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Sample records for surface substantially slows

  1. The TTI slowness surface approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Stovas, A.

    2011-01-01

    The relation between the vertical and horizontal slownesses, better known as the dispersion relation, for a transversely isotropic media with titled symmetry axis {left parenthesis, less than bracket}TTI{right parenthesis, greater than bracket} requires solving a quartic polynomial, which does not admit a practical explicit solution to be used, for example, in downward continuation. Using a combination of perturbation theory with respect to the anelliptic parameter and Shanks transform to improve the accuracy of the expansion, we develop an explicit formula for the dispersion relation that is highly accurate for all practical purposes. It also reveals some insights into the anisotropy parameter dependency of the dispersion relation including the low impact that the anelliptic parameter has on the vertical placement of reflectors for small tilt in the symmetry angle. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  2. Interaction of slow electrons with surfaces. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komolov, S.A.; Chadderton, L.T.

    1976-01-01

    Total current spectroscopy (TCS) has been used to study the growth of films of gold and silver on (100) vanadium surfaces. A slow transition from TCS curves characteristic of vanadium to curves characteristic of the noble metals is observed, accompanied by an increase in the net work function - more rapid for silver than for gold. Vanadium characteristics are lost from the TCS curves for mean overlayer thicknesses > approximately 15A, and a simple analysis shows that the thickness of the surface zone from which TCS signals originate is approximately given by the electron mean free path. Observations of progressive attenuation of a characteristic vanadium feature with increasing mean thickness of overlayer permits separation into stages of nucleation and growth. There is a critical nucleus size of approximately 2A for silver and approximately 4A for gold. (Auth.)

  3. A tilted transversely isotropic slowness surface approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Stovas, A.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-01-01

    for the vertical slowness that is highly accurate for all practical purposes. It also reveals some insights into the anisotropy parameter dependency of the dispersion relation including the low impact that the anelliptic parameter has on the vertical placement

  4. A tilted transversely isotropic slowness surface approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Stovas, A.

    2012-05-09

    The relation between vertical and horizontal slownesses, better known as the dispersion relation, for transversely isotropic media with a tilted symmetry axis (TTI) requires solving a quartic polynomial equation, which does not admit a practical explicit solution to be used, for example, in downward continuation. Using a combination of the perturbation theory with respect to the anelliptic parameter and Shanks transform to improve the accuracy of the expansion, we develop an explicit formula for the vertical slowness that is highly accurate for all practical purposes. It also reveals some insights into the anisotropy parameter dependency of the dispersion relation including the low impact that the anelliptic parameter has on the vertical placement of reflectors for a small tilt in the symmetry angle. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  5. Radiative capture of slow electrons by tungsten surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artamonov, O.M.; Belkina, G.M.; Samarin, S.N.; Yakovlev, I.I.

    1987-01-01

    Isochromatic spectra of radiation capture of slow electrons by the surface of mono- and polycrystal tungsten recorded on 322 and 405 nm wave lengths are presented. The effect of oxygen adsorption on isochromates of the (110) face of tungsten monocrystal is investigated. The obtained isochromatic spectra are compared with energy band structure of tungsten. Based on the analysis of the obtained experimental results it is assumed that optical transition to the final state at the energy of 7.3 eV relatively to Fermi level is conditioned by surface states of the tungsten face (110)

  6. Etching of semiconductor cubic crystals: Determination of the dissolution slowness surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, C. R.

    1990-03-01

    Equations of the representative surface of dissolution slowness for cubic crystals are determined in the framework of a tensorial approach of the orientation-dependent etching process. The independent dissolution constants are deduced from symmetry considerations. Using previous data on the chemical etching of germanium and gallium arsenide crystals, some possible polar diagrams of the dissolution slowness are proposed. A numerical and graphical simulation method is used to obtain the derived dissolution shapes. The influence of extrema in the dissolution slowness on the successive dissolution shapes is also examined. A graphical construction of limiting shapes of etched crystals appears possible using the tensorial representation of the dissolution slowness.

  7. Determination of the dissolution slowness surface by study of etched shapes I. Morphology of the dissolution slowness surface and theoretical etched shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblois, T.; Tellier, C. R.

    1992-07-01

    We propose a theoretical model for the anisotropic etching of crystals, in order to be applied in the micromachining. The originality of the model is due to the introduction of dissolution tensors to express the representative surface of the dissolution slowness. The knowledge of the equation of the slowness surface allows us to determine the trajectories of all the elements which compose the starting surface. It is then possible to construct the final etched shape by numerical simulation. Several examples are given in this paper which show that the final etched shapes are correlated to the extrema of the dissolution slowness. Since the slowness surface must be determined from experiments, emphasis is placed on difficulties encountered when we correlate theory to experiments. Nous avons modélisé le processus de dissolution anisotrope des cristaux en vue d'une application à la simulation des formes obtenues par photolithogravure chimique. La principale originalité de ce modèle tient à l'introduction de tenseurs de dissolution pour exprimer la surface représentative de la lenteur de dissolution. La connaissance de l'équation de la lenteur de dissolution permet de calculer les trajectoires des différents éléments constituant la surface de départ puis de reconstituer par simulation la forme dissoute. Les simulations démontrent que les formes limites des cristaux dissous sont corrélées aux extrema de la lenteur de dissolution. La détermination de la surface de la lenteur se faisant à partir de mesures expérimetales, nous nous sommes efforcés de montrer toutes les difficultés attachées à cette analyse.

  8. Reflection of slow hydrogen and helium ions from solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkerman, A.F.

    1978-01-01

    Some characteristics of the proton and helium ion flux (E < 10 keV), reflected from solid surfaces are presented. A 'condensed walk' scheme, previously used for electron transport calculations, was adapted. Results obtained either by the scheme or by a more detailed 'consequent' scheme agreed closely. The presented data permit calculations of the mean energy of reflected particles and other values for various energy and angular distributions of incident particles. (author)

  9. Substantiation of rate setting of surface contamination with amino acids, labelled with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhesko, T.V.

    1987-01-01

    For rate setting of surface contamination with the wide-spread biogenic tritium compounds-protein predecessors-experimental study of skin absorption and skin deposit of amino acids labelled with tritium is carried out on rats. While extrapolating data to people and calculating tolerable skin contamination with 3 H- amino acids, it is supposed that people arm skin, 100-500 cm 2 , has no defects and that the skin surface decontamination after radionuclide contact is carried out with a preparation, efficiency of which is not less than 97%. The value of tolerable skin absorption of tritium amino acids, being 110-550 MBq/year or 4.8 kBq/cm 2 per one working day, is calculated

  10. SLOWNESS SURFACE CALCULATION FOR DIFFERENT MEDIA USING THE SYMBOLIC MATHEMATICS LANGUAGE MAPLE®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piedrahita Carlos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the equation in different media, we obtain the different type of waves that can exists in such media. The evaluation of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors let us construct the slowness surfaces. In general complex calculations case have to be made. In this work, routines were implemented in the symbolic language MAPLE® and the slowness surfaces were plotted. This work is relevant for the modelling of equivalent media that simulates natural fractured reservoirs, like those common in the Colombian foothills. It is important to understand the seismic response of this reservoirs for exploration of this areas.

  11. Substantial difference in target surface chemistry between reactive dc and high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greczynski, G.; Mráz, S.; Schneider, J. M.; Hultman, L.

    2018-02-01

    The nitride layer formed in the target race track during the deposition of stoichiometric TiN thin films is a factor 2.5 thicker for high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), compared to conventional dc processing (DCMS). The phenomenon is explained using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the as-operated Ti target surface chemistry supported by sputter depth profiles, dynamic Monte Carlo simulations employing the TRIDYN code, and plasma chemical investigations by ion mass spectrometry. The target chemistry and the thickness of the nitride layer are found to be determined by the implantation of nitrogen ions, predominantly N+ and N2+ for HIPIMS and DCMS, respectively. Knowledge of this method-inherent difference enables robust processing of high quality functional coatings.

  12. Single ion induced surface nanostructures: a comparison between slow highly charged and swift heavy ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumayr, Friedrich; Facsko, Stefan; El-Said, Ayman S; Trautmann, Christina; Schleberger, Marika

    2011-10-05

    This topical review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the formation of surface nanostructures, an intriguing phenomenon in ion-surface interaction due to the impact of individual ions. In many solid targets, swift heavy ions produce narrow cylindrical tracks accompanied by the formation of a surface nanostructure. More recently, a similar nanometric surface effect has been revealed for the impact of individual, very slow but highly charged ions. While swift ions transfer their large kinetic energy to the target via ionization and electronic excitation processes (electronic stopping), slow highly charged ions produce surface structures due to potential energy deposited at the top surface layers. Despite the differences in primary excitation, the similarity between the nanostructures is striking and strongly points to a common mechanism related to the energy transfer from the electronic to the lattice system of the target. A comparison of surface structures induced by swift heavy ions and slow highly charged ions provides a valuable insight to better understand the formation mechanisms. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  13. High quality broadband spatial reflections of slow Rayleigh surface acoustic waves modulated by a graded grooved surface

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yanlong

    2015-01-21

    We report high quality broadband spatial reflections of Rayleigh surface acoustic waves (SAWs) through a graded grooved surface. High quality means that no wave is allowed to transmit and the incident wave is nearly all reflected to the input side. The graded grooved surface is structured by drilling one dimensional array of graded grooves with increased depths on a flat surface. We investigate SAW dispersion relations, wave field distribution at several typical SAW wavelengths, and time evolution of a Gaussian pulse through the graded grooved surface. Results show that the input broadband Rayleigh SAWs can be slowed, spatially enhanced and stopped, and finally reflected to the input side. The study suggests that engraving the flat surface can be used as an efficient and economical way to manipulate Rayleigh SAWs, which has potential application in novel SAW devices such as filters, reflectors, sensors, energy harvesters, and diodes.

  14. Electrom emission from slow highly charged ions interacting with a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumayr, F.; Kurz, H.; Toeglhofer, K.; Winter, H.

    1992-01-01

    Recent progress in investigating electron emission from slow highly charged ions approaching a metal surface is discussed. In particular, new informations on generation and decay of transient multiply excited ''hollow atoms'' developing during these processes have been gained from measurement of the statistics of emitted electrons (ES). ES and precise total electron yields derived from the former have been measured for normal incidence of slow (impact velocity 1/15.10 4 ms -1 ) multicharged ions N q+ (q≤6), Ne q+ (q≤10), Ar q+ (q≤16), Kr q+ (q≤10), Xe q+ (q≤10) and I q+ (q≤25) on clean polycrystalline gold. A classical over-barrier approach as recently introduced by Burgdoerfer et al. 1991 has been extended and successfully applied to model the measured impact-velocity dependences of total electron yields. In this way contributions from different electron emission mechanisms could be identified. (orig.)

  15. Coupled slow and fast surface dynamics in an electrocatalytic oscillator: Model and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Melke A.; Nagao, Raphael; Eiswirth, Markus; Varela, Hamilton

    2014-01-01

    The co-existence of disparate time scales is pervasive in many systems. In particular for surface reactions, it has been shown that the long-term evolution of the core oscillator is decisively influenced by slow surface changes, such as progressing deactivation. Here we present an in-depth numerical investigation of the coupled slow and fast surface dynamics in an electrocatalytic oscillator. The model consists of four nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations, investigated over a wide parameter range. Besides the conventional bifurcation analysis, the system was studied by means of high-resolution period and Lyapunov diagrams. It was observed that the bifurcation diagram changes considerably as the irreversible surface poisoning evolves, and the oscillatory region shrinks. The qualitative dynamics changes accordingly and the chaotic oscillations are dramatically suppressed. Nevertheless, periodic cascades are preserved in a confined region of the resistance vs. voltage diagram. Numerical results are compared to experiments published earlier and the latter reinterpreted. Finally, the comprehensive description of the time-evolution in the period and Lyapunov diagrams suggests further experimental studies correlating the evolution of the system's dynamics with changes of the catalyst structure

  16. On the nano-hillock formation induced by slow highly charged ions on insulator surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemell, C.; El-Said, A. S.; Meissl, W.; Gebeshuber, I. C.; Trautmann, C.; Toulemonde, M.; Burgdörfer, J.; Aumayr, F.

    2007-10-01

    We discuss the creation of nano-sized protrusions on insulating surfaces using slow highly charged ions. This method holds the promise of forming regular structures on surfaces without inducing defects in deeper lying crystal layers. We find that only projectiles with a potential energy above a critical value are able to create hillocks. Below this threshold no surface modification is observed. This is similar to the track and hillock formation induced by swift (˜GeV) heavy ions. We present a model for the conversion of potential energy stored in the projectiles into target-lattice excitations (heat) and discuss the possibility to create ordered structures using the guiding effect observed in insulating conical structures.

  17. On the theory of inelastic scattering of slow electrons by surface excitations: 2. Thin film formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkoma, J.S.

    1982-08-01

    A quantum-mechanical theory for the inelastic scattering of slow electrons (ISSE) by surface excitations in a thin film is developed. The scattered wave function inside the thin film is obtained by solving the inhomogeneous Schroedinger equation, and it is found to contain terms which show that the back scattered intensity is smaller than the forward scattered intensity. A scattering cross-section for forward scattering is derived and is found to be dependent on transmission factors, wavevectors and fluctuations of the scattering potential. (author)

  18. Fabrication and correction of freeform surface based on Zernike polynomials by slow tool servo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Hsu, Ming-Ying; Peng, Wei-Jei; Hsu, Wei-Yao

    2017-10-01

    Recently, freeform surface widely using to the optical system; because it is have advance of optical image and freedom available to improve the optical performance. For freeform optical fabrication by integrating freeform optical design, precision freeform manufacture, metrology freeform optics and freeform compensate method, to modify the form deviation of surface, due to production process of freeform lens ,compared and provides more flexibilities and better performance. This paper focuses on the fabrication and correction of the free-form surface. In this study, optical freeform surface using multi-axis ultra-precision manufacturing could be upgrading the quality of freeform. It is a machine equipped with a positioning C-axis and has the CXZ machining function which is also called slow tool servo (STS) function. The freeform compensate method of Zernike polynomials results successfully verified; it is correction the form deviation of freeform surface. Finally, the freeform surface are measured experimentally by Ultrahigh Accurate 3D Profilometer (UA3P), compensate the freeform form error with Zernike polynomial fitting to improve the form accuracy of freeform.

  19. Statistical contact angle analyses; "slow moving" drops on a horizontal silicon-oxide surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, M; Grub, J; Heib, F

    2015-06-01

    Sessile drop experiments on horizontal surfaces are commonly used to characterise surface properties in science and in industry. The advancing angle and the receding angle are measurable on every solid. Specially on horizontal surfaces even the notions themselves are critically questioned by some authors. Building a standard, reproducible and valid method of measuring and defining specific (advancing/receding) contact angles is an important challenge of surface science. Recently we have developed two/three approaches, by sigmoid fitting, by independent and by dependent statistical analyses, which are practicable for the determination of specific angles/slopes if inclining the sample surface. These approaches lead to contact angle data which are independent on "user-skills" and subjectivity of the operator which is also of urgent need to evaluate dynamic measurements of contact angles. We will show in this contribution that the slightly modified procedures are also applicable to find specific angles for experiments on horizontal surfaces. As an example droplets on a flat freshly cleaned silicon-oxide surface (wafer) are dynamically measured by sessile drop technique while the volume of the liquid is increased/decreased. The triple points, the time, the contact angles during the advancing and the receding of the drop obtained by high-precision drop shape analysis are statistically analysed. As stated in the previous contribution the procedure is called "slow movement" analysis due to the small covered distance and the dominance of data points with low velocity. Even smallest variations in velocity such as the minimal advancing motion during the withdrawing of the liquid are identifiable which confirms the flatness and the chemical homogeneity of the sample surface and the high sensitivity of the presented approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Surface structure modification of single crystal graphite after slow, highly charged ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzaher, I.; Akcöltekin, S.; Ban-d'Etat, B.; Manil, B.; Dey, K. R.; Been, T.; Boduch, P.; Rothard, H.; Schleberger, M.; Lebius, H.

    2018-04-01

    Single crystal graphite was irradiated by slow, highly charged ions. The modification of the surface structure was studied by means of Low-Energy Electron Diffraction. The observed damage cross section increases with the potential energy, i.e. the charge state of the incident ion, at a constant kinetic energy. The potential energy is more efficient for the damage production than the kinetic energy by more than a factor of twenty. Comparison with earlier results hints to a strong link between early electron creation and later target atom rearrangement. With increasing ion fluence, the initially large-scale single crystal is first transformed into μ m-sized crystals, before complete amorphisation takes place.

  1. Ocean Heat Uptake Slows 21st Century Surface Warming Driven by Extratropical Cloud Feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, W.; Maroon, E.; Pendergrass, A. G.; Kay, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    Equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS), the warming in response to instantaneously doubled CO2, has long been used to compare climate models. In many models, ECS is well correlated with warming produced by transient forcing experiments. Modifications to cloud phase at high latitudes in a state-of-the-art climate model, the Community Earth System Model (CESM), produce a large increase in ECS (1.5 K) via extratropical cloud feedbacks. However, only a small surface warming increase occurs in a realistic 21st century simulation including a full-depth dynamic ocean and the "business as usual" RCP8.5 emissions scenario. In fact, the increase in surface warming is only barely above the internal variability-generated range in the CESM Large Ensemble. The small change in 21st century warming is attributed to subpolar ocean heat uptake in both hemispheres. In the Southern Ocean, the mean-state circulation takes up heat while in the North Atlantic a slowdown in circulation acts as a feedback to slow surface warming. These results show the importance of subpolar ocean heat uptake in controlling the pace of warming and demonstrate that ECS cannot be used to reliably infer transient warming when it is driven by extratropical feedbacks.

  2. Nano-sized surface modifications induced by the impact of slow highly charged ions - A first review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumayr, F.; El-Said, A.S.; Meissl, W.

    2008-01-01

    Irradiation of crystalline solid targets with swift heavy ions can lead to the formation of latent tracks in the solid and the creation of (mostly-hillock type) nanostructures on the surface. Recently similar surface modifications with nanometer dimensions have been demonstrated for the impact of individual, very slow but highly charged ions on various surfaces. We will review the current state of this new field of research. In particular we will discuss the circumstances and conditions under which nano-sized features (hillocks or craters) on different surfaces due to impact of slow highly charged ions can be produced. The use of slow highly charged ions instead of swift heavy ions might be of considerable interest for some practical applications

  3. Interaction of slow, highly charged ions with the surface of ionic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, Rene

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis the creation of permanent nanostructures induced by the impact of very slow (v≤5 x 10 5 m/s) highly charged (q≤40) ions on the ionic crystal surfaces of CaF 2 and KBr is investigated. The systematic analysis of the samples surfaces by means of atomic force microscopy supplies information on the influence of the potential as well as the kinetic projectile energy on the process of structure creation. The individual impact of highly charged ions on the KBr(001) surface can initiate the creation of mono-atomic deep pit-like structures -nanopits- with a lateral size of a few 10 nm. The volume of these pits and the corresponding number of sputtered secondary particles show a linear dependence on the projectiles potential energy. For the onset of pit formation a kinetic energy dependent threshold in the potential energy E grenz pot (E kin ) could be identified. Based on the defect-mediated desorption by electrons and by including effects of defect agglomeration a consistent model for the process of pit formation was drawn. In this work the recently discovered creation of hillock-like structures by impact of highly charged ions on CaF 2 (111) surfaces could be verified for lowest kinetic energies (E kin ≤150 eV x q). For the first time the potential energy of impinging projectiles could be identified to be exclusively responsible for the creation of nanostructures. Furthermore, a shift of potential energy threshold for hillock formation was observed for very small projectile velocities. Within the framework of cooperation with the Vienna University of Technology simulations based on the inelastic thermal spike model were performed, which allowed to interlink the individual hillock formation with a local melting of the ionic lattice. The essential influence of electron emission during the interaction of the highly charged ions with the surface on the process of nanostructuring was taken into consideration by complementary investigations of the secondary

  4. Low energy Cu clusters slow deposition on a Fe (001) surface investigated by molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shixu [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Materials, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gong, Hengfeng [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Division of Nuclear Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Chen, Xuanzhi [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Gongping, E-mail: ligp@lzu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Zhiguang, E-mail: zhgwang@impcas.ac.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Materials, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • We study the deposition of low energy Cu clusters on Fe (001) surface by molecular dynamics. • The interaction between low energy cluster and substrate can be divided to the landing and the thermal diffusion phases. • The phenomenon of contact epitaxy of cluster occurred. • The thermal diffusion of cluster atoms was analyzed. - Abstract: The slow deposition of low energy Cu clusters on a Fe (001) surface was investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. A many-body potential based on Finnis–Sinclair model was used to describe the interactions among atoms. Three clusters comprising of 13, 55 and 147 atoms, respectively, were deposited with incident energies ranging from 0.0 to 1.0 eV/atom at various substrate temperatures (0, 300 and 800 K). The rearrangement and the diffusion of cluster can occur, only when the cluster atoms are activated and obtained enough migration energy. The interaction between low energy cluster and substrate can be divided to the landing and the thermal diffusion phases. In the former, the migration energy originates from the latent heat of binding energy for the soft deposition regime and primarily comes from the incident energy of cluster for the energetic cluster deposition regime. In the latter, the thermal vibration would result in some cluster atoms activated again at medium and high substrate temperatures. Also, the effects of incident energy, cluster size and substrate temperature on the interaction potential energy between cluster and substrate, the final deposition morphology of cluster, the spreading index and the structure parameter of cluster are analyzed.

  5. Vertical incidence of slow Ne{sup 10+} ions on an LiF surface: Suppression of the trampoline effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirtz, Ludger E-mail: lwirtz@concord.itp.tuwien.ac.at; Lemell, Christoph; Reinhold, Carlos O.; Haegg, Lotten; Burgdoerfer, Joachim

    2001-08-01

    We present a Monte Carlo simulation of the neutralization of a slow Ne{sup 10+} ion in vertical incidence on an LiF(1 0 0) surface. The rates for resonant electron transfer between surface F{sup -} ions and the projectile are calculated using a classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulation. We investigate the influence of the hole mobility on the neutralization sequence. It is shown that backscattering above the surface due to the local positive charge up of the surface ('trampoline effect') does not take place.

  6. Vertical incidence of slow Ne 10+ ions on an LiF surface: Suppression of the trampoline effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Ludger; Lemell, Christoph; Reinhold, Carlos O.; Hägg, Lotten; Burgdörfer, Joachim

    2001-08-01

    We present a Monte Carlo simulation of the neutralization of a slow Ne 10+ ion in vertical incidence on an LiF(1 0 0) surface. The rates for resonant electron transfer between surface F - ions and the projectile are calculated using a classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulation. We investigate the influence of the hole mobility on the neutralization sequence. It is shown that backscattering above the surface due to the local positive charge up of the surface ("trampoline effect") does not take place.

  7. Vertical incidence of slow Ne10+ ions on an LiF surface: Suppression of the trampoline effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirtz, Ludger; Lemell, Christoph; Reinhold, Carlos O.; Haegg, Lotten; Burgdoerfer, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    We present a Monte Carlo simulation of the neutralization of a slow Ne 10+ ion in vertical incidence on an LiF(1 0 0) surface. The rates for resonant electron transfer between surface F - ions and the projectile are calculated using a classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulation. We investigate the influence of the hole mobility on the neutralization sequence. It is shown that backscattering above the surface due to the local positive charge up of the surface ('trampoline effect') does not take place

  8. More Falls in Cerebellar Ataxia When Standing on a Slow Up-Moving Tilt of the Support Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Caroline; Franzén, Erika; Horak, Fay B

    2016-06-01

    We investigated how subjects with cerebellar ataxia (CA) adapt their postural stability and alignment to a slow and small tilt of the support surface allowing for online postural corrections. Eight subjects with CA and eight age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects participated in the study. Subjects stood eyes closed for 1 min after which the support surface was tilted 5° toes-up at a ramp velocity of 1°/s. The toes-up position was held for 2.5 min after which the surface rotated back down to level with identical tilt characteristics. As reflected by the large number of falls, subjects with CA had marked difficulty adapting their posture to the up-moving incline in contrast to control subjects. Subjects with CA who lost their balance had faster trunk velocity and excessive backward trunk reorientation beginning within the first second after onset of the tilting surface. In contrast, the down-moving tilt to level did not result in instability in CA subjects. These results suggest that instability and falls associated with CA derive from an inability to maintain trunk orientation to vertical while standing on a slow-moving or unstable surface. This study underscores the importance of the cerebellum in the online sensory control of the upper body orientation during small amplitude and slow velocity movements of the support surface.

  9. Self-healing phenomena on corroding steel in simulated pore water and mortar, substantiated via cyclic voltammetry and surface analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koleva, D. A.; Breugel, K. van [Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands Faculty of CiTG, Department Materials and Environment, Delf (Netherlands); Hu, J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Kolev, H. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Catalysis, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-07-01

    The application of polymeric nano-particles was investigated as an approach to control corrosion and/or self-heal corrosion damage on steel in simulated alkaline medium and reinforced mortar. The “self-healing agent”, present in the closed inner volume of PEO-b-PS vesicles was Ca-based and chosen as such due to the natural predominance of Ca in the investigated system. The vesicles’ concentration was 0.0024 wt.% in the model medium and 0.025 wt.% per cement weight for the case of mortar. Therefore, a “self-repair” or “self-healing” of the steel product layer solely due to the Ca- component is not realistic in view of these minimal concentrations. The most plausible mechanism is the nature of incorporation of the Ca-containing vesicles in the product layer, enhanced chloride binding effects and adsorption on active sites on the steel surface. A more uniform and stable surface layer, initial pitting formation and propagation, but consecutive “healing”, are evidenced by surface analysis and electrochemical response i.e. largely reduced anodic and corrosion currents and no further pit propagation are observed when Ca-containing vesicles are present in the model medium. Corrosion products-free steel/cement paste interface is relevant for the reinforced mortar, containing Ca-rich vesicles in contrast to vesicles-free and empty vesicles-containing matrix. Key words: corrosion; concrete; polymeric nano-particles; CVA; SEM; XRD; XPS.

  10. Fast and slow light generated by surface plasmon wave and gold grating coupling effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Iraj S.; Ariannejad, M. M.; Tajdidzadeh, M.; Sorger, Volker J.; Ling, Xi; Yupapin, P.

    2018-01-01

    We present here the results of a simulation of the effect of gold and graphene coatings on silicon micro-ring resonators. We studied the effect of different radii of graphene on the time delay, from which one an interesting aspect of light pulse behaviors, such as fast light, was numerically investigated. The obtained results indicate that the time delay can be varied, which is in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Fast and slow light pulse trains can be obtained by modifying the throughput port, which forms the gold grating length. The temporal gaps between the fast and slow light in the used graphene and gold are 140 and 168 fs, respectively, which can be tuned by varying the radius or grating length. The obtained results show that such a device may be useful in applications requiring fast and slow light pulse train pairs, such as optical switching, sensors, communications, and security applications.

  11. On the theory of inelastic scattering of slow electrons by surface excitations: 1. Half-space formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkoma, J.S.

    1982-08-01

    A quantum-mechanical theory for the inelastic scattering of slow electrons (ISSE) by surface excitations is developed within the half-space model. The process of transmission of incident electrons into the crystal is described by the homogeneous Schroedinger equation, while the scattering process inside the crystal is described by an inhomogeneous Schroedinger equation. The scattering cross-section for ISSE by surface excitations is derived and is found to be small since it is dependent on an inverse sum of wavevectors which is large. It is also dependent on the fluctuations in the scattering potential. (author)

  12. Incident ion charge state dependence of electron emission during slow multicharged ion-surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, I.G.; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A.; Havener, C.C.; Overbury, S.H.; Robinson, M.T.; Zehner, D.M.; Meyer, F.W.

    1992-01-01

    Characteristic variations in the total electron yield γ as a function of crystal azimuthal orientation are reported for slow N 2+ , N 5+ and N 6+ ions incident on a Au(011) single crystal, together with measurements of γ as a function of incident ion velocity. Kinetic electron emission is shown to arise predominantly in close collisions between incident ions and target atoms, and potential electron emission is found to be essentially constant within our present velocity range. The incident ion charge state is shown to play no role in kinetic electron emission. Extremely fast neutralization times of the order of 10 - 15 secs are needed to explain the observations

  13. Nanofabrication on a Si surface by slow highly charged ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tona, Masahide; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Satoshi; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Yoshiyasu, Nobuo; Sakurai, Makoto; Terui, Toshifumi; Mashiko, Shinro; Yamada, Chikashi; Ohtani, Shunsuke

    2007-01-01

    We have observed surface chemical reactions which occur at the impact sites on a Si(1 1 1)-(7 x 7) surface and a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface bombarded by highly charged ions (HCIs) by using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Crater structures are formed on the Si(1 1 1)-(7 x 7) surface by single I 50+ -impacts. STM-observation for the early step of oxidation on the surface suggests that the impact site is so active that dangling bonds created by HCI impacts are immediately quenched by reaction with residual gas molecules. We show also the selective adsorption of organic molecules at a HCI-induced impact site on the HOPG surface

  14. Nano-scale surface modification of materials with slow, highly charged ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, M.; Tona, M.; Takahashi, S.; Watanabe, H.; Nakamura, N.; Yoshiyasu, N.; Yamada, C.; Ohtani, S.; Sakaue, H.A.; Kawase, Y.; Mitsumori, K.; Terui, T.; Mashiko, S.

    2007-01-01

    Some results on surface modification of Si and graphite with highly charged ions (HCIs) are presented. Modified surfaces were observed using scanning tunneling microscopy. Crater-like structure with a diameter in nm region is formed on a Si(1 1 1)-(7 x 7) surface by the incidence of a single HCI. The protrusion structure is formed on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface on the other hand, and the structure becomes an active site for molecular adsorption. A new, intense HCI source and an experimental apparatus are under development in order to process and observe aligned nanostructures created by the impact of collimated HCI beam

  15. High quality broadband spatial reflections of slow Rayleigh surface acoustic waves modulated by a graded grooved surface

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yanlong; Peng, Pai

    2015-01-01

    . The graded grooved surface is structured by drilling one dimensional array of graded grooves with increased depths on a flat surface. We investigate SAW dispersion relations, wave field distribution at several typical SAW wavelengths, and time evolution of a

  16. X-ray emission in slow highly charged ion-surface collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, H; Abe, T; Fujita, Y; Sun, J; Takahashi, S; Tona, M; Yoshiyasu, N; Nakamura, N; Sakurai, M; Yamada, C; Ohtani, S

    2007-01-01

    X-rays emitted in the collisions of highly charged ions with a surface have been measured to investigate dissipation schemes of their potential energies. While 8.1% of the potential energy was dissipated in the collisions of He-like I ions with a W surface, 29.1% has been dissipated in the case of He-like Bi ions. The x-ray emissions play significant roles in the dissipation of the potential energies in the interaction of highly charged heavy ions with the surface

  17. Ultra slow muon generation and thermionic emission of hydrogen isotopes from tungsten surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Yasuhiro

    2000-01-01

    To generate ultra slow muon, we developed Lyman α light (Lα light) resonance ionization method using 1s-2p-unbound transition. By this method, the desorption process of hydrogen isotope and hydrogen atom generation were studied. In order to generate T atom, the laser resonance ionization of hydrogen nucleus was investigated. When wavelength of VUV light was fixed to 121.52 nm, 1s-2p resonance frequency of T, and VUV light agreed with 355 nm ionization laser in space and time, promising event was observed. The fact showed the resonance ionization method could isolate and detect T atom. By the same method, the experiment of H and D atom were carried out under the condition of the same wavelength of VUV light of 121.57 and 121.53 nm of Lα light, respectively, and the same results were obtained. On the Mu resonance ionization experiment, the light wavelength of VUV was 122.09 nm of Lα of muonium. The results showed the promising event was observed on the expected position of TOF and Mass. The resonance ionization method using Lα light of hydrogen isotope on tungsten film is a very useful method to separate Mu, H, D and T under the same experiment conditions without wavelength of VUV light. (S.Y.)

  18. Surface modification of an Mg-1Ca alloy to slow down its biocorrosion by chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, X N; Zheng, Y F; Lan, Q X; Cheng, Y; Xi, T F; Zhang, Z X; Zhang, D Y

    2009-01-01

    The surface morphologies before and after immersion corrosion test of various chitosan-coated Mg-1Ca alloy samples were studied to investigate the effect of chitosan dip coating on the slowdown of biocorrosion. It showed that the corrosion resistance of the Mg-Ca alloy increased after coating with chitosan, and depended on both the chitosan molecular weight and layer numbers of coating. The Mg-Ca alloy coated by chitosan with a molecular weight of 2.7 x 10 5 for six layers has smooth and intact surface morphology, and exhibits the highest corrosion resistance in a simulated body fluid.

  19. Surface modification of an Mg-1Ca alloy to slow down its biocorrosion by chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X N; Zheng, Y F; Lan, Q X [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System and College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Cheng, Y; Xi, T F [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Z X [Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Research Institute of Peking University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Zhang, D Y, E-mail: gxn139888@pku.edu.c, E-mail: yfzheng@pku.edu.c, E-mail: 8lanqiuxiang@163.co, E-mail: chengyan@pku.edu.c, E-mail: top5460@163.co, E-mail: xitingfei@tom.co, E-mail: zhangdeyuan@lifetechmed.co [Lifetech Scientific (Shenzhen) Co. Ltd, Hi-Tech Park, Shenzhen 518000 (China)

    2009-08-15

    The surface morphologies before and after immersion corrosion test of various chitosan-coated Mg-1Ca alloy samples were studied to investigate the effect of chitosan dip coating on the slowdown of biocorrosion. It showed that the corrosion resistance of the Mg-Ca alloy increased after coating with chitosan, and depended on both the chitosan molecular weight and layer numbers of coating. The Mg-Ca alloy coated by chitosan with a molecular weight of 2.7 x 10{sup 5} for six layers has smooth and intact surface morphology, and exhibits the highest corrosion resistance in a simulated body fluid.

  20. Surface modification of an Mg-1Ca alloy to slow down its biocorrosion by chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X N; Zheng, Y F; Lan, Q X; Cheng, Y; Zhang, Z X; Xi, T F; Zhang, D Y

    2009-08-01

    The surface morphologies before and after immersion corrosion test of various chitosan-coated Mg-1Ca alloy samples were studied to investigate the effect of chitosan dip coating on the slowdown of biocorrosion. It showed that the corrosion resistance of the Mg-Ca alloy increased after coating with chitosan, and depended on both the chitosan molecular weight and layer numbers of coating. The Mg-Ca alloy coated by chitosan with a molecular weight of 2.7 x 10(5) for six layers has smooth and intact surface morphology, and exhibits the highest corrosion resistance in a simulated body fluid.

  1. Interaction of slow and highly charged ions with surfaces: formation of hollow atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolterfoht, N; Grether, M; Spieler, A; Niemann, D [Hahn-Meitner Institut, Berlin (Germany). Bereich Festkoerperphysik; Arnau, A

    1997-03-01

    The method of Auger spectroscopy was used to study the interaction of highly charged ions with Al and C surfaces. The formation of hollow Ne atoms in the first surface layers was evaluated by means of a Density Functional theory including non-linear screening effects. The time-dependent filling of the hollow atom was determined from a cascade model yielding information about the structure of the K-Auger spectra. Variation of total intensities of the L- and K-Auger peaks were interpreted by the cascade model in terms of attenuation effects on the electrons in the solid. (author)

  2. Detailed statistical contact angle analyses; "slow moving" drops on inclining silicon-oxide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, M; Groß, K; Grub, J; Heib, F

    2015-06-01

    Contact angle determination by sessile drop technique is essential to characterise surface properties in science and in industry. Different specific angles can be observed on every solid which are correlated with the advancing or the receding of the triple line. Different procedures and definitions for the determination of specific angles exist which are often not comprehensible or reproducible. Therefore one of the most important things in this area is to build standard, reproducible and valid methods for determining advancing/receding contact angles. This contribution introduces novel techniques to analyse dynamic contact angle measurements (sessile drop) in detail which are applicable for axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric drops. Not only the recently presented fit solution by sigmoid function and the independent analysis of the different parameters (inclination, contact angle, velocity of the triple point) but also the dependent analysis will be firstly explained in detail. These approaches lead to contact angle data and different access on specific contact angles which are independent from "user-skills" and subjectivity of the operator. As example the motion behaviour of droplets on flat silicon-oxide surfaces after different surface treatments is dynamically measured by sessile drop technique when inclining the sample plate. The triple points, the inclination angles, the downhill (advancing motion) and the uphill angles (receding motion) obtained by high-precision drop shape analysis are independently and dependently statistically analysed. Due to the small covered distance for the dependent analysis (contact angle determination. They are characterised by small deviations of the computed values. Additional to the detailed introduction of this novel analytical approaches plus fit solution special motion relations for the drop on inclined surfaces and detailed relations about the reactivity of the freshly cleaned silicon wafer surface resulting in acceleration

  3. Flash lamp annealing of tungsten surfaces marks a new way to optimized slow positron yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwand, W.; Johnson, J. M.; Butterling, M.; Wagner, A.; Skorupa, W.; Brauer, G.

    2013-06-01

    Tungsten in the form of a mono-crystalline foil with an optimum thickness of about 2 μm is often used as a positron moderator in mono-energetic positron beams with 22Na positron sources. The efficiency of such a moderator strongly depends on its prior heat treatment, i.e. an annealing procedure with considerable difficulty at temperatures of about 2000 °C under vacuum conditions. Flash lamp annealing (FLA) has been tested as new method to quickly anneal W foils in order to produce easy manageable, low-cost moderators with a high efficiency. With FLA, just the surface of a W foil is heated above the melting point (3422°C) within 1 to 3 ms, i.e. without melting the whole foil volume. In this way, a surface cleaning is reached connected with a considerable increase in the positron diffusion length. Conventional polycrystalline W foils of 9 μm ± 25% thickness, heat treated by FLA, were characterized and tested as positron moderators. First promising tests result in a moderator efficiency of ~3*10-4 and clearly demonstrate that FLA is also applicable to tungsten meshes.

  4. A notational analysis of elite tennis serve and serve-return strategies on slow surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Eric; Leroy, David; Thouvarecq, Régis; Stein, Jean-François

    2009-03-01

    A notational analysis of singles events at the French Open Grand Slam tournament was undertaken in 2005 and 2006 to characterize the game patterns and strategies of serve and serve-return and to determine their influence on the point issue on a clay court surface. One hundred sixteen men's singles matches were video analyzed. The flat serve (57.6%), particularly down the "T" location (50.3%), allowed servers to win significantly more points than the topspin (24.1%) and slice serves (18.3%). When the topspin was the first serve strategy, servers kept a high percentage of points won from the serve (52.4%). This strategy was essentially used on the second serve (91.6%) by playing the "T" location in the deuce court and the wide zone in the advantage court. Returns to the central zone allowed receivers to win more points (73.3% on first serve and 65.9% on second serve) than plays to external locations. The results highlight the high impact of the first shots of all opponents on the rally. Even on clay, the slowest court surface, serves and serve-returns remain the strokes that most influence the match results in modern tennis games.

  5. Experimental investigation of slow-positron emission from 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, C.C.; Beling, C.D.; Fung, S.; Weng, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Slow-positron emission from the surfaces of as-grown n-type 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC (silicon carbide) with a conversion efficiency of ∼10 -4 has been observed. After 30 min of 1000 deg. C annealing in forming gas, the conversion efficiency of the n-type 6H-SiC sample was observed to be enhanced by 75% to 1.9x10 -4 , but it then dropped to ∼10 -5 upon a further 30 min annealing at 1400 deg. C. The positron work function of the n-type 6H-SiC was found to increase by 29% upon 1000 deg. C annealing. For both p-type 4H-SiC and p-type 6H-SiC materials, the conversion efficiency was of the order of ∼10 -5 , some ten times lower than that for the n-type materials. This was attributed to the band bending at the p-type material surface which caused positrons to drift away from the positron emitting surface. (author)

  6. Relationship between oxygen uptake slow component and surface EMG during heavy exercise in humans: influence of pedal rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruyssen, Fabrice; Missenard, Olivier; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that extreme pedal rates contributed to the slow component of oxygen uptake (VO(2) SC) in association with changes in surface electromyographic (sEMG) during heavy-cycle exercise. Eight male trained cyclists performed two square-wave transitions at 50 and 110 rpm at a work rate that would elicit a VO(2) corresponding to 50% of the difference between peak VO(2) and the ventilatory threshold. Pulmonary gas exchange was measured breath-by-breath and sEMG was obtained from the vastus lateralis and medialis muscles. Integrated EMG flow (QiEMG) and mean power frequency (MPF) were computed. The relative amplitude of the VO(2) SC was significantly higher during the 110-rpm bout (556+/-186 ml min(-1), Pexercise only during the 110-rpm bout and were associated with the greater amplitude of the VO(2) SC observed for this condition (Pmotor units recruitment pattern, muscle energy turnover and muscle temperature have been suggested to explain the different VO(2) SC to heavy pedal rate bouts.

  7. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  8. Slow briefs: slow food....slow architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Crotch, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    We are moving too fast…fast lives, fast cars, fast food…..and fast architecture. We are caught up in a world that allows no time to stop and think; to appreciate and enjoy all the really important things in our lives. Recent responses to this seemingly unstoppable trend are the growing movements of Slow Food and Cittaslow. Both initiatives are, within their own realms, attempting to reverse speed, homogeny, expediency and globalisation, considering the values of regionality, patience, craft, ...

  9. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  10. Slow Antihydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielse, G.; Speck, A.; Storry, C.H.; Le Sage, D.; Guise, N.; Larochelle, P.C.; Grzonka, D.; Oelert, W.; Schepers, G.; Sefzick, T.; Pittner, H.; Herrmann, M.; Walz, J.; Haensch, T.W.; Comeau, D.; Hessels, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Slow antihydrogen is now produced by two different production methods. In Method I, large numbers of H atoms are produced during positron-cooling of antiprotons within a nested Penning trap. In a just-demonstrated Method II, lasers control the production of antihydrogen atoms via charge exchange collisions. Field ionization detection makes it possible to probe the internal structure of the antihydrogen atoms being produced - most recently revealing atoms that are too tightly bound to be well described by the guiding center atom approximation. The speed of antihydrogen atoms has recently been measured for the first time. After the requested overview, the recent developments are surveyed

  11. Determination of the Dissolution Slowness Surface by Study of Etched Shapes: II. Comparison of 2D Experimental and Theoretical Etching Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblois, T.; Tellier, C. R.; Messaoudi, T.

    1997-03-01

    The anisotropic etching behavior of quartz crystal in concentrated ammonium bifluoride solution is studied and analyzed in the framework of a tensorial model. This model allows to simulate bi- or three-dimensional etching shapes from the equation for the representative surface of the dissolution slowness. In this paper, we present experimental results such as surface profile and initially circular cross-sectional profiles of differently singly- or doubly-rotated cuts. The polar diagrams of the dissolution slowness vector in several planes are deduced from experimental data. The comparison between predicted surface and cross-sectional profiles and experimental results is detailed and shows a good agreement. In particular, several examples give evidence that the final etched shapes are correlated to the extrema of the dissolution slowness. However, in several cases, experimental shapes cannot be simply correlated to the presence of extrema. Simulation gives effectively evidence for an important role played by more progressive changes in the curvature of the slowness surface. Consequently, analysis of data merits to be treated carefully. Nous nous proposons d'étudier et d'analyser à l'aide du modèle tensoriel de la dissolution l'attaque chimique anisotrope du cristal de quartz dans une solution concentrée de bifluorure d'ammonium. Ce modèle permet de simuler des formes usinées à deux ou trois dimensions à partir de l'équation de la surface représentative de la lenteur de dissolution du cristal de quartz. Dans cet article, nous présentons des résultats expérimentaux concernant des profils de surface et des sections initialement cylindriques de coupes à simple et double rotation. Les diagrammes polaires du vecteur lenteur de dissolution dans différents plans sont déduits de données expérimentales. La comparaison entre les profils de surface et de section théoriques et les résultats expérimentaux est détaillée et montre un bon accord. En

  12. Surface deformation as a guide to kinematics and three-dimensional shape of slow-moving, clay-rich landslides, Honolulu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, R.L.; Messerich, J.; Fleming, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    Two slow-moving landslides in Honolulu, Hawaii, were the subject of photogrammetric measurements, field mapping, and subsurface investigation to learn whether surface observations can yield useful information consistent with results of subsurface investigation. Mapping focused on structural damage and on surface features such as scarps, shears, and toes. The x-y-z positions of photo-identifiable points were obtained from aerial photographs taken at three different times. The measurements were intended to learn if the shape of the landslide failure surface can be determined from systematic surface observations and whether surface observations about deformation are consistent with photogrammetrically-obtained displacement gradients. Field and aerial photographic measurements were evaluated to identify the boundaries of the landslides, distinguish areas of incipient landslide enlargement, and identify zones of active and passive failure in the landslides. Data reported here apply mainly to the Alani-Paty landslide, a translational, earth-block landslide that damaged property in a 3.4-ha residential area. It began moving in the 1970s and displacement through 1991 totaled 4 m. Thickness, determined from borehole data, ranges from about 7 to 10 m; and the slope of the ground surface averages about 9??. Field evidence of deformation indicated areas of potential landslide enlargement outside the well-formed landslide boundaries. Displacement gradients obtained photogrammetrically and deformation mapping both identified similar zones of active failure (longitudinal stretching) and passive failure (longitudinal shortening) within the body of the landslide. Surface displacement on the landslide is approximately parallel to the broadly concave slip surface.

  13. Particle emission induced by the interaction of highly charged slow Xe-ions with a SiO2 surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiwietz, G.; Skogvall, B.; Schneider, D.; Clark, M.; DeWitt, D.; McDonald, J.

    1991-01-01

    Sputtering of surface atoms by low energy (a few keV) heavy ions is a commonly used technique in material science and applied physics. In general, sputtering occurs via nuclear energy transfer processes and is determined mainly by the atom-atom interaction potentials. In the energy range of interest these potentials depend only slightly on the charge state of one collision partner if the other is neutral. The development of new ion-sources, however, allows for the use of ions with charged states of q > 50. For these highly charged ions it is conceivable that electronic processes come into play as well. If, for example, the density of charged surface atoms exceeds a certain limit, then particle emission can occur via the electrostatic repulsion of target atoms, the so-called Coulomb explosion. Indications for such electronic effects have been found in a few investigations of ion-induced sputtering Si (q q+ ). However, the order of magnitude of this effect is not clear until now. In this work we present preliminary data on sputtering, ion backscattering, electron and photon emission from SiO 2 surface induced by incident Xe ions of very high charge states (q=30--50). The experiment was performed at the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using a time-of-flight (TOF) ion analyzer-system from the Hahn-Meitner-Institute, Berlin

  14. Molecular projectile effects for kinetic electron emission from carbon- and metal-surfaces bombarded by slow hydrogen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernusca, S.; Winter, H.P.; Aumayr, F.; Diez Muino, R.; Juaristi, J.I.

    2003-01-01

    Total yields for kinetic electron emission (KE) have been determined for impact of hydrogen monomer-, dimer- and trimer-ions (impact energy <10 keV) on atomically clean surfaces of carbon-fiber inforced graphite used as first-wall armour in magnetic fusion devices. The data are compared with KE yields for impact of same projectile ions on atomically clean highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and polycrystalline gold. We discuss KE yields for the different targets if bombarded by equally fast molecular and atomic ions in view to 'projectile molecular effects' (different yields per proton for equally fast atomic and molecular ions), which are expected from calculated electronic projectile energy losses in these target materials

  15. Molecular projectile effects for kinetic electron emission from carbon- and metal-surfaces bombarded by slow hydrogen ions

    CERN Document Server

    Cernusca, S; Aumayr, F; Diez-Muino, R; Juaristi, J I

    2003-01-01

    Total yields for kinetic electron emission (KE) have been determined for impact of hydrogen monomer-, dimer- and trimer-ions (impact energy <10 keV) on atomically clean surfaces of carbon-fiber inforced graphite used as first-wall armour in magnetic fusion devices. The data are compared with KE yields for impact of same projectile ions on atomically clean highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and polycrystalline gold. We discuss KE yields for the different targets if bombarded by equally fast molecular and atomic ions in view to 'projectile molecular effects' (different yields per proton for equally fast atomic and molecular ions), which are expected from calculated electronic projectile energy losses in these target materials.

  16. Study of surface layer assessment of solids by ultra-slow and short-pulsed positron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Ryouichi; Ohdaira, Toshiyuki; Mikado, Tomohisa; Yamada, Kawakatsu

    2004-01-01

    Thin films of insulators with low dielectric constant, as a candidate for next generation LSI (large scale integration), were assessed by two dimensional positron life time and wave height measurements using variable incident energy and also short pulsed positron beams. Linkages and openness of nano-scale voids in the films were evaluated by the measurements. Amorphous SiO 2 films were compared with SiCOH films synthesized by plasma CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) by measurements of the correlation between positron lifetime and momentum using short-pulsed positron beams. From the measurements, many hydrocarbons were found on void surface of SiCOH films. Positron lifetime measurement gives information about void sizes, and Doppler broadening due to annihilation γ-rays offers electron momentum distribution, which is a counterpart of positron annihilation. Two γ-rays are emitted on the positron annihilation. Coincident measurements of these two γ-rays provide the correlation spectra between positron lifetime and momentum. An instrument for positron annihilation excitation Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES) was improved, and a time-of-flight (TOF) PAES instrument was developed. Double counting rate and high resolution, compared with a conventional Auger electron spectrometer, were attained in elementary analysis using above TOF-PAES instrument. (Y. Kazumata)

  17. Interaction of slow, highly charged ions with the surface of ionic crystals; Wechselwirkung langsamer hochgeladener Ionen mit der Oberflaeche von Ionenkristallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, Rene

    2009-08-15

    In this thesis the creation of permanent nanostructures induced by the impact of very slow (v{<=}5 x 10{sup 5} m/s) highly charged (q{<=}40) ions on the ionic crystal surfaces of CaF{sub 2} and KBr is investigated. The systematic analysis of the samples surfaces by means of atomic force microscopy supplies information on the influence of the potential as well as the kinetic projectile energy on the process of structure creation. The individual impact of highly charged ions on the KBr(001) surface can initiate the creation of mono-atomic deep pit-like structures -nanopits- with a lateral size of a few 10 nm. The volume of these pits and the corresponding number of sputtered secondary particles show a linear dependence on the projectiles potential energy. For the onset of pit formation a kinetic energy dependent threshold in the potential energy E{sup grenz}{sub pot}(E{sub kin}) could be identified. Based on the defect-mediated desorption by electrons and by including effects of defect agglomeration a consistent model for the process of pit formation was drawn. In this work the recently discovered creation of hillock-like structures by impact of highly charged ions on CaF{sub 2}(111) surfaces could be verified for lowest kinetic energies (E{sub kin}{<=}150 eV x q). For the first time the potential energy of impinging projectiles could be identified to be exclusively responsible for the creation of nanostructures. Furthermore, a shift of potential energy threshold for hillock formation was observed for very small projectile velocities. Within the framework of cooperation with the Vienna University of Technology simulations based on the inelastic thermal spike model were performed, which allowed to interlink the individual hillock formation with a local melting of the ionic lattice. The essential influence of electron emission during the interaction of the highly charged ions with the surface on the process of nanostructuring was taken into consideration by

  18. The TTI slowness surface approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Stovas, A.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2011-01-01

    the accuracy of the expansion, we develop an explicit formula for the dispersion relation that is highly accurate for all practical purposes. It also reveals some insights into the anisotropy parameter dependency of the dispersion relation including the low

  19. FROM SLOW FOOD TO SLOW TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bac Dorin Paul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the effects of globalization is the faster pace of our lives. This rhythm can be noticed in all aspects of life: travel, work, shopping, etc. and it has serious negative effects. It has become common knowledge that stress and speed generate serious medical issues. Food and eating habits in the modern world have taken their toll on our health. However, some people took a stand and argued for a new kind of lifestyle. It all started in the field of gastronomy, where a new movement emerged – Slow Food, based on the ideas and philosophy of Carlo Petrini. Slow Food represents an important adversary to the concept of fast food, and is promoting local products, enjoyable meals and healthy food. The philosophy of the Slow Food movement developed in several directions: Cittaslow, slow travel and tourism, slow religion and slow money etc. The present paper will account the evolution of the concept and its development during the most recent years. We will present how the philosophy of slow food was applied in all the other fields it reached and some critical points of view. Also we will focus on the presence of the slow movement in Romania, although it is in a very early stage of development. The main objectives of the present paper are: to present the chronological and ideological evolution of the slow movement; to establish a clear separation of slow travel and slow tourism, as many mistake on for the other; to review the presence of the slow movement in Romania. Regarding the research methodology, information was gathered from relevant academic papers and books and also from interviews and discussions with local entrepreneurs. The research is mostly theoretical and empirical, as slow food and slow tourism are emerging research themes in academic circles.

  20. Movement - uncontrolled or slow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dystonia; Involuntary slow and twisting movements; Choreoathetosis; Leg and arm movements - uncontrollable; Arm and leg movements - uncontrollable; Slow involuntary movements of large muscle groups; Athetoid movements

  1. Spatial distribution of reflection intensity of the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate, near the main slip area of the Boso Slow Slip Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, A.; Sato, T.; Shinohara, M.; Mochizuki, K.; Yamada, T.; Uehira, K.; Shimbo, T.; Machida, Y.; Hino, R.; Azuma, R.

    2017-12-01

    Off the Boso Peninsula, Japan, the Pacific plate (PAC) is subducting westward beneath the Honshu Island Arc (HIA) and the Philippine Sea plate (PHS), while the PHS is subducting northwestward under the HIA. Such tectonic interactions have caused various seismic events such as the Boso Slow Slip Events (SSEs). To better understand these seismic events, it is important to determine the structure under this region. In May 2017, we published 2D P-wave velocity structure under the survey area, and showed geometry of the upper surface of PHS (UPHS) and reflection intensity variation along it. From our result and previous studies, relatively strong reflection from the UPHS can be observed near the main slip area of Boso SSEs, and such reflective area may relate with the Boso SSEs. However, it is still insufficient to link both only from the 2D models and further work is needed to reveal spatial distribution of the strong reflection area. From July to August 2009, we conducted a marine seismic experiment using airgun as source off the east coast of the Boso Peninsula. Airgun was shot along the 4 survey lines, and 27 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) were deployed in the survey area. In our presentation, we used 18 OBSs to determine 3D P-wave velocity structure. We estimated 3D velocity structure from airgun data recorded in the OBSs by using the FAST (Zelt and Barton, 1998). Next, we picked the reflection traveltimes likely reflected from the UPHS and applied them to the Traveltime mapping method (Fujie et al. 2006) to estimate spatial locations of the reflectors. As a result, reflections from the UPHS seem to concentrate near the main slip area of the Boso SSEs and an area where the serpentine seamount chain of the Izu-Bonin subduction zone is subducting. Acknowledgement The marine seismic experiment was conducted by R/V Hakuhou-maru of Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, and the OBSs were retrieved by Shincho-maru of Shin-Nihon-Kaiji co. Ltd. (Present

  2. Capillary waves in slow motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seydel, Tilo; Tolan, Metin; Press, Werner; Madsen, Anders; Gruebel, Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    Capillary wave dynamics on glycerol surfaces has been investigated by means of x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy performed at grazing angles. The measurements show that thermally activated capillary wave motion is slowed down exponentially when the sample is cooled below 273 K. This finding directly reflects the freezing of the surface waves. The wave-number dependence of the measured time constants is in quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions for overdamped capillary waves

  3. Revealing the cluster of slow transients behind a large slow slip event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, William B; Rousset, Baptiste; Lasserre, Cécile; Campillo, Michel

    2018-05-01

    Capable of reaching similar magnitudes to large megathrust earthquakes [ M w (moment magnitude) > 7], slow slip events play a major role in accommodating tectonic motion on plate boundaries through predominantly aseismic rupture. We demonstrate here that large slow slip events are a cluster of short-duration slow transients. Using a dense catalog of low-frequency earthquakes as a guide, we investigate the M w 7.5 slow slip event that occurred in 2006 along the subduction interface 40 km beneath Guerrero, Mexico. We show that while the long-period surface displacement, as recorded by Global Positioning System, suggests a 6-month duration, the motion in the direction of tectonic release only sporadically occurs over 55 days, and its surface signature is attenuated by rapid relocking of the plate interface. Our proposed description of slow slip as a cluster of slow transients forces us to re-evaluate our understanding of the physics and scaling of slow earthquakes.

  4. Too slow, for Milton

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, N.

    2011-01-01

    Too slow, for Milton was written in 2011, as part of a memorial project for Milton Babbitt. The piece borrows harmonies from Babbitt's Composition for 12 Instruments (harmonies which Babbitt had in turn borrowed from Schoenberg's Ode to Napoleon), but unfolds them as part of a musical texture characterised by repetition, resonance, and a slow rate of change. As Babbitt once told me that my music was 'too slow', this seemed an appropriately obstinate form of homage.

  5. An upper limit for slow-earthquake zones: self-oscillatory behavior through the Hopf bifurcation mechanism from a spring-block model under lubricated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Rodríguez, Valentina; Campos-Cantón, Eric; Barboza-Gudiño, Rafael; Femat, Ricardo

    2017-08-01

    The complex oscillatory behavior of a spring-block model is analyzed via the Hopf bifurcation mechanism. The mathematical spring-block model includes Dieterich-Ruina's friction law and Stribeck's effect. The existence of self-sustained oscillations in the transition zone - where slow earthquakes are generated within the frictionally unstable region - is determined. An upper limit for this region is proposed as a function of seismic parameters and frictional coefficients which are concerned with presence of fluids in the system. The importance of the characteristic length scale L, the implications of fluids, and the effects of external perturbations in the complex dynamic oscillatory behavior, as well as in the stationary solution, are take into consideration.

  6. Very slow neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A.

    1983-01-01

    The history is briefly presented of the research so far of very slow neutrons and their basic properties are explained. The methods are described of obtaining very slow neutrons and the problems of their preservation are discussed. The existence of very slow neutrons makes it possible to perform experiments which may deepen the knowledge of the fundamental properties of neutrons. Their wavelength approximates that of visible radiation. The possibilities and use are discussed of neutron optical systems (neutron microscope) which could be an effective instrument for the study of the detailed arrangement, especially of organic substances. (B.S.)

  7. Transformer Industry Productivity Slows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Phyllis Flohr

    1981-01-01

    Annual productivity increases averaged 2.4 percent during 1963-79, slowing since 1972 to 1.5 percent; computer-assisted design and product standardization aided growth in output per employee-hour. (Author)

  8. 24 CFR 902.79 - Substantial default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial default. 902.79 Section... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Incentives and Remedies § 902.79 Substantial default. (a) Events or conditions that constitute substantial default. The following events or conditions shall constitute...

  9. Bi-functionalization of a calcium phosphate-coated titanium surface with slow-release simvastatin and metronidazole to provide antibacterial activities and pro-osteodifferentiation capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Zhang, X.; Jin, X.; Fan, C.; Ye, H.; Ou, M.; Lv, L.; Wu, G.; Zhou, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Coating the surface of titanium implants or other bone graft substitute materials with calcium phosphate (Ca-P) crystals is an effective way to enhance the osteoconduction of the implants. Ca-P coating alone cannot confer pro-osteodifferentiation and antibacterial capabilities on implants; however,

  10. Hidden slow pulsars in binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Marco; Brookshaw, Leigh

    1993-01-01

    The recent discovery of the binary containing the slow pulsar PSR 1718-19 orbiting around a low-mass companion star adds new light on the characteristics of binary pulsars. The properties of the radio eclipses of PSR 1718-19 are the most striking observational characteristics of this system. The surface of the companion star produces a mass outflow which leaves only a small 'window' in orbital phase for the detection of PSR 1718-19 around 400 MHz. At this observing frequency, PSR 1718-19 is clearly observable only for about 1 hr out of the total 6.2 hr orbital period. The aim of this Letter is twofold: (1) to model the hydrodynamical behavior of the eclipsing material from the companion star of PSR 1718-19 and (2) to argue that a population of binary slow pulsars might have escaped detection in pulsar surveys carried out at 400 MHz. The possible existence of a population of partially or totally hidden slow pulsars in binaries will have a strong impact on current theories of binary evolution of neutron stars.

  11. Comparative Study of Surface-lattice-site Resolved Neutralization of Slow Multicharged Ions during Large-angle Quasi-binary Collisions with Au(110): Simulation and Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, F.W.

    2001-01-01

    In this article we extend our earlier studies of the azimuthal dependences of low energy projectiles scattered in large angle quasi-binary collisions from Au(110). Measurements are presented for 20 keV Ar 9+ at normal incidence, which are compared with our earlier measurements for this ion at 5 keV and 10 0 incidence angle. A deconvolution procedure based on MARLOWE simulation results carried out at both energies provides information about the energy dependence of projectile neutralization during interactions just with the atoms along the top ridge of the reconstructed Au(110) surface corrugation, in comparison to, e.g., interactions with atoms lying on the sidewalls. To test the sensitivity of the agreement between the MARLOWE results and the experimental measurements, we show simulation results obtained for a non-reconstructed Au(110) surface with 20 keV Ar projectiles, and for different scattering potentials that are intended to simulate the effects on scattering trajectory of a projectile inner shell vacancy surviving the binary collision, In addition, simulation results are shown for a number of different total scattering angles, to illustrate their utility in finding optimum values for this parameter prior to the actual measurements

  12. Slow potentials in a melody recognition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verleger, R; Schellberg, D

    1990-01-01

    In a previous study, slow negative shifts were found in the EEG of subjects listening to well-known melodies. The two experiments reported here were designed to investigate the variables to which these slow potentials are related. In the first experiment, two opposite hypotheses were tested: The slow shifts might express subjects' acquaintance with the melodies or, on the contrary, the effort invested to identify them. To this end, some of the melodies were presented in the rhythms of other melodies to make recognition more difficult. Further, melodies rated as very well-known and as very unknown were analysed separately. However, the slow shifts were not affected by these experimental variations. Therefore in the second experiment, on the one hand the purely physical parameters intensity and duration were varied, but this variation had no impact on the slow shifts either. On the other hand, recognition was made more difficult by monotonously repeating the pitch of the 4th tone for the rest of some melodies. The slow negative shifts were enhanced with these monotonous melodies. This enhancement supports the "effort" hypothesis. Accordingly, the ofter shifts obtained in both experiments might likewise reflect effort. But since the task was not demanding, it is suggested that these constant shifts reflect the effort invested for coping with the entire underarousing situation rather than with the task. Frequently, slow eye movements occurred in the same time range as the slow potentials, resulting in EOG potentials spreading to the EEG recording sites. Yet results did not change substantially when the EEG recordings were corrected for the influence of EOG potentials.

  13. Bi-functionalization of a calcium phosphate-coated titanium surface with slow-release simvastatin and metronidazole to provide antibacterial activities and pro-osteodifferentiation capabilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsong Liu

    Full Text Available Coating the surface of titanium implants or other bone graft substitute materials with calcium phosphate (Ca-P crystals is an effective way to enhance the osteoconduction of the implants. Ca-P coating alone cannot confer pro-osteodifferentiation and antibacterial capabilities on implants; however, it can serve as a carrier for biological agents which could improve the performance of implants and bone substitutes. Here, we constructed a novel, bi-functional Ca-P coating with combined pro-osteodifferentiation and antibacterial capabilities. Different concentrations of metronidazole (MNZ and simvastatin (SIM were integrated into biomimetic Ca-P coatings on the surface of titanium disks. The biological effects of this bi-functional biomimetic coating on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs, human adipose derived stromal cells (hASCs, and Porphyromonas gingivalis were assessed in vitro. We observed that Ca-P coatings loaded with both SIM and MNZ display favorable release kinetics without affecting cell proliferation or attachment. In the inhibition zone test, we found that the bi-functional coating showed lasting antibacterial effects when incubated with Porphyromonas gingivalis for 2 and 4 days. Moreover, the osteodifferentiation of hBMMSCs and hASCs were increased when cultured on this bi-functional coating for 7 and 14 days. Both drugs were loaded onto the Ca-P coating at specific concentrations (10(-5 M SIM; 10(-2 M MNZ to achieve optimal release kinetics. Considering the safety, stability and low cost of SIM and MNZ, this novel bi-functional Ca-P coating technique represents a promising method to improve the performance of metal implants or other bone substitute materials, and can theoretically be easily translated to clinical applications.

  14. Ion desorption from solid surfaces under slow (KeV) and fast (MeV) ion sputtering. Influence of the charge state and of the incidence angle on the input channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joret, H.

    1990-06-01

    Solid surfaces of organic and inorganic materials have been bombarded by fast heavy ions (several MeV). It is shown that the charge state of the projectile has a strong influence on the atomic and molecular ion desorption yield. Experimental studies proved that molecular ions can be emitted intact from deep layers underneath the surface (volume emission) with the existence of a crater emission. On the other hand light ions like H(+), H(+)-2, H(+)-3 are emitted from the surface of the solid in a time around 10 -16 second. The H(+) depends on the incident charge state g-i. When using slow ions (keV) the same dependence was observed for the first time and compared to the fast ion results. The equilibrum charge state of fast ions passing through solids was measured. The influence of the angle of incidence was investigated. Langmuir-Blodgett films of fatty acid were used. A geometrical model is developed for the 50 angstroms layer [fr

  15. Kinetic slow mode-type solitons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Baumgärtel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional hybrid code simulations are presented, carried out in order both to study solitary waves of the slow mode branch in an isotropic, collisionless, medium-β plasma (βi=0.25 and to test the fluid based soliton interpretation of Cluster observed strong magnetic depressions (Stasiewicz et al., 2003; Stasiewicz, 2004 against kinetic theory. In the simulations, a variety of strongly oblique, large amplitude, solitons are seen, including solitons with Alfvenic polarization, similar to those predicted by the Hall-MHD theory, and robust, almost non-propagating, solitary structures of slow magnetosonic type with strong magnetic field depressions and perpendicular ion heating, which have no counterpart in fluid theory. The results support the soliton-based interpretation of the Cluster observations, but reveal substantial deficiencies of Hall-MHD theory in describing slow mode-type solitons in a plasma of moderate beta.

  16. SPS slow extraction septa

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    SPS long straight section (LSS) with a series of 5 septum tanks for slow extraction (view in the direction of the proton beam). There are 2 of these: in LSS2, towards the N-Area; in LSS6 towards the W-Area. See also Annual Report 1975, p.175.

  17. AGS slow extraction improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, J.W.; Smith, G.A.; Sandberg, J.N.; Repeta, L.; Weisberg, H.

    1979-01-01

    Improvement of the straightness of the F5 copper septum increased the AGS slow extraction efficiency from approx. 80% to approx. 90%. Installation of an electrostatic septum at H2O, 24 betatron wavelengths upstream of F5, further improved the extraction efficiency to approx. 97%

  18. PF slow positron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakawa, A.; Enomoto, A.; Kurihara, T.

    1993-01-01

    A new slow-positron source is under construction at the Photon Factory. Positrons are produced by bombarding a tantalum rod with high-energy electrons; they are moderated in multiple tungsten vanes. We report here the present status of this project. (author)

  19. Slowing down bubbles with sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, Cedric; Dangla, Remie; Guinard, Marion

    2009-11-01

    We present experimental evidence that a bubble moving in a fluid in which a well-chosen acoustic noise is superimposed can be significantly slowed down even for moderate acoustic pressure. Through mean velocity measurements, we show that a condition for this effect to occur is for the acoustic noise spectrum to match or overlap the bubble's fundamental resonant mode. We render the bubble's oscillations and translational movements using high speed video. We show that radial oscillations (Rayleigh-Plesset type) have no effect on the mean velocity, while above a critical pressure, a parametric type instability (Faraday waves) is triggered and gives rise to nonlinear surface oscillations. We evidence that these surface waves are subharmonic and responsible for the bubble's drag increase. When the acoustic intensity is increased, Faraday modes interact and the strongly nonlinear oscillations behave randomly, leading to a random behavior of the bubble's trajectory and consequently to a higher slow down. Our observations may suggest new strategies for bubbly flow control, or two-phase microfluidic devices. It might also be applicable to other elastic objects, such as globules, cells or vesicles, for medical applications such as elasticity-based sorting.

  20. γ-ray emission from slow pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, M.; Treves, A.

    1981-01-01

    The scope of this communication is to calculate the expected γ-ray flux from slow pulsars, neglecting the problem of the reliability of the observations. The key hypothesis is that since the γ-ray luminosity is a substantial fraction of Lsub(T) (the intrinsic energy loss), it should be produced in the vicinity of the speed of light radius. This comes from the well known argument of simultaneous conservation of energy and angular momentum. (Auth.)

  1. Slow wave cyclotron maser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kho, T.H.; Lin, A.T.

    1988-01-01

    Cyclotron masers such as Gyrotrons and the Autoresonance Masers, are fast wave devices: the electromagnetic wave's phase velocity v rho , is greater than the electron beam velocity, v b . To be able to convert the beam kinetic energy into radiation in these devices the beam must have an initial transverse momentum, usually obtained by propagating the beam through a transverse wiggler magnet, or along a nonuniform guide magnetic field before entry into the interaction region. Either process introduces a significant amount of thermal spread in the beam which degrades the performance of the maser. However, if the wave phase velocity v rho v b , the beam kinetic energy can be converted directly into radiation without the requirement of an initial transverse beam momentum, making a slow wave cyclotron maser a potentially simpler and more compact device. The authors present the linear and nonlinear physics of the slow wave cyclotron maser and examine its potential for practical application

  2. Slow-transit Constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Philips, Sidney F.

    2001-08-01

    Idiopathic slow-transit constipation is a clinical syndrome predominantly affecting women, characterized by intractable constipation and delayed colonic transit. This syndrome is attributed to disordered colonic motor function. The disorder spans a spectrum of variable severity, ranging from patients who have relatively mild delays in transit but are otherwise indistinguishable from irritable bowel syndrome to patients with colonic inertia or chronic megacolon. The diagnosis is made after excluding colonic obstruction, metabolic disorders (hypothyroidism, hypercalcemia), drug-induced constipation, and pelvic floor dysfunction (as discussed by Wald ). Most patients are treated with one or more pharmacologic agents, including dietary fiber supplementation, saline laxatives (milk of magnesia), osmotic agents (lactulose, sorbitol, and polyethylene glycol 3350), and stimulant laxatives (bisacodyl and glycerol). A subtotal colectomy is effective and occasionally is indicated for patients with medically refractory, severe slow-transit constipation, provided pelvic floor dysfunction has been excluded or treated.

  3. Increased greenhouse effect substantiated through measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skartveit, Arvid

    2001-01-01

    The article presents studies on the greenhouse effect which substantiates the results from satellite measurements during the period 1970 - 1997. These show an increased effect due to increase in the concentration of the climatic gases CO 2 , methane, CFC-11 and CFC-12 in the atmosphere

  4. 21 CFR 514.4 - Substantial evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies, such as a study in a target species, study in laboratory animals... and conditions of use. Substantial evidence of effectiveness of a new animal drug shall demonstrate that the new animal drug is effective for each intended use and associated conditions of use for and...

  5. Toward More Substantial Theories of Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Cinnamon Ann

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive linguists argue that certain sets of knowledge of language are innate. However, critics have argued that the theoretical concept of "innateness" should be eliminated since it is ambiguous and insubstantial. In response, I aim to strengthen theories of language acquisition and identify ways to make them more substantial. I…

  6. Coaxial slow source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, R.D.; Jarboe, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    Field reversed configurations (FRCs) are a class of compact toroid with not toroidal field. The field reversed theta pinch technique has been successfully used for formation of FRCs since their inception in 1958. In this method an initial bias field is produced. After ionization of the fill gas, the current in the coil is rapidly reversed producing the radial implosion of a current sheath. At the ends of the coil the reversed field lines rapidly tear and reconnect with the bias field lines until no more bias flux remains. At this point, vacuum reversed field accumulates around the configuration which contracts axially until an equilibrium is reached. When extrapolating the use of such a technique to reactor size plasmas two main shortcomings are found. First, the initial bias field, and hence flux in a given device, which can be reconnected to form the configuration is limited from above by destructive axial dynamics. Second, the voltages required to produce rapid current reversal in the coil are very large. Clearly, a low voltage formation technique without limitations on flux addition is desirable. The Coaxial Slow Source (CSS) device was designed to meet this need. It has two coaxial theta pinch coils. Coaxial coil geometry allows for the addition of as much magnetic flux to the annular plasma between them as can be generated inside the inner coil. Furthermore the device can be operated at charging voltages less than 10 kV and on resistive diffusion, rather than implosive time scales. The inner coil is a novel, concentric, helical design so as to allow it to be cantilevered on one end to permit translation of the plasma. Following translation off the inner coil the Annular Field Reversed Configuration would be re-formed as a true FRC. In this paper we investigate the formation process in the new parallel configuration., CSSP, in which the inner and outer coils are connected in parallel to the main capacitor bank

  7. Substantiating the Incurred but not Reported Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Vintilã

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to handle past and future liability taken by insurance contracts concluded, any insurance company must constitute and maintain technical reserves. Substantiating technical reserves is done through actuarial methods and its over-evaluation or under-evaluation influence solvency and financial performance of the insurance companies, in the sense of reducing solvency through over-evaluating reserves and, respectively, influencing profit (hence of outstanding tax through under-evaluating reserves. An important reserve for insurance companies is represented by the incurred but not reported reserve, as it allows the estimation of the liability the company may confront in the future, generated by events occurred in the past, which are not currently known in the present but will be reported in the future.

  8. Slow Tourism: Exploring the discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guiver

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ‘Slow travel’ and ‘slow tourism’ are relatively new, but contested, concepts. This paper examines the meanings ascribed to them in the academic literature and websites targeted at potential tourists. It finds concurrence on aspects of savouring time at the destination and investing time to appreciate the locality, its people, history, culture and products, but detects different emphases. The academic literature stresses the benefits to the destination and global sustainability, while the websites focus on the personal benefits and ways of becoming a ‘slow tourist’. Food and drink epitomise the immersion in and absorption of the destination and the multi-dimensional tourism experience, contrasted with the superficiality of mainstream tourism. The paper discusses whether tourists practising slow tourism without using the label are slow tourists or not.

  9. Substantial nitrogen pollution embedded in international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oita, Azusa; Malik, Arunima; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Geschke, Arne; Nishijima, Shota; Lenzen, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and water bodies can damage human health and ecosystems. As a measure of a nation’s contribution to this potential damage, a country’s nitrogen footprint has been defined as the quantity of reactive nitrogen emitted during the production, consumption and transportation of commodities consumed within that country, whether those commodities are produced domestically or internationally. Here we use global emissions databases, a global nitrogen cycle model, and a global input-output database of domestic and international trade to calculate the nitrogen footprints for 188 countries as the sum of emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, and of nitrogen potentially exportable to water bodies. Per-capita footprints range from under 7 kg N yr-1 in some developing countries to over 100 kg N yr-1 in some wealthy nations. Consumption in China, India, the United States and Brazil is responsible for 46% of global emissions. Roughly a quarter of the global nitrogen footprint is from commodities that were traded across country borders. The main net exporters have significant agricultural, food and textile exports, and are often developing countries, whereas important net importers are almost exclusively developed economies. We conclude that substantial local nitrogen pollution is driven by demand from consumers in other countries.

  10. Substantial Research Secures the Blue Future for our Blue Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Abdel Maksoud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Earth, the blue planet, is our home, and seas and oceans cover more than 70% of its surface. As the earth’s population rapidly increases and available resources decrease, seas and oceans can play a key role in assuring the long-term survival of humankind. Renewable maritime energy has huge potential to provide a considerable part of the earth’s population with decarbonised electricity generation systems. Renewable maritime energy is very flexible and can be harvested above the water’s free surface by using offshore wind turbines, on the water’s surface by using wave energy converters or below the water’s surface by using current or tidal turbines. The supposed conflict between environmental protection measures and economic interests is neither viable nor reasonable. Renewable maritime energy can be the motor for considerable substantial economic growth for many maritime regions and therefore for society at large. The fastest growing sector of renewable maritime energy is offshore wind. The annual report of the European Wind Energy Association from the year 2015 confirms the growing relevance of the offshore wind industry. In 2015, the total installed and grid-connected capacity of wind power was 12,800 MW in the EU and 6,013.4 MW in Germany. 38% of the 2015 annual installation in Germany was offshore, accounting for a capacity of 2,282.4 MW. However, there are a limited number of available installation sites in shallow water, meaning that there is an urgent need to develop new offshore structures for water depths greater than 50m. The persistent trend towards deeper waters has encouraged the offshore wind industry to look for floating wind turbine structures and larger turbines. Floating wind turbine technologies are at an early stage of development and many technical and economic challenges will still need to be faced. Nonetheless, intensive research activities and the employment of advanced technologies are the key factors in

  11. The GPRC6A Receptor displays Constitutive Internalization and Sorting to the Slow Recycling Pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Engesgaard; Ammendrup-Johnsen, Ina; Jansen, Anna Mai

    2017-01-01

    The class C G protein-coupled receptor GPRC6A is a putative nutrient sensing receptor and represents a possible new drug target in metabolic disorders. However, the specific physiological role of this receptor has yet to be identified, and the mechanisms regulating its activity and cell surface...... availability also remain enigmatic. In the present study, we investigated the trafficking properties of GPRC6A by use of both a classical antibody feeding internalization assay in which cells were visualized using confocal microscopy and a novel internalization assay that is based on real-time measurements...... slow recycling pathway, which may be responsible for ensuring a persistent pool of GPRC6A receptors at the cell surface despite chronic agonist exposure. Distinct trafficking pathways have been reported for several of the class C receptors, and our results thus substantiate that non...

  12. Substantially parallel flux uncluttered rotor machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S.

    2012-12-11

    A permanent magnet-less and brushless synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic rotating field when sourced by polyphase alternating currents. An uncluttered rotor is positioned within the magnetic rotating field and is spaced apart from the stator. An excitation core is spaced apart from the stator and the uncluttered rotor and magnetically couples the uncluttered rotor. The brushless excitation source generates a magnet torque by inducing magnetic poles near an outer peripheral surface of the uncluttered rotor, and the stator currents also generate a reluctance torque by a reaction of the difference between the direct and quadrature magnetic paths of the uncluttered rotor. The system can be used either as a motor or a generator

  13. Substantial Union or Substantial Distinction of Mind and Body in Descartes' Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahime Jamei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Descartes’ metaphysics there are two different kinds of substances in the world of creatures: “thinking substance” and “extended substance” or soul and matter. In Descartes’ philosophy the soul is equal to the mind and considered as a “thinking substance”. This immaterial substance is the essence of the human being. Body, being considered as a “matter“, is an “extended substance” and entirely distinct from the soul. The soul, therefore, exists and may be known prior to body and, not being corporeal, can exist after human death. Hence, Descartes can prove the immortality of human soul in the framework of the principle of substantial distinction. On the other hand, as a physiologist and psychologist, Descartes indeed believes in mind-body union, so that some causal interactions between mind and body show their substantial union. In this essay, the authors show that Descartes faces a serious problem in combining substantial union of mind and body with their substantial distinction; despite of his efforts in introducing the idea of pineal gland, the problem remains unsolved. Therefore it seems that as he cannot dispense with his only reason for proving the immortality of human soul, he has to hold the mind-body distinction theory in his metaphysics. Indeed, Descartes prefers to support the distinction theory rather than union theory in confronting a thesis and an antithesis stating one of two theories

  14. Substantial :union: or Substantial Distinction of Mind and Body in Descartes\\' Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    f Jamei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available According to Descartes’ metaphysics there are two different kinds of substances in the world of creatures: “thinking substance” and “extended substance” or soul and matter. In Descartes’ philosophy the soul is equal to the mind and considered as a “thinking substance”. This immaterial substance is the essence of the human being. Body, being considered as a “matter“, is an “extended substance” and entirely distinct from the soul. The soul, therefore, exists and may be known prior to body and, not being corporeal, can exist after human death. Hence, Descartes can prove the immortality of human soul in the framework of the principle of substantial distinction. On the other hand, as a physiologist and psychologist, Descartes indeed believes in mind-body :union:, so that some causal interactions between mind and body show their substantial :union:. In this essay, the authors show that Descartes faces a serious problem in combining substantial :union: of mind and body with their substantial distinction despite of his efforts in introducing the idea of pineal gland, the problem remains unsolved. Therefore it seems that as he cannot dispense with his only reason for proving the immortality of human soul, he has to hold the mind-body distinction theory in his metaphysics. Indeed, Descartes prefers to support the distinction theory rather than :union: theory in confronting a thesis and an antithesis stating one of two theories.

  15. Slow light in moving media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, U.; Piwnicki, P.

    2001-06-01

    We review the theory of light propagation in moving media with extremely low group velocity. We intend to clarify the most elementary features of monochromatic slow light in a moving medium and, whenever possible, to give an instructive simplified picture.

  16. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contraception - slow-release hormonal methods; Progestin implants; Progestin injections; Skin patch; Vaginal ring ... might want to consider a different birth control method. SKIN PATCH The skin patch is placed on ...

  17. Slow rupture of frictional interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Sinai, Yohai Bar; Brener, Efim A.; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2011-01-01

    The failure of frictional interfaces and the spatiotemporal structures that accompany it are central to a wide range of geophysical, physical and engineering systems. Recent geophysical and laboratory observations indicated that interfacial failure can be mediated by slow slip rupture phenomena which are distinct from ordinary, earthquake-like, fast rupture. These discoveries have influenced the way we think about frictional motion, yet the nature and properties of slow rupture are not comple...

  18. Sound asleep: Processing and retention of slow oscillation phase-targeted stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, R.; Korjoukov, I.; de Boer, M.; Talamini, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    The sleeping brain retains some residual information processing capacity. Although direct evidence is scarce, a substantial literature suggests the phase of slow oscillations during deep sleep to be an important determinant for stimulus processing. Here, we introduce an algorithm for predicting slow

  19. Fast algorithm for the rendering of three-dimensional surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritt, Mark D.

    1994-02-01

    It is often desirable to draw a detailed and realistic representation of surface data on a computer graphics display. One such representation is a 3D shaded surface. Conventional techniques for rendering shaded surfaces are slow, however, and require substantial computational power. Furthermore, many techniques suffer from aliasing effects, which appear as jagged lines and edges. This paper describes an algorithm for the fast rendering of shaded surfaces without aliasing effects. It is much faster than conventional ray tracing and polygon-based rendering techniques and is suitable for interactive use. On an IBM RISC System/6000TM workstation it renders a 1000 X 1000 surface in about 7 seconds.

  20. The Potential of/for 'Slow': Slow Tourists and Slow Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guiver

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Slow tourism practices are nothing new; in fact, they were once the norm and still are for millions of people whose annual holiday is spent camping, staying in caravans, rented accommodation, with friends and relations or perhaps in a second home, who immerse themselves in their holiday environment, eat local food, drink local wine and walk or cycle around the area. So why a special edition about slow tourism? Like many aspects of life once considered normal (such as organic farming or free-range eggs, the emergence of new practices has highlighted differences and prompted a re-evaluation of once accepted practices and values. In this way, the concept of ‘slow tourism’ has recently appeared as a type of tourism that contrasts with many contemporary mainstream tourism practices. It has also been associated with similar trends already ‘branded’ slow: slow food and cittaslow (slow towns and concepts such as mindfulness, savouring and well-being.

  1. Slow, stopped and stored light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, G.; Scully, M.

    2005-01-01

    Light that can been slowed to walking pace could have applications in telecommunications, optical storage and quantum computing. Whether we use it to estimate how far away a thunderstorm is, or simply take it for granted that we can have a conversation with someone on the other side of the world, we all know that light travels extremely fast. Indeed, special relativity teaches us that nothing in the universe can ever move faster than the speed of light in a vacuum: 299 792 458 ms sup - sup 1. However, there is no such limitation on how slowly light can travel. For the last few years, researchers have been routinely slowing light to just a few metres per second, and have recently even stopped it dead in its tracks so that it can be stored for future use. Slow-light has considerable popular appeal, deriving perhaps from the importance of the speed of light in relativity and cosmology. If everyday objects such as cars or people can travel faster than 'slow' light, for example, then it might appear that relativistic effects could be observed at very low speeds. Although this is not the case, slow light nonetheless promises to play an important role in optical technology because it allows light to be delayed for any period of time desired. This could lead to all-optical routers that would increase the bandwidth of the Internet, and applications in optical data storage, quantum information and even radar. (U.K.)

  2. Slow rupture of frictional interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar Sinai, Yohai; Brener, Efim A.; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2012-02-01

    The failure of frictional interfaces and the spatiotemporal structures that accompany it are central to a wide range of geophysical, physical and engineering systems. Recent geophysical and laboratory observations indicated that interfacial failure can be mediated by slow slip rupture phenomena which are distinct from ordinary, earthquake-like, fast rupture. These discoveries have influenced the way we think about frictional motion, yet the nature and properties of slow rupture are not completely understood. We show that slow rupture is an intrinsic and robust property of simple non-monotonic rate-and-state friction laws. It is associated with a new velocity scale cmin, determined by the friction law, below which steady state rupture cannot propagate. We further show that rupture can occur in a continuum of states, spanning a wide range of velocities from cmin to elastic wave-speeds, and predict different properties for slow rupture and ordinary fast rupture. Our results are qualitatively consistent with recent high-resolution laboratory experiments and may provide a theoretical framework for understanding slow rupture phenomena along frictional interfaces.

  3. Implications of the Deep Minimum for Slow Solar Wind Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiochos, S. K.; Mikic, Z.; Lionello, R.; Titov, V. S.; Linker, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    The origin of the slow solar wind has long been one of the most important problems in solar/heliospheric physics. Two observational constraints make this problem especially challenging. First, the slow wind has the composition of the closed-field corona, unlike the fast wind that originates on open field lines. Second, the slow wind has substantial angular extent, of order 30 degrees, which is much larger than the widths observed for streamer stalks or the widths expected theoretically for a dynamic heliospheric current sheet. We propose that the slow wind originates from an intricate network of narrow (possibly singular) open-field corridors that emanate from the polar coronal hole regions. Using topological arguments, we show that these corridors must be ubiquitous in the solar corona. The total solar eclipse in August 2008, near the lowest point of the Deep Minimum, affords an ideal opportunity to test this theory by using the ultra-high resolution Predictive Science's (PSI) eclipse model for the corona and wind. Analysis of the PSI eclipse model demonstrates that the extent and scales of the open-field corridors can account for both the angular width of the slow wind and its closed-field composition. We discuss the implications of our slow wind theory for the structure of the corona and heliosphere at the Deep Minimum and describe further observational and theoretical tests. This work has been supported by the NASA HTP, SR&T, and LWS programs.

  4. Slowness and sparseness have diverging effects on complex cell learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn-Philipp Lies

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Following earlier studies which showed that a sparse coding principle may explain the receptive field properties of complex cells in primary visual cortex, it has been concluded that the same properties may be equally derived from a slowness principle. In contrast to this claim, we here show that slowness and sparsity drive the representations towards substantially different receptive field properties. To do so, we present complete sets of basis functions learned with slow subspace analysis (SSA in case of natural movies as well as translations, rotations, and scalings of natural images. SSA directly parallels independent subspace analysis (ISA with the only difference that SSA maximizes slowness instead of sparsity. We find a large discrepancy between the filter shapes learned with SSA and ISA. We argue that SSA can be understood as a generalization of the Fourier transform where the power spectrum corresponds to the maximally slow subspace energies in SSA. Finally, we investigate the trade-off between slowness and sparseness when combined in one objective function.

  5. SLOW-RELEASE UREA APPLIED TO SURFACE AND REGULAR UREA INCORPORATED TO SOIL ON MAIZE YIELD UREIA DE LIBERAÇÃO LENTA APLICADA SUPERFICIALMENTE E UREIA COMUM INCORPORADA AO SOLO NO RENDIMENTO DO MILHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloene Rodriges Godoy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Urea applied to the soil surface results in high losses of nitrogen (N by volatilization of NH3. The use of polymers covering urea granules is an alternative management to reduce such losses. The experiment was carried out in Entisols (Quartzipsament, with 6% of clay, in the 2007/2008 harvest, in Jataí, Goiás State, Brazil, in order to assess the efficiency of the following management systems: urea incorporated to the soil and polymer coated urea applied to the surface, concerning the agronomic and economic aspects of maize cultivation. It was implemented an experimental design in randomized blocks, with eight replications, totaling 24 plots. The covering nitrogen fertilization was performed in a single application, at the V5 stage. The urea incorporated to the soil resulted in higher values related to ear length and diameter, number of grains per ear, mass of one hundred grains, and relation between earned revenue and invested capital. The highest grain yield and profitability were obtained with the application of urea incorporated to the soil. For each Real (R$ 1.00 invested in the cultivation, the urea incorporated to the soil produced R$ 1.37 as profit.

    KEY-WORDS: Zea mays L.; slow-release fertilizer; nitrogen; polymers; no-tillage system.

  6. 20 CFR 416.1075 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 416.1075... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 416.1075 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and until...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1675 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 404.1675... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 404.1675 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and until...

  8. Slow Images and Entangled Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swordy, Simon

    2007-01-01

    I will discuss some recent experiments using slow light and entangled photons. We recently showed that it was possible to map a two dimensional image onto very low light level signals, slow them down in a hot atomic vapor while preserving the amplitude and phase of the images. If time remains, I will discuss some of our recent work with time-energy entangled photons for quantum cryptography. We were able to show that we could have a measurable state space of over 1000 states for a single pair of entangled photons in fiber.

  9. Pulsar slow-down epochs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintzmann, H.; Novello, M.

    1981-01-01

    The relative importance of magnetospheric currents and low frequency waves for pulsar braking is assessed and a model is developed which tries to account for the available pulsar timing data under the unifying aspect that all pulsars have equal masses and magnetic moments and are born as rapid rotators. Four epochs of slow-down are distinguished which are dominated by different braking mechanisms. According to the model no direct relationship exists between 'slow-down age' and true age of a pulsar and leads to a pulsar birth-rate of one event per hundred years. (Author) [pt

  10. A slowing-down problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlvik, I; Pershagen, B

    1958-06-15

    An infinitely long circular cylinder of radius a is surrounded by an infinite moderator. Both media are non-capturing. The cylinder emits neutrons of age zero with a constant source density of S. We assume that the ratios of the slowing-down powers and of the diffusion constants are independent of the neutron energy. The slowing-down density is calculated for two cases, a) when the slowing-down power of the cylinder medium is very small, and b) when the cylinder medium is identical with the moderator. The ratios of the slowing-down density at the age {tau} and the source density in the two cases are called {psi}{sub V}, and {psi}{sub M} respectively. {psi}{sub V} and {psi}{sub M} are functions of y=a{sup 2}/4{tau}. These two functions ({psi}{sub V} and {psi}{sub M}) are calculated and tabulated for y = 0-0.25.

  11. Numerical modeling of slow shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winske, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews previous attempt and the present status of efforts to understand the structure of slow shocks by means of time dependent numerical calculations. Studies carried out using MHD or hybrid-kinetic codes have demonstrated qualitative agreement with theory. A number of unresolved issues related to hybrid simulations of the internal shock structure are discussed in some detail. 43 refs., 8 figs

  12. Techniques for slow positron beam generation and the applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Sohei

    1994-01-01

    Slow positron beams have been expected to be a powerful tool for observation of nature in wide range of research fields from materials science to basic physics, chemistry and biology. In this paper, at first, the beam technology is reviewed, which includes the positron generation, the transformation to slow positron beams and the beam manipulation such as beam stretching, bunching and brightness enhancement. Next, the present status of the slow positron beam applications to a variety of fields is demonstrated in terms of special characteristics of positron, that is, depth controllability, surface sensitivity, unique ionization channels and elemental anti-particle properties. Finally, prospects to produce intense slow positron beams are described. (author) 65 refs

  13. The unappreciated slowness of conventional tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Larsen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Most tourists are not consciously engaging in ‘slow travel’, but a number of travel behaviours displayed by conventional tourists can be interpreted as slow travel behaviour. Based on Danish tourists’ engagement with the distances they travel across to reach their holiday destination, this paper explores unintended slow travel behaviours displayed by these tourists. None of the tourists participating in this research were consciously doing ‘slow travel’, and yet some of their most valued holiday memories are linked to slow travel behaviours. Based on the analysis of these unintended slow travel behaviours, this paper will discuss the potential this insight might hold for promotion of slow travel. If unappreciated and unintentional slow travel behaviours could be utilised in the deliberate effort of encouraging more people to travel slow, ‘slow travel’ will be in a better position to become integrated into conventional travel behaviour.

  14. 19 CFR 10.7 - Substantial containers or holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial containers or holders. 10.7 Section 10... Exported and Returned § 10.7 Substantial containers or holders. (a) Substantial containers or holders... domestic products exported and returned. When such containers or holders are imported not containing or...

  15. 20 CFR 604.6 - Conformity and substantial compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conformity and substantial compliance. 604.6... FOR ELIGIBILITY FOR UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION § 604.6 Conformity and substantial compliance. (a) In... for the administration of its UC program. (b) Resolving Issues of Conformity and Substantial...

  16. A Primer to Slow Light

    OpenAIRE

    Leonhardt, U.

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory-based optical analogs of astronomical objects such as black holes rely on the creation of light with an extremely low or even vanishing group velocity (slow light). These brief notes represent a pedagogical attempt towards elucidating this extraordinary form of light. This paper is a contribution to the book Artificial Black Holes edited by Mario Novello, Matt Visser and Grigori Volovik. The paper is intended as a primer, an introduction to the subject for non-experts, not as a det...

  17. The fast slow TDPAC spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cekic, B.; Koicki, S.; Manasijevic, M.; Ivanovic, N.; Koteski, V.; Milosevic, Z.; Radisavljevic, I.; Cavor, J.; Novakovic, N.; Marjanovic, D.

    2001-01-01

    A 2-BaF 2 detector - fast slow time spectrometer for time differential perturbed angular correlations (TDPAC) experiments is described. This apparatus has been developed in the Group for Hyperfine Interactions in the Institute for Nuclear Sciences in VINCA. The excellent time resolution combined with high efficiency offered by these detectors enables one high counting rate performance and is operating in the wide temperature range 78-1200 K. (author)

  18. Slow electrons kill the ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerk, T.

    2001-01-01

    A new method and apparatus (Trochoidal electron monochromator) to study the interactions of electrons with atoms, molecules and clusters was developed. Two applications are briefly reported: a) the ozone destruction in the atmosphere is caused by different reasons, a new mechanism is proposed, that slow thermal electrons are self added to the ozone molecule (O 3 ) with a high frequency, then O 3 is destroyed ( O 3 + e - → O - + O 2 ); b) another application is the study of the binding energy of the football molecule C60. (nevyjel)

  19. The CUORE slow monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, L.; Biare, D.; Cappelli, L.; Cushman, J. S.; Del Corso, F.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Hickerson, K. P.; Moggi, N.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Schmidt, B.; Wagaarachchi, S. L.; Welliver, B.; Winslow, L. A.

    2017-09-01

    CUORE is a cryogenic experiment searching primarily for neutrinoless double decay in 130Te. It will begin data-taking operations in 2016. To monitor the cryostat and detector during commissioning and data taking, we have designed and developed Slow Monitoring systems. In addition to real-time systems using LabVIEW, we have an alarm, analysis, and archiving website that uses MongoDB, AngularJS, and Bootstrap software. These modern, state of the art software packages make the monitoring system transparent, easily maintainable, and accessible on many platforms including mobile devices.

  20. Blowup for flat slow manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kristian Uldall

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a way of extending the blowup method, in the formulation of Krupa and Szmolyan, to flat slow manifolds that lose hyperbolicity beyond any algebraic order. Although these manifolds have infinite co-dimensions, they do appear naturally in certain settings; for example, in (a......) the regularization of piecewise smooth systems by tanh, (b) a particular aircraft landing dynamics model, and finally (c) in a model of earthquake faulting. We demonstrate the approach using a simple model system and the examples (a) and (b)....

  1. Blowup for flat slow manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, K. U.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we present a way of extending the blowup method, in the formulation of Krupa and Szmolyan, to flat slow manifolds that lose hyperbolicity beyond any algebraic order. Although these manifolds have infinite co-dimensions, they do appear naturally in certain settings; for example, in (a) the regularization of piecewise smooth systems by \\tanh , (b) a particular aircraft landing dynamics model, and finally (c) in a model of earthquake faulting. We demonstrate the approach using a simple model system and the examples (a) and (b).

  2. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-01-01

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of th...

  3. Integrated Photonics Enabled by Slow Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Chen, Yuntian; Ek, Sara

    2012-01-01

    In this talk we will discuss the physics of slow light in semiconductor materials and in particular the possibilities offered for integrated photonics. This includes ultra-compact slow light enabled optical amplifiers, lasers and pulse sources.......In this talk we will discuss the physics of slow light in semiconductor materials and in particular the possibilities offered for integrated photonics. This includes ultra-compact slow light enabled optical amplifiers, lasers and pulse sources....

  4. Net-Zero Building Technologies Create Substantial Energy Savings -

    Science.gov (United States)

    only an estimated 1% of commercial buildings are built to net-zero energy criteria. One reason for this Continuum Magazine | NREL Net-Zero Building Technologies Create Substantial Energy Savings Net -Zero Building Technologies Create Substantial Energy Savings Researchers work to package and share step

  5. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134... substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the United States in manufacture which results in an article having a name, character, or use differing from...

  6. A fast-slow logic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Hideo.

    1977-01-01

    A fast-slow logic system has been made for use in multi-detector experiments in nuclear physics such as particle-gamma and particle-particle coincidence experiments. The system consists of a fast logic system and a slow logic system. The fast logic system has a function of fast coincidences and provides timing signals for the slow logic system. The slow logic system has a function of slow coincidences and a routing control of input analog signals to the ADCs. (auth.)

  7. Slow Decomposition of Silicone Rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    for the presence of silanol groups in the original polymer was obtained by reacting PDMS with tetraethoxysllane, yielding a substantial amount, 76 per...degree of gelatlon. 4J 8 An attempt was also made to block these OH groups by reacting POMS with hexamethyldisilazane to yield trimethylsiloxy groups in...toluene for various periods. Cold extraction, 0; hot ( Soxhlet ) extraction, A. Figure 2. Soluble fraction AS generated in a previously- extracted

  8. Traditional Procurement is too Slow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Kong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an exploratory interview survey of construction project participants aimed at identifying the reasons for the decrease in use of the traditional, lump-sum, procurement system in Malaysia. The results show that most people believe it is too slow. This appears to be in part due to the contiguous nature of the various phase and stages of the process and especially the separation of the design and construction phases. The delays caused by disputes between the various parties are also seen as a contributory factor - the most prominent cause being the frequency of variations, with design and scope changes being a particular source of discontent. It is concluded that an up scaling of the whole of the time related reward/penalty system may be the most appropriate measure for the practice in future.

  9. Slow pyrolysis of pistachio shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apaydin-Varol, Esin; Putun, Ersan; Putun, Ayse E [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-08-15

    In this study, pistachio shell is taken as the biomass sample to investigate the effects of pyrolysis temperature on the product yields and composition when slow pyrolysis is applied in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure to the temperatures of 300, 400, 500, 550, 700{sup o}C. The maximum liquid yield was attained at about 500-550{sup o}C with a yield of 20.5%. The liquid product obtained under this optimum temperature and solid products obtained at all temperatures were characterized. As well as proximate and elemental analysis for the products were the basic steps for characterization, column chromatography, FT-IR, GC/MS and SEM were used for further characterization. The results showed that liquid and solid products from pistachio shells show similarities with high value conventional fuels. 31 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Comparative study of surface-lattice-site resolved neutralization of slow multicharged ions during large-angle quasi-binary collisions with Au(1 1 0): Simulation and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, F.W.; Morozov, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    In this article we extend our earlier studies of the azimuthal dependences of low energy projectiles scattered in large angle quasi-binary collisions (BCs) from Au(1 1 0). Measurements are presented for 20 keV Ar 9+ at normal incidence, which are compared with our earlier measurements for this ion at 5 keV and 10 deg. incidence angle. A deconvolution procedure based on MARLOWE simulation results carried out at both energies provides information about the energy dependence of projectile neutralization during interactions just with the atoms along the top ridge of the reconstructed Au(1 1 0) surface corrugation, in comparison to, e.g. interactions with atoms lying on the sidewalls. To test the sensitivity of the agreement between the MARLOWE results and the experimental measurements, we show simulation results obtained for a non-reconstructed Au(1 1 0) surface with 20 keV Ar projectiles, and for different scattering potentials that are intended to simulate the effects on scattering trajectory of a projectile inner shell vacancy surviving the BC. In addition, simulation results are shown for a number of different total scattering angles, to illustrate their utility in finding optimum values for this parameter prior to the actual measurements

  11. Dual-layer surface coating of PLGA-based nanoparticles provides slow-release drug delivery to achieve metronomic therapy in a paclitaxel-resistant murine ovarian cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoozgar, Zohreh; Wang, Lei; Brandstoetter, Tania; Wallis, Samuel S; Wilson, Erin M; Goldberg, Michael S

    2014-11-10

    Development of drug resistance is a central challenge to the treatment of ovarian cancer. Metronomic chemotherapy decreases the extent of drug-free periods, thereby hindering development of drug resistance. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy allows for treatment of tumors confined within the peritoneum, but achieving sustained tumor-localized chemotherapy remains difficult. We hypothesized that modulating the surface properties of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based nanoparticles could enhance their drug retention ability and extend their release profile, thereby enabling metronomic, localized chemotherapy in vivo. Paclitaxel was encapsulated in particles coated with a layer of polydopamine and a subsequent layer of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). These particles achieved a 3.8-fold higher loading content compared to that of nanoparticles formulated from linear PLGA-PEG copolymers. In vitro release kinetic studies and in vivo drug distribution profiles demonstrate sustained release of paclitaxel. Although free drug conferred no survival advantage, low-dose intraperitoneal administration of paclitaxel-laden surface-coated nanoparticles to drug-resistant ovarian tumor-bearing mice resulted in significant survival benefits in the absence of any apparent systemic toxicity.

  12. Crystal plastic earthquakes in dolostones: from slow to fast ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passelegue, F. X.; Aubry, J.; Nicolas, A.; Fondriest, M.; Schubnel, A.; Di Toro, G.

    2017-12-01

    Dolostone is the most dominant lithology of the seismogenic upper crust around the Mediterranean Sea. Understanding the internal mechanisms controlling fault friction is crucial for understanding seismicity along active faults. Displacement in such fault zones is frequently highlighted by highly reflective (mirror-like) slip surfaces, created by thin films of nanogranular fault rock. Using saw-cut dolostone samples coming from natural fault zones, we conducted stick-slip experiments under triaxial loading conditions at 30, 60 and 90 MPa confining pressure and temperature ranging from 30 to 100 degrees C. At 30 and 65 degrees C, only slow rupture was observed and the experimental fault exhibits frictional behaviour, i.e. a dependence of normal stress on peak shear stress. At 65 degrees C, a strengthening behaviour is observed after the main rupture, leading to a succession of slow rupture. At 100 degrees C, the macroscopic behaviour of the fault becomes ductile, and no dependence of pressure on the peak shear stress is observed. In addition, the increase of the confining pressure up to 60 and 90 MPa allow the transition from slow to fast rupture, highlighted by the records of acoustic activity and by dynamic stress drop occurring in a few tens of microseconds. Using strain gages located along the fault surface and acoustic transducers, we were able to measure the rupture velocities during slow and fast rupture. Slow ruptures propagated around 0.1 m/s, in agreement with natural observations. Fast ruptures propagated up to supershear velocities, i.e. faster than the shear wave speed (>3500 m/s). A complete study of the microstructures was realized before and after ruptures. Slow ruptures lead to the production of mirror-like surface driven by the production of nanograins due to dislocation processes. Fast ruptures induce the production of amorphous material along the fault surface, which may come from decarbonation and melting processes. We demonstrate that the

  13. PSI: Very slow polarized muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    At the 'pion factory' of the Swiss Paul Scherrer Institute, a collaboration of PSI, Heidelberg and Zurich (ETH) has recently produced intense beams of positive muons which have kinetic energies as low as 10 eV and with complete polarization (spin orientation). The new results were achieved at a surface muon channel, transporting positive muons from the decay of positive pions stopped at the surface of a pion production target. Surface muons with 4 MeV kinetic energy were transported by a conventional secondary beam channel and partially stopped in a moderator consisting of a layer of solidified noble gas deposited on a cold metallic substrate

  14. Methodology for substantiation of the fast reactor fuel element serviceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsykanov, V.A.; Maershin, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Methodological aspects of fast reactor fuel element serviceability substantiation are presented. The choice of the experimental program and strategies of its realization to solve the problem set in short time, taking into account available experimental means, are substantiated. Factors determining fuel element serviceability depending on parameters and operational conditions are considered. The methodological approach recommending separate studing of the factors, which points to the possibility of data acquisition, required for the development of calculational models and substantiation of fuel element serviceability in pilot and experimental reactors, is described. It is shown that the special-purpose data are more useful for the substantiation of fuel element serviceability and analytical method development than unsubstantial and expensive complex tests of fuel elements and fuel assemblies, which should be conducted only at final stages for the improvement of the structure on the whole

  15. Nuclear industry in a country with a substantial oil reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, R.; Castillo, H.; Costa, D.; Galan, I.; Martinez, M.

    1981-01-01

    The importance of the development of a nuclear industry in a country like Mexico, with a substantial oil reserve is analyzed, taking into account the technical, economical, political, ecological and social aspects of the problem. (author)

  16. TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC SUBSTANTIATION OF PROJECTS OF THE AFFORDABLE HOUSING CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRAVCHUNOVSKA T. S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Problem statement. The development of inhabitant locality of Ukraine is characterized by significant differences in levels of socio and economic development. An excessive concentration of population and industry in large cities, inefficient, slow development of most medium and small cities, towns and villages, considerable territorial disproportions of economic development of the country, considerable shortcomings in the territorial organization of society are observed. At the same time the tendency of the total area of increasing of inhabitant locality. The lands are used inefficiently. Among the most common problems of inhabitant locality is the housing problem. When making a decision on the design of affordable housing construction is one of the most important stages in the development of the technique and economic substantiation of the project is determination of the advisability and effectiveness of construction. The substantiation of advisability and effectiveness of affordable housing based on the definition of technical and economic indicators of projects, one of the most important among them is the cost, in its calculation is necessary to take into account the influence of organizational and technological factors, reflecting the features of construction in condition of compacted construction. Purpose. Development of methodical recommendations on substantiation of cost construction of affordable housing in the conditions of compacted construction. Conclusion. To provide a processing and the analysis of data is necessary development of the applied software on the basis of the developed block scheme of justification of cost construction of affordable housing.

  17. TRIP steel microstructure visualized by slow and very slow electrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikmeková, Šárka; Yamada, K.; Noro, H.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 6 (2013), s. 589-596 ISSN 2050-5698 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : SLEEM * SEM * crystallographic contrast * surface sensitivity * multi-phase steels * cathode lens mode Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  18. Plant domestication slows pest evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Lochab, Amaneet K; Turley, Nash E; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural practices such as breeding resistant varieties and pesticide use can cause rapid evolution of pest species, but it remains unknown how plant domestication itself impacts pest contemporary evolution. Using experimental evolution on a comparative phylogenetic scale, we compared the evolutionary dynamics of a globally important economic pest - the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) - growing on 34 plant taxa, represented by 17 crop species and their wild relatives. Domestication slowed aphid evolution by 13.5%, maintained 10.4% greater aphid genotypic diversity and 5.6% higher genotypic richness. The direction of evolution (i.e. which genotypes increased in frequency) differed among independent domestication events but was correlated with specific plant traits. Individual-based simulation models suggested that domestication affects aphid evolution directly by reducing the strength of selection and indirectly by increasing aphid density and thus weakening genetic drift. Our results suggest that phenotypic changes during domestication can alter pest evolutionary dynamics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  19. Anorexia nervosa: slow regain of bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valla, A; Groenning, I L; Syversen, U; Hoeiseth, A

    2000-01-01

    In a retrospective study of women aged 18-30 years, aimed at assessing factors associated with peak bone mass (PBM), 13 of 239 study cases reported having had anorexia nervosa. The mean total femoral and lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) values were not significantly lower in women who had had anorexia than in the pooled group (mean Z-scores of -0.60 and -0.48). Cases with less than 6 years since the anorexia had on average a present weight 5.7 kg less than their premorbid weights, while cases with more than 6 years since the eating disorder had an average weight 22.5 kg above their pre-morbid weights. The cases who had not regained their weight had BMD values significantly lower than the pooled material (mean Z-scores -1.15 and -0.9 in the lumbar spine and total femur respectively). Those who had regained their weight had BMD values as predicted from their present anthropometric data, while those who had not regained their weight had BMD values that were substantially below that predicted from their present weight. Anorexia nervosa seems to be associated with a low BMD which is even lower than that which can be predicted from the weight loss alone. This suggests that weight loss and other factors, such as menstrual dysfunction and estrogen deficiency, are independent and thus additive causes of bone loss in anorexia nervosa. Recovery of BMD seems slow, but the BMD may become as predicted from the anthropometric data after restoration of body weight and menses. The potential for recovery of BMD seems intact for several years after menarche.

  20. Applications of Slow Light in Telecommunications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boyd, Robert W; Gauthier, Daniel J; Gaeta, Alexander L

    2006-01-01

    .... Now, optical scientists are turning their attention toward developing useful applications of slow light, including controllable optical delay lines, optical buffers and true time delay methods...

  1. Superintensive pulse slow neutron source SIN based on kaon factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolmichkov, N.V.; Laptev, V.D.; Matveev, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    Possibility of intensive pulse slow neutron source creation based on 45-GeV proton synchrotron of K-meson factory, planned to construction in INR AS USSR is considered. Calculated peak thermal neutrons flux density value, averaged on 'radiating' light-water moderator surface of 100 cm 2 is 6.6 x 10 17 neutrons/(cm 2 sec) for pulse duration of 35 microseconds. (author)

  2. A Flexible Multiring Concentric Electrode for Non-Invasive Identification of Intestinal Slow Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Zena-Giménez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing new types of optimized electrodes for specific biomedical applications can substantially improve the quality of the sensed signals. Concentric ring electrodes have been shown to provide enhanced spatial resolution to that of conventional disc electrodes. A sensor with different electrode sizes and configurations (monopolar, bipolar, etc. that provides simultaneous records would be very helpful for studying the best signal-sensing arrangement. A 5-pole electrode with an inner disc and four concentric rings of different sizes was developed and tested on surface intestinal myoelectrical recordings from healthy humans. For good adaptation to a curved body surface, the electrode was screen-printed onto a flexible polyester substrate. To facilitate clinical use, it is self-adhesive, incorporates a single connector and can perform dry or wet (with gel recordings. The results show it to be a versatile electrode that can evaluate the optimal configuration for the identification of the intestinal slow wave and reject undesired interference. A bipolar concentric record with an outer ring diameter of 30 mm, a foam-free adhesive material, and electrolytic gel gave the best results.

  3. Response of electret dosemeter to slow neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghilardi, A.J.P.; Pela, C.A.; Zimmerman, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The response of electret dosemeter to slow neutrons exposure is cited, mentioning the preparation and the irradiation of dosemeter with Am-Be source. Some theory considerations about the response of electret dosemeter to slow and fast neutrons are also presented. (C.G.C.) [pt

  4. Tandem queue with server slow-down

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miretskiy, D.I.; Scheinhardt, W.R.W.; Mandjes, M.R.H.

    2007-01-01

    We study how rare events happen in the standard two-node tandem Jackson queue and in a generalization, the socalled slow-down network, see [2]. In the latter model the service rate of the first server depends on the number of jobs in the second queue: the first server slows down if the amount of

  5. Slow-light pulses in moving media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiurasek, J.; Leonhardt, U.; Parentani, R.

    2002-01-01

    Slow light in moving media reaches a counterintuitive regime when the flow speed of the medium approaches the group velocity of light. Pulses can penetrate a region where a counterpropagating flow exceeds the group velocity. When the counterflow slows down, pulses are reflected

  6. Can fast and slow intelligence be differentiated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Partchev, I.; de Boeck, P.

    2012-01-01

    Responses to items from an intelligence test may be fast or slow. The research issue dealt with in this paper is whether the intelligence involved in fast correct responses differs in nature from the intelligence involved in slow correct responses. There are two questions related to this issue: 1.

  7. Slow Movement/Slow University: Critical Engagements. Introduction to the Thematic Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie O'Neill

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This thematic section emerged from two seminars that took place at Durham University in England in November 2013 and March 2014 on the possibilities for thinking through what a change movement towards slow might mean for the University. Slow movements have emerged in relation to a number of topics: Slow food, Citta slow and more recently, slow science. What motivated us in the seminars was to explore how far these movements could help us address the acceleration and intensification of work within our own and other universities, and indeed, what new learning, research, philosophies, practices, structures and governance might emerge. This editorial introduction presents the concept of the "slow university" and introduces our critical engagements with slow. The articles presented here interrogate the potentialities, challenges, problems and pitfalls of the slow university in an era of corporate culture and management rationality. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1403166

  8. "Slow the spread" a national program to contain the gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexei A. Sharov; Donna Leonard; Andrew M. Liebhold; E. Anderson Roberts; Willard Dickerson; Willard Dickerson

    2002-01-01

    Invasions by alien species can cause substantial damage to our forest resources. The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) represents one example of this problem, and we present here a new strategy for its management that concentrates on containment rather than suppression of outbreaks. The "Slow the Spread" project is a combined federal and state...

  9. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-15

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. SUBSTANTIATION OF SOLUTIONS PERTAINING TO COMPLEX PRODUCTION RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Gurinovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While taking an example of reconstruction and modernization of OJSC «Construction and Mounting Trust No.16, Novopolotsk» the paper substantiates solutions for complex production reconstruction. The production reconstruction is divided in three start-up facilities ensuring continuous finished-product output.

  11. 26 CFR 1.528-4 - Substantiality test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Substantiality test. 1.528-4 Section 1.528-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... residence. Units which are used for purposes auxiliary to residential use (such as laundry areas, swimming...

  12. Engineering Substantially Prolonged Human Lifespans: Biotechnological Enhancement and Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkx, P.H.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Substantial extension of the human lifespan has recently become a subject of lively debate. One reason for this is the completion in 2001 of the Human Genome Project and the experimental avenues for biogerontological research it has opened. Another is recent theoretical progress in biogerontology.

  13. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The..., except in the Gulf of Mexico. In the Gulf of Mexico, it means the area shoreward of the lines of...

  14. 76 FR 63846 - Substantially Underserved Trust Areas (SUTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... Cost Rural Communities; 10.861, Public Television Station Digital Transition Grant Program; 10.862... rule do not impose substantial unreimbursed direct compliance costs on Indian tribal, Alaska native, or native Hawaiian governments and sovereign institutions or have tribal implications that preempt tribal...

  15. KEK-IMSS Slow Positron Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyodo, T; Wada, K; Yagishita, A; Kosuge, T; Saito, Y; Kurihara, T; Kikuchi, T; Shirakawa, A; Sanami, T; Ikeda, M; Ohsawa, S; Kakihara, K; Shidara, T, E-mail: toshio.hyodo@kek.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 (Japan)

    2011-12-01

    The Slow Positron Facility at the Institute of Material Structure Science (IMSS) of High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) is a user dedicated facility with an energy tunable (0.1 - 35 keV) slow positron beam produced by a dedicated 55MeV linac. The present beam line branches have been used for the positronium time-of-flight (Ps-TOF) measurements, the transmission positron microscope (TPM) and the photo-detachment of Ps negative ions (Ps{sup -}). During the year 2010, a reflection high-energy positron diffraction (RHEPD) measurement station is going to be installed. The slow positron generator (converter/ moderator) system will be modified to get a higher slow positron intensity, and a new user-friendly beam line power-supply control and vacuum monitoring system is being developed. Another plan for this year is the transfer of a {sup 22}Na-based slow positron beam from RIKEN. This machine will be used for the continuous slow positron beam applications and for the orientation training of those who are interested in beginning researches with a slow positron beam.

  16. Will surface winds weaken in response to global warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Foltz, Gregory R.; Soden, Brian J.; Huang, Gang; He, Jie; Dong, Changming

    2016-12-01

    The surface Walker and tropical tropospheric circulations have been inferred to slow down from historical observations and model projections, yet analysis of large-scale surface wind predictions is lacking. Satellite measurements of surface wind speed indicate strengthening trends averaged over the global and tropical oceans that are supported by precipitation and evaporation changes. Here we use corrected anemometer-based observations to show that the surface wind speed has not decreased in the averaged tropical oceans, despite its reduction in the region of the Walker circulation. Historical simulations and future projections for climate change also suggest a near-zero wind speed trend averaged in space, regardless of the Walker cell change. In the tropics, the sea surface temperature pattern effect acts against the large-scale circulation slow-down. For higher latitudes, the surface winds shift poleward along with the eddy-driven mid-latitude westerlies, resulting in a very small contribution to the global change in surface wind speed. Despite its importance for surface wind speed change, the influence of the SST pattern change on global-mean rainfall is insignificant since it cannot substantially alter the global energy balance. As a result, the precipitation response to global warming remains ‘muted’ relative to atmospheric moisture increase. Our results therefore show consistency between projections and observations of surface winds and precipitation.

  17. Principles of geological substantiation for toxic waste disposal facilities sites selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrushchov, D. P.; Matorin, Eu. M.; Shekhunova, S. B.

    2002-01-01

    Industrial, domestic and military activities result in accumulation of toxic and hazardous waste. Disposal of these waste comprises two main approaches: technological processing (utilization and destruction) and landfill. According to concepts and programs of advanced countries technological solutions are preferable, but in fact over 70 % of waste are buried in storages, prevailingly of near surface type. The target of this paper is to present principles of geological substantiation of sites selection for toxic and hazardous waste isolation facilities location. (author)

  18. EXPERIMENTAL SUBSTANTIATION OF ATTRIBUTIONAL STYLE IN TRAFFIC POLICE OFFICERS’ BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Merkusheva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article prepared for the ‘Psychological and Methodological Aspects of Professional Personnel Training at Internal Affairs Bodies of the Russian Federation’ scholar tradition looks at the applied aspect of handling security issues by traffic police officers. It presents the results of empirical study of the employees’ psychological characteristics conducted to substantiate their attributional style, which determines the specific character as well as the qua-lity and reliability of traffic police officers’ performance. Traffic police officers’ attributional style of behavior is researched with the help of attributional cognitive techniques for hazard phenomena detection as well as social perception and attribution technique and is viewed as the most stable entity, which reflects the employee’s personal and professional focus.Goal: to provide empirical substantiation of attributional style in traffic police officers’ behavior as an integral personality characteristic that ensures timely detection of hazard phenomena.

  19. The cryogenic source of slow monochromatic positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshkov, I.N.; Pavlov, V.N.; Sidorin, A.O.; Yakovenko, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    The cryogenic source of slow monochromatic positrons based on the 22 Na isotope has been designed and constructed at JINR. Positrons emitted from radioactive source 22 Na have a very broad energy spectrum up to 0.5 MeV. To generate monochromatic beam of slow positrons the solid neon is used as a moderator. The solid neon allows forming slow positron beam of the energy of 1.2 eV at the spectrum width of 1 eV. The efficiency of moderation is 1 % of total positron flux

  20. Dystonia Associated with Idiopathic Slow Orthostatic Tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kobylecki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to characterize the clinical and electrophysiological features of patients with slow orthostatic tremor.Case Report: The clinical and neurophysiological data of patients referred for lower limb tremor on standing were reviewed. Patients with symptomatic or primary orthostatic tremor were excluded. Eight patients were identified with idiopathic slow 4–8 Hz orthostatic tremor, which was associated with tremor and dystonia in cervical and upper limb musculature. Coherence analysis in two patients showed findings different to those seen in primary orthostatic tremor.Discussion: Slow orthostatic tremor may be associated with dystonia and dystonic tremor.

  1. Substantiation of the road toll for heavy transport vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Burmaka, N.; Chernykh, A.

    2010-01-01

    The existing and possible additional sources of developing state and local road funds of Ukraine have been considered. The formula for calculating monthly road toll for heavy transport vehicles has been proposed. This formula includes the payment rate per every kilometer of distance, the vehicle capacity utilization factor and the run with the load. The payment rate per every kilometer of distance for transport vehicles depending on the allowed total weight has been substantiated. The given r...

  2. Patients' substantialization of disease, the hybrid symptom and metaphysical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pârvan, Alexandra

    2015-06-01

    In the context of current scholarship concerned with facilitating integration between the biomedical and the patient-centred models of care, the article suggests that disease brings about an ontological disruption in patients, which is not directly addressed in either model, and may interfere with treatment and therapy outcomes if not met with a type of care termed here as 'metaphysical'. The receipt of diagnosis and medical care can give patients the sense that they are ontologically diminished, or less of a human, and along with physicians' approaches to and discourses about disease, may prompt them to seek ontological restoration or security in the same way as psychologically traumatized patients sometimes do: by treating the disease and/or the experience of harm associated with it as a thing that exists per se. I call this 'substantialization' of disease (or harm) and draw on Augustine's theory of non-substantial deficiencies (physiological and moral) and on Plato's and Plotinus's different takes on such defects in order to discuss what substantialization can do for patients. Based on literature that examines patients' ways of talking about and living with their disease, I speculate that substantialization can generate a 'hybrid symptom', consisting in patterns of exercising agency which may predispose to non-adherence. Ways in which physicians could provide metaphysical care are proposed, along with an understanding of chronic patients as hybrid ontological and agentic units, which draws on theories of enactive cognition. I opine that metaphysical care may facilitate integration between the depersonalized and personalized models of care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Identifying Slow Molecular Motions in Complex Chemical Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccini, GiovanniMaria; Polino, Daniela; Parrinello, Michele

    2017-09-07

    We have studied the cyclization reaction of deprotonated 4-chloro-1-butanethiol to tetrahydrothiophene by means of well-tempered metadynamics. To properly select the collective variables, we used the recently proposed variational approach to conformational dynamics within the framework of metadyanmics. This allowed us to select the appropriate linear combinations from a set of collective variables representing the slow degrees of freedom that best describe the slow modes of the reaction. We performed our calculations at three different temperatures, namely, 300, 350, and 400 K. We show that the choice of such collective variables allows one to easily interpret the complex free-energy surface of such a reaction by univocal identification of the conformers belonging to reactants and product states playing a fundamental role in the reaction mechanism.

  4. VERY SLOW SPEED AXIAL MOTION RELUCTANCE MOTOR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    1984-09-01

    Sep 1, 1984 ... VERY SLOW SPEED AXIAL MOTION RELUCTANCE MOTOR by. L. A. Agu ... order as that of the screw-thread motor can be obtained. LIST OF .... The n stator have equal non- magnetic spacers .... induction motor. An.

  5. Slow and Fast Light, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to the NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program 2015 Phase I Solicitation S3.08: Slow and Fast Light, Torch Technologies in partnership...

  6. Experimental demonstration of spinor slow light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meng-Jung; Ruseckas, Julius; Lee, Chin-Yuan; Kudriašov, Viačeslav; Chang, Kao-Fang; Cho, Hung-Wen; JuzeliÅ«nas, Gediminas; Yu, Ite A.

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade there has been a continuing interest in slow and stored light based on the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effect, because of their potential applications in quantum information manipulation. However, previous experimental works all dealt with the single-component slow light which cannot be employed as a qubit. In this work, we report the first experimental demonstration of two-component or spinor slow light (SSL) using a double tripod (DT) atom-light coupling scheme. The oscillations between the two components, similar to the Rabi oscillation of a two-level system or a qubit, were observed. Single-photon SSL can be considered as two-color qubits. We experimentally demonstrated a possible application of the DT scheme as quantum memory and quantum rotator for the two-color qubits. This work opens up a new direction in the slow light research.

  7. Elastic scattering of slow positrons by helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Cherepkov, N.A.; Chernysheva, L.V.; Shapiro, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    The s-, p-, d- and f-wave phaseshifts for elastic scattering of slow positrons by He are calculated using a simplified version of the random phase approximation with exchange, with virtual positronium formation effect taken into account. (author)

  8. Proposal for an intense slow positron beam facility at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waeber, W.B.; Taqqu, D.; Zimmermann, U.; Solt, G.

    1990-05-01

    In the domain of condensed matter physics and materials sciences monoenergetic slow positrons in the form of highest intensity beams are demonstrated to be extreamly useful and considered to be highly needed. This conclusion has been reached and the scientific relevance of the positron probe has been highlighted at an international workshop in November 1989 at PSI, where the state of the art and the international situation on slow positron beams, the fields of application of intense beams and the technical possibilities at PSI for installing intense positron sources have been evaluated. The participants agreed that a high intensity beam as a large-scale user facility at PSI would serve fundamental and applied research. The analysis of responses given by numerous members of a widespread positron community has revealed a large research potential in the domain of solid-state physics, atomic physics and surface, thin-film and defect physics, for example. The excellent feature of slow positron beams to be a suitable probe also for lattice defects near surfaces or interfaces has attracted the interest not only of science but also of industry.In this report we propose the installation of an intense slow positron beam facility at PSI including various beam lines of different qualities and based on the Cyclotron production of β + emitting source material and on a highest efficiency moderation scheme which exceeds standard moderation efficiencies by two orders of magnitude. In its proposed form, the project is estimated to be realizable in the nineties and costs will amount to between 15 and 20 MSFr. (author) 10 figs., 6 tabs., 78 refs

  9. Frequency response of slow beam extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Takeshi; Sato, Hikaru; Marutsuka, Katsumi; Shirakata, Masashi.

    1994-01-01

    A servo control system has been incorporated into the practical slow extraction system in order to stabilize the spill structure less than a few kHz. Frequency responses of the components of the servo-spill control system and the open-loop frequency response were measured. The beam transfer function of the slow extraction process was derived from the measured data and approximated using a simple function. This is utilized to improve the performance of the servo-loop. (author)

  10. Mud Flow - Slow and Fast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, C. C.; Liu, K.-F.; Yuhi, M.

    Heavy and persistent rainfalls in mountainous areas can loosen the hillslope and induce mud flows which can move stones, boulders and even trees, with destructive power on their path. In China where 70% of the land surface is covered by mountains, debris flows due to landslides or rainfalls affect over 18.6% of the nation. Over 10,000 debris flow ravines have been identified; hundreds of lives are lost every year [1]. While accurate assessment is still pending, mud flows caused by Hurr icane Mitch in 1998 have incurred devastating floods in Central America. In Honduras alone more than 6000 people perished. Half of the nation's infrastructures were damaged. Mud flows can also be the result of volcanic eruption. Near the volcano, lava and pyroclastic flows dominate. Further downstream solid particles become smaller and can mix with river or lake water, rainfall, melting snow or ice, or eroded soil, resulting in hyperconcentrated mud mixed with rocks. The muddy debris can travel at high speeds over tens of miles down the hill slopes and devastate entire communities. In 1985 the catastrophic eruption of Nevado del Ruiz in Colombia resulted in mud flows which took the life of 23,000 inhabitants in the town of Amero [2]. During the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in Phillipnes in 1991, one cubic mile of volcanic ash and rock fragments fell on the mountain slopes. Seasonal rain in the following months washed down much of the loose deposits, causing damage to 100,000 villages. These catastrophes have been vividly recorded in the film documentary by Lyons [3].

  11. Minimal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Sauvigny, Friedrich; Jakob, Ruben; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    Minimal Surfaces is the first volume of a three volume treatise on minimal surfaces (Grundlehren Nr. 339-341). Each volume can be read and studied independently of the others. The central theme is boundary value problems for minimal surfaces. The treatise is a substantially revised and extended version of the monograph Minimal Surfaces I, II (Grundlehren Nr. 295 & 296). The first volume begins with an exposition of basic ideas of the theory of surfaces in three-dimensional Euclidean space, followed by an introduction of minimal surfaces as stationary points of area, or equivalently

  12. Surface plasmon polariton amplification in semiconductor-graphene-dielectric structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadoenkova, Yuliya S. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Novgorod State University, Veliky Novgorod (Russian Federation); Donetsk Institute for Physics and Technology, Donetsk (Ukraine); Moiseev, Sergey G. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Abramov, Aleksei S. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Kadochkin, Aleksei S.; Zolotovskii, Igor O. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Nanotechnologies of Microelectronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 32A Leninskiy Prosp., 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fotiadi, Andrei A. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Universite de Mons (Belgium)

    2017-05-15

    A mechanism of amplification of surface plasmon polaritons due to the transfer of electromagnetic energy from a drift current wave into a far-infrared surface wave propagating along a semiconductor-dielectric boundary in waveguide geometry is proposed. A necessary condition of the interaction of these waves is phase matching condition, i. e., when the phase velocity of the surface wave approaches the drift velocity of charge carriers. It is shown that in the spectral region of the surface plasmon polariton slowing-down its amplification coefficient can reach values substantially exceeding the ohmic loss coefficient of the surface wave in the structure. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Substantial increase in acceleration potential of pyroelectric crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Lynam, S. M.; Shafroth, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    We report on a substantial increase in the acceleration potential achieved with a LiTaO 3 pyroelectric crystal. With a single 2.5 cm diameter and 2.5 cm long z-cut crystal without electric field-enhancing nanotip we produced positive ion beams with maximal energies between 300 and 310 keV during the cooling phase when the crystal was exposed to 5 mTorr of deuterium gas. These values are about a factor of 2 larger than previously obtained with single pyroelectric crystals.

  14. Slow shocks and their transition to fast shocks in the inner solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.C.

    1987-01-01

    The jump conditions of MHD shocks may be directly calculated as functions of three upstream conditions: the shock Alfven number based on the normal component of the relative shock speed, the shock angle, and the plasma β value. The shock Alfven number is less than 1 for a slow shock and greater than 1 for a fast shock. A traveling, forward shock can be a slow shock in coronal space, where the Alfven speed is of the order of 1000 km/s. The surface of a forward slow shock has a bow-shaped geometry with its nose facing toward the sun. The decrease in the Alfven speed at increasing heliocentric distance causes the shock Alfven number of a forward slow shock to become greater than 1, and the shock eventually evolves from a slow shock into a fast shock. During the transition the shock system consists of a slow shock, a fast shock, and a rotational discontinuity. They intersect along a closed transition line. As the system moves outward from the sun, the area enclosed by the transition line expands, the fast shock grows stronger, and the slow shock becomes weaker. Eventually, the slow shock diminishes, and the entire shock system evolves into a forward fast shock. copyrightAmerican Geophysical Union 1987

  15. Effects of slow recovery rates on water column geochemistry in aquitard wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, K.E.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring wells are often installed in aquitards to verify effectiveness for preventing migration of surface contaminants to underlying aquifers. However, water sampling of aquitard wells presents a challenge due to the slow recovery times for water recharging the wells, which can take as long as weeks, months or years to recharge depending on the sample volume needed. In this study, downhole profiling and sampling of aquitard wells was used to assess geochemical changes that occur in aquitard wells during water level recovery. Wells were sampled on three occasions spanning 11years, 1year and 1week after they were purged and casing water showed substantial water chemistry variations. Temperature decreased with depth, whereas pH and specific conductance increased with depth in the water column after 11years of water level recovery. Less stable parameters such as dissolved O2 (DO) and Eh showed strong zonation in the well column, with DO stratification occurring as the groundwater slowly entered the well. Oxidation of reduced till groundwater along with degassing of CO2 from till pore water affects mineral solubility and dissolved solid concentrations. Recommendations for sampling slowly recovering aquitard wells include identifying the zone of DO and Eh stratification in the well column and collecting water samples from below the boundary to better measure unstable geochemical parameters. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. COMPOSITIONAL AND SUBSTANTIAL STRUCTURE OF THE MEDICAL DOCUMENT: FORMATION STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romashova Olga Vladimirovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the compositional and substantial structure of the ambulatory medical record, or "case history", which has being formed for a long time. The author allocates the three main periods in the formation of this medical document: the first period (the beginning of the 19th century – 1920s is connected with the origin and formation; the second period (1920-1980s is marked by emergence of the normative legal acts regulating registration and maintaining; the third period (1980s – up to the present is associated with the cancellation of regulations and the introduction of the new order of the Ministry of Health of the USSR that changed the document's form and name. It is determined that the composition of the case history consists of the title page and the main part. The following processes take place in the course of ambulatory medical record's formation: strengthening formalization, increase in the number of pattern text fragments, increase in the text's volume, and the implementation of bigger number of functions. The author reveals the main (informative and cumulative, accounting and additional (scientific, controlling, legal, financial functions of the document. The implementation of these functions is reflected in the compositional and substantial structure of the document text and is conditioned by a number of extralinguistic factors.

  17. Slow brushing reduces heat pain in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljencrantz, J; Strigo, I; Ellingsen, D M; Krämer, H H; Lundblad, L C; Nagi, S S; Leknes, S; Olausson, H

    2017-08-01

    C-tactile (CT) afferents are unmyelinated low-threshold mechanoreceptors optimized for signalling affective, gentle touch. In three separate psychophysical experiments, we examined the contribution of CT afferents to pain modulation. In total, 44 healthy volunteers experienced heat pain and CT optimal (slow brushing) and CT sub-optimal (fast brushing or vibration) stimuli. Three different experimental paradigms were used: Concurrent application of heat pain and tactile (slow brushing or vibration) stimulation; Slow brushing, applied for variable duration and intervals, preceding heat pain; Slow versus fast brushing preceding heat pain. Slow brushing was effective in reducing pain, whereas fast brushing or vibration was not. The reduction in pain was significant not only when the CT optimal touch was applied simultaneously with the painful stimulus but also when the two stimuli were separated in time. For subsequent stimulation, the pain reduction was more pronounced for a shorter time interval between brushing and pain. Likewise, the effect was more robust when pain was preceded by a longer duration of brush stimulation. Strong CT-related pain reduction was associated with low anxiety and high calmness scores obtained by a state anxiety questionnaire. Slow brushing - optimal for CT activation - is effective in reducing pain from cutaneous heating. The precise mechanisms for the pain relief are as yet unknown but possible mechanisms include inhibition of nociceptive projection neurons at the level of the dorsal horn as well as analgesia through cortical mechanisms. Slow brushing stimuli - optimal for activation of C-tactile fibres - can reduce pain from cutaneous heating. No such effect was seen with fast brushing or vibration. These observations indicate the role of C-tactile fibres in pain modulation. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  18. Slowing Quantum Decoherence by Squeezing in Phase Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Jeannic, H.; Cavaillès, A.; Huang, K.; Filip, R.; Laurat, J.

    2018-02-01

    Non-Gaussian states, and specifically the paradigmatic cat state, are well known to be very sensitive to losses. When propagating through damping channels, these states quickly lose their nonclassical features and the associated negative oscillations of their Wigner function. However, by squeezing the superposition states, the decoherence process can be qualitatively changed and substantially slowed down. Here, as a first example, we experimentally observe the reduced decoherence of squeezed optical coherent-state superpositions through a lossy channel. To quantify the robustness of states, we introduce a combination of a decaying value and a rate of decay of the Wigner function negativity. This work, which uses squeezing as an ancillary Gaussian resource, opens new possibilities to protect and manipulate quantum superpositions in phase space.

  19. A review of slow-release fluoride devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumba, K J; Al-Ibrahim, N S; Curzon, M E J

    2009-09-01

    Fluoride has been used to combat dental caries using a number of different clinical approaches. An exciting relatively new development is fluoride slow-releasing devices that consistently elevate intra-oral fluoride levels of plaque and saliva for prolonged periods of up to two years. The literature on the use of slow-releasing fluoride devices in dentistry were reviewed. A Medline search on key words was carried out. All papers in English were individually reviewed. Slow-releasing fluoride devices have been shown to be effective in elevating salivary fluoride levels in both animals and human studies and to enhance the remineralisation of dental enamel. They have been demonstrated to be safe to use and without the risk of fluoride toxicity. A double blind randomised clinical trial demonstrated 76% fewer new carious surface increment in high caries-risk children after two years. These devices have a number of potential uses in dentistry and in particular have great potential for caries prevention of non-compliant high caries-risk groups.

  20. Slow electron contribution to inelastic reflection anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podsvirov, O.A.; Kuznetsov, Yu.A.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated is electron contribution with low energy (up to 1 keV) to the anisotropy of electron inelastic reflection (IRE) from silicon monocrystal (111) within 12-50 keV energy range of primary electrons. Experimental data on IRE anisotropy are presented: delay curves for silicon monocrystal, permitting to separate electrons with the energy up to 1 keV, dependences of IRE anisotropy on the energy of primary electrons for the systems - monocrystalline silicon-amorphous silicon film and delay curves for such systems (film thickness varies from 20 to 2000 A). Suggested is a phenomenologic model, permitting to take into account the contribution of slow electrons to IRE anisotropy: it is supposed, that three groups of electrons take part in the formation of the latter: elastic and inelastic reflected electrons, slow electrons, excited by primary electrons and slow electrons, generated by the reverse flow of the scattered electrons. Contribution of electrons, different by origin, to IRE anisotropy is evaluated in accordance with the experimental data on the basis of this model. It is stated, that slow electrons constitute approximately one half of the IRE anisotropy value, the contribution of both groups of slow electrons being approximately equal

  1. Human gamma oscillations during slow wave sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Valderrama

    Full Text Available Neocortical local field potentials have shown that gamma oscillations occur spontaneously during slow-wave sleep (SWS. At the macroscopic EEG level in the human brain, no evidences were reported so far. In this study, by using simultaneous scalp and intracranial EEG recordings in 20 epileptic subjects, we examined gamma oscillations in cerebral cortex during SWS. We report that gamma oscillations in low (30-50 Hz and high (60-120 Hz frequency bands recurrently emerged in all investigated regions and their amplitudes coincided with specific phases of the cortical slow wave. In most of the cases, multiple oscillatory bursts in different frequency bands from 30 to 120 Hz were correlated with positive peaks of scalp slow waves ("IN-phase" pattern, confirming previous animal findings. In addition, we report another gamma pattern that appears preferentially during the negative phase of the slow wave ("ANTI-phase" pattern. This new pattern presented dominant peaks in the high gamma range and was preferentially expressed in the temporal cortex. Finally, we found that the spatial coherence between cortical sites exhibiting gamma activities was local and fell off quickly when computed between distant sites. Overall, these results provide the first human evidences that gamma oscillations can be observed in macroscopic EEG recordings during sleep. They support the concept that these high-frequency activities might be associated with phasic increases of neural activity during slow oscillations. Such patterned activity in the sleeping brain could play a role in off-line processing of cortical networks.

  2. Magnon inflation: slow roll with steep potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adshead, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Blas, Diego [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Burgess, C.P.; Hayman, Peter [Physics & Astronomy, McMaster University,Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Patil, Subodh P. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Geneva,24 Quai Ansermet, Geneva, CH-1211 (Switzerland)

    2016-11-04

    We find multi-scalar effective field theories (EFTs) that can achieve a slow inflationary roll despite having a scalar potential that does not satisfy G{sup ab}∂{sub a}V∂{sub b}V≪V{sup 2}/M{sub p}{sup 2} (where G{sub ab} is the target-space metric). They evade the usual slow-roll conditions on V because their kinetic energies are dominated by single-derivative terms rather than the usual two-derivative terms. Single derivatives dominate during slow roll and so do not require a breakdown of the usual derivative expansion that underpins calculational control in much of cosmology. The presence of such terms requires some sort of UV Lorentz-symmetry breaking during inflation (besides the usual cosmological breaking). Chromo-natural inflation provides one particular example of a UV theory that can generate the multi-field single-derivative terms we consider, and we argue that the EFT we find indeed captures the slow-roll conditions for its background evolution. We also show that our EFT can be understood as a multi-field generalization of the single-field Cuscuton models. The multi-field case introduces a new feature, however: the scalar kinetic terms define a target-space 2-form, F{sub ab}, whose antisymmetry gives new ways for slow roll to be achieved.

  3. Magnon Inflation: Slow Roll with Steep Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Adshead, Peter; Burgess, C P; Hayman, Peter; Patil, Subodh P

    2016-01-01

    We find multi-scalar effective field theories (EFTs) that can achieve a slow inflationary roll despite having a scalar potential that does not satisfy the usual slow-roll condition (d V)^2 << V^2/Mp^2. They evade the usual slow-roll conditions on $V$ because their kinetic energies are dominated by single-derivative terms rather than the usual two-derivative terms. Single derivatives dominate during slow roll and so do not require a breakdown of the usual derivative expansion that underpins calculational control in much of cosmology. The presence of such terms requires some sort of UV Lorentz-symmetry breaking during inflation (besides the usual cosmological breaking). Chromo-natural inflation provides an example of a UV theory that can generate the multi-field single-derivative terms we consider, and we argue that the EFT we find indeed captures the slow-roll conditions for the background evolution for Chromo-natural inflation. We also show that our EFT can be understood as a multi-field generalization ...

  4. Current Sheets in the Corona and the Complexity of Slow Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiochos, Spiro

    2010-01-01

    The origin of the slow solar wind has long been one of the most important problems in solar/heliospheric physics. Two observational constraints make this problem especially challenging. First, the slow wind has the composition of the closed-field corona, unlike the fast wind that originates on open field lines. Second, the slow wind has substantial angular extent, of order 30 degrees, which is much larger than the widths observed for streamer stalks or the widths expected theoretically for a dynamic heliospheric current sheet. We propose that the slow wind originates from an intricate network of narrow (possibly singular) open-field corridors that emanate from the polar coronal hole regions. Using topological arguments, we show that these corridors must be ubiquitous in the solar corona. The total solar eclipse in August 2008, near the lowest point of cycle 23 affords an ideal opportunity to test this theory by using the ultra-high resolution Predictive Science's (PSI) eclipse model for the corona and wind. Analysis of the PSI eclipse model demonstrates that the extent and scales of the open-field corridors can account for both the angular width of the slow wind and its closed-field composition. We discuss the implications of our slow wind theory for the structure of the corona and heliosphere at solar minimum and describe further observational and theoretical tests.

  5. The slow oscillation in cortical and thalamic networks: mechanisms and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett T. Neske

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During even the most quiescent behavioral periods, the cortex and thalamus express rich spontaneous activity in the form of slow (<1 Hz, synchronous network state transitions. Throughout this so-called slow oscillation, cortical and thalamic neurons fluctuate between periods of intense synaptic activity (Up states and almost complete silence (Down states. The two decades since the original characterization of the slow oscillation in the cortex and thalamus have seen considerable advances in deciphering the cellular and network mechanisms associated with this pervasive phenomenon. There are, nevertheless, many questions regarding the slow oscillation that await more thorough illumination, particularly the mechanisms by which Up states initiate and terminate, the functional role of the rhythmic activity cycles in unconscious or minimally conscious states, and the precise relation between Up states and the activated states associated with waking behavior. Given the substantial advances in multineuronal recording and imaging methods in both in vivo and in vitro preparations, the time is ripe to take stock of our current understanding of the slow oscillation and pave the way for future investigations of its mechanisms and functions. My aim in this Review is to provide a comprehensive account of the mechanisms and functions of the slow oscillation, and to suggest avenues for further exploration.

  6. A Slow Streamer Blowout at the Sun and Ulysses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuss, S. T.; Bemporad, A.; Poletto, G.

    2004-01-01

    On 10 June 2000 a streamer on the southeast limb slowly disappeared from LASCO/C2 over approximately 10 hours. A small CME was reported in C2. A substantial interplanetary CME (ICME) was later detected at Ulysses, which was at quadrature with the Sun and SOHO at the time. This detection illustrates the properties of an ICME for a known solar source and demonstrates that the identification can be done even beyond 3 AU. Slow streamer blowouts such as this have long been known but are little studied. We report on the SOHO observation of a coronal mass ejection (CME) on the solar limb and the subsequent in situ detection at Ulysses, which was near quadrature at the time, above the location of the CME. SOHO-Ulysses quadrature was 13 June, when Ulysses was 3.36 AU from the Sun and 58.2 degrees south of the equator off the east limb. The slow streamer blowout was on 10 June, when the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses angle was 87 degrees.

  7. Clozapine-induced dysphagia with secondary substantial weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mugtaba; Devadas, Vekneswaran

    2016-08-19

    Dysphagia is listed as a 'rare' side effect following clozapine treatment. In this case report, we describe how significant clozapine-induced dysphagia has led to significant reduction of nutritional intake with subsequent substantial weight loss. An 18-year-old single man with an established diagnosis of treatment-resistant paranoid schizophrenia recovered well on a therapeutic dose of clozapine. However, he was noted to lose weight significantly (up to 20% of his original weight) as the dose was uptitrated. This was brought about by development of dysphagia, likely to be due to clozapine. Addition of nutritional supplementary liquids and initiation of a modified behavioural dietary/swallowing programme, while repeatedly mastering the Mendelsohn manoeuvre technique, alleviated the swallowing difficulties and restored his weight. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. Monte Carlo reactor calculation with substantially reduced number of cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M. J.; Joo, H. G.; Lee, D.; Smith, K.

    2012-01-01

    A new Monte Carlo (MC) eigenvalue calculation scheme that substantially reduces the number of cycles is introduced with the aid of coarse mesh finite difference (CMFD) formulation. First, it is confirmed in terms of pin power errors that using extremely many particles resulting in short active cycles is beneficial even in the conventional MC scheme although wasted operations in inactive cycles cannot be reduced with more particles. A CMFD-assisted MC scheme is introduced as an effort to reduce the number of inactive cycles and the fast convergence behavior and reduced inter-cycle effect of the CMFD assisted MC calculation is investigated in detail. As a practical means of providing a good initial fission source distribution, an assembly based few-group condensation and homogenization scheme is introduced and it is shown that efficient MC eigenvalue calculations with fewer than 20 total cycles (including inactive cycles) are possible for large power reactor problems. (authors)

  9. Improving the Material Response for Slow Heat of Energetic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, A L

    2010-03-08

    The goal of modern high explosive slow heat cookoff modeling is to understand the level of mechanical violence. This requires understanding the coupled thermal-mechanical-chemical system that such an environment creates. Recent advances have improved our ability to predict the time to event, and we have been making progress on predicting the mechanical response. By adding surface tension to the product gas pores in the high explosive, we have been able to reduce the current model's tendency to overpressurize confinement vessels. We describe the model and demonstrate how it affects a LX-10 STEX experiment. Issues associated with current product gas equations of state are described and examined.

  10. Slow recombination centers in cadmium selenide monocrystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyntyna, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    As a result of annealing when concentration of selenium Vacancies decreases due to their diffusion towards the surface, show recombination K-centers begin to influence the photoelectric properties of monocrystalline cadmium selenide layers. Energy levels of K-centers are located by 0.23-0.25 eV over the valent zone ceiling. The nature of K-centers is determined by the presence in the cadmium selenide layer structure of intrisic defects-cadmium vacancies in contrast to r-centers of slow recombination which are bound with impurities in a semiconductor material

  11. Neutron slowing-down time in matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabod, Sebastien P., E-mail: sebastien.chabod@lpsc.in2p3.fr [LPSC, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2012-03-21

    We formulate the neutron slowing-down time through elastic collisions in a homogeneous, non-absorbing, infinite medium. Our approach allows taking into account for the first time the energy dependence of the scattering cross-section as well as the energy and temporal distribution of the source neutron population in the results. Starting from this development, we investigate the specific case of the propagation in matter of a mono-energetic neutron pulse. We then quantify the perturbation on the neutron slowing-down time induced by resonances in the scattering cross-section. We show that a resonance can induce a permanent reduction of the slowing-down time, preceded by two discontinuities: a first one at the resonance peak position and an echo one, appearing later. From this study, we suggest that a temperature increase of the propagating medium in presence of large resonances could modestly accelerate the neutron moderation.

  12. Generalized slow roll for noncanonical kinetic terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    We show that the generalized slow roll approach for calculating the power spectrum where the inflationary slow roll parameters are neither small nor slowly varying can be readily extended to models with noncanonical kinetic terms in the inflaton action. For example, rapid sound speed variations can arise in Dirac-Born-Infeld models with features in the warp factor leading to features in the power spectrum. Nonetheless there remains a single source function for deviations that is simply related to the power spectrum. Empirical constraints on this source function can be readily interpreted in the context of features in the inflaton potential or sound speed.

  13. Fast and slow spindles during the sleep slow oscillation: disparate coalescence and engagement in memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölle, Matthias; Bergmann, Til O; Marshall, Lisa; Born, Jan

    2011-10-01

    Thalamo-cortical spindles driven by the up-state of neocortical slow (memory consolidation during sleep. We examined interactions between SOs and spindles in human slow wave sleep, focusing on the presumed existence of 2 kinds of spindles, i.e., slow frontocortical and fast centro-parietal spindles. Two experiments were performed in healthy humans (24.5 ± 0.9 y) investigating undisturbed sleep (Experiment I) and the effects of prior learning (word paired associates) vs. non-learning (Experiment II) on multichannel EEG recordings during sleep. Only fast spindles (12-15 Hz) were synchronized to the depolarizing SO up-state. Slow spindles (9-12 Hz) occurred preferentially at the transition into the SO down-state, i.e., during waning depolarization. Slow spindles also revealed a higher probability to follow rather than precede fast spindles. For sequences of individual SOs, fast spindle activity was largest for "initial" SOs, whereas SO amplitude and slow spindle activity were largest for succeeding SOs. Prior learning enhanced this pattern. The finding that fast and slow spindles occur at different times of the SO cycle points to disparate generating mechanisms for the 2 kinds of spindles. The reported temporal relationships during SO sequences suggest that fast spindles, driven by the SO up-state feed back to enhance the likelihood of succeeding SOs together with slow spindles. By enforcing such SO-spindle cycles, particularly after prior learning, fast spindles possibly play a key role in sleep-dependent memory processing.

  14. Light storage via slow-light four-wave mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yun-Fei; Wang, Hai-Hua; Wei, Xiao-Gang; Li, Ai-Jun; Kang, Zhi-Hui; Wu, Jin-Hui; Zhang, Han-Zhuang; Xu, Huai-Liang; Gao, Jin-Yue

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a light storage via slow-light four-wave mixing in a solid-state medium with a four-level double lambda scheme. Using slow light based on electromagnetically induced transparency, we obtain a slowed four-wave mixing signal pulse together with the slowed probe pulse. During the propagation of light pulses, the storage and retrieval of both the slowed four-wave mixing pulse and the slowed probe pulse are studied by manipulating the intensities of the control fields. -- Highlights: ► A light storage via slow-light four-wave mixing is observed in a solid. ► The probe pulse is slowed under electromagnetically induced transparency. ► A slowed four-wave mixing pulse is obtained by slow light. ► The storage of slowed double pulses is studied.

  15. Observation of Ultra-Slow Antiprotons using Micro-channel Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imao, H.; Torii, H. A.; Nagata, Y.; Toyoda, H.; Shimoyama, T.; Enomoto, Y.; Higaki, H.; Kanai, Y.; Mohri, A.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2008-08-01

    Our group ASACUSA-MUSASHI has succeeded in accumulating several million antiprotons and extracting them as monochromatic ultra-slow antiproton beams (10 eV-1 keV) at CERN AD. We have observed ultra-slow antiprotons using micro-channel plates (MCP). The integrated pulse area of the output signals generated when the MCP was irradiated by ultra-slow antiprotons was 6 times higher than that by electrons. As a long-term effect, we also observed an increase in the background rate presumably due to the radioactivation of the MCP surface. Irradiating the antiproton beams on the MCP induces antiproton-nuclear annihilations only on the first layer of the surface. Low-energy and short-range secondary particles like charged nuclear fragments caused by the "surface nuclear reactions" would be the origin of our observed phenomena.

  16. Complementary sex determination substantially increases extinction proneness of haplodiploid populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Amro; Packer, Laurence

    2005-07-26

    The role of genetic factors in extinction is firmly established for diploid organisms, but haplodiploids have been considered immune to genetic load impacts because deleterious alleles are readily purged in haploid males. However, we show that single-locus complementary sex determination ancestral to the haplodiploid Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps) imposes a substantial genetic load through homozygosity at the sex locus that results in the production of inviable or sterile diploid males. Using stochastic modeling, we have discovered that diploid male production (DMP) can initiate a rapid and previously uncharacterized extinction vortex. The extinction rate in haplodiploid populations with DMP is an order of magnitude greater than in its absence under realistic but conservative demographic parameter values. Furthermore, DMP alone can elevate the base extinction risk in haplodiploids by over an order of magnitude higher than that caused by inbreeding depression in threatened diploids. Thus, contrary to previous expectations, haplodiploids are more, rather than less, prone to extinction for genetic reasons. Our findings necessitate a fundamental shift in approaches to the conservation and population biology of these ecologically and economically crucial insects.

  17. Substantial soil organic carbon retention along floodplains of mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutfin, Nicholas A.; Wohl, Ellen

    2017-07-01

    Small, snowmelt-dominated mountain streams have the potential to store substantial organic carbon in floodplain sediment because of high inputs of particulate organic matter, relatively lower temperatures compared with lowland regions, and potential for increased moisture conditions. This work (i) quantifies mean soil organic carbon (OC) content along 24 study reaches in the Colorado Rocky Mountains using 660 soil samples, (ii) identifies potential controls of OC content based on soil properties and spatial position with respect to the channel, and (iii) and examines soil properties and OC across various floodplain geomorphic features in the study area. Stepwise multiple linear regression (adjusted r2 = 0.48, p sample depth, percent sand, distance from the channel, and relative elevation from the channel are significant predictors of OC content in the study area. Principle component analysis indicates limited separation between geomorphic floodplain features based on predictors of OC content. A lack of significant differences among floodplain features suggests that the systematic random sampling employed in this study can capture the variability of OC across floodplains in the study area. Mean floodplain OC (6.3 ± 0.3%) is more variable but on average greater than values in uplands (1.5 ± 0.08% to 2.2 ± 0.14%) of the Colorado Front Range and higher than published values from floodplains in other regions, particularly those of larger rivers.

  18. Substantial proportion of global streamflow less than three months old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasechko, Scott; Kirchner, James W.; Welker, Jeffrey M.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2016-02-01

    Biogeochemical cycles, contaminant transport and chemical weathering are regulated by the speed at which precipitation travels through landscapes and reaches streams. Streamflow is a mixture of young and old precipitation, but the global proportions of these young and old components are not known. Here we analyse seasonal cycles of oxygen isotope ratios in rain, snow and streamflow compiled from 254 watersheds around the world, and calculate the fraction of streamflow that is derived from precipitation that fell within the past two or three months. This young streamflow accounts for about a third of global river discharge, and comprises at least 5% of discharge in about 90% of the catchments we investigated. We conclude that, although typical catchments have mean transit times of years or even decades, they nonetheless can rapidly transmit substantial fractions of soluble contaminant inputs to streams. Young streamflow is less prevalent in steeper landscapes, which suggests they are characterized by deeper vertical infiltration. Because young streamflow is derived from less than 0.1% of global groundwater storage, we conclude that this thin veneer of aquifer storage will have a disproportionate influence on stream water quality.

  19. Substantially Evolutionary Theorizing in Designing Software-Intensive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Sosnin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Useful inheritances from scientific experience open perspective ways for increasing the degree of success in designing of systems with software. One such way is a search and build applied theory that takes into account the nature of design and the specificity of software engineering. This paper presents a substantially evolutionary approach to creating the project theories, the application of which leads to positive effects that are traditionally expected from theorizing. Any implementation of the approach is based on a reflection by designers of an operational space of designing onto a semantic memory of a question-answer type. One of the results of such reflection is a system of question-answer nets, the nodes of which register facts of interactions of designers with accessible experience. A set of such facts is used by designers for creating and using the theory that belongs to the new subclass of Grounded Theories. This sub-class is oriented on organizationally behavioral features of a project’s work based on design thinking, automated mental imagination, and thought experimenting that facilitate increasing the degree of controlled intellectualization in the design process and, correspondingly, increasing the degree of success in the development of software-intensive systems.

  20. Sound asleep: processing and retention of slow oscillation phase-targeted stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Roy; Korjoukov, Ilia; de Boer, Marieke; Talamini, Lucia M

    2014-01-01

    The sleeping brain retains some residual information processing capacity. Although direct evidence is scarce, a substantial literature suggests the phase of slow oscillations during deep sleep to be an important determinant for stimulus processing. Here, we introduce an algorithm for predicting slow oscillations in real-time. Using this approach to present stimuli directed at both oscillatory up and down states, we show neural stimulus processing depends importantly on the slow oscillation phase. During ensuing wakefulness, however, we did not observe differential brain or behavioral responses to these stimulus categories, suggesting no enduring memories were formed. We speculate that while simpler forms of learning may occur during sleep, neocortically based memories are not readily established during deep sleep.

  1. Sound asleep: processing and retention of slow oscillation phase-targeted stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Cox

    Full Text Available The sleeping brain retains some residual information processing capacity. Although direct evidence is scarce, a substantial literature suggests the phase of slow oscillations during deep sleep to be an important determinant for stimulus processing. Here, we introduce an algorithm for predicting slow oscillations in real-time. Using this approach to present stimuli directed at both oscillatory up and down states, we show neural stimulus processing depends importantly on the slow oscillation phase. During ensuing wakefulness, however, we did not observe differential brain or behavioral responses to these stimulus categories, suggesting no enduring memories were formed. We speculate that while simpler forms of learning may occur during sleep, neocortically based memories are not readily established during deep sleep.

  2. Slow evaporation method and enhancement in photoluminescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nescence (PL) properties and decay time of phosphors were studied at room temperature. The YPO4 ... Keywords. Slow evaporation method; YPO4 : Eu3+, Bi3+; quenching effect; optical material. 1. ... intensity of Eu3+-doped compounds such as CaMoO4 : Bi3+, .... Figure 4 shows FESEM images of YPO4 : Eu3+ and Bi3+.

  3. Quick-Connect, Slow-Disconnect Bolt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Proposed bolt functions similarly to device described in article "Quick-Connect, Slow-Disconnect Nut" (MFS-28833). Bolt installed in standard threaded hole simply by pushing it into hole. Once inserted, bolt withdrawn only by turning it in conventional way.

  4. A slow component of classic Stroop interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phaf, R. Hans; Horsman, Hark H.; van der Moolen, Bas; Roos, Yvo B. W. E. M.; Schmand, Ben

    2010-01-01

    The interference in colour naming may extend beyond critical Stroop trials. This "slow'' effect was first discovered in emotional Stroop tasks, but is extended here to classical Stroop. In two experiments, meaningless coloured letter strings followed a colour word or neutral word. Student

  5. Slow Reading: Reading along "Lectio" Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, K. Jo-Ann; Badley, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The medieval monastic movement preserved and developed reading practices--lectio--from ancient Greek pedagogy as a slow, mindful approach to reading for formation. This ancient way of reading, now better known as lectio divina, challenges the fast, pragmatic reading so characteristic of our time. We propose that the present moment may be ripe for…

  6. Slowed ageing, welfare, and population problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareham, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Biological studies have demonstrated that it is possible to slow the ageing process and extend lifespan in a wide variety of organisms, perhaps including humans. Making use of the findings of these studies, this article examines two problems concerning the effect of life extension on population size and welfare. The first--the problem of overpopulation--is that as a result of life extension too many people will co-exist at the same time, resulting in decreases in average welfare. The second--the problem of underpopulation--is that life extension will result in too few people existing across time, resulting in decreases in total welfare. I argue that overpopulation is highly unlikely to result from technologies that slow ageing. Moreover, I claim that the problem of underpopulation relies on claims about life extension that are false in the case of life extension by slowed ageing. The upshot of these arguments is that the population problems discussed provide scant reason to oppose life extension by slowed ageing.

  7. Response of electret dosemeter to slow neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghilardi, A.J.P.; Pela, C.A.; Zimmerman, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The response of the electret dosemeter to exposition of slow neutrons is studied. Different external coatings are used on the dosemeter (polyethylene, alminium, polyethylene + boron, aluminium + boron) and exposure curves (with and without water) are compared. (M.A.C.) [pt

  8. Analysis of the neutron slowing down equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, A.; Karnick, H.

    1978-01-01

    The infinite series solution of the elementary neutron slowing down equation is studied using the theory of entire functions of exponential type and nonharmonic Fourier series. It is shown from Muntz--Szasz and Paley--Wiener theorems, that the set of exponentials ]exp(ilambda/sub n/u) ]/sup infinity//sub n/=-infinity, where ]lambda/sub n/]/sup infinity//sub n/=-infinity are the roots of the transcendental equation in slowing down theory, is complete and forms a basis in a lethargy interval epsilon. This distinctive role of the maximum lethargy change per collision is due to the Fredholm character of the slowing down operator which need not be quasinilpotent. The discontinuities in the derivatives of the collision density are examined by treating the slowing down equation in its differential-difference form. The solution (Hilbert) space is the union of a countable number of subspaces L 2 (-epsilon/2, epsilon/2) over each of which the exponential functions are complete

  9. Probabilistic Slow Features for Behavior Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafeiriou, Lazaros; Nicolaou, Mihalis A.; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Nikitidis, Symeon; Pantic, Maja

    A recently introduced latent feature learning technique for time-varying dynamic phenomena analysis is the so-called slow feature analysis (SFA). SFA is a deterministic component analysis technique for multidimensional sequences that, by minimizing the variance of the first-order time derivative

  10. Learning slow features for behavior analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafeiriou, Lazaros; Nicolaou, Mihalis A.; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Nikitids, Symeon; Pantic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    A recently introduced latent feature learning technique for time varying dynamic phenomena analysis is the socalled Slow Feature Analysis (SFA). SFA is a deterministic component analysis technique for multi-dimensional sequences that by minimizing the variance of the first order time derivative

  11. Proton energy dependence of slow neutron intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshigawara, Makoto; Harada, Masahide; Watanabe, Noboru; Kai, Tetsuya; Sakata, Hideaki; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2001-01-01

    The choice of the proton energy is an important issue for the design of an intense-pulsed-spallation source. The optimal proton beam energy is rather unique from a viewpoint of the leakage neutron intensity but no yet clear from the slow-neutron intensity view point. It also depends on an accelerator type. Since it is also important to know the proton energy dependence of slow-neutrons from the moderators in a realistic target-moderator-reflector assembly (TMRA). We studied on the TMRA proposed for Japan Spallation Neutron Source. The slow-neutron intensities from the moderators per unit proton beam power (MW) exhibit the maximum at about 1-2 GeV. At higher proton energies the intensity per MW goes down; at 3 and 50 GeV about 0.91 and 0.47 times as low as that at 1 GeV. The proton energy dependence of slow-neutron intensities was found to be almost the same as that of total neutron yield (leakage neutrons) from the same bare target. It was also found that proton energy dependence was almost the same for the coupled and decoupled moderators, regardless the different moderator type, geometry and coupling scheme. (author)

  12. Preliminary characterization of slow growing rhizobial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we did some preliminary characterization of six slow growing rhizobial strains, isolated from Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. root nodules sampled from 3 sites along the coast of Oran (CapeFalcon, Bousfer and MersElHadjadj) in Northwestern Algeria. Results of this study showed that all strains had a very ...

  13. Preliminary characterization of slow growing rhizobial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COMPAQ

    2016-05-18

    May 18, 2016 ... strains had a very slow growth rate in yeast malt (YM) agar medium, forming colonies less than 1 mm in ... dominant genus of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria ... Single colonies were picked up and checked for purity by.

  14. New theory of arrhythmia. Conceptual substantiation of arrhythmia mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Ermoshkin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims A new attempt is made to substantiate the concept of the mechanism of arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Methods The paper is based on a theoretical analysis of special literature, personal experience of participation in conferences and discussions with leading Russian cardiologists. Results We have succeeded in demonstrating the fact that researchers ignore the fact that cardiomyocytes can be excited by mechanical pulses, when considering the arrhythmia mechanisms. We have conducted trials using the Cardiocode device. Under stress in a human, opened may be large and small arteriovenous anastomoses, via which blood under high pressure is ejected into veins. It leads to pressure surges in arteries and veins. The vena cava dilates, its tonus increases. In some cases, the pulse waves travel via anastomoses along the vena cava walls to the atria and the ventricles. An above-threshold concentration of tensions from mechanical pulses may excite cardiomyocytes from different points of the myocardium, disturbing the sinus rhythm. As a result, extrasystoles, tachycardia attacks, blocking of blood circulation in the peripheral segments of the venous arterial networks, edemata, thrombosis and metabolism disorders appear. Arrhythmia, tachycardia attacks and concomitant myocardial ischemia lead to progression of heart fibrosis. Such changes increase the probability of fibrillations and sudden cardiac death. Conclusion Unhealthy lifestyle, the presence of opening and not properly closing anastomoses may provoke a number of diseases. To avoid the cardiac arrhythmia attacks and prevent SCD, it is necessary to suppress travel of the mechanical waves within the following circuitry: aorta – artery – anastomosis – vein – vena cava – atria – ventricles. The travel of the mechanical waves within the same vessel circuitry explains the fact that the fixed couplings under extrasystoles are observed, and the beat-to-beat RR intervals under tachycardia

  15. How common is substantial weight gain after pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumithran, Priya; Houlihan, Christine; Shub, Alexis; Churilov, Leonid; Pritchard, Natasha; Price, Sarah; Ekinci, Elif; Proietto, Joseph; Permezel, Michael

    2017-11-20

    Although population-based studies indicate that on average, women gain 1-2kg between pregnancies, women with obesity often attribute its development to childbearing. There is little contemporary data available regarding how commonly this occurs, particularly in women of different body mass index (BMI) categories. The aim of this study was to examine inter-pregnancy weight changes among women at a tertiary obstetric hospital in Melbourne, Australia. This was a retrospective review of data from the Birthing Outcomes System electronic record of 19,617 women aged 20 years or older, who delivered at least two consecutive singleton infants at ≥37 weeks' gestation at Mercy Hospital for Women between December 1994 and December 2015. A logistic regression model was used to assess the relationship between gain of ≥4kg/m 2 between pregnancies and maternal BMI category in the first pregnancy, adjusting for covariates of maternal age, inter-pregnancy interval, and socioeconomic status. Gain of ≥4kg/m 2 between the first two pregnancies occurred in 7.5% of normal weight women, 10.5% of overweight women, and 13.4% of women with obesity. One in five women who were normal weight in their first pregnancy increased to overweight or obese BMI categories in their second pregnancy. Substantial weight gain in relation to pregnancy affects a considerable proportion of women. Since inter-pregnancy weight gain is associated with several complications in the next pregnancy and longer term, avoiding excessive weight gain during and between pregnancies may prevent adverse health consequences in mothers and offspring. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Generation and application of slow positrons based on a electron LINAC

    CERN Document Server

    Kurihara, T

    2002-01-01

    History of slow positron in Institute of Materials Structure Science High Energy Accelerator Research Organization is explained. The principle of generation and application of intense positron beam is mentioned. Two sources of intense positron are radioactive decay of radioactive isotopes emitting positron and electron-positron pair creation. The radioactive decay method uses sup 5 sup 8 Co, sup 6 sup 4 Cu, sup 1 sup 1 C, sup 1 sup 3 N, sup 1 sup 5 O and sup 1 sup 8 F. The electron-positron pair creation method uses nuclear reactor or electron linear accelerator (LINAC). The positron experimental facility in this organization consists of electron LINAC, slow positron beam source, positron transport and experimental station. The outline of this facility is started. The intense slow positron beam is applied to research positronium work function, electron structure of surface. New method such as combination of positron lifetime measurement and slow positron beam or Auger electron spectroscopy by positron annihil...

  17. Generation and application of slow positrons based on a electron LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Toshikazu

    2002-01-01

    History of slow positron in Institute of Materials Structure Science High Energy Accelerator Research Organization is explained. The principle of generation and application of intense positron beam is mentioned. Two sources of intense positron are radioactive decay of radioactive isotopes emitting positron and electron-positron pair creation. The radioactive decay method uses 58 Co, 64 Cu, 11 C, 13 N, 15 O and 18 F. The electron-positron pair creation method uses nuclear reactor or electron linear accelerator (LINAC). The positron experimental facility in this organization consists of electron LINAC, slow positron beam source, positron transport and experimental station. The outline of this facility is started. The intense slow positron beam is applied to research positronium work function, electron structure of surface. New method such as combination of positron lifetime measurement and slow positron beam or Auger electron spectroscopy by positron annihilation excitation and positron reemission microscope are developed. (S.Y.)

  18. Psychologists at the Gate: Review of Daniel Kahneman’s Thinking, Fast and Slow

    OpenAIRE

    Shleifer, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    The publication of Daniel Kahneman's book, Thinking, Fast and Slow , is a major intellectual event. The book summarizes, but also integrates, the research that Kahneman has done over the past forty years, beginning with his path-breaking work with the late Amos Tversky. The broad theme of this research is that human beings are intuitive thinkers and that human intuition is imperfect, with the result that judgments and choices often deviate substantially from the predictions of normative stati...

  19. A high-performance carbon derived from corn stover via microwave and slow pyrolysis for supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Hong; wang, Xiaomin; Shen, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    Microwave and slow pyrolysis were conducted for converting corn stover to biochar. Chemical agents of sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide were used to progressively produce activated carbon. The pore structures and surface area of the samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption....../desorption at 77 K. The results demonstrated that higher specific surface areas of activated carbons were obtained by microwave pyrolysis combined with potassium hydroxide activation. However, electrochemical measurements showed that the slow pyrolysis biochar treated with 0.05 mol g−1 (potassium hydroxide...

  20. Substantiation of the permissible radioactive contamination of working clothes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, V.L.; Korostin, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    A permissible level of working clothes contamination was determined on the base of the main migration routes of radioactive contaminants: permeation directly through the clothes into subclothes space on skin surface, emission into the air with amount of contaminants subsequently got by the organism of a working person through inhalation as well as transfer in the process of contacting of contaminated working clothes and surfaces of premises equipment, working person hands with amount of contaminants posteriorly got by the organism by alimentary or inhalation ways. Using the experimental and literature data available the permissible levels of working clothes contamination for the mentioned migration routes of radioactive materials have been calculated. According to the data obtained the permissible levels of working clothes contamination must not exceed 4 alpha-part/(cm 2 xmin) for contamination with high-tonic isotopes, 20 alpha-part./(cm 2 xmin) with other alpha-detine isotopes, 1000 beta-part./(cm 2 xmin) with beta-active ones. The permissible level of contamination of additional materials of the individual protection in the case of their contamination with high-tonic alpha-actine isotopes must not exceed 50 alpha-part./(cm 2 xmin), 200 alpha-part./(cm 2 xmin) for contamination th other alpha-active isotopes and 400 beta-part./(cm 2 xmin) with beta-active isotopes

  1. Enhancing the sensitivity of slow light MZI biosensors through multi-hole defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Kun; Zhao, Yiliang; Hu, Shuren; Weiss, Sharon M.

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate enhanced detection sensitivity of a slow light Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) sensor by incorporating multi-hole defects (MHDs). Slow light MZI biosensors with a one-dimensional photonic crystal in one arm have been previously shown to improve the performance of traditional MZI sensors based on the increased lightmatter interaction that takes place in the photonic crystal region of the structure. Introducing MHDs in the photonic crystal region increases the available surface area for molecular attachment and further increases the enhanced lightmatter interaction capability of slow light MZIs. The MHDs allow analyte to interact with a greater fraction of the guided wave in the MZI. For a slow light MHD MZI sensor with a 16 μm long sensing arm, a bulk sensitivity of 151,000 rad/RIU-cm is demonstrated experimentally, which is approximately two-fold higher than our previously reported slow light MZI sensors and thirteen-fold higher than traditional MZI biosensors with millimeter length sensing regions. For the label-free detection of nucleic acids, the slow light MZI with MHDs also exhibits a two-fold sensitivity improvement in experiment compared to the slow light MZI without MHDs. Because the detection sensitivity of slow light MHD MZIs scales with the length of the sensing arm, the tradeoff between detection limit and device size can be appropriately mitigated for different applications. All experimental results presented in this work are in good agreement with finite difference-time domain-calculations. Overall, the slow light MZI biosensors with MHDs are a promising platform for highly sensitive and multiplexed lab-on-chip systems.

  2. An induction sensor for measuring rectilinear movements of substantial length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaudou, Yves.

    1973-01-01

    The invention is characterized in that it comprises the steps of making one end of a magnetic core integral with the objet, the movements of which are to be measured. The core has the shape of an isoscele prism the base surface of which slides within two aligned coils contained in two adjacent arms of an A-C operated Wheatstone bridge. The impedances in the W-bridge other two arms is adjusted in order that the Wheatstone bridge be balanced at a given position of the object. The movement of the object is measured from the latter given position through the potential difference, proportional to said movement developed between two opposite apices E and D of the bridge, the latter being fed with AC between the other two apices (A and B). This can be applied to the measurement of the movements of irradiation capsules in a nuclear reactor [fr

  3. Substantial convection and precipitation enhancements by ultrafine aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Jiwen; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Zhang, Yuwei; Giangrande, Scott E.; Li, Zhanqing; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Martin, Scot T.; Yang, Yan; Wang, Jian; Artaxo, Paulo; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Braga, Ramon C.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Feng, Zhe; Gao, Wenhua; Gomes, Helber B.; Mei, Fan; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Pöschl, Ulrich; de Souza, Rodrigo A. F.

    2018-01-25

    Aerosol-cloud interaction remains the largest uncertainty in climate projections. Ultrafine aerosol particles (UAP; size <50nm) are considered too small to serve as cloud condensation nuclei conventionally. However, this study provides observational evidence to accompany insights from numerical simulations to support that deep convective clouds (DCCs) over Amazon have strong capability of nucleating UAP from an urban source and forming greater numbers of droplets, because fast drop coalescence in these DCCs reduces drop surface area available for condensation, leading to high vapor supersaturation. The additional droplets subsequently decrease supersaturation and release more condensational latent heating, a dominant contributor to convection intensification, whereas enhanced latent heat from ice-related processes plays a secondary role. Therefore, the addition of anthropogenic UAP may play a much greater role in modulating clouds than previously believed over the Amazon region and possibly in other relatively pristine regions such as maritime and forest locations.

  4. On novel mechanisms of slow ion induced electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eder, H.

    2000-09-01

    The present work has contributed in new ways to the field of slow ion induced electron emission. First, measurements of the total electron yield γ for impact of slow singly and multiply charged ions on atomically clean polycrystalline gold and graphite have been made. The respective yields were determined by current measurements and measurements of the electron number statistics. A new mechanism for kinetic emission (KE) below the so called 'classical threshold' was found and discussed. For a given ion species and impact velocity a slight decrease of the yields was found for ion charge state q = 1 toward 3, but no significant differences in KE yields for higher q values. Comparison of the results from gold and graphite showed overall similar behavior, but for C+ a relatively strong difference was observed and ascribed to more effective electron promotion in the C-C- than in the C-Au system. Secondly, for the very specific system H0 on LiF we investigated single electron excitation processes under grazing incidence conditions. In this way long-range interactions of hydrogen atoms with the ionic crystal surface could be probed. Position- and velocity-dependent electron production rates were found which indicate that an electron promotion mechanism is responsible for the observed electron emission. Thirdly, in order to investigate the importance of plasmon excitation and -decay in slow ion induced electron emission, measurements of electron energy distributions from impact of singly and doubly charged ions on poly- and monocrystalline aluminum surfaces were performed. From the results we conclude that direct plasmon excitation by slow ions occurs due to the potential energy of the projectile in a quasi-resonant fashion. The highest relative plasmon intensities were found for impact of 5 keV Ne+ on Al(111) with 5 % of the total yield. For impact of H + and H 2 + characteristical differences were observed for Al(111) and polycrystalline aluminum. We show that

  5. Polymeric membrane studied using slow positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, W.-S.; Lo, C.-H.; Cheng, M.-L.; Chen Hongmin; Liu Guang; Chakka, Lakshmi; Nanda, D.; Tung, K.-L.; Huang, S.-H.; Lee, Kueir-Rarn; Lai, J.-Y.; Sun Yiming; Yu Changcheng; Zhang Renwu; Jean, Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    A radioisotope slow positron beam has been built at the Chung Yuan Christian University in Taiwan for the research and development in membrane science and technology. Doppler broadening energy spectra and positron annihilation lifetime have been measured as a function of positron energy up to 30 keV in a polyamide membrane prepared by the interfacial polymerization between triethylenetetraamine (TETA) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) on modified porous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) asymmetric membrane. The multilayer structures and free-volume depth profile for this asymmetric membrane system are obtained. Positron annihilation spectroscopy coupled with a slow beam could provide new information about size selectivity of transporting molecules and guidance for molecular designs in polymeric membranes

  6. Slow and fast light in semiconductor waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Xue, Weiqi

    2010-01-01

    Investigations of slow and fast light effects in semiconductor waveguides entail interesting physics and point to a number of promising applications. In this review we give an overview of recent progress in the field, in particular focusing on the physical mechanisms of electromagnetically induced...... transparency and coherent population oscillations. While electromagnetically induced transparency has been the most important effect in realizing slowdown effects in atomic gasses, progress has been comparatively slow in semiconductors due to inherent problems of fast dephasing times and inhomogeneous...... broadening in quantum dots. The physics of electromagnetically induced transparency in semiconductors is discussed, emphasizing these limitations and recent suggestions for overcoming them. On the other hand, the mechanism of coherent population oscillations relies on wave mixing effects and is well suited...

  7. Slow Invariant Manifolds in Chemically Reactive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Samuel; Powers, Joseph M.

    2006-11-01

    The scientific design of practical gas phase combustion devices has come to rely on the use of mathematical models which include detailed chemical kinetics. Such models intrinsically admit a wide range of scales which renders their accurate numerical approximation difficult. Over the past decade, rational strategies, such as Intrinsic Low Dimensional Manifolds (ILDM) or Computational Singular Perturbations (CSP), for equilibrating fast time scale events have been successfully developed, though their computation can be challenging and their accuracy in most cases uncertain. Both are approximations to the preferable slow invariant manifold which best describes how the system evolves in the long time limit. Strategies for computing the slow invariant manifold are examined, and results are presented for practical combustion systems.

  8. Slowed demand ushers in summer season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    This article is the June 1996 market summary in uranium market. During this reporting period, there were six deals in the U3O8 spot market and three long-term deals for U3O8. There were four deals for UF6 conversion, and the spot market for uranium separation services had no transactions. This was little change from the previous month's activities, and this slowness was reflected in the price trends of little or no increase

  9. Fundamental research with polarized slow neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupchitsky, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    In the last twenty years polarized beams of slow neutrons have been used effectively in fundamental research in nuclear physics. This book gives a thorough introduction to these experimental methods including the most recent techniques of generating and analyzing polarized neutron beams. It clearly shows the close relationship between elementary particle physics and nuclear physics. The book not only addresses specialists but also those interested in the foundations of elementary particle and nuclear physics. With 42 figs

  10. Testing algorithms for critical slowing down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cossu Guido

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the preliminary tests on two modifications of the Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC algorithm. Both algorithms are designed to travel much farther in the Hamiltonian phase space for each trajectory and reduce the autocorrelations among physical observables thus tackling the critical slowing down towards the continuum limit. We present a comparison of costs of the new algorithms with the standard HMC evolution for pure gauge fields, studying the autocorrelation times for various quantities including the topological charge.

  11. SOFTWARE Manual for VMM3 Slow Control

    CERN Document Server

    Guth, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    For the New Small Wheel upgrade of the ATLAS detector a new readout chip, called VMM3(a), was developed. In order to provide this new technology to a larger community, the RD51 collaboration is integrating the VMM3 in their scalable readout system (SRS). For this purpose, a new slow control and calibration tool is necessary. This new software was developed and improved within a CERN Summer Student project.

  12. Theory of a slow-light catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, Ulf

    2002-01-01

    In diffraction catastrophes such as the rainbow, the wave nature of light resolves ray singularities and draws delicate interference patterns. In quantum catastrophes such as the black hole, the quantum nature of light resolves wave singularities and creates characteristic quantum effects related to Hawking radiation. This paper describes the theory behind a recent proposal [U. Leonhardt, Nature (London) 415, 406 (2002)] to generate a quantum catastrophe of slow light

  13. Theory of a slow-light catastrophe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Ulf

    2002-04-01

    In diffraction catastrophes such as the rainbow, the wave nature of light resolves ray singularities and draws delicate interference patterns. In quantum catastrophes such as the black hole, the quantum nature of light resolves wave singularities and creates characteristic quantum effects related to Hawking radiation. This paper describes the theory behind a recent proposal [U. Leonhardt, Nature (London) 415, 406 (2002)] to generate a quantum catastrophe of slow light.

  14. Theory of a Slow-Light Catastrophe

    OpenAIRE

    Leonhardt, Ulf

    2001-01-01

    In diffraction catastrophes such as the rainbow the wave nature of light resolves ray singularities and draws delicate interference patterns. In quantum catastrophes such as the black hole the quantum nature of light resolves wave singularities and creates characteristic quantum effects related to Hawking radiation. The paper describes the theory behind a recent proposal [U. Leonhardt, arXiv:physics/0111058, Nature (in press)] to generate a quantum catastrophe of slow light.

  15. Magnetic energy analyser for slow electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limberg, W.

    1974-08-01

    A differential spectrometer with high time and energy resolution has been developed using the principle of energy analysis with a longitudinal homogeneous magnetic field. This way it is possible to measure the energy distribution of low energy electrons (eV-range) in the presence of high energy electrons without distortions by secondary electrons. The functioning and application of the analyzer is demonstrated by measuring the energy distributions of slow electrons emitted by a filament. (orig.) [de

  16. Slowing down modernity: A critique : A critique

    OpenAIRE

    Vostal , Filip

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The connection between modernization and social acceleration is now a prominent theme in critical social analysis. Taking a cue from these debates, I explore attempts that aim to 'slow down modernity' by resisting the dynamic tempo of various social processes and experiences. The issue of slowdown now accounts for a largely unquestioned measure, expected to deliver unhasty tempo conditioning good and ethical life, mental well-being and accountable democracy. In princip...

  17. Nonlinear dynamical triggering of slow slip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knuth, Matthew W [WISCONSIN; Kaproth, Bryan M [PENN STATE; Carpenter, Brett [PENN STATE; Guyer, Robert A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Le Bas, Pierre - Yves [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daub, Eric G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marone, Chris [PENN STATE

    2010-12-10

    Among the most fascinating, recent discoveries in seismology have been the phenomena of triggered slip, including triggered earthquakes and triggered-tremor, as well as triggered slow, silent-slip during which no seismic energy is radiated. Because fault nucleation depths cannot be probed directly, the physical regimes in which these phenomena occur are poorly understood. Thus determining physical properties that control diverse types of triggered fault sliding and what frictional constitutive laws govern triggered faulting variability is challenging. We are characterizing the physical controls of triggered faulting with the goal of developing constitutive relations by conducting laboratory and numerical modeling experiments in sheared granular media at varying load conditions. In order to simulate granular fault zone gouge in the laboratory, glass beads are sheared in a double-direct configuration under constant normal stress, while subject to transient perturbation by acoustic waves. We find that triggered, slow, silent-slip occurs at very small confining loads ({approx}1-3 MPa) that are smaller than those where dynamic earthquake triggering takes place (4-7 MPa), and that triggered slow-slip is associated with bursts of LFE-like acoustic emission. Experimental evidence suggests that the nonlinear dynamical response of the gouge material induced by dynamic waves may be responsible for the triggered slip behavior: the slip-duration, stress-drop and along-strike slip displacement are proportional to the triggering wave amplitude. Further, we observe a shear-modulus decrease corresponding to dynamic-wave triggering relative to the shear modulus of stick-slips. Modulus decrease in response to dynamical wave amplitudes of roughly a microstrain and above is a hallmark of elastic nonlinear behavior. We believe that the dynamical waves increase the material non-affine elastic deformation during shearing, simultaneously leading to instability and slow-slip. The inferred

  18. Slow movement execution in event-related potentials (P300).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Kumi; Sakuma, Haruo; Hirai, Takane

    2002-02-01

    We examined whether slow movement execution has an effect on cognitive and information processing by measuring the P300 component. 8 subjects performed a continuous slow forearm rotational movement using 2 task speeds. Slow (a 30-50% decrease from the subject's Preferred speed) and Very Slow (a 60-80% decrease). The mean coefficient of variation for rotation speed under Very Slow was higher than that under Slow, showing that the subjects found it difficult to perform the Very Slow task smoothly. The EEG score of alpha-1 (8-10 Hz) under Slow Condition was increased significantly more than under the Preferred Condition; however, the increase under Very Slow was small when compared with Preferred. After performing the task. P300 latency under Very Slow increased significantly as compared to that at pretask. Further, P300 amplitude decreased tinder both speed conditions when compared to that at pretask, and a significant decrease was seen under the Slow Condition at Fz, whereas the decrease under the Very Slow Condition was small. These differences indicated that a more complicated neural composition and an increase in subjects' attention might have been involved when the task was performed under the Very Slow Condition. We concluded that slow movement execution may have an influence on cognitive function and may depend on the percentage of decrease from the Preferred speed of the individual.

  19. Pyrosequencing of prey DNA in reptile faeces: analysis of earthworm consumption by slow worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David S; Jarman, Simon N; Symondson, William O C

    2012-03-01

    Little quantitative ecological information exists on the diets of most invertebrate feeding reptiles, particularly nocturnal or elusive species that are difficult to observe. In the UK and elsewhere, reptiles are legally required to be relocated before land development can proceed, but without knowledge of their dietary requirements, the suitability of receptor sites cannot be known. Here, we tested the ability of non-invasive DNA-based molecular diagnostics (454 pyrosequencing) to analyse reptile diets, with the specific aims of determining which earthworm species are exploited by slow worms (the legless lizard Anguis fragilis) and whether they feed on the deeper-living earthworm species that only come to the surface at night. Slow worm faecal samples from four different habitats were analysed using earthworm-specific PCR primers. We found that 86% of slow worms (N=80) had eaten earthworms. In lowland heath and marshy/acid grassland, Lumbricus rubellus, a surface-dwelling epigeic species, dominated slow worm diet. In two other habitats, riverside pasture and calciferous coarse grassland, diet was dominated by deeper-living anecic and endogeic species. We conclude that all species of earthworm are exploited by these reptiles and lack of specialization allows slow worms to thrive in a wide variety of habitats. Pyrosequencing of prey DNA in faeces showed promise as a practical, rapid and relatively inexpensive means of obtaining detailed and valuable ecological information on the diets of reptiles. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Design optimization of radiation shielding structure for lead slowing-down spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Dong; Ahn, Sang Joon; Lee, Yong Deok; Park, Chang Je

    2015-01-01

    A lead slowing-down spectrometer (LSDS) system is a promising nondestructive assay technique that enables a quantitative measurement of the isotopic contents of major fissile isotopes in spent nuclear fuel and its pyroprocessing counterparts, such as 235U, 239Pu, 241Pu, and, potentially, minor actinides. The LSDS system currently under development at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Daejeon, Korea) is planned to utilize a high-flux (>101 2n /cm 2 ·s) neutron source comprised of a high-energy (30 MeV)/high-current (∼2 A) electron beam and a heavy metal target, which results in a very intense and complex radiation field for the facility, thus demanding structural shielding to guarantee the safety. Optimization of the structural shielding design was conducted using MCNPX for neutron dose rate evaluation of several representative hypothetical designs. In order to satisfy the construction cost and neutron attenuation capability of the facility, while simultaneously achieving the aimed dose rate limit (<0.06 μSv/h), a few shielding materials [high-density polyethylene (HDPE)–Borax, B 4 C, and Li 2 CO 3 ] were considered for the main neutron absorber layer, which is encapsulated within the double-sided concrete wall. The MCNP simulation indicated that HDPE-Borax is the most efficient among the aforementioned candidate materials, and the combined thickness of the shielding layers should exceed 100 cm to satisfy the dose limit on the outside surface of the shielding wall of the facility when limiting the thickness of the HDPE-Borax intermediate layer to below 5 cm. However, the shielding wall must include the instrumentation and installation holes for the LSDS system. The radiation leakage through the holes was substantially mitigated by adopting a zigzag-shape with concrete covers on both sides. The suggested optimized design of the shielding structure satisfies the dose rate limit and can be used for the construction of a facility in the near future.

  1. Counting graphene layers with very slow electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Ludĕk; Mikmeková, Eliška; Müllerová, Ilona [Institute of Scientific Instruments AS CR, v.v.i., Královopolská 147, 61264 Brno (Czech Republic); Lejeune, Michaël [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Faculté des Sciences d' Amiens, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-01-05

    The study aimed at collection of data regarding the transmissivity of freestanding graphene for electrons across their full energy scale down to the lowest energies. Here, we show that the electron transmissivity of graphene drops with the decreasing energy of the electrons and remains below 10% for energies below 30 eV, and that the slow electron transmissivity value is suitable for reliable determination of the number of graphene layers. Moreover, electrons incident below 50 eV release adsorbed hydrocarbon molecules and effectively clean graphene in contrast to faster electrons that decompose these molecules and create carbonaceous contamination.

  2. Slow relaxation in weakly open rational polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokshenev, Valery B; Vicentini, Eduardo

    2003-07-01

    The interplay between the regular (piecewise-linear) and irregular (vertex-angle) boundary effects in nonintegrable rational polygonal billiards (of m equal sides) is discussed. Decay dynamics in polygons (of perimeter P(m) and small opening Delta) is analyzed through the late-time survival probability S(m) approximately equal t(-delta). Two distinct slow relaxation channels are established. The primary universal channel exhibits relaxation of regular sliding orbits, with delta=1. The secondary channel is given by delta>1 and becomes open when m>P(m)/Delta. It originates from vertex order-disorder dual effects and is due to relaxation of chaoticlike excitations.

  3. Quasistatic modelling of the coaxial slow source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, K.D.; Pietrzyk, Z.A.; Vlases, G.C.

    1986-01-01

    A new 1-D Lagrangian MHD numerical code in flux coordinates has been developed for the Coaxial Slow Source (CSS) geometry. It utilizes the quasistatic approximation so that the plasma evolves as a succession of equilibria. The P=P (psi) equilibrium constraint, along with the assumption of infinitely fast axial temperature relaxation on closed field lines, is incorporated. An axially elongated, rectangular plasma is assumed. The axial length is adjusted by the global average condition, or assumed to be fixed. In this paper predictions obtained with the code, and a limited amount of comparison with experimental data are presented

  4. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, C.

    2014-09-01

    We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze - a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple ;crossover model; without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space-time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe.

  5. Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Glen A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bonebrake, Eric; Casella, Andrew M.; Danon, Yaron; Devlin, M.; Gavron, Victor A.; Haight, R.C.; Imel, G.R.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; O'Donnell, J.M.; Weltz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    This report documents the progress that has been completed in the first half of FY2012 in the MPACT-funded Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer project. Significant progress has been made on the algorithm development. We have an improve understanding of the experimental responses in LSDS for fuel-related material. The calibration of the ultra-depleted uranium foils was completed, but the results are inconsistent from measurement to measurement. Future work includes developing a conceptual model of an LSDS system to assay plutonium in used fuel, improving agreement between simulations and measurement, design of a thorium fission chamber, and evaluation of additional detector techniques.

  6. Sustainable Development of Slow Fashion Businesses: Customer Value Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sojin Jung

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative to the prevalent fast fashion model, slow fashion has emerged as a way of enhancing sustainability in the fashion industry, yet how slow fashion can enhance profitability is still largely unknown. Based on a customer value creation framework, this study empirically tested a structural model that specified the slow fashion attributes that contribute to creating perceived customer value, which subsequently increases a consumer’s intention to buy and pay a price premium for slow fashion products. An analysis of 221 U.S. consumer data revealed that delivering exclusive product value is significantly critical in creating customer value for slow fashion, and customer value, in turn, positively affects consumers’ purchase intentions. Further analysis also revealed that different slow fashion attributes distinctively affect customer value. This provides potential strategies on which slow fashion businesses can focus to secure an economically sustainable business model, thereby continuously improving environmental and social sustainability with the slow fashion ideal.

  7. Slow-light dynamics in nonlinear periodic waveguides couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukhorukov, A.A.; Ha, S.; Powell, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    We predict pulse switching and reshaping through nonlinear mixing of two slow-light states with different phase velocities in the same frequency range, and report on the first experimental observation of slow-light tunneling between coupled periodic waveguides.......We predict pulse switching and reshaping through nonlinear mixing of two slow-light states with different phase velocities in the same frequency range, and report on the first experimental observation of slow-light tunneling between coupled periodic waveguides....

  8. Slow-light effects in photonic crystal membrane lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Yu, Yi; Ottaviano, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a systematic investigation of photonic crystal cavity laser operating in the slow-light regime. The dependence of lasing threshold on the effect of slow-light will be particularly highlighted.......In this paper, we present a systematic investigation of photonic crystal cavity laser operating in the slow-light regime. The dependence of lasing threshold on the effect of slow-light will be particularly highlighted....

  9. Nonlinear Gain Saturation in Active Slow Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated.......We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated....

  10. Interaction of slow pions with atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitskij, M.A.; Tsybul'nikov, A.V.; Chekunaev, N.I.

    1984-01-01

    Interactions of slow pions with atomic nuclei near to pion condensation are investigated. From comparison of experimental data with the theoretical calculation results on the basis of precise microscopic approach not bound with the random phase approximation (RPA) nuclear matter fundamental parameters near a critical point can be found. Optical potential of slow pions in nuclei, πN-scattering amplitudes and lengths, π-atom level isotopic shift, phenomenon of single-nucleon pion absorption by nucleus, phenomenon of nuclear critical opalescence are considered. The results of πN-scattering lengths calculation, sup(40-44)Ca, sup(24-29)Mg, sup(16-18)O π-atom level shift are presented. It is shown that the presence of π-condensate in nuclei can explain the observed suppression of p-wave potential terms. The phenomenon of single-nucleon pion absorption by nucleus is one of direct experiments which permits to reveal the π-condensate. The nuclear opalescence phenomenon is manifested in increase of pion photoproduction reaction cross section for account of nucleus proximity to π-condensation as compared with the calculated in the Fermi-gas model. The suggested method for calculating precondensate phenomena operates the better, the nearer is the system to the condensation threshold whereas the RPA method in this region is inapplicable

  11. Energy strategy would slow coal's growth, says DOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The National Energy Strategy (NES) recently announced by the Bush Administration would slow the growth in use of coal by hundreds of millions of tons of coal by hundreds of millions of tons after 2000, according to the Department of Energy's (DOE) own figures. If today's policies are continued, coal consumption will nearly triple by 2030. Current annual consumption of more than 900 million tons (19 quadrillion Btus) would rise to 1,550 million tons in 2010 and to nearly 2,600 million tons by 2030. Coal's share of electricity generation, now about 55%, would grow to 75% by 2030 under the current policy base assumptions of the DOE. The NES, however, projects that surge of nuclear power plant construction will stem the growth of coal use. The strategy would still increase coal use, from 19 quadrillion Btus today to about 28 quads in 2010, but to only 32 quads by 2030. By 2030, coal would account for less than 50% of electricity generation under the NES. Total clean coal technologies capacity is substantially lower under the NES scenario case than under the clean coal actions alone. The strategy also contains good news for the coal industry in the short run. It holds out two main goals for coal policy: maintaining coal's competitiveness while meeting environmental, health and safety requirements; and creating a favorable export climate for US coal and coal technology

  12. Factors Contributing Decreased Performance Of Slow Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. L. Kannan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Back ground Even experienced teaching faculty and administrators can be challenged by learners who have not able to perform up to expected need in their annual performance of their students these students are called as slow learnersStruggle learners. There should be a designed study to foster discussion about diagnosing particular problems that contribute with meeting objectives of slow learners. Methodology The study was performed on the entire current first year of Medical students were all the three internal assessments of 250 students performance is taken in to consideration for the study. This study is of cross section type.After obtaining the list of all students marks in internal examination from medical education unit supporting mentors are contacted to meet the students and confidentiality is maintained throughout the study. After obtaining informed consent a questionnaire was administered to the students by the investigator. The questionnaire contains the following sections. Section I will be on the background characteristics of the student name age sex type of family. Section II will be on the details of their learning capabilities. Section III will focus on the awareness of the slow learners in which the precipitating factors contributing to them. Results The prevalence of slow learners as low achievers were contributed to be 32.4 percentages.The performance of the students is based on combination of all three internal assessment marks including theory and practical performance. In this the students age ranges from 17 to 21 years the mean age of student was contributed to be 17.81 and majority of the students were in the age group of 18 years which contributed to be 16867.2.In the present study majority were males 13252.8 compared to females 11847.2.but when study is compared to percentage of attendance majority of the individual 15177 scored more than 50 percentage of marks have more than 80 percentage of attendance but when

  13. Good, Clean, Fair: The Rhetoric of the Slow Food Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines the origins of the Slow Food movement before examining the ways in which Slow Food rhetoric seeks to redefine gastronomy and combat the more deleterious effects of globalization. In articulating a new gastronomy, Slow Food founder Carlo Petrini attempts to reconstruct the gastronomy of Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, at once…

  14. The generation and development of the moderators for slow positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Weizhong; Yuan Jiaping

    2001-01-01

    The positron annihilation technique is a sensitive tool for studying microdefects and phase transitions in various materials. Usually the energy of positrons is on the order of MeV and the implantation depth about 100 microns, so the bulk average defect density can be studied. In a slow positron beam the positron energy is about keV and the implantation depth a few microns, so surface defects can be detected. Positron moderator is the key device for obtaining a slow positron beam. The authors review the history and development of the positron moderator, including four methods that convert fast positrons into slow mono-energetic positrons and five array types. The tungsten moderator is the most widely used one while the inert gas solid moderator is the most efficient. Field-enhanced moderators with their high efficiency have great potential but need to be developed. The vane arrangement is the most commonly found

  15. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetterich, C.

    2014-09-07

    We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze — a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple “crossover model” without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space–time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe.

  16. Limits of slow light in photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2008-01-01

    in the group velocity acquiring a finite value above zero at the band-gap edges while attaining uperluminal values within the band gap. Simple scalings of the minimum and maximum group velocities with the imaginary part of the dielectric function or, equivalently, the linewidth of the broadened states......While ideal photonic crystals would support modes with a vanishing group velocity, state-of-the-art structures have still only provided a slow down by roughly two orders of magnitude. We find that the induced density of states caused by lifetime broadening of the electromagnetic modes results...... are presented. The results obtained are entirely general and may be applied to any effect which results in a broadening of the electromagnetic states, such as loss, disorder, and finite-size effects. This significantly limits the reduction in group velocity attainable via photonic crystals....

  17. Slow neutron scattering by water molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancic, V [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1970-07-01

    In this work some new, preliminary formulae for slow neutron scattering cross section calculation by heavy and light water molecules have been done. The idea was to find, from the sum which exists in well known Nelkin model, other cross sections in a more simple analytical form, so that next approximations may be possible. In order to sum a series it was starting from Euler-Mclaurin formula. Some new summation formulae have been derived there, and defined in two theorems. Extensive calculations, especially during the evaluation of residues, have been made at the CDC 3600 computer. validation of derived formulae was done by comparison with the BNL-325 results. Good agreement is shown. (author)

  18. Acoustic slow waves and the consolidation transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.L.; Plona, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    We have investigated the ultrasonic properties of unconsolidated (loose) glass beads and of lightly fused (consolidated) glass beads when the pore space is saturated with water. At a frequency of 500 kHz we have observed a single compressional wave in the former whose speed is 1.79 km/s and two distinct compressional waves with speeds 2.81 km/s and 0.96 km/s in the latter. The Biot theory is shown to give an accurate description of this phenomenon. We also analyze the acoustics of low temperature He ii in packed powder superleaks; either the fast wave for unconsolidated systems or the slow wave in a highly consolidated (fused) frame may be considered to be the 4th sound mode. In all such systems, the acoustic properties can be very simply understood by considering the velocities of propagation as continuous functions of the elastic moduli of the solid skeletal frames

  19. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2014-01-01

    We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze — a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple “crossover model” without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space–time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe

  20. Slow speed object detection for haul trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    Caterpillar integrates radar technology with its current camera based system. Caterpillar has developed the Integrated Object Detection System, a slow speed object detection system for mining haul trucks. Object detection is a system that aids the truck operator's awareness of their surroundings. The system consists of a color touch screen display along with medium- and short-range radar as well as cameras, harnesses and mounting hardware. It is integrated into the truck's Work Area Vision System (WAVS). After field testing in 2007, system commercialization began in 2008. Prototype systems are in operation in Australia, Utah and Arizona and the Integrated Object Detection System will be available in the fourth quarter of 2009 and on production trucks 785C, 789C, 793D and 797B. The article is adapted from a presentation by Mark Richards of Caterpillar to the Haulage & Loading 2009 conference, May, held in Phoenix, AZ. 1 fig., 5 photos.

  1. Slow neutron scattering by water molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancic, V.

    1970-01-01

    In this work some new, preliminary formulae for slow neutron scattering cross section calculation by heavy and light water molecules have been done. The idea was to find, from the sum which exists in well known Nelkin model, other cross sections in a more simple analytical form, so that next approximations may be possible. In order to sum a series it was starting from Euler-Mclaurin formula. Some new summation formulae have been derived there, and defined in two theorems. Extensive calculations, especially during the evaluation of residues, have been made at the CDC 3600 computer. validation of derived formulae was done by comparison with the BNL-325 results. Good agreement is shown. (author)

  2. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wetterich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze — a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple “crossover model” without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space–time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe.

  3. Slow creep in soft granular packings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ishan; Fisher, Timothy S

    2017-05-14

    Transient creep mechanisms in soft granular packings are studied numerically using a constant pressure and constant stress simulation method. Rapid compression followed by slow dilation is predicted on the basis of a logarithmic creep phenomenon. Characteristic scales of creep strain and time exhibit a power-law dependence on jamming pressure, and they diverge at the jamming point. Microscopic analysis indicates the existence of a correlation between rheology and nonaffine fluctuations. Localized regions of large strain appear during creep and grow in magnitude and size at short times. At long times, the spatial structure of highly correlated local deformation becomes time-invariant. Finally, a microscale connection between local rheology and local fluctuations is demonstrated in the form of a linear scaling between granular fluidity and nonaffine velocity.

  4. Monitoring failure rates of commercial implant brands; substantial equivalence in question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujoel, Philippe; Becker, William; Becker, Burton

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to report on the failure rates of two distinct dental implant systems in a clinical practice setting. Date of implant placement and loss were entered prospectively in a data registry system. Failure rates of two commercially pure titanium implants, one with a porous oxydized surface (POS) and the other with a chemically altered surface (CAS), were assessed using a quality control chart and survival analyses. A total of 860 POS and 759 CAS implants were placed. A warning of an increased failure rate of the CAS implant was identified by means of the quality control chart. Survival analyses indicated that the CAS implant failure rate was twice that of the POS implant (Hazard Ratio: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.33-3.28, P-value POS implant was associated with a non-significant 64% drop in the implant failure rate within less than a year (HR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.12-1.14; P-value POS implant and an 8% failure with the CAS implant appears inconsistent with the assumption of substantial equivalence. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Evidence that global evapotranspiration makes a substantial contribution to the global atmospheric temperature slowdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, L. Mark W.; Ball, David A.

    2018-02-01

    The difference between the time series trend for temperature expected from the increasing level of atmospheric CO2 and that for the (more slowly rising) observed temperature has been termed the global surface temperature slowdown. In this paper, we characterise the single time series made from the subtraction of these two time series as the `global surface temperature gap'. We also develop an analogous atmospheric CO2 gap series from the difference between the level of CO2 and first-difference CO2 (that is, the change in CO2 from one period to the next). This paper provides three further pieces of evidence concerning the global surface temperature slowdown. First, we find that the present size of both the global surface temperature gap and the CO2 gap is unprecedented over a period starting at least as far back as the 1860s. Second, ARDL and Granger causality analyses involving the global surface temperature gap against the major candidate physical drivers of the ocean heat sink and biosphere evapotranspiration are conducted. In each case where ocean heat data was available, it was significant in the models: however, evapotranspiration, or its argued surrogate precipitation, also remained significant in the models alongside ocean heat. In terms of relative scale, the standardised regression coefficient for evapotranspiration was repeatedly of the same order of magnitude as—typically as much as half that for—ocean heat. The foregoing is evidence that, alongside the ocean heat sink, evapotranspiration is also likely to be making a substantial contribution to the global atmospheric temperature outcome. Third, there is evidence that both the ocean heat sink and the evapotranspiration process might be able to continue into the future to keep the temperature lower than the level-of-CO2 models would suggest. It is shown that this means there can be benefit in using the first-difference CO2 to temperature relationship shown in Leggett and Ball (Atmos Chem Phys 15

  6. Glutamate microinjection in the medial septum of rats decreases paradoxical sleep and increases slow wave sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Didhiti; Kaushik, Mahesh K; Jaryal, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Velayudhan Mohan; Mallick, Hruda Nanda

    2012-05-09

    The role of the medial septum in suppressing paradoxical sleep and promoting slow wave sleep was suggested on the basis of neurotoxic lesion studies. However, these conclusions need to be substantiated with further experiments, including chemical stimulation studies. In this report, the medial septum was stimulated in adult male rats by microinjection of L-glutamate. Sleep-wakefulness was electrophysiologically recorded, through chronically implanted electrodes, for 2 h before the injection and 4 h after the injection. There was a decrease in paradoxical sleep during the first hour and an increase in slow wave sleep during the second hour after the injection. The present findings not only supported the lesion studies but also showed that the major role of the medial septum is to suppress paradoxical sleep.

  7. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial unemployment...

  8. Slow Earthquake Hunters: A New Citizen Science Project to Identify and Catalog Slow Slip Events in Geodetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlow, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Slow Earthquake Hunters is a new citizen science project to detect, catalog, and monitor slow slip events. Slow slip events, also called "slow earthquakes", occur when faults slip too slowly to generate significant seismic radiation. They typically take between a few days and over a year to occur, and are most often found on subduction zone plate interfaces. While not dangerous in and of themselves, recent evidence suggests that monitoring slow slip events is important for earthquake hazards, as slow slip events have been known to trigger damaging "regular" earthquakes. Slow slip events, because they do not radiate seismically, are detected with a variety of methods, most commonly continuous geodetic Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. There is now a wealth of GPS data in some regions that experience slow slip events, but a reliable automated method to detect them in GPS data remains elusive. This project aims to recruit human users to view GPS time series data, with some post-processing to highlight slow slip signals, and flag slow slip events for further analysis by the scientific team. Slow Earthquake Hunters will begin with data from the Cascadia subduction zone, where geodetically detectable slow slip events with a duration of at least a few days recur at regular intervals. The project will then expand to other areas with slow slip events or other transient geodetic signals, including other subduction zones, and areas with strike-slip faults. This project has not yet rolled out to the public, and is in a beta testing phase. This presentation will show results from an initial pilot group of student participants at the University of Missouri, and solicit feedback for the future of Slow Earthquake Hunters.

  9. Construction report of the PF slow-positron source. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, Atsushi; Kurihara, Toshikazu; Kobayashi, Hitoshi

    1993-12-01

    The slow positron source utilizing the electron beam of the 2.5 GeV electron beam accelerator which is the synchrotron radiation injector is being constructed. The outline of the project and the present state of construction are reported. As of November, 1993, by injecting the electron beam of about 10 W to the targets for producing positrons, the slow positrons of 4 x 10 4 e + /s has been obtained in the laboratory. Finally, with the electron beam of 30 kW, it is aimed at to obtain the slow positron beam of 2 x 10 9 e + /s. In the slow positron source, the electron beam from the 2.5 GeV linear accelerator is used as the primary beam. This beam is led to the target with electromagnets. Radiation shields were strengthened, and the electrostatic lens system was attached to efficiently extract and send out slow positrons. The conveying system for slow positrons is explained. Primary electron beam, target and moderator for producing slow positrons, the change to continuous current of pulsed slow positron beam and the heightening of luminance of slow positron beam, and the experiment on the utilization of slow positron beam, and the control system for positron conveyance path are reported. (K.I.)

  10. The diversity of atomic hydrogen in slow rotator early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lisa M.; Serra, Paolo; Krajnović, Davor; Duc, Pierre-Alain

    2018-06-01

    We present interferometric observations of H I in nine slow rotator early-type galaxies of the Atlas3D sample. With these data, we now have sensitive H I searches in 34 of the 36 slow rotators. The aggregate detection rate is 32 per cent ± 8 per cent, consistent with the previous work; however, we find two detections with extremely high H I masses, whose gas kinematics are substantially different from what was previously known about H I in slow rotators. These two cases (NGC 1222 and NGC 4191) broaden the known diversity of H I properties in slow rotators. NGC 1222 is a merger remnant with prolate-like rotation and, if it is indeed prolate in shape, an equatorial gas disc; NGC 4191 has two counter-rotating stellar discs and an unusually large H I disc. We comment on the implications of this disc for the formation of 2σ galaxies. In general, the H I detection rate, the incidence of relaxed H I discs, and the H I/stellar mass ratios of slow rotators are indistinguishable from those of fast rotators. These broad similarities suggest that the H I we are detecting now is unrelated to the galaxies' formation processes and was often acquired after their stars were mostly in place. We also discuss the H I non-detections; some of these galaxies that are undetected in H I or CO are detected in other tracers (e.g. FIR fine structure lines and dust). The question of whether there is cold gas in massive galaxies' scoured nuclear cores still needs work. Finally, we discuss an unusual isolated H I cloud with a surprisingly faint (undetected) optical counterpart.

  11. The Diversity of Atomic Hydrogen in Slow Rotator Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lisa M.; Serra, Paolo; Krajnović, Davor; Duc, Pierre-Alain

    2018-02-01

    We present interferometric observations of H I in nine slow rotator early-type galaxies of the ATLAS3D sample. With these data, we now have sensitive H I searches in 34 of the 36 slow rotators. The aggregate detection rate is 32% ± 8%, consistent with previous work; however, we find two detections with extremely high H I masses, whose gas kinematics are substantially different from what was previously known about H I in slow rotators. These two cases (NGC 1222 and NGC 4191) broaden the known diversity of H I properties in slow rotators. NGC 1222 is a merger remnant with prolate-like rotation and, if it is indeed prolate in shape, an equatorial gas disc; NGC 4191 has two counterrotating stellar discs and an unusually large H I disc. We comment on the implications of this disc for the formation of 2σ galaxies. In general, the H I detection rate, the incidence of relaxed H I discs, and the H I/stellar mass ratios of slow rotators are indistinguishable from those of fast rotators. These broad similarities suggest that the H I we are detecting now is unrelated to the galaxies' formation processes and was often acquired after their stars were mostly in place. We also discuss the H I nondetections; some of these galaxies that are undetected in H I or CO are detected in other tracers (e.g. FIR fine structure lines and dust). The question of whether there is cold gas in massive galaxies' scoured nuclear cores still needs work. Finally, we discuss an unusual isolated H I cloud with a surprisingly faint (undetected) optical counterpart.

  12. Interaction of slow highly-charged ions with metals and insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Interaction of slow highly charged ions with insulator as well as metallic surfaces is discussed. In addition to the usual flat surface targets, studies with thin foils having a multitude of straight holes of ∼100 nm in diameter (micro-capillary foil) are introduced, which provide various unique information on the above surface interaction. In the case of an insulator micro-capillary foil, a so-called guiding effect was observed, where slow highly charged ions can transmit through the capillary tunnel keeping their initial charge state even when the capillary axis is tilted against the incident beam. A similar guiding effect has recently been found for slow highly-charged ions transmitted through a single tapered glass capillary. In both cases, the guiding effects are expected to be governed by a self-organized charging and discharging of the inner-wall of the insulator capillary. One of the prominent features of this guiding effect with the tapered capillary is the formation of a nano-size beam, which can be applied in various fields of science including surface nano-modification/analysis, nano-surgery of living cells, etc

  13. Global and regional ocean carbon uptake and climate change: sensitivity to a substantial mitigation scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vichi, Marcello; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Manzini, Elisa [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Fogli, Pier Giuseppe [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Alessandri, Andrea [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); ENEA, Rome (Italy); Patara, Lavinia [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences (IFM-GEOMAR), Kiel (Germany); Scoccimarro, Enrico [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Under future scenarios of business-as-usual emissions, the ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon is anticipated to decrease because of ocean chemistry constraints and positive feedbacks in the carbon-climate dynamics, whereas it is still unknown how the oceanic carbon cycle will respond to more substantial mitigation scenarios. To evaluate the natural system response to prescribed atmospheric ''target'' concentrations and assess the response of the ocean carbon pool to these values, 2 centennial projection simulations have been performed with an Earth System Model that includes a fully coupled carbon cycle, forced in one case with a mitigation scenario and the other with the SRES A1B scenario. End of century ocean uptake with the mitigation scenario is projected to return to the same magnitude of carbon fluxes as simulated in 1960 in the Pacific Ocean and to lower values in the Atlantic. With A1B, the major ocean basins are instead projected to decrease the capacity for carbon uptake globally as found with simpler carbon cycle models, while at the regional level the response is contrasting. The model indicates that the equatorial Pacific may increase the carbon uptake rates in both scenarios, owing to enhancement of the biological carbon pump evidenced by an increase in Net Community Production (NCP) following changes in the subsurface equatorial circulation and enhanced iron availability from extratropical regions. NCP is a proxy of the bulk organic carbon made available to the higher trophic levels and potentially exportable from the surface layers. The model results indicate that, besides the localized increase in the equatorial Pacific, the NCP of lower trophic levels in the northern Pacific and Atlantic oceans is projected to be halved with respect to the current climate under a substantial mitigation scenario at the end of the twenty-first century. It is thus suggested that changes due to cumulative carbon emissions up to present and the

  14. Toward standardization of slow earthquake catalog -Development of database website-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, M.; Aso, N.; Annoura, S.; Arai, R.; Ito, Y.; Kamaya, N.; Maury, J.; Nakamura, M.; Nishimura, T.; Obana, K.; Sugioka, H.; Takagi, R.; Takahashi, T.; Takeo, A.; Yamashita, Y.; Matsuzawa, T.; Ide, S.; Obara, K.

    2017-12-01

    Slow earthquakes have now been widely discovered in the world based on the recent development of geodetic and seismic observations. Many researchers detect a wide frequency range of slow earthquakes including low frequency tremors, low frequency earthquakes, very low frequency earthquakes and slow slip events by using various methods. Catalogs of the detected slow earthquakes are open to us in different formats by each referring paper or through a website (e.g., Wech 2010; Idehara et al. 2014). However, we need to download catalogs from different sources, to deal with unformatted catalogs and to understand the characteristics of different catalogs, which may be somewhat complex especially for those who are not familiar with slow earthquakes. In order to standardize slow earthquake catalogs and to make such a complicated work easier, Scientific Research on Innovative Areas "Science of Slow Earthquakes" has been developing a slow earthquake catalog website. In the website, we can plot locations of various slow earthquakes via the Google Maps by compiling a variety of slow earthquake catalogs including slow slip events. This enables us to clearly visualize spatial relations among slow earthquakes at a glance and to compare the regional activities of slow earthquakes or the locations of different catalogs. In addition, we can download catalogs in the unified format and refer the information on each catalog on the single website. Such standardization will make it more convenient for users to utilize the previous achievements and to promote research on slow earthquakes, which eventually leads to collaborations with researchers in various fields and further understanding of the mechanisms, environmental conditions, and underlying physics of slow earthquakes. Furthermore, we expect that the website has a leading role in the international standardization of slow earthquake catalogs. We report the overview of the website and the progress of construction. Acknowledgment: This

  15. Slow positron applications at slow positron facility of institute of materials structure science, KEK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, Toshio; Mochizuki, Izumi; Wada, Ken; Toge, Nobukazu; Shidara, Tetsuo

    2018-05-01

    Slow Positron Facility at High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) is a user dedicated facility with an energy-tunable (0.1 - 35 keV) slow positron beam created by a dedicated ˜ 50 MeV linac. It operates in a short pulse (width 1-12 ns, variable, 5×106 e+/s) and a long pulse (width 1.2 µs, 5×107 e+/s) modes of 50 Hz. High energy positrons from pair creation are moderated by reemission after thermalization in W foils. The reemitted positrons are then electrostatically accelerated to a desired energy up to 35 keV and magnetically transported. A pulse-stretching section (pulse stretcher) is installed in the middle of the beamline. It stretches the slow positron pulse for the experiments where too many positrons annihilating in the sample at the same time has to be avoided. Four experiment stations for TRHEPD (total-reflection high-energy positron diffraction), LEPD (low-energy positron diffraction), Ps- (positronium negative ion), and Ps-TOF (positronium time-of-flight) experiments are connected to the beamline branches, SPF-A3, SPF-A4, SPF-B1 and SPF-B2, respectively. Recent results of these stations are briefly described.

  16. Deciding about fast and slow decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croskerry, Pat; Petrie, David A; Reilly, James B; Tait, Gordon

    2014-02-01

    Two reports in this issue address the important topic of clinical decision making. Dual process theory has emerged as the dominant model for understanding the complex processes that underlie human decision making. This theory distinguishes between the reflexive, autonomous processes that characterize intuitive decision making and the deliberate reasoning of an analytical approach. In this commentary, the authors address the polarization of viewpoints that has developed around the relative merits of the two systems. Although intuitive processes are typically fast and analytical processes slow, speed alone does not distinguish them. In any event, the majority of decisions in clinical medicine are not dependent on very short response times. What does appear relevant to diagnostic ease and accuracy is the degree to which the symptoms of the disease being diagnosed are characteristic ones. There are also concerns around some methodological issues related to research design in this area of enquiry. Reductionist approaches that attempt to isolate dependent variables may create such artificial experimental conditions that both external and ecological validity are sacrificed. Clinical decision making is a complex process with many independent (and interdependent) variables that need to be separated out in a discrete fashion and then reflected on in real time to preserve the fidelity of clinical practice. With these caveats in mind, the authors believe that research in this area should promote a better understanding of clinical practice and teaching by focusing less on the deficiencies of intuitive and analytical systems and more on their adaptive strengths.

  17. Slow feature analysis: unsupervised learning of invariances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskott, Laurenz; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2002-04-01

    Invariant features of temporally varying signals are useful for analysis and classification. Slow feature analysis (SFA) is a new method for learning invariant or slowly varying features from a vectorial input signal. It is based on a nonlinear expansion of the input signal and application of principal component analysis to this expanded signal and its time derivative. It is guaranteed to find the optimal solution within a family of functions directly and can learn to extract a large number of decorrelated features, which are ordered by their degree of invariance. SFA can be applied hierarchically to process high-dimensional input signals and extract complex features. SFA is applied first to complex cell tuning properties based on simple cell output, including disparity and motion. Then more complicated input-output functions are learned by repeated application of SFA. Finally, a hierarchical network of SFA modules is presented as a simple model of the visual system. The same unstructured network can learn translation, size, rotation, contrast, or, to a lesser degree, illumination invariance for one-dimensional objects, depending on only the training stimulus. Surprisingly, only a few training objects suffice to achieve good generalization to new objects. The generated representation is suitable for object recognition. Performance degrades if the network is trained to learn multiple invariances simultaneously.

  18. Range and stopping power for slow particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastiano, M.; Fernandez, J. E.; Molinari, V. G.

    1997-01-01

    Generally, the effects of thermal agitation and chemical bonding of the target atoms need to be taken into account to compute properly the range and stopping power of particles. These two effects, however, complicate very much the calculation of the above parameters, and for this reason are usually neglected. In fact, when the energy of the test particles (t.p.) is sufficiently high compared to the thermal or bonding energies, these two effects can be safely disregarded. When the energy of the t.p. is of the same order of the thermal agitation or the chemical bonding, on the other hand, such approximation is not realistic, and to obtain meaningful results one must take into account the velocity distribution of the field particles (f.p.). The aim of this paper is to present a simple model describing the transport of particles (e.g., electrons) in the thermal zone, considering the thermal agitation of f.p. with an arbitrary distribution. It will be shown that in the first part of the slowing down the kinetic energy of t.p. is partially transformed into temperature. In the second part, the temperature tends to reach the equilibrium temperature, while average velocity of t.p. becomes zero. (author)

  19. Mixing, ergodicity and slow relaxation phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, I. V. L.; Vainstein, M. H.; Lapas, L. C.; Batista, A. A.; Oliveira, F. A.

    2006-11-01

    Investigations on diffusion in systems with memory [I.V.L. Costa, R. Morgado, M.V.B.T. Lima, F.A. Oliveira, Europhys. Lett. 63 (2003) 173] have established a hierarchical connection between mixing, ergodicity, and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT). This hierarchy means that ergodicity is a necessary condition for the validity of the FDT, and mixing is a necessary condition for ergodicity. In this work, we compare those results with recent investigations using the Lee recurrence relations method [M.H. Lee, Phys. Rev. B 26 (1982) 2547; M.H. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 (2001) 250601; M.H. Lee, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 (2006) 4651]. Lee shows that ergodicity is violated in the dynamics of the electron gas [M.H. Lee, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 (2006) 4651]. This reinforces both works and implies that the results of [I.V.L. Costa, R. Morgado, M.V.B.T. Lima, F.A. Oliveira, Europhys. Lett. 63 (2003) 173] are more general than the framework in which they were obtained. Some applications to slow relaxation phenomena are discussed.

  20. Commodity chemical growth to slow in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plishner, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    In their latest chemical outlook, DRI/McGraw-Hill economists characterize 1992 as a peak year for U.S. commodity chemical demand growth, at 4.2%, tapering off to a compound 2.2% between 1993 and 1995. Just as operating rates begin to reach higher levels in 1995, however, DRI forecasts slowing GNP growth. DRI's Ramunas J. Svarcas expects a decline in exports. Those plastics promising the rosiest consumption outlook include melamine-formaldehyde resin, up 9.9% in 1992, from 155 million lbs in 1991, and projected to grow 8.6%/year through 1995; styrene acrylonitrile resin, up 23% this year, from 58 million lbs last year, and growing 8.2%/year through 1995; and unsaturated polyester, up 11.7% this year, from 1.07 billion lbs in 1991, and increasing at 6.5%/year. Methanol is a bright spot, with consumption growing 4.7%, from 11.2 billion lbs in 1991 and 12%/year thereafter. Ortho-xylene managed an impressive 21% rebound from a depressed 1991 level of 783 million lbs, and is expected to continue its recovery at 7.7%/year

  1. Molten fuel behaviour during slow overpower transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, Y.; Boidron, M.

    1985-01-01

    In large commercial reactors as Super-Phenix, if we take into account all the uncertainties on the pins and on the core, it is no longer possible to guarantee the absence of fuel melting during incidental events such as slow overpower transients. We have then to explain what happens in the pins when fuel melting occurs and to demonstrate that a limited amount of molten fuel generates no risk of clad failure. For that purpose, we may use the results of a great number of experiments (about 40) that have been performed at C.E.A., most of them in thermal reactor, but some experiments have also been performed in Rapsodie, especially during the last run of this reactor. In a great part of these experiments, fuel melting occurred at beginning of life, but we have also some results at different burnups up to 5 at %. It is not the aim of this paper to describe all these experiments and the results of their post irradiation examination, but to summarize the main conclusions that have been set out of them and that have enabled us to determine the main characteristics of fuel element behaviour when fuel melting occurs

  2. Origin of Pseudotachylites during slow creep experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peč, M.; Stünitz, H.; Heilbronner, R.; Drury, M.; De Capitani, C.

    2012-04-01

    Pseudotachylites are interpreted as solidified friction induced melts which form exclusively during seismic or impact events and are thus accepted as 'unequivocal evidence' of paleo-earthquakes on exhumed faults. However, we found in experiments that pseudotachylites can form under clearly aseismic conditions at confining pressures and temperatures typical of mid crustal levels (Pc = 500 MPa, T = 300° C). The starting material consists of granitoid powder crushed to a size of ≤ 200 μm in diameter. This material (0.1 g), with 0.2 wt% water added, is placed between alumina forcing blocks pre-cut at 45° , weld-sealed in platinum jackets with an inner nickel foil insert and deformed in a solid medium deformation apparatus (modified Griggs rig). We applied displacement rates of (10-8 ms-1 precursor material and is in general more ferromagnesian and basic compared to the bulk rock indicating preferred melting of biotite. The calculated temperature increase due to shear heating is at the most 5°C. High stresses cause pervasive comminution: the smallest crystalline fragments within the bubbly melt have a grain diameter of 10 nm. Nanomaterials exhibit a 'melting point depression' (dependence of melting point on grain size) which allows melting well below bulk melting temperatures. Thus, it seems that melting is a continuation of the comminution once the rock has reached small enough grain size. We therefore suggest that pseudotachylites may also form as 'mechanical melts' at slow displacement rates without the necessity of reaching high temperatures.

  3. A new slow positron beam facility using a compact cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Masafumi

    1998-01-01

    In 1993, Sumitomo Heavy Industries became the first in the world to successfully produce a slow positron beam using a compact cyclotron. Slow positron beam production using an accelerator had mainly consisted of using an electron linear accelerator (LINAC). However, the newly developed system that uses a compact cyclotron enabled cost reduction, downsizing of equipment, production of a DC slow positron beam, a polarized slow positron beam, and other benefits. After that, a genuine slow positron beam facility was developed with the construction of compact cyclotron No.2, and beam production in the new facility has already been started. The features of this new slow positron beam facility are explained below. 1) It is the world's first compact slow positron beam facility using a compact cyclotron. 2) It is the only genuine slow positron beam facility in the world which incorporates the production and use of a slow positron beam in the design stage of the cyclotron. To use a slow positron beam for non-destructive detection of lattice defects in semiconductor material, it is necessary to convert the beam into ultra-short pulses of several hundreds of pico-seconds. Sumitomo Heavy Industries has devised a new short-pulsing method (i.e. an induction bunching method) that enables the conversion of a slow positron beam into short pulses with an optimum pulsing electric field change, and succeeded in converting a slow positron beam into short pulses using this method for the first time in the world. Non-destructive detection of lattice defects in semiconductor material using this equipment has already been started, and some information about the depth distribution, size, density, etc. of lattice defects has already been obtained. (J.P.N.)

  4. Fast wave current drive above the slow wave density limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliams, R.; Sheehan, D.P.; Wolf, N.S.; Edrich, D.

    1989-01-01

    Fast wave and slow wave current drive near the mean gyrofrequency were compared in the Irvine Torus using distinct phased array antennae of similar principal wavelengths, frequencies, and input powers. The slow wave current drive density limit was measured for 50ω ci ≤ω≤500ω ci and found to agree with trends in tokamaks. Fast wave current drive was observed at densities up to the operating limit of the torus, demonstrably above the slow wave density limit

  5. PRINCIPLES OF SLOW TRAVEL APPLIED TO TOURIST LEISURE CONTEMPORARY

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Rafael Chequer; Netto, Alexandre Panosso

    2014-01-01

    The article shows the concept of Slow Travel, a travel’s modality based in a new perspective of touristic use considering a slowdown style. In this way, the paper analyses the context of growing and development about Slow Travel, including its ideological matrix based in industrial revolution’s contestation, specially about the acceleration noted at contemporary society and its application inside the leisure and travel universes. At least, shows the main characteristics of Slow Travel, and it...

  6. Threshold Characteristics of Slow-Light Photonic Crystal Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Yu, Yi; Ottaviano, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    The threshold properties of photonic crystal quantum dot lasers operating in the slow-light regime are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Measurements show that, in contrast to conventional lasers, the threshold gain attains a minimum value for a specific cavity length. The experimental...... results are explained by an analytical theory for the laser threshold that takes into account the effects of slow light and random disorder due to unavoidable fabrication imperfections. Longer lasers are found to operate deeper into the slow-light region, leading to a trade-off between slow-light induced...

  7. Application of Planar Broadband Slow-Wave Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvardas Metlevskis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Different types of planar broadband slow-wave systems are used for designing microwave devices. The papers published by Lithuanian scientists analyze and investigate the models of helical and meander slow-wave systems. The article carefully examines the applications of meander slow-wave systems and presents the areas where similar systems, e.g. mobile devices, RFID, wireless technologies are used and reviewed nowadays. The paper also focuses on the examples of the papers discussing antennas, filters and couplers that contain designed and fabricated meander slow-wave systems.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Ultra slow muon microscopy by laser resonant ionization at J-PARC, MUSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Y., E-mail: yasuhiro.miyake@kek.jp; Ikedo, Y.; Shimomura, K.; Strasser, P.; Kawamura, N.; Nishiyama, K.; Koda, A.; Fujimori, H.; Makimura, S.; Nakamura, J.; Nagatomo, T.; Kadono, R. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Muon Science Laboratory (Japan); Torikai, E. [Yamanashi University, Faculty of Engineering (Japan); Iwasaki, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Advanced Meson Science Laboratory (Japan); Wada, S.; Saito, N. [RIKEN, Advanced Science Institute (Japan); Okamura, K. [RIKEN-WAKO Incubation Plaza 301, Megaopto Co., Ltd. (Japan); Yokoyama, K. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Advanced Meson Science Laboratory (Japan); Ito, T.; Higemoto, W. [J-PARC Center, Muon Section, Materials and Life Science Division (Japan)

    2013-04-15

    As one of the principal muon beam line at the J-PARC muon facility (MUSE), we are now constructing a Muon beam line (U-Line), which consists of a large acceptance solenoid made of mineral insulation cables (MIC), a superconducting curved transport solenoid and superconducting axial focusing magnets. There, we can extract 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8}/s surface muons towards a hot tungsten target. At the U-Line, we are now establishing a new type of muon microscopy; a new technique with use of the intense ultra-slow muon source generated by resonant ionization of thermal Muonium (designated as Mu; consisting of a {mu}{sup + } and an e{sup - }) atoms generated from the surface of the tungsten target. In this contribution, the latest status of the Ultra Slow Muon Microscopy project, fully funded, is reported.

  9. Ultra slow muon microscopy by laser resonant ionization at J-PARC, MUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Y.; Ikedo, Y.; Shimomura, K.; Strasser, P.; Kawamura, N.; Nishiyama, K.; Koda, A.; Fujimori, H.; Makimura, S.; Nakamura, J.; Nagatomo, T.; Kadono, R.; Torikai, E.; Iwasaki, M.; Wada, S.; Saito, N.; Okamura, K.; Yokoyama, K.; Ito, T.; Higemoto, W.

    2013-04-01

    As one of the principal muon beam line at the J-PARC muon facility (MUSE), we are now constructing a Muon beam line (U-Line), which consists of a large acceptance solenoid made of mineral insulation cables (MIC), a superconducting curved transport solenoid and superconducting axial focusing magnets. There, we can extract 2 × 108/s surface muons towards a hot tungsten target. At the U-Line, we are now establishing a new type of muon microscopy; a new technique with use of the intense ultra-slow muon source generated by resonant ionization of thermal Muonium (designated as Mu; consisting of a μ + and an e - ) atoms generated from the surface of the tungsten target. In this contribution, the latest status of the Ultra Slow Muon Microscopy project, fully funded, is reported.

  10. Substantial Humic Acid Adsorption to Activated Carbon Air Cathodes Produces a Small Reduction in Catalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wulin; Watson, Valerie J; Logan, Bruce E

    2016-08-16

    Long-term operation of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can result in substantial degradation of activated carbon (AC) air-cathode performance. To examine a possible role in fouling from organic matter in water, cathodes were exposed to high concentrations of humic acids (HA). Cathodes treated with 100 mg L(-1) HA exhibited no significant change in performance. Exposure to 1000 mg L(-1) HA decreased the maximum power density by 14% (from 1310 ± 30 mW m(-2) to 1130 ± 30 mW m(-2)). Pore blocking was the main mechanism as the total surface area of the AC decreased by 12%. Minimization of external mass transfer resistances using a rotating disk electrode exhibited only a 5% reduction in current, indicating about half the impact of HA adsorption was associated with external mass transfer resistance and the remainder was due to internal resistances. Rinsing the cathodes with deionized water did not restore cathode performance. These results demonstrated that HA could contribute to cathode fouling, but the extent of power reduction was relatively small in comparison to large mass of humics adsorbed. Other factors, such as biopolymer attachment, or salt precipitation, are therefore likely more important contributors to long-term fouling of MFC cathodes.

  11. The occurance of Pterygodermatites nycticebi (Nematoda: Rictulariidae) in a captive slow loris, Nycticebus coucang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggle, B.N.; Beehler, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    Adult and immature rictulariid nematodes were recovered at necropsy from the small intestine of an adult slow loris, Nycticebus coucang, from the Milwaukee County Zoo in Wisconsin. The lumen of the entire small intestine was packed with more than 100 nematodes, the intestinal wall appeared thickened and the mucosal surface contained numerous petechial hemorrhagic foci. The cause of death was diagnosed as a septicemia and possible lupus erythematosis.

  12. Slow changing postural cues cancel visual field dependence on self-tilt detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotto Di Cesare, C; Macaluso, T; Mestre, D R; Bringoux, L

    2015-01-01

    Interindividual differences influence the multisensory integration process involved in spatial perception. Here, we assessed the effect of visual field dependence on self-tilt detection relative to upright, as a function of static vs. slow changing visual or postural cues. To that aim, we manipulated slow rotations (i.e., 0.05° s(-1)) of the body and/or the visual scene in pitch. Participants had to indicate whether they felt being tilted forward at successive angles. Results show that thresholds for self-tilt detection substantially differed between visual field dependent/independent subjects, when only the visual scene was rotated. This difference was no longer present when the body was actually rotated, whatever the visual scene condition (i.e., absent, static or rotated relative to the observer). These results suggest that the cancellation of visual field dependence by dynamic postural cues may rely on a multisensory reweighting process, where slow changing vestibular/somatosensory inputs may prevail over visual inputs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Resting-state slow wave power, healthy aging and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahou, Eleni L; Thurm, Franka; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Schlee, Winfried

    2014-05-29

    Cognitive functions and spontaneous neural activity show significant changes over the life-span, but the interrelations between age, cognition and resting-state brain oscillations are not well understood. Here, we assessed performance on the Trail Making Test and resting-state magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from 53 healthy adults (18-89 years old) to investigate associations between age-dependent changes in spontaneous oscillatory activity and cognitive performance. Results show that healthy aging is accompanied by a marked and linear decrease of resting-state activity in the slow frequency range (0.5-6.5 Hz). The effects of slow wave power on cognitive performance were expressed as interactions with age: For older (>54 years), but not younger participants, enhanced delta and theta power in temporal and central regions was positively associated with perceptual speed and executive functioning. Consistent with previous work, these findings substantiate further the important role of slow wave oscillations in neurocognitive function during healthy aging.

  14. Information Technology & Applications Corporation v. United States: An Interested Party's "Substantial Chance" at APA Standing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slicker, Christina

    2003-01-01

    .... Building on CICA's "interested party" definition with Information Technology's refinement of "substantial chance" rule, the Federal Circuit has effectively translated "APA standing" into the language...

  15. 20 CFR 416.972 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial Gainful... consider activities like taking care of yourself, household tasks, hobbies, therapy, school attendance...

  16. Experimental determination of the slow-neutron wavelength distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente; Mikke, K.; Sledziewska-Blocka, D.

    1970-01-01

    Different experiments for determining the slow-neutron wavelength distribution in the region 227-3 meV have been carried out, and the results compared. It is concluded that the slow-neutron wave-length distribution can be determined accurately by elastic scattering on a pure incoherent or a pure...

  17. The Localizing Value Of Focal Delta Slowing In Temporal Lobe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slow wave EEG had a higher marginal probability than neuropsychological assessment of predicting the focus, and was equally effective as other investigative methods. Conclusion These results suggest that focal temporal delta slowing is useful in the localization of epileptogenic foci. There was no discordance with the ...

  18. On the reasons for bombarding uranium with slow neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Diyu

    1997-01-01

    Form the concepts of slow neutrons, the binding energy and the excitation energy of complex nuclei, and the activation energy in nuclear fission, the four reasons for bombarding uranium with slow neutrons are summed up. Not only the reasons for uranium fission are brought in light, but also the micromechanism is dealt with

  19. Slow Light at High Frequencies in an Amplifying Semiconductor Waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Yvind, Kresten; Mørk, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate slow-down of a modulated light signal in a semiconductor waveguide. Concatenated amplifying and absorbing sections simultaneously achieve both amplification and a controllable time delay at 15 GHz.......We demonstrate slow-down of a modulated light signal in a semiconductor waveguide. Concatenated amplifying and absorbing sections simultaneously achieve both amplification and a controllable time delay at 15 GHz....

  20. Spacetime Dynamics and Slow Neutrino Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2018-06-01

    Space is a form of existence of matter, while time is a measure of change of the matter in the space. Issac Newton suggested that the space and time are absolute, not affected by matter and its motion. His first law of motion or the law of inertia says that, without net force acts on it, an object in motion remains the motion in a straight line at a constant speed. Ernest Mach proposed that the inertia of a body results from the gravitational interaction on the body by the rest of the entire universe. As mass is a measure of inertia, Mach’s principle can be simply stated as mass here is affected by matter there. On the basis of Mach’s principle, Albert Einstein considered the space and time to be relative and developed two theories of relativities. One called special relativity describes the effect of motion on spacetime and the other called general relativity describes the effect of matter on spacetime. Recently, the author has further considered reactions of the influenced spacetime on the moving objects, including photons. A moving object including a photon, because of its continuously keeping on displacement, disturbs the rest of the entire universe or distorts/curves the spacetime. The distorted or curved spacetime then generates an effective gravitational force to act back on the moving object or photon, so that reduces the object inertia or photon frequency. Considering the disturbance of spacetime by a photon is extremely weak, the author has modelled the effective gravitational force to be Newtonian and derived a new redshift-distance relation that not only perfectly explained the redshift-distance measurement of distant type Ia supernovae but also inherently obtained Hubble’s law as an approximate at small redshift. In this study, we will further analyse the reaction of the influenced spacetime on moving neutrinos and demonstrate the creation of slow neutrino (or tired neutrino) background that may be gravitationally orbiting around clusters

  1. Design optimization of radiation shielding structure for lead slowing-down spectrometer system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Dong Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A lead slowing-down spectrometer (LSDS system is a promising nondestructive assay technique that enables a quantitative measurement of the isotopic contents of major fissile isotopes in spent nuclear fuel and its pyroprocessing counterparts, such as 235U, 239Pu, 241Pu, and, potentially, minor actinides. The LSDS system currently under development at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Daejeon, Korea is planned to utilize a high-flux (>1012 n/cm2·s neutron source comprised of a high-energy (30 MeV/high-current (∼2 A electron beam and a heavy metal target, which results in a very intense and complex radiation field for the facility, thus demanding structural shielding to guarantee the safety. Optimization of the structural shielding design was conducted using MCNPX for neutron dose rate evaluation of several representative hypothetical designs. In order to satisfy the construction cost and neutron attenuation capability of the facility, while simultaneously achieving the aimed dose rate limit (<0.06 μSv/h, a few shielding materials [high-density polyethylene (HDPE–Borax, B4C, and Li2CO3] were considered for the main neutron absorber layer, which is encapsulated within the double-sided concrete wall. The MCNP simulation indicated that HDPE-Borax is the most efficient among the aforementioned candidate materials, and the combined thickness of the shielding layers should exceed 100 cm to satisfy the dose limit on the outside surface of the shielding wall of the facility when limiting the thickness of the HDPE-Borax intermediate layer to below 5 cm. However, the shielding wall must include the instrumentation and installation holes for the LSDS system. The radiation leakage through the holes was substantially mitigated by adopting a zigzag-shape with concrete covers on both sides. The suggested optimized design of the shielding structure satisfies the dose rate limit and can be used for the construction of a facility in the near

  2. Design optimization of radiation shielding structure for lead slowing-down spectrometer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Dong; Ahn, Sang Joon; Lee, Yong Deok [Nonproliferation System Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chang Je [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    A lead slowing-down spectrometer (LSDS) system is a promising nondestructive assay technique that enables a quantitative measurement of the isotopic contents of major fissile isotopes in spent nuclear fuel and its pyroprocessing counterparts, such as 235U, 239Pu, 241Pu, and, potentially, minor actinides. The LSDS system currently under development at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Daejeon, Korea) is planned to utilize a high-flux (>101{sup 2n}/cm{sup 2}·s) neutron source comprised of a high-energy (30 MeV)/high-current (∼2 A) electron beam and a heavy metal target, which results in a very intense and complex radiation field for the facility, thus demanding structural shielding to guarantee the safety. Optimization of the structural shielding design was conducted using MCNPX for neutron dose rate evaluation of several representative hypothetical designs. In order to satisfy the construction cost and neutron attenuation capability of the facility, while simultaneously achieving the aimed dose rate limit (<0.06 μSv/h), a few shielding materials [high-density polyethylene (HDPE)–Borax, B{sub 4}C, and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}] were considered for the main neutron absorber layer, which is encapsulated within the double-sided concrete wall. The MCNP simulation indicated that HDPE-Borax is the most efficient among the aforementioned candidate materials, and the combined thickness of the shielding layers should exceed 100 cm to satisfy the dose limit on the outside surface of the shielding wall of the facility when limiting the thickness of the HDPE-Borax intermediate layer to below 5 cm. However, the shielding wall must include the instrumentation and installation holes for the LSDS system. The radiation leakage through the holes was substantially mitigated by adopting a zigzag-shape with concrete covers on both sides. The suggested optimized design of the shielding structure satisfies the dose rate limit and can be used for the construction of a facility in

  3. On Kinetic Slow Modes, Fluid Slow Modes, and Pressure-balanced Structures in the Solar Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verscharen, Daniel [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Chen, Christopher H. K. [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Wicks, Robert T., E-mail: daniel.verscharen@unh.edu, E-mail: christopher.chen@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: r.wicks@ucl.ac.uk [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-10

    Observations in the solar wind suggest that the compressive component of inertial-range solar-wind turbulence is dominated by slow modes. The low collisionality of the solar wind allows for nonthermal features to survive, which suggests the requirement of a kinetic plasma description. The least-damped kinetic slow mode is associated with the ion-acoustic (IA) wave and a nonpropagating (NP) mode. We derive analytical expressions for the IA-wave dispersion relation in an anisotropic plasma in the framework of gyrokinetics and then compare them to fully kinetic numerical calculations, results from two-fluid theory, and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). This comparison shows major discrepancies in the predicted wave phase speeds from MHD and kinetic theory at moderate to high β . MHD and kinetic theory also dictate that all plasma normal modes exhibit a unique signature in terms of their polarization. We quantify the relative amplitude of fluctuations in the three lowest particle velocity moments associated with IA and NP modes in the gyrokinetic limit and compare these predictions with MHD results and in situ observations of the solar-wind turbulence. The agreement between the observations of the wave polarization and our MHD predictions is better than the kinetic predictions, which suggests that the plasma behaves more like a fluid in the solar wind than expected.

  4. Slow Money for Soft Energy: Lessons for Energy Finance from the Slow Money Movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kock, Beaudry E. [Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)], e-mail: beaudry.kock@ouce.ox.ac.uk

    2012-12-15

    Energy infrastructure is decarbonizing, shifting from dirty coal to cleaner gas- and emissions-free renewables. This is an important and necessary change that unfortunately risks preserving many problematic technical and institutional properties of the old energy system: in particular, the large scales, high aggregation, and excessive centralization of renewable energy infrastructure and, importantly, its financing. Large-scale renewables carry environmental, social and political risks that cannot be ignored, and more importantly they may not alone accomplish the necessary decarbonization of the power sector. We need to revive a different approach to clean energy infrastructure: a 'softer' (Lovins 1978), more distributed, decentralized, local-scale strategy. To achieve this, we need a fundamentally different approach to the financing of clean energy infrastructure. I propose we learn from the 'Slow Money' approach being pioneered in sustainable agriculture (Tasch 2010), emphasizing a better connection to place, smaller scales, and a focus on quality over quantity. This 'slow money, soft energy' vision is not a repudiation of big-scale renewables, since there are some societal needs, which can only be met by big, centralized power. But we do not need the level of concentration in control and finance epitomized by the current trends in the global renewables sector: this can and must change.

  5. On Kinetic Slow Modes, Fluid Slow Modes, and Pressure-balanced Structures in the Solar Wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verscharen, Daniel; Chen, Christopher H. K.; Wicks, Robert T.

    2017-01-01

    Observations in the solar wind suggest that the compressive component of inertial-range solar-wind turbulence is dominated by slow modes. The low collisionality of the solar wind allows for nonthermal features to survive, which suggests the requirement of a kinetic plasma description. The least-damped kinetic slow mode is associated with the ion-acoustic (IA) wave and a nonpropagating (NP) mode. We derive analytical expressions for the IA-wave dispersion relation in an anisotropic plasma in the framework of gyrokinetics and then compare them to fully kinetic numerical calculations, results from two-fluid theory, and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). This comparison shows major discrepancies in the predicted wave phase speeds from MHD and kinetic theory at moderate to high β . MHD and kinetic theory also dictate that all plasma normal modes exhibit a unique signature in terms of their polarization. We quantify the relative amplitude of fluctuations in the three lowest particle velocity moments associated with IA and NP modes in the gyrokinetic limit and compare these predictions with MHD results and in situ observations of the solar-wind turbulence. The agreement between the observations of the wave polarization and our MHD predictions is better than the kinetic predictions, which suggests that the plasma behaves more like a fluid in the solar wind than expected.

  6. Enhancement of sleep slow waves: underlying mechanisms and practical consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eBellesi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Even modest sleep restriction, especially the loss of sleep slow wave activity, is invariably associated with slower EEG activity during wake, the occurrence of local sleep in an otherwise awake brain, and impaired performance due to cognitive and memory deficits. Recent studies not only confirm the beneficial role of sleep in memory consolidation, but also point to a specific role for sleep slow waves. Thus, the implementation of methods to enhance sleep slow waves without unwanted arousals or lightening of sleep could have significant practical implications. Here we first review the evidence that it is possible to enhance sleep slow waves in humans using transcranial direct-current stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Since these methods are currently impractical and their safety is questionable, especially for chronic long-term exposure, we then discuss novel data suggesting that it is possible to enhance slow waves using sensory stimuli. We consider the physiology of the K-complex, a peripheral evoked slow wave, and show that, among different sensory modalities, acoustic stimulation is the most effective in increasing the magnitude of slow waves, likely through the activation of non-lemniscal ascending pathways to the thalamo-cortical system. In addition, we discuss how intensity and frequency of the acoustic stimuli, as well as exact timing and pattern of stimulation, affect sleep enhancement. Finally, we discuss automated algorithms that read the EEG and, in real-time, adjust the stimulation parameters in a closed-loop manner to obtain an increase in sleep slow waves and avoid undesirable arousals. In conclusion, while discussing the mechanisms that underlie the generation of sleep slow waves, we review the converging evidence showing that acoustic stimulation is safe and represents an ideal tool for slow wave sleep enhancement.

  7. Possible Diamond-Like Nanoscale Structures Induced by Slow Highly-Charged Ions on Graphite (HOPG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sideras-Haddad, E.; Schenkel, T.; Shrivastava, S.; Makgato, T.; Batra, A.; Weis, C. D.; Persaud, A.; Erasmus, R.; Mwakikunga, B.

    2009-01-06

    The interaction between slow highly-charged ions (SHCI) of different charge states from an electron-beam ion trap and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces is studied in terms of modification of electronic states at single-ion impact nanosizeareas. Results are presented from AFM/STM analysis of the induced-surface topological features combined with Raman spectroscopy. I-V characteristics for a number of different impact regions were measured with STM and the results argue for possible formation of diamond-like nanoscale structures at the impact sites.

  8. Surface photovoltage studies of p-type AlGaN layers after reactive-ion etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J. D.; Phumisithikul, K. L.; Baski, A. A.; Marini, J.; Shahedipour-Sandvik, F.; Das, S.; Reshchikov, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    The surface photovoltage (SPV) technique was used to study the surface and electrical properties of Mg-doped, p-type AlxGa1-xN (0.06 GaN:Mg thin films and from the predictions of a thermionic model for the SPV behavior. In particular, the SPV of the p-AlGaN:Mg layers exhibited slower-than-expected transients under ultraviolet illumination and delayed restoration to the initial dark value. The slow transients and delayed restorations can be attributed to a defective surface region which interferes with normal thermionic processes. The top 45 nm of the p-AlGaN:Mg layer was etched using a reactive-ion etch which caused the SPV behavior to be substantially different. From this study, it can be concluded that a defective, near-surface region is inhibiting the change in positive surface charge by allowing tunneling or hopping conductivity of holes from the bulk to the surface, or by the trapping of electrons traveling to the surface by a high concentration of defects in the near-surface region. Etching removes the defective layer and reveals a region of presumably higher quality, as evidenced by substantial changes in the SPV behavior.

  9. Lethal and pre-lethal effects of a fungal biopesticide contribute to substantial and rapid control of malaria vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Blanford

    Full Text Available Rapidly emerging insecticide resistance is creating an urgent need for new active ingredients to control the adult mosquitoes that vector malaria. Biopesticides based on the spores of entomopathogenic fungi have shown considerable promise by causing very substantial mortality within 7-14 days of exposure. This mortality will generate excellent malaria control if there is a high likelihood that mosquitoes contact fungi early in their adult lives. However, where contact rates are lower, as might result from poor pesticide coverage, some mosquitoes will contact fungi one or more feeding cycles after they acquire malaria, and so risk transmitting malaria before the fungus kills them. Critics have argued that 'slow acting' fungal biopesticides are, therefore, incapable of delivering malaria control in real-world contexts. Here, utilizing standard WHO laboratory protocols, we demonstrate effective action of a biopesticide much faster than previously reported. Specifically, we show that transient exposure to clay tiles sprayed with a candidate biopesticide comprising spores of a natural isolate of Beauveria bassiana, could reduce malaria transmission potential to zero within a feeding cycle. The effect resulted from a combination of high mortality and rapid fungal-induced reduction in feeding and flight capacity. Additionally, multiple insecticide-resistant lines from three key African malaria vector species were completely susceptible to fungus. Thus, fungal biopesticides can block transmission on a par with chemical insecticides, and can achieve this where chemical insecticides have little impact. These results support broadening the current vector control paradigm beyond fast-acting chemical toxins.

  10. Surface phonons

    CERN Document Server

    Wette, Frederik

    1991-01-01

    In recent years substantial progress has been made in the detection of surface phonons owing to considerable improvements in inelastic rare gas scattering tech­ niques and electron energy loss spectroscopy. With these methods it has become possible to measure surface vibrations in a wide energy range for all wave vectors in the two-dimensional Brillouin zone and thus to deduce the complete surface phonon dispersion curves. Inelastic atomic beam scattering and electron energy loss spectroscopy have started to play a role in the study of surface phonons similar to the one played by inelastic neutron scattering in the investigation of bulk phonons in the last thirty years. Detailed comparison between experimen­ tal results and theoretical studies of inelastic surface scattering and of surface phonons has now become feasible. It is therefore possible to test and to improve the details of interaction models which have been worked out theoretically in the last few decades. At this point we felt that a concise, co...

  11. 26 CFR 1.42-7 - Substantially bond-financed buildings. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Substantially bond-financed buildings. [Reserved] 1.42-7 Section 1.42-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.42-7 Substantially bond-financed buildings. [Reserved] ...

  12. 20 CFR 416.1080 - Notice of right to hearing on proposed finding of substantial failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... agency has substantially failed to meet our standards unless the State submits a written request for a... finding of substantial failure. 416.1080 Section 416.1080 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1680 - Notice of right to hearing on proposed finding of substantial failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... agency has substantially failed to meet our standards unless the State submits a written request for a... finding of substantial failure. 404.1680 Section 404.1680 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY..., following the mandatory performance support period and the 3-month adjustment period, a State agency again...

  14. Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method). See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/jumps.pdf......Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method). See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/jumps.pdf...

  15. Substantiation of Optimum Stoker Number in Potassium Production by Game Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Bogatov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dump formation process of hard halite waste in potassium production has been analyzed in the paper. The paper shows high cost of a salt dump formation and an actuality to substantiate number of ОШ-1900-110/150 stokers that are operating simultaneously. A game theory method has been used to substantiate a solution of the problem.

  16. 32 CFR 48.302 - Substantiating evidence regarding dependency and age of dependents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substantiating evidence regarding dependency and age of dependents. 48.302 Section 48.302 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... Designation of Beneficiaries § 48.302 Substantiating evidence regarding dependency and age of dependents. At...

  17. Identifying factors contributing to slow growth in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y; Deen, J; Shurson, G C; Wang, L; Chen, C; Keisler, D H; Li, Y Z

    2016-05-01

    Pigs that grow slower than their contemporaries can cause complications for animal welfare and profitability. This study was conducted to investigate factors that may contribute to slow growth of pigs. Pigs ( = 440) farrowed by 65 sows were monitored from birth to market. Pigs were categorized as slow, average, and fast growers based on market weight adjusted to 170 d of age (slow growers were 125 kg). Blood samples were collected from 48 focal pigs at 9 and 21 wk of age and analyzed for hormone and free AA concentrations. Data were analyzed using the Mixed and Logistic procedures of SAS. Slow-growing pigs accounted for 10% of pigs marketed, average growers accounted for 49% of pigs marketed, and fast growers accounted for 41% of pigs marketed. Compared with fast growers, slow growers were lighter at birth ( ratio = 2.17, 95% confidence interval = 1.19 to 3.96, = 0.01). Litter size and parity of the pigs' dam were not associated with slow growth. These results suggest that low concentrations of IGF-1, insulin, leptin, and AA may contribute to or be associated with slow growth in pigs.

  18. To determine the slow shearing rate for consolidation drained shear box tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamalludin, Damanhuri; Ahmad, Azura; Nordin, Mohd Mustaqim Mohd; Hashim, Mohamad Zain; Ibrahim, Anas; Ahmad, Fauziah

    2017-08-01

    Slope failures always occur in Malaysia especially during the rainy seasons. They cause damage to properties and fatalities. In this study, a total of 24 one dimensional consolidation tests were carried out on soil samples taken from 16 slope failures in Penang Island and in Baling, Kedah. The slope failures in Penang Island are within the granitic residual soil while in Baling, Kedah they are situated within the sedimentary residual soil. Most of the disturbed soil samples were taken at 100mm depth from the existing soil surface while some soil samples were also taken at 400, 700 and 1000mm depths from the existing soil surface. They were immediately placed in 2 layers of plastic bag to prevent moisture loss. Field bulk density tests were also carried out at all the locations where soil samples were taken. The field bulk density results were later used to re-compact the soil samples for the consolidation tests. The objective of the research is to determine the slow shearing rate to be used in consolidated drained shear box for residual soils taken from slope failures so that the effective shear strength parameters can be determined. One dimensional consolidation tests were used to determine the slow shearing rate. The slow shearing rate found in this study to be used in the consolidated drained shear box tests especially for Northern Malaysian residual soils was 0.286mm/minute.

  19. Analysis of waves in the plasma guided by a periodical vane-type slow wave structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.J.; Kou, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the dispersion relation has been derived to characterize the propagation of the waves in the plasma guided by a periodical vane-type slow wave structure. The plasma is confined by a quartz plate. Results indicate that there are two different waves in this structure. One is the plasma mode that originates from the plasma surface wave propagating along the interface between the plasma and the quartz plate, and the other is the guide mode that originally travels along the vane-type slow wave structure. In contrast to its original slow wave characteristics, the guide mode becomes a fast wave in the low-frequency portion of the passband, and there exists a cut-off frequency for the guide mode. The vane-type guiding structure has been shown to limit the upper frequency of the passband of the plasma mode, compared with that of the plasma surface wave. In addition, the passband of the plasma mode increases with the plasma density while it becomes narrower for the guide mode. The influences of the parameters of the guiding structure and plasma density on the propagation of waves are also presented

  20. Azimuthal asymmetry of slow particles in high energy nuclear interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Subir; Goswami, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    An asymmetry in the angular distribution of slow particles in the azimuthal plane has been observed during high energy nuclear disintegration of photo emulsion nuclei exposed to 1.8 GeV/c k - and 20 GeV/c protons. The mechanism of disintegration is not in accordance with the cascade-evaporation model, which is based on isotropic emission of slow particles. Deviation from isotropy indicates that some of the slow particles might be emitted well before the thermal equilibrium is reached in the disintegrating system. (author)

  1. Theory of neutron slowing down in nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Ferziger, Joel H; Dunworth, J V

    2013-01-01

    The Theory of Neutron Slowing Down in Nuclear Reactors focuses on one facet of nuclear reactor design: the slowing down (or moderation) of neutrons from the high energies with which they are born in fission to the energies at which they are ultimately absorbed. In conjunction with the study of neutron moderation, calculations of reactor criticality are presented. A mathematical description of the slowing-down process is given, with particular emphasis on the problems encountered in the design of thermal reactors. This volume is comprised of four chapters and begins by considering the problems

  2. Slow Food: por um alimento bom, limpo e justo

    OpenAIRE

    Porazzi, Fabiele

    2012-01-01

    REVIEW:PETRINI, Carlo. Slow Food: princípios da nova gastronomia. Trad. de Renata Lúcia Botina. São Paulo: Editora Senac, 2009. 245 p. RESEÑA:PETRINI, Carlo. Slow Food: princípios da nova gastronomia. Trad. de Renata Lúcia Botina. São Paulo: Editora Senac, 2009. 245 p. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-1384.2012v9n1p384 RESENHA:PETRINI, Carlo. Slow Food: princípios da nova gastronomia. Trad. de Renata Lúcia Botina. São Paulo: Editora Senac, 2009. 245 p.

  3. Face recognition using slow feature analysis and contourlet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuehao; Peng, Lingling; Zhe, Fuchuan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we propose a novel face recognition approach based on slow feature analysis (SFA) in contourlet transform domain. This method firstly use contourlet transform to decompose the face image into low frequency and high frequency part, and then takes technological advantages of slow feature analysis for facial feature extraction. We named the new method combining the slow feature analysis and contourlet transform as CT-SFA. The experimental results on international standard face database demonstrate that the new face recognition method is effective and competitive.

  4. Slow light invisibility, teleportation, and other mysteries of light

    CERN Document Server

    Perkowitz, Sidney

    2011-01-01

    Slow Light is a popular treatment of today's astonishing breakthroughs in the science of light. Even though we don't understand light's quantum mysteries, we can slow it to a stop and speed it up beyond its Einsteinian speed limit, 186,000 miles/sec; use it for quantum telecommunications; teleport it; manipulate it to create invisibility; and perhaps generate hydrogen fusion power with it. All this is lucidly presented for non-scientists who wonder about teleportation, Harry Potter invisibility cloaks, and other fantastic outcomes. Slow Light shows how the real science and the fantasy inspire

  5. Slow extraction from the IHEP accelerator by internal target scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimov, A.V.

    1994-01-01

    The existing slow extraction system is not able to satisfy the required quality of the beam time structure in the intensity region 10 10 - 10 11 ppp. Calculations on simulation of slow extraction by internal target scattering are presented. Two regime of slow extraction are analysed: nonresonant and resonant extraction by target scattering. Resonant extraction by target scattering is able to ensure intensity of extracted beam up to 10 11 . The agreement between calculations and experimental data is good enough. The calculation of extraction possibility by thin W-target scattering are also presented. In this case the extraction efficiency is about 85%. 15 refs., 6 figs

  6. Nanoscale transformation of sp2 to sp3 of graphite by slow highly charged ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, T.; Hida, A.; Koguchi, Y.; Miyamoto, S.; Yamamoto, Y.; Takai, H.; Maeda, K.; Aoyagi, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Nanoscale transformation of electronic states by highly charged ion (HCI) impact on graphite surfaces is described. The high potential energy of slow HCI, which induces multiple emission of electrons from the surface, provides a strong modification of the electronic states of the local area upon graphite surfaces. The HCI impact and the subsequent surface treatment either by electron injection from a scanning tunneling microscopy tip or by He-Cd laser irradiation induce a localized transition from sp 2 to sp 3 hybridization in graphite, resulting in the formation of nanoscale diamond-like structures (nanodiamond) at the impact region. From Raman spectroscopic measurements on sp 2 related peaks, it is found that the HCI irradiation creates vacancy complexes in contrast to ions having a lower charge state, which generate single vacancies. It is of interest that a single impact of HCI creates one nanodiamond structure, suggesting potential applications of HCI in nanoscale material processing

  7. Modifications of gallium phosphide single crystals using slow highly charged ions and swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Said, A.S., E-mail: elsaid@kfupm.edu.sa [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Wilhelm, R.A.; Heller, R.; Akhmadaliev, Sh.; Schumann, E. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Sorokin, M. [National Research Centre ’Kurchatov Institute’, Kurchatov Square 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Facsko, S. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    GaP single crystals were irradiated with slow highly charged ions (HCI) using 114 keV {sup 129}Xe{sup (33–40)+} and with various swift heavy ions (SHI) of 30 MeV I{sup 9+} and 374 MeV–2.2 GeV {sup 197}Au{sup 25+}. The irradiated surfaces were investigated by scanning force microscopy (SFM). The irradiations with SHI lead to nanohillocks protruding from the GaP surfaces, whereas no changes of the surface topography were observed after the irradiation with HCI. This result indicates that a potential energy above 38.5 keV is required for surface nanostructuring of GaP. In addition, strong coloration of the GaP crystals was observed after irradiation with SHI. The effect was stronger for higher energies. This was confirmed by measuring an increased extinction coefficient in the visible light region.

  8. Slow light enhancement and limitations in periodic media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grgic, Jure

    in the vicinity of the band edge. The minimum attainable group velocity will depend on the amount of imperfections. Since imperfections are inherited as part of any periodic structure it is necessary to take them into account when we are interested in slow light applications. Slowly propagating light gives rise......Properties of periodic dielectric media have attracted a big interest in the last two decades due to numerous exciting physical phenomena that cannot occur in homogeneous media. Due to their strong dispersive properties, the speed of light can be significantly slowed down in periodic structures....... When light velocity is much smaller than the speed of light in a vacuum, we describe this phenomena as slow light. In this thesis, we analyze important properties of slow light enhancement and limitations in periodic structures. We analyze quantitatively and qualitatively different technologies...

  9. Critical slowing down and error analysis in lattice QCD simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Stefan [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Sommer, Rainer; Virotta, Francesco [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2010-09-15

    We study the critical slowing down towards the continuum limit of lattice QCD simulations with Hybrid Monte Carlo type algorithms. In particular for the squared topological charge we find it to be very severe with an effective dynamical critical exponent of about 5 in pure gauge theory. We also consider Wilson loops which we can demonstrate to decouple from the modes which slow down the topological charge. Quenched observables are studied and a comparison to simulations of full QCD is made. In order to deal with the slow modes in the simulation, we propose a method to incorporate the information from slow observables into the error analysis of physical observables and arrive at safer error estimates. (orig.)

  10. Preparation and characterization of Slow Release Formulations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alginate beads and characterize the resulting slow release formulations (SRFs) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Two sets of formulations were made by extrusion into 0.25 M calcium ...

  11. Critical slowing down and error analysis in lattice QCD simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Stefan; Sommer, Rainer; Virotta, Francesco

    2010-09-01

    We study the critical slowing down towards the continuum limit of lattice QCD simulations with Hybrid Monte Carlo type algorithms. In particular for the squared topological charge we find it to be very severe with an effective dynamical critical exponent of about 5 in pure gauge theory. We also consider Wilson loops which we can demonstrate to decouple from the modes which slow down the topological charge. Quenched observables are studied and a comparison to simulations of full QCD is made. In order to deal with the slow modes in the simulation, we propose a method to incorporate the information from slow observables into the error analysis of physical observables and arrive at safer error estimates. (orig.)

  12. Very Slow Speed Axial Motion Reluctance Motor | Agu | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This paper presents the scheme for a very slow speed linear machine which uses conventional laminations and with which speeds of the same low order as that of the screw-thread motor can be obtained.

  13. Structural slow light can enhance Beer-Lambert absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Dicaire Isabelle; Chin Sanghoon; Thévenaz Luc

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that structural slow light can enhance Beer-Lambert absorption. A 4-fold reduction of the group velocity induced by mere cavity effects has caused an increase of molecular absorption by 130%.

  14. Electron heating and current drive by mode converted slow waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeski, R.; Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    An approach to obtaining efficient single pass mode conversion at high parallel wave number from the fast magnetosonic wave to the slow ion Bernstein wave, in a two-ion species tokamak plasma, is described. The intent is to produce localized electron heating or current drive via the mode converted slow wave. In particular, this technique can be adapted to off-axis current drive for current profile control. Modeling for the case of deuterium-tritium plasmas in TFTR is presented

  15. Slow-light enhancement of Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Xiao, Sanshui

    2007-01-01

    We theoretically show how slow light in an optofluidic environment facilitates enhanced light-matter interactions, by orders of magnitude. The proposed concept provides strong opportunities for improving existing miniaturized chemical absorbance cells for Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption measureme......We theoretically show how slow light in an optofluidic environment facilitates enhanced light-matter interactions, by orders of magnitude. The proposed concept provides strong opportunities for improving existing miniaturized chemical absorbance cells for Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption...

  16. Exploring carrier dynamics in semiconductors for slow light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Xue, Weiqi; Chen, Yaohui

    2009-01-01

    We give an overview of recent results on slow and fast light in active semiconductor waveguides. The cases of coherent population oscillations as well as electromagnetically induced transparency are covered, emphasizing the physics and fundamental limitations.......We give an overview of recent results on slow and fast light in active semiconductor waveguides. The cases of coherent population oscillations as well as electromagnetically induced transparency are covered, emphasizing the physics and fundamental limitations....

  17. Neutron slowing-down time in finite water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.

    1981-11-01

    The influence of the size of a moderator system on the neutron slowing-down time has been investigated. The experimental part of the study was performed on six cubes of water with side lengths from 8 to 30 cm. Neutrons generated in pulses of about 1 ns width were slowed down from 14 MeV to 1.457 eV. The detection method used was based on registration of gamma radiation from the main capture resonance of indium. The most probable slowing-down times were found to be 778 +- 23 ns and 898 +- 25 ns for the smallest and for the largest cubes, respectively. The corresponding mean slowing-down times were 1205 +- 42 ns and 1311 +- 42 ns. In a separate measurement series the space dependence of the slowing-down time close to the source was studied. These experiments were supplemented by a theoretical calculation which gave an indication of the space dependence of the slowingdown time in finite systems. The experimental results were compared to the slowing-down times obtained from various theoretical approaches and from Monte Carlo calculations. All the methods show a decrease of the slowing-down time with decreasing size of the moderator. This effect was least pronounced in the experimental results, which can be explained by the fact the measurements are spatially dependent. The agreement between the Monte Carlo results and those obtained using the diffusion approximation or the age-diffusion theory is surprisingly good, especially for large systems. The P1 approximation, on the other hand, leads to an overestimation of the effect of the finite size on the slowing-down time. (author)

  18. Perceptions of the Slow Food Cultural Trend among the Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Lelia Voinea; Anca Atanase; Ion Schileru

    2016-01-01

    As they become increasingly aware of the importance of healthy eating and of the serious food imbalance caused by the overconsumption of industrial, ultra-processed and superorganoleptic food, consumers are now beginning to turn their attention to food choices guaranteeing both individual health and also of the environment . Thus, in recent years we are witnessing the rise of a cultural trend ‒ Slow Food. Slow Food has become an international movement that advocates for satisfying culinary pl...

  19. Development of slow pyrolysis business operations in Finland - Hidaspyro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagernas, L. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)], email: leena.fagernas@vtt.fi

    2012-07-01

    Birch distillate, a by-product in slow pyrolysis process of charcoal production, was found to be a promising source for biological pesticides. However, product commercialization was problematic, for EU registration is costly, and composition, active ingredients and ecotoxicological properties were not known. In addition, constant quality and process optimisation were needed. More collaboration between SMEs and research institutes was required. The primary aim was to support and develop slow pyrolysis business operations of SMEs in Finland by generating knowledge that was needed.

  20. The space charge effects on the slow extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, Chihiro.

    1992-06-01

    The calculation of the slow extraction which includes the space charge effects has been performed for the Compressor/Stretcher Ring (CSR) of the proposed Japanese Hadron Project. We have investigated the slow extraction of 1 GeV proton beam with an average current of 100μA. Calculation shows not only the emittance growth of the extracted beam but also decrease of the extraction efficiency and discontinuity of beam spill. (author)

  1. Electron heating and current drive by mode converted slow waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeski, R.; Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.

    1994-08-01

    An approach to obtaining efficient single pass mode conversion at high parallel wavenumber from the fast magnetosonic wave to the slow ion Bernstein wave, in a two ion species tokamak plasma, is described. The intent is to produce localized electron heating or current drive via the mode converted slow wave. In particular, this technique can be adapted to off-axis current drive for current profile control. Modelling for the case of deuterium-tritium plasmas in TFTR is presented

  2. Slow light in semiconductor waveguides: Theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Öhman, Filip; Poel, Mike van der

    2007-01-01

    Slow light in multi-section quantum well waveguide structure is realized using either coherent population oscillations (CPO) and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is studied. The properties of the two schemes are compared and discussed.......Slow light in multi-section quantum well waveguide structure is realized using either coherent population oscillations (CPO) and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is studied. The properties of the two schemes are compared and discussed....

  3. SUBSTANTIAL EXCEPTIONS AND (DELIMITATIONS OF THE POWERS OF THE JUDGES ON CIVIL PROCEDURAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Raatz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims to unveil the role of the substantial exceptions on delimiting the powers of the judges on civil procedural law, especially regarding the ex officio judicial activity. This way, under a phenomenological method and based on a vision of guarantee of rights on procedural law, the article offers a brief explanation of the question concerning the content of the object under litigation and its role of (delimiting the powers of the judges. The work hypothesis is the addition of the substantial exceptions among the content of the object under litigation, along with the claim itself and the cause of action. The results lie on the premise that, by the substantial exceptions, the defendant extends the object under litigation – which is formed dynamically on civil procedure. The conclusion points towards the idea that the substantial exceptions act in a way of limiting the ex officio judicial activity on civil procedural law

  4. Main results of substantiation of the ecological safety of the Novovoronezh NPP-2 design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopytov, I.I.; Kocher'yan, V.M.; Leonov, S.V.; Chionov, V.G.; Ehrnestova, L.S.

    2005-01-01

    Paper presents the results of the efforts to determine both the actual (hydrochemical, hydrobiological, geobotanical, soil, radiological) and the predicted parameters of the region ecology derived when substantiating the ecological safety of the Novovoronezh NPP-2 design [ru

  5. Cumulative stress and substantiated maltreatment: the importance of caregiver vulnerability and adult partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekerle, Christine; Wall, Anne-Marie; Leung, Eman; Trocmé, Nico

    2007-04-01

    Our goal is to assess the effect of caregiver vulnerabilities, singly and in combination, on the substantiation of child abuse (physical, sexual) and neglect, while controlling for relevant background variables. We test the moderator role of adult partner violence in qualifying the relationship between caregiver vulnerabilities and maltreatment substantiation. Secondary analyses of the 1998 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Maltreatment (CIS) are used to predict child protective service investigation substantiation versus non-substantiation from a range of caregiver vulnerability factors. Involvement in partner violence was examined as a moderator in the relation between caregiver vulnerabilities and maltreatment substantiation. The CIS is an epidemiological survey of first-reported cases to child protective services, using a random sample of child welfare agencies across Canada. Child welfare workers completed a research form on the child, primary caregiver, family, perpetrator, severity and type of maltreatment, as well as services and court outcomes. All maltreatment classifications were assigned according to the Canadian legal definition of child abuse and neglect. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were used, with stepped entry of: (1) demographic factors, socioeconomic disadvantage, and caregiver's own history of maltreatment; (2) caregiver vulnerability factors; (3) involvement in partner violence; (4) the interaction between caregiver vulnerability and partner violence. Caregiver substance abuse was found to be the single most potent kind of caregiver vulnerability in predicting maltreatment substantiation. When the total number of vulnerabilities was used as the predictor, prediction across all types of maltreatment increased, especially for substantiated neglect. Analyses also showed that the presence of partner violence in the home exacerbated the effect of caregiver vulnerability on substantiation. The total number of caregiver

  6. Slow wave maturation on a visual working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga-Paulino, Catarina I; Rodríguez-Martínez, Elena I; Rojas-Benjumea, Ma Ángeles; Gómez, Carlos M

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze how the Slow Wave develops in the retention period on a visual Delayed Match-to-Sample task performed by 170 subjects between 6 and 26 years old, divided into 5 age groups. In addition, a neuropsychological test (Working Memory Test Battery for Children) was correlated with this Event Related Potential (ERP) in order to observe possible relationships between Slow Wave maturation and the components of Baddeley and Hitch's Working Memory model. The results showed a slow negativity during the retention period in the posterior region in all the age groups, possibly resulting from sustained neural activity related to the visual item presented. In the anterior region, a positive slow wave was observed in the youngest subjects. Dipole analysis suggests that this fronto-central positivity in children (6-13 years old) consists of the positive side of the posterior negativity, once these subjects only needed two posterior dipoles to explain almost all the neural activity. Negative correlations were shown between the Slow Wave and the Working Memory Test Battery for Children, indicating a commonality in assessing Working Memory with the Slow Wave and the neuropsychological testing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Beneficial Effects of Slow Steaming in Bulk Freight Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Boone

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Slow steaming has recently been adopted into normal practice by many maritime shipping companies for the fuel and monetary savings it offers. The practice also offers savings in Greenhouse Gas (GHG emissions. With regulations coming into play such as the 2020 sulfur cap, slow steaming may be the least costly option for some maritime companies to adjust their operations. While some have accepted the new practice, there are still companies and vessels that see this exercise as a loss of revenue due to the extra time it takes to deliver goods to their destination. This paper reviews how the method of rating ships by their GHG emissions per nautical mile can be directly related to slow steaming. We propose that ships with poor ratings (E, F, G find mandatory regulations to slow steam or improve their CO2 output in some way. Those with superior ratings (A, B, C, D would benefit from incentives packages tied to their implementation of slow steaming practices. It will also examine how slow steaming benefits maritime businesses both economically and environmentally to find ways to lower their emissions and discusses the possible chain reaction that may occur if these eco-friendly shipping practices are observed.

  8. Coupled Flow and Geomechanics Modeling of Slow Earthquakes: Application to Slow Slip Events (SSE) in the Guerrero Gap, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves da Silva Junior, J.; Frank, W.; Castineira, D.; Jha, B.; Juanes, R.

    2016-12-01

    Three major cycles of slow slip events (SSE) have been reported since the early 2000s in the Guerrero gap, Mexico, on the boundary between the Cocos and North American plates. Analysis of teleseismic waveforms recorded on a dense temporary seismic network in the Guerrero gap have found low S-wave velocity and high Vp/Vs ratios at the depths corresponding to the sources of SSE, implying the possible presence of fluids and thus an active dewatering process that may result in near-lithostatic pore pressure at the plate interface. Here we use coupled flow and geomechanics analysis of the Guerrero gap to model transient changes in the stress field in the subduction zone as a result of pore pressure fluctuations and potential fluid flow along the subduction interface. Our computational modeling approach couples a multiphase flow simulator with a mechanical simulator using the unconditionally stable fixed stress scheme for the sequential solution of the two-way coupling between flow and geomechanics (Jha and Juanes, 2014). We assume quasi-static mechanical deformation and neglect the inertial term in the solid momentum balance equation—an approximation that is valid to model SSE assuming aseismic slip. We represent the subducting Cocos fault as a surface embedded in a three-dimensional medium, and use zero thickness interface elements to accurately model stick-slip behavior under dynamically evolving fluid pressure and fault strength. We employ the rate- and state-dependent friction model in the evolution of the coefficient of friction. We calibrate our model using two distinct datasets—GPS data and tremor catalogs in the area of Guerrero gap—and by separately constraining the rate of water production from a model of mineral hydration with depth. Our quantitative modeling approach furnishes a mechanistic understanding of the relationship between pore pressure evolution, stress transfer and tremor migration, and helps elucidate the origin of SSE in this area.

  9. Imatinib treatment causes substantial transcriptional changes in adult Schistosoma mansoni in vitro exhibiting pleiotropic effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Buro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosome parasites cause schistosomiasis, one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. For decades Praziquantel (PZQ is the only drug widely used for controlling schistosomiasis. The absence of a vaccine and fear of PZQ resistance have motivated the search for alternatives. Studies on protein kinases (PKs demonstrated their importance for diverse physiological processes in schistosomes. Among others two Abl tyrosine kinases, SmAbl1 and SmAbl2, were identified in Schistosoma mansoni and shown to be transcribed in the gonads and the gastrodermis. SmAbl1 activity was blocked by Imatinib, a known Abl-TK inhibitor used in human cancer therapy (Gleevec/Glivec. Imatinib exhibited dramatic effects on the morphology and physiology of adult schistosomes in vitro causing the death of the parasites.Here we show modeling data supporting the targeting of SmAbl1/2 by Imatinib. A biochemical assay confirmed that SmAbl2 activity is also inhibited by Imatinib. Microarray analyses and qRT-PCR experiments were done to unravel transcriptional processes influenced by Imatinib in adult schistosomes in vitro demonstrating a wide influence on worm physiology. Surface-, muscle-, gut and gonad-associated processes were affected as evidenced by the differential transcription of e.g. the gynecophoral canal protein gene GCP, paramyosin, titin, hemoglobinase, and cathepsins. Furthermore, transcript levels of VAL-7 and egg formation-associated genes such as tyrosinase 1, p14, and fs800-like were affected as well as those of signaling genes including a ribosomal protein S6 kinase and a glutamate receptor. Finally, a comparative in silico analysis of the obtained microarray data sets and previous data analyzing the effect of a TGFβR1 inhibitor on transcription provided first evidence for an association of TGFβ and Abl kinase signaling. Among others GCP and egg formation-associated genes were identified as common targets.The data affirm broad negative effects of

  10. A 'slow pace of life' in Australian old-endemic passerine birds is not accompanied by low basal metabolic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Claus; Chappell, Mark A; Astheimer, Lee B; Londoño, Gustavo A; Buttemer, William A

    2016-05-01

    Life history theory suggests that species experiencing high extrinsic mortality rates allocate more resources toward reproduction relative to self-maintenance and reach maturity earlier ('fast pace of life') than those having greater life expectancy and reproducing at a lower rate ('slow pace of life'). Among birds, many studies have shown that tropical species have a slower pace of life than temperate-breeding species. The pace of life has been hypothesized to affect metabolism and, as predicted, tropical birds have lower basal metabolic rates (BMR) than temperate-breeding birds. However, many temperate-breeding Australian passerines belong to lineages that evolved in Australia and share 'slow' life-history traits that are typical of tropical birds. We obtained BMR from 30 of these 'old-endemics' and ten sympatric species of more recently arrived passerine lineages (derived from Afro-Asian origins or introduced by Europeans) with 'faster' life histories. The BMR of 'slow' temperate-breeding old-endemics was indistinguishable from that of new-arrivals and was not lower than the BMR of 'fast' temperate-breeding non-Australian passerines. Old-endemics had substantially smaller clutches and longer maximal life spans in the wild than new arrivals, but neither clutch size nor maximum life span was correlated with BMR. Our results suggest that low BMR in tropical birds is not functionally linked to their 'slow pace of life' and instead may be a consequence of differences in annual thermal conditions experienced by tropical versus temperate species.

  11. Child protection decisions to substantiate hospital child protection teams' reports of suspected maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedwab, Merav; Benbenishty, Rami; Chen, Wendy; Glasser, Saralee; Siegal, Gil; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2015-02-01

    The present study focuses on the way child protection officers (CPOs) in Israel assess suspected abuse and neglect (SCAN) reports made by hospital child protection teams (CPTs), to determine whether the alleged maltreatment is substantiated. The study was conducted in six medical centers and included 358 reports investigated by CPOs for SCAN. A structured questionnaire was completed by hospital CPTs to capture all relevant information on each child referred to the CPTs. Structured phone interviews were conducted with each of the CPOs who received a CPT report. Bivariate associations and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to estimate the substantiation rate of cases reported by CPTs and the types of maltreatment substantiated, as well as to identify case characteristics of the child and the family that were associated with the CPOs' substantiation decision. CPO follow-up investigations revealed a substantiation rate of 53.5%. The maltreatment type most commonly substantiated was neglect. The case characteristics associated with substantiation included socio-demographic background, parents' health and functioning, previous contact with social services, characteristics of the hospital referral, medical findings and an assessment of the parents' behaviors. The findings of the study highlighted the importance of cooperation between the health and welfare services and the policy makers. This cooperation is essential for identifying early signs of maltreatment. Enhanced cooperation and effective information transfer between various professionals would help prevent or at least reduce the recurrence of maltreatment and would ensure that the children and their families are treated appropriately. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Energy loss spectroscopy applied to surface studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecante, J.

    1975-01-01

    The analysis of energy losses suffered by slow electrons (5eV to 300eV) back-scattered by single crystal surfaces appears to be a powerful method for surfaces studies. The inelastic scattering of these slow electrons limits their escape depth to the surface region. After a review of the basic excitation processes due to the interaction between electrons and surfaces (phonons, plasmons and electronic transitions) a brief discussion is given about the instruments needed for this electrons spectroscopy. Finally some experimental results are listed and it is shown that the comparison of the results given by ELS with other surface sensitive methods such as UPS is very fruitful and new information can be obtained. The improvement of theoretical studies on surface excitations due to slow electrons will provide in the next future the possibility of analysing in a more quantitative way the results given by ELS [fr

  13. Broad self-trapped and slow light bands based on negative refraction and interference of magnetic coupled modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Yun-tuan; Ni, Zhi-yao; Zhu, Na; Zhou, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism to achieve light localization and slow light. Through the study on the coupling of two magnetic surface modes, we find a special convex band that takes on a negative refraction effect. The negative refraction results in an energy flow concellation effect from two degenerated modes on the convex band. The energy flow concellation effect leads to forming of the self-trapped and slow light bands. In the self-trapped band light is localized around the source without reflection wall in the waveguide direction, whereas in the slow light band, light becomes the standing-waves and moving standing-waves at the center and the two sides of the waveguide, respectively. (paper)

  14. Broad self-trapped and slow light bands based on negative refraction and interference of magnetic coupled modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yun-Tuan; Ni, Zhi-Yao; Zhu, Na; Zhou, Jun

    2016-01-13

    We propose a new mechanism to achieve light localization and slow light. Through the study on the coupling of two magnetic surface modes, we find a special convex band that takes on a negative refraction effect. The negative refraction results in an energy flow concellation effect from two degenerated modes on the convex band. The energy flow concellation effect leads to forming of the self-trapped and slow light bands. In the self-trapped band light is localized around the source without reflection wall in the waveguide direction, whereas in the slow light band, light becomes the standing-waves and moving standing-waves at the center and the two sides of the waveguide, respectively.

  15. Treatment of surfaces with low-energy electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, L., E-mail: ludek@isibrno.cz [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the CAS, v.v.i., Královopolská 147, 61264 Brno (Czech Republic); Mikmeková, E. [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the CAS, v.v.i., Královopolská 147, 61264 Brno (Czech Republic); FEI Company, Achtseweg Noord 5, 5651 GG Eindhoven (Netherlands); Lejeune, M. [LPMC – Faculte des Sciences d’Amiens, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens Cedex 2 (France)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Using proper irradiation parameters, adsorbed hydrocarbons are released from surfaces. • Slow electrons remove hydrocarbons instead of depositing carbon. • Prolonged irradiation with very slow electrons does not create defects in graphene. - Abstract: Electron-beam-induced deposition of various materials from suitable precursors has represented an established branch of nanotechnology for more than a decade. A specific alternative is carbon deposition on the basis of hydrocarbons as precursors that has been applied to grow various nanostructures including masks for subsequent technological steps. Our area of study was unintentional electron-beam-induced carbon deposition from spontaneously adsorbed hydrocarbon molecules. This process traditionally constitutes a challenge for scanning electron microscopy practice preventing one from performing any true surface studies outside an ultrahigh vacuum and without in-situ cleaning of samples, and also jeopardising other electron-optical devices such as electron beam lithographs. Here we show that when reducing the energy of irradiating electrons sufficiently, the e-beam-induced deposition can be converted to e-beam-induced release causing desorption of hydrocarbons and ultimate cleaning of surfaces in both an ultrahigh and a standard high vacuum. Using series of experiments with graphene samples, we demonstrate fundamental features of e-beam-induced desorption and present results of checks for possible radiation damage using Raman spectroscopy that led to optimisation of the electron energy for damage-free cleaning. The method of preventing carbon contamination described here paves the way for greatly enhanced surface sensitivity of imaging and substantially reduced demands on vacuum systems for nanotechnological applications.

  16. Slow-wave sleep estimation on a load-cell-installed bed: a non-constrained method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Hun; Chung, Gih Sung; Lee, Jin-Seong; Jeong, Do-Un; Park, Kwang Suk

    2009-01-01

    Polysomnography (PSG) involves simultaneous and continuous monitoring of relevant normal and abnormal physiological activity during sleep. At present, an electroencephalography-based rule is generally used for classifying sleep stages. However, scoring the PSG record is quite laborious and time consuming. In this paper, movement and cardiac activity were measured unobtrusively by a load-cell-installed bed, and sleep was classified into two stages: slow-wave sleep and non-slow-wave sleep. From the measured cardiac activity, we extracted heartbeat data and calculated heart rate variability parameters: standard deviation of R–R intervals SDNN, low frequency-to-high frequency ratio, alpha of detrended fluctuation analysis and correlation coefficient of R–R interval. The developed system showed a substantial concordance with PSG results when compared using a contingency test. The mean epoch-by-epoch agreement between the proposed method and PSG was 92.5% and Cohen's kappa was 0.62

  17. Investigation of phase matching for third-harmonic generation in silicon slow light photonic crystal waveguides using Fourier optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monat, Christelle; Grillet, Christian; Corcoran, Bill; Moss, David J; Eggleton, Benjamin J; White, Thomas P; Krauss, Thomas F

    2010-03-29

    Using Fourier optics, we retrieve the wavevector dependence of the third-harmonic (green) light generated in a slow light silicon photonic crystal waveguide. We show that quasi-phase matching between the third-harmonic signal and the fundamental mode is provided in this geometry by coupling to the continuum of radiation modes above the light line. This process sustains third-harmonic generation with a relatively high efficiency and a substantial bandwidth limited only by the slow light window of the fundamental mode. The results give us insights into the physics of this nonlinear process in the presence of strong absorption and dispersion at visible wavelengths where bandstructure calculations are problematic. Since the characteristics (e.g. angular pattern) of the third-harmonic light primarily depend on the fundamental mode dispersion, they could be readily engineered.

  18. Melody recognition at fast and slow tempos: effects of age, experience, and familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, W Jay; Bartlett, James C; Halpern, Andrea R; Andrews, W Melinda

    2008-04-01

    Eighty-one listeners defined by three age ranges (18-30, 31-59, and over 60 years) and three levels of musical experience performed an immediate recognition task requiring the detection of alterations in melodies. On each trial, a brief melody was presented, followed 5 sec later by a test stimulus that either was identical to the target or had two pitches changed, for a same-different judgment. Each melody pair was presented at 0.6 note/sec, 3.0 notes/sec, or 6.0 notes/sec. Performance was better with familiar melodies than with unfamiliar melodies. Overall performance declined slightly with age and improved substantially with increasing experience, in agreement with earlier results in an identification task. Tempo affected performance on familiar tunes (moderate was best), but not on unfamiliar tunes. We discuss these results in terms of theories of dynamic attending, cognitive slowing, and working memory in aging.

  19. Slowing down tail enhanced, neoclassical and classical alpha particle fluxes in tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catto, P.J.; Tessarotto, M.

    1988-01-01

    The classical and neoclassical particle and energy fluxes associated with a slowing down tail, alpha particle distribution function are evaluated for arbitrary aspect ratio ε -1 , cross section, and poloidal magnetic field. The retention of both electron and ion drag and pitch angle scattering by the background ions results in a large diffusive neoclassical heat flux in the plasma core. This flux remains substantial at larger radii only if the characteristic speed associated with pitch angle scattering, v/sub b/, is close enough to the alpha birth speed v 0 so that ε(v 0 /v/sub b/) 3 remains less than some order unity critical value which is not determined by the methods herein. The enhanced neoclassical losses would only have a serious impact on ignition if the critical value of ε(v 0 /v/sub b/) 3 is found to be somewhat larger than unity

  20. Performance analysis of the intense slow-positron beam at the NC State University PULSTAR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxom, J.; Hathaway, A.G.; Bodnaruk, E.W.; Hawari, A.I.; Xu, J.

    2007-01-01

    An intense positron beam, for application in nanophase characterization, is now under construction at the 1 MW PULSTAR nuclear reactor at North Carolina State University (NCSU). A tungsten converter/moderator is used, allowing positrons to be emitted from the surface with energies of a few electron volts. These slow positrons will be extracted from the moderator and formed into a beam by electrostatic lenses and then injected into a solenoidal magnetic field for transport to one of three experimental stations, via a beam switch. To optimize the performance of the beam and to predict the slow-positron intensity, a series of simulations were performed. A specialized Monte-Carlo routine was integrated into the charged-particle transport calculations to allow accounting for the probabilities of positron re-emission and backscattering from multiple-bank moderator/converter configurations. The results indicate that either a two-bank or a four-bank tungsten moderator/converter system is preferred for the final beam design. The predicted slow-positron beam intensities range from nearly 7x10 8 to 9x10 8 e + /s for the two-bank and the four-bank systems, respectively

  1. Slow positron beam production by a 14 MeV C.W. electron accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begemann, M.; Gräff, G.; Herminghaus, H.; Kalinowsky, H.; Ley, R.

    1982-10-01

    A 14 MeV c.w. electron accelerator is used for pair production in a tungsten target of 0.7 radiation lengths thickness. A small fraction of the positrons is thermalized and diffuses out of the surface ofsurface of a well annealed tungsten foil coated with MgO which is positioned immediately behind the target. The slow positrons are extracted from the target region and magnetically guided over a distance of 10 m onto a channelplate multiplier at the end of an S-shaped solenoid. The positrons are identified by their annihilation radiation using two NaI-detectors. The intensity of the slow positrons is proportional to the accelerator electron beam current. The maximum intensity of 2.2 × 10 5 slow positrons per second reaching thedetector at an accelerator current of 15 μA was limited by the power deposited in the uncooled target. The energy of the positrons is concentrated in a small region at about 1 eV and clearly demonstrates the emission of thermal positrons.

  2. Slow positron beam production by a 14 MeV c.w. electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begemann, M.; Graeff, G.; Herminghaus, H.; Kalinowsky, H.; Ley, R.

    1982-01-01

    A 14 MeV c.w. electron accelerator is used for pair production in a tungsten target of 0.7 radiation lengths thickness. A small fraction of the positrons is thermalized and diffuses out of the surface of a well annealed tungsten foil coated with MgO which is positioned immediately behind the target. The slow positrons are extracted from the target region and magnetically guided over a distance of 10 m onto a channelplate multiplier at the end of an S-shaped solenoid. The positrons are identified by their annihilation radiation using two Nal-detectors. The intensity of the slow positrons is proportional to the accelerator electron beam current. The maximum intensity of 2.2 x 10 5 slow positrons per second reaching the detector at an accelerator current of 15 μA was limited by the power deposited in the uncooled target. The energy of the positrons is concentrated in a small region at about 1 eV and clearly demonstrates the emission of thermal positrons. (orig.)

  3. Perceptions of the Slow Food Cultural Trend among the Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelia Voinea

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As they become increasingly aware of the importance of healthy eating and of the serious food imbalance caused by the overconsumption of industrial, ultra-processed and superorganoleptic food, consumers are now beginning to turn their attention to food choices guaranteeing both individual health and also of the environment . Thus, in recent years we are witnessing the rise of a cultural trend ‒ Slow Food. Slow Food has become an international movement that advocates for satisfying culinary pleasure, protects biological and cultural diversity, spread taste education, links "green" producers to consumers and believes that gastronomy intersects with politics, agriculture and ecology. Slow Food proposes a holistic approach to food problem, where the economic, sociocultural and environmental aspects are interlinked, being pursued as part of an overall strategy. In order to highlight the manner in which the principles of this cultural trend are perceived by the representatives of the new generation of consumers in Romania, exploratory research marketing was conducted among the students in the second year of the master’s program Quality Management, Expertise and Consumer Protection, from the Faculty of Business and Tourism from the Buchares t University of Economic Studies . The results of this research have shown an insufficient knowledge of Slow Food phenomenon and, especially, the Slow Food network activity in Romania. To show that the Slow Food type of food is a healthier option towards which the future consumer demand should be guided, especially those belonging to the younger generation, an antithetical comparative analysis of the nutritional value of two menus was performed: a suggestive one for the Slow Food feeding style and other one, specific to the fast food style. Slow Food style was considered antithetical to the fast food because many previous studies have shown a preference of the young for the fast-food type products, despite the

  4. Big and slow: phylogenetic estimates of molecular evolution in baleen whales (suborder mysticeti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J A; Baker, C S; Vant, M; Steel, D J; Medrano-González, L; Palumbi, S R

    2009-11-01

    Baleen whales are the largest animals that have ever lived. To develop an improved estimation of substitution rate for nuclear and mitochondrial DNA for this taxon, we implemented a relaxed-clock phylogenetic approach using three fossil calibration dates: the divergence between odontocetes and mysticetes approximately 34 million years ago (Ma), between the balaenids and balaenopterids approximately 28 Ma, and the time to most recent common ancestor within the Balaenopteridae approximately 12 Ma. We examined seven mitochondrial genomes, a large number of mitochondrial control region sequences (219 haplotypes for 465 bp) and nine nuclear introns representing five species of whales, within which multiple species-specific alleles were sequenced to account for within-species diversity (1-15 for each locus). The total data set represents >1.65 Mbp of mitogenome and nuclear genomic sequence. The estimated substitution rate for the humpback whale control region (3.9%/million years, My) was higher than previous estimates for baleen whales but slow relative to other mammal species with similar generation times (e.g., human-chimp mean rate > 20%/My). The mitogenomic third codon position rate was also slow relative to other mammals (mean estimate 1%/My compared with a mammalian average of 9.8%/My for the cytochrome b gene). The mean nuclear genomic substitution rate (0.05%/My) was substantially slower than average synonymous estimates for other mammals (0.21-0.37%/My across a range of studies). The nuclear and mitogenome rate estimates for baleen whales were thus roughly consistent with an 8- to 10-fold slowing due to a combination of large body size and long generation times. Surprisingly, despite the large data set of nuclear intron sequences, there was only weak and conflicting support for alternate hypotheses about the phylogeny of balaenopterid whales, suggesting that interspecies introgressions or a rapid radiation has obscured species relationships in the nuclear genome.

  5. Ion bombardment effect on surface state of metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaulin, E.P.; Georgieva, N.E.; Martynenko, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of slow argon ion bombardment on the surface microstructure of polycrystalline copper as well as the effect of surface state on sputtering of D-16 polycrystalline alloy are experimentally studied. Reduction of copper surface roughness is observed. It is shown that the D-16 alloy sputtering coefficient is sensitive to the surface state within the limits of the destructed surface layer

  6. A taste of ethical consumption at a slow food festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren T; Germov, John; Fuller, Sascha; Freij, Maria

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the motives and experiences of attendees at a Slow Food festival to gain an understanding of how people engage with ethical consumer projects. Slow Food is a global social movement aimed at promoting food that is regionally, ethically, and sustainably produced, and convivially consumed. The movement uses culinary tourist events, such as food festivals and farmers' markets, to promote its philosophy and attract new members. There have been no empirical studies of ethical consumption using a Slow Food event as a case study. This study uses an ethnographic approach and a framework of virtue ethics to explore the views of people attending a major Slow Food festival in the city of Melbourne, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in situ with 33 participants (19 consumers and 14 stallholders) to discover their rationales for attending the festival, and their perspectives on ethical consumption. Transcripts were coded and thematically analysed, resulting in three themes reflecting varying degrees of public virtues (altruistic motivations) and private virtues (personal wellbeing): the quest for virtuous lifestyles through ethical consumption, the importance of co-production, and the challenges of putting ethical consumer projects like Slow Food into daily practice. The findings reveal the manner in which virtue ethics affects foodways and highlights the contingent and challenging nature of practising ethical eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Human skeletal muscle: transition between fast and slow fibre types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunhäuserer, Daniel; Zebedin, Michaela; Obermoser, Magdalena; Moser, Gerhard; Tauber, Mark; Niebauer, Josef; Resch, Herbert; Galler, Stefan

    2011-05-01

    Human skeletal muscles consist of different fibre types: slow fibres (slow twitch or type I) containing the myosin heavy chain isoform (MHC)-I and fast fibres (fast twitch or type II) containing MHC-IIa (type IIA) or MHC-IId (type IID). The following order of decreasing kinetics is known: type IID > type IIA > type I. This order is especially based on the kinetics of stretch activation, which is the most discriminative property among fibre types. In this study we tested if hybrid fibres containing both MHC-IIa and MHC-I (type C fibres) provide a transition in kinetics between fast (type IIA) and slow fibres (type I). Our data of stretch activation kinetics suggest that type C fibres, with different ratios of MHC-IIa and MHC-I, do not provide a continuous transition. Instead, a specialized group of slow fibres, which we called "transition fibres", seems to provide a transition. Apart of their kinetics of stretch activation, which is most close to that of type IIA, the transition fibres are characterized by large cross-sectional areas and low maximal tensions. The molecular cause for the mechanical properties of the transition fibres is unknown. It is possible that the transition fibres contain an unknown slow MHC isoform, which cannot be separated by biochemical methods. Alternatively, or in addition, isoforms of myofibrillar proteins, other than MHC, and posttranslational modifications of myofibrillar proteins could play a role regarding the characteristics of the transition fibres.

  8. Fast and slow myosins as markers of muscle injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, M; Guiu-Comadevall, M; Cadefau, J A; Parra, J; Balius, R; Estruch, A; Rodas, G; Bedini, J L; Cussó, R

    2008-07-01

    The diagnosis of muscular lesions suffered by athletes is usually made by clinical criteria combined with imaging of the lesion (ultrasonography and/or magnetic resonance) and blood tests to detect the presence of non-specific muscle markers. This study was undertaken to evaluate injury to fast and slow-twitch fibres using specific muscle markers for these fibres. Blood samples were obtained from 51 non-sports people and 38 sportsmen with skeletal muscle injury. Western blood analysis was performed to determine fast and slow myosin and creatine kinase (CK) levels. Skeletal muscle damage was diagnosed by physical examination, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance and biochemical markers. The imaging tests were found to be excellent for detecting and confirming grade II and III lesions. However, grade I lesions were often unconfirmed by these techniques. Grade I lesions have higher levels of fast myosin than slow myosin with a very small increase in CK levels. Grade II and III lesions have high values of both fast and slow myosin. The evaluation of fast and slow myosin in the blood 48 h after the lesion occurs is a useful aid for the detection of type I lesions in particular, since fast myosin is an exclusive skeletal muscle marker. The correct diagnosis of grade I lesions can prevent progression of the injury in athletes undergoing continual training sessions and competitions, thus aiding sports physicians in their decision making.

  9. Slow extraction control system of HIRFL-CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wufeng; Qiao Weimin; Yuan Youjin; Mao Ruishi; Zhao Tiecheng

    2013-01-01

    For heavy-ion radiotherapy, HIRFL-CSR (Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou-Cooler Storage Ring) needs a long term uniform ion beam extraction from HIRFL-CSR main ring to high energy beam transport line to meet the requirement of heavy-ion radiotherapy's ion beam. Slow extraction control system uses the synchronous signal of HIRFL-CSR control system's timing system to realize process control. When the synchronous event data of HIRFL-CSR control system's timing system trigger controlling and changing data (frequency value, tune value, voltage value), the waveform generator will generate waveform by frequency value, tune value and voltage value, and will amplify the generated waveform by power amplifier to electrostatic deflector to achieve RF-KO slow extraction. The synchronous event receiver of slow extraction system is designed by using FPGA and optical fiber interface to keep high transmission speed and anti-jamming. HIRFL-CSR's running for heavy-ion radiotherapy and ten thousand seconds long period slow extraction experiments show that slow extraction control system is workable and can meet the requirement of heavy-ion radiotherapy's ion beam. (authors)

  10. Late-type components of slow novae and symbiotic stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D A [Anglo-Australian Observatory, Epping (Australia); Royal Observatory, Edinburgh (UK))

    1980-08-01

    It is argued that the various types of symbiotic stars and the slow novae are the same phenomena exhibiting a range of associated time-scales, the slow novae being of intermediate speed. Evidence is summarized showing that both types of object contain normal M giants or mira variables. This fact is at odds with currently fashionable single-star models for slow novae, according to which the M star is totally disrupted before the outburst. Spectral types of the late-type components are presented for nearly 80 symbiotic stars and slow novae, derived from 2 ..mu..m spectroscopy. It is found that both the intensity of the emission spectrum and the electron density of the gas are functions of the spectral type of the late-type star. Explanations for these correlations are given. On the assumption that the late-type components are normal giants, spectroscopic parallaxes are determined; credible distances are derived which indicate that the known symbiotic stars have been sampled as far afield as the Galactic Centre. Hydrogen shell flashes on a white dwarf accreting gas from the late-type components offer an attractive explanation of the phenomena of slow novae and symbiotic stars, and such models are discussed in the concluding section.

  11. Optimizing detection and analysis of slow waves in sleep EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensen, Armand; Riedner, Brady; Tononi, Giulio

    2016-12-01

    Analysis of individual slow waves in EEG recording during sleep provides both greater sensitivity and specificity compared to spectral power measures. However, parameters for detection and analysis have not been widely explored and validated. We present a new, open-source, Matlab based, toolbox for the automatic detection and analysis of slow waves; with adjustable parameter settings, as well as manual correction and exploration of the results using a multi-faceted visualization tool. We explore a large search space of parameter settings for slow wave detection and measure their effects on a selection of outcome parameters. Every choice of parameter setting had some effect on at least one outcome parameter. In general, the largest effect sizes were found when choosing the EEG reference, type of canonical waveform, and amplitude thresholding. Previously published methods accurately detect large, global waves but are conservative and miss the detection of smaller amplitude, local slow waves. The toolbox has additional benefits in terms of speed, user-interface, and visualization options to compare and contrast slow waves. The exploration of parameter settings in the toolbox highlights the importance of careful selection of detection METHODS: The sensitivity and specificity of the automated detection can be improved by manually adding or deleting entire waves and or specific channels using the toolbox visualization functions. The toolbox standardizes the detection procedure, sets the stage for reliable results and comparisons and is easy to use without previous programming experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic evidence for role of integration of fast and slow neurotransmission in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devor, A; Andreassen, O A; Wang, Y; Mäki-Marttunen, T; Smeland, O B; Fan, C-C; Schork, A J; Holland, D; Thompson, W K; Witoelar, A; Chen, C-H; Desikan, R S; McEvoy, L K; Djurovic, S; Greengard, P; Svenningsson, P; Einevoll, G T; Dale, A M

    2017-06-01

    The most recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of schizophrenia (SCZ) identified hundreds of risk variants potentially implicated in the disease. Further, novel statistical methodology designed for polygenic architecture revealed more potential risk variants. This can provide a link between individual genetic factors and the mechanistic underpinnings of SCZ. Intriguingly, a large number of genes coding for ionotropic and metabotropic receptors for various neurotransmitters-glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine and opioids-and numerous ion channels were associated with SCZ. Here, we review these findings from the standpoint of classical neurobiological knowledge of neuronal synaptic transmission and regulation of electrical excitability. We show that a substantial proportion of the identified genes are involved in intracellular cascades known to integrate 'slow' (G-protein-coupled receptors) and 'fast' (ionotropic receptors) neurotransmission converging on the protein DARPP-32. Inspection of the Human Brain Transcriptome Project database confirms that that these genes are indeed expressed in the brain, with the expression profile following specific developmental trajectories, underscoring their relevance to brain organization and function. These findings extend the existing pathophysiology hypothesis by suggesting a unifying role of dysregulation in neuronal excitability and synaptic integration in SCZ. This emergent model supports the concept of SCZ as an 'associative' disorder-a breakdown in the communication across different slow and fast neurotransmitter systems through intracellular signaling pathways-and may unify a number of currently competing hypotheses of SCZ pathophysiology.

  13. Inter- and intrasubject similarity of muscle synergies during bench press with slow and fast velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Kristiansen, Mathias

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the effect of low and high bar velocity on inter- and intra-subject similarity of muscle synergies during bench press. Thirteen trained male subjects underwent two exercise conditions, i.e. a slow and a fast velocity bench press. Surface electromyography was recorded from thirteen...... to describe the dataset variability. For the second activation coefficient, the inter-subject similarity within the fast velocity condition was greater than the intra-subject similarity of the activation coefficient across the conditions. An opposite pattern was observed for the first muscle synergy vector...

  14. Rats Housed on Corncob Bedding Show Less Slow-Wave Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Leys, Laura J; McGaraughty, Steve; Radek, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Despite the reported advantages of corncob bedding, questions have emerged about how comfortable animals find this type of bedding as a resting surface. In this study, encephalography (EEG) was used to compare the effects of corncob and aspen-chip bedding on rat slow-wave sleep (SWS). According to a facility-wide initiative, rats that were weaned on aspen-chip bedding were switched to corncob bedding in home cages and EEG recording chambers. Spontaneous EEG recordings obtained for 5 wk after ...

  15. Simplified slow anti-coincidence circuit for Compton suppression systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish

    2008-01-01

    Slow coincidence circuits for the anti-coincidence measurements have been considered for use in Compton suppression technique. The simplified version of the slow circuit has been found to be fast enough, satisfactory and allows an easy system setup, particularly with the advantage of the automatic threshold setting of the low-level discrimination. A well-type NaI detector as the main detector surrounded by plastic guard detector has been arranged to investigate the performance of the Compton suppression spectrometer using the simplified slow circuit. The system has been tested to observe the improvement in the energy spectra for medium to high-energy gamma-ray photons from terrestrial and environmental samples

  16. Role of biological membranes in slow-wave sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnovsky, M L

    1991-02-01

    Two involvements of cellular membranes in slow-wave sleep (SWS) are discussed. In the first the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is focussed upon, and in the second, the plasmalemma, where specific binding sites (receptors?) for promoters of slow-wave sleep are believed to be located. The study concerning the ER focuses on an enzyme in the brain, glucose-6-phosphatase, which, although present at low levels, manifests greatly increased activity during SWS compared to the waking state. The work on the plasmalemma has to do with the specific binding of muramyl peptides, inducers of slow-wave sleep, to various cells, and membrane preparations of various sorts, including those from brain tissue. Such cells as macrophages from mice, B-lymphocytes from human blood, and cells from a cell line (C-6 glioma) have been examined in this context.

  17. Modeling fast and slow earthquakes at various scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake sources represent dynamic rupture within rocky materials at depth and often can be modeled as propagating shear slip controlled by friction laws. These laws provide boundary conditions on fault planes embedded in elastic media. Recent developments in observation networks, laboratory experiments, and methods of data analysis have expanded our knowledge of the physics of earthquakes. Newly discovered slow earthquakes are qualitatively different phenomena from ordinary fast earthquakes and provide independent information on slow deformation at depth. Many numerical simulations have been carried out to model both fast and slow earthquakes, but problems remain, especially with scaling laws. Some mechanisms are required to explain the power-law nature of earthquake rupture and the lack of characteristic length. Conceptual models that include a hierarchical structure over a wide range of scales would be helpful for characterizing diverse behavior in different seismic regions and for improving probabilistic forecasts of earthquakes.

  18. Enhancing physics demos using iPhone slow motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-12-01

    Slow motion video enhances our ability to perceive and experience the physical world. This can help students and teachers especially in cases of fast moving objects or detailed events that happen too quickly for the eye to follow. As often as possible, demonstrations should be performed by the students themselves and luckily many of them will already have this technology in their pockets. The "S" series of iPhone has the slow motion video feature standard, which also includes simultaneous sound recording (somewhat unusual among slow motion cameras). In this article I share some of my experiences using this feature and provide advice on how to successfully use this technology in the classroom.

  19. The condition for classical slow rolling in new inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Misao; Nambu, Yasusada; Nakao, Ken-ichi.

    1988-02-01

    By means of the stochastic description of inflation, we investigate the dynamics of a fixed comoving domain in a continuously inflating universe on the global scale, both analytically and numerically. A particular attention is paid to the condition for a domain to enter the classical slow rolling phase. New inflationary universe models with the potential form, V(φ) ∼ V 0 - cφ 2n at φ ∼ 0 are considered. The critical value of the scalar field beyond which the field slowly rolls down the potential hill is estimated. We find, for all models under consideration, the condition for classical slow rolling is a sufficient condition for the expected amplitude of density perturbations to be smaller than unity. In other words, the density perturbation amplitude at the later Friedmann stage is always smaller than unity if the universe experienced the classical slow roll-over phase. (author)

  20. Study of Dynamic Characteristics of Slow-Changing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinong Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A vibration system with slow-changing parameters is a typical nonlinear system. Such systems often occur in the working and controlled process of some intelligent structures when vibration and deformation exist synchronously. In this paper, a system with slow-changing stiffness, damping and mass is analyzed in an intelligent structure. The relationship between the amplitude and the frequency of the system is studied, and its dynamic characteristic is also discussed. Finally, a piecewise linear method is developed on the basis of the asymptotic method. The simulation and the experiment show that a suitable slow-changing stiffness can restrain the amplitude of the system when the system passes through the resonant region.

  1. Table incremental slow injection CE-CT in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Shoji; Maeda, Tomoho; Morita, Masaru

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate tumor enhancement in lung cancer under the table incremental study with slow injection of contrast media. The early serial 8 sliced images during the slow injection (1.5 ml/sec) of contrant media were obtained. Following the early images, delayed 8 same sliced images were taken in 2 minutes later. Chacteristic enhanced patterns of the primary cancer and metastatic mediastinal lymphnode were recognized in this study. Enhancement of the primary lesion was classified in 4 patterns, irregular geographic pattern, heterogeneous pattern, homogeneous pattern and rim-enhanced pattern. In mediastinal metastatic lymphadenopathy, three enhanced patterns were obtained, heterogeneous, homogeneous and ring enhanced pattern. Some characteristic enhancement patterns according to the histopathological finding of the lung cancer were obtained. With using this incremental slow injection CE-CT, precise information about the relationship between lung cancer and adjacent mediastinal structure, and obvious staining patterns of the tumor and mediastinal lymphnode were recognized. (author)

  2. The condition for classical slow rolling in new inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Misao; Nambu, Yasusada; Nakao, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    By means of the stochastic description of inflation we investigate the dynamics of a fixed comoving domain in a continuously inflating universe on a global scale, both analytically and numerically. Particular attention is paid to the condition for a domain to enter the classical slow rolling phase. New inflationary universe models with the potential form V(φ) ≅ V 0 -cφ 2n at φ ≅ 0 are considered. The critical value of the scalar field beyond which the field slowly rolls down the potential hill is estimated. We find that for all models under consideration, the condition for classical slow rolling is a sufficient condition for the expected amplitude of density perturbations to be smaller than unity. In other words, the density perturbation amplitude at the later Friedmann stage is always smaller than unity if the universe experienced the classical slow roll-over phase. (orig.)

  3. Slow dynamics in translation-invariant quantum lattice models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailidis, Alexios A.; Žnidarič, Marko; Medvedyeva, Mariya; Abanin, Dmitry A.; Prosen, Tomaž; Papić, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Many-body quantum systems typically display fast dynamics and ballistic spreading of information. Here we address the open problem of how slow the dynamics can be after a generic breaking of integrability by local interactions. We develop a method based on degenerate perturbation theory that reveals slow dynamical regimes and delocalization processes in general translation invariant models, along with accurate estimates of their delocalization time scales. Our results shed light on the fundamental questions of the robustness of quantum integrable systems and the possibility of many-body localization without disorder. As an example, we construct a large class of one-dimensional lattice models where, despite the absence of asymptotic localization, the transient dynamics is exceptionally slow, i.e., the dynamics is indistinguishable from that of many-body localized systems for the system sizes and time scales accessible in experiments and numerical simulations.

  4. Neurogenetics of slow axonal transport: from cells to animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadananda, Aparna; Ray, Krishanu

    2012-09-01

    Slow axonal transport is a multivariate phenomenon implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders. Recent reports have unraveled the molecular basis of the transport of certain slow component proteins, such as the neurofilament subunits, tubulin, and certain soluble enzymes such as Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIa (CaM kinase IIa), etc., in tissue cultured neurons. In addition, genetic analyses also implicate microtubule-dependent motors and other housekeeping proteins in this process. However, the biological relevance of this phenomenon is not so well understood. Here, the authors have discussed the possibility of adopting neurogenetic analyses in multiple model organisms to correlate molecular level measurements of the slow transport phenomenon to animal behavior, thus facilitating the investigation of its biological efficacy.

  5. The Slow Control System of the Auger Fluorescence Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenthien, N.; Bethge, C.; Daumiller, K.; Gemmeke, H.; Kampert, K.-H.; Wiebusch, C.

    2003-07-01

    The fluorescence detector (FD) of the Pierre Auger experiment [1] comprises 24 telescopes that will be situated in 4 remote buildings in the Pampa Amarilla. It is planned to run the fluorescence detectors in absence of operators on site. Therefore, the main task of the Slow Control System (SCS) is to ensure a secure remote operation of the FD system. The Slow Control System works autonomously and continuously monitors those parameters which may disturb a secure operation. Commands from the data-acquisition system or the remote operator are accepted only if they do not violate safety rules that depend on the actual experimental conditions (e.g. high-voltage, wind-sp eed, light, etc.). In case of malfunctions (power failure, communication breakdown, ...) the SCS performs an orderly shutdown and subsequent startup of the fluorescence detector system. The concept and the implementation of the Slow Control System are presented.

  6. Mutually-modulated cross-gain modulation and slow light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternklar, Shmuel; Sarid, Eyal; Wart, Maxim; Granot, Er'el

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of pump and Stokes light in a Brillouin medium, where both beams are modulated, can be utilized for controlling the group velocity of the amplified Stokes (or depleted pump). The dependence of the group velocity for this mutually-modulated cross-gain modulation (MMXGM) technique on the Brillouin gain parameter is studied. A sharp transition to slow light occurs in the G 1 α/β≈1 regime, where G 1 is the Brillouin gain parameter, and α and β are the pump and Stokes modulation indices, respectively. A comparison of MMXGM slow light to the Brillouin dispersion-based slow-light technique reveals the fundamental differences between them. The formation of higher harmonics of the modulation frequency is also discussed. The theoretical predictions are experimentally corroborated and potential applications in fiber-based sensing and interferometry are discussed

  7. Slow Orbit Feedback at the ALS Using Matlab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portmann, G.

    1999-01-01

    The third generation Advanced Light Source (ALS) produces extremely bright and finely focused photon beams using undulatory, wigglers, and bend magnets. In order to position the photon beams accurately, a slow global orbit feedback system has been developed. The dominant causes of orbit motion at the ALS are temperature variation and insertion device motion. This type of motion can be removed using slow global orbit feedback with a data rate of a few Hertz. The remaining orbit motion in the ALS is only 1-3 micron rms. Slow orbit feedback does not require high computational throughput. At the ALS, the global orbit feedback algorithm, based on the singular valued decomposition method, is coded in MATLAB and runs on a control room workstation. Using the MATLAB environment to develop, test, and run the storage ring control algorithms has proven to be a fast and efficient way to operate the ALS

  8. Computation of saddle-type slow manifolds using iterative methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kristian Uldall

    2015-01-01

    with respect to , appropriate estimates are directly attainable using the method of this paper. The method is applied to several examples, including a model for a pair of neurons coupled by reciprocal inhibition with two slow and two fast variables, and the computation of homoclinic connections in the Fitz......This paper presents an alternative approach for the computation of trajectory segments on slow manifolds of saddle type. This approach is based on iterative methods rather than collocation-type methods. Compared to collocation methods, which require mesh refinements to ensure uniform convergence...

  9. Experimental studies of heavy-ion slowing down in matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geissel, H.; Weick, H.; Scheidenberger, C.; Bimbot, R.; Gardes, D.

    2002-08-01

    Measurements of heavy-ion slowing down in matter differ in many aspects from experiments with light particles like protons and α-particles. An overview of the special experimental requirements, methods, data analysis and interpretation is presented for heavy-ion stopping powers, energy- and angular-straggling and ranges in the energy domain from keV/u up to GeV/u. Characteristic experimental results are presented and compared with theory and semiempirical predictions. New applications are outlined, which represent a challenge to continuously improve the knowledge of heavy-ion slowing down. (orig.)

  10. Low, slow, small target recognition based on spatial vision network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhao; Guo, Pei; Qi, Xin

    2018-03-01

    Traditional photoelectric monitoring is monitored using a large number of identical cameras. In order to ensure the full coverage of the monitoring area, this monitoring method uses more cameras, which leads to more monitoring and repetition areas, and higher costs, resulting in more waste. In order to reduce the monitoring cost and solve the difficult problem of finding, identifying and tracking a low altitude, slow speed and small target, this paper presents spatial vision network for low-slow-small targets recognition. Based on camera imaging principle and monitoring model, spatial vision network is modeled and optimized. Simulation experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method has good performance.

  11. Pulsed neutron method for diffusion, slowing down, and reactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoestrand, N.G.

    1985-01-01

    An outline is given on the principles of the pulsed neutron method for the determination of thermal neutron diffusion parameters, for slowing-down time measurements, and for reactivity determinations. The historical development is sketched from the breakthrough in the middle of the nineteen fifties and the usefulness and limitations of the method are discussed. The importance for the present understanding of neutron slowing-down, thermalization and diffusion are point out. Examples are given of its recent use for e.g. absorption cross section measurements and for the study of the properties of heterogeneous systems

  12. Solution of neutron slowing down equation including multiple inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Wakil, S.A.; Saad, A.E.

    1977-01-01

    The present work is devoted the presentation of an analytical method for the calculation of elastically and inelastically slowed down neutrons in an infinite non absorbing homogeneous medium. On the basis of the Central limit theory (CLT) and the integral transform technique the slowing down equation including inelastic scattering in terms of the Green function of elastic scattering is solved. The Green function is decomposed according to the number of collisions. A formula for the flux at any lethargy O (u) after any number of collisions is derived. An equation for the asymptotic flux is also obtained

  13. Wide-band slow-wave systems simulation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Staras, Stanislovas

    2012-01-01

    The field of electromagnetics has seen considerable advances in recent years, based on the wide applications of numerical methods for investigating electromagnetic fields, microwaves, and other devices. Wide-Band Slow-Wave Systems: Simulation and Applications presents new technical solutions and research results for the analysis, synthesis, and design of slow-wave structures for modern electronic devices with super-wide pass-bands. It makes available, for the first time in English, significant research from the past 20 years that was previously published only in Russian and Lithuanian. The aut

  14. Efficiency evaluation of slow extraction from the synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarinov, N.Yu.; Mikhajlov, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    Analytical calculation of slow extraction of the beam out of the JINR synchrotron is made. The formulae for evaluation of the sextupole amplitudes and phases, quadrupole lens gradient range are obtained, the connection with circulated and extracted beam parameters is shown. The formulae for calculating optimal position of the septum-magnet or electrostatic septum are presented. On this basis the formula for estimating the efficiency of beam slow extraction out of the synchrotron is obtained under assumption that in the septum region during the extraction a quasistationary distribution of the beam density occurs

  15. Consumption of polyphenol plants may slow aging and associated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Utku; Seremet, Sila; Lamping, Jeffrey W; Adams, Jerome M; Liu, Deede Y; Swerdlow, Russell H; Aires, Daniel J

    2013-01-01

    Slowing aging is a widely shared goal. Plant-derived polyphenols, which are found in commonly consumed food plants such as tea, cocoa, blueberry and grape, have been proposed to have many health benefits, including slowing aging. In-vivo studies have demonstrated the lifespan-extending ability of six polyphenol-containing plants. These include five widely consumed foods (tea, blueberry, cocoa, apple, pomegranate) and a flower commonly used as a folk medicine (betony). These and multiple other plant polyphenols have been shown to have beneficial effects on aging-associated changes across a variety of organisms from worm and fly to rodent and human.

  16. Complex researches on substantiation of construction and seismic stability of large dams in seismic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negmatullaev, S.Kh.; Yasunov, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    This article is devoted to complex researches on substantiation of construction and seismic stability of large dams (Nurec hydroelectric power station) in seismic region. Geological, seismological, model, and engineering investigations are discussed in this work. At construction of Nurec hydroelectric power station the rich experience is accumulated. This experience can be used in analogous seismically active regions at construction similar hydroelectric power stations.

  17. Do substantial BMI reduction episodes among Swedish schoolchildren have any impact on their final height?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Bente B; Yngve, Agneta; Werner, Bo

    2018-02-06

    This study investigated whether substantial body mass index (BMI) reductions in Swedish schoolchildren aged seven years to 19 years, caused by disease, healthy or unhealthy behaviour, had any impact on their final height. We used height and weight data on 6572 subjects from two nationally representative longitudinal samples of Swedish children born in 1973 and 1981. These provided information on their final height and any BMI reduction episodes. Of the 6572 subjects (50.9% boys), among individuals with information on final height, 1118 had a BMI reduction of 5% and BMI reduction of 10% or more. On a group level, there was no statistically significant difference in the final height of individuals with BMI reductions of 10% or more and those without. The findings were independent of age and the subject's BMI at the start of the reduction episode. However, there were a number of cases where a substantial BMI reduction probably had an impact on the subject's final height. Our study found no evidence that a substantial BMI reduction had any impact on final height on a group level, but further analyses of specific case studies are necessary to determine whether substantial BMI reduction might have an impact on final height. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Substantial secondary organic aerosol formation in a coniferous forest: observations of both day- and nighttime chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Y. Lee; J. P. D. Abbatt; W. R. Leaitch; S.-M. Li; S. J. Sjostedt; S. J. Sjostedt; J. J. B. Wentzell; J. Liggio; A. M. Macdonald

    2016-01-01

    Substantial biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) formation was investigated in a coniferous forest mountain region at Whistler, British Columbia. A largely biogenic aerosol growth episode was observed, providing a unique opportunity to investigate BSOA formation chemistry in a forested environment with limited influence from anthropogenic emissions. Positive matrix factorization of aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) measurement identifie...

  19. 76 FR 41424 - Finding of Substantial Inadequacy of Implementation Plan; Call for Iowa State Implementation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... modeling requirement for this SIP call should allow for the use of the modeling protocol developed by Iowa... is making a finding that the Iowa State Implementation Plan (SIP) is substantially inadequate to... ) in Muscatine County, Iowa. The specific SIP deficiencies needing revision are described below. EPA is...

  20. 77 FR 65169 - Extension of Certain Timber Sale Contracts; Finding of Substantial Overriding Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... that are in breach, or (6) contracts when the purchaser's processing facility has not operated during... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Extension of Certain Timber Sale Contracts; Finding of Substantial Overriding Public Interest AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of contract extensions...

  1. 26 CFR 1.6662-4 - Substantial understatement of income tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... arrangement does not have as its principal purpose the avoidance or evasion of Federal income tax solely as a... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial understatement of income tax. 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and Assessable...

  2. 75 FR 69454 - Emergency Homeowners' Loan Program: Notice of Allocation of Funding for Substantially Similar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... assistance and provide security for such repayment by recordation of a HUD mortgage as a junior lien on the... current first lien mortgage loan payments for which the homeowner remains responsible. IV. Submission of.... Nondiscrimination and Civil Rights Requirements States operating existing programs that provide substantially...

  3. 75 FR 27504 - Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Held Hair Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... immersion during their use. Section 15(a) of the CPSA defines ``substantial product hazard'' to include, a....'' Hand-held hair dryers routinely contain open-coil heating elements that are, in essence, uninsulated..., bathtub, or lavatory). The proposed rule would define ``hand-held hair dryer'' as ``an electrical...

  4. 76 FR 32215 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Substantiation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... of such disease in the United States [(U.S.)], describes the role of a nutrient or dietary ingredient... substantiation for their claims in the scientific literature. The time it takes to assemble the necessary... based on emerging science, where conducting literature searches and understanding the literature takes...

  5. Theoretical-and-Methodological Substantiation of Multilingual Model Activity in Kazakhstan Higher School Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospanova, Bikesh Revovna; Azimbayeva, Zhanat Amantayevna; Timokhina, Tatyana Vladimirovna; Seydakhmetova, Zergul Koblandiyevna

    2016-01-01

    The need of implementing the model of professional development in training an expert in the conditions of multilingualism is considered. The possibility of using the multilingual approach in the context of present day education with the use of innovative technologies of training is substantiated, the definition of "multilingual…

  6. 78 FR 889 - Finding of Substantial Inadequacy of Implementation Plan; Call for California State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... Resources Defense Council; and Physicians for Social Responsibility--Los Angeles, (``environmental and... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2012-0721; FRL-9767-3] Finding of Substantial Inadequacy of Implementation Plan; Call for California State Implementation Plan Revision; South...

  7. 26 CFR 1.6662-5T - Substantial and gross valuation misstatements under chapter 1 (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Additions to the Tax, Additional... persons). (iii) Property. For purposes of this section, the term property refers to both tangible and... adjustments. For rules relating to the penalty imposed with respect to a substantial or gross valuation...

  8. Domestic violence, parental substance misuse and the decision to substantiate child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Bryan G; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Ryan, Joseph P; Perron, Brian E; Gilbert, Terri Ticknor

    2018-05-01

    Families that experience domestic violence and parental substance misuse are disproportionately involved with the child welfare system. Prior research suggests that child protective services (CPS) caseworkers are more likely to substantiate maltreatment allegations when domestic violence and parental substance misuse are identified during the investigation, pointing to one possible mechanism for this disproportionate involvement. While previous studies have relied on nationally representative data sets, the current study used administrative records from a large Midwestern child welfare agency that accounts for state-level variation in child welfare policy and practice. A total of 501,060 substantiation decisions made between 2009 and 2013 were examined to assess the influence of caseworker-perceived domestic violence and parental substance misuse on the decision to substantiate reported maltreatment. Results from multilevel modeling suggest that the identification of domestic violence and parental substance misuse during an investigation significantly increased the probability that an allegation would be substantiated. The implication of these findings for child welfare practice are considered in light of the fact that many child welfare agencies do not consider exposure to domestic violence and parental substance misuse in and of themselves to constitute child maltreatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 26 CFR 301.6229(c)(2)-1T - Substantial omission of income (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....6229(c)(2)-1T Substantial omission of income (temporary). (a) Partnership return—(1) General rule. (i) If any partnership omits from the gross income stated in its return an amount properly includible... omitted from gross income if information sufficient to apprise the Commissioner of the nature and amount...

  10. 26 CFR 1.162-17 - Reporting and substantiation of certain business expenses of employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Individuals and Corporations § 1.162-17 Reporting and substantiation of certain business expenses of employees.... The term “ordinary and necessary business expenses” means only those expenses which are ordinary and..., reimbursements, or otherwise, exceeds the ordinary and necessary business expenses paid or incurred by the...

  11. 34 CFR 692.41 - What standards may a State use to determine substantial financial need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PARTNERSHIP PROGRAM Leveraging Educational Assistance Partnership Program How Does A State Select Students... establishes that are approved by the Secretary. A State may define substantial financial need in terms of... “independent student” as defined under section 480(d) of the HEA. However, for good cause shown, the Secretary...

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of the squid mantle muscles and giant axon during slow swimming and jet escape propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalçınkaya, Bahar Hazal; Erikli, Şükrü; Özilgen, Burak Arda; Olcay, Ali Bahadır; Sorgüven, Esra; Özilgen, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Squids have two substantially different types of muscle fibers: superficial mitochondria rich fibers, which perform aerobic respiration during slow swimming, and central mitochondria poor fibers, which perform anaerobic respiration during jet escape. A detailed thermodynamic analysis shows that during slow swimming, 3.82 J/(kg s) of chemical exergy is consumed, and a total muscle work of 0.28 J/(kg s) is produced. 0.27 J/(kg s) of this is produced by the fin to generate lift, and the rest by the mantle volume contraction. During the jet escape at a speed of 3 mantle length/s, squid consumes an exergy of 9.97 J/(kg s) and produces a muscle work of 0.16 J/(kg s). Exergy destruction rates during slow swimming and jet escape modes are 3.54 and 9.81 J/(kg s), respectively. Exergy destroyed because of the action potential propagation in the squid giant axon is calculated as 0.03 and 0.10 J/(kg s) for the slow and fast swimming modes, respectively. - Highlights: • Slow and fast swimming modes of a squid is thermodynamically analyzed. • As swimming speed increases, respiration mode switches from aerobic to anaerobic, and respiration efficiency decreases. • During fast swimming ca. 2.6 times more chemical exergy is consumed. • Both muscles and giant axon destroy nearly 3 times more exergy during jet escape. • Contraction efficiency decreases from 36.8% to 4.7% as the volume of the passive tissue increases from 5% to 95%.

  13. The Effect of Water Repellent Surface Impregnation on Durability of Cement-Based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In many cases, service life of reinforced concrete structures is severely limited by chloride penetration until the steel reinforcement or by carbonation of the covercrete. Water repellent treatment on the surfaces of cement-based materials has often been considered to protect concrete from these deteriorations. In this paper, three types of water repellent agents have been applied on the surface of concrete specimens. Penetration profiles of silicon resin in treated concrete have been determined by FT-IR spectroscopy. Water capillary suction, chloride penetration, carbonation, and reinforcement corrosion in both surface impregnated and untreated specimens have been measured. Results indicate that surface impregnation reduced the coefficient of capillary suction of concrete substantially. An efficient chloride barrier can be established by deep impregnation. Water repellent surface impregnation by silanes also can make the process of carbonation action slow. In addition, it also has been concluded that surface impregnation can provide effective corrosion protection to reinforcing steel in concrete with migrating chloride. The improvement of durability and extension of service life for reinforced concrete structures, therefore, can be expected through the applications of appropriate water repellent surface impregnation.

  14. Pathogenetic substantiation and effectiveness of vildagliptin use inpatients with diabetes mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance in muscle and liver and β-cell failure represent the core pathophysiologic defects in type 2 diabetes. Now it isrecognized that the β-cell failure occurs much earlier and is more severe than previously thought. As a result, earlier and more aggressive new therapy is needed to achiev e better control of diabetes and to prev ent/slow the progressive B-cell failure that already is w ell established in IGT subjects. One approach is to target the incretin mimetic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1. When blood glucose levels are elevated, GrP-1 stimulates insulin secretion, decreases glucagon secretion, impro ves β-cell function, and slows gastric emptying. GrP-1 production is reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, GrP-1 is rapidly degraded by the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4 enzyme. Trials have showed, that new inhibitor DPP-4 vildagliptin (Galvus hav e been demonstrated to significantly reduce HbA lc, fasting and prandial glucose levels when used as monotherapy and in соmbination with traditional agents. Advantages of vildagliptin include few adverse events, low risk of hypoglycemia, neutral effect on body weight, and a once-daily oral dosing regimen. Inaddition, vildagliptin may preserve the decline in β-cell function. Hence, vildagliptin may modify the natural progressive course of diabetes; this however, must be confirmed with longer-term controlled studies

  15. PREFACE 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, Stephen; Sullivan, James; White, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Preface These proceedings arose from the 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques (SLOPOS12), which was held on Magnetic Island, North Queensland, Australia, between 1-6th August 2010. Meetings in the SLOPOS series are held (roughly) every three years and have now been held on (almost) all continents, indicating the truly international nature of the field. SLOPOS12 marked the second time that the Workshop had been held in the southern hemisphere, and the first time in Australia. SLOPOS12 attracted 122 delegates from 16 countries. Most encouraging was the attendance of 28 student delegates, and that about half of the overall delegates were early career researchers - a good sign for the future of our field. We also enjoyed the company of more than a dozen partners and families of delegates. In a slight departure from previous SLOPOS meetings, the International Advisory Committee approved a broader scope of scientific topics for inclusion in the program for the 2010 Workshop. This broader scope was intended to capture the applications of positrons in atomic, molecular and biomedical areas and was encapsulated in the byeline for SLOPOS-12: The 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids, Surfaces, Atoms and Molecules. The scientific and social program for the meeting ran over 6 days with delegates gathering on Sunday August 1st and departing on August 6th. The scientific program included plenary, invited, contributed and student lectures, the latter being the subject of a student prize. In all there were 53 oral presentations during the week. There were also two poster sessions, with 63 posters exhibited, and a prize was awarded for the best poster by a student delegate. The standard of the student presentations, both oral and posters, was outstanding, so much so that the judging panel recommended an additional number of prizes be awarded. Topics that were the focus of invited presentations and contributed papers at

  16. Observing and modeling the spectrum of a slow slip event: Constraints on the scaling of slow slip and tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, J. C.; Bartlow, N. M.; Ghosh, A.

    2017-12-01

    We estimate the normalized moment rate spectrum of a slow slip event in Cascadia and then attempt to reproduce it. Our goal is to further assess whether a single physical mechanism could govern slow slip and tremor events, with durations that span 6 orders of magnitude, so we construct the spectrum by parameterizing a large slow slip event as the sum of a number of subevents with various durations. The spectrum estimate uses data from three sources: the GPS-based slip inversion of Bartlow et al (2011), PBO borehole strain measurements, and beamforming-based tremor moment estimates of Ghosh et al (2009). We find that at periods shorter than 1 day, the moment rate power spectrum decays as frequencyn, where n is between 0.7 and 1.4 when measured from strain and between 1.2 and 1.4 when inferred from tremor. The spectrum appears roughly flat at periods of 1 to 10 days, as both the 1-day-period strain and tremor data and the 6-day-period slip inversion data imply a moment rate power of 0.02 times the the total moment squared. We demonstrate one way to reproduce this spectrum: by constructing the large-scale slow slip event as the sum of a series of subevents. The shortest of these subevents could be interpreted as VLFEs or even LFEs, while longer subevents might represent the aseismic slip that drives rapid tremor reverals, streaks, or rapid tremor migrations. We pick the subevent magnitudes from a Gutenberg-Richter distribution and place the events randomly throughout a 30-day interval. Then we assign each subevent a duration that scales with its moment to a specified power. Finally, we create a moment rate function for each subevent and sum all of the moment rates. We compute the summed slow slip moment rate spectra with two approaches: a time-domain numerical computation and a frequency-domain analytical summation. Several sets of subevent parameters can allow the constructed slow slip event to match the observed spectrum. One allowable set of parameters is of

  17. Textile slow-release systems with medical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Breteler, M.R.; Nierstrasz, Vincent; Warmoeskerken, Marinus

    2002-01-01

    In the development of medical drug delivery systems, attention has been increasingly focused on slow- or controlled delivery systems in order to achieve an optimal therapeutic effect. Since the administration of drugs often requires a defined or minimum effective dosage in the human body, more

  18. Delineating psychomotor slowing from reduced processing speed in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrens, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Matton, C.; Madani, Y.; Bouwel, L. van; Peuskens, J.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Psychomotor slowing is an intrinsic feature of schizophrenia that is poorly delineated from generally reduced processing speed. Although the Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST) is widely used to assess psychomotor speed, the task also taps several higher-order cognitive processes.

  19. Investigating the critical slowing down of QCD simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    Simulations of QCD are known to suffer from serious critical slowing down towards the continuum limit. This is particularly prominent in the topological charge. We investigate the severeness of the problem in the range of lattice spacings used in contemporary simulations and propose a method to give more reliable error estimates. (orig.)

  20. Passive integrated circuits utilizing slow light in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Têtu, Amélie; Yang, Lirong

    2006-01-01

    We report thorough investigations of photonic crystal waveguide properties in the slow light regime. The transmission and the group index near the cutoff wavelengths oscillate in phase in close analogy with the ID photonic crystal behavior. The influence of having a finite number of periods...

  1. Slow Light by Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Zhang; Yan, Huang; Xiao-Yu, Mao; Kai-Yu, Cui; Yi-Dong, Huang; Wei, Zhang; Jiang-De, Peng

    2009-01-01

    A simple and effective way to measure the group velocity of photonic crystal waveguides (PCWGs) is developed by using a fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer. A PCWG with perfect air-bridge structure is fabricated and slow light with group velocity slower than c/80 is demonstrated. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  2. Reduction in slow intercompartmental clearance of urea during dialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, D.J.; Krejcie, T.C.; Avram, M.J.; Chow, M.J.; Del Greco, F.; Atkinson, A.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics of urea and inulin were analyzed in five anesthetized dogs during sequential 2-hour periods before, during, and after hemodialysis. The distribution of both compounds after simultaneous intravenous injection was characterized by three-compartment models, and the total volumes of urea (0.66 +/- 0.05 L/kg) and inulin (0.19 +/- 0.01 L/kg) distribution were similar to expected values for total body water and extravascular space, respectively. Intercompartmental clearances calculated before dialysis were used to estimate blood flows to the fast and slow equilibrating compartments. In agreement with previous results, the sum of these flows was similar to cardiac output, averaging 101% of cardiac output measured before dialysis (range 72% to 135%). Dialysis was accompanied by reductions in the slow intercompartmental clearances of urea (81%) and inulin (47%), which reflected a 90% attenuation in blood flow supplying the slow equilibrating compartments. This was estimated to result in a 10% average reduction in the efficiency with which urea was removed by dialysis (range 2.0% to 16.4%). Mean arterial pressure fell by less than 5% during dialysis, but total peripheral resistance increased by 47% and cardiac output fell by 35%. In the postdialysis period, total peripheral resistance and cardiac output returned toward predialysis values, but blood flow to the slow equilibrating peripheral compartment was still reduced by 80%. These changes parallel activation of the renin-angiotensin system, but further studies are required to establish causality

  3. Spatial ability of slow learners based on Hubert Maier theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permatasari, I.; Pramudya, I.; Kusmayadi, T. A.

    2018-03-01

    Slow learners are children who have low learning achievement (under the average of normal children) in one or all of the academic field, but they are not classified as a mentally retarded children. Spatial ability developed according to age and level of knowledge possessed, both from the neighborhood and formal education. Analyzing the spatial ability of students is important for teachers, as an effort to improve the quality of learning for slow learners. Especially on the implementation of inclusion school which is developing in Indonesia. This research used a qualitative method and involved slow learner students as the subject. Based on the data analysis it was found the spatial ability of slow learners, there were: spatial perception, students were able to describe the other shape of object when its position changed; spatial visualisation, students were able to describe the materials that construct an object; mental rotation, students cannot describe the object being rotated; spatial relation, students cannot describe the relations of same objects; spatial orientation, students were able to describe object from the others perspective.

  4. Optical signal processing using slow and fast light technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capmany, J.; Sales, Salvador; Xue, Weiqi

    2009-01-01

    We review the theory of slow and fat light effects due to coherent population oscillations in semiconductor waveguides, which can be potentially applied in microwave photonic systems as a RF phase shifters. In order to satisfy the application requirement of 360 degrees RF phase shift at different...

  5. First Observation of the Slow Dragonet Callionymus aagilis Fricke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The slow dragonet is a rare marine species of the family Callionymidae, and is endemic to Reunion and Mauritius and possibly the other Mascarene Islands. It is grey in colour with small round white spots aligned on the flanks and a honeycomb pattern on the cheeks and the snout (Fig. 1a-c). The apices of the first dorsal ...

  6. One Size Fits All? Slow Cortical Potentials Neurofeedback: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Kerstin; Wyckoff, Sarah N.; Strehl, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The intent of this manuscript was to review all published studies on slow cortical potentials (SCP) neurofeedback for the treatment of ADHD, with emphasis on neurophysiological rationale, study design, protocol, outcomes, and limitations. Method: For review, PubMed, MEDLINE, ERIC, and Google Scholar searches identified six studies and…

  7. Group-index limitations in slow-light photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grgic, Jure; Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Xiao, Sanshui

    2010-01-01

    radiation, and in-plane leakage. Often, the different mechanisms are playing in concert, leading to attenuation and scattering of electromagnetic modes. The very same broadening mechanisms also limit the attainable slow-down which we mimic by including a small imaginary part to the otherwise real...

  8. Slow Manifold and Hannay Angle in the Spinning Top

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M. V.; Shukla, P.

    2011-01-01

    The spin of a top can be regarded as a fast variable, coupled to the motion of the axis which is slow. In pure precession, the rotation of the axis round a cone (without nutation), can be considered as the result of a reaction from the fast spin. The resulting restriction of the total state space of the top is an illustrative example, at…

  9. Slow light in quantum dot photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Roland; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of pulse propagation in a semiconductor quantum dot photonic crystal waveguide in the regime of electromagnetically induced transparency is presented. The slow light mechanism considered here is based on both material and waveguide dispersion. The group index n...

  10. Slow light based on material and waveguide dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Roland; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    We study slow light pulse propagation in a photonic crystal structure consisting of a dispersive and absorptive dielectric material and compare it with the constant wave case. The group index and the trasmission are investigated for the example of an ensemble of semiconductor quantum dots embedded...

  11. Penetration of slow waves into an overdense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motley, R.W.; Bernabei, S.; Hooke, W.M.; McWilliams, R.; Olson, L.

    1978-06-01

    Probe measurements are reported of the propagation of a 2.45 GHz slow wave launched into a linear, overdense test plasma by a phased double waveguide. We find that waves in the frequency interval omega/sub LH/ < omega < omega/sub pe/ penetrate to the plasma interior only if they satisfy the accessibility criterion

  12. Standing Slow MHD Waves in Radiatively Cooling Coronal Loops ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The standing slow magneto-acoustic oscillations in cooling coronal loops ... turbation and, eventually, reduces the MHD equations to a 1D system modelling ..... where the function Q is expanded in power series with respect to ǫ, i.e.,. Q = Q0 + ...

  13. Schrodinger cat state generation using a slow light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, B. S.; Kim, M. S.

    2003-01-01

    We show a practical application of giant Kerr nonlinearity to quantum information processing based on superposition of two distinct macroscopic states- Schrodinger cat state. The giant Kerr nonlinearity can be achieved by using electromagnetically induced transparency, in which light propagation should be slowed down so that a pi-phase shift can be easily obtained owing to increased interaction time.

  14. Formation of Heliospheric Arcs of Slow Solar Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginson, A. K.; Zurbuchen, T. H. [Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wyper, P. F., E-mail: aleida@umich.edu [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-01

    A major challenge in solar and heliospheric physics is understanding the origin and nature of the so-called slow solar wind. The Sun’s atmosphere is divided into magnetically open regions, known as coronal holes, where the plasma streams out freely and fills the solar system, and closed regions, where the plasma is confined to coronal loops. The boundary between these regions extends outward as the heliospheric current sheet (HCS). Measurements of plasma composition strongly imply that much of the slow wind consists of plasma from the closed corona that escapes onto open field lines, presumably by field-line opening or by interchange reconnection. Both of these processes are expected to release closed-field plasma into the solar wind within and immediately adjacent to the HCS. Mysteriously, however, slow wind with closed-field plasma composition is often observed in situ far from the HCS. We use high-resolution, three-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations to calculate the dynamics of a coronal hole with a geometry that includes a narrow corridor flanked by closed field and is driven by supergranule-like flows at the coronal-hole boundary. These dynamics produce giant arcs of closed-field plasma that originate at the open-closed boundary in the corona, but extend far from the HCS and span tens of degrees in latitude and longitude at Earth. We conclude that such structures can account for the long-puzzling slow-wind observations.

  15. On loneliness and the value of slow reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin van Marle

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author considers the relationship of law, morality and reconciliation. Intrigued by the political and ethical stances taken by Arendt and McCarthy, the author supports notions of detachment, slowness and social reconciliation concerning contemporary political and ethical questions.

  16. Effects of melatonin implantation during the slow period of cashmere ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of melatonin implantation during the slow period of cashmere growth on fibre production in Inner Mongolian cashmere goats. It was found that melatonin implantation had no effect on the growth rate of cashmere, except from February to March when the rate of treated goats ...

  17. Human Growth Hormone (HGH): Does It Slow Aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Healthy aging Human growth hormone is described by some as the key to slowing the aging process. Before you sign up, get the ... slowdown has triggered an interest in using synthetic human growth hormone (HGH) as a way to stave ...

  18. Understanding Bifurcation of Slow Versus Fast Cyber-Attackers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wieren, Maarten; Doerr, Christian; Jacobs, Vivian; Pieters, Wolter; Livraga, Giovanni; Torra, Vicenç; Aldini, Alessandro; Martinelli, Fabio; Suri, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotally, the distinction between fast “Smash-and-Grab‿ cyber-attacks on the one hand and slow attacks or “Advanced Persistent Threats‿ on the other hand is well known. In this article, we provide an explanation for this phenomenon as the outcome of an optimization from the perspective of the

  19. Some techniques to improve time structure of slow extracted beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Y.; Sato, H.; Toyama, T.; Marutsuka, K.; Sueno, T.; Mikawa, K.; Ninomiya, S.; Yoshii, M.

    1992-01-01

    In order to improve the time structure of slow extracted beam spill for the KEK 12GeV PS, the spill control system has been upgraded by adding feed forward signal to feedback signal. Further, the wake field in the RF cavity has been cancelled by the beam bunch signal to reduce the re-bunch effect during extraction period. (author)

  20. Biochar production from freshwater algae by slow pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanongkiat Kiatsiriroat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the feasibility of biochar production from 3 kinds of freshwateralgae, viz. Spirulina, Spirogyra and Cladophora, was undertaken. Using a slow pyrolysis process in a specially designed reactor, biochar could be generated at 550oC under nitrogen atmosphere. The yields of biochar were between 28-31% of the dry algae.

  1. Generation of slow positron beam and beam bunching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, O.; Satoh, T.; Shitoh, M.; Kaneko, N.; Kawaratani, T.; Hara, O.

    1994-01-01

    Two items are described in this report. One is about the outline of our slow positron beam system, which has been fabricated as a commercial prototype. The other is about the calculation result of positron beam bunching, which will be an additional function to the system. (author)

  2. Slow diuron release formulations based on clay-phosphatidylcholine complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Undabeytia, T.; Recio, E.; Maqueda, C.; Sanchez-Verdejo, T.; Balek, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 55, JAN (2012), s. 53-61 ISSN 0169-1317 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC523 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Diuron * Phosphatidylcholine * Clay mineral * Leaching * Bioactivity * Slow release Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 2.342, year: 2012

  3. Concordance of MRI and EEG Focal Slowing in Nonsyndromic Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at the Kangwon National University, Korea, and The Epilepsy Center, Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago, USA studied the correlation and significance of EEG focal slowing and focal MRI abnormalities in 253 children with nonsyndromic epilepsy.

  4. Grating-assisted superresolution of slow waves in Fourier space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, N. Le; Houdré, R.; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2007-01-01

    with a high numerical aperture Fourier space imaging set-up. A high-resolution spectroscopy of the far-field emission diagram allows us to accurately and efficiently determine the dispersion curve and the group-index dispersion of planar photonic waveguides operating in the slow light regime....

  5. Slow-light enhancement of Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Mortensen, Niels Asger; Xiao, Sanshui

    2007-01-01

    We theoretically show how slow light in an optofluidic environment facilitates enhanced light-matter interactions, by orders of magnitude. The proposed concept provides strong opportunities for improving existing miniaturized chemical absorbance cells for Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption measurements widely employed in analytical chemistry.

  6. Slow oscillations orchestrating fast oscillations and memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölle, Matthias; Born, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Slow-wave sleep (SWS) facilitates the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent declarative memory. Based on the standard two-stage memory model, we propose that memory consolidation during SWS represents a process of system consolidation which is orchestrated by the neocortical memory. The slow oscillations temporally group neuronal activity into up-states of strongly enhanced neuronal activity and down-states of neuronal silence. In a feed-forward efferent action, this grouping is induced not only in the neocortex but also in other structures relevant to consolidation, namely the thalamus generating 10-15Hz spindles, and the hippocampus generating sharp wave-ripples, with the latter well known to accompany a replay of newly encoded memories taking place in hippocampal circuitries. The feed-forward synchronizing effect of the slow oscillation enables the formation of spindle-ripple events where ripples and accompanying reactivated hippocampal memory information become nested into the single troughs of spindles. Spindle-ripple events thus enable reactivated memory-related hippocampal information to be fed back to neocortical networks in the excitable slow oscillation up-state where they can induce enduring plastic synaptic changes underlying the effective formation of long-term memories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics of broadband slow earthquakes explained by a Brownian model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, S.; Takeo, A.

    2017-12-01

    Brownian slow earthquake (BSE) model (Ide, 2008; 2010) is a stochastic model for the temporal change of seismic moment release by slow earthquakes, which can be considered as a broadband phenomena including tectonic tremors, low frequency earthquakes, and very low frequency (VLF) earthquakes in the seismological frequency range, and slow slip events in geodetic range. Although the concept of broadband slow earthquake may not have been widely accepted, most of recent observations are consistent with this concept. Then, we review the characteristics of slow earthquakes and how they are explained by BSE model. In BSE model, the characteristic size of slow earthquake source is represented by a random variable, changed by a Gaussian fluctuation added at every time step. The model also includes a time constant, which divides the model behavior into short- and long-time regimes. In nature, the time constant corresponds to the spatial limit of tremor/SSE zone. In the long-time regime, the seismic moment rate is constant, which explains the moment-duration scaling law (Ide et al., 2007). For a shorter duration, the moment rate increases with size, as often observed for VLF earthquakes (Ide et al., 2008). The ratio between seismic energy and seismic moment is constant, as shown in Japan, Cascadia, and Mexico (Maury et al., 2017). The moment rate spectrum has a section of -1 slope, limited by two frequencies corresponding to the above time constant and the time increment of the stochastic process. Such broadband spectra have been observed for slow earthquakes near the trench axis (Kaneko et al., 2017). This spectrum also explains why we can obtain VLF signals by stacking broadband seismograms relative to tremor occurrence (e.g., Takeo et al., 2010; Ide and Yabe, 2014). The fluctuation in BSE model can be non-Gaussian, as far as the variance is finite, as supported by the central limit theorem. Recent observations suggest that tremors and LFEs are spatially characteristic

  8. Stratigraphic response of salt marshes to slow rates of sea-level change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J.; Bell, T.

    2006-12-01

    Conventional models of salt-marsh development show an idealized spatial relationship between salt-marsh floral and foraminiferal zones, where the landward margin of the marsh gradually migrates inland in response to sea-level rise. This model predicts that transgression will result in persistent and possibly expanded salt marshes at the surface, depending on a variety of factors including sediment supply, hydrologic conditions, tidal range, and rate of sea-level rise. However, in areas with abundant sediment supply and slow rates of sea- level rise, the extent of back-barrier salt marshes may decline over time as the barrier-spits mature. Sea level around the northeast coast of Newfoundland is rising at a very slow rate during the late Holocene (flora. These transitions are interpreted to reflect the progradation of the spit, decreased tidal exchange in the back-barrier, and increased influence of freshwater streams discharging into the back-barrier setting. Decreased marine influence on the back-barrier environment leads to a floral and faunal shift associated with a regressive stratigraphy in an area experiencing sea-level rise. For studies of Holocene sea-level change requiring salt-marsh stratigraphic records, it is necessary to account for changing micro-environments to locate sites appropriate for study; salt marshes may play an important role in defining the record, but may not exist at the surface to guide investigation.

  9. A Simple Slow-Sand Filter for Drinking Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. O. Yusuf

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Water-borne diseases are commonly encountered when pathogen-contaminated water is consumed. In rural areas, water is usually obtained from ponds, open shallow wells, streams and rain water during rainy season. Rain water is often contaminated by pathogens due to unhygienic of physical and chemical conditions of the roofs thereby making it unsafe for consumption. A simple slow sand filter mechanism was designed and fabricated for purification of water in rural areas where electricity is not available to power water purification devices. Rain water samples were collected from aluminum roof, galvanized roof and thatched roof. The waters samples were allowed to flow through the slow sand filter. The values of turbidity, total dissolved solids, calcium, nitrite, faecal coliform and total coliform from unfiltered water through thatched roof were 0.92 NTU, 27.23 mg/l, 6 mg/l, 0.16 mg/l, 5cfu/100ml and 6.0 cfu/100ml, respectively while the corresponding values for slow sand filter from thatched roof were 0.01 NTU, 0.23 mg/l, 2.5 mg/l, 0.1 mg/l, 0 cfu/100ml and 0 cfu/100ml, respectively. The values of turbidity, total dissolved solid, nitrite, calcium, faecal coliform and total coliform from unfiltered water for aluminum roof were 0.82 NTU, 23.68 mg/l, 2.70 mg/l, 1.0 mg/l, 4 cfu/100ml and 4cfu/100ml, respectively while the corresponding values for slow sand filter were 0.01 NTU, 0.16 mg/l, 0.57 mg/l, 0.2 mg/l, 0 cfu/100ml and 0 cfu/100ml, respectively. The values obtained for galvanized roof were also satisfactory. The slow sand filter is recommended for used in rural areas for water purification to prevent risk of water-borne diseases.

  10. Continuous neutron slowing down theory applied to resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, M.

    1977-01-01

    Neutronic formalisms that discretize the neutron slowing down equations in large numerical intervals currently account for the bulk effect of resonances in a given interval by the narrow resonance approximation (NRA). The NRA reduces the original problem to an efficient numerical formalism through two assumptions: resonance narrowness with respect to the scattering bands in the slowing down equations and resonance narrowness with respect to the numerical intervals. Resonances at low energies are narrow neither with respect to the slowing down ranges nor with respect to the numerical intervals, which are usually of a fixed lethargy width. Thus, there are resonances to which the NRA is not applicable. To stay away from the NRA, the continuous slowing down (CSD) theory of Stacey was invoked. The theory is based on a linear expansion in lethargy of the collision density in integrals of the slowing down equations and had notable success in various problems. Applying CSD theory to the assessment of bulk resonance effects raises the problem of obtaining efficient quadratures for integrals involved in the definition of the so-called ''moderating parameter.'' The problem was solved by two approximations: (a) the integrals were simplified through a rationale, such that the correct integrals were reproduced for very narrow or very wide resonances, and (b) the temperature-broadened resonant line shapes were replaced by nonbroadened line shapes to enable analytical integration. The replacement was made in such a way that the integrated capture and scattering probabilities in each resonance were preserved. The resulting formalism is more accurate than the narrow-resonance formalisms and is equally as efficient

  11. The slow cell death response when screening chemotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Joseph; Smith, Adam; Josephson, Lee

    2011-09-01

    To examine the correlation between cell death and a common surrogate of death used in screening assays, we compared cell death responses to those obtained with the sulforhodamine B (SRB) cell protein-based "cytotoxicity" assay. With the SRB assay, the Hill equation was used to obtain an IC50 and final cell mass, or cell mass present at infinite agent concentrations, with eight adherent cell lines and four agents (32 agent/cell combinations). Cells were treated with high agent concentrations (well above the SRB IC50) and the death response determined as the time-dependent decrease in cells failing to bind both annexin V and vital fluorochromes by flow cytometry. Death kinetics were categorized as fast (5/32) (similar to the reference nonadherent Jurkat line), slow (17/32), or none (10/32), despite positive responses in the SRB assay in all cases. With slow cell death, a single exposure to a chemotherapeutic agent caused a slow, progressive increase in dead (necrotic) and dying (apoptotic) cells for at least 72 h. Cell death (defined by annexin and/or fluorochrome binding) did not correlate with the standard SRB "cytotoxicity" assay. With the slow cell death response, a single exposure to an agent caused a slow conversion from vital to apoptotic and necrotic cells over at least 72 h (the longest time point examined). Here, increasing the time of exposure to agent concentrations modestly above the SRB IC50 provides a method of maximizing cell kill. If tumors respond similarly, sustained low doses of chemotherapeutic agents, rather than a log-kill, maximum tolerated dose strategy may be an optimal strategy of maximizing tumor cell death.

  12. A Model fot the Sources of the Slow Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiochos, S. K.; Mikic, Z.; Titov, V. S.; Lionello, R.; Linker, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Models for the origin of the slow solar wind must account for two seemingly contradictory observations: the slow wind has the composition of the closed-field corona, implying that it originates from the continuous opening and closing of flux at the boundary between open and closed field. On the other hand, the slow wind also has large angular width, up to approx.60deg, suggesting that its source extends far from the open-closed boundary. We propose a model that can explain both observations. The key idea is that the source of the slow wind at the Sun is a network of narrow (possibly singular) open-field corridors that map to a web of separatrices and quasi-separatrix layers in the heliosphere. We compute analytically the topology of an open-field corridor and show that it produces a quasi-separatrix layer in the heliosphere that extends to angles far from the heliospheric current sheet. We then use an MHD code and MDI/SOHO observations of the photospheric magnetic field to calculate numerically, with high spatial resolution, the quasi-steady solar wind, and magnetic field for a time period preceding the 2008 August 1 total solar eclipse. Our numerical results imply that, at least for this time period, a web of separatrices (which we term an S-web) forms with sufficient density and extent in the heliosphere to account for the observed properties of the slow wind. We discuss the implications of our S-web model for the structure and dynamics of the corona and heliosphere and propose further tests of the model. Key words: solar wind - Sun: corona - Sun: magnetic topology

  13. A Model for the Sources of the Slow Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiochos, S. K.; Mikić, Z.; Titov, V. S.; Lionello, R.; Linker, J. A.

    2011-04-01

    Models for the origin of the slow solar wind must account for two seemingly contradictory observations: the slow wind has the composition of the closed-field corona, implying that it originates from the continuous opening and closing of flux at the boundary between open and closed field. On the other hand, the slow wind also has large angular width, up to ~60°, suggesting that its source extends far from the open-closed boundary. We propose a model that can explain both observations. The key idea is that the source of the slow wind at the Sun is a network of narrow (possibly singular) open-field corridors that map to a web of separatrices and quasi-separatrix layers in the heliosphere. We compute analytically the topology of an open-field corridor and show that it produces a quasi-separatrix layer in the heliosphere that extends to angles far from the heliospheric current sheet. We then use an MHD code and MDI/SOHO observations of the photospheric magnetic field to calculate numerically, with high spatial resolution, the quasi-steady solar wind, and magnetic field for a time period preceding the 2008 August 1 total solar eclipse. Our numerical results imply that, at least for this time period, a web of separatrices (which we term an S-web) forms with sufficient density and extent in the heliosphere to account for the observed properties of the slow wind. We discuss the implications of our S-web model for the structure and dynamics of the corona and heliosphere and propose further tests of the model.

  14. A Pace of Our Own? Becoming Through Speeds and Slows – Investigating Living Through Temporal Ontologies of The University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malou Juelskjær

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with new feminist materialism’s transformatory ethical potential with regards to the (fast neoliberal university. It is also shaped and inspired by Karen Barad’s question: ’How can I be responsible for that which I love?’ (Barad 2016. The text thus investigates possibilities of thinking through new materialist theorising and concepts for examining conditions of the im/possibilities of living live-able academic lives in current political climates. As a response to those conditions a cry for slowing down has surfaced and manifestos for slow scholarship, reading, pedagogy, professors have emerged. The fast-slow dualism seems to be of pivotal importance in the ongoing criticism of neoliberal universities. The authors share concerns expressed by ‘slow professors’, but at the same time they argue that slow movement in the academia reestablish a problematic dualistic approach. In the text criticism of binary conceptualisations is offered by arriving at ethical considerations (instead of tactical. The article is inspired by Donna Haraway’s plea to ‘stay with the trouble’ (2016 to uncover the complex temporalities of the present and – possibly – its subversive potential. Furthermore, while staying in this troublesome moment, the authors investigate temporal ontologies through the works of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari (2007 [1980], Henri Lefebvre (2004 and Barad (2012 – as well as the temporalities implied in the ‘slow science movement’. Finally, the video art by Bill Viola is considered as a way of accessing problematics of shifting between ‘fast’ and ‘slow’.

  15. What would happen to Superstorm Sandy under the influence of a substantially warmer Atlantic Ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Shi, J. J.; Tao, W. K.; Kim, K. M.

    2016-01-01

    Based on ensemble numerical simulations, we find that possible responses of Sandy-like superstorms under the influence of a substantially warmer Atlantic Ocean bifurcate into two groups. In the first group, storms are similar to present-day Sandy from genesis to extratropical transition, except they are much stronger, with peak Power Destructive Index (PDI) increased by 50-80%, heavy rain by 30-50%, and maximum storm size (MSS) approximately doubled. In the second group, storms amplify substantially over the interior of the Atlantic warm pool, with peak PDI increased by 100-160%, heavy rain by 70-180%, and MSS more than tripled compared to present-day Superstorm Sandy. These storms when exiting the warm pool, recurve northeastward out to sea, subsequently interact with the developing midlatitude storm by mutual counterclockwise rotation around each other and eventually amplify into a severe Northeastern coastal storm, making landfall over the extreme northeastern regions from Maine to Nova Scotia.

  16. Technique of research of severe accidents and substantiation of safety of nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.; Tchenov, S.V.

    2001-01-01

    Work is devoted to development of possible ways of solution of the problems of nuclear safety substantiation. We believe that safety in severe accidents is one of significant factors, which restrict value of nuclear industry in future power production. In connection with it we can conclude followed items: -) Substantiation of safety in severe accidents in nuclear system should be built on a deterministic way of guaranteed exception of heavy consequences; -) It is easy that this aim can be achieved by modeling in functions of common type; -) Main purpose of this work is to show that it is possible to estimate physical allowed state of system in emergency and find of trajectory of heaviest scenarios by optimization procedure; and -) In this work we have developed new method and computer code purposed for study of accident conditions of water cooled un-managed nuclear systems such as cooling ponds of spent fuel, experimental facilities etc. (authors)

  17. Substantiating the Expediency of Costs on Introduction of the System of Economic Security of Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melikhova Tetiana O.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates expediency of introduction of the system of economic security of enterprise on the basis of money flows. The methods proposed in the long-term period stipulate the use as sources of financing: accumulated conditional economic costs, accumulated conditional gross and net money flow; and as costs: cumulative advanced costs and the advanced value of fixed assets. The article suggests methods for calculation of: gross index of conditional yield; gross conditional income of project; gross conditional profitability; gross conditional profitability of money flow. The managerial decision on introduction of the system of economic security of enterprise in the short-term production period has been substantiated on the basis of calculations of the following indicators: gross profitability of annual depreciation; annual gross economic effect; index of conditional yield of the gross money flow; differences between the conditional gross cash flow and the depreciation deductions associated with the implementation of the enterprise’s economic security system.

  18. Extremely short duration high intensity interval training substantially improves insulin action in young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babraj, John A; Vollaard, Niels B J; Keast, Cameron

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional high volume aerobic exercise training reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk but involves a substantial time commitment. Extremely low volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) has recently been demonstrated to produce improvements to aerobic function...... cycle sprints per session). Aerobic performance (250-kJ self-paced cycling time trial), and glucose, insulin and NEFA responses to a 75-g oral glucose load (oral glucose tolerance test; OGTT) were determined before and after training. RESULTS: Following 2 weeks of HIT, the area under the plasma glucose......, to substantially improve insulin action in young sedentary subjects is remarkable. This novel time-efficient training paradigm can be used as a strategy to reduce metabolic risk factors in young and middle aged sedentary populations who otherwise would not adhere to time consuming traditional aerobic exercise...

  19. Surface Water & Surface Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  20. Substantial Churn In Health Insurance Offerings By Small Employers, 2014-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistnes, Jessica P; Rohde, Frederick; Miller, G Edward; Cooper, Philip F

    2017-09-01

    New data for 2014-15 from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component longitudinal survey show substantial churn in insurance offers by small employers (those with fifty or fewer workers), with 14.6 percent of employers that offered insurance in 2014 having dropped it in 2015 and 5.5 percent of those that did not offer it adding coverage. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  1. Substantiation for Approaches to Treatment of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Tykhonova

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions. Analysis of carbohydrate metabolism on the manifestation stage and over time development of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults as well as reduction of β-cells insulin-producing function associated with autoimmune insulitis and progressing while the development of this form of disease, substantiate the rational for insulin administration as this form of diabetes has been diagnosed. If patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults have metabolic syndrome clusters it is quite reasonable to add metformin to insulin.

  2. Substantial improvements not seen in health behaviors following corner store conversions in two Latino food swamps

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Alexander N.; Albert, Stephanie L.; Chan-Golston, Alec M.; Langellier, Brent A.; Glik, Deborah C.; Belin, Thomas R.; Garcia, Rosa Elena; Brookmeyer, Ron; Sharif, Mienah Z.; Prelip, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of food retail interventions is largely undetermined, yet substantial investments have been made to improve access to healthy foods in food deserts and swamps via grocery and corner store interventions. This study evaluated the effects of corner store conversions in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, California on perceived accessibility of healthy foods, perceptions of corner stores, store patronage, food purchasing, and eating behaviors. Methods Household data ...

  3. A Paleocene penguin from New Zealand substantiates multiple origins of gigantism in fossil Sphenisciformes

    OpenAIRE

    Mayr, Gerald; Scofield, R. Paul; De Pietri, Vanesa L.; Tennyson, Alan J. D.

    2017-01-01

    One of the notable features of penguin evolution is the occurrence of very large species in the early Cenozoic, whose body size greatly exceeded that of the largest extant penguins. Here we describe a new giant species from the late Paleocene of New Zealand that documents the very early evolution of large body size in penguins. Kumimanu biceae, n. gen. et sp. is larger than all other fossil penguins that have substantial skeletal portions preserved. Several plesiomorphic features place the ne...

  4. Confidence Intervals: From tests of statistical significance to confidence intervals, range hypotheses and substantial effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Beaulieu-Prévost

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available For the last 50 years of research in quantitative social sciences, the empirical evaluation of scientific hypotheses has been based on the rejection or not of the null hypothesis. However, more than 300 articles demonstrated that this method was problematic. In summary, null hypothesis testing (NHT is unfalsifiable, its results depend directly on sample size and the null hypothesis is both improbable and not plausible. Consequently, alternatives to NHT such as confidence intervals (CI and measures of effect size are starting to be used in scientific publications. The purpose of this article is, first, to provide the conceptual tools necessary to implement an approach based on confidence intervals, and second, to briefly demonstrate why such an approach is an interesting alternative to an approach based on NHT. As demonstrated in the article, the proposed CI approach avoids most problems related to a NHT approach and can often improve the scientific and contextual relevance of the statistical interpretations by testing range hypotheses instead of a point hypothesis and by defining the minimal value of a substantial effect. The main advantage of such a CI approach is that it replaces the notion of statistical power by an easily interpretable three-value logic (probable presence of a substantial effect, probable absence of a substantial effect and probabilistic undetermination. The demonstration includes a complete example.

  5. Substantial population structure of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand facilitates identification of the sources of residual transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerayuth Kittichai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax transmission in Thailand has been substantially reduced over the past 10 years, yet it remains highly endemic along international borders. Understanding the genetic relationship of residual parasite populations can help track the origins of the parasites that are reintroduced into malaria-free regions within the country.A total of 127 P. vivax isolates were genotyped from two western provinces (Tak and Kanchanaburi and one eastern province (Ubon Ratchathani of Thailand using 10 microsatellite markers. Genetic diversity was high, but recent clonal expansion was detected in all three provinces. Substantial population structure and genetic differentiation of parasites among provinces suggest limited gene flow among these sites. There was no haplotype sharing among the three sites, and a reduced panel of four microsatellite markers was sufficient to assign the parasites to their provincial origins.Significant parasite genetic differentiation between provinces shows successful interruption of parasite spread within Thailand, but high diversity along international borders implies a substantial parasite population size in these regions. The provincial origin of P. vivax cases can be reliably determined by genotyping four microsatellite markers, which should be useful for monitoring parasite reintroduction after malaria elimination.

  6. Substantial population structure of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand facilitates identification of the sources of residual transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittichai, Veerayuth; Koepfli, Cristian; Nguitragool, Wang; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cui, Liwang

    2017-10-01

    Plasmodium vivax transmission in Thailand has been substantially reduced over the past 10 years, yet it remains highly endemic along international borders. Understanding the genetic relationship of residual parasite populations can help track the origins of the parasites that are reintroduced into malaria-free regions within the country. A total of 127 P. vivax isolates were genotyped from two western provinces (Tak and Kanchanaburi) and one eastern province (Ubon Ratchathani) of Thailand using 10 microsatellite markers. Genetic diversity was high, but recent clonal expansion was detected in all three provinces. Substantial population structure and genetic differentiation of parasites among provinces suggest limited gene flow among these sites. There was no haplotype sharing among the three sites, and a reduced panel of four microsatellite markers was sufficient to assign the parasites to their provincial origins. Significant parasite genetic differentiation between provinces shows successful interruption of parasite spread within Thailand, but high diversity along international borders implies a substantial parasite population size in these regions. The provincial origin of P. vivax cases can be reliably determined by genotyping four microsatellite markers, which should be useful for monitoring parasite reintroduction after malaria elimination.

  7. Slow wave activity and slow oscillations in sleepwalkers and controls: effects of 38 h of sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Rosemarie; Carrier, Julie; Desautels, Alex; Montplaisir, Jacques; Zadra, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    Sleepwalkers have been shown to have an unusually high number of arousals from slow wave sleep and lower slow wave activity (SWA) power during the night than controls. Because sleep deprivation increases the frequency of slow wave sleep (SWS) arousals in sleepwalkers, it may also affect the expression of the homeostatic process to a greater extent than shown previously. We thus investigated SWA power as well as slow wave oscillation (SWO) density in 10 sleepwalkers and nine controls at baseline and following 38 h of sleep deprivation. There was a significant increase in SWA during participants' recovery sleep, especially during their second non-rapid eye movement (NREM) period. SWO density was similarly increased during recovery sleep's first two NREM periods. A fronto-central gradient in SWA and SWO was also present on both nights. However, no group differences were noted on any of the 2 nights on SWA or SWO. This unexpected result may be related to the heterogeneity of sleepwalkers as a population, as well as our small sample size. SWA pressure after extended sleep deprivation may also result in a ceiling effect in both sleepwalkers and controls. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Children with Dyslexia Are Slow Writers Because They Pause More Often and Not Because They Are Slow at Handwriting Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Emma; Connelly, Vincent; Barnett, Anna L.

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that children with dyslexia are slower at handwriting than other children. However, evidence of slow handwriting in children with dyslexia is very mixed. Thirty-one children with dyslexia, aged 9 years, were compared to both age-matched children and younger spelling-ability matched children. Participants completed an…

  9. RELIGIOUS DEMOCRATIZATION IN INDONESIA: STRENGTHENING THE PRO-CEDURAL AND SUBSTANTIAL RELIGIOUS DEMOCRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Hendry AR.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the book of Michael Mann about the dark side of democracy that discusses the paradox between the ideality of democratic values and empirical realities of violence in the name of freedom (democracy, this paper begins with the exposure of the paradox, such as the rise of the violent conflict between groups of people (both ethnic and religious-based and the high prevalence of violence between religious groups in Indonesia. Even worse, a very wrenching violence involves state actors (rulers. This paper tries to understand the roots of the paradox, with a look at how the relationship between state and religion and the religious community trend of Indonesia (especially Muslims. The author argues that the democratization of religion is a solution to the issues. To answer what kind of religious democracy lives in Indonesia, the author analyzes through a religious procedural (or constitutional democratic dimension and religious substantial democratic dimension. The phenomenon of disobedience of law and system and the euphoria of law-making that reflects “intolerance” in several places in Indonesia display the fundamental issue in the religious procedural democracy. Whereas in the context of religious substantial democracy, the prevailing trend of religion that serves as a political and economic vehicle and ignores religion as a substantial aspect of the behavior of the Indonesian society has resulted in the marginalization of religious position and function. Then, the infiltration of the model of political Islam has also led to alienation of the character of the Islamic society of Indonesia, from a democratic pattern to a revival (radical one. In this light, the author needs to present a strategy to encourage religious democracy in Indonesia, structurally through formulating the ideal relation model between state and religion and culturally through a substantial pattern of religion embedded with the character of Indonesian religious

  10. Water supply of Zaporizhzhya Priazovye: nascent, stages of development, problems of nowadays and hygienic substantiation of ways of their solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagorodniuk K.Yu.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available At the modern stage of development humanity is on the verge of the pandemic of non-communicable diseases. It is not an exception for the population of the Ukraine, among which more than 2/3 of the total morbidity incidences is non-communicable diseases: desieses of cardiovascular system, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes. To the mind of experts in the field of public health and environment protection, the first place among factors affecting the level of population’s health in Ukraine is given to the water that is ahead of air and food products in this aspect. Taking into consideration the fact that after annexation of the Crimea by the Russian Federation in March of 2014 and uncertainty in the military-political situation on the East of the Ukraine, Zaporizhzhya Priazovye is becoming a recreational zone, and with each year it will be used by more and more Ukrainian citizens. The objective of our research was to investigate nascent, stages of development and nowadays problems of region’s water supply as well as hygienic substantiation of complex ways of nowadays problem of Zaporizhzhya Priazovye water supply. As a result of conducted researches it was found that single economically feasible way of providing population of Zaporizhzhya Priazovye with water with normative total hardness and general mineralization is supply of the Dnipro water carried out by operation of Western group water conduit. To reduce the formation of chlorination by-products in the process of water purification it is necessary to use iron-containing chlorine-sulfate coagulant "Aula" of brand A according to the technical requirements TR U 24.1-33075701-002: 2011. For utilization of flush water of contact clarifiers, it is necessary to retool water purification facilities by clarifiers-recirculators with sediment recirculation in “inner contour”. It was proved that corrosive aggressiveness is an indicator of water quality which will determine further

  11. Stochastic dynamic modeling of regular and slow earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, N.; Ando, R.; Ide, S.

    2017-12-01

    Both regular and slow earthquakes are slip phenomena on plate boundaries and are simulated by a (quasi-)dynamic modeling [Liu and Rice, 2005]. In these numerical simulations, spatial heterogeneity is usually considered not only for explaining real physical properties but also for evaluating the stability of the calculations or the sensitivity of the results on the condition. However, even though we discretize the model space with small grids, heterogeneity at smaller scales than the grid size is not considered in the models with deterministic governing equations. To evaluate the effect of heterogeneity at the smaller scales we need to consider stochastic interactions between slip and stress in a dynamic modeling. Tidal stress is known to trigger or affect both regular and slow earthquakes [Yabe et al., 2015; Ide et al., 2016], and such an external force with fluctuation can also be considered as a stochastic external force. A healing process of faults may also be stochastic, so we introduce stochastic friction law. In the present study, we propose a stochastic dynamic model to explain both regular and slow earthquakes. We solve mode III problem, which corresponds to the rupture propagation along the strike direction. We use BIEM (boundary integral equation method) scheme to simulate slip evolution, but we add stochastic perturbations in the governing equations, which is usually written in a deterministic manner. As the simplest type of perturbations, we adopt Gaussian deviations in the formulation of the slip-stress kernel, external force, and friction. By increasing the amplitude of perturbations of the slip-stress kernel, we reproduce complicated rupture process of regular earthquakes including unilateral and bilateral ruptures. By perturbing external force, we reproduce slow rupture propagation at a scale of km/day. The slow propagation generated by a combination of fast interaction at S-wave velocity is analogous to the kinetic theory of gasses: thermal

  12. Elements of slow-neutron scattering basics, techniques, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, J M

    2015-01-01

    Providing a comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to the theory and applications of slow-neutron scattering, this detailed book equips readers with the fundamental principles of neutron studies, including the background and evolving development of neutron sources, facility design, neutron scattering instrumentation and techniques, and applications in materials phenomena. Drawing on the authors' extensive experience in this field, this text explores the implications of slow-neutron research in greater depth and breadth than ever before in an accessible yet rigorous manner suitable for both students and researchers in the fields of physics, biology, and materials engineering. Through pedagogical examples and in-depth discussion, readers will be able to grasp the full scope of the field of neutron scattering, from theoretical background through to practical, scientific applications.

  13. An ultra-fine group slowing down benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapol, B. D.; Maldonado, G. I.; Williams, M. L.

    2009-01-01

    We suggest a new solution to the neutron slowing down equation in terms of multi-energy panels. Our motivation is to establish a computational benchmark featuring an ultra-fine group calculation, where the number of groups could be on the order of 100,000. While the CENTRM code of the SCALE code package has been shown to adequately treat this many groups, there is always a need for additional verification. The multi panel solution principle is simply to consider the slowing down region as sub regions of panels, with each panel a manageable number of groups, say 100. In this way, we reduce the enormity of dealing with the entire spectrum all at once by considering many smaller problems. We demonstrate the solution in the unresolved U3o8 resonance region. (authors)

  14. Slow light and pulse propagation in semiconductor waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Lunnemann

    This thesis concerns the propagation of optical pulses in semiconductor waveguide structures with particular focus on methods for achieving slow light or signal delays. Experimental pulse propagation measurements of pulses with a duration of 180 fs, transmitted through quantum well based waveguide...... structures, are presented. Simultaneous measurements of the pulse transmission and delay are measured as a function of input pulse energy for various applied electrical potentials. Electrically controlled pulse delay and advancement are demonstrated and compared with a theoretical model. The limits...... of the model as well as the underlying physical mechanisms are analysed and discussed. A method to achieve slow light by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in an inhomogeneously broadened quantum dot medium is proposed. The basic principles of EIT are assessed and the main dissimilarities between...

  15. Can power spectrum observations rule out slow-roll inflation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2018-01-01

    The spectral index of scalar perturbations is an important observable that allows us to learn about inflationary physics. In particular, a detection of a significant deviation from a constant spectral index could enable us to rule out the simplest class of inflation models. We investigate whether future observations could rule out canonical single-field slow-roll inflation given the parameters allowed by current observational constraints. We find that future measurements of a constant running (or running of the running) of the spectral index over currently available scales are unlikely to achieve this. However, there remains a large region of parameter space (especially when considering the running of the running) for falsifying the assumed class of slow-roll models if future observations accurately constrain a much wider range of scales.

  16. Slow journalism in the “infoxication” era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Benaissa Pedriza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Slow journalism appears as a response to the information overload generated by the acceleration of the news production cycle in a digital era marked by the emergence of new operators (social networks, news aggregators. Both the study of cases practiced and the reflection on the function that the so-called “slow journalism” must exert today indicate that this type of journalism is still useful to improve the quality of information products. On the other hand, the existence of an increasing demand of multimedia contents that analyze the facts in depth is confirmed. That need is being covered by companies that are independent of the mainstream media, which are more interested in developing other mass demand markets such as latest news.

  17. Slow Controls Using the Axiom M5235BCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, Tyler

    2008-10-01

    The Forward Vertex Detector group at PHENIX plans to adopt the Axiom M5235 Business Card Controller for use as slow controls. It is also being evaluated for slow controls on FermiLab e906. This controller features the Freescale MCF5235 microprocessor. It also has three parallel buses, these being the MCU port, BUS port, and enhanced Time Processing Unit (eTPU) port. The BUS port uses a chip select module with three external chip selects to communicate with peripherals. This will be used to communicate with and configure Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The controller also has an Ethernet port which can use several different protocols such as TCP and UDP. This will be used to transfer files with computers on a network. The M5235 Business Card Controller will be placed in a VME crate along with VME card and a Spartan-3 FPGA.

  18. Investigation and realization of a slow-positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    This research thesis first proposes a presentation of the GBAR project (Gravitational Behaviour of Anti-hydrogen at Rest) within which this research took place, and which aims at performing the first direct test of the Weak Equivalence Principle on anti-matter by studying the free fall of anti-hydrogen atoms in the Earth gravitational field. The author presents different aspects of this project: scientific objective, experiment principle and structure, detailed structure (positron beam, positron trap, positron/positronium conversion, anti-proton beam, trapping, slowing down and neutralisation of anti-hydrogen ions). The author then reports the design of the positron beam: study of source technology, studies related to the fast positron source, design of the low positron line (approach, functions, simulations, technology). The two last chapters report the construction and the characterization of the slow-positron line [fr

  19. The phase transition to slow-roll eternal inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creminelli, P.; Dubovsky, S.; Nicolis, A.; Senatore, L.; Zaldarriaga, M.

    2008-01-01

    For slow-roll inflation we study the phase transition to the eternal regime. Starting from a finite inflationary volume, we consider the volume of the universe at reheating as order parameter. We show that there exists a critical value for the classical inflation speed, φ-dot 2 /H 4 = 3/(2 π 2 ), where the probability distribution for the reheating volume undergoes a sharp transition. In particular, for sub-critical inflation speeds all distribution moments become infinite. We show that at the same transition point the system develops a non-vanishing probability of having a strictly infinite reheating volume, while retaining a finite probability for finite values. Our analysis represents the exact quantum treatment of the system at lowest order in the slow-roll parameters and H 2 /M Pl 2 . (author)

  20. Overall concepts for utilisation of slow pyrolysis products - Hidaspyro II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagernas, L. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)], email: leena.fagernas@vtt.fi

    2012-07-01

    Slow pyrolysis is a promising technology to produce biochar (charcoal), distillates and gases for various purposes. However, scientific results on the effects of distillates and biochar on soil improvement are lacking, process conditions to produce biochar of good quality and optimal distillates are not known, and non-existence of environmental risks has to be proved prior to commercialization of the products. The goal is an optimised slow pyrolysis process for new applications of the products. The research carried out in the project Hidaspyro will be continued. The objectives are to determine the effect of biochar and distillates on growth of plants, soil improvement, and odour prevention; to define the quality criteria of biochar in plant production; and to assess the ecotoxicological and environmental impacts of the products.

  1. Systematic design of loss-engineered slow-light waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    This paper employs topology optimization to systematically design free-topology loss-engineered slow-light waveguides with enlarged group index bandwidth product (GBP). The propagation losses of guided modes are evaluated by the imaginary part of eigenvalues in complex band structure calculations......, where the scattering losses due to manufacturing imperfections are represented by an edge-related effective dissipation. The loss engineering of slow-light waveguides is realized by minimizing the propagation losses of design modes. Numerical examples illustrate that the propagation losses of free......-topology dispersion-engineered waveguides can be significantly suppressed by loss engineering. Comparisons between fixed- and free-topology loss-engineered waveguides demonstrate that the GBP can be enhanced significantly by the free-topology loss-engineered waveguides with a small increase of the propagation losses....

  2. Slow-light-enhanced gain in active photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara; Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Chen, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    Passive photonic crystals have been shown to exhibit a multitude of interesting phenomena, including slow-light propagation in line-defect waveguides. It was suggested that by incorporating an active material in the waveguide, slow light could be used to enhance the effective gain of the material......, which would have interesting application prospects, for example enabling ultra-compact optical amplifiers for integration in photonic chips. Here we experi- mentally investigate the gain of a photonic crystal membrane structure with embedded quantum wells. We find that by solely changing the photonic...... crystal structural parameters, the maximum value of the gain coefficient can be increased compared with a ridge waveguide structure and at the same time the spectral position of the peak gain be controlled. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with theory and show that gain values similar...

  3. Hamilton-Jacobi approach to non-slow-roll inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinney, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    I describe a general approach to characterizing cosmological inflation outside the standard slow-roll approximation, based on the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of scalar field dynamics. The basic idea is to view the equation of state of the scalar field matter as the fundamental dynamical variable, as opposed to the field value or the expansion rate. I discuss how to formulate the equations of motion for scalar and tensor fluctuations in situations where the assumption of slow roll is not valid. I apply the general results to the simple case of inflation from an open-quotes invertedclose quotes polynomial potential, and to the more complicated case of hybrid inflation. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  4. Direct imaging of slow, stored and stationary EIT polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Geoff T.; Cho, Young-Wook; Su, Jian; Everett, Jesse; Robins, Nicholas; Lam, Ping Koy; Buchler, Ben

    2017-09-01

    Stationary and slow light effects are of great interest for quantum information applications. Using laser-cooled Rb87 atoms, we performed side imaging of our atomic ensemble under slow and stationary light conditions, which allows direct comparison with numerical models. The polaritons were generated using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), with stationary light generated using counter-propagating control fields. By controlling the power ratio of the two control fields, we show fine control of the group velocity of the stationary light. We also compare the dynamics of stationary light using monochromatic and bichromatic control fields. Our results show negligible difference between the two situations, in contrast to previous work in EIT-based systems.

  5. A minimal model for a slow pacemaking neuron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, D.G.; Kuznetsov, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We have constructed a phenomenological model for slow pacemaking neurons. ► The model implements a nonlinearity introduced by an ion-dependent current. ► The new nonlinear dependence allows for differentiating responses to various stimuli. ► We discuss implications of our results for a broad class of neurons. - Abstract: We have constructed a phenomenological model for slow pacemaking neurons. These are neurons that generate very regular periodic oscillations of the membrane potential. Many of these neurons also differentially respond to various types of stimulation. The model is based on FitzHugh–Nagumo (FHN) oscillator and implements a nonlinearity introduced by a current that depends on an ion concentration. The comparison with the original FHN oscillator has shown that the new nonlinear dependence allows for differentiating responses to various stimuli. We discuss implications of our results for a broad class of neurons.

  6. Time coder for slow neutron time-of-flight spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grashilin, V.A.; Ofengenden, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Time coder for slow neutron time-of-flight spectrometer is described. The time coder is of modular structure, is performed in the CAMAC standard and operates on line with DVK-2 computer. The main coder units include supporting generator, timers, time-to-digital converter, memory unit and crate controller. Method for measuring background symmetrically to the effect is proposed for a more correct background accounting. 4 refs.; 1 fig

  7. Developing organizational and learning skills of a slow learner

    OpenAIRE

    Mauko, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Slow learners are individuals with below average cognitive abilities. In general they are more immature and show problems in areas such as concentration, short-term and long-term memory, metacognition, motivation, social integration, executive functions and some others. One of the problematic areas is also organization. Well-developed organizational skills are very important because they affect many aspects of our lives. They enable us to cope with everyday tasks, as well as more complex task...

  8. Beyond the library walls: use of slow-scan television.

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzi, N M; Kues, J R; Anthony, S S

    1984-01-01

    The Telecommunications Information Network (TIN) was an applied research project that evaluated the ability of slow-scan television to provide medical information on demand to health-care professionals at hospitals far from any urban area. This paper reviews the TIN project, describes its use, and discusses system advantages and disadvantages. System evaluation encompasses (1) project benefits; (2) technical barriers to implementation and utilization; (3) the replication of services and the t...

  9. Slow control systems of the Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.H.; Jang, H.I.; Choi, W.Q.; Choi, Y.; Jang, J.S.; Jeon, E.J.; Joo, K.K.; Kim, B.R.; Kim, H.S.; Kim, J.Y.; Kim, S.B.; Kim, S.Y.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.D.; Ko, Y.J.; Lee, J.K.; Lim, I.T.; Pac, M.Y.; Park, I.G.; Park, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    The RENO experiment has been in operation since August 2011 to measure reactor antineutrino disappearance using identical near and far detectors. For accurate measurements of neutrino mixing parameters and efficient data taking, it is crucial to monitor and control the detector in real time. Environmental conditions also need to be monitored for stable operation of detectors as well as for safety reasons. In this paper, we report the design, hardware, operation, and performance of the slow control system.

  10. Cell proliferation of Paramecium tetraurelia on a slow rotating clinostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Satoe; Mogami, Yoshihiro; Baba, Shoji A.

    Paramecium is known to proliferate faster under microgravity conditions, and slower under hypergravity. Experiments using axenic culture medium have demonstrated that hypergravity affected directly on the proliferation of Paramecium itself. In order to assess the mechanisms underlying the physiological effects of gravity on cell proliferation, Paramecium tetraurelia was grown under clinorotation (2.5 rpm) and the time course of the proliferation was investigated in detail on the basis of the logistic analysis. On the basis of the mechanical properties of Paramecium, this slow rate of the rotation appears to be enough to simulate microgravity in terms of the randomization of the cell orientation with respect to gravity. P. tetraurelia was cultivated in a closed chamber in which cells were confined without air bubbles, reducing the shear forces and turbulences under clinorotation. The chamber is made of quartz and silicone rubber film; the former is for the optically-flat walls for the measurement of cell density by means of a non-invasive laser optical-slice method, and the latter for gas exchange. Because of the small dimension for culture space, Paramecium does not accumulate at the top of the chamber in spite of its known negative gravitactic behavior. We measured the cell density at regular time intervals without breaking the configuration of the chamber, and analyzed the proliferation parameters by fitting the data to a logistic equation. As a result, P. tetraurelia showed reduced proliferation under slow clinorotation. The saturation of the cell density as well as the maximum proliferation rate decreased, although we found no significant changes on the half maximal time for proliferation. We also found that the mean swimming velocity decreased under slow clinorotation. These results were not consistent with those under microgravity and fast rotating clinostat. This may suggest that randomization of the cell orientation performed by slow rotating clinostat has

  11. Using Nonuniform Fiber to Generate Slow Light via SBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhai Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The data pulse delay based on slow light induced by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS in a nonuniform dispersion decreasing fiber (DDF is demonstrated experimentally, and the distortions of data pulses at different beat frequencies are studied. We found that a delay exceeding a pulse width can be achieved at particular beat frequency, and the DDF has larger delay versus gain slope coefficient with much better output pulse quality than single-mode fiber.

  12. Ponderomotive force effects on slow-wave coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.R.; Wong, K.L.

    1982-01-01

    Localized plasma density depressions are observed to form near a multi-ring slow-wave structure when the value of the nonlinearity parameter, s = ω 2 /sub p/eVertical BarE/sub z/Vertical Bar 2 /8πω 2 nkappaT, is of order unity. Consequent changes in the wave propagation and coupling efficiency are reported. For large enough values of s, the coupling efficiency may be reduced by 50% from the linear value

  13. The Adaptive Organization and Fast-slow Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Hallin, Carina Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary organizations operate under turbulent business conditions and must adapt their strategies to ongoing changes. This article argues that sustainable organizational performance is achieved when top management directs and coordinates interactive processes anchored in emerging...... organizational opportunities and forward-looking analytics. The fast and emergent processes performed by local managers at the frontline observe and respond to environmental stimuli and the slow processes initiated by decision makers interpret events and reasons about updated strategic actions. Current...

  14. Excitation of simple atoms by slow magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroll, N.M.; Parke, S.J.; Ganapathi, V.; Drell, S.D.

    1984-01-01

    We present a theory of excitation of simple atoms by slow moving massive monopoles. Previously presented results for a monopole of Dirac strength on hydrogen and helium are reviewed. The hydrogen theory is extended to include arbitrary integral multiples of the Dirac pole strength. The excitation of helium by double strength poles and by dyons is also discussed. It is concluded that a helium proportional counter is a reliable and effective detector for monopoles of arbitrary strength, and for negatively charged dyons

  15. Slowing the Next Pandemic: Survey of Community Mitigation Strategies

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    During the next influenza pandemic, it will take time to develop a vaccine and there may be limited medication to treat or prevent illness. To slow the spread of disease, CDC and other public health officials will likely ask Americans to decrease contact with others through altering work schedules, school dismissals and other measures. Researchers recently surveyed the public to see whether people could follow those recommendations and what kind of impact they might have.

  16. Constraint effect on the slow crack growth in polyethylene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hutař, Pavel; Zouhar, Michal; Nezbedová, E.; Sadílek, J.; Žídek, J.; Náhlík, Luboš; Knésl, Zdeněk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2012), s. 118-126 ISSN 1757-9864 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD106/09/H035; GA ČR GA106/09/0279; GA ČR GC101/09/J027 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : slow crack growth * polyethylene * constraint Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  17. Can power spectrum observations rule out slow-roll inflation?

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2017-01-01

    The spectral index of scalar perturbations is an important observable that allows us to learn about inflationary physics. In particular, a detection of a significant deviation from a constant spectral index could enable us to rule out the simplest class of inflation models. We investigate whether future observations could rule out canonical single-field slow-roll inflation given the parameters allowed by current observational constraints. We find that future measurements of a constant running...

  18. Effective Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computation with Slow Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiVincenzo, David P.; Aliferis, Panos

    2007-01-01

    How important is fast measurement for fault-tolerant quantum computation? Using a combination of existing and new ideas, we argue that measurement times as long as even 1000 gate times or more have a very minimal effect on the quantum accuracy threshold. This shows that slow measurement, which appears to be unavoidable in many implementations of quantum computing, poses no essential obstacle to scalability

  19. Slow decay of magnetic fields in open Friedmann universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, John D.; Tsagas, Christos G.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic fields in Friedmann universes can experience superadiabatic growth without departing from conventional electromagnetism. The reason is the relativistic coupling between vector fields and spacetime geometry, which slows down the decay of large-scale magnetic fields in open universes, compared to that seen in perfectly flat models. The result is a large relative gain in magnetic strength that can lead to astrophysically interesting B fields, even if our Universe is only marginally open today

  20. Slow, Wet and Catalytic Pyrolysis of Fowl Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Renzo Carta; Mario Cruccu; Francesco Desogus

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the experimental results obtained at a pilot plant which works with a slow, wet and catalytic pyrolysis process of dry fowl manure. This kind of process mainly consists in the cracking of the organic matrix and in the following reaction of carbon with water, which is either already contained in the organic feed or added, to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Reactions are conducted in a rotating reactor maintained at a temperature of 500°C; the requi...