is used for architecture design of the system for optimization of the transport service.

  2. Mars Surface System Common Capabilities and Challenges for Human Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Toups, Larry

    2016-01-01

    NASA has begun a process to identify and evaluate candidate locations where humans could land, live and work on the martian surface. These locations are referred to as Exploration Zones (EZs). Given current mission concepts, an EZ is a collection of Regions of Interest (ROIs) that are located within approximately 100 kilometers of a centralized landing site. ROIs are areas that are relevant for scientific investigation and/or development/maturation of capabilities and resources necessary for a sustainable human presence. The EZ also contains a landing site and a habitation site that will be used by multiple human crews during missions to explore and utilize the ROIs within the EZ. In parallel with this process, NASA continues to make progress on the Evolvable Mars Campaign examining alternatives that can pioneer an extended human presence on Mars that is Earth independent. This involves ongoing assessments of surface systems and operations to enable a permanent, sustainable human presence. Because of the difficulty in getting equipment and supplies to the surface of Mars, part of these assessments involve identifying those systems and processes that can perform in multiple, sometimes completely unrelated, situations. These assessments have been performed in a very generic surface mission carried out at a very generic surface location. As specific candidate EZs are identified it becomes important to evaluate the current suite of surface systems and operations as they are likely to perform for the specific locations and for the types of operations - both scientific and development - that are proposed for these EZs. It is also important to evaluate the proposed EZs for their suitability to be explored or developed given the range of capabilities and constraints for the types of surface systems and operations being considered within the EMC. This means looking at setting up and operating a field station at a central location within the EZ as well as traversing to and

  3. Development of a Graphical User Interface to Visualize Surface Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R.L.

    1998-07-13

    Thousands of worldwide observing stations provide meteorological information near the earth's surface as often as once each hour. This surface data may be plotted on geographical maps to provide the meteorologist useful information regarding weather patterns for a region of interest. This report describes the components and applications of a graphical user interface which have been developed to visualize surface observations at any global location and time of interest.

  4. HLW Disposal System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. W.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, J. Y. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    A KRS is suggested through design requirement analysis of the buffer and the canister which are the constituent of disposal system engineered barrier and HLW management plans are proposed. In the aspect of radionuclide retention capacity, the thickness of the buffer is determined 0.5m, the shape to be disc and ring and the dry density to be 1.6 g/cm{sup 3}. The maximum temperature of the buffer is below 100 .deg. which meets the design requirement. And bentonite blocks with 5 wt% of graphite showed more than 1.0 W/mK of thermal conductivity without the addition of sand. The result of the thermal analysis for proposed double-layered buffer shows that decrease of 7 .deg. C in maximum temperature of the buffer. For the disposal canister, the copper for the outer shell material and cast iron for the inner structure material is recommended considering the results analyzed in terms of performance of the canisters and manufacturability and the geochemical properties of deep groundwater sampled from the research area with granite, salt water intrusion, and the heavy weight of the canister. The results of safety analysis for the canister shows that the criticality for the normal case including uncertainty is the value of 0.816 which meets subcritical condition. Considering nation's 'Basic Plan for Electric Power Demand and Supply' and based on the scenario of disposing CANDU spent fuels in the first phase, the disposal system that the repository will be excavated in eight phases with the construction of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) beginning in 2020 and commissioning in 2040 until the closure of the repository is proposed. Since there is close correlation between domestic HLW management plans and front-end/back-end fuel cycle plans causing such a great sensitivity of international environment factor, items related to assuring the non-proliferation and observing the international standard are showed to be the influential factor and acceptability

  5. Surface properties of semi-infinite Fermi systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campi, X.; Stringari, S.

    1979-10-01

    A functional relation between the kinetic energy density and the total density is used to analyse the surface properties of semi-infinite Fermi systems. One find an explicit expression for the surface thickness in which the role of the infinite matter compressibility, binding energy and non-locality effects is clearly shown. The method, which holds both for nuclear and electronic systems (liquid metals), yields a very simple relation between the surface thickness and the surface energy

  6. Automation system for tritium contaminated surface monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Curuia, Marian; Raceanu, Mircea; Enache, Adrian; Stefanescu, Ioan; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel

    2005-01-01

    The low energy of betas makes tritium difficult to detect. However, there are several methods used in tritium detection, such as liquid scintillation and ionization chambers. Tritium on or near a surface can be also detected using proportional counter and, recently, solid state devices. The paper presents our results in the design and achievement of a surface tritium monitor using a PIN photodiode as a solid state charged particle detector to count betas emitted from the surface. That method allows continuous, real-time and non-destructively measuring of tritium. (authors)

  7. Development of FAME Animation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Hamamatsu, Kiyotaka; Shirai, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Hideto; Itakura, Hirofumi; Tahata, Yasunori

    1999-02-01

    In order to monitor an animation of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium calculated by the FAME-II (Fast Analyzer for Magnetohydrodynamic Equilibrium-II) system, a FAME Animation System was developed. This system provides automatically the animation on workstations connected to network with the same period of JT-60U discharge sequence. Then, the system can supply the important information for JT-60U operators to determine control parameters of the succeeding discharge. This report describes the overview of the FAME Animation System. (author)

  8. Development of mini VSAT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shyue-Ching; Chiu, Wu-Jhy; Lin, Hen-Dao; Shih, Mu-Piao

    1992-03-01

    This paper presents the mini VSAT (very small aperture terminal) system, which is a low cost networking system providing economical alternatives to the business world's datacom needs. The system is designed to achieve the highest possible performance/price ratio for private VSAT networks that range from a few tens of remote terminals to large networks of several thousands remote terminals. The paper describes the system architecture, major features, hardware and software structure, access protocol and performance of the developed system.

  9. A trial fabrication of activity standard surface sources and positional standard surface sources for an imaging plate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yasushi; Hino, Yoshio; Yamada, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Mikio

    2003-01-01

    An imaging plate system can detect low level activity, but quantitative analysis is difficult because there are no adequate standard surface sources. A new fabrication method was developed for standard surface sources by printing on a sheet of paper using an ink-jet printer with inks in which a radioactive material was mixed. The fabricated standard surface sources had high uniformity, high positional resolution arbitrary shapes and a broad intensity range. The standard sources were used for measurement of surface activity as an application. (H. Yokoo)

  10. Unraveling surface enabled magnetic phenomena in low dimensional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baljozovic, Milos; Girovsky, Jan; Nowakowski, Jan; Ali, Md Ehesan; Rossmann, Harald; Nijs, Thomas; Aeby, Elise; Nowakowska, Sylwia; Siewert, Dorota; Srivastava, Gitika; WäCkerlin, Christian; Dreiser, Jan; Decurtins, Silvio; Liu, Shi-Xia; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Jung, Thomas A.; Ballav, Nirmalya

    Molecular spin systems with controllable interactions are of both fundamental and applied importance. These systems help us to better understand the fundamental origins of the interactions involved in low dimensional magnetic systems and to put them in the framework of existing models towards their further development. Following our first observation of exchange induced magnetic ordering in paramagnetic porphyrins adsorbed on ferromagnetic Co surface we showed that magnetic properties of such molecules can be controllably altered upon exposure to chemical and physical stimuli. In our most recent work it was shown that a synthetically programmed co-assembly of Fe and Mn phthalocyanines can also be realized on diamagnetic Au(111) surfaces where it induces long-range 2D ferrimagnetic order, at first glance in conflict with the Mermin-Wagner theory. Here we provide evidence for the first direct observation of such ordering from STM/STS and XMCD data and from DFT +U calculations demonstrating key role of the Au(111) surface states in mediating AFM RKKY coupling of the Kondo underscreened magnetic moments.

  11. The Guided System Development Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno; Probst, Christian W.; Nielson, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    The Service-Oriented Computing paradigm has had significant influence on the Internet. With the emergence of this paradigm, it is important to provide tools that help developers designing and verifying such systems. In this article, we present the Guided System Development (GSD) Framework that aids...

  12. ISE System Development Methodology Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayhoe, G.F.

    1992-02-17

    The Information Systems Engineering (ISE) System Development Methodology Manual (SDM) is a framework of life cycle management guidelines that provide ISE personnel with direction, organization, consistency, and improved communication when developing and maintaining systems. These guide-lines were designed to allow ISE to build and deliver Total Quality products, and to meet the goals and requirements of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Westinghouse Savannah River Company, and Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  13. Developments in surface contamination and cleaning fundamentals and applied aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Kohli, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Vol. 1: Fundamentals and Applied Aspects, Second Edition, provides an excellent source of information on alternative cleaning techniques and methods for characterization of surface contamination and validation. Each volume in this series contains a particular topical focus, covering the key techniques and recent developments in the area. This volume forms the heart of the series, covering the fundamentals and application aspects, characterization of surface contaminants, and methods for removal of surface contamination. In addition, new cleaning techniques effective at smaller scales are considered and employed for removal where conventional cleaning techniques fail, along with new cleaning techniques for molecular contaminants. The Volume is edited by the leading experts in small particle surface contamination and cleaning, providing an invaluable reference for researchers and engineers in R&D, manufacturing, quality control, and procurement specific...

  14. Mars Surface Systems Common Capabilities and Challenges for Human Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toups, Larry; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of common systems and operations as they are applied to actual locations on Mars that are representative of Exploration Zones (EZ) - NASA's term for candidate locations where humans could land, live and work on the Martian surface. Given NASA's current concepts for human missions to Mars, an EZ is a collection of Regions of Interest (ROIs) located within approximately 100 kilometers of a centralized landing site. ROIs are areas that are relevant for scientific investigation and/or development/maturation of capabilities and resources necessary for a sustainable human presence. An EZ also contains a habitation site that will be used by multiple human crews during missions to explore and utilize the ROIs within the EZ. The Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC), a description of NASA's current approach to these human Mars missions, assumes that a single EZ will be identified within which NASA will establish a substantial and durable surface infrastructure that will be used by multiple human crews. The process of identifying and eventually selecting this single EZ will likely take many years to finalized. Because of this extended EZ selection process it becomes important to evaluate the current suite of surface systems and operations being evaluated for the EMC as they are likely to perform at a variety of proposed EZ locations and for the types of operations - both scientific and development - that are proposed for these candidate EZs. It is also important to evaluate proposed EZs for their suitability to be explored or developed given the range of capabilities and constraints for the types of surface systems and operations being considered within the EMC. Four locations identified in the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG)'s Human Exploration of Mars Science Analysis Group (HEM-SAG) report are used in this paper as representative of candidate EZs that will emerge from the selection process that NASA has initiated. A field

  15. Benefits of Using a Mars Forward Strategy for Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulqueen, Jack; Griffin, Brand; Smitherman, David; Maples, Dauphne

    2009-01-01

    This paper identifies potential risk reduction, cost savings and programmatic procurement benefits of a Mars Forward Lunar Surface System architecture that provides commonality or evolutionary development paths for lunar surface system elements applicable to Mars surface systems. The objective of this paper is to identify the potential benefits for incorporating a Mars Forward development strategy into the planned Project Constellation Lunar Surface System Architecture. The benefits include cost savings, technology readiness, and design validation of systems that would be applicable to lunar and Mars surface systems. The paper presents a survey of previous lunar and Mars surface systems design concepts and provides an assessment of previous conclusions concerning those systems in light of the current Project Constellation Exploration Architectures. The operational requirements for current Project Constellation lunar and Mars surface system elements are compared and evaluated to identify the potential risk reduction strategies that build on lunar surface systems to reduce the technical and programmatic risks for Mars exploration. Risk reduction for rapidly evolving technologies is achieved through systematic evolution of technologies and components based on Moore's Law superimposed on the typical NASA systems engineering project development "V-cycle" described in NASA NPR 7120.5. Risk reduction for established or slowly evolving technologies is achieved through a process called the Mars-Ready Platform strategy in which incremental improvements lead from the initial lunar surface system components to Mars-Ready technologies. The potential programmatic benefits of the Mars Forward strategy are provided in terms of the transition from the lunar exploration campaign to the Mars exploration campaign. By utilizing a sequential combined procurement strategy for lunar and Mars exploration surface systems, the overall budget wedges for exploration systems are reduced and the

  16. Data management system advanced development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Katherine; Humphries, Terry

    1990-01-01

    The Data Management System (DMS) Advanced Development task provides for the development of concepts, new tools, DMS services, and for the testing of the Space Station DMS hardware and software. It also provides for the development of techniques capable of determining the effects of system changes/enhancements, additions of new technology, and/or hardware and software growth on system performance. This paper will address the built-in characteristics which will support network monitoring requirements in the design of the evolving DMS network implementation, functional and performance requirements for a real-time, multiprogramming, multiprocessor operating system, and the possible use of advanced development techniques such as expert systems and artificial intelligence tools in the DMS design.

  17. Developing Scalable Information Security Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Konstantinovich Ablekov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Existing physical security systems has wide range of lacks, including: high cost, a large number of vulnerabilities, problems of modification and support system. This paper covers an actual problem of developing systems without this list of drawbacks. The paper presents the architecture of the information security system, which operates through the network protocol TCP/IP, including the ability to connect different types of devices and integration with existing security systems. The main advantage is a significant increase in system reliability, scalability, both vertically and horizontally, with minimal cost of both financial and time resources.

  18. Business system: Sustainable development and anticipatory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Potočan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence and development of humankind depends mainly upon the co-ordinated operation of all areas and levels of human activity. However, in theory and in practice there is no model of operation, which would provide a harmonized and target oriented development. A partial solution is offered by sustainable development, which tries to define and carry out common goals of mankind with a harmonized implementation of human activities at all levels of its living and behaviour. Companies belong to central institutions of modern society which essentially co–create the sustainability of society. The company’s endeavour by simulation to prepare models of their goals concerning their internal and external environment. On the base of systemic treatment, we can define companies as business system, which can survive in a log-run only on the basis of sustainable development. The business system can also be supported by the application of the anticipatory systems. The anticipatory systems can be, in this sense, understood as an entity of the methodological approach, techniques and modes of work. Their characteristics have, a direct impact on the determination of goals, on the orientation of operation, and hence on the achievement of the business system results.

  19. 'The surface management system' (SuMS) database: a surface-based database to aid cortical surface reconstruction, visualization and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, J.; Drury, H.; Van Essen, D. C.

    2001-01-01

    Surface reconstructions of the cerebral cortex are increasingly widely used in the analysis and visualization of cortical structure, function and connectivity. From a neuroinformatics perspective, dealing with surface-related data poses a number of challenges. These include the multiplicity of configurations in which surfaces are routinely viewed (e.g. inflated maps, spheres and flat maps), plus the diversity of experimental data that can be represented on any given surface. To address these challenges, we have developed a surface management system (SuMS) that allows automated storage and retrieval of complex surface-related datasets. SuMS provides a systematic framework for the classification, storage and retrieval of many types of surface-related data and associated volume data. Within this classification framework, it serves as a version-control system capable of handling large numbers of surface and volume datasets. With built-in database management system support, SuMS provides rapid search and retrieval capabilities across all the datasets, while also incorporating multiple security levels to regulate access. SuMS is implemented in Java and can be accessed via a Web interface (WebSuMS) or using downloaded client software. Thus, SuMS is well positioned to act as a multiplatform, multi-user 'surface request broker' for the neuroscience community.

  20. The development of surface science in China: Retrospect and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Xide (Fudan University, Shanghai (China))

    1994-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the year of 1977 marked the birth of surface science in China, therefore the length of its history of development is only half of that shown in the title of this volume. Since 1977 laboratories with modern facilities for surface studies have been established in various universities and research institutes. Three open laboratories better equipped than others have been set up in Beijing, Xiamen and Shanghai for surface physics, surface chemistry and applied surface physics, respectively. Five National Conferences on Physics of Surfaces and Interfaces were held in 1982, 1984, 1985, 1988 and 1991. In 1993 China is going to host the Fourth International Conference on the Structure of Surfaces in Shanghai August 16-19 which will serve as a milestone in the history of development of surface science in China. With the access to many overseas laboratories, quite a number of Chinese scientists and students have had opportunities to work and study abroad and have brought back with them experiences acquired. During the Conferences just mentioned, one could witness a number of steady progresses made over the years. In the present review, a brief description about the establishment of some major research facilities and progresses of some of the research is given with emphasis on work related to semiconductor surfaces, interfaces, superlattices, heterojunctions and quantum wells. Although the review nominally covers the development of research in surface science in China, due to the limitation of the capabilities of the author, mostly work done at Fudan University is included. For this the author would like to express her deep apology to many Chinese colleagues whose works have not been properly mentioned

  1. Development of a Radioactive Waste Assay System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Duck Won; Song, Myung Jae; Shin, Sang Woon; Sung, Kee Bang; Ko, Dae Hach [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kil Jeong; Park, Jong Mook; Jee, Kwang Yoong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear Act of Korea requires the manifest of low and intermediate level radioactive waste generated at nuclear power plants prior to disposal sites.Individual history records of the radioactive waste should be contained the information about the activity of nuclides in the drum, total activity, weight, the type of waste. A fully automated nuclide analysis assay system, non-destructive analysis and evaluation system of the radioactive waste, was developed through this research project. For the nuclides that could not be analysis directly by MCA, the activities of the representative {gamma}-emitters(Cs-137, Co-60) contained in the drum were measured by using that system. Then scaling factors were used to calculate the activities of {alpha}, {beta}-emitters. Furthermore, this system can automatically mark the analysis results onto the drum surface. An automated drum handling system developed through this research project can reduce the radiation exposure to workers. (author). 41 refs., figs.

  2. Surface concrete decontamination equipment developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halter, J.M.; Sullivan, R.G.; Bevan, J.L.

    1982-08-01

    This report documents a project that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted to identify and develop techniques for removing contaminated concrete surfaces. A major problem associated with nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning is how to economically demolish and dispose of contaminated concrete. Removing only the contaminated portion of the concrete can substantially reduce costs. Evaluation of various methods for removing concrete surfaces shows that several techniques presently used require excessive manpower, time, and energy. Many times more material is removed than necessary, increasing the quantity of waste that must be handled under controlled conditions. These evaluations generated the basic criteria for developing a suitable concrete removal technique: provide a convenient method for cleaning surfaces (such as those contaminated by a small spill); reduce the contaminated waste volume that has to be placed into controlled storage; remove surfaces quickly; and minimize personal exposure to potentially harmful radiation or toxic materials. Removal to 1/4 to 1/2 in. of contaminated surface layer is sufficient for cleanup of most facilities. Two unique decontamination methods have been developed: the concrete spaller and the water cannon. The concrete spaller is the most efficient technique: it removes the concrete surface faster than the water cannons and at a lower cost (as little as $3.00/ft 2 of concrete surface). However, the .458 magnum water cannon may be well suited for small or hard-to-reach locations

  3. USDA soil classification system dictates site surface management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowmer, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Success or failure of site surface management practices greatly affects long-term site stability. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) soil classification system best documents those parameters which control the success of installed practices for managing both erosion and surface drainage. The USDA system concentrates on soil characteristics in the upper three meters of the surface that support the associated flora both physically and physiologically. The USDA soil survey first identifies soil series based on detailed characteristics that are related to production potential. Using the production potential, land use capability classes are developed. Capability classes reveal the highest and best agronomic use for the site. Lower number classes are considered arable while higher number classes are best suited for grazing agriculture. Application of ecological principles based on the USDA soil survey reveals the current state of the site relative to its ecological potential. To assure success, site management practices must be chosen that are compatible with both production capability and current state of the site

  4. Plasma surface interactions in Q-enhanced mirror systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    Two approaches to enhancement of the Q (energy gain) factor of mirror systems are under study at Livermore. These include the Tandem Mirror and the Field Reversed Mirror. Both of these new ideas preserve features of conventional mirror systems as far as plasma-wall interactions are concerned. Specifically in both approaches field lines exit from the ends of the system and impinge on walls located at a distance from the confinement chamber. It is possible to predict some aspects of the plasma/surface interactions of TM and FRM systems from experience obtained in the Livermore 2XIIB experiment. In particular, as observed in 2XIIB, effective isolation of the plasma from thermal contact with the ends owing to the development of sheath-like regions is to be expected. Studies presently underway directed toward still further enhancing the decoupling of the plasma from the effects of plasma surface interactions at the walls will be discussed, with particular reference to the problem of minimizing the effects of refluxing secondary electrons produced by plasma impact on the end walls

  5. Massive Modularity of Space and Surface Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will conduct a systems level investigation of a modular design and operations approach for future NASA exploration systems. Particular emphasis will be...

  6. Sediment Transport Model for a Surface Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damodhara R. Mailapalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling irrigation-induced soil erosion is one of the important issues of irrigation management and surface water impairment. Irrigation models are useful in managing the irrigation and the associated ill effects on agricultural environment. In this paper, a physically based surface irrigation model was developed to predict sediment transport in irrigated furrows by integrating an irrigation hydraulic model with a quasi-steady state sediment transport model to predict sediment load in furrow irrigation. The irrigation hydraulic model simulates flow in a furrow irrigation system using the analytically solved zero-inertial overland flow equations and 1D-Green-Ampt, 2D-Fok, and Kostiakov-Lewis infiltration equations. Performance of the sediment transport model was evaluated for bare and cropped furrow fields. The results indicated that the sediment transport model can predict the initial sediment rate adequately, but the simulated sediment rate was less accurate for the later part of the irrigation event. Sensitivity analysis of the parameters of the sediment module showed that the soil erodibility coefficient was the most influential parameter for determining sediment load in furrow irrigation. The developed modeling tool can be used as a water management tool for mitigating sediment loss from the surface irrigated fields.

  7. Surface Characteristics and Biofilm Development on Selected Dental Ceramic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung H. Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intraoral adjustment and polishing of dental ceramics often affect their surface characteristics, promoting increased roughness and consequent biofilm growth. This study correlated surface roughness to biofilm development with four commercially available ceramic materials. Methods. Four ceramic materials (Vita Enamic®, Lava™ Ultimate, Vitablocs Mark II, and Wieland Reflex® were prepared as per manufacturer instructions. Seventeen specimens of each material were adjusted and polished to simulate clinical intraoral procedures and another seventeen remained unaltered. Specimens were analysed by SEM imaging, confocal microscopy, and crystal violet assay. Results. SEM images showed more irregular surface topography in adjusted specimens than their respective controls. Surface roughness (Ra values were greater in all materials following adjustments. All adjusted materials with the exception of Vitablocs Mark II promoted significantly greater biofilm growth relative to controls. Conclusion. Simulated intraoral polishing methods resulted in greater surface roughness and increased biofilm accumulation.

  8. Rapid surface sampling and archival record system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barren, E.; Penney, C.M.; Sheldon, R.B. [GE Corporate Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    A number of contamination sites exist in this country where the area and volume of material to be remediated is very large, approaching or exceeding 10{sup 6} m{sup 2} and 10{sup 6} m{sup 3}. Typically, only a small fraction of this material is actually contaminated. In such cases there is a strong economic motivation to test the material with a sufficient density of measurements to identify which portions are uncontaminated, so extensively they be left in place or be disposed of as uncontaminated waste. Unfortunately, since contamination often varies rapidly from position to position, this procedure can involve upwards of one million measurements per site. The situation is complicated further in many cases by the difficulties of sampling porous surfaces, such as concrete. This report describes a method for sampling concretes in which an immediate distinction can be made between contaminated and uncontaminated surfaces. Sample acquisition and analysis will be automated.

  9. Development of Cubesat Propulsion Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of this IRAD will be to develop a propulsion system that can be cheaply and reliably used for NASA GSFC cubesat missions. Reliability will be...

  10. Radioisotope Power Systems Technology Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the RPS's technology portfolio is to advance performance of radioisotope power systems through new and novel innovations being developed and transitioned...

  11. Information system development activities and inquiring systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carugati, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a framework that maps information system development (ISD) activities on systems for the creation of knowledge. This work addresses the relevant and persisting problem of improving the chances of ISD success. The article builds upon previous research on knowledge aspects...... based on ISD literature and on Churchman's (1971) inquiring systems. The second part presents the use of the framework in an ISD project. The case is used to show the applicability of the framework and to highlight the advantages of this approach. The main theoretical implication is that the framework...

  12. Electrochemical surface plasmon spectroscopy-Recent developments and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Nan; Schweiss, Ruediger; Zong, Yun; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    A survey is given on recent developments and applications of electrochemical techniques combined with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. Surface plasmon spectroscopy (SPS) and optical waveguide mode spectroscopy make use of evanescent waves on metal-dielectric interfaces and can be conveniently combined with electrochemical methods. Selected examples of applications of high-pressure surface electrochemical plasmon resonance spectroscopy to study supramolecular architectures such as layer-by-layer films of conducting polymers or thin composite films will be presented. Then a combination of SPS with the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) will be introduced and illustrated with a study on doping/de-doping process of a conducting polymer. This combination allows for simultaneous electrochemical, optical and microgravimetric characterization of interfaces. Finally, new technical developments including integration of SPS into microfluidic devices using a grating coupler and surface plasmon enhanced diffraction will be discussed

  13. Surfaces and Interfaces of Magnetoelectric Oxide Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shi

    Magnetoelectric materials Cr2O3, hexagonal LuFeO 3 and YbFeO3 are studied in this thesis. The surface of chromia (Cr2O3) has a surface electronic structure distinct from the bulk. Our work shows that placing a Cr2O3 single crystal into a single domain state will result in net Cr2O 3 spin polarization at the boundary, even in the presence of a gold overlayer. From the Cr 2p3/2 X-ray magnetic circular dichroism signal, there is clear evidence of interface polarization with overlayers of both Pd and Pt on chromia. Cobalt thin films on Cr2O3(0001) show larger magnetic contrast in magnetic force microscopy indicating enhancement of perpendicular anisotropy induced by Cr2O3. The interfacial charge transfer between mechanically exfoliated few-layer graphene and Cr2O3(0001) surfaces has been investigated showing hole doping of few-layer graphene. Density functional theory calculations furthermore confirm the p-type nature of the graphene on top of chromia, and suggest that the chromia is able to induce a significant carrier spin polarization in the graphene layer. The surface termination and the nominal valence states for hexagonal LuFeO3 thin films were characterized. The stable surface terminates in a Fe-O layer. This is consistent wit the results of density functional calculations. The structural transition at about 1000 °C, from the hexagonal to the orthorhombic phase of LuFeO3, has been investigated in thin films of LuFeO3. The electronic structure for the conduction bands of both hexagonal and orthorhombic LuFeO3 thin films have been measured. Dramatic differences in both the spectral features and the linear dichroism are observed. We have also studied the ferrimagnetism in h-YbFeO3 by measuring the magnetization of Fe and Yb separately. The results directly show antialignment of magnetization of Yb and Fe ions in h-YbFeO3 at low temperature, with an exchange field on Yb of about 17 kOe. All ferrimagnets, by default, are magnetoelectrics. These findings directly

  14. TADS: Technical Assistance Development System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epting, Rosemary, Ed.

    Described is the Technical Assistance Development System (TADS), a component of the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill which offers support services to preschool demonstration centers for handicapped children in the First Chance Network. Discussed are the four types of services offered:…

  15. ASPHERICAL SURFACES APPROXIMATION IN AUTOMATED DESIGN OF OPTICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Ivanova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with the problems of higher order aspherical surfaces approximation using different equation types. The objects of research are two types of equations for higher order aspherical surfaces description used in different software for optical systems design (SАRО, OPAL, ZEMAX, CODE-V, etc. and dependent on z-coordinate or on a radial coordinate on the surface. Conversion from one type of equations to another is considered in view of application in different software for optical systems design. Methods. The subject matter of the method lies in usage of mean square method approximation for recalculation of high-order aspherical surface. Iterative algorithm for recalculation is presented giving the possibility to recalculate coefficients for different types of equations with required accuracy. Recommendations are given for choosing recalculation parameters such as the number of result equation coefficients, the number of points for recalculation and point allocation on a surface. Main Results. Example of recalculation for aspherical surface and accuracy estimation, including result aberration comparison between initial surface and recalculated surface are presented. The example has shown that required accuracy of surface representation was obtained. Practical Relevance. This technique is usable for recalculation of higher order aspherical surfaces in various types of software for optical systems design and also for research of optimal higher order aspherical surfaces description.

  16. Development of the auditory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litovsky, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Auditory development involves changes in the peripheral and central nervous system along the auditory pathways, and these occur naturally, and in response to stimulation. Human development occurs along a trajectory that can last decades, and is studied using behavioral psychophysics, as well as physiologic measurements with neural imaging. The auditory system constructs a perceptual space that takes information from objects and groups, segregates sounds, and provides meaning and access to communication tools such as language. Auditory signals are processed in a series of analysis stages, from peripheral to central. Coding of information has been studied for features of sound, including frequency, intensity, loudness, and location, in quiet and in the presence of maskers. In the latter case, the ability of the auditory system to perform an analysis of the scene becomes highly relevant. While some basic abilities are well developed at birth, there is a clear prolonged maturation of auditory development well into the teenage years. Maturation involves auditory pathways. However, non-auditory changes (attention, memory, cognition) play an important role in auditory development. The ability of the auditory system to adapt in response to novel stimuli is a key feature of development throughout the nervous system, known as neural plasticity. PMID:25726262

  17. Development of the accelerating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jiho; Kwon, H. J.; Kim, D. I.; Kim, H. S.; Ryu, J. Y.; Park, B. S.; Seol, K. T.; Yun, S. P.; Song, Y. G.; Cho, Y. S.

    2013-02-15

    One of the main purposes of the 'Development of the Accelerating System' is developing a 100-MeV proton linac which accelerate proton beams from 20 MeV to 100 MeV by using 7 DTL (drift tube linac) tanks. Two of them were finished in the 2-nd stage of the project. The remaining part was also successfully fabricated and installed at Gyeongju site of KAERI. The MEBT is an essential component to extract and supply 20-MeV proton beams to users, and to match proton beams to the next accelerating structure for 100-MeV acceleration. The development of the MEBT has successfully finished. The project also developed the digital LLRF (low level RF) system which control the accelerating field within 1% in magnitude and 1 degree in phase. This system has been successfully tested in the 20-MeV linac operation at Daejeon site of KAERI. The modified version of the digital LLRF system will be used in the 100-MeV linac operation. The project also developed the beam diagnostic system. They are the strip-line type beam position monitor (BPM), the beam current monitor (CT), the beam loss monitor (BLM), and the emittance measurement system. They are used to measure the characteristics of the 20-MeV proton beams. The project also developed the EPIC-based control system. It is used to monitor the status of the accelerator and components, and to remotely control accelerator components. It has been used and modified in the 20-MeV linac operation. The modified version of the LLRF, diagnostics and control systems will be used in 100-MeV linac operation.

  18. Development of a gold-nanostructured surface for amperometric genosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanardi, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.zanardi@unimore.it [Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Dipartimento di Chimica (Italy); Baldoli, Clara, E-mail: clara.baldoli@istm.cnr.it [Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari del CNR (Italy); Licandro, Emanuela [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica Organica ed Industriale (Italy); Terzi, Fabio; Seeber, Renato [Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Dipartimento di Chimica (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    A gold-nanostructured surface has been obtained by stable deposition of chemically synthesized gold nanoparticles (2.1-5.5 nm size range) on a gold substrate through a dithiol linker. The method proposed for the obtainment of the nanostructure is suitable for the further stable anchoring of a peptide nucleic acid oligomer through four amine groups of lysine terminal residues, leading to fairly reproducible systems. The geometric area of the nanostructured surface is compared with those of a smooth and of an electrochemically generated nanostructured surface by depositing a probe bearing an electrochemically active ferrocene residue. Despite the area of the two nanostructures being quite similar, the response toward a 2 nM target oligonucleotide sequence is particularly high when using the surface built up by nanoparticle deposition. This aspect indicates that morphologic details of the nanostructure play a key role in conditioning the performances of the genosensors.

  19. Development of a gold-nanostructured surface for amperometric genosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanardi, Chiara; Baldoli, Clara; Licandro, Emanuela; Terzi, Fabio; Seeber, Renato

    2012-01-01

    A gold-nanostructured surface has been obtained by stable deposition of chemically synthesized gold nanoparticles (2.1–5.5 nm size range) on a gold substrate through a dithiol linker. The method proposed for the obtainment of the nanostructure is suitable for the further stable anchoring of a peptide nucleic acid oligomer through four amine groups of lysine terminal residues, leading to fairly reproducible systems. The geometric area of the nanostructured surface is compared with those of a smooth and of an electrochemically generated nanostructured surface by depositing a probe bearing an electrochemically active ferrocene residue. Despite the area of the two nanostructures being quite similar, the response toward a 2 nM target oligonucleotide sequence is particularly high when using the surface built up by nanoparticle deposition. This aspect indicates that morphologic details of the nanostructure play a key role in conditioning the performances of the genosensors.

  20. MarsSI: Martian surface data processing information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantin-Nataf, C.; Lozac'h, L.; Thollot, P.; Loizeau, D.; Bultel, B.; Fernando, J.; Allemand, P.; Dubuffet, F.; Poulet, F.; Ody, A.; Clenet, H.; Leyrat, C.; Harrisson, S.

    2018-01-01

    MarsSI (Acronym for Mars System of Information, https://emars.univ-lyon1.fr/MarsSI/, is a web Geographic Information System application which helps managing and processing martian orbital data. The MarsSI facility is part of the web portal called PSUP (Planetary SUrface Portal) developed by the Observatories of Paris Sud (OSUPS) and Lyon (OSUL) to provide users with efficient and easy access to data products dedicated to the martian surface. The portal proposes 1) the management and processing of data thanks to MarsSI and 2) the visualization and merging of high level (imagery, spectral, and topographic) products and catalogs via a web-based user interface (MarsVisu). The portal PSUP as well as the facility MarsVisu is detailed in a companion paper (Poulet et al., 2018). The purpose of this paper is to describe the facility MarsSI. From this application, users are able to easily and rapidly select observations, process raw data via automatic pipelines, and get back final products which can be visualized under Geographic Information Systems. Moreover, MarsSI also contains an automatic stereo-restitution pipeline in order to produce Digital Terrain Models (DTM) on demand from HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) or CTX (Context Camera) pair-images. This application is funded by the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) (ERC project eMars, No. 280168) and has been developed in the scope of Mars, but the design is applicable to any other planetary body of the solar system.

  1. Development of refueling support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Shoichi; Sano, Kazuya; Hochin, Koji; Iguchi, Yukihiro

    1992-01-01

    The refueling of Fugen Nuclear Power Station requires correct management of fuels, etc. And empirical knowledge is necessary for efficient planning and refueling. Fugen developed refueling support system and put it into practical operation. The system features a network of refueling equipment and AI rules aquired from operators knowledge. The system helps make an optimized plan, displays step-by-step guidance and prints out lists of fuel locations and movements. The system reduced the labor of the operators, optimized the management and improved the reliability of the refueling. (author)

  2. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haley, D.C.; Pigoski, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors

  3. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pigoski, T.M. [Merrit Systems, Inc. (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  4. Sikorsky interactive graphics surface design/manufacturing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, R.

    1975-01-01

    An interactive graphics system conceived to be used in the design, analysis, and manufacturing of aircraft components with free form surfaces was described. In addition to the basic surface definition and viewing capabilities inherent in such a system, numerous other features are present: surface editing, automated smoothing of control curves, variable milling patch boundary definitions, surface intersection definition and viewing, automatic creation of true offset surfaces, digitizer and drafting machine interfaces, and cutter path optimization. Documented costs and time savings of better than six to one are being realized with this system. The system was written in FORTRAN and GSP for use on IBM 2250 CRT's in conjunction with an IBM 370/158 computer.

  5. Development of a Marine Propeller With Nonplanar Lifting Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Friesch, Jürgen; Kappel, Jens J.

    2005-01-01

    The principle of non-planar lifting surfaces is applied to the design of modern aircraft wings to obtain better lift to drag ratios. Whereas a pronounced fin or winglet at the wingtip has been developed for aircraft, the application of the nonplanar principle to marine propellers, dealt...... with in this paper, has led to the KAPPEL propeller with blades curved toward the suction side integrating the fin or winglet into the propeller blade. The combined theoretical, experimental, and practical approach to develop and design marine propellers with nonplanar lifting surfaces has resulted in propellers...

  6. High Efficiency, High Temperature Foam Core Heat Exchanger for Fission Surface Power Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fission-based power systems with power levels of 30 to ≥100 kWe will be needed for planetary surface bases. Development of high temperature, high efficiency heat...

  7. Online decision support system for surface irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenchao; Cui, Yuanlai

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation has played an important role in agricultural production. Irrigation decision support system is developed for irrigation water management, which can raise irrigation efficiency with few added engineering services. An online irrigation decision support system (OIDSS), in consist of in-field sensors and central computer system, is designed for surface irrigation management in large irrigation district. Many functions have acquired in OIDSS, such as data acquisition and detection, real-time irrigation forecast, water allocation decision and irrigation information management. The OIDSS contains four parts: Data acquisition terminals, Web server, Client browser and Communication system. Data acquisition terminals are designed to measure paddy water level, soil water content in dry land, ponds water level, underground water level, and canals water level. A web server is responsible for collecting meteorological data, weather forecast data, the real-time field data, and manager's feedback data. Water allocation decisions are made in the web server. Client browser is responsible for friendly displaying, interacting with managers, and collecting managers' irrigation intention. Communication system includes internet and the GPRS network used by monitoring stations. The OIDSS's model is based on water balance approach for both lowland paddy and upland crops. Considering basic database of different crops water demands in the whole growth stages and irrigation system engineering information, the OIDSS can make efficient decision of water allocation with the help of real-time field water detection and weather forecast. This system uses technical methods to reduce requirements of user's specialized knowledge and can also take user's managerial experience into account. As the system is developed by the Browser/Server model, it is possible to make full use of the internet resources, to facilitate users at any place where internet exists. The OIDSS has been applied in

  8. Development of a fatigue analysis software system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, B. I.; Lee, H. J.; Han, S. W.; Kim, J. Y.; Hwang, K. H.; Kang, J. Y.

    2001-01-01

    A general purpose fatigue analysis software to predict fatigue lives of mechanical components and structures was developed. This software has some characteristic features including functions of searching weak regions on the free surface in order to reduce computing time significantly, a database of fatigue properties for various materials, and an expert system which can assist any users to get more proper results. This software can be used in the environment consists of commercial finite element packages. Using the software developed fatigue analyses for a SAE keyhole specimen and an automobile knuckle were carried out. It was observed that the results were agree well with those from commercial packages

  9. Development of plant maintenance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Jinji; Ike, Masae; Nakayama, Kenji; Kato, Hisatomo

    1989-01-01

    Toshiba is making active efforts for the continuing improvement of reliability and maintainability of operating nuclear power plants. As a part of these efforts, the company has developed new maintenance administration systems, diagnostic monitoring facilities for plant equipments, computer-aided expert systems, and remote-controlled machines for maintenance work. The maintenance administration systems provide efficient work plans and data acquisition capabilities for the management of personnel and equipments involved in nuclear power plant maintenance. The plant diagnostic facilities monitor and diagnose plant conditions for preventive maintenance, as well as enabling rapid countermeasures to be carried out should they be required. Expert systems utilizing artificial intelligence (AI) technology are also employed. The newly developed remote-controlled machines are useful tools for the maintenance inspection of equipment which can not be easily accessed. (author)

  10. Theory of aberration fields for general optical systems with freeform surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerschbach, Kyle; Rolland, Jannick P; Thompson, Kevin P

    2014-11-03

    This paper utilizes the framework of nodal aberration theory to describe the aberration field behavior that emerges in optical systems with freeform optical surfaces, particularly φ-polynomial surfaces, including Zernike polynomial surfaces, that lie anywhere in the optical system. If the freeform surface is located at the stop or pupil, the net aberration contribution of the freeform surface is field constant. As the freeform optical surface is displaced longitudinally away from the stop or pupil of the optical system, the net aberration contribution becomes field dependent. It is demonstrated that there are no new aberration types when describing the aberration fields that arise with the introduction of freeform optical surfaces. Significantly it is shown that the aberration fields that emerge with the inclusion of freeform surfaces in an optical system are exactly those that have been described by nodal aberration theory for tilted and decentered optical systems. The key contribution here lies in establishing the field dependence and nodal behavior of each freeform term that is essential knowledge for effective application to optical system design. With this development, the nodes that are distributed throughout the field of view for each aberration type can be anticipated and targeted during optimization for the correction or control of the aberrations in an optical system with freeform surfaces. This work does not place any symmetry constraints on the optical system, which could be packaged in a fully three dimensional geometry, without fold mirrors.

  11. Development of silicon growth techniques from melt with surface heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Anatoly

    2018-05-01

    The paper contains literary and personal data on the development history of silicon-growing technology with volumetric and surface melt heating. It discusses the advantages and disadvantages of surface-heating technology. Examples are given of the implementation of such processes in the 60s-70s of the last century, and the reasons for the discontinuation of the relevant work. It describes the main solutions for the implementation of crystal growth process with the electron-beam heating of the melt surface, implemented by KEPP EU (Latvia). It discusses differences in the management of the growth process for the crystals with constant diameters compared to the Czochralski method. It lists geometrical and electro-physical properties of the obtained crystals. It describes the possible use of such crystals and the immediate challenges of technology development.

  12. Study of the development of high resolution sub-surface fluid monitoring system using Accurately Controlled Routine Operated Seismic Sources (ACROSS); Seimitsu seigyo shingen ni yoru chika ryutai koseido monitoring no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumazawa, M; Ogawa, K; Fujii, N; Yamaoka, K; Kumagai, H; Takei, Y [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Science; Ishihara, K; Nakaya, m [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Fourier seismology capable of determining quantities related to elastic wave velocity dispersibility and non-elastic damping is under development, and studies are under way for the development of a sub-surface probing technology utilizing this seismology. It is deemed that the above-said quantities are related to the occurrence of earthquakes, behavior of sub-surface water, and migration of magma. In this method, precisely controlled sinusoidal waves are radiated and the received spectral data is subjected to cepstrum analysis, advantageous over other methods in that it achieves a high S/N ratio in a non-destructive way, facilitates deep structure analysis, and capable of monitoring changes with the elapse of time in such a structure. A newly-developed high-mobility transportable quake generator is described, which covers a wider frequency range and aims at the short-distance exploration of sub-surface conditions. Important components of the quake generator include an eccentric mass bearing capable of dealing with high-speed rotation enabling high frequency oscillation, variable mechanism for the primary moment of inertia, exciter and ground surface coupler allowing operations on a soft ground, and torque cancelling mechanism for the excitation of SH waves only. 3 figs.

  13. Surface free energy for systems with integrable boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehmann, Frank; Bortz, Michael; Frahm, Holger

    2005-01-01

    The surface free energy is the difference between the free energies for a system with open boundary conditions and the same system with periodic boundary conditions. We use the quantum transfer matrix formalism to express the surface free energy in the thermodynamic limit of systems with integrable boundary conditions as a matrix element of certain projection operators. Specializing to the XXZ spin-1/2 chain we introduce a novel 'finite temperature boundary operator' which characterizes the thermodynamical properties of surfaces related to integrable boundary conditions

  14. Representing Reservoir Stratification in Land Surface and Earth System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigzaw, W.; Li, H. Y.; Leung, L. R.; Hejazi, M. I.; Voisin, N.; Payn, R. A.; Demissie, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A one-dimensional reservoir stratification modeling has been developed as part of Model for Scale Adaptive River Transport (MOSART), which is the river transport model used in the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) and Community Earth System Model (CESM). Reservoirs play an important role in modulating the dynamic water, energy and biogeochemical cycles in the riverine system through nutrient sequestration and stratification. However, most earth system models include lake models that assume a simplified geometry featuring a constant depth and a constant surface area. As reservoir geometry has important effects on thermal stratification, we developed a new algorithm for deriving generic, stratified area-elevation-storage relationships that are applicable at regional and global scales using data from Global Reservoir and Dam database (GRanD). This new reservoir geometry dataset is then used to support the development of a reservoir stratification module within MOSART. The mixing of layers (energy and mass) in the reservoir is driven by eddy diffusion, vertical advection, and reservoir inflow and outflow. Upstream inflow into a reservoir is treated as an additional source/sink of energy, while downstream outflow represented a sink. Hourly atmospheric forcing from North American Land Assimilation System (NLDAS) Phase II and simulated daily runoff by ACME land component are used as inputs for the model over the contiguous United States for simulations between 2001-2010. The model is validated using selected observed temperature profile data in a number of reservoirs that are subject to various levels of regulation. The reservoir stratification module completes the representation of riverine mass and heat transfer in earth system models, which is a major step towards quantitative understanding of human influences on the terrestrial hydrological, ecological and biogeochemical cycles.

  15. Plasma diffusion in systems with disrupted magnetic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, D.K.; Pogutse, O.P.

    1982-01-01

    Plasma diffusion is analyzed in the case in which the system of magnetic surfaces is disrupted by a stochastic perturbation of the magnetic field. The diffusion coefficient is related to the statistical properties of the field. The statistical characteristics of the field are found when the magnetic surfaces near the separatrix are disrupted by an external perturbation. The diffusion coefficient is evaluated in the region in which the magnetic surfaces are disrupted. In this region the diffusion coefficient is of the Bohm form

  16. Hazards and operability study for the surface moisture monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Board, B.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Nuclear Reservation Tank Farms' underground waste tanks have been used to store liquid radioactive waste from defense materials production since the 1940's. Waste in certain of the tanks may contain material in the form of ferrocyanide or various organic compounds which could potentially be susceptible to condensed phase chemical reactions. Because of the presence of oxidizing materials (nitrate compounds) and heat sources (radioactive decay and chemical reactions), the ferrocyanide or organic material could potentially fuel a propagating exothermic reaction with undesirable consequences. Analysis and experiments indicate that the reaction propagation and/or initiation may be prevented by the presence of sufficient moisture in the waste. Because the reaction would probably be initiated at the surface of the waste, evidence of sufficient moisture concentration would help provide evidence that the tank waste can continue to be safely stored. The Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) was developed to collect data on the surface moisture in the waste by inserting two types of probes (singly) into a waste tank-a neutron probe and an electromagnetic inductance (EMI) probe. The sensor probes will be placed on the surface of the waste utilizing a moveable deployment arm to lower them through an available riser. The movement of the SMMS within the tank will be monitored by a camera lowered through an adjacent riser. The SMMS equipment is the subject of this study. Hazards and Operability Analysis (HAZOP) is a systematic technique for assessing potential hazards and/or operability problems for a new activity. It utilizes a multidiscipline team of knowledgeable individuals in a systematic brainstorming effort. The results of this study will be used as input to an Unreviewed Safety Question determination

  17. A dynamic isotope power system for Space Exploration Initiative surface transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, M.E.; Harty, R.B.; Cataldo, R.

    1992-03-01

    The Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) Demonstration Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy with support funding from NASA, is currently focused on the development of a standardized 2.5-kWe portable generator for multiple applications on the lunar or Martian surface. A variety of remote and mobile potential applications have been identified by NASA, including surface rovers for both short- and extended-duration missions, remote power to science packages, and backup to central base power. Recent work focused on refining the 2.5-kWe design and emphasizing the compatibility of the system with potential surface transport systems. Work included an evaluation of the design to ensure compatibility with the Martian atmosphere while imposing only a minor mass penalty on lunar operations. Additional work included a study performed to compare the DIPS with regenerative fuel cell systems for lunar mobile and remote power systems. Power requirements were reviewed and a modular system chosen for the comparison. 4 refs

  18. Development of computational technique for labeling magnetic flux-surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunami, Masanori; Kanno, Ryutaro; Satake, Shinsuke; Hayashi, Takaya; Takamaru, Hisanori

    2006-03-01

    In recent Large Helical Device (LHD) experiments, radial profiles of ion temperature, electric field, etc. are measured in the m/n=1/1 magnetic island produced by island control coils, where m is the poloidal mode number and n the toroidal mode number. When the transport of the plasma in the radial profiles is numerically analyzed, an average over a magnetic flux-surface in the island is a very useful concept to understand the transport. On averaging, a proper labeling of the flux-surfaces is necessary. In general, it is not easy to label the flux-surfaces in the magnetic field with the island, compared with the case of a magnetic field configuration having nested flux-surfaces. In the present paper, we have developed a new computational technique to label the magnetic flux-surfaces. This technique is constructed by using an optimization algorithm, which is known as an optimization method called the simulated annealing method. The flux-surfaces are discerned by using two labels: one is classification of the magnetic field structure, i.e., core, island, ergodic, and outside regions, and the other is a value of the toroidal magnetic flux. We have applied the technique to an LHD configuration with the m/n=1/1 island, and successfully obtained the discrimination of the magnetic field structure. (author)

  19. Development of maintenance engineering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    Department of JMTR project has developed the Maintenance Engineering System which evaluates the aging tendency of the facilities. The system is used for the repair plan and the replace period of parts, components, equipments or facilities. The system has the data-base which consists of the check data, the inspection data, the trouble data and the repair data at the JMTR since the virgin criticality. The system is utilized maintenance works and concludes the maintenance procedures for the failure components, equipments and facilities. This system has the following characteristics. (1) Anybody can operate the system as easily as word processor. (2) Data are put into by man-machine-interface. (3) The data sheets are with light color and the recognizable arrangements. (4) The system is cost-efficient using commercial personal computers and applications. The research card and the layouts of the input data sheet had been formatted. Data has been begun to be put into the system and to check its functions. The result demonstrates that the system is available for preventive maintenance at the JMTR. (author)

  20. Plant surface cues prime Ustilago maydis for biotrophic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lanver

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Infection-related development of phytopathogenic fungi is initiated by sensing and responding to plant surface cues. This response can result in the formation of specialized infection structures, so-called appressoria. To unravel the program inducing filaments and appressoria in the biotrophic smut fungus Ustilago maydis, we exposed cells to a hydrophobic surface and the cutin monomer 16-hydroxy hexadecanoic acid. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling at the pre-penetration stage documented dramatic transcriptional changes in almost 20% of the genes. Comparisons with the U. maydis sho1 msb2 double mutant, lacking two putative sensors for plant surface cues, revealed that these plasma membrane receptors regulate a small subset of the surface cue-induced genes comprising mainly secreted proteins including potential plant cell wall degrading enzymes. Targeted gene deletion analysis ascribed a role to up-regulated GH51 and GH62 arabinofuranosidases during plant penetration. Among the sho1/msb2-dependently expressed genes were several secreted effectors that are essential for virulence. Our data also demonstrate specific effects on two transcription factors that redirect the transcriptional regulatory network towards appressorium formation and plant penetration. This shows that plant surface cues prime U. maydis for biotrophic development.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesław Samitowski

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of many years of experience in providing consulting services in the area of management, the author presents the issues regarding the development of information systems to be applied in business. The analysis is conducted within the framework of a field of study introduced by the author and referred to as infornomics.

  2. Managing conflicts in systems development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, E

    1997-05-01

    Conflict in systems development is nothing new. It can vary in intensity, but there will always be two possible outcomes--one constructive and the other destructive. The common approach to conflict management is to draw the battle lines and apply brute force. However, there are other ways to deal with conflict that are more effective and more people oriented.

  3. Development of clean chemical mechanical polishing systems; Clean CMP system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, M.; Hosokawa, M. [Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-20

    Described herein are clean chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) systems developed by Ebara. A CMP system needs advanced peripheral techniques, in addition to those for grinding adopted by the conventional system, in order to fully exhibit its inherent functions. An integrated design concept is essential for the CMP steps, including slurry supplying, polishing, washing, process controlling and waste fluid treatment. The Ebara has adopted a standard concept `Clean CMP, dry-in and dry-out of wafers,` and provided world`s highest grades of techniques for inter-layer insulating film, shallow trench isolation, plug and wiring. The head for the polishing module is specially designed by FEM, to improve homogeneity of wafers from the center to edges. The dresser is also specially designed, to improve pad surface topolody after dressing. A slurry dipsersing method is developed to reduce slurry consumption. Various washing modules, designed to have the same external shape, can be allocated to various functions. 10 figs.

  4. Flexible and Safe Control of Mobile Surface Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary innovation of this work is a novel approach for flexible and safe control of highly capable mobile surface systems, such as long-duration science rovers,...

  5. A Surface-Mounted Rotor State Sensing System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A surface-mounted instrumentation system for measuring rotor blade motions on rotorcraft, for use both in flight and in wind tunnel testing, is proposed for...

  6. Flexible and Safe Control of Mobile Surface Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary innovation of this work is a novel Petri net based approach for safe and flexible control of highly capable mobile surface systems, such as long-duration...

  7. Effective field theories for superconducting systems with multiple Fermi surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, P.R., E-mail: pedro.rangel.braga@gmail.com [Departamento de Física Teórica, Instituto de Física, UERJ - Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, 20550-013 Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Granado, D.R., E-mail: diegorochagrana@uerj.br [Departamento de Física Teórica, Instituto de Física, UERJ - Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, 20550-013 Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S9, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Guimaraes, M.S., E-mail: msguimaraes@uerj.br [Departamento de Física Teórica, Instituto de Física, UERJ - Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, 20550-013 Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Wotzasek, C., E-mail: clovis@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    In this work we investigate the description of superconducting systems with multiple Fermi surfaces. For the case of one Fermi surface we re-obtain the result that the superconductor is more precisely described as a topological state of matter. Studying the case of more than one Fermi surface, we obtain the effective theory describing a time reversal symmetric topological superconductor. These results are obtained by employing a general procedure to construct effective low energy actions describing states of electromagnetic systems interacting with charges and defects. The procedure consists in taking into account the proliferation or dilution of these charges and defects and its consequences for the low energy description of the electromagnetic response of the system. We find that the main ingredient entering the low energy characterization of the system with more than one Fermi surface is a non-conservation of the canonical supercurrent triggered by particular vortex configurations.

  8. Shale gas development impacts on surface water quality in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Sheila M.; Muehlenbachs, Lucija A.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Chu, Ziyan; Krupnick, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Concern has been raised in the scientific literature about the environmental implications of extracting natural gas from deep shale formations, and published studies suggest that shale gas development may affect local groundwater quality. The potential for surface water quality degradation has been discussed in prior work, although no empirical analysis of this issue has been published. The potential for large-scale surface water quality degradation has affected regulatory approaches to shale gas development in some US states, despite the dearth of evidence. This paper conducts a large-scale examination of the extent to which shale gas development activities affect surface water quality. Focusing on the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania, we estimate the effect of shale gas wells and the release of treated shale gas waste by permitted treatment facilities on observed downstream concentrations of chloride (Cl−) and total suspended solids (TSS), controlling for other factors. Results suggest that (i) the treatment of shale gas waste by treatment plants in a watershed raises downstream Cl− concentrations but not TSS concentrations, and (ii) the presence of shale gas wells in a watershed raises downstream TSS concentrations but not Cl− concentrations. These results can inform future voluntary measures taken by shale gas operators and policy approaches taken by regulators to protect surface water quality as the scale of this economically important activity increases. PMID:23479604

  9. Colonization by Cladosporium spp. of painted metal surfaces associated with heating and air conditioning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Simmons, R. B.; Switzer, K. F.; Ajello, L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. hebarum colonized painted metal surfaces of covering panels and register vents of heating, air conditioning and ventilation systems. Hyphae penetrated the paint film and developed characteristic conidiophores and conidia. The colonies were tightly appressed to the metal surface and conidia were not readily detectable via standard air sampling procedures.

  10. Negative ion surface plasma source development for plasma trap injectors in Novosibirsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'chenko, Yu.I.; Dimov, G.I.; Dudnikov, V.G.; Kupriyanov, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Work on high-current ion sources carried out at the Novosibirsk Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) is presented. The INP investigations on ''pure plasma'' planotron and ''pure surface'' secondary emission systems of H - generation, which preceded the surface-plasma concept developed in Novosibirsk, are described. The physical basis of the surface-plasma method of negative-ion production is considered. The versions and operating characteristics of different surface-plasma sources including the multi-ampere (approx-gt 10A) source are discussed. Research on efficient large-area (∼10 2 cm 2 ) negative ion surface-plasma emitters is described. The INP long-pulse multiaperture surface- plasma generators, with a current of about 1A, are described. 38 refs., 17 figs

  11. World resources and the development of the earth's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, A.; Ishihara, S.; Seki, Y.

    1985-01-01

    This text is an examination of economic (or ore) geology, and engineering geology. Using case studies of Japan and continental North America, this work presents a geological and geochemical summary of ore-forming processes along with discussions of basic principles and approaches to modern engineering geology. Emphasizes the relationship between fossil fuel resources and the evolution of the Earth's crust. Contents - WORLD RESOURCES. The Geochemistry of Metallogenesis. The Geochemistry of Fossil Fuel Deposit. Global Evolution and the Formation of Mineral Deposits. The Development of Continents and Island Arcs and the Formation of Mineral Deposits. DEVELOPMENT OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE. Development of the Earth's Surface and Engineering Geology. Engineering Geology Methods. Features of the Ground and Bedrock in Japan. Engineering Geology - A Case Study. Geology and the Environment - Case Studies. INDEX. Principal World-Wide Metal Deposits (inside front cover). Principal World-Wide Coal, Petroleum and Uranium Deposits (inside back cover)

  12. Development of design window evaluation and display system. 1. System development and performance confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Toshiharu; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2003-07-01

    Purpose: The work was performed to develop a design window evaluation and display system for the purpose of obtaining the effects of various design parameters on the typical thermal hydraulic issues resulting from a use of various kind of working fluid etc. easily. Method: The function of the system were 'confirmation of design margin' of the present design, 'confirmation of the affected design zone' when a designer changed some design parameter, and search for an design improvement' for design optimization. The system was developed using existing soft wares on PC and the database relating analytical results of typical thermal hydraulic issues provided by separate work. Results: (1) System design: In order to develop a design window evaluation and display system, 'numerical analysis unit', 'statistical analysis unit', 'MMI unit', 'optimization unit' were designed based on the result of selected optimization procedure and display visualization. Further, total system design was performed combining these units. Typical thermal hydraulic issues to be considered are upper plenum thermal hydraulics, thermal stratification, free surface sloshing, flow-induced vibration of a heat exchanger and thermal striping in the T-junction piping systems. (2) Development of prototype system and a functional check: A prototype system of a design window evaluation and display system was developed and the functions were confirmed as was planned. (author)

  13. Cryogenic Propellant Feed System Analytical Tool Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusby, Brian S.; Miranda, Bruno M.; Collins, Jacob A.

    2011-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Branch at NASA s Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) has developed a parametric analytical tool to address the need to rapidly predict heat leak into propellant distribution lines based on insulation type, installation technique, line supports, penetrations, and instrumentation. The Propellant Feed System Analytical Tool (PFSAT) will also determine the optimum orifice diameter for an optional thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to counteract heat leak into the feed line and ensure temperature constraints at the end of the feed line are met. PFSAT was developed primarily using Fortran 90 code because of its number crunching power and the capability to directly access real fluid property subroutines in the Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties (REFPROP) Database developed by NIST. A Microsoft Excel front end user interface was implemented to provide convenient portability of PFSAT among a wide variety of potential users and its ability to utilize a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) developed in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The focus of PFSAT is on-orbit reaction control systems and orbital maneuvering systems, but it may be used to predict heat leak into ground-based transfer lines as well. PFSAT is expected to be used for rapid initial design of cryogenic propellant distribution lines and thermodynamic vent systems. Once validated, PFSAT will support concept trades for a variety of cryogenic fluid transfer systems on spacecraft, including planetary landers, transfer vehicles, and propellant depots, as well as surface-based transfer systems. The details of the development of PFSAT, its user interface, and the program structure will be presented.

  14. Development of international standards for surface analysis by ISO technical committee 201 on surface chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) established Technical Committee 201 on Surface Chemical Analysis in 1991 to develop documentary standards for surface analysis. ISO/TC 201 met first in 1992 and has met annually since. This committee now has eight subcommittees (Terminology, General Procedures, Data Management and Treatment, Depth Profiling, AES, SIMS, XPS, and Glow Discharge Spectroscopy (GDS)) and one working group (Total X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy). Each subcommittee has one or more working groups to develop standards on particular topics. Australia has observer-member status on ISO/TC 201 and on all ISO/TC 201 subcommittees except GDS where it has participator-member status. I will outline the organization of ISO/TC 201 and summarize the standards that have been or are being developed. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  15. A noncontact laser system for measuring soil surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.; White, I.; Thwaite, E.G.; Bendeli, A.

    1988-01-01

    Soil surface topography profoundly influences runoff hydrodynamics, soil erosion, and surface retention of water. Here we describe an optical noncontact system for measuring soil surface topography. Soil elevation is measured by projecting a laser beam onto the surface and detecting the position of the interception point. The optical axis of the detection system is oriented at a small angle to the incident beam. A low-power HeNe (Helium-Neon) laser is used as the laser source, a photodiode array is used as the laser image detector and an ordinary 35-mm single lens reflex camera provides the optical system to focus the laser image onto the diode array. A wide spectrum of measurement ranges (R) and resolutions are selectable, from 1 mm to 1 m. These are determined by the laser-camera distance and angle, the focal length of the lens, and the sensing length of the diode array and the number of elements (N) contained in the array. The resolution of the system is approximately R/2N. We show for the system used here that this resolution is approximately 0.2%. In the configuration selected, elevation changes of 0.16 mm could be detected over a surface elevation range of 87 mm. The sampling rate of the system is 1000 Hz, which permits soil surfaces to be measured at speeds of up to 1 m s −1 with measurements taken at 1-mm spacing. Measurements of individual raindrop impacts on the soil and of soil surfaces before and after rain show the versatility of the laser surface profiler, which has applications in studies of erosion processes, surface storage and soil trafficability

  16. Developing a more useful surface quality metric for laser optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchette, Quentin; Turner, Trey

    2011-02-01

    Light scatter due to surface defects on laser resonator optics produces losses which lower system efficiency and output power. The traditional methodology for surface quality inspection involves visual comparison of a component to scratch and dig (SAD) standards under controlled lighting and viewing conditions. Unfortunately, this process is subjective and operator dependent. Also, there is no clear correlation between inspection results and the actual performance impact of the optic in a laser resonator. As a result, laser manufacturers often overspecify surface quality in order to ensure that optics will not degrade laser performance due to scatter. This can drive up component costs and lengthen lead times. Alternatively, an objective test system for measuring optical scatter from defects can be constructed with a microscope, calibrated lighting, a CCD detector and image processing software. This approach is quantitative, highly repeatable and totally operator independent. Furthermore, it is flexible, allowing the user to set threshold levels as to what will or will not constitute a defect. This paper details how this automated, quantitative type of surface quality measurement can be constructed, and shows how its results correlate against conventional loss measurement techniques such as cavity ringdown times.

  17. Surface characterization of weathered wood using a laser scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, M.; Lemaster, R.L.; Dost, W.A.

    1992-01-01

    Most of the existing methods to assess the effect of weathering on wood surfaces have some drawbacks that limit their use to specific tasks. The amount of surface erosion is often used as a measure for the weathering action. The application of a laser scanning system to reproduce surface profiles and to measure weathering erosion was tested on various samples and was found to be a very useful and superior alternative to existing methods. Further improvements of the system used can be made by refinements of the calibration procedures and by more comprehensive profile analyses. (author)

  18. Linear systems formulation of scattering theory for rough surfaces with arbitrary incident and scattering angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krywonos, Andrey; Harvey, James E; Choi, Narak

    2011-06-01

    Scattering effects from microtopographic surface roughness are merely nonparaxial diffraction phenomena resulting from random phase variations in the reflected or transmitted wavefront. Rayleigh-Rice, Beckmann-Kirchhoff. or Harvey-Shack surface scatter theories are commonly used to predict surface scatter effects. Smooth-surface and/or paraxial approximations have severely limited the range of applicability of each of the above theoretical treatments. A recent linear systems formulation of nonparaxial scalar diffraction theory applied to surface scatter phenomena resulted first in an empirically modified Beckmann-Kirchhoff surface scatter model, then a generalized Harvey-Shack theory that produces accurate results for rougher surfaces than the Rayleigh-Rice theory and for larger incident and scattered angles than the classical Beckmann-Kirchhoff and the original Harvey-Shack theories. These new developments simplify the analysis and understanding of nonintuitive scattering behavior from rough surfaces illuminated at arbitrary incident angles.

  19. Networking systems design and development

    CERN Document Server

    Chao, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Effectively integrating theory and hands-on practice, Networking Systems Design and Development provides students and IT professionals with the knowledge and skills needed to design, implement, and manage fully functioning network systems using readily available Linux networking tools. Recognizing that most students are beginners in the field of networking, the text provides step-by-step instruction for setting up a virtual lab environment at home. Grounded in real-world applications, this book provides the ideal blend of conceptual instruction and lab work to give students and IT professional

  20. Retrievable surface storage facility conceptual system design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-03-01

    The studies evaluated several potentially attractive methods for processing and retrievably storing high-level radioactive waste after delivery to the Federal repository. These studies indicated that several systems could be engineered to safely store the waste, but that the simplest and most attractive concept from a technical standpoint would be to store the waste in a sealed stainless steel canister enclosed in a 2 in. thick carbon steel cask which in turn would be inserted into a reinforced concrete gamma-neutron shield, which would also provide the necessary air-cooling through an air annulus between the cask and the shield. This concept best satisfies the requirements for safety, long-term exposure to natural phenomena, low capital and operating costs, retrievability, amenability to incremental development, and acceptably small environmental impact. This document assumes that the reference site would be on ERDA's Hanford reservation. This document is a Conceptual System Design Description of the facilities which could satisfy all of the functional requirements within the established basic design criteria. The Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF) is planned with the capacity to process and store the waste received in either a calcine or glass/ceramic form. The RSSF planning is based on a modular development program in which the modular increments are constructed at rates matching projected waste receipts.

  1. Retrievable surface storage facility conceptual system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    The studies evaluated several potentially attractive methods for processing and retrievably storing high-level radioactive waste after delivery to the Federal repository. These studies indicated that several systems could be engineered to safely store the waste, but that the simplest and most attractive concept from a technical standpoint would be to store the waste in a sealed stainless steel canister enclosed in a 2 in. thick carbon steel cask which in turn would be inserted into a reinforced concrete gamma-neutron shield, which would also provide the necessary air-cooling through an air annulus between the cask and the shield. This concept best satisfies the requirements for safety, long-term exposure to natural phenomena, low capital and operating costs, retrievability, amenability to incremental development, and acceptably small environmental impact. This document assumes that the reference site would be on ERDA's Hanford reservation. This document is a Conceptual System Design Description of the facilities which could satisfy all of the functional requirements within the established basic design criteria. The Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF) is planned with the capacity to process and store the waste received in either a calcine or glass/ceramic form. The RSSF planning is based on a modular development program in which the modular increments are constructed at rates matching projected waste receipts

  2. Managing Sustainable Information Systems Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kautz, Karlheinz

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable information systems development (ISD) in the context of this paper is not about products that support sustainability at large with its environmental, economic and social dimensions and little about the development of sustainable products, which are both without doubt important topics....... This paper is about a prerequisite for such products, namely, a sustainable ISD process, a process which exhibits reasonable and responsible stewardship and utilisation of the existing resources for ISD—people and information in the context of scope, time/schedule, budget/cost, quality and risk....

  3. Negotiating a Systems Development Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Hedström, Karin

    Systems development methods (or methods) are often applied in tailored version to fit the actual situation. Method tailoring is in most the existing literature viewed as either (a) a highly rational process with the method engineer as the driver where the project members are passive information providers or (b) an unstructured process where the systems developer makes individual choices, a selection process without any driver. The purpose of this chapter is to illustrate that important design decisions during method tailoring are made by project members through negotiation. The study has been carried out using the perspective of actor-network theory. Our narratives depict method tailoring as more complex than (a) and (b) show the driver role rotates between the project members, and design decisions are based on influences from several project members. However, these design decisions are not consensus decisions.

  4. Progress on the Development of Future Airport Surface Wireless Communications Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Budinger, James M.; Brooks, David E.; Franklin, Morgan; DeHart, Steve; Dimond, Robert P.; Borden, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Continuing advances in airport surface management and improvements in airport surface safety are required to enable future growth in air traffic throughout the airspace, as airport arrival and departure delays create a major system bottleneck. These airport management and safety advances will be built upon improved communications, navigation, surveillance, and weather sensing, creating an information environment supporting system automation. The efficient movement of the digital data generated from these systems requires an underlying communications network infrastructure to connect data sources with the intended users with the required quality of service. Current airport surface communications consists primarily of buried copper or fiber cable. Safety related communications with mobile airport surface assets occurs over 25 kHz VHF voice and data channels. The available VHF spectrum, already congested in many areas, will be insufficient to support future data traffic requirements. Therefore, a broadband wireless airport surface communications network is considered a requirement for the future airport component of the air transportation system. Progress has been made on defining the technology and frequency spectrum for the airport surface wireless communications network. The development of a test and demonstration facility and the definition of required testing and standards development are now underway. This paper will review the progress and planned future work.

  5. Reference reactor module for NASA's lunar surface fission power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, David I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kapernick, Richard J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dixon, David D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Werner, James [INL; Qualls, Louis [ORNL; Radel, Ross [SNL

    2009-01-01

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) study was completed by NASA/DOE to determine the cost of a modest performance, low-technical risk surface power system. The AFSPS concept is now being further developed within the Fission Surface Power (FSP) Project, which is a near-term technology program to demonstrate system-level TRL-6 by 2013. This paper describes the reference FSP reactor module concept, which is designed to provide a net power of 40 kWe for 8 years on the lunar surface; note, the system has been designed with technologies that are fully compatible with a Martian surface application. The reactor concept uses stainless-steel based. UO{sub 2}-fueled, pumped-NaK fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a 'workhorse' power system that NASA can utilize in near-term and future Lunar and Martian mission architectures, with the eventual capability to evolve to very high power, low mass systems, for either surface, deep space, and/or orbital missions.

  6. Open System Architecture design for planet surface systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, D. A.; Pieniazek, L. A.; Toups, L. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Open System Architecture is an approach to meeting the needs for flexibility and evolution of the U.S. Space Exploration Initiative program of the manned exploration of the solar system and its permanent settlement. This paper investigates the issues that future activities of the planet exploration program must confront, defines the basic concepts that provide the basis for establishing an Open System Architecture, identifies the appropriate features of such an architecture, and discusses examples of Open System Architectures.

  7. Note: Radio frequency surface impedance characterization system for superconducting samples at 7.5 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, B P; Reece, C E; Phillips, H L; Geng, R L; Wang, H; Marhauser, F; Kelley, M J

    2011-05-01

    A radio frequency (RF) surface impedance characterization (SIC) system that uses a novel sapphire-loaded niobium cavity operating at 7.5 GHz has been developed as a tool to measure the RF surface impedance of flat superconducting material samples. The SIC system can presently make direct calorimetric RF surface impedance measurements on the central 0.8 cm(2) area of 5 cm diameter disk samples from 2 to 20 K exposed to RF magnetic fields up to 14 mT. To illustrate system utility, we present first measurement results for a bulk niobium sample.

  8. Development of pipe layout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Tokumasu, Shinji; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Besho, Hiromi; Sakano, Tatuo.

    1986-01-01

    In the plant design carried out so far, the process up to final drawings has been the repetition of the correction of drawings. This is because the space as the object of design is finite, and it is difficult to lay many pipes efficiently. Especially in nuclear power plants, the quantity of materials required for ensuring the safety and quality control is enormous, and only the skilled engineers having rich experience have become unable to deal with it. The model engineering using plastic models has been adopted, but still there are problems. In order to solve this problem, the development of the system for unitarily managing the various design information of plants with a computer, checking up various design with this information, automatically outputting design drawings and management data, and heightening the quality of design, synchronizing the progress, increasing the speed and saving the labor of design was carried out. This system is versatile and can be used for all plants. The emphasis in the development was placed on compact data structure, rapid picture processing and easy operation. The present status of design and the automation, the basic design of the system, the function of the system, the internal expression of models, the method of picture processing, and the results of application are reported. (Kako, I.)

  9. Remote Arrhythmia Monitoring System Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, David W.; Mackin, Michael A.; Liszka, Kathy J.; Lichter, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Telemedicine is taking a step forward with the efforts of team members from the NASA Glenn Research Center, the MetroHealth campus of Case Western University, and the University of Akron. The Arrhythmia Monitoring System is a completed, working test bed developed at Glenn that collects real-time electrocardiogram (ECG) signals from a mobile or homebound patient, combines these signals with global positioning system (GPS) location data, and transmits them to a remote station for display and monitoring. Approximately 300,000 Americans die every year from sudden heart attacks, which are arrhythmia cases. However, not all patients identified at risk for arrhythmias can be monitored continuously because of technological and economical limitations. Such patients, who are at moderate risk of arrhythmias, would benefit from technology that would permit long-term continuous monitoring of electrical cardiac rhythms outside the hospital environment. Embedded Web Technology developed at Glenn to remotely command and collect data from embedded systems using Web technology is the catalyst for this new telemetry system (ref. 1). In the end-to-end system architecture, ECG signals are collected from a patient using an event recorder and are transmitted to a handheld personal digital assistant (PDA) using Bluetooth, a short-range wireless technology. The PDA concurrently tracks the patient's location via a connection to a GPS receiver. A long distance link is established via a standard Internet connection over a 2.5-generation Global System for Mobile Communications/General Packet Radio Service (GSM/GPRS)1 cellular, wireless infrastructure. Then, the digital signal is transmitted to a call center for monitoring by medical professionals.

  10. Development of logistics information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Ž. Dronjak

    2012-10-01

    -Army (Global Combat Support System-Army Field/Tactical, is intended for the tactical level and it will replace 14 tactical logistics information systems and connect them with the rest of the information environment. Tendencies in the development of logistics information systems In line with the presented information solutions, it is possible to extract relevant conclusions about tendencies in the development of these types of systems all around the world. These conclusions should be implemented, through adequate principles, into domestic software development. Three main tendencies are visible in modern solutions: using centralised databases, integration of existing separated software solutions, and connecting previously autonomus systems. Conclusion In accordance with present time requirements, logistic support should be realised as close as possible to the origin of a logistic need, in real time and adequately. Information systems enable real time delivery of information needed for a quality logistic support in all phases of operations as well as for a faster generation of all types of documents.

  11. Characterizing developing adverse pressure gradient flows subject to surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzek, Brian; Chao, Donald; Turan, Özden; Castillo, Luciano

    2010-04-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the effects of surface roughness and adverse pressure gradient (APG) on the development of a turbulent boundary layer. Hot-wire anemometry measurements were carried out using single and X-wire probes in all regions of a developing APG flow in an open return wind tunnel test section. The same experimental conditions (i.e., T ∞, U ref, and C p) were maintained for smooth, k + = 0, and rough, k + = 41-60, surfaces with Reynolds number based on momentum thickness, 3,000 carefully designed such that the x-dependence in the flow field was known. Despite this fact, only a very small region of the boundary layer showed a balance of the various terms in the integrated boundary layer equation. The skin friction computed from this technique showed up to a 58% increase due to the surface roughness. Various equilibrium parameters were studied and the effect of roughness was investigated. The generated flow was not in equilibrium according to the Clauser (J Aero Sci 21:91-108, 1954) definition due to its developing nature. After a development region, the flow reached the equilibrium condition as defined by Castillo and George (2001), where Λ = const, is the pressure gradient parameter. Moreover, it was found that this equilibrium condition can be used to classify developing APG flows. Furthermore, the Zagarola and Smits (J Fluid Mech 373:33-79, 1998a) scaling of the mean velocity deficit, U ∞δ*/δ, can also be used as a criteria to classify developing APG flows which supports the equilibrium condition of Castillo and George (2001). With this information a ‘full APG region’ was defined.

  12. Groundwork for Universal Canister System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gross, Mike [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Prouty, Jeralyn L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rigali, Mark J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Craig, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Zenghu [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lee, John Hok [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Liu, Yung [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pope, Ron [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Connolly, Kevin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Feldman, Matt [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jarrell, Josh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Radulescu, Georgeta [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Scaglione, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wells, Alan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    . Future work includes collaboration with the Hanford Site to move the cesium and strontium capsules into dry storage, collaboration with the Deep Borehole Field Tes t to develop surface handling and emplacement techniques and to develop the waste package design requirements, developing universal canister system design options and concepts of operations, and developing system analysis tools. Areas in which f urther research and development are needed include material properties and structural integrity, in - package sorbents and fillers, waste form tolerance to heat and postweld stress relief, waste package impact limiters, sensors, cesium mobility under downhol e conditions, and the impact of high pressure and high temperature environment on seals design.

  13. Development of optical surface contouring technique using laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Sung Hoon; Kim, Min Suk; Park, Seung Kyu

    1998-12-01

    Laser contouring system capable of measuring relief profiles using a line-shaped laser beam with anisotropic magnification optics composed with two cylindrical lenses was developed. The anisotropic magnification optical system allows it to obtain higher resolution in the relief profile measurements. The image processing and 3-D display software are developed to reconstruct 3-D shape. The power supply of laser diode with adaptive current control circuit is designed. (author). 4 refs., 5 tabs., 33 figs.

  14. Development of strippable gel for surface decontamination applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.; Sandhya, U.; Khot, S.A.; Srinivas, C.

    2015-07-01

    Strippable gels are an attractive option for decontamination of surfaces particularly when materials are to be reused after decontamination. The process in general results in good decontamination performance with minimal secondary waste generation. This paper reports on development of strippable gel formulation using polyvinyl alcohol as the gel former. Peeling behavior of the gel film improved when glycerol was used as plasticizer. Incorporation of decontaminating agents is essential for the gel to be effective, so a number of decontaminating agents were screened based on their miscibility with the gel, smooth peeling, and good decontamination performance. Based on this study, a strippable gel, ‘INDIGEL’ was formulated as a potential candidate for surface decontamination applications. Extensive trials on evaluation of decontamination performance of Indigel were done on simulated surfaces like stainless steel tray, stainless steel fume hood, PVC floor, granite and ceramic table tops. Results show that Indigel is highly effective for decontamination of surfaces contaminated with all types of radionuclides. Simplicity of its use coupled with good decontamination ability will find application in nuclear and other chemical industries. (author)

  15. Development of Novel Drugs from Marine Surface Associated Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhelen Egan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available While the oceans cover more than 70% of the Earth’s surface, marine derived microbial natural products have been largely unexplored. The marine environment is a habitat for many unique microorganisms, which produce biologically active compounds (“bioactives” to adapt to particular environmental conditions. For example, marine surface associated microorganisms have proven to be a rich source for novel bioactives because of the necessity to evolve allelochemicals capable of protecting the producer from the fierce competition that exists between microorganisms on the surfaces of marine eukaryotes. Chemically driven interactions are also important for the establishment of cross-relationships between microbes and their eukaryotic hosts, in which organisms producing antimicrobial compounds (“antimicrobials”, may protect the host surface against over colonisation in return for a nutrient rich environment. As is the case for bioactive discovery in general, progress in the detection and characterization of marine microbial bioactives has been limited by a number of obstacles, such as unsuitable culture conditions, laborious purification processes, and a lack of de-replication. However many of these limitations are now being overcome due to improved microbial cultivation techniques, microbial (meta- genomic analysis and novel sensitive analytical tools for structural elucidation. Here we discuss how these technical advances, together with a better understanding of microbial and chemical ecology, will inevitably translate into an increase in the discovery and development of novel drugs from marine microbial sources in the future.

  16. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Ishikawa, K.

    2012-12-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have carried out two field surveys in 2011. One is a 3D survey with a boomer for a high-resolution surface source and the other one for an actual field survey in the Izena Cauldron an active hydrothermal area in the Okinawa Trough. Through these surveys, we have confirmed that the

  17. Particle surface area and bacterial activity in recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; von Ahnen, Mathis; Fernandes, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Suspended particles in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) provide surface area that can be colonized by bacteria. More particles accumulate as the intensity of recirculation increases thus potentially increasing the bacterial carrying capacity of the systems. Applying a recent, rapid, culture...... but may provide significant surface area. Hence, the study substantiates that particles in RAS provide surface area supporting bacterial activity, and that particles play a key role in controlling the bacterial carrying capacity at least in less intensive RAS. Applying fast, culture-independent techniques......-independent fluorometric detection method (Bactiquant®) for measuring bacterial activity, the current study explored the relationship between total particle surface area (TSA, derived from the size distribution of particles >5 μm) and bacterial activity in freshwater RAS operated at increasing intensity of recirculation...

  18. KSTAR RF heating system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, J. G.; Kim, S. K.; Hwang, C. K. (and others)

    2007-10-15

    Design, high-voltage test, and installation of 6 MW ICRF heating system for KSTAR is completed. The antenna demonstrated satisfactory standoff at high voltages up to 41 kV for 300 sec. The result indicates good power handling capabilities of the antenna as high as 10 MW/m2. This power density is equivalent to RF power coupling of 6 MW into a 4 {omega}/m target plasma, and is typical of advanced tokamak heating scenarios. In addition, vacuum feed through, DC break, and liquid stub developed for 300 sec operation are installed, as well as a 2 MW, 30-60MHz transmitter. The transmitter successfully produced output powers of 600 kW continuously, 1.5{approx}1.8 MW for 300 sec, and 2 MW for 100 msec or shorter pulses. A realtime control system based on DSP and EPICS is developed, installed, and tested on the ICRF system. Initial results from feasibility study indicate that the present antenna and the transmission lines could allow load-resilient operation on KSTAR. Until the KSTAR tokamak start to produce plasmas in 2008, however, hands-on operational experiences are obtained from participating in ICRF heating experiments at ASDEX and DIII-D tokamaks arranged through international cooperation.

  19. Expert system development (ESD) shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmini, S.; Diwakar, M.P.; Rathode, N.C.; Bairi, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    An Expert System Development (ESD) Shell design implementation is desribed in detail. The shell provides high-level generic facilities for Knowledge Representation (KR) and inferencing and tools for developing user interfaces. Powerful set of tools in the shell relieves much of the programming burden in the ES development. The shell is written in PROLOG under IBM PC/AT. KR facilities are based on two very powerful formalisms namely, frames and rules. Inference Engine (IE) draws most of its power from unification and backward reasoning strategy in PROLOG. This basic mechanism is enhanced further by incorporating both forward and backward chaining of rules and frame-based inferencing. Overall programming style integrates multiple paradigms including logic, object oriented, access-oriented and imperative programming. This permits ES designer a lot of flexibility in organizing inference control. Creation and maintainance of knowledge base is a major activity. The shell, therefore, provides number of facilities to simplify these tasks. Shell design also takes note of the fact that final success of any system depends on end-user satisfaction and hence provides features to build use-friendly interfaces. The shell also provides a set of interfacing predicates so that it can be embedded within any PROLOG program to incorporate functionalilty of the shell in the user program. (author). 10 refs., 8 figs

  20. A Pulse Power Modulator System for Commercial High Power Ion Beam Surface Treatment Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, D.M.; Cockreham, B.D.; Dragt, A.J.; Ives, H.C.; Neau, E.L.; Reed, K.W.; White, F.E.

    1999-01-01

    The Ion Beam Surface Treatment (lBESTrM) process utilizes high energy pulsed ion beams to deposit energy onto the surface of a material allowing near instantaneous melting of the surface layer. The melted layer typically re-solidifies at a very rapid rate which forms a homogeneous, fine- grained structure on the surface of the material resulting in significantly improved surface characteristics. In order to commercialize the IBESTTM process, a reliable and easy-to-operate modulator system has been developed. The QM-I modulator is a thyratron-switched five-stage magnetic pulse compression network which drives a two-stage linear induction adder. The adder provides 400 kV, 150 ns FWHM pulses at a maximum repetition rate of 10 pps for the acceleration of the ion beam. Special emphasis has been placed upon developing the modulator system to be consistent with long-life commercial service

  1. Systems Reliability Framework for Surface Water Sustainability and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J. R.; Yeghiazarian, L.

    2016-12-01

    framework will significantly improve the efficiency and precision of sustainable watershed management strategies through providing a better understanding of how watershed characteristics and environmental parameters affect surface water quality and sustainability. With microbial contamination posing a serious threat to the availability of clean water across the world, it is necessary to develop a framework that evaluates the safety and sustainability of water systems in respect to non-point source fecal microbial contamination. The concept of water safety is closely related to the concept of failure in reliability theory. In water quality problems, the event of failure can be defined as the concentration of microbial contamination exceeding a certain standard for usability of water. It is pertinent in watershed management to know the likelihood of such an event of failure occurring at a particular point in space and time. Microbial fate and transport are driven by environmental processes taking place in complex, multi-component, interdependent environmental systems that are dynamic and spatially heterogeneous, which means these processes and therefore their influences upon microbial transport must be considered stochastic and variable through space and time. A physics-based stochastic model of microbial dynamics is presented that propagates uncertainty using a unique sampling method based on artificial neural networks to produce a correlation between watershed characteristics and spatial-temporal probabilistic patterns of microbial contamination. These results are used to address the question of water safety through several sustainability metrics: reliability, vulnerability, resilience and a composite sustainability index. System reliability is described uniquely though the temporal evolution of risk along watershed points or pathways. Probabilistic resilience describes how long the system is above a certain probability of failure, and the vulnerability metric describes how

  2. Development of controlled drilling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiho, Kenzo; Miyakawa, Kimio; Suzuki, Koichi; Sunaga, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    In Japan, the soft sedimentary rock of the Neogene tertiary is being focused as a host rock for the High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) disposal. Especially, the soft sedimentary rock at the offshore, region is thought to be one of the best candidates, since there is no driving force of the underground water. The measurement and logging in the bore hole in order to check the hydro-geological and geomechanical conditions of the host rock is a very important way to examine the potentially of the disposal candidates. The CRIEPI (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry) has been conducting the project about the controlled drilling technology and the measurement and logging technologies in its borehole. In 2000, as the beginning year of the project, we made the conceptual design of the drilling and measuring systems, and made key tools concerning each technology on an experimental basis. We have been developing sub tools constructing drilling and measuring systems since 2000, and applying these systems to the Horonobe site recent 5 years. We will briefly report the outline of the system and the results of drilling and measurement that were carried out at the Horonobe site. (author)

  3. Numerical generation of boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinate systems for arbitrarily curved surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, T.; Miki, K.; Chen, B.C.J.; Sha, W.T.

    1985-01-01

    A new method is presented for numerically generating boundary-fitted coordinate systems for arbitrarily curved surfaces. The three-dimensional surface has been expressed by functions of two parameters using the geometrical modeling techniques in computer graphics. This leads to new quasi-one- and two-dimensional elliptic partial differential equations for coordinate transformation. Since the equations involve the derivatives of the surface expressions, the grids geneated by the equations distribute on the surface depending on its slope and curvature. A computer program GRID-CS based on the method was developed and applied to a surface of the second order, a torus and a surface of a primary containment vessel for a nuclear reactor. These applications confirm that GRID-CS is a convenient and efficient tool for grid generation on arbitrarily curved surfaces

  4. Modelling of the initial stage of the surface discharge development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibalov, V.; Pietsch, G.

    1998-01-01

    Computer modelling of the initial stage of the surface discharge was performed by solving numerically the coupled continuity, the Poisson and Townsend ionization equations and taking into account the ionization, attachment and detachment processes. The potential distribution at the dielectric surface and at the boundaries which surround the integration region have been calculated with the charge-image method in a 3D approach. In order to eliminate numerical diffusion effects, the solution of the continuity equation was corrected using a flux correction transport routine. At the positive voltage the development of the discharge channel is determined mainly by the shape of the electrode tip. At the negative voltage the following phases of the discharge may be distinguished: the initial phase, the cathode directed streamer phase resulting in the cathode layer formation, and the propagating phase. The physical processes governing each discharge phase are described in detail. (J.U.)

  5. Development of targeted radiotherapy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, Guillermina; Villarreal, Jose E.; Garcia, Laura; Tendilla, Jose I.; Paredes, Lydia; Murphy, Consuelo A.; Pedraza, Martha

    2001-01-01

    Conventional or external beam radiotherapy, has been a viable alternative for cancer treatment. Although this technique is effective, its use is limited if the patient has multiple malignant lesions (metastases). An alternative approach is based on the design of radiopharmaceuticals that, to be administered in the patient, are directed specifically toward the target cell producing a selective radiation delivery. This treatment is known as targeted radiotherapy. We have summarized and discussed some results related to our investigations on the development of targeted radiotherapy systems, including aspects of internal dosimetry

  6. New Material Development for Surface Layer and Surface Technology in Tribology Science to Improve Energy Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, R.; Tauviqirrahman, M.; Jamari; Schipper, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of new material and surface technology in tribology and its contribution to energy efficiency. Two examples of the economic benefits, resulted from the optimum tribology in the transportation sector and the manufacturing industry are discussed. The new materials are proposed to modify the surface property by laminating the bulk material with thin layer/coating. Under a suitable condition, the thin layer on a surface can provide a combination of good wear, a low friction and corrosion resistance for the mechanical components. The innovation in layer technology results molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), diamond like carbon (DLC), cubic boron nitride (CBN) and diamond which perform satisfactory outcome. The application of the metallic coatings to carbon fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites (CFRP) has the capacity to provide considerable weight and power savings for many engineering components. The green material for lubricant and additives such as the use of sunflower oil which possesses good oxidation resistance and the use of mallee leaves as bio‐degradable solvent are used to answer the demand of the environmentally friendly material with good performance. The tribology research implementation for energy efficiency also touches the simple things around us such as: erasing the laser‐print in a paper with different abrasion techniques. For the technology in the engineering surface, the consideration for generating the suitable surface of the components in running‐in period has been discussed in order to prolong the components life and reduce the machine downtime. The conclusion, tribology can result in reducing manufacturing time, reducing the maintenance requirements, prolonging the service interval, improving durability, reliability and mechanical components life, and reducing harmful exhaust emission and waste. All of these advantages will increase the energy efficiency and the economic benefits.

  7. New Material Development for Surface Layer and Surface Technology in Tribology Science to Improve Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Tauviqirrahman, M.; Jamari, Jamari; Schipper, D. J.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reviews the development of new material and surface technology in tribology and its contribution to energy efficiency. Two examples of the economic benefits, resulted from the optimum tribology in the transportation sector and the manufacturing industry are discussed. The new materials are proposed to modify the surface property by laminating the bulk material with thin layer/coating. Under a suitable condition, the thin layer on a surface can provide a combination of good wear, a low friction and corrosion resistance for the mechanical components. The innovation in layer technology results molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), diamond like carbon (DLC), cubic boron nitride (CBN) and diamond which perform satisfactory outcome. The application of the metallic coatings to carbon fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites (CFRP) has the capacity to provide considerable weight and power savings for many engineering components. The green material for lubricant and additives such as the use of sunflower oil which possesses good oxidation resistance and the use of mallee leaves as bio-degradable solvent are used to answer the demand of the environmentally friendly material with good performance. The tribology research implementation for energy efficiency also touches the simple things around us such as: erasing the laser-print in a paper with different abrasion techniques. For the technology in the engineering surface, the consideration for generating the suitable surface of the components in running-in period has been discussed in order to prolong the components life and reduce the machine downtime. The conclusion, tribology can result in reducing manufacturing time, reducing the maintenance requirements, prolonging the service interval, improving durability, reliability and mechanical components life, and reducing harmful exhaust emission and waste. All of these advantages will increase the energy efficiency and the economic benefits.

  8. Computer aided training system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midkiff, G.N.

    1987-01-01

    The first three phases of Training System Development (TSD) -- job and task analysis, curriculum design, and training material development -- are time consuming and labor intensive. The use of personal computers with a combination of commercial and custom-designed software resulted in a significant reduction in the man-hours required to complete these phases for a Health Physics Technician Training Program at a nuclear power station. This paper reports that each step in the training program project involved the use of personal computers: job survey data were compiled with a statistical package, task analysis was performed with custom software designed to interface with a commercial database management program. Job Performance Measures (tests) were generated by a custom program from data in the task analysis database, and training materials were drafted, edited, and produced using commercial word processing software

  9. Surface development of a brazing alloy during heat treatment-a comparison between UHV and APXPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rullik, L.; Johansson, N.; Bertram, F.; Evertsson, J.; Stenqvist, T.; Lundgren, E.

    2018-01-01

    In an attempt to bridge the pressure gap, APXPS was used to follow the surface development of an aluminum brazing sheet during heating in an ambient oxygen-pressure mimicking the environment of an industrial brazing furnace. The studied aluminum alloy brazing sheet is a composite material consisting of two aluminum alloy standards whose surface is covered with a native aluminum oxide film. To emphasize the necessity of studies of this system in ambient sample environments it is compared to measurements in UHV. Changes in thickness and composition of the surface oxide were followed after heating to 300 °C, 400 °C, and 500 °C. The two sets presented in this paper show that the surface development strongly depends on the environment the sample is heated in.

  10. Active surface system for the new Sardinia Radiotelescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfei, Alessandro; Morsiani, Marco; Zacchiroli, Giampaolo; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Roda, Juri; Fiocchi, Franco

    2004-09-01

    In this paper we'll describe the active surface system that will be provided on the new Italian radiotelescope being in the phase of erection in the Sardinia Island. SRT (Sardinia Radiotelescope) will be a 64m shaped dish working up to 100GHz by exploiting the active surface facility designed by the authors. This facility will overcome the effects of gravity deformations on the antenna gain and will also be used to re-shape in a parabolic form the primary mirror, in order to avoid large phase error contribution on the antenna gain for the highest frequencies placed on the primary focus. Together with the description of the SRT system, a wide overview will be given regarding our previous installation of an active surface system, that can be seen like a prototype for SRT, mounted on the 32m dish of the Noto antenna.

  11. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Mizohata, S.; Ishikawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    The VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic) is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of the survey are from 100m up to 2100m. The target of the survey includes not only hydrothermal deposit but oil and gas exploration. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system are available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed another approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In the data acquisition stage, we estimate the position of VCS location with slant ranging method from the sea surface. The deep-towed source or ocean bottom source is estimated by SSBL/USBL. The water velocity profile is measured by XCTD. After the data acquisition, we pick the first break times of the VCS recorded data. The estimated positions of

  12. Mineral Surface-Templated Self-Assembling Systems: Case Studies from Nanoscience and Surface Science towards Origins of Life Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Gillams

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of evidence relates the wide range of benefits mineral surfaces offer for the development of early living systems, including adsorption of small molecules from the aqueous phase, formation of monomeric subunits and their subsequent polymerization, and supramolecular assembly of biopolymers and other biomolecules. Each of these processes was likely a necessary stage in the emergence of life on Earth. Here, we compile evidence that templating and enhancement of prebiotically-relevant self-assembling systems by mineral surfaces offers a route to increased structural, functional, and/or chemical complexity. This increase in complexity could have been achieved by early living systems before the advent of evolvable systems and would not have required the generally energetically unfavorable formation of covalent bonds such as phosphodiester or peptide bonds. In this review we will focus on various case studies of prebiotically-relevant mineral-templated self-assembling systems, including supramolecular assemblies of peptides and nucleic acids, from nanoscience and surface science. These fields contain valuable information that is not yet fully being utilized by the origins of life and astrobiology research communities. Some of the self-assemblies that we present can promote the formation of new mineral surfaces, similar to biomineralization, which can then catalyze more essential prebiotic reactions; this could have resulted in a symbiotic feedback loop by which geology and primitive pre-living systems were closely linked to one another even before life’s origin. We hope that the ideas presented herein will seed some interesting discussions and new collaborations between nanoscience/surface science researchers and origins of life/astrobiology researchers.

  13. Mineral Surface-Templated Self-Assembling Systems: Case Studies from Nanoscience and Surface Science towards Origins of Life Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillams, Richard J; Jia, Tony Z

    2018-05-08

    An increasing body of evidence relates the wide range of benefits mineral surfaces offer for the development of early living systems, including adsorption of small molecules from the aqueous phase, formation of monomeric subunits and their subsequent polymerization, and supramolecular assembly of biopolymers and other biomolecules. Each of these processes was likely a necessary stage in the emergence of life on Earth. Here, we compile evidence that templating and enhancement of prebiotically-relevant self-assembling systems by mineral surfaces offers a route to increased structural, functional, and/or chemical complexity. This increase in complexity could have been achieved by early living systems before the advent of evolvable systems and would not have required the generally energetically unfavorable formation of covalent bonds such as phosphodiester or peptide bonds. In this review we will focus on various case studies of prebiotically-relevant mineral-templated self-assembling systems, including supramolecular assemblies of peptides and nucleic acids, from nanoscience and surface science. These fields contain valuable information that is not yet fully being utilized by the origins of life and astrobiology research communities. Some of the self-assemblies that we present can promote the formation of new mineral surfaces, similar to biomineralization, which can then catalyze more essential prebiotic reactions; this could have resulted in a symbiotic feedback loop by which geology and primitive pre-living systems were closely linked to one another even before life’s origin. We hope that the ideas presented herein will seed some interesting discussions and new collaborations between nanoscience/surface science researchers and origins of life/astrobiology researchers.

  14. ADASAGE, ADA Application Development System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.; Russell, K.; Stewart, H.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: ADASAGE is an application development system designed to facilitate rapid and professional construction of applications written in Ada on microcomputers. ADASAGE applications may vary in size from small to large multi-program systems. ADASAGE consists of a collection of re-usable libraries for database management and form and report processing utilities having the following capabilities: basic universal type and function definitions; sequential file input/output; terminal and file input/output; DOS system command execution; data movement and fill; string manipulation; math libraries; bit manipulation; a relational database utility; data validation; menu form and window procedures; report generation; sort/merge, time, and date functions; sound production; editing; and index rebuilding. Each of the capabilities is integrated to allow the development of an efficient system. As an application is designed and developed, the desired ADASAGE capabilities are chosen and included along with any requirements unique to that application. 2 - Method of solution: All ADASAGE applications which use the database, forms (windows, menus, etc.), or reporting functions require a file with a suffix of .DFL. This file contains the database schema, the various forms and windows, and report definitions. The THOR editor is used to create and maintain the .DFL file. This editor operates on a file with the suffix .SRC and creates and edits schemes, forms, and report formats and compile the .SRC file into the .DFL file used by the application. The application will have unique requirements not satisfied by the selected utilities of ADASAGE. The code for these along with the code necessary to import and use the selected ADASAGE utilities constitutes the p rogrammed application . The completed application system will contain the .DFL file produced by the THOR editor, the required ADASAGE utilities, and the programmed application. During the course of

  15. Development of a combined surface plasmon resonance/surface acoustic wave device for the characterization of biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, Florian; Tsortos, Achilleas; Papadakis, George; Gizeli, Electra; Roach, Paul; Newton, Michael I; McHale, Glen

    2009-01-01

    It is known that acoustic sensor devices, if operated in liquid phase, are sensitive not just to the mass of the analyte but also to various other parameters, such as size, shape, charge and elastic constants of the analyte as well as bound and viscously entrained water. This can be used to extract valuable information about a biomolecule, particularly if the acoustic device is combined with another sensor element which is sensitive to the mass or amount of analyte only. The latter is true in good approximation for various optical sensor techniques. This work reports on the development of a combined surface plasmon resonance/surface acoustic wave sensor system which is designed for the investigation of biomolecules such as proteins or DNA. Results for the deposition of neutravidin and DNA are reported

  16. A real-time surface inspection system for precision steel balls based on machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ji; Tsai, Jhy-Cherng; Hsu, Ya-Chen

    2016-07-01

    Precision steel balls are one of the most fundament components for motion and power transmission parts and they are widely used in industrial machinery and the automotive industry. As precision balls are crucial for the quality of these products, there is an urgent need to develop a fast and robust system for inspecting defects of precision steel balls. In this paper, a real-time system for inspecting surface defects of precision steel balls is developed based on machine vision. The developed system integrates a dual-lighting system, an unfolding mechanism and inspection algorithms for real-time signal processing and defect detection. The developed system is tested under feeding speeds of 4 pcs s-1 with a detection rate of 99.94% and an error rate of 0.10%. The minimum detectable surface flaw area is 0.01 mm2, which meets the requirement for inspecting ISO grade 100 precision steel balls.

  17. Decontamination of U-metal surface by an oxidation etching system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, R.B.; Kansa, E.J.; Shaffer, R.J.; Weed, H.C. [California Univ., Livermore, CA (United States). Lawrence Livermore National Lab

    2001-07-01

    A surface treatment to remove surface contamination from uranium (U) metal and/or hydrides of uranium and heavy metals (HM) from U-metal parts is described. In the case of heavy metal atomic contamination on a surface, and potentially several atomic layers beneath, the surface oxidation treatment combines both chemical and chemically driven mechanical processes. The chemical process is a controlled temperature-time oxidation process to create a thin film of uranium oxide (UO{sub 2} and higher oxides) on the U-metal surface. The chemically driven mechanical process is strain induced by the volume increase as the U-metal surface transforms to a UO{sub 2} surface film. These volume strains are significantly large to cause surface failure spalling/scale formation and thus, removal of a U-oxide film that contains the HM-contaminated surface. The case of a HM-hydride surface contamination layer can be treated similarly by using inert hot gas to decompose the U-hydrides and/or HM-hydrides that are contiguous with the surface. A preliminary analysis to design and to plan for a sequence of tests is developed. The tests will provide necessary and sufficient data to evaluate the effective implementation and operational characteristics of a safe and reliable system. The following description is limited to only a surface oxidation process for HM-decontamination. (authors)

  18. Vacuum boilers developed heating surfaces technic and economic efficiency evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodina, E. N.; Mikhailov, A. G.; Semenov, B. A.

    2018-01-01

    The vacuum boilers as manufacturing proto types application analysis was carried out, the possible directions for the heating surfaces development are identified with a view to improving the energy efficiency. Economic characteristics to evaluate the vacuum boilers application efficiency (Net Discounted Income (NDI), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Profitability Index (PI) and Payback Period) are represented. The given type boilers application technic and economic efficiency criteria were established. NDI changing curves depending on the finning coefficient and operating pressure were obtained as a result of the conducted calculation studies.

  19. Development of surface relief on polycrystalline metals due to sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voitsenya, V.S. [IPP NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Balden, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Bardamid, A.F. [Taras Shevchenko National University, 01033 Kiev (Ukraine); Bondarenko, V.N. [IPP NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Davis, J.W., E-mail: jwdavis@starfire.utias.utoronto.ca [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, 4925 Dufferin St., Toronto, ON, Canada M3H5T6 (Canada); Konovalov, V.G.; Ryzhkov, I.V.; Skoryk, O.O.; Solodovchenko, S.I. [IPP NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Zhang-jian, Zhou [University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100 083 (China)

    2013-05-01

    The characteristics of surface microrelief that appear in sputtering experiments with polycrystalline metals of various grain sizes have been studied. Specimens with grain sizes varying from 30–70 nm in the case of crystallized amorphous alloys, to 1–3 μm for technical tungsten grade and 10–100 μm for recrystallized tungsten were investigated. A model is proposed for the development of roughness on polycrystalline metals which is based on the dependence of sputtering rate on crystal orientation. The results of the modeling are in good agreement with experiments showing that the length scale of roughness is much larger than the grain size.

  20. The development of surface barriers at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, N.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1994-03-01

    Engineered barriers are being developed to isolate wastes disposed of near the earth's surface at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Much of the waste that would be disposed of by in-place stabilization currently is located in relatively shallow subsurface structures such as solid waste burial grounds, tanks, vaults, and cribs. Unless protected in some way, the wastes could be transported to the accessible environment via the following pathways: plant, animal, and human intrusion; water infiltration; erosion; and the exhalation of noxious gases. Permanent isolation surface barriers have been proposed to protect wastes disposed of ''in place'' from the transport pathways identified previously (Figure 1). The protective barrier consists of a variety of different materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt, etc.) placed in layers to form an above-grade mound directly over the waste zone. Surface markers are being considered for placement around the periphery of the waste sites to inform future generations of the nature and hazards of the buried wastes. In addition, throughout the protective barrier, subsurface markers could be placed to warn any inadvertent human intruders of the dangers of the buried wastes (Figure 2)

  1. Space Launch System Development Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Garry

    2014-01-01

    Development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift rocket is shifting from the formulation phase into the implementation phase in 2014, a little more than three years after formal program approval. Current development is focused on delivering a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. This "Block 1" configuration will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017, followed by its first crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130-t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Benefits associated with its unprecedented mass and volume include reduced trip times and simplified payload design. Every SLS element achieved significant, tangible progress over the past year. Among the Program's many accomplishments are: manufacture of Core Stage test panels; testing of Solid Rocket Booster development hardware including thrust vector controls and avionics; planning for testing the RS-25 Core Stage engine; and more than 4,000 wind tunnel runs to refine vehicle configuration, trajectory, and guidance. The Program shipped its first flight hardware - the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter (MSA) - to the United Launch Alliance for integration with the Delta IV heavy rocket that will launch an Orion test article in 2014 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Objectives of this Earth-orbit flight include validating the performance of Orion's heat shield and the MSA design, which will be manufactured again for SLS missions to deep space. The Program successfully completed Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and Key Decision Point C in early 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015 and a December 2017 first launch. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of proven

  2. Development of gastrointestinal surface. VIII. Lectin identification of carbohydrate differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, K.Y.; Bresson, J.L.; Walker, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    Binding of microvillus membranes (MVM) from newborn and adult rats by concanavalin A (Con A), Ulex europaeus (UEA I), Dolichos bifluorus (DBA), and Triticum vulgaris (WGA) was examined to determine the availability of carbohydrate-containing sites for these lectins on the intestinal surface during development. Consistent patterns of differences in the reaction of MVM with these lectins were found. Con A and UEA had much higher reactivities to MVM of adult than newborn rats. 125 I-labeled-UEA gel overlay experiments revealed the abundance of UEA-binding sites in MVM of adult rat in contrast to the two binding sites in MVM of a newborn rat. DBA bound only to MVM of the adults, and very few binding sites were found in immature MVM. In contrast to these lectins, WGA binding was much higher in MVM of the newborns and decreased with maturation. Additional experiments on the age dependence of UEA and DBA reactivities revealed that the most striking changes occur in animals from 2 to 2 wk of age. In MVM from 2-wk-old rats, there were only 13.9% and < 0.2% of the adult binding capacities for UEA and DBA, respectively. By the time the animals were 4 wk old, the binding capacity for UEA had attained close to the level of the adults, whereas for DBA it reached 71.3% of the adult value. These results provide definite evidence of changes in the intestinal surface during perinatal development

  3. Development of gastrointestinal surface. VIII. Lectin identification of carbohydrate differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, K.Y.; Bresson, J.L.; Walker, W.A.

    1987-05-01

    Binding of microvillus membranes (MVM) from newborn and adult rats by concanavalin A (Con A), Ulex europaeus (UEA I), Dolichos bifluorus (DBA), and Triticum vulgaris (WGA) was examined to determine the availability of carbohydrate-containing sites for these lectins on the intestinal surface during development. Consistent patterns of differences in the reaction of MVM with these lectins were found. Con A and UEA had much higher reactivities to MVM of adult than newborn rats. /sup 125/I-labeled-UEA gel overlay experiments revealed the abundance of UEA-binding sites in MVM of adult rat in contrast to the two binding sites in MVM of a newborn rat. DBA bound only to MVM of the adults, and very few binding sites were found in immature MVM. In contrast to these lectins, WGA binding was much higher in MVM of the newborns and decreased with maturation. Additional experiments on the age dependence of UEA and DBA reactivities revealed that the most striking changes occur in animals from 2 to 2 wk of age. In MVM from 2-wk-old rats, there were only 13.9% and < 0.2% of the adult binding capacities for UEA and DBA, respectively. By the time the animals were 4 wk old, the binding capacity for UEA had attained close to the level of the adults, whereas for DBA it reached 71.3% of the adult value. These results provide definite evidence of changes in the intestinal surface during perinatal development.

  4. Localized surface plasmon resonance mercury detection system and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jay; Lucas, Donald; Crosby, Jeffrey Scott; Koshland, Catherine P.

    2016-03-22

    A mercury detection system that includes a flow cell having a mercury sensor, a light source and a light detector is provided. The mercury sensor includes a transparent substrate and a submonolayer of mercury absorbing nanoparticles, e.g., gold nanoparticles, on a surface of the substrate. Methods of determining whether mercury is present in a sample using the mercury sensors are also provided. The subject mercury detection systems and methods find use in a variety of different applications, including mercury detecting applications.

  5. Surface moisture measurement system acceptance testing work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    This work plan addresses testing of the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) at the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The purpose of this plan is to define the scope of work, identify organizational responsibilities, describe test control requirements, and provide estimated costs and schedule associated with acceptance testing

  6. Testing Augmented Reality Systems for Spotting Sub-Surface Impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kasper; Rehm, Matthias; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes setup and procedure for testing augmented reality systems for showing sub-surface positions of foreign elements in an opaque mass. The goal is it test four types of setup in terms of user accuracy and speed, the four setups being a head-mounted see-through display, an arm...

  7. Design and development of a profilometer for the fast and accurate characterization of optical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pedrero, José A.; Rodríguez-Ibañez, Diego; Alonso, José; Quirgoa, Juan A.

    2015-09-01

    With the advent of techniques devised for the mass production of optical components made with surfaces of arbitrary form (also known as free form surfaces) in the last years, a parallel development of measuring systems adapted for these new kind of surfaces constitutes a real necessity for the industry. Profilometry is one of the preferred methods for the assessment of the quality of a surface, and is widely employed in the optical fabrication industry for the quality control of its products. In this work, we present the design, development and assembly of a new profilometer with five axis of movement, specifically suited to the measurement of medium size (up to 150 mm of diameter) "free-form" optical surfaces with sub-micrometer accuracy and low measuring times. The apparatus is formed by three X, Y, Z linear motorized positioners plus and additional angular and a tilt positioner employed to locate accurately the surface to be measured and the probe which can be a mechanical or an optical one, being optical one a confocal sensor based on chromatic aberration. Both optical and mechanical probes guarantee an accuracy lower than the micrometer in the determination of the surface height, thus ensuring an accuracy in the surface curvatures of the order of 0.01 D or better. An original calibration procedure based on the measurement of a precision sphere has been developed in order to correct the perpendicularity error between the axes of the linear positioners. To reduce the measuring time of the profilometer, a custom electronics, based on an Arduino™ controller, have been designed and produced in order to synchronize the five motorized positioners and the optical and mechanical probes so that a medium size surface (around 10 cm of diameter) with a dynamic range in curvatures of around 10 D, can be measured in less than 300 seconds (using three axes) keeping the resolution in height and curvature in the figures mentioned above.

  8. Body surface mounted biomedical monitoring system using Bluetooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambu, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Continuous monitoring in daily life is important for the health condition control of the elderly. However, portable or wearable devices need to carry by user on their own will. On the other hand, implantation sensors are not adoptable, because of generic users dislike to insert the any object in the body for monitoring. Therefore, another monitoring system of the health condition to carry it easily is necessary. In addition, ID system is necessary even if the subject live with few families. Furthermore, every measurement system should be wireless system, because not to obstruct the daily life of the user. In this paper, we propose the monitoring system, which is mounted on the body surface. This system will not obstruct the action or behavior of user in daily life, because this system attached the body surface on the back of the user. In addition, this system has wireless communication system, using Bluetooth, and acquired data transfer to the outside of the house via the Internet.

  9. Development of a surface topography instrument for automotive textured steel plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Shenghuai; Chen, Yurong; Xie, Tiebang

    2010-08-01

    The surface topography of automotive steel plate is decisive to its stamping, painting and image clarity performances. For measuring this kind of surface topography, an instrument has been developed based on the principle of vertical scanning white light microscopy interference principle. The microscopy interference system of this instrument is designed based on the structure of Linnik interference microscopy. The 1D worktable of Z direction is designed and introduced in details. The work principle of this instrument is analyzed. In measuring process, the interference microscopy is derived as a whole and the measured surface is scanned in vertical direction. The measurement accuracy and validity is verified by templates. Surface topography of textured steel plate is also measured by this instrument.

  10. Development of apparatus for surveying uranium surface contamination quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingheng; Han Jingquan

    1994-11-01

    An apparatus for measuring uranium contamination of the surface of reactor plate component is described. The searching unit of the apparatus is a large surface multi-wire proportional counter. The cathode of the counter is made of stainless steel with low radioactive background, the window is made of film which is plated with aluminum about 6 μm; and the anode is mad by gild tungsten wire of 0.025 mm diameter. The sensitive area of the counter is 1113 mm x 100 mm. It has been shown that the intrinsic radioactive background of the apparatus is 0.002 cpm/cm 2 (2 count/min). The detecting efficiency is 67% for enriched uranium source (2π solid angle). The stability is 0.84% within 24 hour (including detector, high voltage power supply, amplifier, discriminator, computer, type and display system). The lower detection limit of the apparatus is 4.6 x 10 -10 g/cm 2 (for 20% 235 U, 0.13% 234 U, 79.64% 238 U). The apparatus can present timing by a computer controlling, and it also has the following functions: displaying, automatic alarming, classifying and typing the results. (2 tabs., 7 figs.)

  11. A robust real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenyang; Cheung, Yam; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan

    2016-05-01

    To develop a robust and real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system. The authors have developed a robust and fast surface reconstruction method on point clouds acquired by the photogrammetry system, without explicitly solving the partial differential equation required by a typical variational approach. Taking advantage of the overcomplete nature of the acquired point clouds, their method solves and propagates a sparse linear relationship from the point cloud manifold to the surface manifold, assuming both manifolds share similar local geometry. With relatively consistent point cloud acquisitions, the authors propose a sparse regression (SR) model to directly approximate the target point cloud as a sparse linear combination from the training set, assuming that the point correspondences built by the iterative closest point (ICP) is reasonably accurate and have residual errors following a Gaussian distribution. To accommodate changing noise levels and/or presence of inconsistent occlusions during the acquisition, the authors further propose a modified sparse regression (MSR) model to model the potentially large and sparse error built by ICP with a Laplacian prior. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both clinical point clouds acquired under consistent acquisition conditions and on point clouds with inconsistent occlusions. The authors quantitatively evaluated the reconstruction performance with respect to root-mean-squared-error, by comparing its reconstruction results against that from the variational method. On clinical point clouds, both the SR and MSR models have achieved sub-millimeter reconstruction accuracy and reduced the reconstruction time by two orders of magnitude to a subsecond reconstruction time. On point clouds with inconsistent occlusions, the MSR model has demonstrated its advantage in achieving consistent and robust performance despite the introduced occlusions. The authors have

  12. A robust real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wenyang; Cheung, Yam; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a robust and real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system. Methods: The authors have developed a robust and fast surface reconstruction method on point clouds acquired by the photogrammetry system, without explicitly solving the partial differential equation required by a typical variational approach. Taking advantage of the overcomplete nature of the acquired point clouds, their method solves and propagates a sparse linear relationship from the point cloud manifold to the surface manifold, assuming both manifolds share similar local geometry. With relatively consistent point cloud acquisitions, the authors propose a sparse regression (SR) model to directly approximate the target point cloud as a sparse linear combination from the training set, assuming that the point correspondences built by the iterative closest point (ICP) is reasonably accurate and have residual errors following a Gaussian distribution. To accommodate changing noise levels and/or presence of inconsistent occlusions during the acquisition, the authors further propose a modified sparse regression (MSR) model to model the potentially large and sparse error built by ICP with a Laplacian prior. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both clinical point clouds acquired under consistent acquisition conditions and on point clouds with inconsistent occlusions. The authors quantitatively evaluated the reconstruction performance with respect to root-mean-squared-error, by comparing its reconstruction results against that from the variational method. Results: On clinical point clouds, both the SR and MSR models have achieved sub-millimeter reconstruction accuracy and reduced the reconstruction time by two orders of magnitude to a subsecond reconstruction time. On point clouds with inconsistent occlusions, the MSR model has demonstrated its advantage in achieving consistent and robust performance despite the introduced

  13. A robust real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenyang [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Cheung, Yam [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Sawant, Amit [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas, 75390 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Ruan, Dan, E-mail: druan@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: To develop a robust and real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system. Methods: The authors have developed a robust and fast surface reconstruction method on point clouds acquired by the photogrammetry system, without explicitly solving the partial differential equation required by a typical variational approach. Taking advantage of the overcomplete nature of the acquired point clouds, their method solves and propagates a sparse linear relationship from the point cloud manifold to the surface manifold, assuming both manifolds share similar local geometry. With relatively consistent point cloud acquisitions, the authors propose a sparse regression (SR) model to directly approximate the target point cloud as a sparse linear combination from the training set, assuming that the point correspondences built by the iterative closest point (ICP) is reasonably accurate and have residual errors following a Gaussian distribution. To accommodate changing noise levels and/or presence of inconsistent occlusions during the acquisition, the authors further propose a modified sparse regression (MSR) model to model the potentially large and sparse error built by ICP with a Laplacian prior. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both clinical point clouds acquired under consistent acquisition conditions and on point clouds with inconsistent occlusions. The authors quantitatively evaluated the reconstruction performance with respect to root-mean-squared-error, by comparing its reconstruction results against that from the variational method. Results: On clinical point clouds, both the SR and MSR models have achieved sub-millimeter reconstruction accuracy and reduced the reconstruction time by two orders of magnitude to a subsecond reconstruction time. On point clouds with inconsistent occlusions, the MSR model has demonstrated its advantage in achieving consistent and robust performance despite the introduced

  14. Potential energy surfaces for nucleon exchanging in dinuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianfeng; Xu Hushan; Li Wenfei; Zuo Wei; Li Junqing; Wang Nan; Zhao Enguang

    2003-01-01

    The experimental measurements have provided the evidence that the suppression of fusion cross-section caused by quasi-fission is very important for the synthesis of super-heavy nuclei by heavy ion collisions. The potential energy surface due to the nucleon transfer in the collision process is the driven potential, which governs the nucleon transfer, so that governs the competition between the fusion and quasi-fission. The dinuclear system potential energy surface also gives the information about the optimum projectile-target combination, as well as the optimum excitation energy for the synthesis of super-heavy nuclei by heavy ion collisions

  15. Robot and Human Surface Operations on Solar System Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbin, C. R.; Easter, R.; Rodriguez, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of robot and human surface operations on solar system bodies. The topics include: 1) Long Range Vision of Surface Scenarios; 2) Human and Robots Complement Each Other; 3) Respective Human and Robot Strengths; 4) Need More In-Depth Quantitative Analysis; 5) Projected Study Objectives; 6) Analysis Process Summary; 7) Mission Scenarios Decompose into Primitive Tasks; 7) Features of the Projected Analysis Approach; and 8) The "Getting There Effect" is a Major Consideration. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  16. Development of a low-cost, 11 µm spectral domain optical coherence tomography surface profilometry prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliali, Nyasha J.; Baricholo, Peter; Neethling, Pieter H.; Rohwer, Erich G.

    2017-06-01

    A spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) surface profilometry prototype has been developed for the purpose of surface metrology of optical elements. The prototype consists of a light source, spectral interferometer, sample fixture and software currently running on Microsoft® Windows platforms. In this system, a broadband light emitting diode beam is focused into a Michelson interferometer with a plane mirror as its sample fixture. At the interferometer output, spectral interferograms of broadband sources were measured using a Czerny-Turner mount monochromator with a 2048-element complementary metal oxide semiconductor linear array as the detector. The software performs importation and interpolation of interferometer spectra to pre-condition the data for image computation. One dimensional axial OCT images were computed by Fourier transformation of the measured spectra. A first reflection surface profilometry (FRSP) algorithm was then formulated to perform imaging of step-function-surfaced samples. The algorithm re-constructs two dimensional colour-scaled slice images by concatenation of 21 and 13 axial scans to form a 10 mm and 3.0 mm slice respectively. Measured spectral interferograms, computed interference fringe signals and depth reflectivity profiles were comparable to simulations and correlated to displacements of a single reflector linearly translated about the arm null-mismatch point. Surface profile images of a double-step-function-surfaced sample, embedded with inclination and crack detail were plotted with an axial resolution of 11 μm. The surface shape, defects and misalignment relative to the incident beam were detected to the order of a micron, confirming high resolution of the developed system as compared to electro-mechanical surface profilometry techniques.

  17. A fast and accurate surface plasmon resonance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Sánchez, Y. M.; Luna Moreno, D.; Noé Arias, E.; Garnica Campos, G.

    2012-10-01

    In this work we propose a Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) system driven by Labview software which produces a fast, simple and accuracy measurements of samples. The system takes 2000 data in a range of 20 degrees in 20 seconds and 0.01 degrees of resolution. All the information is sent from the computer to the microcontroller as an array of bytes in hexadecimal format to be analyzed. Besides to using the system in SPR measurement is possible to make measurement of the critic angle, and Brewster angle using the Abeles method.

  18. Design Options to Reduce Development Cost of First Generation Surface Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, David I.; Marcille, Thomas F.

    2006-01-01

    Low-power surface reactors have the potential to have the lowest development cost of any space reactor application, primarily because system alpha (mass/kg) is not of utmost importance and mission lifetimes do not have to be a decade or more. Even then, the development cost of a surface reactor can vary substantially depending on the performance requirements (e.g. mass, power, lifetime, reliability) and technical development risk deemed acceptable by the end-user. It is important for potential users to be aware of these relationships before they determine their future architecture (i.e. decide what they need). Generally, the greatest potential costs of a space reactor program are a nuclear-powered ground test and extensive material development campaigns, so it is important to consider options that can minimize the need for or complexity of such tasks. The intended goal of this paper is to inform potential surface reactor users of the potential sensitivities of surface reactor development cost to design requirements, and areas where technical risk can be traded with development cost

  19. Advancing land surface model development with satellite-based Earth observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Rene; Dutra, Emanuel; Trigo, Isabel F.; Balsamo, Gianpaolo

    2017-04-01

    The land surface forms an essential part of the climate system. It interacts with the atmosphere through the exchange of water and energy and hence influences weather and climate, as well as their predictability. Correspondingly, the land surface model (LSM) is an essential part of any weather forecasting system. LSMs rely on partly poorly constrained parameters, due to sparse land surface observations. With the use of newly available land surface temperature observations, we show in this study that novel satellite-derived datasets help to improve LSM configuration, and hence can contribute to improved weather predictability. We use the Hydrology Tiled ECMWF Scheme of Surface Exchanges over Land (HTESSEL) and validate it comprehensively against an array of Earth observation reference datasets, including the new land surface temperature product. This reveals satisfactory model performance in terms of hydrology, but poor performance in terms of land surface temperature. This is due to inconsistencies of process representations in the model as identified from an analysis of perturbed parameter simulations. We show that HTESSEL can be more robustly calibrated with multiple instead of single reference datasets as this mitigates the impact of the structural inconsistencies. Finally, performing coupled global weather forecasts we find that a more robust calibration of HTESSEL also contributes to improved weather forecast skills. In summary, new satellite-based Earth observations are shown to enhance the multi-dataset calibration of LSMs, thereby improving the representation of insufficiently captured processes, advancing weather predictability and understanding of climate system feedbacks. Orth, R., E. Dutra, I. F. Trigo, and G. Balsamo (2016): Advancing land surface model development with satellite-based Earth observations. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., doi:10.5194/hess-2016-628

  20. Systems of Systems: Scaling Up the Development Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Humphrey, Watts

    2006-01-01

    ... of massive systems into system-of-systems structures Section 3 points out how large-scale systems development efforts have typically failed because of project-management and not technical problems...

  1. Development and application of earth system models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinn, Ronald G

    2013-02-26

    The global environment is a complex and dynamic system. Earth system modeling is needed to help understand changes in interacting subsystems, elucidate the influence of human activities, and explore possible future changes. Integrated assessment of environment and human development is arguably the most difficult and most important "systems" problem faced. To illustrate this approach, we present results from the integrated global system model (IGSM), which consists of coupled submodels addressing economic development, atmospheric chemistry, climate dynamics, and ecosystem processes. An uncertainty analysis implies that without mitigation policies, the global average surface temperature may rise between 3.5 °C and 7.4 °C from 1981-2000 to 2091-2100 (90% confidence limits). Polar temperatures, absent policy, are projected to rise from about 6.4 °C to 14 °C (90% confidence limits). Similar analysis of four increasingly stringent climate mitigation policy cases involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels indicates that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The IGSM is also used to elucidate potential unintended environmental consequences of renewable energy at large scales. There are significant reasons for attention to climate adaptation in addition to climate mitigation that earth system models can help inform. These models can also be applied to evaluate whether "climate engineering" is a viable option or a dangerous diversion. We must prepare young people to address this issue: The problem of preserving a habitable planet will engage present and future generations. Scientists must improve communication if research is to inform the public and policy makers better.

  2. Evaluation of Surface Treatment Methods on the Bond Strength of Zirconia Ceramics Systems, Resin Cements and Tooth Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkuş Emek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the effects of airborne-particle abrasion (APA and tribochemical silica coating (TSC surface treatment methods on the shear bond strength of zirconia ceramics systems, resin cements and tooth surface

  3. Effect of different polishing systems on the surface roughness of nano-hybrid composites

    OpenAIRE

    Brijesh Patel; Naveen Chhabra; Disha Jain

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The study aimed to investigate the influence of different polishing systems on the surface roughness of nano-hybrid composite resins. Background: Different shapes of polishing systems are available according to the site of work. To minimize variability, a new system with single shape is developed that can be utilized in both anterior as well as posterior teeth. Materials and Methods: Seventy composite discs were fabricated using Teflon well (10 mm × 3 mm). Two main group of...

  4. Surface energy and radiation balance systems - General description and improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschen, Leo J.; Simpson, James R.

    1989-01-01

    Surface evaluation of sensible and latent heat flux densities and the components of the radiation balance were desired for various vegetative surfaces during the ASCOT84 experiment to compare with modeled results and to relate these values to drainage winds. Five battery operated data systems equipped with sensors to determine the above values were operated for 105 station days during the ASCOT84 experiment. The Bowen ratio energy balance technique was used to partition the available energy into the sensible and latent heat flux densities. A description of the sensors and battery operated equipment used to collect and process the data is presented. In addition, improvements and modifications made since the 1984 experiment are given. Details of calculations of soil heat flow at the surface and an alternate method to calculate sensible and latent heat flux densities are provided.

  5. Small reactor power systems for manned planetary surface bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomfield, H.S.

    1987-12-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the potential application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to manned planetary surface base missions was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology, performance, and safety issues associated with integration of reactor power systems with an evolutionary manned planetary surface exploration scenario. The requirements and characteristics of a variety of human-rated modular reactor power system configurations selected for a range of power levels from 25 kWe to hundreds of kilowatts is described. Trade-off analyses for reactor power systems utilizing both man-made and indigenous shielding materials are provided to examine performance, installation and operational safety feasibility issues. The results of this study have confirmed the preliminary feasibility of a wide variety of small reactor power plant configurations for growth oriented manned planetary surface exploration missions. The capability for power level growth with increasing manned presence, while maintaining safe radiation levels, was favorably assessed for nominal 25 to 100 kWe modular configurations. No feasibility limitations or technical barriers were identified and the use of both distance and indigenous planetary soil material for human rated radiation shielding were shown to be viable and attractive options.

  6. Small reactor power systems for manned planetary surface bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomfield, H.S.

    1987-12-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the potential application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to manned planetary surface base missions was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology, performance, and safety issues associated with integration of reactor power systems with an evolutionary manned planetary surface exploration scenario. The requirements and characteristics of a variety of human-rated modular reactor power system configurations selected for a range of power levels from 25 kWe to hundreds of kilowatts is described. Trade-off analyses for reactor power systems utilizing both man-made and indigenous shielding materials are provided to examine performance, installation and operational safety feasibility issues. The results of this study have confirmed the preliminary feasibility of a wide variety of small reactor power plant configurations for growth oriented manned planetary surface exploration missions. The capability for power level growth with increasing manned presence, while maintaining safe radiation levels, was favorably assessed for nominal 25 to 100 kWe modular configurations. No feasibility limitations or technical barriers were identified and the use of both distance and indigenous planetary soil material for human rated radiation shielding were shown to be viable and attractive options

  7. Global structural optimizations of surface systems with a genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Feng-Chuan

    2005-01-01

    Global structural optimizations with a genetic algorithm were performed for atomic cluster and surface systems including aluminum atomic clusters, Si magic clusters on the Si(111) 7 x 7 surface, silicon high-index surfaces, and Ag-induced Si(111) reconstructions. First, the global structural optimizations of neutral aluminum clusters Al n (n up to 23) were performed using a genetic algorithm coupled with a tight-binding potential. Second, a genetic algorithm in combination with tight-binding and first-principles calculations were performed to study the structures of magic clusters on the Si(111) 7 x 7 surface. Extensive calculations show that the magic cluster observed in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments consist of eight Si atoms. Simulated STM images of the Si magic cluster exhibit a ring-like feature similar to STM experiments. Third, a genetic algorithm coupled with a highly optimized empirical potential were used to determine the lowest energy structure of high-index semiconductor surfaces. The lowest energy structures of Si(105) and Si(114) were determined successfully. The results of Si(105) and Si(114) are reported within the framework of highly optimized empirical potential and first-principles calculations. Finally, a genetic algorithm coupled with Si and Ag tight-binding potentials were used to search for Ag-induced Si(111) reconstructions at various Ag and Si coverages. The optimized structural models of √3 x √3, 3 x 1, and 5 x 2 phases were reported using first-principles calculations. A novel model is found to have lower surface energy than the proposed double-honeycomb chained (DHC) model both for Au/Si(111) 5 x 2 and Ag/Si(111) 5 x 2 systems

  8. Architectural development of an advanced EVA Electronic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    An advanced electronic system for future EVA missions (including zero gravity, the lunar surface, and the surface of Mars) is under research and development within the Advanced Life Support Division at NASA Ames Research Center. As a first step in the development, an optimum system architecture has been derived from an analysis of the projected requirements for these missions. The open, modular architecture centers around a distributed multiprocessing concept where the major subsystems independently process their own I/O functions and communicate over a common bus. Supervision and coordination of the subsystems is handled by an embedded real-time operating system kernel employing multitasking software techniques. A discussion of how the architecture most efficiently meets the electronic system functional requirements, maximizes flexibility for future development and mission applications, and enhances the reliability and serviceability of the system in these remote, hostile environments is included.

  9. Development of autonomous operation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endou, Akira; Watanabe, Kenshiu; Miki, Tetsushi

    1992-01-01

    To enhance operation reliability of nuclear plants by removing human factors, study on an autonomous operation system has been carried out to substitute artificial intelligence (AI) for plant operators and, in addition, traditional controllers used in existing plants. For construction of the AI system, structurization of knowledge on the basis of the principles such as physical laws, function and structure of relevant objects and generalization of problem solving process are intended. A hierarchical distributed cooperative system configuration in employed because it is superior from the viewpoint of dynamical reorganization of system functions. This configuration is realized by an object-oriented multi-agent system. Construction of a prototype system was planned and the conceptual design was made for FBR plant in order to evaluate applicability of AI to the autonomous operation and to have a prospect for the realization of the system. The prototype system executes diagnosis, state evaluation, operation and control for the main plant subsystems. (author)

  10. Fracture surface energy of the Punchbowl fault, San Andreas system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Judith S; Chester, Frederick M; Kronenberg, Andreas K

    2005-09-01

    Fracture energy is a form of latent heat required to create an earthquake rupture surface and is related to parameters governing rupture propagation and processes of slip weakening. Fracture energy has been estimated from seismological and experimental rock deformation data, yet its magnitude, mechanisms of rupture surface formation and processes leading to slip weakening are not well defined. Here we quantify structural observations of the Punchbowl fault, a large-displacement exhumed fault in the San Andreas fault system, and show that the energy required to create the fracture surface area in the fault is about 300 times greater than seismological estimates would predict for a single large earthquake. If fracture energy is attributed entirely to the production of fracture surfaces, then all of the fracture surface area in the Punchbowl fault could have been produced by earthquake displacements totalling <1 km. But this would only account for a small fraction of the total energy budget, and therefore additional processes probably contributed to slip weakening during earthquake rupture.

  11. Testing of newly developed functional surfaces under pure sliding conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Mohaghegh, Kamran; Grønbæk, J.

    2013-01-01

    the surfaces in an industrial context. In this paper, a number of experimental tests were performed using a novel test rig, called axial sliding test, simulating the contact of surfaces under pure sliding conditions. The aim of the experiments is to evaluate the frictional behavior of a new typology...... of textured surfaces, the so-called multifunctional surfaces, characterized by a plateau area able to bear loads and a deterministic pattern of lubricant pockets. Six surface typologies, namely three multifunctional and three machined using classical processes, were chosen to slide against a mirror....... The results comparison showed clearly how employing multifunctional surfaces can reduce friction forces up to 50 % at high normal loads compared to regularly ground or turned surfaces. Friction coefficients approximately equal to 0.12 were found for classically machined surfaces, whereas the values were 0...

  12. Developing a Webfires Training System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    8  Figure 2.  Waterfall Process Model. ...........................................................................11  Figure 3.  Spiral ...training system (WFTS). The third chapter in this section provides an overview of the purpose and methodology of the future training system. Chapter...Waterfall Process Model. b. Spiral Model The second systems engineering process model is the spiral process model. According to Blanchard and Fabrycky

  13. The characterization of the antibacterial efficacy of an electrically activated silver ion-based surface system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirwaiker, Rohan A.

    There have been growing concerns in the global healthcare system about the eradication of pathogens in hospitals and other health-critical environments. The problem has been aggravated by the overuse of antibiotics and antimicrobial agents leading to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant superbugs such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) which are difficult to kill. Lower immunity of sick patients coupled with the escalating concurrent problem of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has resulted in increasing incidences of hospital acquired (nosocomial) infections. There is an immediate need to control the transmission of such infections, primarily in healthcare environments, by creating touch-contact and work surfaces (e.g., door knobs, push plates, countertops) that utilize alternative antibacterial materials like the heavy metal, silver. Recent research has shown that it is silver in its ionic (Ag+ ) and not elemental form that is antibacterial. Thus, silver-based antibacterial surfaces have to release silver ions directly into the pathogenic environment (generally, an aqueous media) in order to be effective. This dissertation presents the study and analysis of a new silver-based surface system that utilizes low intensity direct electric current (LIDC) for generation of silver ions to primarily inhibit indirect contact transmission of infections. The broader objective of this research is to understand the design, and characterization of the electrically activated silver ion-based antibacterial surface system. The specific objectives of this dissertation include: (1) Developing a comprehensive system design, and identifying and studying its critical design parameters and functional mechanisms. (2) Evaluating effects of the critical design parameters on the antibacterial efficacy of the proposed surface system. (3) Developing a response surface model for the surface system performance. These objectives are

  14. The Application of Three-Dimensional Surface Imaging System in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanqi; Yang, Xin; Li, Dong

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging system has gained popularity worldwide in clinical application. Unlike computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, it has the ability to capture 3D images with both shape and texture information. This feature has made it quite useful for plastic surgeons. This review article is mainly focusing on demonstrating the current status and analyzing the future of the application of 3D surface imaging systems in plastic and reconstructive surgery.Currently, 3D surface imaging system is mainly used in plastic and reconstructive surgery to help improve the reliability of surgical planning and assessing surgical outcome objectively. There have already been reports of its using on plastic and reconstructive surgery from head to toe. Studies on facial aging process, online applications development, and so on, have also been done through the use of 3D surface imaging system.Because different types of 3D surface imaging devices have their own advantages and disadvantages, a basic knowledge of their features is required and careful thought should be taken to choose the one that best fits a surgeon's demand.In the future, by integrating with other imaging tools and the 3D printing technology, 3D surface imaging system will play an important role in individualized surgical planning, implants production, meticulous surgical simulation, operative techniques training, and patient education.

  15. UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS FOR RAPID NEAR SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Stoll

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at some of the unmanned aircraft systems (UAS options and deals with a magnetometer sensor system which might be of interest in conducting rapid near surface geophysical measurements. Few of the traditional airborne geophysical sensors are now capable of being miniaturized to sizes and payload within mini UAS limits (e.g. airborne magnetics, gamma ray spectrometer. Here the deployment of a fluxgate magnetometer mounted on an UAS is presented demonstrating its capability of detecting metallic materials that are buried in the soil. The effectiveness in finding ferrous objects (e.g. UXO, landslides is demonstrated in two case studies.

  16. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2011-12-01

    In 2009, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) started the survey system development for Hydrothermal deposit. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS), the reflection seismic survey with vertical cable above seabottom. VCS has the following advantages for hydrothermal deposit survey. (1) VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey in limited area. (2) It achieves high-resolution image because the sensors are closely located to the target. (3) It avoids the coupling problems between sensor and seabottom that cause serious damage of seismic data quality. (4) Because of autonomous recording system on sea floor, various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (GI gun etc.) , deep-towed or ocean bottom source. Our first experiment of 2D/3D VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN, in November 2009. The 2D VCS data processing follows the walk-away VSP, including wave field separation and depth migration. Seismic Interferometry technique is also applied. The results give much clearer image than the conventional surface seismic. Prestack depth migration is applied to 3D data to obtain good quality 3D depth volume. Seismic Interferometry technique is applied to obtain the high resolution image in the very shallow zone. Based on the feasibility study, we have developed the autonomous recording VCS system and carried out the trial experiment in actual ocean at the water depth of about 400m to establish the procedures of deployment/recovery and to examine the VC position or fluctuation at seabottom. The result shows that the VC position is estimated with sufficient accuracy and very little fluctuation is observed. Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo took the research cruise NT11-02 on JAMSTEC R/V Natsushima in February, 2011. In the cruise NT11-02, JGI carried out the second VCS survey using the autonomous VCS recording system with the deep towed source provided by

  17. Development of shearography for surface strain measurement of non planar objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves, Roger Michael

    2001-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the development of optical instrumentation for surface strain measurement of non-planar objects. The speckle interferometry technique of shearography is used to perform quantitative measurements of surface strain on non-planar objects and to compensate these measurements for the errors that are due to the shape and slope of the object. Shearography is an optical technique that is usually used for defect location and for qualitative strain characterisation. In this thesis a multi-component shearography system is described that can measure the six components of displacement gradient. From these measurements the surface strain can be fully characterised. For non-planar objects an error is introduced into the displacement gradient measurement due to the variation of the sensitivity vector across the field of view and the variation in the magnitude of applied shear due to the curvature of the object surface. To correct for these errors requires a knowledge of the slope and shape of the object. Shearography may also be used to measure object slope and shape by a source displacement technique. Therefore slope, shape and surface strain may be measured using the same optical system. The thesis describes a method of multiplexing the shear direction using polarisation switching, a method of measuring the source position using shadow Moire and the shearography source displacement technique for measuring the surface slope and shape of objects. The multi-component shearography system is used to perform measurements of the six components of surface strain, on an industrial component, with a correction applied for errors due to the shape and slope of the object. (author)

  18. Modified hot-conditioning of PHT system surfaces of PHWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkateswaran, G [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1997-02-01

    The increased awareness on the importance of controlling activity transport and radiation buildup on out-of-core surfaces of water cooled nuclear reactors is leading to a host of measures both from chemistry as well as engineering sides being undertaken. Passivation of the surfaces of structural materials is one such. Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors of CANDU design use large surface area of carbon steel alloy in the Primary Heat Transport System. Hot-conditioning of the PHT system with deoxygenated light water at temperatures {approx_equal} 473 - 523 K during commissioning stage is done to form a protective magnetite film on the surfaces of carbon steel essentially to guard this material from corrosion during the intervening period between initial commissioning and first fuel loading and achieving nuclear heat. However, a need is felt to improve the quality of this magnetite film and control the crud release so that the twin objectives of controlling the corrosion of carbon steel and reducing a possible deposition of corrosion products on surfaces of fuel clad could be achieved. Laboratory static autoclave investigations have been carried out on the formation of protective magnetite film on carbon steel at 473 K, pH 10 (pH at 298 K) deoxygenated aqueous solutions of chelants like HEDTA, DTPA, NTA apart from EDTA. Additionally, influence of AVT chemicals like hydrazine, cyclohexylamine, morpholine and additives like glucose, boric acid has been studied. The data have been compared with the standard procedure of hot-conditioning namely with simple LiOH. It is found that chelants increase the base metal loss but the oxide formed is more protective than the one formed under simple LiOH treatment. The efficiency of passivation is greatly enhanced by hydrazine and boric acid while it is adversely affected by glucose. AVT chemicals acts as effective corrosion inhibitors. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs.

  19. Modified hot-conditioning of PHT system surfaces of PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, G.

    1997-01-01

    The increased awareness on the importance of controlling activity transport and radiation buildup on out-of-core surfaces of water cooled nuclear reactors is leading to a host of measures both from chemistry as well as engineering sides being undertaken. Passivation of the surfaces of structural materials is one such. Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors of CANDU design use large surface area of carbon steel alloy in the Primary Heat Transport System. Hot-conditioning of the PHT system with deoxygenated light water at temperatures ≅ 473 - 523 K during commissioning stage is done to form a protective magnetite film on the surfaces of carbon steel essentially to guard this material from corrosion during the intervening period between initial commissioning and first fuel loading and achieving nuclear heat. However, a need is felt to improve the quality of this magnetite film and control the crud release so that the twin objectives of controlling the corrosion of carbon steel and reducing a possible deposition of corrosion products on surfaces of fuel clad could be achieved. Laboratory static autoclave investigations have been carried out on the formation of protective magnetite film on carbon steel at 473 K, pH 10 (pH at 298 K) deoxygenated aqueous solutions of chelants like HEDTA, DTPA, NTA apart from EDTA. Additionally, influence of AVT chemicals like hydrazine, cyclohexylamine, morpholine and additives like glucose, boric acid has been studied. The data have been compared with the standard procedure of hot-conditioning namely with simple LiOH. It is found that chelants increase the base metal loss but the oxide formed is more protective than the one formed under simple LiOH treatment. The efficiency of passivation is greatly enhanced by hydrazine and boric acid while it is adversely affected by glucose. AVT chemicals acts as effective corrosion inhibitors. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  20. A surface refractive index scanning system and method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention relates to a surface refractive index scanning system for characterization of a sample. The system comprises a grating device for holding or receiving the sample, the device comprising at least a first grating region having a first grating width along a transverse direction, and a s......The invention relates to a surface refractive index scanning system for characterization of a sample. The system comprises a grating device for holding or receiving the sample, the device comprising at least a first grating region having a first grating width along a transverse direction...... a grating period Λ2 in the longitudinal direction, where the longitudinal direction is orthogonal to the transverse direction. A grating period spacing ΔΛ = Λ1 - Λ2 is finite. Further, the first and second grating periods are chosen to provide optical resonances for light respectively in a first...... wavelength band and a second wavelength band, light is being emitted, transmitted, or reflected in an out-of-plane direction, wherein the first wavelength band and the second wavelength band are at least partially non-overlapping in wavelength. The system further comprises a light source for illuminating...

  1. Developing Information Systems for Competitive Intelligence Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohhof, Bonnie

    1994-01-01

    Discusses issues connected with developing information systems for competitive intelligence support; defines the elements of an effective competitive information system; and summarizes issues affecting system design and implementation. Highlights include intelligence information; information needs; information sources; decision making; and…

  2. IoT System Development Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giray, G.; Tekinerdogan, B.; Tüzün, E.

    2018-01-01

    It is generally believed that the application of methods plays an important role in developing quality systems. A development method is mainly necessary for structuring the process in producing largescale and complex systems that involve high costs. Similar to the development of other systems, it is

  3. Restructure Staff Development for Systemic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a systems approach based on the work of W. Edwards Deming to system wide, high impact staff development. Deming has pointed out the significance of structure in systems. By restructuring the process of staff development we can bring about cost effective improvement of the whole system. We can improve student achievement while…

  4. A photogrammetry-based system for 3D surface reconstruction of prosthetics and orthotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-kun; Gao, Fan; Wang, Zhi-gang

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an innovative close range digital photogrammetry (CRDP) system using the commercial digital SLR cameras to measure and reconstruct the 3D surface of prosthetics and orthotics. This paper describes the instrumentation, techniques and preliminary results of the proposed system. The technique works by taking pictures of the object from multiple view angles. The series of pictures were post-processed via feature point extraction, point match and 3D surface reconstruction. In comparison with the traditional method such as laser scanning, the major advantages of our instrument include the lower cost, compact and easy-to-use hardware, satisfactory measurement accuracy, and significantly less measurement time. Besides its potential applications in prosthetics and orthotics surface measurement, the simple setup and its ease of use will make it suitable for various 3D surface reconstructions.

  5. Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System. Topical report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the results of Phase 1 efforts to develop a Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System for the detection of semivolatile organic contaminants on concrete, transite, and metal surfaces. The characterization of equipment and building surfaces for the presence of contaminants as part of building decontamination and decommissioning activities is an immensely large tacks of concern to both government and industry. Contaminated and clean materials must be clearly identified and segregated so that the clean materials can be recycled or reused, if possible, or disposed of more cheaply as nonhazardous waste. Characterization of building and equipment surfaces will be needed during initial investigations, during cleanup operations, and during the final confirmatory process, increasing the total number of samples well beyond that needed for initial characterization. This multiplicity of information places a premium on the ability to handle and track data as efficiently as possible. Aware of the shortcomings of traditional surface characterization technology, GE, with DOE support has undertaken a 12-month effort to complete Phase 1 of a proposed four-phase program to develop the RSSAR system. The objectives of this work are to provide instrumentation to cost-effectively sample concrete and steel surfaces, provide a quick-look indication for the presence or absence of contaminants, and collect samples for later, more detailed analysis in a readily accessible and addressable form. The Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System will be a modular instrument made up of several components: (1) sampling heads for concrete surfaces, steel surfaces, and bulk samples; (2) quick-look detectors for photoionization and ultraviolet; (3) multisample trapping module to trap and store vaporized contaminants in a manner suitable for subsequent detailed lab-based analyses

  6. Structural rearrangements in the C/W(001) surface system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, P.F.; Mullins, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the surface structure of the C/W(001) surface system at submonolayer C coverages using Auger-electron spectroscopy and high-resolution core-level photoelectron spectroscopy. Core-level spectroscopy is a sensitive probe of an atom's local electronic environment; by examining the core levels of the W atoms in the selvedge region, we monitored the response of the substrate to C adsorption. The average shift of the 4f core-level binding energy provided evidence for a heretofore unknown surface reconstruction that occurs upon submonolayer C adsorption. We also performed line-shape analysis on these core-level spectra, and have thereby elucidated the mechanism by which the low-coverage (√2 x √2 )R45 degree structure evolves to a c(3 √2 x √2 )R45 degree arrangement upon further C adsorption. The line-shape analysis also provides corroborating evidence for a proposed model of the saturated C/W(001)-(5x1) surface structure, and suggests that the first two or three atomic W layers are perturbed by the C adsorption and attendant reconstruction

  7. Waste-surface mapping of the Fernald K-65 silos using a structured light measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burks, B.L.; DePiero, F.W.; Dinkins, M.A.; Rowe, J.C.; Selleck, C.B.; Jacoboski, D.L.

    1992-10-01

    A remotely operated surface-mapping measurement system was developed by the Robotics ampersand Process Systems Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in the K-65 waste-storage silos at Fernald, Ohio. The mapping system used three infrared line-generating laser diodes as illumination sources and three high-resolution, low-lux, calibrated, black-and-white, charge-coupled-device video cameras as receivers. These components were combined to form structured light source range and direction sensors with six different possible emitter-receiver pairs. A technology demonstration and predeployment tests were performed at Fernald using the empty Silo 4 into which was placed rectangular objects of known dimensions. These objects were scanned by the structured light sources to demonstrate functionality and verify that the system was giving sufficiently accurate range data in three dimensions. The structured light sources were deployed in Silos 1 and 2 to scan the waste surfaces. The resulting data were merged to create three-dimensional maps of those surfaces. A bentonite clay cap was placed over the waste surfaces and surface maps were obtained. The change in surface height before and after bentonite addition was utilized as a measure of clay cap thickness

  8. An intelligent system for real time automatic defect inspection on specular coated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Parker, Johné M.; Hou, Zhen

    2005-07-01

    Product visual inspection is still performed manually or semi automatically in most industries from simple ceramic tile grading to complex automotive body panel paint defect and surface quality inspection. Moreover, specular surfaces present additional challenge to conventional vision systems due to specular reflections, which may mask the true location of objects and lead to incorrect measurements. There are some sophisticated visual inspection methods developed in recent years. Unfortunately, most of them are highly computational. Systems built on those methods are either inapplicable or very costly to achieve real time inspection. In this paper, we describe an integrated low-cost intelligent system developed to automatically capture, extract, and segment defects on specular surfaces with uniform color coatings. The system inspects and locates regular surface defects with lateral dimensions as small as a millimeter. The proposed system is implemented on a group of smart cameras using its on-board processing ability to achieve real time inspection. The experimental results on real test panels demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of proposed system.

  9. An Integrated Surface Engineering Technology Development for Improving Energy Efficiency of Engine Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Hsu; Liming Chang; Huan Zhan

    2009-05-31

    Frictional losses are inherent in most practical mechanical systems. The ability to control friction offers many opportunities to achieve energy conservation. Over the years, materials, lubricants, and surface modifications have been used to reduce friction in automotive and diesel engines. However, in recent years, progress in friction reduction technology has slowed because many of the inefficiencies have been eliminated. A new avenue for friction reduction is needed. Designing surfaces specifically for friction reduction with concomitant enhanced durability for various engine components has emerged recently as a viable opportunity due to advances in fabrication and surface finishing techniques. Recently, laser ablated dimples on surfaces have shown friction reduction properties and have been demonstrated successfully in conformal contacts such as seals where the speed is high and the load is low. The friction reduction mechanism in this regime appears to depend on the size, patterns, and density of dimples in the contact. This report describes modeling efforts in characterizing surface textures and understanding their mechanisms for enhanced lubrication under high contact pressure conditions. A literature survey is first presented on the development of descriptors for irregular surface features. This is followed by a study of the hydrodynamic effects of individual micro-wedge dimples using the analytical solution of the 1-D Reynolds equation and the determination of individual components of the total friction resistance. The results obtained provide a better understanding of the dimple orientation effects and the approach which may be used to further compare the friction reduction provided by different texture patterns.

  10. Systems of Systems: Scaling up the Development Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Humphrey, Watts

    2006-01-01

    ... into system-of-systems structures. Section 3 points out how large-scale systems development efforts have typically failed because of project-management and not technical problems, and that the solutions to these problems...

  11. Development test procedure High Pressure Water Jet System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    Development testing will be performed on the water jet cleaning fixture to determine the most effective arrangement of water jet nozzles to remove contamination from the surfaces of canisters and other debris. The following debris may be stained with dye to simulate surface contaminates: Mark O, Mark I, and Mark II Fuel Storage Canisters (both stainless steel and aluminum), pipe of various size, (steel, stainless, carbon steel and aluminum). Carbon steel and stainless steel plate, channel, angle, I-beam and other surfaces, specifically based on the Scientific Ecology Group (SEG) inventory and observations of debris within the basin. Test procedure for developmental testing of High Pressure Water Jet System

  12. Surface-enhanced raman optical data storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1994-01-01

    An improved Surface-Enhanced Raman Optical Data Storage System (SERODS) is disclosed. In the improved system, entities capable of existing in multiple reversible states are present on the storage device. Such entities result in changed Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) when localized state changes are effected in less than all of the entities. Therefore, by changing the state of entities in localized regions of a storage device, the SERS emissions in such regions will be changed. When a write-on device is controlled by a data signal, such a localized regions of changed SERS emissions will correspond to the data written on the device. The data may be read by illuminating the surface of the storage device with electromagnetic radiation of an appropriate frequency and detecting the corresponding SERS emissions. Data may be deleted by reversing the state changes of entities in regions where the data was initially written. In application, entities may be individual molecules which allows for the writing of data at the molecular level. A read/write/delete head utilizing near-field quantum techniques can provide for a write/read/delete device capable of effecting state changes in individual molecules, thus providing for the effective storage of data at the molecular level.

  13. [Construction of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG particles surface display system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Runyu; Nie, Boyao; Yuan, Shengling; Tao, Haoxia; Liu, Chunjie; Yang, Bailiang; Wang, Yanchun

    2017-01-25

    To describe a novel particles surface display system which is consisted of gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM) particles and anchor proteins for bacteria-like particles vaccines, we treated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG bacteria with 10% heated-TCA for preparing GEM particles, and then identified the harvested GEM particles by electron microscopy, RT-PCR and SDS-PAGE. Meanwhile, Escherichia coli was induced to express hybrid proteins PA3-EGFP and P60-EGFP, and GEM particles were incubated with them. Then binding of anchor proteins were determined by Western blotting, transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and spectrofluorometry. GEM particles preserved original size and shape, and proteins and DNA contents of GEM particles were released substantially. The two anchor proteins both had efficiently immobilized on the surface of GEM. GEM particles that were bounded by anchor proteins were brushy. The fluorescence of GEM particles anchoring PA3 was slightly brighter than P60, but the difference was not significant (P>0.05). GEM particles prepared from L. rhamnosus GG have a good binding efficiency with anchor proteins PA3-EGFP and P60-EGFP. Therefore, this novel foreign protein surface display system could be used for bacteria-like particle vaccines.

  14. Imaging Freeform Optical Systems Designed with NURBS Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    reflective, anastigmat 1 Introduction The imaging freeform optical systems described here are designed using non-uniform rational basis-spline (NURBS...code, but to succeed in designing NURBS freeform optical systems an optimization code is required. The motivation for developing the optical design

  15. Helicopter-based lidar system for monitoring the upper ocean and terrain surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwi Joo; Park, Youngsik; Bunkin, Alexey; Pershin, Serguei; Voliak, Konstantin; Nunes, Raul

    2002-01-01

    A compact helicopter-based lidar system is developed and tested under laboratory and field conditions. It is shown that the lidar can measure concentrations of chlorophyll a and dissolved organic matter at the surface of water bodies, detect fluorescence spectra of ground vegetation at a distance of up to 530 m, and determine the vertical profile of light-scattering particle concentration in the upper ocean. The possibilities of the lidar system are demonstrated by detection of polluted areas at the ocean surface, by online monitoring of three-dimensional distribution of light-scattering layers, and by recognition of plant types and physiological states

  16. Using surfaces and surface relations in an early cognitive vision system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Dirk; Mustafa, Wail; Popovic, Mila

    2015-01-01

    We present a deep hierarchical visual system with two parallel hierarchies for edge and surface information. In the two hierarchies, complementary visual information is represented on different levels of granularity together with the associated uncertainties and confidences. At all levels geometric...... and appearance information is coded explicitly in 2D and 3D allowing to access this information separately and to link between the different levels. We demonstrate the advantages of such hierarchies in three applications covering grasping, view-point independent object representation, and pose estimation....

  17. Development of ballistics identification—from image comparison to topography measurement in surface metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, J; Chu, W; Vorburger, T V; Thompson, R; Renegar, T B; Zheng, A; Yen, J; Silver, R; Ols, M

    2012-01-01

    Fired bullets and ejected cartridge cases have unique ballistics signatures left by the firearm. By analyzing the ballistics signatures, forensic examiners can trace these bullets and cartridge cases to the firearm used in a crime scene. Current automated ballistics identification systems are primarily based on image comparisons using optical microscopy. The correlation accuracy depends on image quality which is largely affected by lighting conditions. Because ballistics signatures are geometrical micro-topographies by nature, direct measurement and correlation of the surface topography is being investigated for ballistics identification. A Two-dimensional and Three-dimensional Topography Measurement and Correlation System was developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology for certification of Standard Reference Material 2460/2461 bullets and cartridge cases. Based on this system, a prototype system for bullet signature measurement and correlation has been developed for bullet signature identifications, and has demonstrated superior correlation results. (paper)

  18. Development of an aeroelastic methodology for surface morphing rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, James R.

    Helicopter performance capabilities are limited by maximum lift characteristics and vibratory loading. In high speed forward flight, dynamic stall and transonic flow greatly increase the amplitude of vibratory loads. Experiments and computational simulations alike have indicated that a variety of active rotor control devices are capable of reducing vibratory loads. For example, periodic blade twist and flap excitation have been optimized to reduce vibratory loads in various rotors. Airfoil geometry can also be modified in order to increase lift coefficient, delay stall, or weaken transonic effects. To explore the potential benefits of active controls, computational methods are being developed for aeroelastic rotor evaluation, including coupling between computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational structural dynamics (CSD) solvers. In many contemporary CFD/CSD coupling methods it is assumed that the airfoil is rigid to reduce the interface by single dimension. Some methods retain the conventional one-dimensional beam model while prescribing an airfoil shape to simulate active chord deformation. However, to simulate the actual response of a compliant airfoil it is necessary to include deformations that originate not only from control devices (such as piezoelectric actuators), but also inertial forces, elastic stresses, and aerodynamic pressures. An accurate representation of the physics requires an interaction with a more complete representation of loads and geometry. A CFD/CSD coupling methodology capable of communicating three-dimensional structural deformations and a distribution of aerodynamic forces over the wetted blade surface has not yet been developed. In this research an interface is created within the Fully Unstructured Navier-Stokes (FUN3D) solver that communicates aerodynamic forces on the blade surface to University of Michigan's Nonlinear Active Beam Solver (UM/NLABS -- referred to as NLABS in this thesis). Interface routines are developed for

  19. New developments in prosthetic arm systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujaklija I

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ivan Vujaklija,1 Dario Farina,1 Oskar C Aszmann2 1Institute of Neurorehabilitation Systems, Bernstein Focus Neurotechnology Göttingen, University Medical Center Göttingen, Georg-August University, Göttingen, Germany; 2Christian Doppler Laboratory for Restoration of Extremity Function, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria Abstract: Absence of an upper limb leads to severe impairments in everyday life, which can further influence the social and mental state. For these reasons, early developments in cosmetic and body-driven prostheses date some centuries ago, and they have been evolving ever since. Following the end of the Second World War, rapid developments in technology resulted in powered myoelectric hand prosthetics. In the years to come, these devices were common on the market, though they still suffered high user abandonment rates. The reasons for rejection were trifold – insufficient functionality of the hardware, fragile design, and cumbersome control. In the last decade, both academia and industry have reached major improvements concerning technical features of upper limb prosthetics and methods for their interfacing and control. Advanced robotic hands are offered by several vendors and research groups, with a variety of active and passive wrist options that can be articulated across several degrees of freedom. Nowadays, elbow joint designs include active solutions with different weight and power options. Control features are getting progressively more sophisticated, offering options for multiple sensor integration and multi-joint articulation. Latest developments in socket designs are capable of facilitating implantable and multiple surface electromyography sensors in both traditional and osseointegration-based systems. Novel surgical techniques in combination with modern, sophisticated hardware are enabling restoration of dexterous upper limb

  20. Development of a surface plasmon resonance and nanomechanical biosensing hybrid platform for multiparametric reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Mar; Fariña, David; Escuela, Alfonso M; Sendra, Jose Ramón; Lechuga, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a hybrid platform that combines two well-known biosensing technologies based on quite different transducer principles: surface plasmon resonance and nanomechanical sensing. The new system allows the simultaneous and real-time detection of two independent parameters, refractive index change (Δn), and surface stress change (Δσ) when a biomolecular interaction takes place. Both parameters have a direct relation with the mass coverage of the sensor surface. The core of the platform is a common fluid cell, where the solution arrives to both sensor areas at the same time and under the same conditions (temperature, velocity, diffusion, etc.).The main objective of this integration is to achieve a better understanding of the physical behaviour of the transducers during sensing, increasing the information obtained in real time in one single experiment. The potential of the hybrid platform is demonstrated by the detection of DNA hybridization.

  1. The effect of incidence angle on ion bombardment induced surface topography development on single crystal copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.; Lewis, G.W.; Whitton, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    The fluence dependence of development of microscopic surface features, particularly etch pits, during 9 keV Ar + ion bombardment of (11,3,1) oriented Cu single crystals has been studied employing quasi-dynamic irradiation and observation techniques in a scanning electron microscope-accelerator system. 9 keV ions are observed not to produce crystallographic pyramids under all irradiation conditions for this surface, a very different result from our earlier studies with higher energy ions. The bombardment does elaborate etch pits however, the habits and growth kinetics of which depend upon both polar and azimuthal angles of ion incidence to the surface. The results are explained in terms of differential erosion of crystal planes modified by the presence of pre-existing and irradiation induces extended defects. (orig.)

  2. A Novel RFID Sensing System Using Enhanced Surface Wave Technology for Battery Exchange Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Lin Lai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel radio-frequency identification (RFID sensing system using enhanced surface wave technology for battery exchange stations (BESs of electric motorcycles. Ultrahigh-frequency (UHF RFID technology is utilized to automatically track and manage battery and user information without manual operation. The system includes readers, enhanced surface wave leaky cable antennas (ESWLCAs, coupling cable lines (CCLs, and small radiation patches (SRPs. The RFID sensing system overcomes the electromagnetic interference in the metallic environment of a BES cabinet. The developed RFID sensing system can effectively increase the efficiency of BES operation and promote the development of electric vehicles which solve the problem of air pollution as well as protect the environment of the Earth.

  3. Surface wind mixing in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robin; Hartlipp, Paul

    2017-12-01

    Mixing at the ocean surface is key for atmosphere-ocean interactions and the distribution of heat, energy, and gases in the upper ocean. Winds are the primary force for surface mixing. To properly simulate upper ocean dynamics and the flux of these quantities within the upper ocean, models must reproduce mixing in the upper ocean. To evaluate the performance of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) in replicating the surface mixing, the results of four different vertical mixing parameterizations were compared against observations, using the surface mixed layer depth, the temperature fields, and observed diffusivities for comparisons. The vertical mixing parameterizations investigated were Mellor- Yamada 2.5 level turbulent closure (MY), Large- McWilliams- Doney Kpp (LMD), Nakanishi- Niino (NN), and the generic length scale (GLS) schemes. This was done for one temperate site in deep water in the Eastern Pacific and three shallow water sites in the Baltic Sea. The model reproduced the surface mixed layer depth reasonably well for all sites; however, the temperature fields were reproduced well for the deep site, but not for the shallow Baltic Sea sites. In the Baltic Sea, the models overmixed the water column after a few days. Vertical temperature diffusivities were higher than those observed and did not show the temporal fluctuations present in the observations. The best performance was by NN and MY; however, MY became unstable in two of the shallow simulations with high winds. The performance of GLS nearly as good as NN and MY. LMD had the poorest performance as it generated temperature diffusivities that were too high and induced too much mixing. Further observational comparisons are needed to evaluate the effects of different stratification and wind conditions and the limitations on the vertical mixing parameterizations.

  4. Adaptive Dynamic Surface Control for Generator Excitation Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiu-yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the generator excitation control system which is equipped with static var compensator (SVC and unknown parameters, a novel adaptive dynamic surface control scheme is proposed based on neural network and tracking error transformed function with the following features: (1 the transformation of the excitation generator model to the linear systems is omitted; (2 the prespecified performance of the tracking error can be guaranteed by combining with the tracking error transformed function; (3 the computational burden is greatly reduced by estimating the norm of the weighted vector of neural network instead of the weighted vector itself; therefore, it is more suitable for the real time control; and (4 the explosion of complicity problem inherent in the backstepping control can be eliminated. It is proved that the new scheme can make the system semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded. Simulation results show the effectiveness of this control scheme.

  5. Water heating solar system using collector with polycarbonate absorber surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luiz Guilherme Meira de; Sodre, Dilton; Cavalcanti, Eduardo Jose Cidade; Souza, Luiz Guilherme Vieira Meira de; Mendes, Jose Ubiragi de Lima [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)], e-mails: lguilherme@dem.ufrn.br, diltonsodre@ifba.edu.br, ubiragi@ct.ufrn.br

    2010-07-01

    It is presented s solar collector to be used in a heating water for bath system, whose main characteristics are low cost and easy fabrication and assembly processes. The collector absorber surface consists of a polycarbonate plate with an area of 1.5 m{sup 2}. The water inlet and outlet are made of PVC 50mm, and were coupled to a 6mm thick polycarbonate plate using fiberglass resin. A 200 liters thermal reservoir will be used. This reservoir is also alternative. The absorber heating system works under thermo-siphon regimen. Thermal parameters will be evaluated to prove the feasibility of the studied solar heating system to obtain bath water for a four people family. (author)

  6. Soliton surfaces and generalized symmetries of integrable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundland, A M; Riglioni, D; Post, S

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss some specific features of symmetries of integrable systems which can be used to construct the Fokas–Gel’fand formula for the immersion of 2D-soliton surfaces, associated with such systems, in Lie algebras. We establish a sufficient condition for the applicability of this formula. This condition requires the existence of two vector fields which generate a common symmetry of the initial system and its corresponding linear spectral problem. This means that these two fields have to be group-related and we determine an explicit form of this relation. It provides a criterion for the selection of symmetries suitable for use in the Fokas–Gel’fand formula. We include some examples illustrating its application. (paper)

  7. Autonomous Operations System: Development and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro Medina, Jaime A.; Wilkins, Kim N.; Walker, Mark; Stahl, Gerald M.

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous control systems provides the ability of self-governance beyond the conventional control system. As the complexity of mechanical and electrical systems increases, there develops a natural drive for developing robust control systems to manage complicated operations. By closing the bridge between conventional automated systems to knowledge based self-awareness systems, nominal control of operations can evolve into relying on safe critical mitigation processes to support any off-nominal behavior. Current research and development efforts lead by the Autonomous Propellant Loading (APL) group at NASA Kennedy Space Center aims to improve cryogenic propellant transfer operations by developing an automated control and health monitoring system. As an integrated systems, the center aims to produce an Autonomous Operations System (AOS) capable of integrating health management operations with automated control to produce a fully autonomous system.

  8. Surface analysis of model systems: From a metal-graphite interface to an intermetallic catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwolek, Emma J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-10-25

    This thesis summarizes research completed on two different model systems. In the first system, we investigate the deposition of the elemental metal dysprosium on highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and its resulting nucleation and growth. The goal of this research is to better understand the metal-carbon interactions that occur on HOPG and to apply those to an array of other carbon surfaces. This insight may prove beneficial to developing and using new materials for electronic applications, magnetic applications and catalysis.

  9. Utilization threshold of surface water and groundwater based on the system optimization of crop planting structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang FU,Jiahong LI,Tianxiao LI,Dong LIU,Song CUI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the diversity of the agricultural system, this research calculates the planting structures of rice, maize and soybean considering the optimal economic-social-ecological aspects. Then, based on the uncertainty and randomness of the water resources system, the interval two-stage stochastic programming method, which introduces the uncertainty of the interval number, is used to calculate the groundwater exploitation and the use efficiency of surface water. The method considers the minimum cost of water as the objective of the uncertainty model for surface water and groundwater joint scheduling optimization for different planting structures. Finally, by calculating harmonious entropy, the optimal exploitation utilization interval of surface water and groundwater is determined for optimal cultivation in the Sanjiang Plain. The optimal matching of the planting structure under the economic system is suitable when the mining ratio of the surface is in 44.13%—45.45% and the exploitation utilization of groundwater is in 54.82%—66.86%, the optimal planting structure under the social system is suitable when surface water mining ratio is in 47.84%—48.04% and the groundwater exploitation threshold is in 67.07%—72.00%. This article optimizes the economic-social-ecological-water system, which is important for the development of a water- and food-conserving society and providing a more accurate management environment.

  10. 78 FR 70076 - Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and Corrosion Under Insulation AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and Corrosion Under Insulation.'' This LR... related to internal surface aging effects, fire water systems, atmospheric storage tanks, and corrosion...

  11. Development of similarity theory for control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshlyaev, L. P.; Evtushenko, V. F.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Makarov, G. V.

    2018-05-01

    The area of effective application of the traditional similarity theory and the need necessity of its development for systems are discussed. The main statements underlying the similarity theory of control systems are given. The conditions for the similarity of control systems and the need for similarity control control are formulated. Methods and algorithms for estimating and similarity control of control systems and the results of research of control systems based on their similarity are presented. The similarity control of systems includes the current evaluation of the degree of similarity of control systems and the development of actions controlling similarity, and the corresponding targeted change in the state of any element of control systems.

  12. Sustainable Development and Airport Surface Access: The Role of Technological Innovation and Behavioral Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Qazi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development reflects an underlying tension to achieve economic growth whilst addressing environmental challenges, and this is particularly the case for the aviation sector. Although much of the aviation-related focus has fallen on reducing aircraft emissions, airports have also been under increasing pressure to support the vision of a low carbon energy future. One of the main sources of airport-related emissions is passenger journeys to and from airports (the surface access component of air travel, which is the focus of this paper. Two aspects associated with the relationship between sustainable development and airport surface access are considered. Firstly, there is an evaluation of three technological innovation options that will enable sustainable transport solutions for surface access journeys: telepresence systems to reduce drop-off/pick-up trips, techniques to improve public transport and options to encourage the sharing of rides. Secondly, the role of behavioral change for surface access journeys from a theoretical perspective, using empirical data from Manchester airport, is evaluated. Finally, the contribution of technology and behavioral intervention measures to improvements in sustainable development are discussed.

  13. An intelligent hybrid system for surface coal mine safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilic, N.; Obradovic, I.; Cvjetic, A. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-06-15

    Analysis of safety in surface coal mines represents a very complex process. Published studies on mine safety analysis are usually based on research related to accidents statistics and hazard identification with risk assessment within the mining industry. Discussion in this paper is focused on the application of AI methods in the analysis of safety in mining environment. Complexity of the subject matter requires a high level of expert knowledge and great experience. The solution was found in the creation of a hybrid system PROTECTOR, whose knowledge base represents a formalization of the expert knowledge in the mine safety field. The main goal of the system is the estimation of mining environment as one of the significant components of general safety state in a mine. This global goal is subdivided into a hierarchical structure of subgoals where each subgoal can be viewed as the estimation of a set of parameters (gas, dust, climate, noise, vibration, illumination, geotechnical hazard) which determine the general mine safety state and category of hazard in mining environment. Both the hybrid nature of the system and the possibilities it offers are illustrated through a case study using field data related to an existing Serbian surface coal mine.

  14. Theoretical Insight of Physical Adsorption for a Single-Component Adsorbent + Adsorbate System: I. Thermodynamic Property Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Anutosh; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Ng, Kim Choon; Koyama, Shigeru; Srinivasan, Kandadai

    2009-01-01

    Thermodynamic property surfaces for a single-component adsorbent + adsorbate system are derived and developed from the viewpoint of classical thermodynamics, thermodynamic requirements of chemical equilibrium, Gibbs law, and Maxwell relations

  15. Identifying representative symbology for low visibility operations/surface movement guidance and control system (LVO/SMGCS) paper charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-04

    The Volpe Center developed a questionnaire to examine the representativeness of symbol shapes and the usefulness of information depicted on Low Visibility Operations/Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (LVO/SMGCS) paper charts. One-hundred f...

  16. Development of surface plasmon resonance sensor for determining zinc ion using novel active nanolayers as probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fen, Yap Wing; Yunus, W Mahmood Mat; Talib, Zainal Abidin; Yusof, Nor Azah

    2015-01-05

    In this study, novel active nanolayers in combination with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) system for zinc ion (Zn(2+)) detection has been developed. The gold surface used for the SPR system was modified with the novel developed active nanolayers, i.e. chitosan and chitosan-tetrabutyl thiuram disulfide (chitosan-TBTDS). Both chitosan and chitosan-TBTDS active layers were fabricated on the gold surface by spin coating technique. The system was used to monitor SPR signal for Zn(2+) in aqueous media with and without sensitivity enhancement by TBTDS. For both active nanolayers, the shift of resonance angle is directly proportional to the concentration of Zn(2+) in aqueous media. The higher shift of resonance angle was obtained for chitosan-TBTDS active nanolayer due to a specific binding of TBTDS with Zn(2+). The chitosan-TBTDS active nanolayer enhanced the sensitivity of detection down to 0.1 mg/l and also induced a selective detection towards Zn(2+). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimized laser system for decontamination of painted surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champonnois, F.; Lascoutouna, C.; Long, H.; Thro, P.Y.; Mauchien, P.

    2010-01-01

    Laser systems have long been seen as potentially very interesting for removing contamination from surfaces. The main expected advantages are the possibility of remote process and the absence of secondary waste. However these systems were unable to find their way to an industrial deployment due to the lack of reliability of the laser and the difficulty to satisfactory collect the (contaminated) ablated matter. In this contribution we report on a compact, reliable and efficient laser decontaminating system called ASPILASERO. It is adapted to the constraints bound to a nuclear environment. It takes advantages of the recent progress made by the fibre lasers which have now a lifetime longer than 20000 hours without maintenance. The collecting system collects all the removed matter (gases and aerosols) on nuclear grade filters. The fully automated system has been successfully tested on a vertical wall of a stopped nuclear installation. It has demonstrated an efficiency of 1 m 2 /hr which is in the same order of other classical techniques but with a much lower quantity of waste and the ability to work continuously without human intervention. Measurements performed after the laser treatment have shown that the contamination was completely removed by removing the paint and that this contamination was not re-deposited elsewhere on the wall. The system will also be used in highly contaminated hot cells to decrease the radiation and allow maintenance or refurbishing in safe working conditions. (authors)

  18. Security alarm communication and display systems development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddoups, I.G.

    1990-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has, as lead Department of Energy (DOE) physical security laboratory, developed a variety of alarm communication and display systems for DOE and Department of Defense (DOD) facilities. This paper briefly describes some of the systems developed and concludes with a discussion of technology relevant to those currently designing, developing, implementing, or procuring such a system. Development activities and the rapid evolution of computers over the last decade have resulted in a broad variety of capabilities to support most security system communication and display needs. The major task in selecting a system is becoming familiar with these capabilities and finding the best match to a specific need

  19. Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Large Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichman, P.B.; Lavely, E.M.; Ritzwoller, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    The general theory of surface NMR imaging of large electromagnetically active systems is considered, motivated by geophysical applications. A general imaging equation is derived for the NMR voltage response, valid for arbitrary transmitter and receiver loop geometry and arbitrary conductivity structure of the sample. When the conductivity grows to the point where the electromagnetic skin depth becomes comparable to the sample size, significant diffusive retardation effects occur that strongly affect the signal. Accounting for these now allows more accurate imaging than previously possible. It is shown that the time constant T 1 may in principle be inferred directly from the diffusive tail of the signal. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  20. Development of Baby-EBM Interface System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhlis Mokhtar; Abu Bakar Ghazali; Muhammad Zahidee Taat

    2010-01-01

    This paper explains the works being done to develop an interface system for Baby-Electron Beam Machine (EBM). The function of the system is for the safety, controlling and monitoring the Baby-EBM. The integration for the system is using data acquisition (DAQ) hardware and LabVIEW to develop the software. (author)

  1. Development of Baby-EBM Interface System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtar, Mukhlis; Ghazali, Abu Bakar; Taat, Muhammad Zahidee [Accelerator Development Center, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia), Technical Support Div.

    2010-07-01

    This paper explains the works being done to develop an interface system for Baby-Electron Beam Machine (EBM). The function of the system is for the safety, controlling and monitoring the Baby-EBM. The integration for the system is using data acquisition (DAQ) hardware and LabVIEW to develop the software. (author)

  2. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Development of Surface Engineered Coating Systems for Aluminum Pressure Die Casting Dies: Towards a 'Smart' Die Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. John J. Moore; Dr. Jianliang Lin,

    2012-07-31

    The main objective of this research program was to design and develop an optimal coating system that extends die life by minimizing premature die failure. In high-pressure aluminum die-casting, the die, core pins and inserts must withstand severe processing conditions. Many of the dies and tools in the industry are being coated to improve wear-resistance and decrease down-time for maintenance. However, thermal fatigue in metal itself can still be a major problem, especially since it often leads to catastrophic failure (i.e. die breakage) as opposed to a wear-based failure (parts begin to go out of tolerance). Tooling costs remain the largest portion of production costs for many of these parts, so the ability prevent catastrophic failures would be transformative for the manufacturing industry.The technology offers energy savings through reduced energy use in the die casting process from several factors, including increased life of the tools and dies, reuse of the dies and die components, reduction/elimination of lubricants, and reduced machine down time, and reduction of Al solder sticking on the die. The use of the optimized die coating system will also reduce environmental wastes and scrap parts. Current (2012) annual energy saving estimates, based on initial dissemination to the casting industry in 2010 and market penetration of 80% by 2020, is 3.1 trillion BTU's/year. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.63 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  3. Recent Development on the NOAA's Global Surface Temperature Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. M.; Huang, B.; Boyer, T.; Lawrimore, J. H.; Menne, M. J.; Rennie, J.

    2016-12-01

    Global Surface Temperature (GST) is one of the most widely used indicators for climate trend and extreme analyses. A widely used GST dataset is the NOAA merged land-ocean surface temperature dataset known as NOAAGlobalTemp (formerly MLOST). The NOAAGlobalTemp had recently been updated from version 3.5.4 to version 4. The update includes a significant improvement in the ocean surface component (Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature or ERSST, from version 3b to version 4) which resulted in an increased temperature trends in recent decades. Since then, advancements in both the ocean component (ERSST) and land component (GHCN-Monthly) have been made, including the inclusion of Argo float SSTs and expanded EOT modes in ERSST, and the use of ISTI databank in GHCN-Monthly. In this presentation, we describe the impact of those improvements on the merged global temperature dataset, in terms of global trends and other aspects.

  4. Formation and development of salt crusts on soil surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Sheng; Shin, Hosung; Santamarina, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The salt concentration gradually increases at the soil free surface when the evaporation rate exceeds the diffusive counter transport. Eventually, salt precipitates and crystals form a porous sodium chloride crust with a porosity of 0.43 ± 0.14. After detaching from soils, the salt crust still experiences water condensation and salt deliquescence at the bottom, brine transport across the crust driven by the humidity gradient, and continued air-side precipitation. This transport mechanism allows salt crust migration away from the soil surface at a rate of 5 μm/h forming salt domes above soil surfaces. The surface characteristics of mineral substrates and the evaporation rate affect the morphology and the crystal size of precipitated salt. In particular, substrate hydrophobicity and low evaporation rate suppress salt spreading.

  5. Formation and development of salt crusts on soil surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Sheng

    2015-12-14

    The salt concentration gradually increases at the soil free surface when the evaporation rate exceeds the diffusive counter transport. Eventually, salt precipitates and crystals form a porous sodium chloride crust with a porosity of 0.43 ± 0.14. After detaching from soils, the salt crust still experiences water condensation and salt deliquescence at the bottom, brine transport across the crust driven by the humidity gradient, and continued air-side precipitation. This transport mechanism allows salt crust migration away from the soil surface at a rate of 5 μm/h forming salt domes above soil surfaces. The surface characteristics of mineral substrates and the evaporation rate affect the morphology and the crystal size of precipitated salt. In particular, substrate hydrophobicity and low evaporation rate suppress salt spreading.

  6. INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS: CATEGORICAL MEANING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Tretyak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concept of «development», «innovation» and «innovation development» in relation to the educational systems, as to create a new conceptual framework for quality education. Peculiarities of development of educational systems. Correlation concepts «organization development» and «innovation», defined birth of innovation as syncope in music. On the basis of the study given to the notion of innovation development of educational systems and identified conditions for their successful innovation development.

  7. Canadian accelerator breeder system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.

    1982-11-01

    A shortage of fissile material at a reasonable price is expected to occur in the early part of the twenty-first century. Converting fertile material to fissile material by electronuclar methods is an option that can extend th world's resources of fissionable material, supplying fuel for nuclear power stations. This paper presents the rationale for electronuclear breeders and describes the Canadian development program for an accelerator breeder facility that could produce 1 Mg of fissile material per year

  8. Optimization of shovel-truck system for surface mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ercelebi, S.G.; Bascetin, A. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

    2009-07-15

    In surface mining operations, truck haulage is the largest item in the operating costs, constituting 50 to 60% of the total. In order to reduce this cost, it is necessary to allocate and dispatch the trucks efficiently. This paper describes shovel and truck operation models and optimization approaches for the allocation and dispatching of trucks under various operating conditions. Closed queuing network theory is employed for the allocation of trucks and linear programming for the purpose of truck dispatching to shovels. A case study was applied for the Orhaneli open Pit Coal Mine in Turkey. This approach would provide the capability of estimating system performance measures (mine throughput, mean number of trucks, mean waiting time, etc.) for planning purposes when the truck fleet is composed of identical trucks. A computational study is presented to show how choosing the optimum number of trucks and optimum dispatching policy affect the cost of moving material in a truck-shovel system.

  9. Senior Systems Analyst | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Systems Analyst will play a critical role as part of the Information Technology ... data analysis, and system design); the delivery of professional IM/IT advisory and ... with the current development activities ensuring resolution of those issues.

  10. Geographic Information Systems and Web Page Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The Facilities Engineering and Architectural Branch is responsible for the design and maintenance of buildings, laboratories, and civil structures. In order to improve efficiency and quality, the FEAB has dedicated itself to establishing a data infrastructure based on Geographic Information Systems, GIs. The value of GIS was explained in an article dating back to 1980 entitled "Need for a Multipurpose Cadastre which stated, "There is a critical need for a better land-information system in the United States to improve land-conveyance procedures, furnish a basis for equitable taxation, and provide much-needed information for resource management and environmental planning." Scientists and engineers both point to GIS as the solution. What is GIS? According to most text books, Geographic Information Systems is a class of software that stores, manages, and analyzes mapable features on, above, or below the surface of the earth. GIS software is basically database management software to the management of spatial data and information. Simply put, Geographic Information Systems manage, analyze, chart, graph, and map spatial information. At the outset, I was given goals and expectations from my branch and from my mentor with regards to the further implementation of GIs. Those goals are as follows: (1) Continue the development of GIS for the underground structures. (2) Extract and export annotated data from AutoCAD drawing files and construct a database (to serve as a prototype for future work). (3) Examine existing underground record drawings to determine existing and non-existing underground tanks. Once this data was collected and analyzed, I set out on the task of creating a user-friendly database that could be assessed by all members of the branch. It was important that the database be built using programs that most employees already possess, ruling out most AutoCAD-based viewers. Therefore, I set out to create an Access database that translated onto the web using Internet

  11. Surface Casting Defects Inspection Using Vision System and Neural Network Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świłło S.J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a vision based approach and neural network techniques in surface defects inspection and categorization. Depending on part design and processing techniques, castings may develop surface discontinuities such as cracks and pores that greatly influence the material’s properties Since the human visual inspection for the surface is slow and expensive, a computer vision system is an alternative solution for the online inspection. The authors present the developed vision system uses an advanced image processing algorithm based on modified Laplacian of Gaussian edge detection method and advanced lighting system. The defect inspection algorithm consists of several parameters that allow the user to specify the sensitivity level at which he can accept the defects in the casting. In addition to the developed image processing algorithm and vision system apparatus, an advanced learning process has been developed, based on neural network techniques. Finally, as an example three groups of defects were investigated demonstrates automatic selection and categorization of the measured defects, such as blowholes, shrinkage porosity and shrinkage cavity.

  12. Numerical modelling of needle-grid electrodes for negative surface corona charging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, Y; Chen, G; Rotaru, M

    2011-01-01

    Surface potential decay measurement is a simple and low cost tool to examine electrical properties of insulation materials. During the corona charging stage, a needle-grid electrodes system is often used to achieve uniform charge distribution on the surface of the sample. In this paper, a model using COMSOL Multiphysics has been developed to simulate the gas discharge. A well-known hydrodynamic drift-diffusion model was used. The model consists of a set of continuity equations accounting for the movement, generation and loss of charge carriers (electrons, positive and negative ions) coupled with Poisson's equation to take into account the effect of space and surface charges on the electric field. Four models with the grid electrode in different positions and several mesh sizes are compared with a model that only has the needle electrode. The results for impulse current and surface charge density on the sample clearly show the effect of the extra grid electrode with various positions.

  13. Development of geophysical data management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tai-Sup; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Gu, Sung-Bon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    (1) Development of a complete geophysical database system under C/S environment for data management. (2) Development of database system for the general user, who has not special knowledge of database, under the Internet environment. (3) Operation of the Web service for the general user. (4) Development of the stand-alone database system for a small-scale research group such as college and engineering consultant firms. (author). 15 refs.

  14. Model Driven Development of Data Sensitive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Petur

    2014-01-01

    storage systems, where the actual values of the data is not relevant for the behavior of the system. For many systems the values are important. For instance the control flow of the system can be dependent on the input values. We call this type of system data sensitive, as the execution is sensitive...... to the values of variables. This theses strives to improve model-driven development of such data-sensitive systems. This is done by addressing three research questions. In the first we combine state-based modeling and abstract interpretation, in order to ease modeling of data-sensitive systems, while allowing...... efficient model-checking and model-based testing. In the second we develop automatic abstraction learning used together with model learning, in order to allow fully automatic learning of data-sensitive systems to allow learning of larger systems. In the third we develop an approach for modeling and model-based...

  15. Effect of surface texture and structure on the development of stable fluvial armors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Stephane; Friedrich, Heide

    2018-04-01

    Stable fluvial armors are found in river systems under conditions of partial sediment transport and limited sediment supply, a common occurrence in nature. Stable armoring is also readily recreated in experimental flumes. Initially, this bed stabilizing phenomenon was examined for different flow discharges and solely related to surface coarsening and bedload transport reduction. The models developed suggest a specific armor composition (i.e., texture) dependent on the parent bed material and formative discharge. Following developments in topographic remote sensing, recent research suggests that armor structure is an important control on bed stability and roughness. In this paper, replicated flume runs during which digital elevation models (DEMs) were collected from both exposed and flooded gravel beds are used to interpret armoring manifestations and to assess their replicability. A range of methodologies was used for the analysis, providing information on (i) surface grain size and orientation, (ii) bed-elevation distributions, (iii) the spatial coherence of the elevations at the grain-scale, (iv) surface slope and aspect, (v) grain imbrication and (vi) the spatial variability in DEM properties. The bed-surface topography was found to be more responsive than bed-material size to changes in flow strength. Our experimental results also provide convincing evidence that gravel-beds' response to water-work during parallel degradation is unique (i.e., replicable) given the formative parameters. Based on this finding, relationships between the armors' properties and formative parameters are proposed, and are supported by adding extensive data from previous research.

  16. Development and validation of satellite-based estimates of surface visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J.; Pierce, R. B.; Lenzen, A.

    2016-02-01

    A satellite-based surface visibility retrieval has been developed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements as a proxy for Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) data from the next generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-R). The retrieval uses a multiple linear regression approach to relate satellite aerosol optical depth, fog/low cloud probability and thickness retrievals, and meteorological variables from numerical weather prediction forecasts to National Weather Service Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) surface visibility measurements. Validation using independent ASOS measurements shows that the GOES-R ABI surface visibility retrieval (V) has an overall success rate of 64.5 % for classifying clear (V ≥ 30 km), moderate (10 km ≤ V United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Park Service (NPS) Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network and provide useful information to the regional planning offices responsible for developing mitigation strategies required under the EPA's Regional Haze Rule, particularly during regional haze events associated with smoke from wildfires.

  17. Aviation Information Systems Development Laboratory (AISDL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aviation Information Systems Development Laboratory (AISDL) provides the tools, reconfigurability and support to ensure the quality and integrity of new...

  18. Development of the heavy manipulator vehicle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, C.; Paustian, P.; Kruger, W.

    1993-01-01

    After the severe reactor accident of Tschernobyl in 1986 MaK System started to develop a Heavy Manipulator Vehicle System under contract from German nuclear technology assistance company ''KHG'' (Kerntechnische Hilfsdienst GmbH). The system comprises a remote controlled manipulator vehicle, a mobile mission control stand as well as a transport/service unit. In order to fulfill the high demands of this complex system a couple of new developments had to be started. The paper describes some of these developments and gives an overview about the main features of the Heavy Manipulator Vehicle System (HMV). (author)

  19. A Wireless Monitoring System for Cracks on the Surface of Reactor Containment Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianguo; Xu, Yaming; Zhang, Tao

    2016-06-14

    Structural health monitoring with wireless sensor networks has been increasingly popular in recent years because of the convenience. In this paper, a real-time monitoring system for cracks on the surface of reactor containment buildings is presented. Customized wireless sensor networks platforms are designed and implemented with sensors especially for crack monitoring, which include crackmeters and temperature detectors. Software protocols like route discovery, time synchronization and data transfer are developed to satisfy the requirements of the monitoring system and stay simple at the same time. Simulation tests have been made to evaluate the performance of the system before full scale deployment. The real-life deployment of the crack monitoring system is carried out on the surface of reactor containment building in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station during the in-service pressure test with 30 wireless sensor nodes.

  20. Development of a methodology for the safety assessment of near surface disposal facilities for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, I.; Cancio, D.; Alonso, L.F.; Agueero, A.; Lopez de la Higuera, J.; Gil, E.; Garcia, E.

    2000-01-01

    The Project on the Environmental Radiological Impact in CIEMAT is developing, for the Spanish regulatory body Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), a methodology for the Safety Assessment of near surface disposal facilities. This method has been developed incorporating some elements developed through the participation in the IAEA's ISAM Programme (Improving Long Term Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities). The first step of the approach is the consideration of the assessment context, including the purpose of the assessment, the end-Points, philosophy, disposal system, source term and temporal scales as well as the hypothesis about the critical group. Once the context has been established, and considering the peculiarities of the system, an specific list of features, events and processes (FEPs) is produced. These will be incorporated into the assessment scenarios. The set of scenarios will be represented in the conceptual and mathematical models. By the use of mathematical codes, calculations are performed to obtain results (i.e. in terms of doses) to be analysed and compared against the criteria. The methodology is being tested by the application to an hypothetical engineered disposal system based on an exercise within the ISAM Programme, and will finally be applied to the Spanish case. (author)

  1. Recent developments in the theory of positrons at surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, A.B.

    1989-01-01

    Positron beams of ever brighter intensity are now establishing themselves as a novel surface probe enabling a wide variety of spectroscopies. The production of high positron intensities and exploitation of the beams depends critically on our understanding of the complex behaviour of positrons at and near surfaces. I will review progress on the theory of positron-surface interactions and of the implantation and diffusion of low energy positrons. Applications of this theory to a variety of experimental techniques such as ACAR (Angular Correlation by Annihilation Radiation) spectra, angle resolved positronium (Ps) spectroscopy, REPELS (Reemitted Positron Energy Loss Spectroscopy), LEPD (Low Energy Positron Diffraction) and measurements of defect profiles will be discussed. 24 refs. (author)

  2. The Carbon Dioxide System in the Baltic Sea Surface Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesslander, Karin

    2011-05-15

    The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere is steadily increasing because of human activities such as fossil fuel burning. To understand how this is affecting the planet, several pieces of knowledge of the CO{sub 2} system have to be investigated. One piece is how the coastal seas, which are used by people and influenced by industrialization, are functioning. In this thesis, the CO{sub 2} system in the Baltic Sea surface water has been investigated using observations from the last century to the present. The Baltic Sea is characterized of a restricted water exchange with the open ocean and a large inflow of river water. The CO{sub 2} system, including parameters such as pH and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}), has large seasonal and inter-annual variability in the Baltic Sea. These parameters are affected by several processes, such as air-sea gas exchange, physical mixing, and biological processes. Inorganic carbon is assimilated in the primary production and pCO{sub 2} declines to approx150 muatm in summer. In winter, pCO{sub 2} levels increase because of prevailing mineralization and mixing processes. The wind-mixed surface layer deepens to the halocline (approx60 m) and brings CO{sub 2}- enriched water to the surface. Winter pCO{sub 2} may be as high as 600 muatm in the surface water. The CO{sub 2} system is also exposed to short-term variations caused by the daily biological cycle and physical events such as upwelling. A cruise was made in the central Baltic Sea to make synoptic measurements of oceanographic, chemical, and meteorological parameters with high temporal resolution. Large short-term variations were found in pCO{sub 2} and oxygen (O{sub 2}), which were highly correlated. The diurnal variation of pCO{sub 2} was up to 40 muatm. The CO{sub 2} system in the Baltic Sea changed as the industrialization increased around 1950, which was demonstrated using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model of the CO{sub 2} system

  3. Development of JT-60 diagnostics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasuo

    1988-01-01

    The various kinds of plasma diagnostics have been developed and utilized in the JT-60 experiments. The features of JT-60 diagnostics system and the historical proceeding of the development are described in this paper. Taking account of the design consideration, JT-60 diagnostics system is sorted out into eight groups, which include six diagnostics systems, the data processing system and diagnostics supporting system. The all devices in the JT-60 diagnostics system were instrumented on schedule in the end of the fiscal year of 1985 and have contributed to JT-60 experiments. (author)

  4. Development of Fluorescence Spectral Imaging for Location of Uranium Deposited on Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monts, D.L.; Wang, G.; Su, Y.; Jang, P.R.; Waggoner, Ch.A.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980's, depleted uranium (DU) has been the primary material used by the US military in armor-piercing rounds. Domestic firing ranges that have been used for DU munitions training purposes are located around the country and have varying extents of contamination by other types of projectiles. A project is underway to develop a set of sensors to locate expended DU rounds and to process soil and debris to recover the material. In the environment, metallic DU readily oxidizes to form uranium compounds that contain the uranyl (UO 2 +2 ) moiety. For more than a hundred and fifty years, it has been known that when illuminated with ultraviolet (UV) light, uranyl compounds exhibit characteristic fluorescence in the visible region (450 - 650 nm). We report our efforts to develop a transportable, quantitative Fluorescence Spectral Imaging (FSI) system to locate and quantify uranyl compounds dispersed in soils and on other surfaces on domestic firing ranges; this system can also be utilized to monitor excavation of DU munitions and separation of uranyl compounds from soils. FSI images are acquired by illuminating a surface with a UV light and using a narrow band pass filter on a camera, recording an image of the resulting fluorescence. FSI images provide both spatial and spectral information. The FSI system is described and its performance characterized in the field and also by using field samples. The development and characterization of an improved transportable FSI system is presented. The applicability of this system for detection of uranium compounds deposited on surfaces for Decontaminating and Decommissioning (D and D) activities is discussed. We have successfully demonstrated in situ a first-generation, transportable Fluorescence Spectral Imaging (FSI) system for locating uranyl compounds dispersed in soils and on other surfaces of a domestic firing range. FSI images provide both spatial and spectral information. FSI images are acquired by illuminating a

  5. Development of Innovative Technology to Provide Low-Cost Surface Atmospheric Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Paul; Steinson, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and reliable real-time monitoring and dissemination of observations of surface weather conditions is critical for a variety of societal applications. Applications that provide local and regional information about temperature, precipitation, moisture, and winds, for example, are important for agriculture, water resource monitoring, health, and monitoring of hazard weather conditions. In many regions in Africa (and other global locations), surface weather stations are sparsely located and/or of poor quality. Existing stations have often been sited incorrectly, not well-maintained, and have limited communications established at the site for real-time monitoring. The US National Weather Service (NWS) International Activities Office (IAO) in partnership with University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) has started an initiative to develop and deploy low-cost weather instrumentation in sparsely observed regions of the world. The goal is to provide observations for environmental monitoring, and early warning alert systems that can be deployed at weather services in developing countries. Instrumentation is being designed using innovative new technologies such as 3D printers, Raspberry Pi computing systems, and wireless communications. The initial effort is focused on designing a surface network using GIS-based tools, deploying an initial network in Zambia, and providing training to Zambia Meteorological Department (ZMD) staff. The presentation will provide an overview of the project concepts, design of the low cost instrumentation, and initial experiences deploying a surface network deployment in Zambia.

  6. Development of a selective surface vacuum collector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Waal, H.; Simonis, F.

    1980-01-01

    To make solar energy useful for cooling applications a flat plate high performance collector, which can supply solar energy at 100 to 150/sup 0/C, has been developed. To achieve a reasonable efficiency at these temperatures the thermal heat loss must be very small. This has been obtained by (1) concentration of sunlight (c = 1.6); (2) evacuation of the collector housing to eliminate convection currents (pressure less than or equal to 4kPa); (3) spectral selective coating on the absorber; and (4) a low conductive gas in the collector housing (pressure approx. = 2kPa). The collector consists of a metal box with a glass cover hermetically sealed to it in the way double glazing units are manufactured. The sides of the V-trough concentrators support the glass cover. Measurements have been performed concerning heat loss factor and durability of the vacuum. The first prototype, fitted with a spectral selective coating of tin-oxide on enameled steel (epsilon = 0.25) showed a heat-loss of 2.0 W/m/sup 2/ /sup 0/C at 90/sup 0/C, being in reasonable agreement with calculations. Improvements with respect to the spectral selective coating and the use of a low conductive gas are necessary and will lead to a heat loss factor of about 1 W/m/sup 2/ /sup 0/C. Measurements have shown that in the chosen system the desired vacuum level can be maintained for at least 10 to 15 years.

  7. Surface system Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, Tobias

    2008-12-01

    SKB has undertaken site characterization of two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to find a suitable location for a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report focuses on the site descriptive modelling of the surface system at Forsmark. The characterization of the surface system at the site was primarily made by identifying and describing important properties in different parts of the surface system, properties concerning e.g. hydrology and climate, Quaternary deposits and soils, hydrochemistry, vegetation, ecosystem functions, but also current and historical land use. The report presents available input data, methodology for data evaluation and modelling, and resulting models for each of the different disciplines. Results from the modelling of the surface system are also integrated with results from modelling of the deep bedrock system. The Forsmark site is located within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The investigated area is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, a funnel-shaped bay of the Baltic Sea. The area is characterized by small-scale topographic variations and is almost entirely located at altitudes lower than 20 metres above sea level. The Quaternary deposits in the area are dominated by till, characterized by a rich content of calcite which was transported by the glacier ice to the area from the sedimentary bedrock of Gaevlebukten about 100 km north of Forsmark. As a result, the surface waters and shallow groundwater at Forsmark are characterized by high pH values and high concentrations of certain major constituents, especially calcium and bicarbonate. The annual precipitation and runoff are 560 and 150 mm, respectively. The lakes are small and shallow, with mean and maximum depths ranging from approximately 0.1 to 1 m and 0.4 to 2 m. Sea water flows into the most low-lying lakes during events giving rise to very high sea levels. Wetlands are frequent and cover 25 to 35

  8. Surface Fitting for Quasi Scattered Data from Coordinate Measuring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qing; Liu, Shugui; Wang, Sen; Ma, Xinhui

    2018-01-13

    Non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface fitting from data points is wildly used in the fields of computer aided design (CAD), medical imaging, cultural relic representation and object-shape detection. Usually, the measured data acquired from coordinate measuring systems is neither gridded nor completely scattered. The distribution of this kind of data is scattered in physical space, but the data points are stored in a way consistent with the order of measurement, so it is named quasi scattered data in this paper. Therefore they can be organized into rows easily but the number of points in each row is random. In order to overcome the difficulty of surface fitting from this kind of data, a new method based on resampling is proposed. It consists of three major steps: (1) NURBS curve fitting for each row, (2) resampling on the fitted curve and (3) surface fitting from the resampled data. Iterative projection optimization scheme is applied in the first and third step to yield advisable parameterization and reduce the time cost of projection. A resampling approach based on parameters, local peaks and contour curvature is proposed to overcome the problems of nodes redundancy and high time consumption in the fitting of this kind of scattered data. Numerical experiments are conducted with both simulation and practical data, and the results show that the proposed method is fast, effective and robust. What's more, by analyzing the fitting results acquired form data with different degrees of scatterness it can be demonstrated that the error introduced by resampling is negligible and therefore it is feasible.

  9. Potassium Rankine cycle power conversion systems for lunar-Mars surface power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    The potassium Rankine cycle has good potential for application to nuclear power systems for surface power on the moon and Mars. A substantial effort on the development of the power conversion system was carried out in the 1960's which demonstrated successful operation of components made of stainless steel at moderate temperatures. This technology could be applied in the near term to produce a 360 kW(e) power system by coupling a stainless steel power conversion system to the SP-100 reactor. Improved performance could be realized in later systems by utilizing niobium or tantalum refractory metal alloys in the reactor and power conversion system. The design characteristics and estimated mass of power systems for each of three technology levels are presented in the paper

  10. Design and verification of the miniature optical system for small object surface profile fast scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Sheng; Lee, Shu-Sheng; Huang, Jen, Jen-Yu; Lai, Ti-Yu; Jan, Chia-Ming; Hu, Po-Chi

    2016-04-01

    As the progress of optical technologies, different commercial 3D surface contour scanners are on the market nowadays. Most of them are used for reconstructing the surface profile of mold or mechanical objects which are larger than 50 mm×50 mm× 50 mm, and the scanning system size is about 300 mm×300 mm×100 mm. There are seldom optical systems commercialized for surface profile fast scanning for small object size less than 10 mm×10 mm×10 mm. Therefore, a miniature optical system has been designed and developed in this research work for this purpose. Since the most used scanning method of such system is line scan technology, we have developed pseudo-phase shifting digital projection technology by adopting projecting fringes and phase reconstruction method. A projector was used to project a digital fringe patterns on the object, and the fringes intensity images of the reference plane and of the sample object were recorded by a CMOS camera. The phase difference between the plane and object can be calculated from the fringes images, and the surface profile of the object was reconstructed by using the phase differences. The traditional phase shifting method was accomplished by using PZT actuator or precisely controlled motor to adjust the light source or grating and this is one of the limitations for high speed scanning. Compared with the traditional optical setup, we utilized a micro projector to project the digital fringe patterns on the sample. This diminished the phase shifting processing time and the controlled phase differences between the shifted phases become more precise. Besides, the optical path design based on a portable device scanning system was used to minimize the size and reduce the number of the system components. A screwdriver section about 7mm×5mm×5mm has been scanned and its surface profile was successfully restored. The experimental results showed that the measurement area of our system can be smaller than 10mm×10mm, the precision reached to

  11. Towards the development of a hybrid-integrated chip interferometer for online surface profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P.; Martin, H.; Jiang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive testing and online measurement of surface features are pressing demands in manufacturing. Thus optical techniques are gaining importance for characterization of complex engineering surfaces. Harnessing integrated optics for miniaturization of interferometry systems onto a silicon wafer and incorporating a compact optical probe would enable the development of a handheld sensor for embedded metrology applications. In this work, we present the progress in the development of a hybrid photonics based metrology sensor device for online surface profile measurements. The measurement principle along with test and measurement results of individual components has been presented. For non-contact measurement, a spectrally encoded lateral scanning probe based on the laser scanning microscopy has been developed to provide fast measurement with lateral resolution limited to the diffraction limit. The probe demonstrates a lateral resolution of ∼3.6 μm while high axial resolution (sub-nanometre) is inherently achieved by interferometry. Further the performance of the hybrid tuneable laser and the scanning probe was evaluated by measuring a standard step height sample of 100 nm.

  12. Towards the development of a hybrid-integrated chip interferometer for online surface profile measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P.; Martin, H.; Jiang, X. [EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Advanced Metrology, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield HD1 3DH (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Non-destructive testing and online measurement of surface features are pressing demands in manufacturing. Thus optical techniques are gaining importance for characterization of complex engineering surfaces. Harnessing integrated optics for miniaturization of interferometry systems onto a silicon wafer and incorporating a compact optical probe would enable the development of a handheld sensor for embedded metrology applications. In this work, we present the progress in the development of a hybrid photonics based metrology sensor device for online surface profile measurements. The measurement principle along with test and measurement results of individual components has been presented. For non-contact measurement, a spectrally encoded lateral scanning probe based on the laser scanning microscopy has been developed to provide fast measurement with lateral resolution limited to the diffraction limit. The probe demonstrates a lateral resolution of ∼3.6 μm while high axial resolution (sub-nanometre) is inherently achieved by interferometry. Further the performance of the hybrid tuneable laser and the scanning probe was evaluated by measuring a standard step height sample of 100 nm.

  13. RssAB signaling coordinates early development of surface multicellularity in Serratia marcescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Huan Tsai

    Full Text Available Bacteria can coordinate several multicellular behaviors in response to environmental changes. Among these, swarming and biofilm formation have attracted significant attention for their correlation with bacterial pathogenicity. However, little is known about when and where the signaling occurs to trigger either swarming or biofilm formation. We have previously identified an RssAB two-component system involved in the regulation of swarming motility and biofilm formation in Serratia marcescens. Here we monitored the RssAB signaling status within single cells by tracing the location of the translational fusion protein EGFP-RssB following development of swarming or biofilm formation. RssAB signaling is specifically activated before surface migration in swarming development and during the early stage of biofilm formation. The activation results in the release of RssB from its cognate inner membrane sensor kinase, RssA, to the cytoplasm where the downstream gene promoters are located. Such dynamic localization of RssB requires phosphorylation of this regulator. By revealing the temporal activation of RssAB signaling following development of surface multicellular behavior, our findings contribute to an improved understanding of how bacteria coordinate their lifestyle on a surface.

  14. Notes on innovation systems and economic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a brief history and background for the concept 'national innovation system' and discusses its usefulness for understanding and managing economic development.......This paper gives a brief history and background for the concept 'national innovation system' and discusses its usefulness for understanding and managing economic development....

  15. Development of a School Leadership Evaluation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Nik

    2014-01-01

    This action research study examined the effectiveness of the process implemented by Partnerships to Uplift Communities (PUC) Schools Charter Management Organization to develop their school leader evaluation system in collaboration with current PUC school leaders. The development of the leadership evaluation system included the collective voices of…

  16. 3D Additive Construction with Regolith for Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Planetary surface exploration on Asteroids, the Moon, Mars and Martian Moons will require the stabilization of loose, fine, dusty regolith to avoid the effects of vertical lander rocket plume impingement, to keep abrasive and harmful dust from getting lofted and for dust free operations. In addition, the same regolith stabilization process can be used for 3 Dimensional ( 3D) printing, additive construction techniques by repeating the 2D stabilization in many vertical layers. This will allow in-situ construction with regolith so that materials will not have to be transported from Earth. Recent work in the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Surface Systems Office (NE-S) Swamp Works and at the University of Southern California (USC) under two NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) awards have shown promising results with regolith (crushed basalt rock) materials for in-situ heat shields, bricks, landing/launch pads, berms, roads, and other structures that could be fabricated using regolith that is sintered or mixed with a polymer binder. The technical goals and objectives of this project are to prove the feasibility of 3D printing additive construction using planetary regolith simulants and to show that they have structural integrity and practical applications in space exploration.

  17. Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Shonka Research Associates, Inc.`s (SRA) Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information management System (SCM/SIMS) is designed to perform alpha and beta radiation surveys of floors and surfaces and document the measured data. The SRA-SCM/SIMS technology can be applied to routine operational surveys, characterization surveys, and free release and site closure surveys. Any large nuclear site can make use of this technology. This report describes a demonstration of the SRA-SCM/SIMS technology. This demonstration is part of the chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology (ST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East`s (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor Facility. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies.

  18. Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    Shonka Research Associates, Inc.'s (SRA) Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information management System (SCM/SIMS) is designed to perform alpha and beta radiation surveys of floors and surfaces and document the measured data. The SRA-SCM/SIMS technology can be applied to routine operational surveys, characterization surveys, and free release and site closure surveys. Any large nuclear site can make use of this technology. This report describes a demonstration of the SRA-SCM/SIMS technology. This demonstration is part of the chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology (ST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East's (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor Facility. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies

  19. System and method for free-boundary surface extraction

    KAUST Repository

    Algarni, Marei

    2017-10-26

    A method of extracting surfaces in three-dimensional data includes receiving as inputs three-dimensional data and a seed point p located on a surface to be extracted. The method further includes propagating a front outwardly from the seed point p and extracting a plurality of ridge curves based on the propagated front. A surface boundary is detected based on a comparison of distances between adjacent ridge curves and the desired surface is extracted based on the detected surface boundary.

  20. Interaction of energetic particles with polymer surfaces: surface morphology development and sputtered polymer-fragment ion analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    The core of this thesis is based on a series of papers that have been published or will soon be published in which the various processes taking place in the energetic particle-polymer surface interaction scene is investigated. Results presented show different developments on polymer surfaces when compared to the vast experimental data on energetic particle-metal surface interactions. The surface morphology development depends on the physical characteristics of the polymer. Sputtering yields of fluoropolymers were several orders higher than the sputtering yields of aliphatic and aromatic polymers. Depending on the chemical nature of the polymer, the surface morphology development was dependent upon the extent of radiation-damage accumulation. Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry at low and high resolution was applied to the characterization of sputtered polymer fragment ions. Fragment ions and their intensities were used to identify polymer samples, observe radiation damage accumulation and probe polymer-polymer interface of a polymer-polymer sandwich structure. A model was proposed which attempts to explain the nature of processes involved in the energetic particle-polymer surface interaction region

  1. Data acquisition and processing system for surface ionization mass spectrometers (types MS5 and R20)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, J.-C.; Retali, G.; Grandcollot, P.; Hagemann, R.

    1977-01-01

    The data acquisition and processing system developed for surface ionization mass spectrometers is described. The main interest of the system is to shorten significantly the duration of isotopic analysis, the results of which are printed almost immediately after the end of the acquisition of the data. The quality of the results is also improved, particularly for isotopes at low concentration owing to an automatic range selection unit driven by the computer. The processing program, which includes several options, is adapted to all types of isotopic analysis. This system, in use for more than two years, has demonstrated its versatility and its safety [fr

  2. Automotive mechatronic systems. General developments and examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isermann, R. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Automatisierungstechnik, FG Regelungstechnik und Prozessautomatisierung

    2006-08-15

    Automobiles are showing an increasing integration of mechanics with digital electronics and information processing. This integration is between the components (hardware) and by the information-driven functions (software), resulting in integrated systems called mechatronic systems. Their development involves finding an optimal balance between the basic mechanical structure, sensor and actuator implementation, communication, automatic information processing and overall control. This contribution summarizes some ongoing developments for mechatronic systems in automobiles, shows design approaches and examples and considers the various embedded control functions and systems integrity. Some examples of automotive mechatronic systems are shown in more detail. Great progress can be observed in braking systems (ABS, ESP), the first brake-by-wire electro-hydraulic brake system (EHB), steering systems (electrical power steering, active front steering) and active suspension systems. (orig.)

  3. Removal of Escherichia coli and Faecal Coliforms from Surface Water and Groundwater by Household Water Treatment Devices/Systems: A Sustainable Solution for Improving Water Quality in Rural Communities of the Southern African Development Community Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyne K. Mwabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is significant evidence that household water treatment devices/systems (HWTS are capable of dramatically improving microbially contaminated water quality. The purpose of this study was to examine five filters [(biosand filter-standard (BSF-S; biosand filter-zeolite (BSF-Z; bucket filter (BF; ceramic candle filter (CCF; and silver-impregnated porous pot (SIPP] and evaluate their ability to improve the quality of drinking water at the household level. These HWTS were manufactured in the workshop of the Tshwane University of Technology and evaluated for efficiency to remove turbidity, faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli from multiple water source samples, using standard methods. The flow rates ranged from 0.05 L/h to 2.49 L/h for SIPP, 1 L/h to 4 L/h for CCF, 0.81 L/h to 6.84 L/h for BSF-S, 1.74 L/h to 19.2 L/h and 106.5 L/h to 160.5 L/h for BF The turbidity of the raw water samples ranged between 2.17 and 40.4 NTU. The average turbidity obtained after filtration ranged from 0.6 to 8 NTU (BSF-S, 1 to 4 NTU (BSF-Z, 2 to 11 NTU (BF, and from 0.6 to 7 NTU (CCF and 0.7 to 1 NTU for SIPP. The BSF-S, BSF-Z and CCF removed 2 to 4 log10 (99% to 100% of coliform bacteria, while the BF removed 1 to 3 log (90% to 99.9% of these bacteria. The performance of the SIPP in removing turbidity and indicator bacteria (>5 log10, 100% was significantly higher compared to that of the other HWTS (p < 0.05. The findings of this study indicate that the SIPP can be an effective and sustainable HWTS for the Southern African Development Community (SADC rural communities, as it removed the total concentration of bacteria from test water, can be manufactured using locally available materials, and is easy to operate and to maintain.

  4. Development of sorting system control using LABVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azraf Azman; Mohd Arif Hamzah; Noriah Mod Ali; John Konsoh; Mohd Idris Taib; Maslina Mohd Ibrahim; Nor Arymaswati Abdullah; Abu Bakar Mhd Ghazali

    2005-01-01

    The development of the Personnel Dosimeter Sorting System, proposed by the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) is to enhance the system or work flow in preparing the personnel dosimeter. The main objective of the system is to reduce stamping error, time and cost. The Personnel Dosimeter Sorting System is a semi-automatic system with an interfacing method using the Advantec 32 bit PCI interface card of 64 digital input and output. The system is integrated with the Labview version 7.1 programming language to control the sorting system and operation. (Author)

  5. Development and Demonstration of Sustainable Surface Infrastructure for Moon/Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Larson, William E.; Picard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    For long-term human exploration of the Moon and Mars to be practical, affordable, and sustainable, future missions must be able to identify and utilize resources at the site of exploration. The ability to characterize, extract, processes, and separate products from local material, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), can provide significant reductions in launch mass, logistics, and development costs while reducing risk through increased mission flexibility and protection as well as increased mission capabilities in the areas of power and transportation. Making mission critical consumables like propellants, fuel cell reagents and life support gases, as well as in-situ crew/hardware protection and energy storage capabilities can significantly enhance robotic and human science and exploration missions, however other mission systems need to be designed to interface with and utilize these in-situ developed products and services from the start or the benefits will be minimized or eliminated. This requires a level of surface and transportation system development coordination not typically utilized during early technology and system development activities. An approach being utilized by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Canadian Space Agency has been to utilize joint analogue field demonstrations to focus technology development activities to demonstrate and integrate new and potentially game changing. mission critical capabilities that would enable an affordable and sustainable surface infrastructure for lunar and Mars robotic and human exploration. Two analogue field tests performed in November 2008 and February 2010 demonstrated first generation capabilities for lunar resource prospecting, exploration site preparation, and oxygen extraction from regolith while initiating integration with mobility, science, fuel cell power, and propulsion disciplines. A third analogue field test currently planned for June 2012 will continue and expand

  6. Development of Residential SOFC Cogeneration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takashi; Miyachi, Itaru; Suzuki, Minoru; Higaki, Katsuki

    2011-06-01

    Since 2001 Kyocera has been developing 1kW class Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for power generation system. We have developed a cell, stack, module and system. Since 2004, Kyocera and Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. have been developed SOFC residential co-generation system. From 2007, we took part in the "Demonstrative Research on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells" Project conducted by New Energy Foundation (NEF). Total 57 units of 0.7kW class SOFC cogeneration systems had been installed at residential houses. In spite of residential small power demand, the actual electric efficiency was about 40%(netAC,LHV), and high CO2 reduction performance was achieved by these systems. Hereafter, new joint development, Osaka Gas, Toyota Motors, Kyocera and Aisin Seiki, aims early commercialization of residential SOFC CHP system.

  7. Testing Infrastructure for Operating System Kernel Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Maxwell; Karlsson, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Testing is an important part of system development, and to test effectively we require knowledge of the internal state of the system under test. Testing an operating system kernel is a challenge as it is the operating system that typically provides access to this internal state information. Multi......-core kernels pose an even greater challenge due to concurrency and their shared kernel state. In this paper, we present a testing framework that addresses these challenges by running the operating system in a virtual machine, and using virtual machine introspection to both communicate with the kernel...... and obtain information about the system. We have also developed an in-kernel testing API that we can use to develop a suite of unit tests in the kernel. We are using our framework for for the development of our own multi-core research kernel....

  8. Development of Residential SOFC Cogeneration System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Takashi; Miyachi, Itaru; Suzuki, Minoru; Higaki, Katsuki

    2011-01-01

    Since 2001 Kyocera has been developing 1kW class Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for power generation system. We have developed a cell, stack, module and system. Since 2004, Kyocera and Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. have been developed SOFC residential co-generation system. From 2007, we took part in the 'Demonstrative Research on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells' Project conducted by New Energy Foundation (NEF). Total 57 units of 0.7kW class SOFC cogeneration systems had been installed at residential houses. In spite of residential small power demand, the actual electric efficiency was about 40%(netAC,LHV), and high CO2 reduction performance was achieved by these systems. Hereafter, new joint development, Osaka Gas, Toyota Motors, Kyocera and Aisin Seiki, aims early commercialization of residential SOFC CHP system.

  9. Development of a new national innovation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domazet Dragan S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a reference model of the national innovation system of Serbia planned to be gradually developed. The model presented is not complete, but is sufficient to illustrate its usage. The development of a national innovation system may be achieved by implementing a phased and segmented approach. This means that parts of the innovation system that are related to specific industrial sectors may be developed separately according to national priorities. Also, the system may be improved and expanded in later phases of its development. The approach suggested is demonstrated in the case of the innovation system of the software industry. The necessary programs and measures for supporting the development of the software industry are listed. Once these programs and measures are implemented, the software industry in Serbia may be able to reach global competitiveness.

  10. Toward the Development of Expert Assessment Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselbring, Ted S.

    1986-01-01

    The potential application of "expert systems" to the diagnosis and assessment of special-needs children is examined and existing prototype systems are reviewed. The future of this artificial intelligence technology is discussed in relation to emerging development tools designed for the creation of expert systems by the lay public. (Author)

  11. [Development of operation patient security detection system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Shu-Qin; Tao, Ren-Hai; Zhao, Chao; Wei, Qun

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes a patient security detection system developed with two dimensional bar codes, wireless communication and removal storage technique. Based on the system, nurses and correlative personnel check code wait operation patient to prevent the defaults. The tests show the system is effective. Its objectivity and currency are more scientific and sophisticated than current traditional method in domestic hospital.

  12. Hera : Development of semantic web information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, G.J.P.M.; Barna, P.; Frasincar, F.; Vdovják, R.; Cuella Lovelle, J.M.; et al., xx

    2003-01-01

    As a consequence of the success of the Web, methodologies for information system development need to consider systems that use the Web paradigm. These Web Information Systems (WIS) use Web technologies to retrieve information from the Web and to deliver information in a Web presentation to the

  13. Development of steering system in network environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanagawa, Fumihiro; Noguchi, So; Yamashita, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    We have been developing the steering system, which can successively observe the-data obtained during the numerical computation and change the parameters in the analysis. Moreover, this system is also extended to link the network. By using this system, a user can easily detect errors immediately and achieve the rapid and accurate analysis with lower computation cost. (Author)

  14. Development of the affiliate system based on modern development methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Fajmut, Aljaž

    2016-01-01

    Affiliate partnership is a popular and effective method of online marketing through affiliate partners. The thesis describes the development of a product, which allows us to easily integrate affiliate system into an existing platform (e-commerce or service). This kind of functionality opens up growth opportunities for the business. The system is designed in a way that it requires minimal amount of changes for the implementation into an existing application. The development of the product is ...

  15. Ecosocial System: Structure, Development Laws and Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Alekseev

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates necessity to develop a unified system of socio-ecological knowledge. Ecosophy being a forming component of dialectic-materialistic philosophy has been proposed as such system. Structure, development laws and functioning of eco-social system are considered as a part of ecosophy theory. Standard laws and ecological principles being widely recognized by ecologically orientated theorists are stated in the paper.

  16. Development and application of QM/MM methods to study the solvation effects and surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dibya, Pooja Arora [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Quantum mechanical (QM) calculations have the advantage of attaining high-level accuracy, however QM calculations become computationally inefficient as the size of the system grows. Solving complex molecular problems on large systems and ensembles by using quantum mechanics still poses a challenge in terms of the computational cost. Methods that are based on classical mechanics are an inexpensive alternative, but they lack accuracy. A good trade off between accuracy and efficiency is achieved by combining QM methods with molecular mechanics (MM) methods to use the robustness of the QM methods in terms of accuracy and the MM methods to minimize the computational cost. Two types of QM combined with MM (QM/MM) methods are the main focus of the present dissertation: the application and development of QM/MM methods for solvation studies and reactions on the Si(100) surface. The solvation studies were performed using a discreet solvation model that is largely based on first principles called the effective fragment potential method (EFP). The main idea of combining the EFP method with quantum mechanics is to accurately treat the solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions, such as electrostatic, polarization, dispersion and charge transfer, that are important in correctly calculating solvent effects on systems of interest. A second QM/MM method called SIMOMM (surface integrated molecular orbital molecular mechanics) is a hybrid QM/MM embedded cluster model that mimics the real surface.3 This method was employed to calculate the potential energy surfaces for reactions of atomic O on the Si(100) surface. The hybrid QM/MM method is a computationally inexpensive approach for studying reactions on larger surfaces in a reasonably accurate and efficient manner. This thesis is comprised of four chapters: Chapter 1 describes the general overview and motivation of the dissertation and gives a broad background of the computational methods that have been employed in this work

  17. Development of concentric equipotential surfaces in bumpy torus plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasugi, Keiichi; Iguchi, Harukazu; Fujiwara, Masami; Ikegami, Hideo

    1983-01-01

    Radial profiles of the plasma space potential are measured in Nagoya Bumpy Torus (NBT-1) by the use of a heavy ion beam probe. Asymmetric potential profiles owing to toroidal drift are observed in high pressure operation (C-mode). As the pressure is decreased, toroidal plasma is effectively heated (T-mode), poloidal precessional frequency overcomes the electron collision frequency and the equipotential surfaces becomes concentric inside the hot electron ring. (author)

  18. The surfaces of compact systems: from nuclei to stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broglia, R. A.

    2002-03-01

    While providing information from worlds separated by five-to-six orders of magnitude in dimensions and in energy, the pairing properties (electrical resistance and viscosity), the electromagnetic response (spectrum of colours), the resilience to stress (elasticity), the ability to deform (plasticity), etc., associated with clusters of atoms and with atomic nuclei have surprisingly similar properties, once the proper scalings are done, and demonstrate the many analogies that can be drawn between different finite many-body systems. These analogies can be further extended to cosmic and to customer tailored nanometre materials. Femtometre materials, like the inner crust of a neutron star (pulsar), are made out of the same protons and neutrons which make infinite nuclear matter. However in pulsars, protons and neutrons are arranged in the form of finite nuclei immersed in a sea of free neutrons. This is the reason why these celestial objects rotate, conduct heat, emit neutrinos, etc., very differently from infinite nuclear matter. In fact, these phenomena reflect the properties of the corresponding atomic nuclei which form the pulsar. Among these properties, those associated with the nuclear surface are most important. Nanostructured materials are made out of atoms as their more common forms, but the atoms are arranged in nanometre or sub-nanometre-size clusters, which become the constituent grains, or building blocks, of new materials like, e.g., C60 fullerene. Because these tiny grains respond to light, mechanical stress and electricity quite differently from micron- or millimetre-sized grains, nanostructured materials display an array of novel attributes. At the basis of the new phenomena we find again the surface of the building blocks used to produce the new materials. A proper understanding of the interweaving of the single-particle motion with the static and dynamic deformations of the surface of finite many-body systems is likely to provide the key to open a

  19. Cross functional organisational embedded system development

    OpenAIRE

    Lennon, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    peer-reviewed Embedded system development is continuing to grow. Medical, automotive and Internet of Things are just some of the market segments. There is a tight coupling between hardware and software when developing an embedded system, often needing to meet strict performance targets, standards requirements and aggressive schedules. Embedded software developers need to consider hardware requirements in far greater detail as they can have a significant impact on the quality and value of t...

  20. Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

  1. Tribes of Users and System Developers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Dingley

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective communication is essential for information systems development crossing functional, organisational and national boundaries. As organisations attempt to overcome cultural barriers to communication across the world, communication with colleagues across the corridor remains problematic; cultural barriers between departments remain unchallenged. This paper introduces the concepts of 'culture' and 'tribe' into the discussion of the relationship between business users and information systems developers. Previous research has focused on identifying specific barriers to user-systems developer communication and on ways of eliminating these barriers. In contrast, this paper suggests that much can be learnt through the recognition of cultural differences inherent to the differing roles of user and systems developer. Maintenance of cultural identity is essential to the individual if he/she is to function effectively as a member of his/her tribe, whether it is the 'tribe' of developers or the 'tribe' of users. Communication problems within the systems development process may be addressed by a mutual understanding of cultural differences between the 'tribes' of users and systems developers. This degree of understanding cannot be achieved by attempting to change, persuade or convert the other tribe. The problems of user-systems developer communication need to be addressed through effective communication which acknowledges the differing cultures.

  2. Surface profile measurement by using the integrated Linnik WLSI and confocal microscope system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Chung; Shen, Ming-Hsing; Hwang, Chi-Hung; Yu, Yun-Ting; Wang, Tzu-Fong

    2017-06-01

    The white-light scanning interferometer (WLSI) and confocal microscope (CM) are the two major optical inspection systems for measuring three-dimensional (3D) surface profile (SP) of micro specimens. Nevertheless, in practical applications, WLSI is more suitable for measuring smooth and low-slope surfaces. On the other hand, CM is more suitable for measuring uneven-reflective and low-reflective surfaces. As for aspect of surface profiles to be measured, the characteristics of WLSI and CM are also different. WLSI is generally used in semiconductor industry while CM is more popular in printed circuit board industry. In this paper, a self-assembled multi-function optical system was integrated to perform Linnik white-light scanning interferometer (Linnik WLSI) and CM. A connecting part composed of tubes, lenses and interferometer was used to conjunct finite and infinite optical systems for Linnik WLSI and CM in the self-assembled optical system. By adopting the flexibility of tubes and lenses, switching to perform two different optical measurements can be easily achieved. Furthermore, based on the shape from focus method with energy of Laplacian filter, the CM was developed to enhance the on focal information of each pixel so that the CM can provide all-in-focus image for performing the 3D SP measurement and analysis simultaneously. As for Linnik WLSI, eleven-step phase shifting algorithm was used to analyze vertical scanning signals and determine the 3D SP.

  3. The impact of surface chemistry on the performance of localized solar-driven evaporation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengtao; Zhang, Yao; Duan, Haoze; Liu, Yanming; Quan, Xiaojun; Tao, Peng; Shang, Wen; Wu, Jianbo; Song, Chengyi; Deng, Tao

    2015-09-04

    This report investigates the influence of surface chemistry (or wettability) on the evaporation performance of free-standing double-layered thin film on the surface of water. Such newly developed evaporation system is composed of top plasmonic light-to-heat conversion layer and bottom porous supporting layer. Under solar light illumination, the induced plasmonic heat will be localized within the film. By modulating the wettability of such evaporation system through the control of surface chemistry, the evaporation rates are differentiated between hydrophilized and hydrophobized anodic aluminum oxide membrane-based double layered thin films. Additionally, this work demonstrated that the evaporation rate mainly depends on the wettability of bottom supporting layer rather than that of top light-to-heat conversion layer. The findings in this study not only elucidate the role of surface chemistry of each layer of such double-layered evaporation system, but also provide additional design guidelines for such localized evaporation system in applications including desalination, distillation and power generation.

  4. Modeling bacterial attachment to surfaces as an early stage of biofilm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Moustaid, Fadoua; Eladdadi, Amina; Uys, Lafras

    2013-06-01

    Biofilms are present in all natural, medical and industrial surroundings where bacteria live. Biofilm formation is a key factor in the growth and transport of both beneficial and harmful bacteria. While much is known about the later stages of biofilm formation, less is known about its initiation which is an important first step in the biofilm formation. In this paper, we develop a non-linear system of partial differential equations of Keller-Segel type model in one-dimensional space, which couples the dynamics of bacterial movement to that of the sensing molecules. In this case, bacteria perform a biased random walk towards the sensing molecules. We derive the boundary conditions of the adhesion of bacteria to a surface using zero-Dirichlet boundary conditions, while the equation describing sensing molecules at the interface needed particular conditions to be set. The numerical results show the profile of bacteria within the space and the time evolution of the density within the free-space and on the surface. Testing different parameter values indicate that significant amount of sensing molecules present on the surface leads to a faster bacterial movement toward the surface which is the first step of biofilm initiation. Our work gives rise to results that agree with the biological description of the early stages of biofilm formation.

  5. Systems Engineering Leadership Development: Advancing Systems Engineering Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Phil; Whitfield, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program, with particular emphasis on the work being done in the development of systems engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center. There exists a lack of individuals with systems engineering expertise, in particular those with strong leadership capabilities, to meet the needs of the Agency's exploration agenda. Therefore there is a emphasis on developing these programs to identify and train systems engineers. The presentation reviews the proposed MSFC program that includes course work, and developmental assignments. The formal developmental programs at the other centers are briefly reviewed, including the Point of Contact (POC)

  6. Dynamical Systems Approaches to Emotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Linda A.; Witherington, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Within the last 20 years, transitions in the conceptualization of emotion and its development have given rise to calls for an explanatory framework that captures emotional development in all its organizational complexity and variability. Recent attempts have been made to couch emotional development in terms of a dynamical systems approach through…

  7. LAnd surface remote sensing Products VAlidation System (LAPVAS) and its preliminary application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xingwen; Wen, Jianguang; Tang, Yong; Ma, Mingguo; Dou, Baocheng; Wu, Xiaodan; Meng, Lumin

    2014-11-01

    The long term record of remote sensing product shows the land surface parameters with spatial and temporal change to support regional and global scientific research widely. Remote sensing product with different sensors and different algorithms is necessary to be validated to ensure the high quality remote sensing product. Investigation about the remote sensing product validation shows that it is a complex processing both the quality of in-situ data requirement and method of precision assessment. A comprehensive validation should be needed with long time series and multiple land surface types. So a system named as land surface remote sensing product is designed in this paper to assess the uncertainty information of the remote sensing products based on a amount of in situ data and the validation techniques. The designed validation system platform consists of three parts: Validation databases Precision analysis subsystem, Inter-external interface of system. These three parts are built by some essential service modules, such as Data-Read service modules, Data-Insert service modules, Data-Associated service modules, Precision-Analysis service modules, Scale-Change service modules and so on. To run the validation system platform, users could order these service modules and choreograph them by the user interactive and then compete the validation tasks of remote sensing products (such as LAI ,ALBEDO ,VI etc.) . Taking SOA-based architecture as the framework of this system. The benefit of this architecture is the good service modules which could be independent of any development environment by standards such as the Web-Service Description Language(WSDL). The standard language: C++ and java will used as the primary programming language to create service modules. One of the key land surface parameter, albedo, is selected as an example of the system application. It is illustrated that the LAPVAS has a good performance to implement the land surface remote sensing product

  8. Development of an autonomous power system testbed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.R.; Adams, T.; Liffring, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    A power system testbed has been assembled to advance the development of large autonomous electrical power systems required for the space station, spacecraft, and aircraft. The power system for this effort was designed to simulate single- or dual-bus autonomous power systems, or autonomous systems that reconfigure from a single bus to a dual bus following a severe fault. The approach taken was to provide a flexible power system design with two computer systems for control and management. One computer operates as the control system and performs basic control functions, data and command processing, charge control, and provides status to the second computer. The second computer contains expert system software for mission planning, load management, fault identification and recovery, and sends load and configuration commands to the control system

  9. INTEGRATED HSEQ MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: DEVELOPMENTS AND TRENDS

    OpenAIRE

    Osmo Kauppila; Janne Härkönen; Seppo Väyrynen

    2015-01-01

    The integration of health and safety, environmental and quality (HSEQ) management systems has become a current topic in the 21st century, as the need for systems thinking has grown along with the number of management system standards. This study aims to map current developments and trends in integrated HSEQ management. Three viewpoints are taken: the current state of the main HSEQ management standards, research literature on integrated management systems (IMS), and a case study of an industry...

  10. About development of automation control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshlyaev, L. P.; Wenger, K. G.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Makarov, V. N.

    2018-05-01

    The shortcomings of approaches to the development of modern control automation systems and ways of their improvement are given: the correct formation of objects for study and optimization; a joint synthesis of control objects and control systems, an increase in the structural diversity of the elements of control systems. Diagrams of control systems with purposefully variable structure of their elements are presented. Structures of control algorithms for an object with a purposefully variable structure are given.

  11. Development of a segmented grating mount system for FIREX-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezaki, Y; Tabata, M; Kihara, M; Horiuchi, Y; Endo, M; Jitsuno, T

    2008-01-01

    A mount system for segmented meter-sized gratings has been developed, which has a high precision grating support mechanism and drive mechanism to minimize both deformation of the optical surfaces and misalignments in setting a segmented grating for obtaining sufficient performance of the pulse compressor. From analytical calculations, deformation of the grating surface is less than 1/20 lambda RMS and the estimated drive resolution for piston and tilt drive of the segmented grating is 1/20 lambda, which are both compliant with the requirements for the rear-end subsystem of FIREX-1

  12. System model development for nuclear thermal propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.T.; Perkins, K.R.; Buksa, J.J.; Worley, B.A.; Dobranich, D.

    1992-01-01

    A critical enabling technology in the evolutionary development of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) is the ability to predict the system performance under a variety of operating conditions. Since October 1991, US (DOE), (DOD) and NASA have initiated critical technology development efforts for NTP systems to be used on Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to the Moon and Mars. This paper presents the strategy and progress of an interagency NASA/DOE/DOD team for NTP system modeling. It is the intent of the interagency team to develop several levels of computer programs to simulate various NTP systems. An interagency team was formed for this task to use the best capabilities available and to assure appropriate peer review. The vision and strategy of the interagency team for developing NTP system models will be discussed in this paper. A review of the progress on the Level 1 interagency model is also presented

  13. Surface system Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias [ed.

    2008-12-15

    SKB has undertaken site characterization of two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to find a suitable location for a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report focuses on the site descriptive modelling of the surface system at Forsmark. The characterization of the surface system at the site was primarily made by identifying and describing important properties in different parts of the surface system, properties concerning e.g. hydrology and climate, Quaternary deposits and soils, hydrochemistry, vegetation, ecosystem functions, but also current and historical land use. The report presents available input data, methodology for data evaluation and modelling, and resulting models for each of the different disciplines. Results from the modelling of the surface system are also integrated with results from modelling of the deep bedrock system. The Forsmark site is located within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The investigated area is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, a funnel-shaped bay of the Baltic Sea. The area is characterized by small-scale topographic variations and is almost entirely located at altitudes lower than 20 metres above sea level. The Quaternary deposits in the area are dominated by till, characterized by a rich content of calcite which was transported by the glacier ice to the area from the sedimentary bedrock of Gaevlebukten about 100 km north of Forsmark. As a result, the surface waters and shallow groundwater at Forsmark are characterized by high pH values and high concentrations of certain major constituents, especially calcium and bicarbonate. The annual precipitation and runoff are 560 and 150 mm, respectively. The lakes are small and shallow, with mean and maximum depths ranging from approximately 0.1 to 1 m and 0.4 to 2 m. Sea water flows into the most low-lying lakes during events giving rise to very high sea levels. Wetlands are frequent and cover 25 to 35

  14. Gas tagging system development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, N.; Rindo, H.; Akiyama, T.; Miyazawa, T.; Heki, H.

    1981-05-01

    The Gas tagging method has been considered to be most desirable for a failed fuel location system for the fast breeder reactor, regarding the component reduction in the reactor vessel and rapid location during reactor operation. The gas tagging system has been designed by referring to R and D results obtained in Japan and other countries. The designed system is comprised of tag gas filling pins, cover gas sampling system, tag gas recovery and enrichment system, tag gas analyzer and system control and data handling computers. The main specifications for this system have been decided as follows; 1) Main function is location of failed fuels in core and a part of blanket region, 2) Identification capability is each subassembly, 3) Time for identification is within a few days, 4) Continuous operation with automatic start at fuel failure, 5) Detection sensitivity must cover both gas leak and pin burst. In designing the gas tagging system, the following R and D items were selected; 1) System design study, 2) Tag gas capsule development, 3) Modeling the tag gas behavior in reactor primary cooling system, 4) Tag gas recovery and enrichment system, 5) Computer code development for tag gas isotope ratio change estimation. Details of the Japanese gas tagging system development appear in this paper. (author)

  15. Vacuum system II; surface study on vacuum wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, Katsuhisa; Mizobuchi, Akira; Miyahara, Akira.

    1982-01-01

    Ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS) was applied to observe surface of Al sample. Pulse counting by multi-scaling method was used for measurement of scattered ions. Reletion between outgassing treatment and cleanliness of surface is presented. (author)

  16. Integrated control of the cooling system and surface openings using the artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Jin Woo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at suggesting an indoor temperature control method that can provide a comfortable thermal environment through the integrated control of the cooling system and the surface openings. Four control logic were developed, employing different application levels of rules and artificial neural network models. Rule-based control methods represented the conventional approach while ANN-based methods were applied for the predictive and adaptive controls. Comparative performance tests for the conventional- and ANN-based methods were numerically conducted for the double-skin-facade building, using the MATLAB (Matrix Laboratory) and TRNSYS (Transient Systems Simulation) software, after proving the validity by comparing the simulation and field measurement results. Analysis revealed that the ANN-based controls of the cooling system and surface openings improved the indoor temperature conditions with increased comfortable temperature periods and decreased standard deviation of the indoor temperature from the center of the comfortable range. In addition, the proposed ANN-based logic effectively reduced the number of operating condition changes of the cooling system and surface openings, which can prevent system failure. The ANN-based logic, however, did not show superiority in energy efficiency over the conventional logic. Instead, they have increased the amount of heat removal by the cooling system. From the analysis, it can be concluded that the ANN-based temperature control logic was able to keep the indoor temperature more comfortably and stably within the comfortable range due to its predictive and adaptive features. - Highlights: • Integrated rule-based and artificial neural network based logics were developed. • A cooling device and surface openings were controlled in an integrated manner. • Computer simulation method was employed for comparative performance tests. • ANN-based logics showed the advanced features of thermal environment. • Rule

  17. A Software Development Platform for Mechatronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Wei

    Software has become increasingly determinative for development of mechatronic systems, which underscores the importance of demands for shortened time-to-market, increased productivity, higher quality, and improved dependability. As the complexity of systems is dramatically increasing, these demands...... present a challenge to the practitioners who adopt conventional software development approach. An effective approach towards industrial production of software for mechatronic systems is needed. This approach requires a disciplined engineering process that encompasses model-driven engineering and component......-based software engineering, whereby we enable incremental software development using component models to address the essential design issues of real-time embedded systems. To this end, this dissertation presents a software development platform that provides an incremental model-driven development process based...

  18. Description of surface systems. Preliminary site description Simpevarp sub area - Version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias [ed.

    2005-03-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is currently conducting site characterisation in the Simpevarp area. The area is divided into two subareas, the Simpevarp and the Laxemar subarea. The two subareas are surrounded by a common regional model area, the Simpevarp area. This report describes both the regional area and the subareas. This report is an interim version (model version 1.2) of the description of the surface systems at the Simpevarp area, and should be seen as a background report to the site description of the Simpevarp area, version 1.2, SKB-R--05-08. The basis for this description is quality-assured field data available in the SKB SICADA and GIS databases, together with generic data from the literature. The Surface system, here defined as everything above the bedrock, comprises a number of separate disciplines (e.g. hydrology, geology, topography, oceanography and ecology). Each discipline has developed descriptions and models for a number of properties that together represent the site description. The current methodology for developing the surface system description and the integration to ecosystem models is documented in a methodology strategy report SKB-R--03-06. The procedures and guidelines given in that report were followed in this report. Compared with version 1.1 of the surface system description SKB-R--04-25, this report presents considerable additional features, especially in the ecosystem description (Chapter 4) and in the description of the surface hydrology (Section 3.4). A first attempt has also been made to connect the flow of matter (carbon) between the different ecosystems into an overall ecosystem model at a landscape level. A summarised version of this report is also presented in SKB-R--05-08 together with geological-, hydrogeological-, transport properties-, thermal properties-, rock mechanics- and hydrogeochemical descriptions.

  19. Description of surface systems. Preliminary site description Simpevarp sub area - Version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, Tobias

    2005-03-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is currently conducting site characterisation in the Simpevarp area. The area is divided into two subareas, the Simpevarp and the Laxemar subarea. The two subareas are surrounded by a common regional model area, the Simpevarp area. This report describes both the regional area and the subareas. This report is an interim version (model version 1.2) of the description of the surface systems at the Simpevarp area, and should be seen as a background report to the site description of the Simpevarp area, version 1.2, SKB-R--05-08. The basis for this description is quality-assured field data available in the SKB SICADA and GIS databases, together with generic data from the literature. The Surface system, here defined as everything above the bedrock, comprises a number of separate disciplines (e.g. hydrology, geology, topography, oceanography and ecology). Each discipline has developed descriptions and models for a number of properties that together represent the site description. The current methodology for developing the surface system description and the integration to ecosystem models is documented in a methodology strategy report SKB-R--03-06. The procedures and guidelines given in that report were followed in this report. Compared with version 1.1 of the surface system description SKB-R--04-25, this report presents considerable additional features, especially in the ecosystem description (Chapter 4) and in the description of the surface hydrology (Section 3.4). A first attempt has also been made to connect the flow of matter (carbon) between the different ecosystems into an overall ecosystem model at a landscape level. A summarised version of this report is also presented in SKB-R--05-08 together with geological-, hydrogeological-, transport properties-, thermal properties-, rock mechanics- and hydrogeochemical descriptions

  20. Surface inspection system for industrial components based on shape from shading minimization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotan, Muhammed; Öz, Cemil

    2017-12-01

    An inspection system using estimated three-dimensional (3-D) surface characteristics information to detect and classify the faults to increase the quality control on the frequently used industrial components is proposed. Shape from shading (SFS) is one of the basic and classic 3-D shape recovery problems in computer vision. In our application, we developed a system using Frankot and Chellappa SFS method based on the minimization of the selected basis function. First, the specialized image acquisition system captured the images of the component. To eliminate noise, wavelet transform is applied to the taken images. Then, estimated gradients were used to obtain depth and surface profiles. Depth information was used to determine and classify the surface defects. Also, a comparison made with some linearization-based SFS algorithms was discussed. The developed system was applied to real products and the results indicated that using SFS approaches is useful and various types of defects can easily be detected in a short period of time.

  1. CTAS and NASA Air Traffic Management Fact Sheets for En Route Descent Advisor and Surface Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Katharine

    2004-01-01

    The Surface Management System (SMS) is a decision support tool that will help controllers, traffic managers, and NAS users manage the movements of aircraft on the surface of busy airports, improving capacity, efficiency, and flexibility. The Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project at NASA is developing SMS in cooperation with the FAA's Free Flight Phase 2 (FFP2) pro5ram. SMS consists of three parts: a traffic management tool, a controller tool, and a National Airspace System (NAS) information tool.

  2. The establishment of Saccharomyces boulardii surface display system using a single expression vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiantian; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Qing; Wang, Longjiang; Chen, Peipei; Wang, Fangkun; Li, Hongmei; Xiao, Yihong; Zhao, Xiaomin

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, an a-agglutinin-based Saccharomyces boulardii surface display system was successfully established using a single expression vector. Based on the two protein co-expression vector pSP-G1 built by Partow et al., a S. boulardii surface display vector-pSDSb containing all the display elements was constructed. The display results of heterologous proteins were confirmed by successfully displaying enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and chicken Eimeria tenella Microneme-2 proteins (EtMic2) on the S. boulardii cell surface. The DNA sequence of AGA1 gene from S. boulardii (SbAGA1) was determined and used as the cell wall anchor partner. This is the first time heterologous proteins have been displayed on the cell surface of S. boulardii. Because S. boulardii is probiotic and eukaryotic, its surface display system would be very valuable, particularly in the development of a live vaccine against various pathogenic organisms especially eukaryotic pathogens such as protistan parasites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of the Digital Reactor Safety System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Young; Lee, C. K.; Hwang, I. K.

    2008-04-01

    Objectives of Project - Development of Digital Safety Grade PLC and Licensing - Development of Safety System(RPS) and Licensing - Development of Safety System(ESF-CCS) and Licensing Content and Result of Project - POSAFE-Q PLC : Development of PLC platform for Shin-UCN unit 1 and 2 ·Development Scope : Processor module, Power module, 3 kinds of Communication module, Bus extension module(Master and Slave), 16 kinds of Input and Output module ·PLC application software development tool(pSET) - IDiPS RPS and IDiPS ESF-CCS : Development of PPS for Sin-UCN 1 and 2 ·Development Scope - 4-channels RPS with the KNICS inherent architecture - A part of 1-channels ESF-CCS with the KNICS inherent architecture - Licensing ·optical Report Submitted and Expected to finish the licensing process until Aug. 2008

  4. Development of environment radiation database management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jong Gyu; Chung, Chang Hwa; Ryu, Chan Ho; Lee, Jin Yeong; Kim, Dong Hui; Lee, Hun Sun [Daeduk College, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    In this development, we constructed a database for efficient data processing and operating of radiation-environment related data. Se developed the source documents retrieval system and the current status printing system that supports a radiation environment dta collection, pre-processing and analysis. And, we designed and implemented the user interfaces and DB access routines based on WWW service policies on KINS Intranet. It is expected that the developed system, which organizes the information related to environmental radiation data systematically can be utilize for the accurate interpretation, analysis and evaluation.

  5. On Using Materiality in Information Systems Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carugati, Andrea

    This research brief presents a discussion on the use of the concept of materiality and material knowing in information systems development (ISD). The discussion addresses some of the practical problems still plaguing ISD, augmenting existing ISD methodologies with contributions from systems theory...... as scaffold of knowledge. Through the example taken from a case study of a complex and innovative systems development we outline two design principles to be embedded in modular fashion in ISD processes: (1) whenever possible start ISD efforts by developing a graphical simulator of the material environment...

  6. Development of environment radiation database management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jong Gyu; Chung, Chang Hwa; Ryu, Chan Ho; Lee, Jin Yeong; Kim, Dong Hui; Lee, Hun Sun

    1999-03-01

    In this development, we constructed a database for efficient data processing and operating of radiation-environment related data. Se developed the source documents retrieval system and the current status printing system that supports a radiation environment dta collection, pre-processing and analysis. And, we designed and implemented the user interfaces and DB access routines based on WWW service policies on KINS Intranet. It is expected that the developed system, which organizes the information related to environmental radiation data systematically can be utilize for the accurate interpretation, analysis and evaluation

  7. Prognostication of regional energy system development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoriy Borisovich Korovin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes practice and development of new methodological approaches to forecasting the development of regional energy systems. It is shown that the energy complex is involved in a variety of forward and backward linkages as an element of socio-economic systems, and the quality and availability of energy resources largely determines the structure and pace of economic, social and environmental development of the region. Analysis of existing current practice of territorial and sectoral forecasting implemented in Russia and abroad, suggests that such practice is inadequate in its theoretical and methodological elaboration. This is confirmed by the frequent discrepancy between actual results and plans, as well as their regular revision. The methods are mostly based on extrapolation of existing tendencies and not taking into account many factors and emerging trends related to the complexity and openness of the social and economic systems. Post-industrial level of civilization is characterized by fast development of technology; knowledge, information, technological and institutional innovation become the main resources. The greatest importance is attached to such development properties as instability, various orderliness, nonlinearity, interactions etc. Current approaches to forecasting the future are described by a number of theories that are generally called self-organization theory, taking into account these singularities. These concepts should be included in the theoretical basis for the development and implementation of regional development forecasts. Using the synergetic approach assumes that, along with organizational processes, processes of self-organization and self-development are very important in the system, they are characterized by spontaneous, unexpected formations and emerging structures. The development of such systems can generate stable and efficient new structure. The presence of crisis is an integral feature of complex

  8. System theoretic approach to sustainable development problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batanović Vladan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that the concepts and methodology contained in the system theory and operations research are suitable for application in the planning and control of the sustainable development. The sustainable development problems can be represented using the state space concepts, such as the transition of system, from the given initial state to the final state. It is shown that sustainable development represents a specific control problem. The peculiarity of the sustainable development is that the target is to keep the system in the prescribed feasible region of the state space. The analysis of planning and control problems of sustainable development has also shown that methods developed in the operations research area, such as multicriteria optimization, dynamic processes simulation, non-conventional treatment of uncertainty etc. are adequate, exact base, suitable for resolution of these problems.

  9. Development of vitrified waste storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namiki, S.; Tani, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have developed the radioactive waste vitrification technology and the vitrified waste storage technology. Regarding the vitrified waste storage system development, the authors have completed the design of two types of storage systems. One is a forced convection air cooling system, and the other is a natural convection air cooling system. They have carried out experiments and heat transfer analysis, seismic analysis, vitrified waste dropping and radiation shielding, etc. In this paper, the following three subjects, are discussed: the cooling air flow experiment, the wind effect experiment on the cooling air flow pattern, using a wind tunnel apparatus and the structural integrity evaluation on the dropping vitrified waste

  10. Development of portable laser peening systems for nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, Itaru; Uehara, Takuya; Yoda, Masaki; Miyasaka, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hiromi

    2009-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is the major factor to reduce the reliability of aged reactor components. Toshiba has developed various laser-based maintenance and repair technologies and applied them to existing nuclear power plants. Laser-based technology is considered to be the best tool for remote processing in nuclear power plants, and particularly so for the maintenance and repair of reactor core components. Accessibility could be drastically improved by a simple handling system owing to the absence of reactive force against laser irradiation and the flexible optical fiber. For the preventive maintenance, laser peening technology was developed and applied to reactor components in operating BWRs and PWRs. Laser peening is a novel process to improve residual stress from tensile to compressive on material surface layer by irradiating focused high-power laser pulses in water without any surface preparations. Laser peening systems, which deliver laser pulses with mirrors or through an optical fiber, were developed and have been applied to preventive maintenance against SCC in nuclear power reactors since 1999. Each system was composed of laser oscillators, a beam delivery system, a laser irradiation head, remote handling equipment and a monitor/control system. Beam delivery with mirrors was accomplished through alignment/tracking functions with sufficient accuracy. Reliable fiber-delivery was attained by the development of a novel input coupling optics and an irradiation head with auto-focusing. Recently, we have developed portable laser peening (PLP) system which could employ both mirror- and fiber- delivery technologies. Size and weight of the PLP system for BWR bottom was almost 1/25 compared to the previous system. PLP system would be the applicable to both BWRs and PWRs as one of the maintenance technologies. (author)

  11. Developments in outburst prediction by microseismic monitoring from the surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, A W; Styles, P; Jones, V K

    1987-01-01

    Violent outbursts of coal and firedamp affect production operations in most of the coal producing countries of the world, often leading to heavy loss of life. Significant changes in the pattern of Welsh outbursts from 1978 onwards are described with a far larger proportion occurring on longwall faces than was previously the case and with a much higher incidence of spontaneous outbursts, which carry a greater risk than those which are deliberately induced. The elaborate defences in use appeared inadequate to deal with the changing circumstances as methane based alarms only operated after the outburst phenomenon had initiated. An earlier warning of an incipient outburst was required and evidence suggested that seismic monitoring might provide this early warning. A surface located seismometer was installed giving radio transmitted signals to a tape recorder in the colliery control room. This provided promising historical records and led to five surface seismometer stations being commissioned feeding signals, suitably treated, to a micro-processor located in the mine control room. The programming of the micro-processor was arranged to give a real time alarm at pre-set levels of seismic activity in defined areas of the mine. Experience with the new predictive tool is described, as well as the use made of the new facility by management, including changed methods of outburst stress relief.

  12. Student project of optical system analysis API-library development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Tatiana; Zhukova, Tatiana; Dantcaranov, Ruslan; Romanova, Maria; Zhadin, Alexander; Ivanov, Vyacheslav; Kalinkina, Olga

    2017-08-01

    In the paper API-library software developed by students of Applied and Computer Optics Department (ITMO University) for optical system design is presented. The library performs paraxial and real ray tracing, calculates 3d order (Seidel) aberration and real ray aberration of axis and non-axis beams (wave, lateral, longitudinal, coma, distortion etc.) and finally, approximate wave aberration by Zernike polynomials. Real aperture can be calculated by considering of real rays tracing failure on each surface. So far we assume optical system is centered, with spherical or 2d order aspherical surfaces. Optical glasses can be set directly by refraction index or by dispersion coefficients. The library can be used for education or research purposes in optical system design area. It provides ready to use software functions for optical system simulation and analysis that developer can simply plug into their software development for different purposes, for example for some specific synthesis tasks or investigation of new optimization modes. In the paper we present an example of using the library for development of cemented doublet synthesis software based on Slusarev's methodology. The library is used in optical system optimization recipes course for deep studying of optimization model and its application for optical system design. Development of such software is an excellent experience for students and help to understanding optical image modeling and quality analysis. This development is organized as student group joint project. We try to organize it as a group in real research and development project, so each student has his own role in the project and then use whole library functionality in his own master or bachelor thesis. Working in such group gives students useful experience and opportunity to work as research and development engineer of scientific software in the future.

  13. Automated Operations Development for Advanced Exploration Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Automated space operations command and control software development and its implementation must be an integral part of the vehicle design effort. The software design must encompass autonomous fault detection, isolation, recovery capabilities and also provide "single button" intelligent functions for the crew. Development, operations and safety approval experience with the Timeliner system onboard the International Space Station (ISS), which provided autonomous monitoring with response and single command functionality of payload systems, can be built upon for future automated operations as the ISS Payload effort was the first and only autonomous command and control system to be in continuous execution (6 years), 24 hours a day, 7 days a week within a crewed spacecraft environment. Utilizing proven capabilities from the ISS Higher Active Logic (HAL) System, along with the execution component design from within the HAL 9000 Space Operating System, this design paper will detail the initial HAL System software architecture and interfaces as applied to NASA's Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) in support of the Advanced Exploration Systems, Autonomous Mission Operations project. The development and implementation of integrated simulators within this development effort will also be detailed and is the first step in verifying the HAL 9000 Integrated Test-Bed Component [2] designs effectiveness. This design paper will conclude with a summary of the current development status and future development goals as it pertains to automated command and control for the HDU.

  14. Development of an optical inspection bench for the inspection of internal surfaces of 650 MHz SCRF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokil, S.V.; Kane, G.V.; Raghavendra, S.; Chauhan, S.K.; Rajpoot, D.S.; Oraon, B.; Om Prakash; Joshi, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    An optical inspection system has been developed for inspection of internal surfaces of 650 MHz superconducting RF cavities. The cavity parts are welded either using Electron Beam or Laser Beam Welding for making a good quality of weld joints. Surface defects like pits, scratches, welding spatters etc. on the internal surface of the cavity deteriorates cavity performance. Surface quality of the cavity equator joint plays an important role in the cavity performance. To study the quality of equator surface, the inspection bench offers high resolution images with a linear resolution of 45 m/pixel at a distance of ∼200 mm. The bench comprises of two major sub-systems, optical imaging system and cavity positioning system. A digital camera and multi coloured illumination system is used to obtain high resolution images. The camera is mounted inside a long cylindrical tube. The cylindrical tube can be inserted into a SCRF cavity. The length of the cylinder is long enough to inspect five-cell 650 MHz SCRF cavity. The cavity is placed on a set of PTFE rollers, which are mounted on a trolley. The cavity can be moved linearly with the help of ball screw-servomotor mechanism. The camera along with cylindrical tube can be rotated around its axis with a stepper motor to scan the cavity's internal surface. The paper presents the details about the optical inspection bench and optical inspection results. (author)

  15. Field and laboratory emission cell automation and control system for investigating surface chemistry reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemmer, Michael M.; Ham, Jason E.; Wells, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    A novel system [field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC) automation and control system] has been developed to deliver ozone to a surface utilizing the FLEC to simulate indoor surface chemistry. Ozone, humidity, and air flow rate to the surface were continuously monitored using an ultraviolet ozone monitor, humidity, and flow sensors. Data from these sensors were used as feedback for system control to maintain predetermined experimental parameters. The system was used to investigate the chemistry of ozone with α-terpineol on a vinyl surface over 72h. Keeping all other experimental parameters the same, volatile organic compound emissions from the vinyl tile with α-terpineol were collected from both zero and 100ppb(partsper109) ozone exposures. System stability profiles collected from sensor data indicated experimental parameters were maintained to within a few percent of initial settings. Ozone data from eight experiments at 100ppb (over 339h) provided a pooled standard deviation of 1.65ppb and a 95% tolerance of 3.3ppb. Humidity data from 17 experiments at 50% relative humidity (over 664h) provided a pooled standard deviation of 1.38% and a 95% tolerance of 2.77%. Data of the flow rate of air flowing through the FLEC from 14 experiments at 300ml/min (over 548h) provided a pooled standard deviation of 3.02ml/min and a 95% tolerance range of 6.03ml/min. Initial experimental results yielded long term emissions of ozone/α-terpineol reaction products, suggesting that surface chemistry could play an important role in indoor environments.

  16. Trajectory of Sewerage System Development Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupin, R. V.; Mayzel, I. V.; Chupin, V. R.

    2017-11-01

    The transition to market relations has determined a new technology for our country to manage the development of urban engineering systems. This technology has shifted to the municipal level and it can, in large, be presented in two stages. The first is the development of a scheme for the development of the water supply and sanitation system, the second is the implementation of this scheme on the basis of investment programs of utilities. In the investment programs, financial support is provided for the development and reconstruction of water disposal systems due to the investment component in the tariff, connection fees for newly commissioned capital construction projects and targeted financing for selected state and municipal programs, loans and credits. Financial provision with the development of sewerage systems becomes limited and the problem arises in their rational distribution between the construction of new water disposal facilities and the reconstruction of existing ones. The paper suggests a methodology for developing options for the development of sewerage systems, selecting the best of them by the life cycle cost criterion, taking into account the limited investments in their construction, models and methods of analysis, optimizing their reconstruction and development, taking into account reliability and seismic resistance.

  17. Dual analyzer system for surface analysis dedicated for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy at liquid surfaces and interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedermaier, Inga; Kolbeck, Claudia; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Maier, Florian, E-mail: florian.maier@fau.de [Lehrstuhl für Physikalische Chemie II, FAU Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    The investigation of liquid surfaces and interfaces with the powerful toolbox of ultra-high vacuum (UHV)-based surface science techniques generally has to overcome the issue of liquid evaporation within the vacuum system. In the last decade, however, new classes of liquids with negligible vapor pressure at room temperature—in particular, ionic liquids (ILs)—have emerged for surface science studies. It has been demonstrated that particularly angle-resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS) allows for investigating phenomena that occur at gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces on the molecular level. The results are not only relevant for IL systems but also for liquids in general. In all of these previous ARXPS studies, the sample holder had to be tilted in order to change the polar detection angle of emitted photoelectrons, which restricted the liquid systems to very thin viscous IL films coating a flat solid support. We now report on the concept and realization of a new and unique laboratory “Dual Analyzer System for Surface Analysis (DASSA)” which enables fast ARXPS, UV photoelectron spectroscopy, imaging XPS, and low-energy ion scattering at the horizontal surface plane of macroscopically thick non-volatile liquid samples. It comprises a UHV chamber equipped with two electron analyzers mounted for simultaneous measurements in 0° and 80° emission relative to the surface normal. The performance of DASSA on a first macroscopic liquid system will be demonstrated.

  18. Dual analyzer system for surface analysis dedicated for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy at liquid surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedermaier, Inga; Kolbeck, Claudia; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Maier, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of liquid surfaces and interfaces with the powerful toolbox of ultra-high vacuum (UHV)-based surface science techniques generally has to overcome the issue of liquid evaporation within the vacuum system. In the last decade, however, new classes of liquids with negligible vapor pressure at room temperature—in particular, ionic liquids (ILs)—have emerged for surface science studies. It has been demonstrated that particularly angle-resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS) allows for investigating phenomena that occur at gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces on the molecular level. The results are not only relevant for IL systems but also for liquids in general. In all of these previous ARXPS studies, the sample holder had to be tilted in order to change the polar detection angle of emitted photoelectrons, which restricted the liquid systems to very thin viscous IL films coating a flat solid support. We now report on the concept and realization of a new and unique laboratory “Dual Analyzer System for Surface Analysis (DASSA)” which enables fast ARXPS, UV photoelectron spectroscopy, imaging XPS, and low-energy ion scattering at the horizontal surface plane of macroscopically thick non-volatile liquid samples. It comprises a UHV chamber equipped with two electron analyzers mounted for simultaneous measurements in 0° and 80° emission relative to the surface normal. The performance of DASSA on a first macroscopic liquid system will be demonstrated.

  19. Detection of surface algal blooms using the newly developed algorithm surface algal bloom index (SABI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawadi, Fahad

    2010-10-01

    Quantifying ocean colour properties has evolved over the past two decades from being able to merely detect their biological activity to the ability to estimate chlorophyll concentration using optical satellite sensors like MODIS and MERIS. The production of chlorophyll spatial distribution maps is a good indicator of plankton biomass (primary production) and is useful for the tracing of oceanographic currents, jets and blooms, including harmful algal blooms (HABs). Depending on the type of HABs involved and the environmental conditions, if their concentration rises above a critical threshold, it can impact the flora and fauna of the aquatic habitat through the introduction of the so called "red tide" phenomenon. The estimation of chlorophyll concentration is derived from quantifying the spectral relationship between the blue and the green bands reflected from the water column. This spectral relationship is employed in the standard ocean colour chlorophyll-a (Chlor-a) product, but is incapable of detecting certain macro-algal species that float near to or at the water surface in the form of dense filaments or mats. The ability to accurately identify algal formations that sometimes appear as oil spill look-alikes in satellite imagery, contributes towards the reduction of false-positive incidents arising from oil spill monitoring operations. Such algal formations that occur in relatively high concentrations may experience, as in land vegetation, what is known as the "red-edge" effect. This phenomena occurs at the highest reflectance slope between the maximum absorption in the red due to the surrounding ocean water and the maximum reflectance in the infra-red due to the photosynthetic pigments present in the surface algae. A new algorithm termed the surface algal bloom index (SABI), has been proposed to delineate the spatial distributions of floating micro-algal species like for example cyanobacteria or exposed inter-tidal vegetation like seagrass. This algorithm was

  20. Core Flight System (CFS) Integrated Development Environment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to create an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for the Core Flight System (CFS) software to reduce the time it takes to...

  1. Developing a knowledge system for information operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leenen, L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a research project to develop an optimal information retrieval system in an Information Operations domain. Information Operations is the application and management of information to gain an advantage over an opponent...

  2. Intermediate Systems Analyst | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... bring to the System Development Group the necessary skills to understand in depth ... Participates in collaborative technical discussions with IDRC management, ... Responsible to monitor and oversee private sector consultant and part-time ...

  3. Research and Development Information System (RDIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Research and Development Information System (RDIS) is the Veterans Affairs Central Office budgetary and project data repository for managing the VA Research and...

  4. Systems strategies for developing industrial microbial strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Hyun Uk

    2015-01-01

    Industrial strain development requires system-wide engineering and optimization of cellular metabolism while considering industrially relevant fermentation and recovery processes. It can be conceptualized as several strategies, which may be implemented in an iterative fashion and in different...

  5. Exemplar PV system for test and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report describes the construction of Reference Photovoltaic System for Test and Development at University of Southampton between April 1995 and June 2000, which subsequently became known as the STaR Facility. (author)

  6. System Administrator for LCS Development Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System Project is creating a Checkout and Control System that will eventually launch the next generation of vehicles from Kennedy Space Center. KSC has a large set of Development and Operational equipment already deployed in several facilities, including the Launch Control Center, which requires support. The position of System Administrator will complete tasks across multiple platforms (Linux/Windows), many of them virtual. The Hardware Branch of the Control and Data Systems Division at the Kennedy Space Center uses system administrators for a variety of tasks. The position of system administrator comes with many responsibilities which include maintaining computer systems, repair or set up hardware, install software, create backups and recover drive images are a sample of jobs which one must complete. Other duties may include working with clients in person or over the phone and resolving their computer system needs. Training is a major part of learning how an organization functions and operates. Taking that into consideration, NASA is no exception. Training on how to better protect the NASA computer infrastructure will be a topic to learn, followed by NASA work polices. Attending meetings and discussing progress will be expected. A system administrator will have an account with root access. Root access gives a user full access to a computer system and or network. System admins can remove critical system files and recover files using a tape backup. Problem solving will be an important skill to develop in order to complete the many tasks.

  7. The engineering of microprocessor systems guidelines on system development

    CERN Document Server

    1979-01-01

    The Engineering of Microprocessor Systems: Guidelines on System Development provides economical and technical guidance for use when incorporating microprocessors in products or production processes and assesses the alternatives that are available. This volume is part of Project 0251 undertaken by The Electrical Research Association, which aims to give managers and development engineers advice and comment on the development process and the hardware and software needed to support the engineering of microprocessor systems. The results of Phase 1 of the five-phase project are contained in this fir

  8. Development of a simplified piping support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, J.; Anderson, P.H.; Tang, Y.K.; Kassawara, R.P.; Tang, H.T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental and analytical studies for developing a simplified piping support system (SPSS) for nuclear power piping in place of snubbers. The basic concept of the SPSS is a passive seismic support system consisting of limit stops. Large gaps are provided to allow for free thermal expansion during normal plant operation while preventing excessive displacement during a seismic event. The results are part of a research and development program sponsored by EPRI. (orig./HP)

  9. Development of a simplified piping support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, J.; Anderson, P.H.; Tang, Y.K.; Kassawara, R.P.; Tang, H.T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental and analytical studies for developing a simplified piping support system (SPSS) for nuclear power piping in place of snubbers. The basic concept of the SPSS is a passive seismic support system consisting of limit stops. Large gaps are provided to allow for free thermal expansion during normal plant operation while preventing excessive displacement during a seismic event. The results are part of a research and development program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute

  10. Development of Innovative Technology to Provide Low-Cost Surface Atmospheric Observations in Data Sparse Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Paul; Steinson, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Accurate and reliable real-time monitoring and dissemination of observations of surface weather conditions is critical for a variety of societal applications. Applications that provide local and regional information about temperature, precipitation, moisture, and winds, for example, are important for agriculture, water resource monitoring, health, and monitoring of hazard weather conditions. In many regions of the World, surface weather stations are sparsely located and/or of poor quality. Existing stations have often been sited incorrectly, not well-maintained, and have limited communications established at the site for real-time monitoring. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), with support from USAID, has started an initiative to develop and deploy low-cost weather instrumentation in sparsely observed regions of the world. The project is focused on improving weather observations for environmental monitoring and early warning alert systems on a regional to global scale. Instrumentation that has been developed use innovative new technologies such as 3D printers, Raspberry Pi computing systems, and wireless communications. The goal of the project is to make the weather station designs, software, and processing tools an open community resource. The weather stations can be built locally by agencies, through educational institutions, and residential communities as a citizen effort to augment existing networks to improve detection of natural hazards for disaster risk reduction. The presentation will provide an overview of the open source weather station technology and evaluation of sensor observations for the initial networks that have been deployed in Africa.

  11. Developments in power plant cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, N.K.

    1993-01-01

    A number of cooling systems are used in the power plants. The condenser cooling water system is one of the most important cooling systems in the plant. The system comprises a number of equipment. Plants using sea water for cooling are designed for the very high corrosion effects due to sea water. Developments are taking place in the design, materials of construction as well as protection philosophies for the various equipment. Power optimisation of the cycle needs to be done in order to design an economical system. Environmental (Protection) Act places certain limitations on the effluents from the plant. An attempt has been made in this paper to outline the developing trends in the various equipment in the condenser cooling water systems used at the inland as well as coastal locations. (author). 5 refs., 6 refs

  12. System analysis: Developing tools for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, K.; clever, J.; Draper, J.V.; Davies, B.; Lonks, A.

    1996-02-01

    This report introduces and evaluates system analysis tools that were developed, or are under development, for the Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP). Additionally, it discusses system analysis work completed using these tools aimed at completing a system analysis of the retrieval of waste from underground storage tanks on the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington. The tools developed and evaluated include a mixture of commercially available tools adapted to RTDP requirements, and some tools developed in house. The tools that are included in this report include: a Process Diagramming Tool, a Cost Modeling Tool, an Amortization Modeling Tool, a graphical simulation linked to the Cost Modeling Tool, a decision assistance tool, and a system thinking tool. Additionally, the importance of performance testing to the RTDP and the results of such testing executed is discussed. Further, the results of the Tank Waste Retrieval (TWR) System Diagram, the TWR Operations Cost Model, and the TWR Amortization Model are presented, and the implication of the results are discussed. Finally, the RTDP system analysis tools are assessed and some recommendations are made regarding continuing development of the tools and process.

  13. Contributions of developed and developing countries to global climate forcing and surface temperature change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D S; Mahowald, N M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the relative contributions of individual countries to global climate change for different time periods is essential for mitigation strategies that seek to hold nations accountable for their historical emissions. Previous assessments of this kind have compared countries by their greenhouse gas emissions, but have yet to consider the full spectrum of the short-lived gases and aerosols. In this study, we use the radiative forcing of anthropogenic emissions of long-lived greenhouse gases, ozone precursors, aerosols, and from albedo changes from land cover change together with a simple climate model to evaluate country contributions to climate change. We assess the historical contribution of each country to global surface temperature change from anthropogenic forcing ( Δ T s ), future Δ T s through year 2100 given two different emissions scenarios, and the Δ T s that each country has committed to from past activities between 1850 and 2010 (committed Δ T s ). By including forcings in addition to the long-lived greenhouse gases the contribution of developed countries, particularly the United States, to Δ T s from 1850 to 2010 (58%) is increased compared to an assessment of CO 2 -equivalent emissions for the same time period (52%). Contributions to committed Δ T s evaluated at year 2100, dominated by long-lived greenhouse gas forcing, are more evenly split between developed and developing countries (55% and 45%, respectively). The portion of anthropogenic Δ T s attributable to developing countries is increasing, led by emissions from China and India, and we estimate that this will surpass the contribution from developed countries around year 2030. (paper)

  14. A portable UV-fluorescence multispectral imaging system for the analysis of painted surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comelli, Daniela; Valentini, Gianluca; Nevin, Austin; Farina, Andrea; Toniolo, Lucia; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2008-08-01

    A portable fluorescence multispectral imaging system was developed and has been used for the analysis of artistic surfaces. The imaging apparatus exploits two UV lamps for fluorescence excitation and a liquid crystal tunable filter coupled to a low-noise charge coupled device as the image detector. The main features of the system are critically presented, outlining the assets, drawbacks, and practical considerations of portability. A multivariate statistical treatment of spectral data is further considered. Finally, the in situ analysis with the new apparatus of recently restored Renaissance wall paintings is presented.

  15. THE DEVELOPMENT OF TROLLEYBUS DRIVE BRAKE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Safonau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The requirements for trolleybuses brake systems are analyzed. Some results of the studies examined, contemporary trends of developing in this direction are shows. The range of problems whose solution is aimed at creating high-performance brake systems whose increase efficiency and safety of trolleybuses determined.

  16. Financial system development in transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, C.L.M.; Lensink, B.W.

    This paper provides an overview of the major issues with respect to financial system development in transition economies, which were discussed at a conference in Groningen, the Netherlands, December 1997. After a brief remark on the role of financial system design during economic transition, the

  17. The developing technique for automated UT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Baek, C. H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an experiential summary of the developing technique for automated ultrasonic testing system that consists of an ultrasonic tester, mechanical moving and fixing parts, controller and testing software. The application knowledges and limitations on these items are helpful to prevent the misoperation, the unadequate test result analysis and to build up the own test system.

  18. Development of Low Price Turbine Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, C.K.; Kim, J.A.; Jeong, W.J.; Choi, I.K.; Woo, J.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This report is final research results of ''Development of Low Price Turbine Control System''. It describes test such as turbine startup, generator synchronization, rated load operation, simulation after manufacturing turbine control system. (author). 45 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Development of the OASIS acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douet, R.

    1999-01-01

    OASIS is a general purpose data acquisition system built at IPN Orsay, which has been developed around UNIX and VME real time processors. This system can be used to acquire, process, store and display physics data. New OASIS is also used to process event data tapes coming from experiments and has been connected to the analysis software at IPN. (author)

  20. Development of AMS high resolution injector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Yiwen; Guan Xialing; Hu Yueming

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing HI-13 tandem accelerator AMS high resolution injector system was developed. The high resolution energy achromatic system consists of an electrostatic analyzer and a magnetic analyzer, which mass resolution can reach 600 and transmission is better than 80%. (authors)

  1. Manager, Financial Systems | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... application of internal controls within the Centre's corporate financial systems. ... It is a key resource for managing IDRC's financial information systems both for the ... Assess the vendor development strategies and determine the impacts on the long .... applications to provide complete and relevant accounting information.

  2. Work Values System Development during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfeli, Erik J.

    2007-01-01

    Work values stability, change, and development can be appreciably reduced to a living system model [Ford, D. H. (1994). "Humans as self-constructing living systems: A developmental perspective on behavior and personality" (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates]. This theoretical model includes discrepancy-reducing and…

  3. Development of subpicosecond pulse radiolysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozawa, T.; Saeki, A.; Okamoto, K.; Numata, Y.; Kaseda, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Suemine, S.; Yoshida, Y.; Tagawa, S.

    2000-01-01

    Subpicosecond pulse radiolysis system was developed to elucidate the primary processes of radiation chemistry in the time region of femtosecond. The system consists of a femtosecond electron linac as an irradiation source, a femtosecond laser as an analyzing light and a jitter compensation system which was designed to reduce the effect of jitter between an electron pulse and a laser pulse on the time resolution. The time resolution of 800 fs was achieved. (author)

  4. Considerations in the development of near surface repositories for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The report presents an integrated, stepwise approach for the development (includes pre-operational, operational and post-closure phases) of near surface disposal facilities for low and intermediate level radioactive waste. It has been developed in light of the considerable experience that has accumulated on the development of such disposal systems and is consistent with the current international requirements, principles, standards and guidance for the disposal of radioactive waste. It is considered that the systematic application of the various steps of the approach can contribute to the successful development of a repository programme. The approach is designed to be generic, integrating the various technical and nontechnical factors, and flexible enough to be suitable for use in the various Member States, ranging from countries that have nuclear power plants to countries that have small inventories of radioactive waste from nuclear applications. It is anticipated that this report will be particularly useful and of direct relevance to Member States that are currently developing, or have plans to develop, disposal facilities for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in the near future. The report is intended to respond to the disposal needs of the various Member States, ranging from countries with nuclear power plants to countries having small inventories of radioactive waste from nuclear applications. It was developed with the help of consultants and through an Advisory Group Meeting held in November 2001

  5. Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program: Fiscal year 1992 and 1993 highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, L.L.; Link, S.O.; Gee, G.W.

    1993-09-01

    The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program was jointly developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Westinghouse Hanford Company to design and test an earthen cover system that can be used to inhibit water infiltration; plant, animal, and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion. Kaiser Engineers Hanford Company provided engineering design support for the program. Work on barrier design has been under way at Hanford for nearly 10 years. The comprehensive development of a long-term barrier, formerly the Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program, was initiated in FY 1986, and a general field-tested design is expected to be completed by FY 1998. Highlights of efforts in FY 1992 and FY 1993 included the resumption of field testing, the completion of the prototype barrier design, and the convening of an external peer review panel, which met twice with the barrier development team. The review panel provided helpful guidance on current and future barrier development activities, while commending the program for its significant technical contributions to innovative barrier technology development

  6. Modelling energy systems for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, F.; Benders, R.M.J.; Moll, H.C.

    2007-01-01

    Developing countries' energy use is rapidly increasing, which affects global climate change and global and regional energy settings. Energy models are helpful for exploring the future of developing and industrialised countries. However, energy systems of developing countries differ from those of industrialised countries, which has consequences for energy modelling. New requirements need to be met by present-day energy models to adequately explore the future of developing countries' energy systems. This paper aims to assess if the main characteristics of developing countries are adequately incorporated in present-day energy models. We first discuss these main characteristics, focusing particularly on developing Asia, and then present a model comparison of 12 selected energy models to test their suitability for developing countries. We conclude that many models are biased towards industrialised countries, neglecting main characteristics of developing countries, e.g. the informal economy, supply shortages, poor performance of the power sector, structural economic change, electrification, traditional bio-fuels, urban-rural divide. To more adequately address the energy systems of developing countries, energy models have to be adjusted and new models have to be built. We therefore indicate how to improve energy models for increasing their suitability for developing countries and give advice on modelling techniques and data requirements

  7. Development of surface wettability characteristics for enhancing pool boiling heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Moo Hwan; Jo, Hang Jin

    2010-05-01

    For several centuries, many boiling experiments have been conducted. Based on literature survey, the characteristic of heating surface in boiling condition played as an important role which mainly influenced to boiling performance. Among many surface factor, the fact that wettability effect is significant to not only the enhancement of critical heat flux(CHF) but also the nucleate boiling heat transfer is also supported by other kinds of boiling experiments. In this regard, the excellent boiling performance (a high CHF and heat transfer performance) in pool boiling could be achieved through some favorable surface modification which satisfies the optimized wettability condition. To find the optimized boiling condition, we design the special heaters to examine how two materials, which have different wettability (e.g. hydrophilic and hydrophobic), affect the boiling phenomena. The special heaters have hydrophobic dots on hydrophilic surface. The contact angle of hydrophobic surface is 120 .deg. to water at the room temperature. The contact angle of hydrophilic surface is 60 .deg. at same conditions. To conduct the experiment with new surface condition, we developed new fabrication method and design the pool boiling experimental apparatus. Through this facility, we can the higher CHF on pattern surface than that on hydrophobic surface, and the higher boiling heat transfer performance on pattern surface than that on hydrophilic surface. Based on this experimental results, we concluded that we proposed new heating surface condition and surface fabrication method to realize the best boiling condition by modified heating surface condition

  8. Development of a Raman spectrometer to study surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Nandita; Chadha, Ridhima; Kapoor, Sudhir; Sarkar, Sisir K.; Mukherjee, Tulsi

    2011-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy is an important tool, which provides enormous information on the vibrational and structural details of materials. This understanding is not only interesting due to its fundamental importance, but also of considerable importance in optoelectronics and device applications of these materials in nanotechnology. In this report, we begin with a brief introduction on the Raman effect and various Raman scattering techniques, followed by a detailed discussion on the development of an instrument with home-built collection optics attachment. This Raman system consists of a pulsed laser excitation source, a sample compartment, collection optics to collect the scattered light, a notch filter to reject the intense laser light, a monochromator to disperse the scattered light and a detector to detect the Raman signal. After calibrating the Raman spectrometer with standard solvents, we present our results on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) investigations on three different kinds of chemical systems. (author)

  9. Nanoparticle Surface Functionality Dictates Cellular and Systemic Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saei, Amir Ata; Yazdani, Mahdieh; Lohse, Samuel E.

    2017-01-01

    can greatly enhance subsequent therapeutic effects of NPs while diminishing their adverse side effects. In this review, we will focus on the effect of surface functionality on the cellular uptake and the transport of NPs by various subcellular processes.......Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) have opened new frontiers in therapeutics and diagnostics in recent years. The surface functionality of these nanoparticles often predominates their interactions with various biological components of human body, and proper selection or control of surface functionality...

  10. Development of sustainable paper coatings using nanoscale industrial surface processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Breedveld, Leo; Lahti, Johanna

    in the PlasmaNice project, as environmental and social aspects are addressed using methods like life cycle check (LCC), life cycle assessment (LCA), and industrial risk assessment (RA) within the boundary of an economical production for different market segments. The results are intended to be used partly...... products, and the process and material developers providing new coatings with specific properties. The combination of RA and LCA/LCC within the early stages of product development provide a more holistic approach, It is commonly believed to be also economical beneficial as changes are easier to implement...

  11. Evaluation Systems, Ethics, and Development Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vinod

    2010-01-01

    After some 65 years of international development assistance, it is still difficult to show the effectiveness of aid in ways that are fully convincing. In part, this reflects inadequacies in the evaluation systems of the bilateral, multilateral, and global organizations that provide official development aid. Underlying these weaknesses often are a…

  12. Online Faculty Development and Assessment System (OFDAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Luis M.; Alegre, Olga M.

    2006-01-01

    The rapid growth of online learning has led to the development of faculty inservice evaluation models focused on quality improvement of degree programs. Based on current "best practices" of student online assessment, the Online Faculty Development and Assessment System (OFDAS), created at the Canary Islands, was designed to serve the…

  13. Development of passive radar systems at TNO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelsema, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Since 2002, the Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research – TNO, has been involved in the development of passive radar systems for research purposes. The development has been sponsored partly by the Royal Netherlands Air Force – whose main interest is threat evaluation – and partly by

  14. Interrogating resilience in health systems development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pas, Remco; Ashour, Majdi; Kapilashrami, Anuj; Fustukian, Suzanne

    2017-11-01

    The Fourth Global Symposium on Health Systems Research was themed around 'Resilient and responsive health systems for a changing world.' This commentary is the outcome of a panel discussion at the symposium in which the resilience discourse and its use in health systems development was critically interrogated. The 2014-15 Ebola outbreak in West-Africa added momentum for the wider adoption of resilient health systems as a crucial element to prepare for and effectively respond to crisis. The growing salience of resilience in development and health systems debates can be attributed in part to development actors and philanthropies such as the Rockefeller Foundation. Three concerns regarding the application of resilience to health systems development are discussed: (1) the resilience narrative overrules certain democratic procedures and priority setting in public health agendas by 'claiming' an exceptional policy space; (2) resilience compels accepting and maintaining the status quo and excludes alternative imaginations of just and equitable health systems including the socio-political struggles required to attain those; and (3) an empirical case study from Gaza makes the case that resilience and vulnerability are symbiotic with each other rather than providing a solution for developing a strong health system. In conclusion, if the normative aim of health policies is to build sustainable, universally accessible, health systems then resilience is not the answer. The current threats that health systems face demand us to imagine beyond and explore possibilities for global solidarity and justice in health. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The HS6000/20 development system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmel, F.

    1989-04-01

    In the actual control system of MEA, NIKHEF-K three color displays are in use for graphical representation of the accelerator status information. At the moment the quality of the color displays is bad. The HS6000 development system of the English company Syntel seems to offer a possible solution to replace these displays. In the development system software is developed which finally may run on a target module. The target module, consisting of a processor card with memory and RS232 port and a graphical card, takes care for the control of a color display. The institute has disposed of an experimental set up during two weeks in order to investigate the possibilities and limitations of the development system. The HS6000 development system runs under the OS-9 multi-user and multi-tasking operating system. The operating system takes care for a part of the necessary software to render a computer valuable. The OS-9 operating system disposes of about 60 utility commands. A feature of OS-9 is the application of modular software technique which are based upon memory modules. The interface between the user and the internal functions of the operating system is formed from the shell, the OS-9 command-interpreter code. The software, which has to run on the target module, is written with the help of the Mmacs screen editor, the draw program and the medit editor. The draw program and the medit editor form part of the EGOS ( Enhanced Graphical Output Software) packet. The EGOS packet is a multi-tasking graphical interface for the OS-9 operating system. (author). 1 fig

  16. Accuracy evaluation of the optical surface monitoring system on EDGE linear accelerator in a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancosu, Pietro; Fogliata, Antonella; Stravato, Antonella; Tomatis, Stefano; Cozzi, Luca; Scorsetti, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) requires dedicated systems to monitor the patient position during the treatment to avoid target underdosage due to involuntary shift. The optical surface monitoring system (OSMS) is here evaluated in a phantom-based study. The new EDGE linear accelerator from Varian (Varian, Palo Alto, CA) integrates, for cranial lesions, the common cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and kV-MV portal images to the optical surface monitoring system (OSMS), a device able to detect real-time patient׳s face movements in all 6 couch axes (vertical, longitudinal, lateral, rotation along the vertical axis, pitch, and roll). We have evaluated the OSMS imaging capability in checking the phantoms׳ position and monitoring its motion. With this aim, a home-made cranial phantom was developed to evaluate the OSMS accuracy in 4 different experiments: (1) comparison with CBCT in isocenter location, (2) capability to recognize predefined shifts up to 2° or 3cm, (3) evaluation at different couch angles, (4) ability to properly reconstruct the surface when the linac gantry visually block one of the cameras. The OSMS system showed, with a phantom, to be accurate for positioning in respect to the CBCT imaging system with differences of 0.6 ± 0.3mm for linear vector displacement, with a maximum rotational inaccuracy of 0.3°. OSMS presented an accuracy of 0.3mm for displacement up to 1cm and 1°, and 0.5mm for larger displacements. Different couch angles (45° and 90°) induced a mean vector uncertainty < 0.4mm. Coverage of 1 camera produced an uncertainty < 0.5mm. Translations and rotations of a phantom can be accurately detect with the optical surface detector system. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of the simulation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Katsumi; Watanabe, Tadashi; Kume, Etsuo

    2001-01-01

    Large-scale simulation technique is studied at the Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering for the computational science research in nuclear fields. Visualization and animation processing techniques are developed for efficient understanding of simulation results. The development of the simulation monitoring system, which is used for real-time visualization of ongoing simulations or for successive visualization of calculated results, is described in this report. The standard visualization tool AVS5 or AVS/EXPRESS is used for the simulation monitoring system, and thus, this system can be utilized in various computer environments. (author)

  18. MODEL DRIVEN DEVELOPMENT OF ONLINE BANKING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bresfelean Vasile Paul

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In case of online applications the cycle of software development varies from the routine. The online environment, the variety of users, the treatability of the mass of information created by them, the reusability and the accessibility from different devices are all factors of these systems complexity. The use of model drive approach brings several advantages that ease up the development process. Working prototypes that simplify client relationship and serve as the base of model tests can be easily made from models describing the system. These systems make possible for the banks clients to make their desired actions from anywhere. The user has the possibility of accessing information or making transactions.

  19. Behavior of aircraft antiskid braking systems on dry and wet runway surfaces - A velocity-rate-controlled, pressure-bias-modulated system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, S. M.; Tanner, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    During maximum braking the average ratio of drag-force friction coefficient developed by the antiskid system to maximum drag-force friction coefficient available at the tire/runway interface was higher on dry surfaces than on wet surfaces. The gross stopping power generated by the brake system on the dry surface was more than twice that obtained on the wet surfaces. With maximum braking applied, the average ratio of side-force friction coefficient developed by the tire under antiskid control to maximum side-force friction available at the tire/runway interface of a free-rolling yawed tire was shown to decrease with increasing yaw angle. Braking reduced the side-force friction coefficient on a dry surface by 75 percent as the wheel slip ratio was increased to 0.3; on a flooded surface the coefficient dropped to near zero for the same slip ratio. Locked wheel skids were observed when the tire encountered a runway surface transition from dry to flooded, due in part to the response time required for the system to sense abrupt changes in the runway friction; however, the antiskid system quickly responded by reducing brake pressure and cycling normally during the remainder of the run on the flooded surface.

  20. A gas-cooled reactor surface power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinski, R.J.; Wright, S.A.; Lenard, R.X.; Harms, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    A human outpost on Mars requires plentiful power to assure survival of the astronauts. Anywhere from 50 to 500 kW of electric power (kWe) will be needed, depending on the number of astronauts, level of scientific activity, and life-cycle closure desired. This paper describes a 250-kWe power system based on a gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a recuperated closed Brayton cycle conversion system. The design draws upon the extensive data and engineering experience developed under the various high-temperature gas cooled reactor programs and under the SP-100 program. The reactor core is similar in power and size to the research reactors found on numerous university campuses. The fuel is uranium nitride clad in Nb1%Zr, which has been extensively tested under the SP-100 program. The fuel rods are arranged in a hexagonal array within a BeO block. The BeO softens the spectrum, allowing better use of the fuel and stabilizing the geometry against deformation during impact or other loadings. The system has a negative temperature feedback coefficient so that the power level will automatically follow a variable load without the need for continuous adjustment of control elements. Waste heat is removed by an air-cooled heat exchanger using cold Martian air. The amount of radioactivity in the reactor at launch is very small (less than a Curie, and about equal to a truckload of uranium ore). The system will need to be engineered so that criticality can not occur for any launch accident. This system is also adaptable for electric propulsion or life-support during transit to and from Mars. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics