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Sample records for surface sol-gel pumping

  1. Environmentally Benign Sol-Gel Surface Treatment for Aluminum Bonding Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osborne, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    A surface treatment process for aluminum using sol-gel chemistry has been developed that produces strong adhesive bonds without the rinse water requirements of traditional anodizing or etching processes...

  2. Sol-Gel Based Polybenzimidazole Membranes for Hydrogen Pumping Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benicewicz, Brian C. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States). Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology; Eisman, Glenn A. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States). Department of Materials Science and Engineering; Kumar, S. K. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering; Greenbaum, S. G. [Hunter College, New York, NY (United States). Department of Physics

    2014-02-26

    Electrochemical hydrogen pumping using a high temperature (>100°C) PBI membrane was demonstrated under non-humidified and humidified conditions at ambient pressures. Relatively low voltages were required to operate the pump over a wide range of hydrogen flow rates. The advantages of the high temperature capability were shown by operating the pump on reformate feed gas mixtures containing various amounts of CO and CO2. Gas purity measurements on the cathode gas product were conducted and significant reductions in gas impurities were detected. The applicability of the PBI membrane for electrochemical hydrogen pumping and its durability under typical operating conditions was established with tests that lasted for nearly 4000 hours.

  3. Vapor phase modification of sol-gel derived titania (TiO{sub 2}) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piwonski, Ireneusz [University of Lodz, Department of Chemical Technology and Environmental Protection, Pomorska 163, 90-236 Lodz (Poland)]. E-mail: irek@uni.lodz.pl; Ilik, Aneta [University of Lodz, Department of Chemical Technology and Environmental Protection, Pomorska 163, 90-236 Lodz (Poland)

    2006-12-30

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method was used in titania surface modification. Titania layers were obtained in sol-gel process and prepared as thin films on silicon wafers in dip-coating method. In order to define the influence of modification on titania surface properties (e.g., friction), various types of fluoroalkylsilanes were used. The effectiveness of the modification was monitored by FT-IR spectroscopy. The topography and frictional measurements were investigated with the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM)

  4. Surface modification of quartz fibres for dental composites through a sol-gel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yazi; Wang, Renlin; Habib, Eric; Wang, Ruili; Zhang, Qinghong; Sun, Bin; Zhu, Meifang

    2017-05-01

    In this study, quartz fibres (QFs) surface modification using a sol-gel method was proposed and dental posts reinforced with modified QFs were produced. A silica sol (SS) was prepared using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (γ-MPS) as precursors. The amount of γ-MPS in the sol-gel system was varied from 0 to 24wt.% with a constant molar ratio of TEOS, ethanol, deionized water, and HCl. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and contact angle (CA) measurements were used to characterize the modified QFs, which confirmed that SS had successfully coated the surface of QFs. SEM images showed good interfacial bonding between the modified QFs and the resin matrix. The results of three-point bending tests of the fibre reinforced composite (FRC) posts showed that the QFs modified by SS with 12wt.% γ-MPS presented the best mechanical properties, demonstrating improvements of 108.3% and 89.6% for the flexural strength and flexural modulus, respectively, compared with untreated QFs. Furthermore, the sorption and solubility of the prepared dental posts were also studied by immersing the posts in artificial saliva (AS) for 4weeks, and yielded favourable results. This sol-gel surface modification method promises to resolve interfacial bonding issues of fibres with the resin matrix, and produce FRC posts with excellent properties. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Fabrication of hydrophobic compressed oil palm trunk surface by sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzakir, Syafiqah; Salim, Nurjannah; Huda Abu Bakar, Nurul; Roslan, Rasidi; Sin, Lim Wan; Hashim, Rokiah

    2018-04-01

    Improvement of the robustness of hydrophobic surfaces is crucial to achieving commercial applications of these surfaces in such various areas as self-cleaning, water repellency and corrosion resistance. Compressed oil palm trunk (OPT) panel is one of potential product which can be used as panelling and indoor furniture application. By adding hydrophobic properties to compressed oil palm trunk panel might increase the application of compressed oil palm trunk especially for outdoor application. In this study, fabrication is using the sol-gel technique. Sol-gel was prepared by adding ethanol with Hexadecyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) solution with Tetraethyl Orthosilicate (TEOS) with surface modification of chlorotrimethylsilane (CTMS). The surface with hydrophobic coating was undergone surface analysis with contact angle machine with the aid of software SCA 20 and the determined of the morphology of surface with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The produced compressed oil palm trunk surfaces exhibited promising hydrophobic properties with a contact angle of 104° and the relatively better mechanical robustness.

  6. Sol-gel preparation of high surface area potassium tetratitanate for the immobilization of nuclear waste metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, K.T.; Shul, Y.G.; Moon, J.K.; Oh, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    Potassium tetratinates(K 2 Ti 4 O 9 ) were synthesized by using the sol-gel method to produce ion-exchangeable materials with high surface area. The effects of mole ratios of K/Ti and H 2 O/Ti were examined. K 2 Ti 4 O 9 was obtained at 740 deg. C by the sol-gel method, which uses a lower temperature than the melting method. After calcination at 800 deg. C, K 2 Ti 4 O exhibits a needle shape which is quite different from the shape of K 2 Ti 6 O 13 powder. The surface areas of K 2 Ti 4 O 9 was 15 m 2 /g by the sol-gel method after calcining at 800 C. The enhancement of BET area to 25 m 2 /g was obtained after supercritical drying using EtOH as solvent. By using the sodium alginate method, needle type potassium titanate 10μm in length, the longest aspect ratio of 1,3 x 10 3 could be obtained. There are variations in the Sr 2+ ion exchange rate and capacity according to the preparation method. Larger BET surface area provides fast ion exchange and larger capacity for Sr 2+ ion in the order; sol-gel process with supercritical drying > sol-gel process > melting process. (author). 17 refs, 21 figs, 1 tab

  7. Combining inkjet printing and sol-gel chemistry for making pH-sensitive surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Gianni; De Maria, Carmelo; Montemurro, Francesca; Chauhan, Veeren M; Aylott, Jonathan W; Vozzi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Today biomedical sciences are experiencing the importance of imaging biological parameters with luminescence methods. Studying 2D pH distribution with those methods allows building knowledge about complex cellular processes. Immobilizing pH sensitive nanoparticles inside hydrogel matrixes, in order to guarantee a proper SNR, could easily make stable and biocompatible 2D sensors. Inkjet printing is also well known as tool for printing images onto porous surfaces. Recently it has been used as a free-form fabrication method for building three-dimensional parts, and now is being explored as a way of printing electrical and optical devices. Inkjet printing was used either as a rapid prototyping method for custom biosensors. Sol-gel method is naturally bound with inkjet, because the picoliter-sized ink droplets evaporate quickly, thus allowing quick sol-gel transitions on the printed surface. In this work will be shown how to merge those technologies, in order to make a nanoparticles doped printable hydrogel, which could be used for making 2D/3D smart scaffolds able to monitor cell activities. An automated image analysis system was developed in order to quickly have the pH measurements from pH nanosensors fluorescence images.

  8. Surface analysis and biocorrosion properties of nanostructured surface sol-gel coatings on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advincula, Maria C; Petersen, Don; Rahemtulla, Firoz; Advincula, Rigoberto; Lemons, Jack E

    2007-01-01

    Surfaces of biocompatible alloys used as implants play a significant role in their osseointegration. Surface sol-gel processing (SSP), a variant of the bulk sol-gel technique, is a relatively new process to prepare bioreactive nanostructured titanium oxide for thin film coatings. The surface topography, roughness, and composition of sol-gel processed Ti6Al4V titanium alloy coatings was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray electron spectroscopy (XPS). This was correlated with corrosion properties, adhesive strength, and bioreactivity in simulated body fluids (SBF). Electroimpedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization studies indicated similar advantageous corrosion properties between sol-gel coated and uncoated Ti6Al4V, which was attributed to the stable TiO2 composition, topography, and adhesive strength of the sol-gel coating. In addition, inductive coupled plasma (ICP) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) analysis of substrates immersed in SBF revealed higher deposition of calcium and phosphate and low release rates of alloying elements from the sol-gel modified alloys. The equivalent corrosion behavior and the definite increase in nucleation of calcium apatite indicate the potential of the sol-gel coating for enhanced bioimplant applications. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Controlled release of vancomycin from thin sol-gel films on implant surfaces successfully controls osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Christopher S; Antoci, Valentin; Harrison, Gerald; Patal, Payal; Freeman, Terry A; Shapiro, Irving M; Parvizi, Javad; Hickok, Noreen J; Radin, Shula; Ducheyne, Paul

    2009-06-01

    Peri-prosthetic infection remains a serious complication of joint replacement surgery. Herein, we demonstrate that a vancomycin-containing sol-gel film on Ti alloy rods can successfully treat bacterial infections in an animal model. The vancomycin-containing sol-gel films exhibited predictable release kinetics, while significantly inhibiting S. aureus adhesion. When evaluated in a rat osteomyelitis model, microbiological analysis indicated that the vancomycin-containing sol-gel film caused a profound decrease in S. aureus number. Radiologically, while the control side showed extensive bone degradation, including abscesses and an extensive periosteal reaction, rods coated with the vancomycin-containing sol-gel film resulted in minimal signs of infection. MicroCT analysis confirmed the radiological results, while demonstrating that the vancomycin-containing sol-gel film significantly protected dense bone from resorption and minimized remodeling. These results clearly demonstrate that this novel thin sol-gel technology can be used for the targeted delivery of antibiotics for the treatment of periprosthetic as well as other bone infections. Copyright 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society

  10. Surface functionalization of carbon nanofibers by sol-gel coating of zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao Dongfeng [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Changzhou Textile Garment Institute, Changzhou 213164 (China); Wei Qufu [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)], E-mail: qfwei@jiangnan.edu.cn; Zhang Liwei; Cai Yibing; Jiang Shudong [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2008-08-15

    In this paper the functional carbon nanofibers were prepared by the carbonization of ZnO coated PAN nanofibers to expand the potential applications of carbon nanofibers. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers were obtained by electrospinning. The electrospun PAN nanofibers were then used as substrates for depositing the functional layer of zinc oxide (ZnO) on the PAN nanofiber surfaces by sol-gel technique. The effects of coating, pre-oxidation and carbonization on the surface morphology and structures of the nanofibers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results of SEM showed a significant increase of the size of ZnO nanograins on the surface of nanofibers after the treatments of coating, pre-oxidation and carbonization. The observations by SEM also revealed that ZnO nanoclusters were firmly and clearly distributed on the surface of the carbon nanofibers. FTIR examination also confirmed the deposition of ZnO on the surface of carbon nanofibers. The XRD analysis indicated that the crystal structure of ZnO nanograins on the surface of carbon nanofibers.

  11. Development and application of a sol-gel immunosorbent-based method for the determination of isoproturon in surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuli; Martens, Dieter; Krämer, Petra M; Kettrup, Antonius A; Liang, Xinmiao

    2006-01-13

    An immunosorbent was fabricated by encapsulation of monoclonal anti-isoproturon antibodies in sol-gel matrix. The immunosorbent-based loading, rinsing and eluting processes were optimized. Based on these optimizations, the sol-gel immunosorbent (SG-IS) selectively extracted isoproturon from an artificial mixture of 68 pesticides. In addition to this high selectivity, the SG-IS proved to be reusable. The SG-IS was combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) to determine isoproturon in surface water, and the linear range was up to 2.2 microg/l with correlation coefficient higher than 0.99 and relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 5% (n=8). The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for 25-ml surface water sample was 5 ng/l.

  12. Special Advanced Studies for Pollution Prevention. Delivery Order 0017: Sol-Gel Surface Preparation for Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel Bonding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zheng, Haixing

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this program is to study the feasibility of using sol-gel active alumina coatings for the surface preparation of carbon steel and stainless steel for adhesive bonding, and to optimize...

  13. One-step immobilization of tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) via vapor-surface sol-gel deposition towards solid-state electrochemiluminescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Lei; Yang Xiurong

    2008-01-01

    A novel method for immobilization of tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) (Ru(bpy) 3 Cl 2 ) on electrode surfaces based on the vapor-surface sol-gel deposition strategy is first demonstrated in this paper. Ru(bpy) 3 Cl 2 immobilized sol-gel (Ru(bpy) 3 Cl 2 /sol-gel) films were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and field-emitted scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). These results showed that Ru(bpy) 3 Cl 2 was successfully incorporated into the silica sol-gel film. It was found that many irregular Ru(bpy) 3 Cl 2 /sol-gel clusters were formed on surfaces through one deposition and thick sol-gel films were observed after further deposition. Electrochemical properties and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) behaviors of Ru(bpy) 3 Cl 2 /sol-gel films could be easily adjusted by deposition numbers and time. At last, the Ru(bpy) 3 Cl 2 /sol-gel film modified electrode was used for solid-state ECL detection of tripropylamine. The linear range was from 5.8 x 10 -8 to 2.4 x 10 -4 M with the detection limit of 5 nM, which was three orders of magnitude lower than that from pure Nafion-modified electrodes. The ECL sensor also exhibited high stability, and still remained 92% response after being stored in air for 35 days. This method for immobilization of Ru(bpy) 3 Cl 2 is simple, convenient and low-cost relative to others, so it shows promising applications in solid-state ECL detection

  14. Sol-gel derived sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Michael E.; Dindal, Amy B.

    2003-11-11

    Described is a method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles for the production of copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent material. The method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles comprises adding a basic solution to an aqueous metal alkoxide mixture for a pH.ltoreq.8 to hydrolyze the metal alkoxides. Then, allowing the mixture to react at room temperature for a precalculated period of time for the mixture to undergo an increased in viscosity to obtain a desired pore size and surface area. The copolymerized mixture is then added to an immiscible, nonpolar solvent that has been heated to a sufficient temperature wherein the copolymerized mixture forms a solid upon the addition. The solid is recovered from the mixture, and is ready for use in an active sampling trap or activated for use in a passive sampling trap.

  15. Surface Behavior of Rhodamin and Tartrazine on Silica-Cellulose Sol-Gel Surfaces by Thin Layer Elution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjani Wonorahardjo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical interactions are the principles for different types of separation systems as the equillibrium dynamics on surface plays a key-role. Surface modification is a way for selective separation at interfaces. Moreover, synthesis of gel silica by a sol-gel method is preferred due to the homogeneity and surface feature easily controlled. Cellulose can be added in situ to modified the silica features during the process. Further application for to study interaction of rhodamin and tartrazine in its surface and their solubilities in mobile phase explains the possibility for their separation. This paper devoted to evaluate the surface behavior in term of adsorption and desorption of tartrazine and rhodamin on silica-cellulose thin layer in different mobile phase. Some carrier liquids applied such as methanol, acetone, n-hexane and chloroform. The result proves tartrazine and rhodamin is separated and have different behavior in different mobile phase. The retardation factors (Rf of the mixtures suggest complexity behavior on silica-cellulose surface.

  16. Evaluation of bulk and surfaces absorption edge energy of sol-gel-dip-coating SnO2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Aparecido Floriano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The absorption edge and the bandgap transition of sol-gel-dip-coating SnO2 thin films, deposited on quartz substrates, are evaluated from optical absorption data and temperature dependent photoconductivity spectra. Structural properties of these films help the interpretation of bandgap transition nature, since the obtained nanosized dimensions of crystallites are determinant on dominant growth direction and, thus, absorption energy. Electronic properties of the bulk and (110 and (101 surfaces are also presented, calculated by means of density functional theory applied to periodic calculations at B3LYP hybrid functional level. Experimentally obtained absorption edge is compared to the calculated energy band diagrams of bulk and (110 and (101 surfaces. The overall calculated electronic properties in conjunction with structural and electro-optical experimental data suggest that the nature of the bandgap transition is related to a combined effect of bulk and (101 surface, which presents direct bandgap transition.

  17. Effect of sol-age on the surface and optical properties of sol-gel derived mesoporous zirconia thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous ZrO2 thin films have been deposited by a modified sol-gel dip coating technique using HCl as catalyst. Effects of sol-age on the surface and on the optical properties are studied. Transmission electron micrographs of the films reveal the pore dimensions in mesoporous regime. A strong correlation in surface topography with sol-age has been observed where increase in sol-age induces a systematic enhancement in the value of root mean square roughness of the films. Optical study shows that deposited films have high transmittance and an enhancement of 5.6 times in porosity in films prepared with sol-age of 10 days with respect to that of 1 day. Band gap estimation by Tauc's plots of films is observed to 5.74 eV, which shows invariance with the sol-age.

  18. Nonhydrolytic sol-gel approach to facile creation of surface-bonded zirconia organic-inorganic hybrid coatings for sample preparation. Ι. Capillary microextraction of catecholamine neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhendal, Abdullah; Mengis, Stephanie; Matthews, Jacob; Malik, Abdul

    2016-10-14

    Nonhydrolytic sol-gel (NHSG) route was used for the creation of novel zirconia-polypropylene oxide (ZrO 2 -PPO) sol-gel hybrid sorbents in the form of surface coatings for the extraction and preconcentration of catecholamine neurotransmitters and molecules structurally related to their deaminated metabolites. In comparison to other sorbents made of inorganic transition metal oxides, the presented hybrid organic-inorganic sorbents facilitated reversible sorption properties that allowed for efficient desorption of the extracted analytes by LC-MS compatible mobile phases. The presented sol-gel hybrid sorbents effectively overcame the major drawbacks of traditional silica- or polymer-based sorbents by providing superior pH stability (pH range: 0-14), and a variety of intermolecular interactions. Nonaqueous sol-gel treatment of PPO with ZrCl 4 was employed for the derivatization of the terminal hydroxyl groups on PPO, providing zirconium trichloride-containing end groups characterized by enhanced sol-gel reactivity. NHSG ZrO 2 -PPO sorbent provided excellent microextraction performance for catecholamines, low detection limits (5.6-9.6pM), high run-to-run reproducibility (RSD 0.6-5.1%), high desorption efficiency (95.0-99.5%) and high enrichment factors (∼1480-2650) for dopamine and epinephrine, respectively, extracted from synthetic urine samples. The presented sol-gel sorbents provided effective alternative to conventional extraction media providing unique physicochemical characteristics and excellent extraction capability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of Sol-Gel Method as a Protective Layer on a Specular Reflective Surface for Secondary Reflector in a Solar Receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afrin, Samia; Dagdelen, John; Ma, Zhiwen; Kumar, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    Highly-specular reflective surfaces that can withstand elevated-temperatures are desirable for many applications including reflective heat shielding in solar receivers and secondary reflectors, which can be used between primary concentrators and heat collectors. A high-efficiency, high-temperature solar receiver design based on arrays of cavities needs a highly-specular reflective surface on its front section to help sunlight penetrate into the absorber tubes for effective flux spreading. Since this application is for high-temperature solar receivers, this surface needs to be durable and to maintain its optical properties through the usable life. Degradation mechanisms associated with elevated temperatures and thermal cycling, which include cracking, delamination, corrosion/oxidation, and environmental effects, could cause the optical properties of surfaces to degrade rapidly in these conditions. Protected mirror surfaces for these applications have been tested by depositing a thin layer of SiO2 on top of electrodeposited silver by means of the sol-gel method. To obtain an effective thin film structure, this sol-gel procedure has been investigated extensively by varying process parameters that affect film porosity and thickness. Endurance tests have been performed in a furnace at 150 degrees C for thousands of hours. This paper presents the sol-gel process for intermediate-temperature specular reflective coatings and provides the long-term reliability test results of sol-gel protected silver-coated surfaces.

  20. Topography and surface energy dependent calcium phosphate formation on Sol-Gel derived TiO2 coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järn, Mikael; Areva, Sami; Pore, Viljami; Peltonen, Jouko; Linden, Mika

    2006-09-12

    Heterogeneous nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate (CaP) on sol-gel derived TiO(2) coatings was investigated in terms of surface topography and surface energy. The topography of the coatings was derived from AFM measurements, while the surface energy was determined with contact angle measurements. The degree of precipitation was examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The precipitation of CaP was found to be dependent on both topography and surface energy. A high roughness value when combining the RMS roughness parameter S(q) with the number of local maxima per unit area parameter S(ds) enhances CaP formation. The hydrophilicity of the coating was also found to be of importance for CaP formation. We suggest that the water contact angle, which is a direct measure of the hydrophilicity of the surface, may be used to evaluate the surface energy dependent precipitation kinetics rather than using the often applied Lewis base parameter.

  1. Zirconium titanate thin film prepared by surface sol-gel process and effects of thickness on dielectric property

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, C H

    2002-01-01

    Single phase of multicomponent oxide ZrTiO sub 4 film could be prepared through surface sol-gel route simply by coating the mixture of 100mM zirconium butoxide and titanium butoxide on Pt/Ti/SiO sub 2 /Si(100) substrate, following pyrolysis at 450 .deg. C, and annealing it at 770 .deg. C. The dielectric constant of the film was reduced as the film thickness decreased due to of the interfacial effects caused by layer/electrode and a few voids inside the multilayer. However, the dielectric property was independent of applied dc bias sweeps voltage (-2 to +2 V). The dielectric constant of bulk film, 31.9, estimated using series-connected capacitor model was independent of film thickness and frequency in the measurement range, but theoretical interfacial thickness, t sub i , was dependent on the frequency. It reached a saturated t sub i value, 6.9 A, at high frequency by extraction of some capacitance component formed at low frequency range. The dielectric constant of bulk ZrTiO sub 4 pellet-shaped material was 3...

  2. Abstracts of International Conference on Sol-Gel Materials' 04

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    International Conference on Sol-Gel Materials '04 was an important forum for discussion on problems related to sol-gel processes applied for preparation materials with special physical properties and assignment. The application of sol-gel materials as phosphors, surface coatings, sensors, waveguides, medical implants, joints etc. has been presented. Preparation conditions, methods of physical characterization as well as optimal chemical composition of such materials have been also discussed in detail

  3. Synthesis of Silica Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel: Size-Dependent Properties, Surface Modification, and Applications in Silica-Polymer Nano composites-A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, A.R.; Vejayakumaran, P.

    2012-01-01

    Application of silica nanoparticles as fillers in the preparation of nano composite of polymers has drawn much attention, due to the increased demand for new materials with improved thermal, mechanical, physical, and chemical properties. Recent developments in the synthesis of monodispersed, narrow-size distribution of nanoparticles by sol-gel method provide significant boost to development of silica-polymer nano composites. This paper is written by emphasizing on the synthesis of silica nanoparticles, characterization on size-dependent properties, and surface modification for the preparation of homogeneous nano composites, generally by sol-gel technique. The effect of nano silica on the properties of various types of silica-polymer composites is also summarized.

  4. Urea functionalized surface-bonded sol-gel coating for on-line hyphenation of capillary microextraction with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jillani, Shehzada Muhammad Sajid; Alhooshani, Khalid

    2018-03-30

    Sol-gel urea functionalized-[bis(hydroxyethyl)amine] terminated polydimethylsiloxane coating was developed for capillary microextraction-high performance liquid chromatographic analysis from aqueous samples. A fused silica capillary is coated from the inside with surface bonded coating material and is created through in-situ sol-gel reaction. The urea-functionalized coating was immobilized to the inner surface of the capillary by the condensation reaction of silanol groups of capillary and sol-solution. The characterization of the coating material was successfully done by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, field emission scanning electron microscope, and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. To make a setup of online capillary microextraction-high performance liquid chromatography, the urea functionalized capillary was installed in the HPLC manual injection port. The analytes of interest were pre-concentrated in the coated sampling loop, desorbed by the mobile phase, chromatographically separated on C-18 column, and analyzed by UV detector. Sol-gel coated capillaries were used for online extraction and high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of phenols, ketones, aldehydes, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. This newly developed coating showed excellent extraction for a variety of analytes ranging from highly polar to non-polar in nature. The analysis using sol-gel coating showed excellent overall sensitivity in terms of lower detection limits (S/N = 3) for the analytes (0.10 ng mL -1 -14.29 ng mL -1 ) with acceptable reproducibility that is less than 12.0%RSD (n = 3). Moreover, the capillary to capillary reproducibility of the analysis was also tested by changing the capillary of the same size. This provided excellent%RSD of less than 10.0% (n = 3). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Superhydrophobic properties induced by sol-gel routes on copper surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondo, M.; Veronesi, F.; Boveri, G.; Guarini, G.; Motta, A.; Zanoni, R.

    2017-11-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are attracting increasing attention in different fields such as energy, transportation, building industry and electronics, as they exhibit many interesting properties such as high water repellence, anti-fogging, anti-corrosion, anti-fouling and self-cleaning abilities. Here, superhydrophobic nanostructured hybrid materials obtained by depositing alumina nanoparticles on copper surfaces via dip coating in Al2O3 sol are presented. Two different preparation routes were explored, based on either an alcoholic or an aqueous Al2O3 sol, and the resulting wetting properties were compared. Wettability measurements showed that when the alcoholic sol is used superhydrophobicity is attained, with values of water contact angle very close to the upper limit of 180°, while highly hydrophobic coatings are obtained with the aqueous sol. These findings were further supported by electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which revealed that the surface layer deposited on Cu is more homogenous and richer in alumina nanoparticles when the alcoholic sol was used. Durability of the superhydrophobic coating was assessed by performing ageing tests in chemically aggressive environments. A remarkable resistance is displayed by the superhydrophobic coating in acid environment, while alkaline conditions severely affect its properties. Such behaviors were investigated by XPS and FE-SEM measurements, which disclosed the nature of the surface reactions under the different conditions tested. The present results underline that a thorough investigation of surface morphology, chemical composition and wetting properties reveals their strongly connection and helps optimizing the combination of substrate nanostructuring and suitable chemical coating for an improved durability in different aggressive environments.

  6. Thoria sol-gel processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, R.B.

    1978-10-01

    Alternate fuel fabrication techniques are being developed at WNRE as part of the thorium fuel cycle program. The sol-gel techniques are attractive and this report assembles and summarizes information relating to thoria sol-gel fuels. Some background information on the behaviour and advantages of sol-gel fuel forms is presented, followed by a review of relevant colloid chemistry and an explanation of the fundamental steps of sol-gel processes. Finally, several variants to the basic process are reviewed and evaluated. (author)

  7. Synthesis and characterization of high surface area nanosilica from rice husk ash by surfactant-free sol-gel method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hassan, A F.; Abdelghny, A.M.; Elhadidy, Hassan; Youssef, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 3 (2014), 465-472 ISSN 0928-0707 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0214 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Nanosilica * Rice husk * Sol-gel method * N-2 adsorption Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.532, year: 2014

  8. Double-Layer Surface Modification of Polyamide Denture Base Material by Functionalized Sol-Gel Based Silica for Adhesion Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafezeqoran, Ali; Koodaryan, Roodabeh

    2017-09-21

    Limited surface treatments have been proposed to improve the bond strength between autopolymerizing resin and polyamide denture base materials. Still, the bond strength of autopolymerizing resins to nylon polymer is not strong enough to repair the fractured denture effectively. This study aimed to introduce a novel method to improve the adhesion of autopolymerizing resin to polyamide polymer by a double layer deposition of sol-gel silica and N-2-(aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AE-APTMS). The silica sol was synthesized by acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as silica precursors. Polyamide specimens were dipped in TEOS-derived sol (TS group, n = 28), and exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light under O 2 flow for 30 minutes. UV-treated specimens were immersed in AE-APTMS solution and left for 24 hours at room temperature. The other specimens were either immersed in AE-APTMS solution (AP group, n = 28) or left untreated (NT group, n = 28). Surface characterization was investigated by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Two autopolymerizing resins (subgroups G and T, n = 14) were bonded to the specimens, thermocycled, and then tested for shear bond strength with a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's HSD (α = 0.05). FTIR spectra of treated surfaces confirmed the chemical modification and appearance of functional groups on the polymer. One-way ANOVA revealed significant differences in shear bond strength among the study groups. Tukey's HSD showed that TS T and TS G groups had significantly higher shear bond strength than control groups (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Moreover, bond strength values of AP T were statistically significant compared to controls (p = 0.017). Amino functionalized TEOS-derived silica coating is a simple and cost-effective method for improving the bond strength between the autopolymerizing resin and polyamide

  9. Photocatalytic Activity in CH3CN Related to the Surface Properties of TiO2 Powders Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    OpenAIRE

    Bettoni, Marta; Candori, Pietro; Marmottini, Fabio; Perenze, Nicoletta; Rol, Cesare; Sebastiani, Giovanni V.; Vecchiocattivi, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Some TiO2 powders, prepared from titanium(IV)tetraisopropoxide by the sol-gel method and thermally treated between 100 and 1000∘C, have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and by nitrogen adsorption and desorption at 77 K to calculate the BET-specific surface area, from which the micropore volume and the external surface area can be derived. The photocatalytic activity (ka) of the above powders has been evaluated considering the TiO2-sensitized photo-oxidation of 4-methoxybenzyl al...

  10. Sol-Gel SiO2-CaO-P2O5 biofilm with surface engineered for medical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Regina Federman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Sol-gel film in the SiO2-CaO-P2O5 system was prepared from TEOS, TEP, alcohol and hydrated calcium nitrate in an acidic medium. The coatings were deposited on stainless steel using the dip-coating technique. After deposition, the composite was submitted to heat treatment, at different temperatures and exposure times to investigate the influence of such parameters on the surface morphology of the composite. The coated surfaces were characterized by AFM, SEM and FTIR. The present study showed that the formation of different textures (an important parameter in implant fixation could be controlled by temperature and time of heat treatment.

  11. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruska, Melissa A [Los Alamos, NM; Klimov, Victor L [Los Alamos, NM

    2007-06-05

    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites.

  12. Low-Temperature Sol-Gel Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Anatase/Brookite Biphasic Nanoparticles with High Surface Area and Visible-Light Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen doping in combination with the brookite phase or a mixture of TiO2 polymorphs nanomaterials can enhance photocatalytic activity under visible light. Generally, nitrogen-dopedanatase/brookite mixed phases TiO2 nanoparticles obtained by hydrothermal or solvothermal method need to be at high temperature and with long time heating treatment. Furthermore, the surface areas of them are low (<125 m2/g. There is hardly a report on the simple and direct preparation of N-doped anatase/brookite mixed phase TiO2 nanostructures using sol-gel method at low heating temperature. In this paper, the nitrogen-doped anatase/brookite biphasic nanoparticles with large surface area (240 m2/g were successfully prepared using sol-gel method at low temperature (165 °C, and with short heating time (4 h under autogenous pressure. The obtained sample without subsequent annealing at elevated temperatures showed enhanced photocatalytic efficiency for the degradation of methyl orange (MO with 4.2-, 9.6-, and 7.5-fold visible light activities compared to P25 and the amorphous samples heated in muffle furnace with air or in tube furnace with a flow of nitrogen at 165 °C, respectively. This result was attributed to the synergistic effects of nitrogen doping, mixed crystalline phases, and high surface area.

  13. A sol-gel derived pH-responsive bovine serum albumin molecularly imprinted poly(ionic liquids) on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Mingming; Pi, Jiangyan; Wang, Xiaojie; Huang, Rong; Du, Yamei; Yu, Xiaoyang; Tan, Wenfeng; Liu, Fan; Shea, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    A pH-responsive surface molecularly imprinted poly(ionic liquids) (MIPILs) was prepared on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by a sol-gel technique. The material was synthesized using a 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane modified multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT-APTES) as the substrate, bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the template molecule, an alkoxy-functionalized IL 1-(3-trimethoxysilyl propyl)-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([TMSPMIM]Cl) as both the functional monomer and the sol-gel catalyst, and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the crosslinking agent. The molecular interaction between BSA and [TMSPMIM]Cl was quantitatively evaluated by UV–vis spectroscopy prior to polymerization so as to identify an optimal template/monomer ratio and the most suitable pH value for the preparation of the MWCNTs@BSA-MIPILs. This strategy was found to be effective to overcome the problems of trial-and-error protocol in molecular imprinting. The optimum synthesis conditions were as follows: template/monomer ratio 7:20, crosslinking agent content 2.0–2.5 mL, temperature 4 °C and pH 8.9 Tris–HCl buffer. The influence of incubation pH on adsorption was also studied. The result showed that the imprinting effect and selectivity improved significantly with increasing incubation pH from 7.7 to 9.9. This is mainly because the non-specific binding from electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions decreased greatly with the increase of pH value, which made the specific binding affinity from shape selectivity strengthened instead. The polymers synthesized under the optimal conditions were then characterized by BET surface area measurement, FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption capacity, imprinting effect, selective recognition and reusability were also evaluated. The as-prepared MWCNTs@BSA-MIPILs were also found to have a number of advantages including high surface area (134.2 m"2 g"−"1), high adsorption capacity (55

  14. A sol-gel derived pH-responsive bovine serum albumin molecularly imprinted poly(ionic liquids) on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Mingming, E-mail: liumm@mail.hzau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtse River), Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Pi, Jiangyan; Wang, Xiaojie; Huang, Rong; Du, Yamei; Yu, Xiaoyang; Tan, Wenfeng; Liu, Fan [Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtse River), Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Shea, Kenneth J., E-mail: kjshea@uci.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2016-08-17

    A pH-responsive surface molecularly imprinted poly(ionic liquids) (MIPILs) was prepared on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by a sol-gel technique. The material was synthesized using a 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane modified multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT-APTES) as the substrate, bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the template molecule, an alkoxy-functionalized IL 1-(3-trimethoxysilyl propyl)-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([TMSPMIM]Cl) as both the functional monomer and the sol-gel catalyst, and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the crosslinking agent. The molecular interaction between BSA and [TMSPMIM]Cl was quantitatively evaluated by UV–vis spectroscopy prior to polymerization so as to identify an optimal template/monomer ratio and the most suitable pH value for the preparation of the MWCNTs@BSA-MIPILs. This strategy was found to be effective to overcome the problems of trial-and-error protocol in molecular imprinting. The optimum synthesis conditions were as follows: template/monomer ratio 7:20, crosslinking agent content 2.0–2.5 mL, temperature 4 °C and pH 8.9 Tris–HCl buffer. The influence of incubation pH on adsorption was also studied. The result showed that the imprinting effect and selectivity improved significantly with increasing incubation pH from 7.7 to 9.9. This is mainly because the non-specific binding from electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions decreased greatly with the increase of pH value, which made the specific binding affinity from shape selectivity strengthened instead. The polymers synthesized under the optimal conditions were then characterized by BET surface area measurement, FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption capacity, imprinting effect, selective recognition and reusability were also evaluated. The as-prepared MWCNTs@BSA-MIPILs were also found to have a number of advantages including high surface area (134.2 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), high adsorption

  15. Optimization of Catalytic Ozonation Process for Formaldehyde Mineralization from Synthetic Wastewater by Fe/MgO Nanoparticles Synthesis by Sol-Gel Method by Response Surface Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorban Asgari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Design experiment stages of formalin mineralization process by center composition design (CCD cause ease of work, reducing the number of samples, increasing the accuracy of optimized conditions and the interaction parameters determined during the process. The aim of this study was optimization of catalytic ozonation process for formaldehyde mineralization from synthetic wastewater by Fe/MgO nanoparticles synthesis by sol-gel method by response surface model. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in a semi-batch reactor, using a RSM by taking 3 factors in the final stage of pH (7-9, reaction time (10-20 min and catalyst dose (1.1-1.3 g/L was investigated. Synthesis of nanoparticles was done by sol-gel method. The results were analyzed by Design Expert 7.0.1 software. Results: The results showed that the process was dependent on the parameters studied and changing each parameter, affected the process efficiency and other parameters. The optimum conditions predicted for the process was 86.51% of mineralization efficiency. Optimum condition included pH=8.82, reaction time of 20 minute and catalyst dose of 1.3 g/L. The correlation coefficient for the process was determined 0.91. Conclusion: Using a statistical model could reduce the number of experiments, the accuracy and the prediction process. The catalytic ozonation process has the ability to remove formaldehyde with high efficiency and the process was environmental friendly.

  16. Short communication: Evaluation of a sol-gel-based stainless steel surface modification to reduce fouling and biofilm formation during pasteurization of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dylan Zhe; Jindal, Shivali; Amamcharla, Jayendra; Anand, Sanjeev; Metzger, Lloyd

    2017-04-01

    Milk fouling and biofilms are common problems in the dairy industry across many types of processing equipment. One way to reduce milk fouling and biofilms is to modify the characteristics of milk contact surfaces. This study examines the viability of using Thermolon (Porcelain Industries Inc., Dickson, TN), a sol-gel-based surface modification of stainless steel, during thermal processing of milk. We used stainless steel 316L (control) and sol-gel-modified coupons in this study to evaluate fouling behavior and bacterial adhesion. The surface roughness as measured by an optical profiler indicated that the control coupons had a slightly smoother finish. Contact angle measurements showed that the modified surface led to a higher water contact angle, suggesting a more hydrophobic surface. The modified surface also had a lower surface energy (32.4 ± 1.4 mN/m) than the control surface (41.36 ± 2.7 mN/m). We evaluated the susceptibility of control and modified stainless steel coupons to fouling in a benchtop plate heat exchanger. We observed a significant reduction in the amount of fouled layer on modified surfaces. We found an average fouling weight of 19.21 mg/cm 2 and 0.37 mg/cm 2 on the control and modified stainless steel coupons, respectively. We also examined the adhesion of Bacillus and biofilm formation, and observed that the modified stainless steel surface offered greater resistance to biofilm formation. Overall, the Thermolon-modified surface showed potential in the thermal processing of milk, offering significantly lower fouling and bacterial attachment than the control surface. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Photocatalytic Activity in CH3CN Related to the Surface Properties of TiO2 Powders Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bettoni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Some TiO2 powders, prepared from titanium(IVtetraisopropoxide by the sol-gel method and thermally treated between 100 and 1000∘C, have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and by nitrogen adsorption and desorption at 77 K to calculate the BET-specific surface area, from which the micropore volume and the external surface area can be derived. The photocatalytic activity (ka of the above powders has been evaluated considering the TiO2-sensitized photo-oxidation of 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol in CH3CN as the test reaction. The decrease of ka have been related to the decrease of the BET surface area, the micropore volume, and the external surface area of the TiO2 powders, but a satisfactory linear correlation is observed only for the last superficial parameter.

  18. Transparent Hydrophobic Coating by Sol Gel Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hamzah Harun; Nik Ghazali Nik Salleh; Mahathir Mohamed; Mohd Sofian Alias

    2016-01-01

    Transparent hydrophobic coating of inorganic based tetra orthosilicate (TEOS) was prepared by sol gel method by varying fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) content which works as hydrophobic agent. Surface contact angle, transmittance degree and surface morphology were characterized for each sample. All samples show good transparency which was confirmed by UV visible spectroscopy. The hydrophobicity obtained increases with FAS content indicates that FAS is best candidate to induce hydrophobicity for inorganic coating. (author)

  19. Sol-Gel Chemistry for Carbon Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfatti, Luca; Innocenzi, Plinio

    2018-03-14

    Carbon dots are an emerging class of carbon-based nanostructures produced by low-cost raw materials which exhibit a widely-tunable photoluminescence and a high quantum yield. The potential of these nanomaterials as a substitute of semiconductor quantum dots in optoelectronics and biomedicine is very high, however they need a customized chemistry to be integrated in host-guest systems or functionalized in core-shell structures. This review is focused on recent advances of the sol-gel chemistry applied to the C-dots technology. The surface modification, the fine tailoring of the chemical composition and the embedding into a complex nanostructured material are the main targets of combining sol-gel processing with C-dots chemistry. In addition, the synergistic effect of the sol-gel precursor combined with the C-dots contribute to modify the intrinsic chemo-physical properties of the dots, empowering the emission efficiency or enabling the tuning of the photoluminescence over a wide range of the visible spectrum. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Sol-Gel Manufactured Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Randall L.; Lee, Ronald S.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Swansiger, Rosalind W.; Fox, Glenn A.

    2005-05-17

    Sol-gel chemistry is used for the preparation of energetic materials (explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics) with improved homogeneity, and/or which can be cast to near-net shape, and/or made into precision molding powders. The sol-gel method is a synthetic chemical process where reactive monomers are mixed into a solution, polymerization occurs leading to a highly cross-linked three dimensional solid network resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated during the formation of the solution or during the gel stage of the process. The composition, pore, and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be tailored and controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous low density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high density materials. Thus, the sol-gel method can be used for precision detonator explosive manufacturing as well as producing precision explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, along with high power composite energetic materials.

  1. Ionogel Electrolytes through Sol-Gel Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Ariel I.

    Electrical energy needs have intensified due to the ubiquity of personal electronics, the decarbonization of energy services through electrification, and the use of intermittent renewable energy sources. Despite developments in mechanical and thermal methods, electrochemical technologies are the most convenient and effective means of storing electrical energy. These technologies include both electrochemical cells, commonly called batteries, and electrochemical double-layer capacitors, or "supercapacitors", which store energy electrostatically. Both device types require an ion-conducting electrolyte. Current devices use solutions of complex salts in organic solvents, leading to both toxicity and flammability concerns. These drawbacks can be avoided by replacing conventional electrolytes with room-temperature molten salts, known as ionic liquids (ILs). ILs are non-volatile, non-flammable, and offer high conductivity and good electrochemical stability. Device mass can be reduced by combining ILs with a solid scaffold material to form an "ionogel," further improving performance metrics. In this work, sol-gel chemistry is explored as a means of forming ionogel electrolytes. Sol-gel chemistry is a solution-based, industrially-relevant, well-studied technique by which solids such as silica can be formed in situ. Previous works used a simple acid-catalyzed sol-gel reaction to create brittle, glassy ionogels. Here, both the range of products that can be accomplished through sol-gel processing and the understanding of interactions between ILs and the sol-gel reaction network are greatly expanded. This work introduces novel ionogel materials, including soft and compliant silica-supported ionogels and PDMS-supported ionogels. The impacts of the reactive formulation, IL identity, and casting time are detailed. It is demonstrated that variations in formulation can lead to rapid gelation and open pore structures in the silica scaffold or slow gelation and more dense silica

  2. Surface engineering of artificial heart valve disks using nanostructured thin films deposited by chemical vapour deposition and sol-gel methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M J; Robinson, G M; Ali, N; Kousar, Y; Mei, S; Gracio, J; Taylor, H; Ahmed, W

    2006-01-01

    Pyrolytic carbon (PyC) is widely used in manufacturing commercial artificial heart valve disks (HVD). Although PyC is commonly used in HVD, it is not the best material for this application since its blood compatibility is not ideal for prolonged clinical use. As a result thrombosis often occurs and the patients are required to take anti-coagulation drugs on a regular basis in order to minimize the formation of thrombosis. However, anti-coagulation therapy gives rise to some detrimental side effects in patients. Therefore, it is extremely urgent that newer and more technically advanced materials with better surface and bulk properties are developed. In this paper, we report the mechanical properties of PyC-HVD, i.e. strength, wear resistance and coefficient of friction. The strength of the material was assessed using Brinell indentation tests. Furthermore, wear resistance and coefficient of friction values were obtained from pin-on-disk testing. The micro-structural properties of PyC were characterized using XRD, Raman spectroscopy and SEM analysis. Also in this paper we report the preparation of freestanding nanocrystalline diamond films (FSND) using the time-modulated chemical vapour deposition (TMCVD) process. Furthermore, the sol-gel technique was used to uniformly coat PyC-HVD with dense, nanocrystalline-titanium oxide (nc-TiO2) coatings. The as-grown nc-TiO2 coatings were characterized for microstructure using SEM and XRD analysis.

  3. Metal-silica sol-gel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegman, Albert E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a single phase metal-silica sol-gel glass formed by the co-condensation of a transition metal with silicon atoms where the metal atoms are uniformly distributed within the sol-gel glass as individual metal centers. Any transition metal may be used in the sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to sensor materials where the sensor material is formed using the single phase metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The sensor materials may be in the form of a thin film or may be attached to an optical fiber. The present invention also relates to a method of sensing chemicals using the chemical sensors by monitoring the chromatic change of the metal-silica sol-gel glass when the chemical binds to the sensor. The present invention also relates to oxidation catalysts where a metal-silica sol-gel glass catalyzes the reaction. The present invention also relates to a method of performing oxidation reactions using the metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to organopolymer metal-silica sol-gel composites where the pores of the metal-silica sol-gel glasses are filled with an organic polymer polymerized by the sol-gel glass.

  4. Structural Evolution and Stability of Sol-Gel Biocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, L.E.; Foster, L.J.R.; Holden, P.J.; Knott, R.B.; Bartlett, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Immobilisation strategies for catalytic enzymes are important as they allow reuse of the biocatalysts. Sol-gel materials have been used to immobilise Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB), a commonly used industrial enzyme with a known crystal structure. The sol-gel bioencapsulate is produced through the condensation of suitable metal alkoxides in the presence of CALB, yielding materials with controlled pore sizes, volume and surface chemistry. Sol-gel matrices have been shown to prolong the catalytic life and enhance the activity of CALB, although the molecular basis for this effect has yet to be elucidated due to the limitations of analysis techniques applied to date. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) allows such multicomponent systems to be characterised through contrast matching. In the sol-gel bioencapsulate system, at the contrast match point for silica, residual scattering intensity is due to the CALB and density fluctuations in the matrix. A SANS contrast variation series found the match point for the silica matrix, both with and without enzyme present, to be around 35 percent. The model presented here proposes a mechanism for the interaction between CALB and the surrounding sol-gel matrix, and the observed improvement in enzyme activity and matrix strength. The SANS protocol developed here may be applied more generally to bioencapsulates. (authors)

  5. Vapor-Liquid Sol-Gel Approach to Fabricating Highly Durable and Robust Superhydrophobic Polydimethylsiloxane@Silica Surface on Polyester Textile for Oil-Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaojing; Li, Hongqiang; Lai, Xuejun; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Jing; Liao, Xiaofeng; Zeng, Xingrong

    2017-08-23

    Large-scale fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with excellent durability by simple techniques has been of considerable interest for its urgent practical application in oil-water separation in recent years. Herein, we proposed a facile vapor-liquid sol-gel approach to fabricating highly durable and robust superhydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane@silica surfaces on the cross-structure polyester textiles. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that the silica generated from the hydrolysis-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) gradually aggregated at microscale driven by the extreme nonpolar dihydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS(OH)). This led to construction of hierarchical roughness and micronano structures of the superhydrophobic textile surface. The as-fabricated superhydrophobic textile possessed outstanding durability in deionized water, various solvents, strong acid/base solutions, and boiling/ice water. Remarkably, the polyester textile still retained great water repellency and even after ultrasonic treatment for 18 h, 96 laundering cycles, and 600 abrasion cycles, exhibiting excellent mechanical robustness. Importantly, the superhydrophobic polyester textile was further applied for oil-water separation as absorption materials and/or filter pipes, presenting high separation efficiency and great reusability. Our method to construct superhydrophobic textiles is simple but highly efficient; no special equipment, chemicals, or atmosphere is required. Additionally, no fluorinated slianes and organic solvents are involved, which is very beneficial for environment safety and protection. Our findings conceivably stand out as a new tool to fabricate organic-inorganic superhydrophobic surfaces with strong durability and robustness for practical applications in oil spill accidents and industrial sewage emission.

  6. Functional coatings: the sol-gel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belleville, Ph.

    2010-01-01

    CEA's sol-gel laboratory is specialized in the development of innovative sol-gel optical coatings and has extended its application field to membrane materials and coatings for energy conversion, to electric coatings for microelectronics devices and to thin films for gas sensing. This article describes, by way of examples, the laboratory's research on sol-gel functional coatings, including nano-material synthesis, organic-inorganic hybrid-based solution preparation as well as deposition process development and prototyping. (author)

  7. Surface chemistry and moisture sorption properties of wood coated with multifunctional alkoxysilanes by sol-gel process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tshabalala, M.A.; Kingshott, P.; VanLandingham, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    penetrated the outer surface layers of the wood and condensed with hydroxyls that may not be readily accessible to the high molecular weight HDTMOS. Once attached to such sites, it is reasonable to assume that some of these surface derivatives of MTMOS condensed with other molecules of MTMOS and HDTMOS...

  8. Adsorption characteristics, recognition properties, and preliminary application of nordihydroguaiaretic acid molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by sol-gel surface imprinting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Sen; Zhang, Wen; Long, Wei; Hou, Dan; Yang, Xuechun; Tan, Ni

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a new core-shell composite of nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) molecularly imprinted polymers layer-coated silica gel (MIP@SiO2) was prepared through sol-gel technique and applied as a material for extraction of NDGA from Ephedra. It was synthesized using NDGA as the template molecule, γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTEOS) as the functional monomers, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as the cross-linker and ethanol as the porogenic solvent in the surface of silica. The non-imprinted polymers layer-coated silica gel (NIP@SiO2) were prepared with the same procedure, but with the absence of template molecule. In addition, the optimum adsorption affinity occurred when the molar ratio of NDGA:APTS:MTEOS:TEOS was 1:6:2:80. The prepared MIP@SiO2 and NIP@SiO2 were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Their affinity properties to NDGA were evaluated through dynamic adsorption, static adsorption, and selective recognition experiments, and the results showed the saturated adsorption capacity of MIP@SiO2 could reach to 5.90 mg g-1, which was two times more than that of NIP@SiO2. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the extraction of NDGA from the medicinal plant ephedra by the above prepared materials, and the results indicated that the MIP@SiO2 had potential application in separation of the natural active component NDGA from medicinal plants.

  9. Excellent Passivation of p-Type Si Surface by Sol-Gel Al2O3 Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai-Qing, Xiao; Chun-Lan, Zhou; Xiao-Ning, Cao; Wen-Jing, Wang; Lei, Zhao; Hai-Ling, Li; Hong-Wei, Diao

    2009-01-01

    Al 2 O 3 films with a thickness of about 100 nm synthesized by spin coating and thermally treated are applied for field-induced surface passivation of p-type crystalline silicon. The level of surface passivation is determined by techniques based on photoconductance. An effective surface recombination velocity below 100 cm/s is obtained on 10Ω ·cm p-type c-Si wafers (Cz Si). A high density of negative fixed charges in the order of 10 12 cm −2 is detected in the Al 2 O 3 films and its impact on the level of surface passivation is demonstrated experimentally. Furthermore, a comparison between the surface passivation achieved for thermal SiO 2 and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition SiN x :H films on the same c-Si is presented. The high negative fixed charge density explains the excellent passivation of p-type c-Si by Al 2 O 3 . (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  10. Application of response surface methodology for degradation of methyl orange with TiO{sub 2} sol-gel sulphated Ti; Aplicacion de metodologia de superficie de respuesta para la degradacion de naranja de metilo con TiO{sub 2} sol-gel sulfatado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Angel S, M. T.; Garcia A, R. [Instituto Tecnologico de Ciudad Madero, Av. 1o. de Mayo y Sor Juana I. de la Cruz, Col. Los Mangos, 89440 Ciudad Madero, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Garcia A, P.; Lagunes G, L. M. [Universidad Juarez Autonoma de Tabasco, Division Academica de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Av. Universidad s/n, Zona de la Cultura, Col. Magisterial, 86040 Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico); Cabrera C, E. G., E-mail: shish_kko@yahoo.com.mx [Instituto Tecnologico de Villahermosa, Carretera Villahermosa-Frontera Km. 3.5, Cd. Industrial, 86010 Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico)

    2015-06-01

    In this work we report the implementation of the response surface methodology for the optimization of photo catalytic degradation of methyl orange dye (MO) using as photo catalyst sulphated TiO{sub 2} prepared by sol-gel method. The variables studied were ph of the solution (3-11), catalyst concentration (0.1-1 g/L), and MO concentration (10-30 ppm). The effects of these parameters over the degradation of MO were evaluated according to a Box-Behnken design. The only crystal structure identified by X-ray diffraction was anatase phase. The optimum conditions for the photo catalytic degradation of MO according to the methodology applied were ph 6.0, 17.78 ppm MO concentration at each concentration level of the catalyst. (Author)

  11. Fast Processing of Sol-Gel TCO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Rem, M.; Arfsten, N.; Buskens, P.P.

    2016-01-01

    TCOs are usually deposited using sputtering or chemical vapor deposition, which have a yield of typically 50-75%. The sol gel method does not need low pressure and can be done with a high precursor yield in the range of 90 – 100%. Sol gel enables also the TCO function as a planarization or

  12. ARSENIC REMOVAL USING SOL-GEL SYNTHESIZED TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the effectiveness of TiO2 nanoparticles in arsenic adsorption was examined. TiO2 particles (LS) were synthesized via sol-gel techniques and characterized for their crystallinity, surface area and pore volume. Batch adsorption studies were perf...

  13. Sol-gel matrices for direct colorimetric detection of analytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charych, Deborah H.; Sasaki, Darryl; Yamanaka, Stacey

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for the direct detection of analytes using color changes that occur in immobilized biopolymeric material in response to selective binding of analytes to their surface. In particular, the present invention provides methods and compositions related to the encapsulation of biopolymeric material into metal oxide glass using the sol-gel method.

  14. Sol-gel open tubular ODS columns with reversed electroosmotic flow for capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J D; Malik, A

    2001-03-01

    Sol-gel chemistry was successfully used for the fabrication of open tubular columns with surface-bonded octadecylsilane (ODS) stationary-phase coating for capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC). Following column preparations, a series of experiments were performed to investigate the performance of the sol-gel coated ODS columns in OT-CEC. The incorporation of N-octadecyldimethyl[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ammonium chloride as one of the sol-gel precursors played an important role in the electrochromatographic performance of the prepared columns. This chemical reagent possesses a chromatographically favorable, bonded ODS moiety, in conjunction with three methoxy groups allowing for sol-gel reactivity. In addition, a positively charged nitrogen atom is present in the molecular structure of this reagent and provides a positively charged capillary surface responsible for the reversed electroosmotic flow (EOF) in the columns during CEC operation. Comparative studies involving the EOF within such sol-gel ODS coated and uncoated capillaries were performed using acetonitrile and methanol as the organic modifiers in the mobile phase. The use of a deactivating reagent, phenyldimethylsilane, in the sol-gel solution was evaluated. Efficiency values of over 400,000 theoretical plates per meter were achieved in CEC on a 64 cm x 25 microm i.d. sol-gel ODS open tubular column. Test mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene derivatives, and aromatic aldehydes and ketones were used to evaluate the CEC performances of both nondeactivated and deactivated open tubular sol-gel columns. The effects of mobile-phase organic modifier contents and pH on EOF in such columns were evaluated. The prepared sol-gel ODS columns are characterized by switchable electroosmotic flow. A pH value of approximately 8.5 was found correspond to the isoelectric point for the prepared sol-gel ODS coatings.

  15. Neutron detector based on lithiated sol-gel glass

    CERN Document Server

    Wallace, S; Miller, L F; Dai, S

    2002-01-01

    A neutron detector technology is demonstrated based on sup 6 Li/ sup 1 sup 0 B doped sol-gel glass. The detector is a sol-gel glass film coated silicon surface barrier detector (SBD). The ionized charged particles from (n, alpha) reactions in the sol-gel film enter the SBD and are counted. Data showing that gamma-ray pulse amplitudes interfere with identifying charged particles that exit the film layer with energies below the gamma-ray energy is presented. Experiments were performed showing the effect of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma rays on the SBD detector. The reaction product energies of the triton and alpha particles from sup 6 Li are significantly greater than the energies of the Compton electrons from high-energy gamma rays, allowing the measurement of neutrons in a high gamma background. The sol-gel radiation detection technology may be applicable to the characterization of transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel and to the monitoring of stored plutonium.

  16. Growth of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} coherent layers on UO{sub 2} microsphere surface via sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Luciana S.; Silva, Edilaine F.; Oliveira, Felipe W.F.; Pereira, Yara S.; Brandão, Alisson F.C.; Santos, Ana Maria M.; Lameiras, Fernando S.; Reis, Sergio C.; Pedrosa, Tércio A.; Santos, Armindo, E-mail: santosa@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we synthesized and characterized UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nuclear fuel via three routes, aiming to solve the problems arising from the addition of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} in UO{sub 2} matrix. By the industrial route, the mixture of powders (UO{sub 2}, <90 μ and 6 wt% Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} <10 μm) results in pellets with 91% TD at 1677 °C/H{sub 2}/4 h. By the mixed route, the formation of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} coherent layers on UO{sub 2} powder (particles <90 μ) and microsphere (225 μm) surface produced UO{sub 2} - 6 wt% Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} pellets with 95% (powder; 1625 °C/H{sub 2}/4 hr) and 83% (microsphere; 1677°C/H{sub 2}/4 hr) TD. By the sol-gel route, we obtained UO{sub 2} - 6 wt% Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} in a deagglomerated (powder; <70 μm) or agglomerated microsphere 232 μm) form whose pellets reached > 97% (powder) and >98% (microsphere) TI) at 1677 °C/H{sub 2}/4h. According to XRD, OM, and SEM/EDS analysis, the referred three routes do not form a complete solid solution of UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} at the temperatures and time of sintering used; Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} granule islands are present in the pellets originating from these routes. The obtained results suggest that the topological arrangement and the deficient nanostructuring of UO{sub 2} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases, either in the raw material (powder and microsphere) as in their compacts, are the cause of low densification and irregular distribution of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} in UO{sub 2} matrix; mixing of U and Gd at the molecular level does not form a solid solution; and the mixed route is a good alternative to the industrial route. (author)

  17. Sol-gel technology for biomedical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podbielska, H.; Ulatowska-Jarza, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sol-gel derived silica possess many promising features, including low-temperature preparation procedure, porosity, chemical and physical stability. Applications exploiting porous materials to encapsulate sensor molecules, enzymes and many other compounds, are developing rapidly. In this paper some potential applications, with emphasis on biomedical and environmental ones, are reviewed. The material preparation procedure is described and practical remarks on silica-based sol-gels are included. It is reported that sol-gels with entrapped various molecules may be used in construction of implants and coatings with bioactive properties. It is shown how to exploit the sol-gel production route for construction of sol-gel coated fiberoptic applicators for laser therapy. The applications of bioactive materials are discussed, as well. It is demonstrated that it is possible to immobilize photosensitive compounds in sol-gel matrix without loosing their photoactivity. Some examples of sol-gel based biosensors are demonstrated, as well, showing their potential for detecting various gases, toxic substances, acidity, humidity, enzymes and biologically active agents. (authors)

  18. Sol-gel bonding of silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbe, C.J.; Cassidy, D.J.; Triani, G.; Latella, B.A.; Mitchell, D.R.G.; Finnie, K.S.; Short, K.; Bartlett, J.R.; Woolfrey, J.L.; Collins, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    Sol-gel bonds have been produced between smooth, clean silicon substrates by spin-coating solutions containing partially hydrolysed silicon alkoxides. The two coated substrates were assembled and the resulting sandwich fired at temperatures ranging from 60 to 600 deg. C. The sol-gel coatings were characterised using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and atomic force microscopy, while the corresponding bonded specimens were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were characterised using both microindentation and tensile testing. Bonding of silicon wafers has been successfully achieved at temperatures as low as 60 deg. C. At 300 deg. C, the interfacial fracture energy was 1.55 J/m 2 . At 600 deg. C, sol-gel bonding provided superior interfacial fracture energy over classical hydrophilic bonding (3.4 J/m 2 vs. 1.5 J/m 2 ). The increase in the interfacial fracture energy is related to the increase in film density due to the sintering of the sol-gel interface with increasing temperature. The superior interfacial fracture energy obtained by sol-gel bonding at low temperature is due to the formation of an interfacial layer, which chemically bonds the two sol-gel coatings on each wafer. Application of a tensile stress on the resulting bond leads to fracture of the samples at the silicon/sol-gel interface

  19. Applications of sol gel ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, D.

    1996-01-01

    The sol gel method is a chemical technique in which polycrystalline ceramic films are fabricated from a solution of organometallic precursors. The technique is attractive for many industrial applications because it is a simple (films are processed in air), flexible (can be used to coat complex geometries) and cost effective (does not require expensive equipment) process. In addition, dense, high quality coatings can be achieved at much lower temperatures than is generally required for sintering bulk ceramics. In this paper the conventional sol gel method and the new datec process are reviewed and potential applications of sol gel coatings in automotive, aerospace, petrochemical, nuclear and electronic industries are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Characterisation of a new alkoxide sol-gel hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.D.; Kannangara, G.S.K.; Milev, A.; Ben-Nissan, B.

    1999-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings have been used to promote bone growth and fixation towards implant surfaces to encourage faster recovery times for the recipient. Current coating processing techniques, capable of producing thin HAp layers are pulsed-laser deposition and sputtering (high-temperature processing). Other technologies are in vitro methods, electrodeposition and sol-gel, due to the fact that these techniques utilise lower processing temperatures they avoid structural instabilities of HAp at elevated temperatures. The term sol-gel encompasses any process of producing ceramic materials (single and mixed oxides, as well as non-oxides e.g. nitrides) from solutions. The sol-gel process was first identified by Ebelman, and has been used to produce ceramic powders, coatings, and bulk materials including glasses. The implementation of a sol-gel methodology enables increased stoichiometry and homogeneity, while having the ability to coat complex shapes. Sol-gel hydroxyapatite reported by Chai et al. employed tri ethyl phosphite [ P(OEt) 3 ] as the staring phosphorus alkoxide precursor, whereby it was established that in order to obtain monophasic hydroxyapatite upon firing there must be a 24 hour ripening period. The ripening period was determined to be an equilibrium step whereby the equilibrium intermediate phase lied in favour of a diethyl phosphite arrangement (species) within the sol. Therefore, the work here under taken was to produce hydroxyapatite using diethyl phosphite [HOP(OEt) 2 ] as a starting alkoxide precursor with a final aim to reduce or eliminate the ageing period as observed by Chai et al in P(OEt) 3 solutions

  1. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Carol S.; Reed, Scott T.

    1990-01-01

    An antireflection film made from a reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  2. Sol-Gel Thin Films for Plasmonic Gas Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Gaspera, Enrico; Martucci, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic gas sensors are optical sensors that use localized surface plasmons or extended surface plasmons as transducing platform. Surface plasmons are very sensitive to dielectric variations of the environment or to electron exchange, and these effects have been exploited for the realization of sensitive gas sensors. In this paper, we review our research work of the last few years on the synthesis and the gas sensing properties of sol-gel based nanomaterials for plasmonic sensors. PMID:26184216

  3. Sol-gel-cum-hydrothermal synthesis of mesoporous Co-Fe@Al2O3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Oxides; sol-gel; adsorption; surface properties; composite materials. 1. Introduction. Industrial dyes ... acid green 25, Congo red, N719), phenolic compounds. (bromophenol blue .... microscopy (TEM) images were obtained using Philips CM.

  4. Dip coating of sol-gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, P. R.; Hurd, A. J.; Brinker, C. J.

    Dip coating is the primary means of depositing sol-gel films for precision optical coatings. Sols are typically multicomponent systems consisting of an inorganic phase dispersed in a solvent mixture, with each component differing in volatility and surface tension. This, together with slow coating speeds (less than 1cm/s), makes analysis of the coating process complicated; unlike most high-speed coating methods, solvent evaporation, evolving rheology, and surface tension gradients alter significantly the fluid mechanics of the deposition stage. These phenomena were studied with computer-aided predictions of the flow and species transport fields. The underlying theory involves mass, momentum, and species transport on a domain of unknown shape, with models and constitutive equations for vapor-liquid equilibria and surface tension. Due accounting is made for the unknown position of the free surface, which locates according to the capillary hydrodynamic forces and solvent loss by evaporation. Predictions of the effects of mass transfer, hydrodynamics, and surface tension gradients on final film thickness are compared with ellipsometry measurements of film thickness on a laboratory pilot coater. Although quantitative agreement is still lacking, both experiment and theory reveal that the film profile near the drying line takes on a parabolic shape.

  5. Sol-gel Technology and Advanced Electrochemical Energy Storage Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chung-tse; Zheng, Haixing

    1996-01-01

    Advanced materials play an important role in the development of electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells, and electrochemical capacitors. The sol-gel process is a versatile solution for use in the fabrication of ceramic materials with tailored stoichiometry, microstructure, and properties. This processing technique is particularly useful in producing porous materials with high surface area and low density, two of the most desirable characteristics for electrode materials. In addition,the porous surface of gels can be modified chemically to create tailored surface properties, and inorganic/organic micro-composites can be prepared for improved material performance device fabrication. Applications of several sol-gel derived electrode materials in different energy storage devices are illustrated in this paper. V2O5 gels are shown to be a promising cathode material for solid state lithium batteries. Carbon aerogels, amorphous RuO2 gels and sol-gel derived hafnium compounds have been studied as electrode materials for high energy density and high power density electrochemical capacitors.

  6. Tunable Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticle Sol-Gel Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David D.; Snow, Lanee A.; Sibille, Laurent; Ignont, Erica

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate that the linear and non-linear optical properties of sol-gels containing metal nanoparticles are highly tunable with porosity. Moreover, we extend the technique of immersion spectroscopy to inhomogeneous hosts, such as aerogels, and determine rigorous bounds for the average fractional composition of each component, i.e., the porosity of the aerogel, or equivalently, for these materials, the catalytic dispersion. Sol-gels containing noble metal nanoparticles were fabricated and a significant blue-shift in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was observed upon formation of an aerogel, as a result of the decrease in the dielectric constant of the matrix upon supercritical extraction of the solvent. However, as a result of chemical interface damping and aggregation this blue-shift does not strictly obey standard effective medium theories. Mitigation of these complications is achieved by avoiding the use of alcohol and by annealing the samples in a reducing atmosphere.

  7. Silica- and germania-based dual-ligand sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid sorbents combining superhydrophobicity and π-π interaction. The role of inorganic substrate in sol-gel capillary microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyyal, Emre; Malik, Abdul

    2017-04-29

    Principles of sol-gel chemistry were utilized to create silica- and germania-based dual-ligand surface-bonded sol-gel coatings providing enhanced performance in capillary microextraction (CME) through a combination of ligand superhydrophobicity and π-π interaction. These organic-inorganic hybrid coatings were prepared using sol-gel precursors with bonded perfluorododecyl (PF-C 12 ) and phenethyl (PhE) ligands. Here, the ability of the PF-C 12 ligand to provide enhanced hydrophobic interaction was advantageously combined with π-π interaction capability of the PhE moiety to attain the desired sorbent performance in CME. The effect of the inorganic sorbent component on microextraction performance of was explored by comparing microextraction characteristics of silica- and germania-based sol-gel sorbents. The germania-based dual-ligand sol-gel sorbent demonstrated superior CME performance compared to its silica-based counterpart. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the created silica- and germania-based dual-ligand sol-gel sorbents suggested higher carbon loading on the germania-based sorbent. This might be indicative of more effective condensation of the organic ligand-bearing sol-gel-active chemical species to the germania-based sol-gel network (than to its silica-based counterpart) evolving in the sol solution. The type and concentration of the organic ligands were varied in the sol-gel sorbents to fine-tune extraction selectivity toward different classes of analytes. Specific extraction (SE) values were used for an objective comparison of the prepared sol-gel CME sorbents. The sorbents with higher content of PF-C 12 showed remarkable affinity for aliphatic hydrocarbons. Compared to their single-ligand sol-gel counterparts, the dual-ligand sol-gel coatings demonstrated significantly superior CME performance in the extraction of alkylbenzenes, providing up to ∼65.0% higher SE values. The prepared sol-gel CME coatings provided low ng L -1 limit of detections (LOD

  8. Porous alumina scaffold produced by sol-gel combined polymeric sponge method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasmaliza, M.; Fazliah, M. N.; Shafinaz, R. J.

    2012-09-01

    Sol gel is a novel method used to produce high purity alumina with nanometric scale. In this study, three-dimensional porous alumina scaffold was produced using sol-gel polymeric sponge method. Briefly, sol gel alumina was prepared by evaporation and polymeric sponge cut to designated sizes were immersed in the sol gel followed by sintering at 1250 and 1550°C. In order to study the cell interaction, the porous alumina scaffold was sterilized using autoclave prior to Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (HMSCs) seeding on the scaffold and the cell proliferation was assessed by alamarBlue® assay. SEM results showed that during the 21 day period, HMSCs were able to attach on the scaffold surface and the interconnecting pores while maintaining its proliferation. These findings suggested the potential use of the porous alumina produced as a scaffold for implantation procedure.

  9. Sol-gel synthesis of hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zupanski, M.D.; Lucena, M.P.P.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) has been established as the calcium phosphate based compound with most applications in the biological field. Among the numerous techniques for synthesis of HAp, the sol-gel processing route affords great control over purity and formed phases using low processing temperatures. In addition, the sol-gel approach offers an option for homogeneous HAp coating on metal substrates, as well as the ability to generate nanocrystalline powders. In this work, the sol-gel synthesis of HAp was investigated employing triethyl phosphate and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate as phosphorous and calcium precursors, respectively. The aging effect on phase composition and powder morphology of the final product was studied in terms of temperature and aging time. The powders were studied by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, particle size distribution by laser diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  10. Neutron detector using sol-gel absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, John M.; Wallace, Steven A.; Dai, Sheng

    1999-01-01

    An neutron detector composed of fissionable material having ions of lithium, uranium, thorium, plutonium, or neptunium, contained within a glass film fabricated using a sol-gel method combined with a particle detector is disclosed. When the glass film is bombarded with neutrons, the fissionable material emits fission particles and electrons. Prompt emitting activated elements yielding a high energy electron contained within a sol-gel glass film in combination with a particle detector is also disclosed. The emissions resulting from neutron bombardment can then be detected using standard UV and particle detection methods well known in the art, such as microchannel plates, channeltrons, and silicon avalanche photodiodes.

  11. Hybrid sol-gel optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

  12. Studies of (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxylsilane and bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane sol-gel coating on copper and aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Sing; Lu, Weijie; Wang, Yu; Tran, Tuan

    2009-09-01

    Bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane (BTMSE) and (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) have been used as precursors to prepare sol-gels and hybrid sol-gel under acidic condition. From the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data on MPTMS sol-gel coated aluminum and copper, it has been shown that the silane film is covalently bonded to Al surface through the interfacial condensation. There is no evidence of bonding interaction between the thiol group and the Cu. The recorded reflection adsorption IR (RAIR) spectrum has provided evidence that the coating BTMSE film covalently interacts with Al. Vibrational assignments have been suggested for pure BTMSE, BTMSE sol-gel, BTMSE xerogel, and BTMSE coated Al panel based on the group frequencies and the variation of frequencies with the sample treatment conditions. The progression of condensation reaction has been observed from the IR spectra of the BTMSE sol-gel and the sol-gel coated film after the treatments at different temperatures with different lengths of time. The corrosion protection of the sol-gel coated Al and Cu has been characterized in NaCl solutions by cyclic voltammetric, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance spectroscopy methods. All these electrochemical measurements indicate that the sol-gel coated metals have better corrosion protection than the corresponding uncoated metals.

  13. Preparation and characterization of conductive and transparent ruthenium dioxide sol-gel films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allhusen, John S; Conboy, John C

    2013-11-27

    RuO2 conductive thin films were synthesized using the sol-gel method and deposited onto transparent insulating substrates. The optical transmission, film thickness, surface morphology and composition, resistivity, and spectroelectrochemical performance have been characterized. The optical transmission values of these films ranged from 70 to 89% in the visible region and from 56 to 88% in the infrared region. Resistivity values of the RuO2 sol-gel films varied from 1.02 × 10(-3) to 1.13 Ω cm and are highly dependent on the initial solution concentration of RuO2 in the sol-gel. The RuO2 sol-gel films were used as electrodes for the electrochemical oxidation and reduction of ferrocenemethanol. The electrochemical behavior of our novel RuO2 sol-gel films was compared to that of a standard platinum disk electrode and showed no appreciable differences in the half-wave potential (E1/2). The mechanical and chemical stability of the coatings was tested by physical abrasion and exposure to highly acidic, oxidizing Piranha solution. Repeated exposure to these extreme conditions did not result in any appreciable decline in electrochemical performance. Finally, the use of the novel RuO2 sol-gel conductive and transparent films was demonstrated in a spectroelectrochemistry experiment in which the oxidation and reduction of ferrocenemethanol was monitored via UV-vis spectroscopy as the applied potential was cycled.

  14. Sol-Gel Synthesis Of Aluminoborosilicate Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Jeffrey; Leiser, Daniel; Selvaduray, Guna

    1992-01-01

    Application of sol-gel process to synthesis of aluminoborosilicate powders shows potential for control of microstructures of materials. Development of materials having enhanced processing characteristics prove advantageous in extending high-temperature endurance of fibrous refractory composite insulation made from ceramic fibers.

  15. Sol-Gel Derived Hafnia Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jay D.; Stackpoole, Mairead; Blum, Yigal; Sacks, Michael; Ellerby, Don; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiras (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Sol-gel derived hafnia coatings are being developed to provide an oxidation protection layer on ultra-high temperature ceramics for potential use in turbine engines (ultra-efficient engine technology being developed by NASA). Coatings using hafnia sol hafnia filler particles will be discussed along with sol synthesis and characterization.

  16. Fluorescence metrology of silica sol-gels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have developed a new method for measuring in-situ the growth of the nanometre-size silica particles which lead to the formation of sol-gel glasses. This technique is based on the decay of fluorescence polarisation anisotropy due to Brownian rotation of dye molecules bound to the particles. Results to date give near ...

  17. Preparation and characterization of Mn-doped Li{sub 0.06}(Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}){sub 0.94}NbO{sub 3} lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with surface sol-gel coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Ae Ri; Lee, Seong Eui; Lee, Hee Chul [Korea Polytechnic University, Shiheung (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    This study investigated the effects of Mn doping and sol-gel surface coating on the structural and the electrical properties of lead-free Li{sub 0.06}(K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 0.94}NbO{sub 3}(LNKN) ceramics in disc form for use as eco-friendly piezoelectric devices. The 1-mol% Mn-doped LNKN ceramic showed a relatively high piezoelectric constant owing to its high density in the case of its being annealed at a temperature of 1010 .deg. C. A Mn-doped LNKN sol-gel solution with the same composition as that of the ceramics was spin-coated and sintered on both sides of the ceramic surfaces to acquire improved electrical properties. The sol-gel surface coating could play a decisive role in filling the pores, resulting in flat and stable interfaces between the electrodes and the piezoelectric elements. As a result, the highest piezoelectric constant, d{sub 33}, of 173 pC/N could be obtained for the Mn-doped LNKN ceramics with 420-nm-thick sol-gel surface coatings.

  18. Entrapment of subtilisin in ceramic sol-gel coating for antifouling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regina, Viduthalai Rasheedkhan; Søhoel, Helmer; Lokanathan, Arcot Raghupathi; Bischoff, Claus; Kingshott, Peter; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    2012-11-01

    Enzymes with antifouling properties are of great interest in developing nontoxic antifouling coatings. A bottleneck in developing enzyme-based antifouling coatings is to immobilize the enzyme in a suitable coating matrix without compromising its activity and stability. Entrapment of enzymes in ceramics using the sol-gel method is known to have several advantages over other immobilization methods. The sol-gel method can be used to make robust coatings, and the aim of this study was to explore if sol-gel technology can be used to develop robust coatings harboring active enzymes for antifouling applications. We successfully entrapped a protease, subtilisin (Savinase, Novozymes), in a ceramic coating using a sol-gel method. The sol-gel formulation, when coated on a stainless steel surface, adhered strongly and cured at room temperature in less than 8 h. The resultant coating was smoother and less hydrophobic than stainless steel. Changes in the coating's surface structure, thickness and chemistry indicate that the coating undergoes gradual erosion in aqueous medium, which results in release of subtilisin. Subtilisin activity in the coating increased initially, and then gradually decreased. After 9 months, 13% of the initial enzyme activity remained. Compared to stainless steel, the sol-gel-coated surfaces with active subtilisin were able to reduce bacterial attachment of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by 2 orders of magnitude. Together, our results demonstrate that the sol-gel method is a promising coating technology for entrapping active enzymes, presenting an interesting avenue for enzyme-based antifouling solutions.

  19. Sol-gel additive for systems with inorganic binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akstinat, M.; Antenen, D.; Suter, W.

    1996-01-01

    A sol-gel additive for inorganic binder systems and sol-gel process for producing air-placed concrete and mortar by using such sol-gel additives are disclosed. Sol-gel additives for gel-derived inorganic binder systems (for example plaster, cement, lime, special slags, etc.) marked improve the consistency of such binder systems during processing or allow their consistency to be regulated. In addition, these sol-gel additives regulate setting times and substantially improve durability (chemical resistance, reduced permeability) and the mechanical properties of the set binder system. (author)

  20. Ring-Resonator/Sol-Gel Interferometric Immunosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Gregory; Cohen, David

    2007-01-01

    A proposed biosensing system would be based on a combination of (1) a sensing volume containing antibodies immobilized in a sol-gel matrix and (2) an optical interferometer having a ring resonator configuration. The antibodies would be specific to an antigen species that one seeks to detect. In the ring resonator of the proposed system, light would make multiple passes through the sensing volume, affording greater interaction length and, hence, greater antibody- detection sensitivity.

  1. Sol-gel bonding of silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbe, C.J.; Cassidy, D.J.; Triani, G.; Latella, B.A.; Mitchell, D.R.G.; Finnie, K.S.; Bartlett, J.R.; Woolfrey, J.L.; Collins, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    Low temperature bonding of silicon wafers was achieved using sol-gel technology. The initial sol-gel chemistry of the coating solution was found to influence the mechanical properties of the resulting bonds. More precisely, the influence of parameters such as the alkoxide concentration, water-to-alkoxide molar ratio, pH, and solution aging on the final bond morphologies and interfacial fracture energy was studied. The thickness and density of the sol-gel coating were characterised using ellipsometry. The corresponding bonded specimens were investigated using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy to monitor their chemical composition, infrared imaging to control bond integrity, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy to study their microstructure. Their interfacial fracture energy was measured using microindentation. An optimum water-to-alkoxide molar ratio of 10 and hydrolysis water at pH = 2 were found. Such conditions led to relatively dense films (> 90%), resulting in bonds with a fracture energy of 3.5 J/m 2 , significantly higher than those obtained using classical hydrophilic bonding (typically 1.5-2.5 J/m 2 ). Ageing of the coating solution was found to decrease the bond strength

  2. Sol-gel growth of vanadium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speck, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis examines the chemical reactivity of vanadium (IV) tetrakis(t-butoxide) as a precursor for the sol-gel synthesis of vanadium dioxide. Hydrolysis and condensation of the alkoxide was studied by FTIR spectroscopy. Chemical modification of the vanadium tetraalkoxide by alcohol interchange was studied using 51 V NMR and FTIR. Vanadium dioxide thin films and powders were made from vanadium tetrakis(t-butoxide) by standard sol-gel techniques. Post-deposition heating under nitrogen was necessary to transform amorphous gels into vanadium dioxide. Crystallization of films and powders was studied by FTIR, DSC, TGA, and XRD. Gel-derived vanadium dioxide films undergo a reversible semiconductor-to-metal phase transition near 68C, exhibiting characteristic resistive and spectral changes. The electrical resistance decreased by two to three orders of magnitude and the infrared transmission sharply dropped as the material was cycled through this thermally induced phase transition. The sol-gel method was also used to make doped vanadium dioxide films. Films were doped with tungsten and molybdenum ions to effectively lower the temperature at which the transition occurs

  3. Modification of Ti6Al4V implant surfaces by biocompatible TiO{sub 2}/PCL hybrid layers prepared via sol-gel dip coating: Structural characterization, mechanical and corrosion behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, Michelina, E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 21, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, Flavia [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 21, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Giovanardi, Roberto; Veronesi, Paolo [Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Vivarelli 10, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2017-05-01

    Surface modification of metallic implants is a promising strategy to improve tissue tolerance, osseointegration and corrosion resistance of them. In the present work, bioactive and biocompatible organic-inorganic hybrid coatings were prepared using a sol-gel dip coating route. They consist of an inorganic TiO{sub 2} matrix in which different percentages of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer, were incorporated. The coatings were used to modify the surface of Ti6Al4V substrates in order to improve their wear and corrosion resistance. The chemical structure of the coatings was analyzed by attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Coating microstructure, mechanical properties and ability to inhibit the corrosion of the substrates were evaluated as a function of the PCL amount. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the polymer allows to obtain crack-free coatings, but when high percentages were added uncoated areas appear. Nano-indentation tests revealed that, as expected, surface hardness and elastic modulus decrease as the percentage of polymeric matrix increases, but scratch testing demonstrated that the coatings are effective in preventing scratching of the underlying metallic substrate, at least for PCL contents up to 20 wt%. The electrochemical tests (polarization curves acquired in order to evaluate the corrosion resistance) allowed to asses that the coatings have a significant effect in term of corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) but they do not significantly affect the passivation process that titanium undergoes in contact with the test solution used (modified Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline or DPBS). - Highlights: • Bioactive TiO{sub 2}/PCL hybrid coatings on Ti6Al4V were prepared via sol-gel dip coating. • Hybrid coatings are crack-free but when 50 wt% PCL was added, uncoated areas appear. • Coating hardness and elastic modulus decrease as the PCL percentage

  4. Sol-gel synthesis of hydroxyapatite; Sintese de hidroxiapatita via sol-gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zupanski, M.D.; Lucena, M.P.P.; Bergmann, C.P., E-mail: michelledunin@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) has been established as the calcium phosphate based compound with most applications in the biological field. Among the numerous techniques for synthesis of HAp, the sol-gel processing route affords great control over purity and formed phases using low processing temperatures. In addition, the sol-gel approach offers an option for homogeneous HAp coating on metal substrates, as well as the ability to generate nanocrystalline powders. In this work, the sol-gel synthesis of HAp was investigated employing triethyl phosphate and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate as phosphorous and calcium precursors, respectively. The aging effect on phase composition and powder morphology of the final product was studied in terms of temperature and aging time. The powders were studied by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, particle size distribution by laser diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  5. Formation of ZnO-Cd(OH){sub 2} core-shell nanoparticles by sol-gel method: An approach to modify surface chemistry for stable and enhanced green emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Rupali, E-mail: rupalimishra@rediffmail.co [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India); Nanophosphor Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India); Yadav, Raghvendra S.; Pandey, Avinash C. [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India); Nanophosphor Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India); Sanjay, Sharda. S. [Department of Chemistry, Ewing Christian College, Allahabad (India); Dar, Chitra [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India)

    2010-03-15

    We report the formation of highly stable and luminescent ZnO-Cd(OH){sub 2} core-shell nanoparticles by simple introduction of cadmium salt in the initial precursor solution, used to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles by sol-gel route. The cadmium to zinc salt concentration ratio has been also varied to control the growth of ZnO nanoparticles at the smaller particle size. Formation of ZnO-Cd(OH){sub 2} core-shell nanostructure has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). UV-vis absorption spectroscopy exhibits blue-shift in absorption edge on increasing cadmium concentrations. The photoluminescence emission spectra showed the remarkably stable and enhanced visible (green) emission from suspended ZnO-Cd(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles in comparison to bare ZnO nanoparticles. It is postulated that Cd(OH){sub 2} layer at the surface of ZnO nanoparticles prevents the agglomeration of nanoparticles and efficiently assists the trapping of hole at the surface site, a first step necessary for visible emission. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) also supports our assumption about surface chemistry.

  6. Mechanical compatibility of sol-gel annealing with titanium for orthopaedic prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Andrew I M; Lim, Teoh S; Brydone, Alistair S; Gadegaard, Nikolaj

    2016-01-01

    Sol-gel processing is an attractive method for large-scale surface coating due to its facile and inexpensive preparation, even with the inclusion of precision nanotopographies. These are desirable traits for metal orthopaedic prostheses where ceramic coatings are known to be osteoinductive and the effects may be amplified through nanotexturing. However there are a few concerns associated with the application of sol-gel technology to orthopaedics. Primarily, the annealing stage required to transform the sol-gel into a ceramic may compromise the physical integrity of the underlying metal. Secondly, loose particles on medical implants can be carcinogenic and cause inflammation so the coating needs to be strongly bonded to the implant. These concerns are addressed in this paper. Titanium, the dominant material for orthopaedics at present, is examined before and after sol-gel processing for changes in hardness and flexural modulus. Wear resistance, bending and pull tests are also performed to evaluate the ceramic coating. The findings suggest that sol-gel coatings will be compatible with titanium implants for an optimum temperature of 500 °C.

  7. Sol-gel processing to form doped sol-gel monoliths inside hollow core optical fiber and sol-gel core fiber devices made thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Harry C. (Inventor); Ott, Melanie N. (Inventor); Manuel, Michele V. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A process of fabricating a fiber device includes providing a hollow core fiber, and forming a sol-gel material inside the hollow core fiber. The hollow core fiber is preferably an optical fiber, and the sol-gel material is doped with a dopant. Devices made in this manner includes a wide variety of sensors.

  8. Recubrimientos de hidroxiapatita preparados mediante un proceso sol-gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peón, E.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite coatings (HAp have been obtained starting from precursors of sol-gel type. The coatings previously oxidized were deposited on metal surfaces of a based on iron alloy so-called MA956. The alloys were at high temperatures, in order to improve the adhesion with the hydroxyapatite coatings. The sol-gel coating was obtained applying an aqueous route, using triethyl phosphite and aqueous calcium nitrate, as precursors of phosphorous and calcium, respectively. Different sintering thermal treatments were applied on the resulting gels in order to obtain a homogeneous, adherent and crystalline hydroxyapatite coating. The characterization techniques used for this study were optical microscopy, SEM/EDX, XDR and FTIR. Moreover, the adhesion between the hydroxylapatite coating and the substrate was assessed according to the ASTM D 3359-02 standard test method. The results of this study showed that the best thermal treatment is obtained for a sintering temperature of 550 °C during a time of 72 h.

    Se han preparado nuevos recubrimientos de hidroxiapatita (HAp obtenidos a partir de precursores de tipo sol-gel, depositados sobre sustratos metálicos de una aleación de base hierro denominada MA956, previamente oxidados a elevadas temperaturas, para mejorar la adherencia con los recubrimientos de hidroxiapatita. El recubrimiento sol-gel se obtuvo aplicando una ruta acuosa, utilizando como precursores del fósforo y del calcio trietilfosfito y nitrato cálcico tetrahidratado, respectivamente. Sobre los geles resultantes se aplicaron distintos tratamientos térmicos de sinterización, hasta la obtención de recubrimientos de hidroxiapatita homogéneos, adherentes y cristalinos. Las técnicas de caracterización utilizadas para realizar este estudio han sido microscopía óptica, MBE/EDX, DRX y FTIR. Así mismo, se ha determinado la adherencia entre el substrato y el recubrimiento de hidroxiapatita según la norma ASTM D 3359-02. Los resultados

  9. Study of silica sol-gel materials for sensor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qiong

    Silica sol-gel is a transparent, highly porous silicon oxide glass made at room temperature by sol-gel process. The name of silica sol-gel comes from the observable physical phase transition from liquid sol to solid gel during its preparation. Silica sol-gel is chemically inert, thermally stable, and photostable, it can be fabricated into different desired shapes during or after gelation, and its porous structure allows encapsulation of guest molecules either before or after gelation while still retaining their functions and sensitivities to surrounding environments. All those distinctive features make silica sol-gel ideal for sensor development. Study of guest-host interactions in silica sol-gel is important for silica-based sensor development, because it helps to tailor local environments inside sol-gel matrix so that higher guest loading, longer shelf-life, higher sensitivity and faster response of silica gel based sensors could be achieved. We focused on pore surface modification of two different types of silica sol-gel by post-grafting method, and construction of stable silica hydrogel-like thin films for sensor development. By monitoring the mobility and photostability of rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules in silica alcogel thin films through single molecule spectroscopy (SMS), the guest-host interactions altered by post-synthesis grafting were examined. While physical confinement remains the major factor that controls mobility in modified alcogels, both R6G mobility and photostability register discernable changes after surface charges are respectively reversed and neutralized by aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) grafting. The change in R6G photostability was found to be more sensitive to surface grafting than that of mobility. In addition, silica film modification by 0.4% APTS is as efficient as that by pure MTES in lowering R6G photostability, which suggests that surface charge reversal is more effective than charge neutralization

  10. Bioactive materials for biomedical applications using sol-gel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Radha; Kumar, Ashok

    2008-01-01

    This review paper focuses on the sol-gel technology that has been applied in many of the potential research areas and highlights the importance of sol-gel technology for preparing bioactive materials for biomedical applications. The versatility of sol-gel chemistry enables us to manipulate the characteristics of material required for particular applications. Sol-gel derived materials have proved to be good biomaterials for coating films and for the construction of super-paramagnetic nanoparticles, bioactive glasses and fiberoptic applicators for various biomedical applications. The introduction of the sol-gel route in a conventional method of preparing implants improves the mechanical strength, biocompatibility and bioactivity of scaffolds and prevents corrosion of metallic implants. The use of organically modified silanes (ORMOSILS) yields flexible and bioactive materials for soft and hard tissue replacement. A novel approach of nitric-oxide-releasing sol-gels as antibacterial coatings for reducing the infection around orthopedic implants has also been discussed

  11. Current and future possibilities of sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakka, Sumio

    2004-01-01

    The sol-gel method is characterized by the low temperature processing. Since this method starts from solutions, the product is essentially nanomaterials. So far, various kinds of microstructures, including dense, porous, hybrid, amorphous and crystalline microstructures have been realized. Accordingly, sol-gel materials cover a wide range of functions, such as optical, electronic, mechanical, chemical and bio-functions. Future perspectives of the sol-gel method are described in the article. (author)

  12. Industrial applications of sol-gel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuloch, S.M.; Tulloch, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper has been to provide a broad, rather than comprehensive view. We have presented a range of applications and only a selection of involved companies and researchers and have relied to a large extent on published information. Nevertheless, we are sure that our view of the importance of Sol-gel technology as an emerging technology, with enormous impact across a wide range of manufacturing, is demonstrated. Applications which are either in production or have been foreshadowed include four broad categories: coatings, fibres, powders and monoliths

  13. Fabrication of superhydrophobic sol-gel composite films using hydrophobically modified colloidal zinc hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, R V; Basu, Bharathibai J

    2009-11-15

    A superhydrophobic sol-gel composite film was fabricated by incorporating hydrophobically modified colloidal zinc hydroxide (CZH) in sol-gel matrix. CZH was prepared by controlled precipitation and modified by treatment with stearic acid. The concentration of stearic acid and stirring time were optimized to obtain modified CZH with very high water contact angle (WCA) of 165 degrees and sliding angle (SA)superhydrophobic surfaces. FTIR spectrum also confirmed the presence of zinc stearate in the composite film. The method is simple and cost-effective and does not involve any expensive chemicals or equipments.

  14. Brilliant molecular nanocrystals emerging from sol-gel thin films: towards a new generation of fluorescent biochips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubuisson, E; Monnier, V; Sanz-Menez, N; Ibanez, A; Boury, B; Usson, Y; Pansu, R B

    2009-01-01

    To develop highly sensitive biosensors, we made directly available to biological aqueous solutions organic nanocrystals previously grown in the pores of sol-gel films. Through the controlled dissolution of the sol-gel surface, we obtained emerging nanocrystals that remained strongly anchored to the sol-gel coating for good mechanical stability of the final sensing device. We demonstrated that in the presence of a solution of DNA functionalized with a molecular probe, the nanocrystal fluorescence is strongly quenched by Foerster resonance energy transfer thus opening the way towards very sensitive fluorescent biosensors through biomolecules grafted onto fluorescent nanocrystals. Finally, this controlled dissolution, involving weak concentrated NaOH solution, is a generic process that can be used for the thinning of any kind of sol-gel layer.

  15. Study of Different Sol-Gel Coatings to Enhance the Lifetime of PDMS Devices: Evaluation of Their Biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymerich, María; Gómez-Varela, Ana I; Álvarez, Ezequiel; Flores-Arias, María T

    2016-08-25

    A study of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) sol-gel-coated channels fabricated using soft lithography and a laser direct writing technique is presented. PDMS is a biocompatible material that presents a high versatility to reproduce several structures. It is widely employed in the fabrication of preclinical devices due to its advantages but it presents a rapid chemical deterioration to organic solvents. The use of sol-gel layers to cover the PDMS overcomes this problem since it provides the robustness of glass for the structures made with PDMS, decreasing its deterioration and changing the biocompatibility of the surface. In this work, PDMS channels are coated with three different kinds of sol-gel compositions (60MTES/40TEOS, 70MTES/30TISP and 80MTES/20TISP). The endothelial cell adhesion to the different coated devices is evaluated in order to determine the most suitable sol-gel preparation conditions to enhance cellular adhesion.

  16. Influence of p H on optical properties of nano structure sol-gel-derived silica films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heshmatpuor, F.; Adelkhani, H.; Nahavandi, M.; Noorbakhsh Shourabadi, M.

    2006-01-01

    Sol-gel derived silica films were fabricated by dip-coating onto glass microscope substrates. Film properties such as transmission and surface morphology were monitored as function of dip speed and sol p H. Film transmission was increased with increasing of p H in visible range. The surface morphology of films were investigated with scanning electron microscopy.

  17. Sol-gel precursors and products thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Scott C.; DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J.; Weisner, Ulrich B.

    2017-02-14

    The present invention provides a generalizable single-source sol-gel precursor capable of introducing a wide range of functionalities to metal oxides such as silica. The sol-gel precursor facilitates a one-molecule, one-step approach to the synthesis of metal-silica hybrids with combinations of biological, catalytic, magnetic, and optical functionalities. The single-source precursor also provides a flexible route for simultaneously incorporating functional species of many different types. The ligands employed for functionalizing the metal oxides are derived from a library of amino acids, hydroxy acids, or peptides and a silicon alkoxide, allowing many biological functionalities to be built into silica hybrids. The ligands can coordinate with a wide range of metals via a carboxylic acid, thereby allowing direct incorporation of inorganic functionalities from across the periodic table. Using the single-source precursor a wide range of functionalized nanostructures such as monolith structures, mesostructures, multiple metal gradient mesostructures and Stober-type nanoparticles can be synthesized. ##STR00001##

  18. Sol-gel method for encapsulating molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Ashley, Carol S.; Bhatia, Rimple; Singh, Anup K.

    2002-01-01

    A method for encapsulating organic molecules, and in particular, biomolecules using sol-gel chemistry. A silica sol is prepared from an aqueous alkali metal silicate solution, such as a mixture of silicon dioxide and sodium or potassium oxide in water. The pH is adjusted to a suitably low value to stabilize the sol by minimizing the rate of siloxane condensation, thereby allowing storage stability of the sol prior to gelation. The organic molecules, generally in solution, is then added with the organic molecules being encapsulated in the sol matrix. After aging, either a thin film can be prepared or a gel can be formed with the encapsulated molecules. Depending upon the acid used, pH, and other processing conditions, the gelation time can be from one minute up to several days. In the method of the present invention, no alcohols are generated as by-products during the sol-gel and encapsulation steps. The organic molecules can be added at any desired pH value, where the pH value is generally chosen to achieve the desired reactivity of the organic molecules. The method of the present invention thereby presents a sufficiently mild encapsulation method to retain a significant portion of the activity of the biomolecules, compared with the activity of the biomolecules in free solution.

  19. Environmentally benign sol-gel antifouling and foul-releasing coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detty, Michael R; Ciriminna, Rosaria; Bright, Frank V; Pagliaro, Mario

    2014-02-18

    Biofouling on ships and boats, characterized by aquatic bacteria and small organisms attaching to the hull, is an important global issue, since over 80000 tons of antifouling paint is used annually. This biofilm, which can form in as little as 48 hours depending on water temperature, increases drag on watercraft, which greatly reduces their fuel efficiency. In addition, biofouling can lead to microbially induced corrosion (MIC) due to H2S formed by the bacteria, especially sulfate-reducing bacteria. When the International Maritime Organization (IMO) international convention banned the use of effective but environmentally damaging coatings containing tributyl tin in 2008, the development of clean and effective antifouling systems became more important than ever. New nonbiocidal coatings are now in high demand. Scientists have developed new polymers, materials, and biocides, including new elastomeric coatings that they have obtained by improving the original silicone (polydimethylsiloxane) formulation patented in 1975. However, the high cost of silicones, especially of fluoropolymer-modified silicones, has generally prevented their large-scale diffusion. In 2009, traditional antifouling coatings using cuprous oxide formulated in copolymer paints still represented 95% of the global market volume of anti-fouling paints. The sol-gel nanochemistry approach to functional materials has emerged as an attractive candidate for creating low fouling surfaces due to the unique structure and properties of silica-based coatings and of hybrid inorganic-organic silicas in particular. Sol-gel formulations easily bind to all types of surfaces, such as steel, fiberglass, aluminum, and wood. In addition, they can cure at room temperature and form thin glassy coatings that are markedly different from thick silicone elastomeric foul-releasing coatings. Good to excellent performance against biofouling, low cure temperatures, enhanced and prolonged chemical and physical stability, ease of

  20. Biocatalysis with Sol-Gel Encapsulated Acid Phosphatase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Suhasini; Tran, Vu; Ho, Maggie K.-M.; Phan, Chieu; Chin, Elizabeth; Wemmer, Zeke; Sommerhalter, Monika

    2010-01-01

    This experiment was performed in an upper-level undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course. Students learned how to immobilize an enzyme in a sol-gel matrix and how to perform and evaluate enzyme-activity measurements. The enzyme acid phosphatase (APase) from wheat germ was encapsulated in sol-gel beads that were prepared from the precursor…

  1. Reversible sol-gel-sol medium for enzymatic optical biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Safaryan, S.; Yakovlev, A.; Pidko, E.A.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, V.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we for the first time report a reversible sol-gel-sol approach to obtain optical enzymatic biosensors with improved enzyme stability and good sensitivity by using desktop inkjet printing. The developed technique is based on the bio-inorganic inks allowing for a sol-gel-sol transition

  2. Method of making ionic liquid mediated sol-gel sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Abdul; Shearrow, Anne M.

    2017-01-31

    Ionic liquid (IL)-mediated sol-gel hybrid organic-inorganic materials present enormous potential for effective use in analytical microextraction. One obstacle to materializing this prospect arises from high viscosity of ILs significantly slowing down sol-gel reactions. A method was developed which provides phosphonium-based, pyridinium-based, and imidazolium-based IL-mediated advanced sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid materials for capillary microextraction. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrate that ILs can serve as porogenic agents in sol-gel reactions. IL-mediated sol-gel coatings prepared with silanol-terminated polymers provided up to 28 times higher extractions compared to analogous sol-gel coatings prepared without any IL in the sol solution. This study shows that IL-generated porous morphology alone is not enough to provide effective extraction media: careful choice of the organic polymer and the precursor with close sol-gel reactivity must be made to ensure effective chemical bonding of the organic polymer to the created sol-gel material to be able to provide the desired sorbent characteristics.

  3. Self-Healing Corrosion Protective Sol-Gel Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdolah Zadeh, M.

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the state of the art and the recent advances in the field of self-healing corrosion protective coatings, the thesis entitled “Self-healing corrosion protective sol-gel coatings” addresses novel routes to self-healing corrosion protective sol-gel coatings via extrinsic and intrinsic

  4. Preparation of sol-gel TiO2/purified Na-bentonite composites and their photovoltaic application for natural dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saelim, Ni-on; Magaraphan, Rathanawan; Sreethawong, Thammanoon

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Natural dye from red cabbage was successfully employed in DSSC. → A fast sol-gel method to produce TiO 2 /clay thin film was proposed. → The sol-gel-prepared TiO 2 /clay was applied as the scattering layer on top of TiO 2 electrode. → Thicker sol-gel-prepared TiO 2 /clay electrode showed higher DSSC efficiency. - Abstract: The sol-gel TiO 2 /purified natural clay electrodes having Ti:Si molar ratios of 95:5 and 90:10 were initially prepared, sensitized with natural red cabbage dye, and compared to the sol-gel TiO 2 electrode in terms of physicochemical characteristics and solar cell efficiency. The results showed that the increase in purified Na-bentonite content greatly increased the specific surface area and total pore volume of the prepared sol-gel TiO 2 /purified Na-bentonite composites because the clay platelets prevented TiO 2 particle agglomeration. The sol-gel TiO 2 /5 mol% Si purified Na-bentonite and sol-gel TiO 2 /10 mol% Si purified Na-bentonite composites could increase the film thickness of solar cells without cracking when they were coated as a scattering layer on the TiO 2 semiconductor-based film, leading to increasing the efficiency of the natural dye-sensitized solar cells in this work.

  5. Superconductive ceramics obtained with sol gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcangeli, A.; Mosci, A.; Nardi, A.; Vatteroni, R.; Zondini, C.

    1988-01-01

    Several sol gel routes have been considered, studied and developed to produce large quantities of granulates which can be processed to obtain ceramics having good superconducting characteristics. In the considered process a mixture of commercial nitrates is atomized, at room temperature, in a solution 1:1 of Primene JMT and Benzene and a pale blue gel of the starting elements is suddently formed. The granulates obtained are free flowing, very reactive and well suited for pressing. For their intrinsic characteristics they could be very good precursors for the production of large quantities of superconductive ceramics in different forms. The precipitated gel is dried, calcinated, pressed in the form of cylindrical pellets which are sintered up to 960 degrees C. No griding or different thermal treatments are needed. The sintered material has low electric resistence, shows a clear Meissner effect and has a transition temperature of between 91 and 95 K

  6. The influence of precursor addition order on the porosity of sol-gel bioactive glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Delihta; Colon, Pierre; Cresswell, Mark; Journet, Catherine; Pradelle-Plasse, Nelly; Jackson, Phil; Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Attik, Nina

    2018-06-16

    The superior textural properties of sol-gel derived bioactive glasses compared to conventional melt quench glasses accounts for their accelerated bioactivity in vitro. Several studies have explored ways to improve the surface properties of sol-gel glasses in order to maximise their efficiency for bone and tooth regeneration. In this study, we investigated the effect of order of network modifying precursor addition on the textural properties of sol-gel derived bioactive glasses. The effect of precursor addition order on the glass characteristics was assessed by switching the order of network modifying precursor (calcium acetate monohydrate and sodium acetate anhydrous) addition for a fixed composition of bioactive glass (75SiO 2 :5CaO:10Na 2 O:10P 2 O 5 ). The results of this study showed that the order of precursor addition does influence the porosity of these glasses. For the glasses of a fixed composition and preparation conditions we achieved a doubling of surface area, a 1.5 times increase in pore volume and a 1.2 times decrease in pore size just by the mixing the network modifying precursors and adding them together in the sol-gel preparation. This simple and straightforward route adaptation to the preparation of bioactive glasses would allow us to enhance the textural properties of existing and novel composition of bioactive glasses and thus accelerate their bioactivity. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrogen permeation through sol-gel-coated iron during galvanostatic charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakorchemna, I.; Carmona, N.; Zakroczymski, T.

    2008-01-01

    One-layer sol-gel silica-zirconia and two-layer silica-zirconia and zirconia coatings were deposited on one side of iron membranes by spin-coating, densified in air and annealed up to 800 deg. C in vacuum. Hydrogen permeation through the membranes, coated and uncoated, polarised cathodically under galvanostatic control in 0.1 M NaOH solution was studied using the electrochemical permeation technique. During the initial period, the effect of the sol-gel coatings was insignificant. However, the coatings quite efficiently prevented the iron surface become more active to hydrogen entry during a long-lasting cathodic polarisation. In addition, the electrochemical-corrosion behaviour of the coated iron and the effect of the sol-gel coatings on the effective diffusivity of hydrogen in the coated membranes were studied. On the basis of the polarisation curves and the hydrogen permeation data it was proved that the sol-gel coatings blocked the iron surface for the hydrogen evolution reaction and, consequently, for the hydrogen entry into iron. The effective coating coverage was determined by comparison of the hydrogen fluxes permeating the coated and uncoated membranes. Finally the real concentration of hydrogen beneath the uncoated iron sites and the amount of hydrogen stored in a membrane were evaluated

  8. Tantala-based sol-gel coating for capillary microextraction on-line coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, MinhPhuong; Turner, Erica B; Segro, Scott S; Fang, Li; Seyyal, Emre; Malik, Abdul

    2017-11-03

    A sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid sorbent, consisting of chemically integrated tantalum (V) ethoxide (TaEO) and polypropylene glycol methacrylate (PPGM), was developed for capillary microextraction (CME). The sol-gel sorbent was synthesized within a fused silica capillary through hydrolytic polycondensation of TaEO and chemical incorporation of PPGM into the evolving sol-gel tantala network. A part of the organic-inorganic hybrid sol-gel network evolving in the vicinity of the capillary walls had favorable conditions to get chemically bonded to the silanol groups on the capillary surface forming a surface-bonded coating. The newly developed sol-gel sorbent was employed to isolate and enrich a variety of analytes from aqueous samples for on-line analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a UV detector. CME was performed on aqueous samples containing trace concentrations of analytes representing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, alcohols, amines, nucleosides, and nucleotides. This sol-gel hybrid coating provided efficient extraction with CME-HPLC detection limits ranging from 4.41pM to 28.19 pM. Due to direct chemical bonding between the sol-gel sorbent coating and the fused silica capillary inner surface, this sol-gel sorbent exhibited enhanced solvent stability. The sol-gel tantala-based sorbent also exhibited excellent pH stability over a wide pH range (pH 0-pH 14). Furthermore, it displayed great performance reproducibility in CME-HPLC providing run-to-run HPLC peak area relative standard deviation (RSD) values between 0.23% and 3.83%. The capillary-to-capillary RSD (n=3), characterizing capillary preparation method reproducibility, ranged from 0.24% to 4.11%. The results show great performance consistency and application potential for the sol-gel tantala-PPGM sorbent in various fields including biomedical, pharmaceutical, and environmental areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fast and efficient proteolysis by reusable pepsin-encapsulated magnetic sol-gel material for mass spectrometry-based proteomics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayili, H Mehmet; Salih, Bekir

    2016-08-01

    Hydrophobic silicon-based material having magnetic properties was fairly synthesized by a classical sol-gel approach. Pepsin enzyme was encapsulated in the sol-gel material and the enzyme activity was evaluated in consequence of the digestion of some common proteins such as α- and β-casein, cytochrome c, myoglobin, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) both in a single protein batch and in the protein mixture. The optimum digestion time of the studied proteins using pepsin-encapsulated magnetic sol-gel material was found to be 20min. To produce the magnetic sol-gel material for convenient and easy proteomics applications, Fe3O4 was doped inside sol-gel material during the gelation step. It was observed that the activity of encapsulated pepsin was not affected by the amount of Fe3O4. Poly(ethylene glycol) was also inserted in sol-gel bulk to obtain suitable roughness and increase the hydrophilicity of the material surface to let protein molecules reach to the sol-gel material easily. The digestion of the protein mixture and non-fat bovine milk was performed with the pepsin-encapsulated magnetic sol-gel material and the digested solutions were analyzed using SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-MS/MS for the protein identification. Reusability of the pepsin-encapsulated sol-gel material was examined and it was determined that they could be used at least 20 times. Finally, IgG digestions with a fast incubation time period were carried out using pepsin-encapsulated sol-gel material for generation of (Fab)2 product to evaluate the kinetic performance of the material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Silica-Based Sol-Gel Coating on Magnesium Alloy with Green Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Upadhyay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performances of several natural organic inhibitors were investigated in a sol-gel system (applied on the magnesium alloy Mg AZ31B substrate. The inhibitors were quinaldic acid (QDA, betaine (BET, dopamine hydrochloride (DOP, and diazolidinyl urea (DZU. Thin, uniform, and defect-free sol-gel coatings were prepared with and without organic inhibitors, and applied on the Mg AZ31B substrate. SEM and EDX were performed to analyze the coating surface properties, the adhesion to the substrate, and the thickness. Electrochemical measurements, including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and anodic potentiodynamic polarization scan (PDS, were performed on the coated samples to characterize the coatings’ protective properties. Also, hydrogen evolution measurement—an easy method to measure magnesium corrosion—was performed in order to characterize the efficiency of coating protection on the magnesium substrate. Moreover, scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET measurements were performed to examine the efficiency of the coatings loaded with inhibitors in preventing and containing corrosion events in defect areas. From the testing results it was observed that the formulated sol-gel coatings provided a good barrier to the substrate, affording some protection even without the presence of inhibitors. Finally, when the inhibitors’ performances were compared, the QDA-doped sol-gel was able to contain the corrosion event at the defect.

  11. Hybrid Thin Film Organosilica Sol-Gel Coatings To Support Neuronal Growth and Limit Astrocyte Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capeletti, Larissa Brentano; Cardoso, Mateus Borba; Dos Santos, João Henrique Zimnoch; He, Wei

    2016-10-07

    Thin films of silica prepared by a sol-gel process are becoming a feasible coating option for surface modification of implantable neural sensors without imposing adverse effects on the devices' electrical properties. In order to advance the application of such silica-based coatings in the context of neural interfacing, the characteristics of silica sol-gel are further tailored to gain active control of interactions between cells and the coating materials. By incorporating various readily available organotrialkoxysilanes carrying distinct organic functional groups during the sol-gel process, a library of hybrid organosilica coatings is developed and investigated. In vitro neural cultures using PC12 cells and primary cortical neurons both reveal that, among these different types of hybrid organosilica, the introduction of aminopropyl groups drastically transforms the silica into robust neural permissive substrate, supporting neuron adhesion and neurite outgrowth. Moreover, when this organosilica is cultured with astrocytes, a key type of glial cells responsible for glial scar response toward neural implants, such cell growth promoting effect is not observed. These findings highlight the potential of organo-group-bearing silica sol-gel to function as advanced coating materials to selectively modulate cell response and promote neural integration with implantable sensing devices.

  12. Development of novel biocompatible hybrid nanocomposites based on polyurethane-silica prepared by sol gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashti, Ali [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yahyaei, Hossein [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Firoozi, Saman [Department of Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezani, Sara [Department of Neuroscience, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahiminejad, Ali [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi, Roya [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Science, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farzaneh, Khadijeh [Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohseni, Mohsen [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghanbari, Hossein, E-mail: hghanbari@tums.ac.ir [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Medical Biomaterials Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    Due to high biocompatibility, polyurethane has found many applications, particularly in development of biomedical devices. A new nanocomposite based on thermoset polyurethane and silica nanoparticles was synthesized using sol-gel method. Sol-gel process was fulfilled in two acidic and basic conditions by using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and trimethoxyisocyanatesilane as precursors. The hybrid films characterized for mechanical and surface properties using tensile strength, contact angle, ATR-FTIR and scanning electron microscopy. Biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of the hybrids were assessed using standard MTT, LDH and TUNEL assays. The results revealed that incorporation of silica nanoparticles was significantly improved tensile strength and mechanical properties of the hybrids. Based on the contact angle results, silica nanoparticles increased hydrophilicity of the hybrids. Biocompatibility by using human lung epithelial cell line (MRC-5) demonstrated that the hybrids were significantly less cytotoxic compared to pristine polymer as tested by MTT and LDH assays. TUNEL assay revealed no signs of apoptosis in all tested samples. The results of this study demonstrated that incorporation of silica nanoparticles into polyurethane lead to the enhancement of biocompatibility, indicating that these hybrids could potentially be used in biomedical field in particular as a new coating for medical implants. - Highlights: • Nanocomposites based on polyurethane and nanosilica prepared by sol-gel method fabricated • Addition of inorganic phase improved mechanical properties. • Nanosilica prepared by sol-gel method increased hydrophilicity. • By adding nanosilica to polyurethane biocompatibility increased significantly.

  13. A sol-gel-modified poly(methyl methacrylate) electrophoresis microchip with a hydrophilic channel wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Xu, Xuejiao; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    A sol-gel method was employed to fabricate a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) electrophoresis microchip that contains a hydrophilic channel wall. To fabricate such a device, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was injected into the PMMA channel and was allowed to diffuse into the surface layer for 24 h. After removing the excess TEOS, the channel was filled with an acidic solution for 3 h. Subsequently, the channel was flushed with water and was pretreated in an oven to obtain a sol-gel-modified PMMA microchip. The water contact angle for the sol-gel-modified PMMA was approximately 27.4 degrees compared with approximately 66.3 degrees for the pure PMMA. In addition, the electro-osmotic flow increased from 2.13x10(-4) cm2 V(-1) s(-1) for the native-PMMA channel to 4.86x10(-4) cm2 V(-1) s(-1) for the modified one. The analytical performance of the sol-gel-modified PMMA microchip was demonstrated for the electrophoretic separation of several purines, coupled with amperometric detection. The separation efficiency of uric acid increased to 74,882.3 m(-1) compared with 14,730.5 m(-1) for native-PMMA microchips. The result of this simple modification is a significant improvement in the performance of PMMA for microchip electrophoresis and microfluidic applications.

  14. Effects of phosphorus-doping on energy band-gap, structural, surface, and photocatalytic characteristics of emulsion-based sol-gel derived TiO{sub 2} nano-powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesh, Ibram, E-mail: ibramganesh@arci.res.in

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Reported a novel route to synthesize high specific surface area P-doped TiO{sub 2} nano-powder photocatalysts. • Established methylene blue dye-sensitization mechanism of TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst. • Established the effects of methylene blue adsorption on the surface, structural and photocatalytic activity of P-doped TiO{sub 2}. • Established true quantum efficiency determination method for TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. - Abstract: Different amounts of phosphorus (P)-doped TiO{sub 2} (PDT) nano-powders (P = 0–10 wt.%) were synthesized by following a new emulsion-based sol-gel (EBSG) route and calcined at 400 °C–800 °C for 6 h. These calcined PDT powders were then thoroughly characterized by means of XRD, XPS, SEM, FT-IR, FT-Raman, DRS, BET surface area, zeta-potential, cyclic-voltammetry and photocatalytic evaluation using methylene blue (MB) as a model-pollutant and established the effects of phosphorous doping on structural, surface, band-gap energy, and photocatalytic characteristics of TiO{sub 2} nano-powder formed in EBSG route. The characterization results suggest that the EBSG derived TiO{sub 2} nano-powder after calcination at 400 °C for 6 h is in the form of anatase phase when it was doped with <8 wt.% P, and it is in the amorphous state when doped with >8 wt.% P. Furthermore, these EBSG derived PDT powders own high negative zeta-potentials, high specific surface areas (up to >250 m{sup 2}/g), and suitable band-gap energies (<3.34 eV). Surprisingly, these PDT powders exhibit very high MB adsorption (up to 50%) from its aqueous 0.01 mM, 0.02 mM and 0.03 mM solutions during 30 min stirring in the dark, whereas, the commercial Degussa P-25 TiO{sub 2} nano-powder shows no adsorption. Among various photocatalysts investigated in this study, the 1 wt.% P-doped TiO{sub 2} nano-powder formed in EBSG route exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for MB degradation reaction.

  15. Surfactant-assisted sol gel preparation of high-surface area mesoporous TiO2 nanocrystalline Li-ion battery anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casino, S.; Di Lupo, F.; Francia, C.; Tuel, A.; Bodoardo, S.; Gerbaldi, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mesoporous TiO 2 nanocrystalline lithium battery anodes with tunable morphology. • Simple sol–gel technique using different cationic surfactants is adopted. • Textural/morphological characteristics define the electrochemical behaviour. • TiO 2 anatase using C16TAB exhibits stable performance after 200 cycles. • It shows promising prospects as high-voltage safe Li-ion battery anode. - Abstract: We here investigate the physico-chemical/morphological characteristics and cycling behaviour of several kinds of nanocrystalline TiO 2 Li-ion battery anodes selectively prepared through a simple sol–gel strategy based on a low-cost titanium oxysulfate precursor, by mediation of different cationic surfactants having different features (e.g., chain lengths, counter ion, etc.): i.e., cetyl-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), cetyl-trimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), benzalkonium chloride (BC) or octadecyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (C 18 TAB). X-ray diffraction profiles reveal single phase anatase having good correspondence with the reference pattern when using short chain CTAB, while in the other cases the presence of chloride and/or an increased chain length affect the purity of the samples. FESEM analysis reveal nanosized particles forming cauliflower-like aggregates. TiO 2 materials demonstrate mesoporous characteristics and large specific surface area ranging from 250 to 30 m 2 g −1 . Remarkably stable electrode performance are achieved by appropriately selecting the cationic surfactant and the surfactant/precursor ratio. Detailed analysis is provided on the effect of the reaction conditions upon the formation of mesoporous crystalline titania enlightening new directions for the development of high performing lithium storage electrodes by a simple and low cost sol–gel strategy

  16. Surfactant-assisted sol gel preparation of high-surface area mesoporous TiO{sub 2} nanocrystalline Li-ion battery anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casino, S. [GAME Lab, Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Institute of Chemistry, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Di Lupo, F., E-mail: francesca.dilupo@polito.it [GAME Lab, Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Institute of Chemistry, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Francia, C. [GAME Lab, Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Institute of Chemistry, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Tuel, A. [IRCELYON, Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse et l’environnement de Lyon, UMR 5256, CNRS-Université de Lyon 1, 2 Avenue Albert Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Bodoardo, S. [GAME Lab, Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Institute of Chemistry, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Gerbaldi, C., E-mail: claudio.gerbaldi@polito.it [GAME Lab, Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Institute of Chemistry, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Mesoporous TiO{sub 2} nanocrystalline lithium battery anodes with tunable morphology. • Simple sol–gel technique using different cationic surfactants is adopted. • Textural/morphological characteristics define the electrochemical behaviour. • TiO{sub 2} anatase using C16TAB exhibits stable performance after 200 cycles. • It shows promising prospects as high-voltage safe Li-ion battery anode. - Abstract: We here investigate the physico-chemical/morphological characteristics and cycling behaviour of several kinds of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} Li-ion battery anodes selectively prepared through a simple sol–gel strategy based on a low-cost titanium oxysulfate precursor, by mediation of different cationic surfactants having different features (e.g., chain lengths, counter ion, etc.): i.e., cetyl-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), cetyl-trimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), benzalkonium chloride (BC) or octadecyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (C{sub 18}TAB). X-ray diffraction profiles reveal single phase anatase having good correspondence with the reference pattern when using short chain CTAB, while in the other cases the presence of chloride and/or an increased chain length affect the purity of the samples. FESEM analysis reveal nanosized particles forming cauliflower-like aggregates. TiO{sub 2} materials demonstrate mesoporous characteristics and large specific surface area ranging from 250 to 30 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. Remarkably stable electrode performance are achieved by appropriately selecting the cationic surfactant and the surfactant/precursor ratio. Detailed analysis is provided on the effect of the reaction conditions upon the formation of mesoporous crystalline titania enlightening new directions for the development of high performing lithium storage electrodes by a simple and low cost sol–gel strategy.

  17. A novel tantalum-based sol-gel packed microextraction syringe for highly specific enrichment of phosphopeptides in MALDI-MS applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelikbıçak, Ömür; Atakay, Mehmet; Güler, Ülkü; Salih, Bekir

    2013-08-07

    A new tantalum-based sol-gel material was synthesized using a unique sol-gel synthesis pathway by PEG incorporation into the sol-gel structure without performing a calcination step. This improved its chemical and physical properties for the high capacity and selective enrichment of phosphopeptides from protein digests in complex biological media. The specificity of the tantalum-based sol-gel material for phosphopeptides was evaluated and compared with tantalum(V) oxide (Ta2O5) in different phosphopeptide enrichment applications. The tantalum-based sol-gel and tantalum(V) oxide were characterized in detail using FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and also using a surface area and pore size analyzer. In the characterization studies, the surface morphology, pore volume, crystallinity of the materials and PEG incorporation into the sol-gel structure to produce a more hydrophilic material were successfully demonstrated. The X-ray diffractograms of the two different materials were compared and it was noted that the broad signals of the tantalum-based sol-gel clearly represented the amorphous structure of the sol-gel material, which was more likely to create enough surface area and to provide more accessible tantalum atoms for phosphopeptides to be easily adsorbed when compared with the neat and more crystalline structure of Ta2O5. Therefore, the phosphopeptide enrichment performance of the tantalum-based sol-gels was found to be remarkably higher than the more crystalline Ta2O5 in our studies. Phosphopeptides at femtomole levels could be selectively enriched using the tantalum-based sol-gel and detected with a higher signal-to-noise ratio by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometer (MALDI-MS). Moreover, phosphopeptides in a tryptic digest of non-fat bovine milk as a complex real-world biological sample were retained with higher yield using a tantalum-based sol-gel. Additionally, the sol-gel material

  18. Sol-gel preparation of uranium oxide spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolezal, J.; Urbanek, V.

    1978-01-01

    Information is presented on problems of preparing nuclear fuel by the sol-gel method. Basic data on different process types are given. A more detailed description of the method of preparation of spherical particles of uranium oxide gel developed and used at the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez is given. Advantages and disadvantages of sol-gel materials are discussed in comparison with fuel materials prepared by classical precipitation methods. The feasibility of the sol-gel methods for preparing other materials is shortly mentioned and their application outlined. (author)

  19. Spatially resolved speckle-correlometry of sol-gel transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaeva, A. A.; Isaeva, E. A.; Pantyukov, A. V.; Zimnyakov, D. A.

    2018-04-01

    Sol-gel transition was studied using the speckle correlometry method with a localized light source and spatial filtering of backscattered radiation. Water solutions of technical or food gelatin with added TiO2 nanoparticles were used as studied objects. Structural transformation of "sol-gel" system was studied at various temperatures from 25°C to 50°C using analysis of the correlation and structure functions of speckle intensity fluctuations. The characteristic temperatures of "sol - gel" transition were evaluated for studied systems. Obtained results can be used for various applications in biomedicine and food industry.

  20. A new sol-gel synthesis of 45S5 bioactive glass using an organic acid as catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, J; Drevet, R; Lemelle, A; Ben Jaber, N; Tara, A; El Btaouri, H; Benhayoune, H

    2015-02-01

    In this paper a new sol-gel approach was explored for the synthesis of the 45S5 bioactive glass. We demonstrate that citric acid can be used instead of the usual nitric acid to catalyze the sol-gel reactions. The substitution of nitric acid by citric acid allows to reduce strongly the concentration of the acid solution necessary to catalyze the hydrolysis of silicon and phosphorus alkoxides. Two sol-gel powders with chemical compositions very close to that of the 45S5 were obtained by using either a 2M nitric acid solution or either a 5mM citric acid solution. These powders were characterized and compared to the commercial Bioglass®. The surface properties of the two bioglass powders were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method (BET). The Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed a partial crystallization associated to the formation of crystalline phases on the two sol-gel powders. The in vitro bioactivity was then studied at the key times during the first hours of immersion into acellular Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). After 4h immersion into SBF we clearly demonstrate that the bioactivity level of the two sol-gel powders is similar and much higher than that of the commercial Bioglass®. This bioactivity improvement is associated to the increase of the porosity and the specific surface area of the powders synthesized by the sol-gel process. Moreover, the nitric acid is efficiently substituted by the citric acid to catalyze the sol-gel reactions without alteration of the bioactivity of the 45S5 bioactive glass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of rare earth dopants on the structure, surface texture and photocatalytic properties of TiO2-SiO2 prepared by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, R.M.; Mkhalid, I.A.

    2010-01-01

    The sol-gel method was successfully used to prepare a series of TiO 2 -SiO 2 and rare earth (RE) (La 3+ , Nd 3+ , Sm 3+ , Gd 3+ )-doped TiO 2 -SiO 2 nanoparticles at a doping level of 3 atomic percent. The structural features of parent TiO 2 -SiO 2 and RE-TiO 2 -SiO 2 fired at 550 o C have been investigated by XRD, UV-diffuse reflection, SEM and nitrogen adsorption measurements at -196 o C. XRD data verified the formation of typical characteristic anatase form in all the prepared RE-doped TiO 2 -SiO 2 samples. In comparison with the pure TiO 2 -SiO 2 samples (ca. 35 nm in diameter), the RE-TiO 2 -SiO 2 samples have relatively small particle size indicating that the doping with RE metal ions can improve the particle morphology, and retard the grain growth of TiO 2 -SiO 2 during heat treatment. The results indicated that Gd 3+ doped TiO 2 -SiO 2 has the lowest bandgap and particle size compared with pure TiO 2 -SiO 2 and other nanoparticles of RE-doped TiO 2 -SiO 2 . The highest surface area (S BET ) and pore volume (V p ) values were recorded for Gd-TiO 2 -SiO 2 as well. The effect of doping on the photoactivity was evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of EDTA as a probe reaction. Among all the pure and RE-doped TiO 2 -SiO 2 , Gd 3+ -TiO 2 -SiO 2 performed the highest catalytic activity towards the tested reaction. That might be due to its special characteristics of particle size, surface texture and bandgap properties. Details of the synthesis procedure and results of the characterization studies of the produced RE-TiO 2 -SiO 2 are presented in this paper.

  2. Electrophoretic Porosimetry of Sol-Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, L. A.; Smith, D. D.; Sibille, L.; Hunt, A. J.; Ng, J.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that gravity has an effect on the formation and resulting microstructure of sol-gels. In order to more clearly resolve the effect of gravity, pores may be non-destructively analyzed in the wet gel, circumventing the shrinkage and coarsening associated with the drying procedure. We discuss the development of an electrophoretic technique, analogous to affinity chromatography, for the determination of pore size distribution and its application to silica gels. Specifically a monodisperse charged dye is monitored by an optical densitometer as it moves through the wet gel under the influence of an electric field. The transmittance data (output) represents the convolution of the dye concentration profile at the beginning of the run (input) with the pore size distribution (transfer function), i.e. linear systems theory applies. Because of the practical difficulty in producing a delta function input dye profile we prefer instead to use a step function. Average pore size is then related to the velocity of this dye front, while the pore size distribution is related to the spreading of the front. Preliminary results of this electrophoretic porosimetry and its application to ground and space-grown samples will be discussed.

  3. Sol-gel optical coatings for lasers: Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floch, H.G.; Belleville, P.F.; Priotton, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Many manufacturers and users claim that optical coatings are best prepared by physical vapor deposition technology. Others believe that sol-gel technology is an effective and competitive alternative. This article, the first of three, emphasizes sol-gel thin-film history and relates it to high-power laser technology, chemistry of the sol-gel process, production of optical coatings and deposition techniques. The second and third articles describe the preparation and performance of antireflective and highly reflective sol-gel optical coatings, respectively, that have been developed for the 1.8-MJ/500-TW (351-nm) pulsed neodymium-glass laser. This powerful laser is to be used in France's Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. It will demonstrate, at the laboratory scale, ignition of deuterium-tritium fusion fuel

  4. Safe and Environmentally Acceptable Sol-Gel-Derived Pyrophoric Pyrotechnics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Randall L; Hubble, William; Stevenson, Bradley; Gash, Alexander; Satcher, Joe; Metcalf, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    ...% H2 in Ar, N2, CO2, or CO) at intermediate temperatures (350 C to 700 C). All of the resulting sol-gel-derived metallic iron powders were ignitable by thermal methods, however none were pyrophoric...

  5. Safe and Environmentally Acceptable Sol-Gel-Derived Pyrophoric Pyrotechnics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Randall L; Hubble, William; Stevenson, Bradley; Gash, Alexander; Satcher, Joe; Metcalf, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    It was demonstrated that highly porous sol-gel derived iron (III) oxide materials could be reduced to sub-micron-sized metallic iron by heating the materials to intermediate temperatures in a hydrogen atmosphere...

  6. Production of continuous mullite fiber via sol-gel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Sparks, J. Scott; Esker, David C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a continuous ceramic fiber which could be used in rocket engine and rocket boosters applications was investigated at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Methods of ceramic fiber production such as melt spinning, chemical vapor deposition, and precursor polymeric fiber decomposition are discussed and compared with sol-gel processing. The production of ceramics via the sol-gel method consists of two steps, hydrolysis and polycondensation, to form the preceramic, followed by consolidation into the glass or ceramic structure. The advantages of the sol-gel method include better homogeneity and purity, lower preparation temperature, and the ability to form unique compositions. The disadvantages are the high cost of raw materials, large shrinkage during drying and firing which can lead to cracks, and long processing times. Preparation procedures for aluminosilicate sol-gel and for continuous mullite fibers are described.

  7. Sol-Gel Derived, Nanostructured Oxide Lubricant Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taylor, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    In this program, we deposited oxide coatings of titanium and nickel by wet-chemical deposition methods, also referred to as sol-gel, which showed excellent tribological properties in previous investigations...

  8. Sol-gel materials for optofluidics - process and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Morten Bo Lindholm

    2011-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis is concerned with the use of sol-gel materials in optofluidic applications and the physics of DNA molecules in nanoconfinement. The bottom-up formation of solid material, which is provided by the sol-gel process, enables control of the chemical composition and porosity...... of the material. At early stages of gelation, thin gel coatings can be structured by nanoimprint lithography, and purely inorganic silica materials can be obtained by subsequent thermal annealing. The sol-gel process thus constitutes a unique method for nanofabrication of silica materials of special properties....... In this work, sol-gel silica is introduced as a new material class for the fabrication of lab-on-a-chip devices for DNA analysis. An imprint process with a rigid, non-permeable stamp was developed, which enabled fabrication of micro- and nanofluidic silica channels in a single process step without use of any...

  9. Sol-gel process for thermal reactor fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukerjee, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Sol-gel processes have revolutionized conventional ceramic technology by providing extremely fine and uniform powders for the fabrication of ceramics. The use of this technology for nuclear fuel fabrication has also been explored in many countries. Unlike the conventional sol-gel process, sol-gel process for nuclear fuels tries to eliminate the preparation of powders in view of the toxic nature of the powders particularly those of plutonium and 233 U. The elimination of powder handling thus makes this process more readily amenable for use in glove boxes or for remote handling. In this process, the first step is the preparation of microspheres of the fuel material from a solution which is then followed by vibro-compaction of these microspheres of different sizes to obtain the required smear density of fuel inside a pin. The maximum achievable packing density of 92 % makes it suitable for fast reactors only. With a view to extend the applicability of sol-gel process for thermal reactor fuel fabrication the concept of converting the gel microspheres derived from sol-gel process, to the pellets, has been under investigation for several years. The unique feature of this process is that it combines the advantages of sol-gel process for the preparation of fuel oxide gel microspheres of reproducible quality with proven irradiation behavior of the pellet fuel. One of the important pre-requisite for the success of this process is the preparation of soft oxide gel microspheres suitable for conversion to dense pellets free from berry structure. Studies on the internal gelation process, one of the many variants of sol-gel process, for obtaining soft oxide gel microspheres suitable for gel pelletisation is now under investigation at BARC. Some of the recent findings related to Sol-Gel Microsphere Pelletisation (SGMP) in urania-plutonia and thoria-urania systems will be presented

  10. Optical Studies on Sol-Gel Derived Lead Chloride Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Rejeena, I; Lillibai, B; Nithyaja, B; Nampoori, P.N V; Radhakrishnan, P

    2013-01-01

    Optical characterization of lead chloride crystals prepared by sol-gel method is reported. The relevant sol-gel technique is used for the preparation of PbCl2 samples with five different types. In this paper, we report the absorption and fluorescence behaviour of pure, UV& IR irradiated and electric & magnetic field applied lead chloride crystal samples in solution phase at two different concentrations. Optical bandgap and emission studies of these crystals are also done.

  11. Sol-gel-based biosensing applied to medicinal science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Felismina T C; Moreira-Tavares, Ana P; Sales, M Goreti F

    2015-01-01

    Biosensors have opened new horizons in biomedical analysis, by ensuring increased assay speed and flexibility, and allowing point-of-care applications, multi-target analyses, automation and reduced costs of testing. This has been a result of many studies merging nanotechnology with biochemistry over the years, thereby enabling the creation of more suitable environments to biological receptors and their substitution by synthetic analogue materials. Sol-gel chemistry, among other materials, is deeply involved in this process. Sol-gel processing allows the immobilization of organic molecules, biomacromolecules and cells maintaining their properties and activities, permitting their integration into different transduction devices, of electrochemical or optical nature, for single or multiple analyses. Sol-gel also allows to the production of synthetic materials mimicking the activity of natural receptors, while bringing advantages, mostly in terms of cost and stability. Moreover, the biocompatibility of sol-gel materials structures of biological nature allowed the use of these materials in emerging in vivo applications. In this chapter, biosensors for biomedical applications based on sol-gel derived composites are presented, compared and described, along with current emerging applications in vivo, concerning drug delivery or biomaterials. Sol-gel materials are shown as a promising tool for current, emerging and future medical applications.

  12. Silica Sol-Gel Entrapment of the Enzyme Chloro peroxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, T.; Chan, S.; Ebaid, B.; Sommerhalter, M.

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme chloro peroxidase (CPO) was immobilized in silica sol-gel beads prepared from tetramethoxysilane. The average pore diameter of the silica host structure (∼3 nm) was smaller than the globular CPO diameter (∼6 nm) and the enzyme remained entrapped after sol-gel maturation. The catalytic performance of the entrapped enzyme was assessed via the pyrogallol peroxidation reaction. Sol-gel beads loaded with 4 μg CPO per mL sol solution reached 9-12% relative activity compared to free CPO in solution. Enzyme kinetic analysis revealed a decrease in K_cat but no changes in K_M or K_I . Product release or enzyme damage might thus limit catalytic performance. Yet circular dichroism and visible absorption spectra of transparent CPO sol-gel sheets did not indicate enzyme damage. Activity decline due to methanol exposure was shown to be reversible in solution. To improve catalytic performance the sol-gel protocol was modified. The incorporation of 5, 20, or 40% methyltrimethoxysilane resulted in more brittle sol-gel beads but the catalytic performance increased to 14% relative to free CPO in solution. The use of more acidic casting buffers (ph 4.5 or 5.5 instead of 6.5) resulted in a more porous silica host reaching up to 18% relative activity

  13. Separation of oligopeptides, nucleobases, nucleosides and nucleotides using capillary electrophoresis/electrochromatography with sol-gel modified inner capillary wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodová, Jana; Kofroňová, Olga; Benada, Oldřich; Král, Vladimír; Mikšík, Ivan

    2017-09-29

    The aim of this article is to study the modification of an inner capillary wall with sol-gel coating (pure silica sol-gel or silica sol-gel containing porphyrin-brucine conjugate) and determine its influence on the separation process using capillary electrophoresis/electrochromatography method. After modification of the inner capillary surface the separation of analytes was performed using two different phosphate buffers (pH 2.5 and 9.0) and finally the changes in electrophoretic mobilities of various samples were calculated. To confirm that the modification of the inner capillary surface was successful, the parts of the inner surfaces of capillaries were observed using scanning electron microscopy. The analytes used as testing samples were oligopeptides, nucleosides, nucleobases and finally nucleotides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Novel Microdialysis Glucose Sensor System Based on Co-immobilizing on AU Micro-Electrode by SOL-GEL Technique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, Ping

    2001-01-01

    .... The sensor is based on co_immobilizing glucose oxidase (COD) with the catalase by sol-gel technique on the surface of the silicon bases with two pattern of An microelectrodes. A graduated ("sandwich...

  15. Preparation of chitosan-graft-(β-cyclodextrin) based sol-gel stationary phase for open-tubular capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Haixia; Li, Qingyin; Yu, Xiaowei; Yi, Jiaojiao; Xie, Zenghong

    2013-07-01

    A novel open-tubular CEC column coated with chitosan-graft-(β-CD) (CDCS) was prepared using sol-gel technique. In the sol-gel approach, owing to the 3D network of sol-gel and the strong chemical bond between the stationary phase and the surface of capillary columns, good chromatographic characteristics and unique selectivity in separating isomers were shown. The column efficiencies of 55,000∼163,000 plates/m for the isomeric xanthopterin and phenoxy acid herbicides using the sol-gel-derived CDCS columns were achieved. Good stabilities were demonstrated that the RSD values for the retention time of thiourea and isoxanthopterin were 1.3 and 1.4% (run to run, n = 5), 1.6 and 2.0% (day to day, n = 3), 2.9 and 3.1% (column to column, n = 3), respectively. The sol-gel-coated CDCS columns have shown improved separations of isomeric xanthopterin in comparison with CDCS-bonded capillary column. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Use of CdSe/ZnS luminescent quantum dots incorporated within sol-gel matrix for urea detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong, Hong Dinh; Rhee, Jong Il

    2008-01-01

    In this work, urea detection techniques based on the pH sensitivity of CdSe/ZnS QDs were developed using three types of sol-gel membranes: a QD-entrapped membrane, urease-immobilized membrane and double layer consisting of a QD-entrapped membrane and urease-immobilized membrane. The surface morphology of the sol-gel membranes deposited on the wells in a 24-well microtiter plate was investigated. The linear detection range of urea was in the range of 0-10 mM with the three types of sol-gel membranes. The urea detection technique based on the double layer consisting of the QD-entrapped membrane and urease-immobilized membrane resulted in the highest sensitivity to urea due to the Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters. That is, the Michaelis-Menten constant (K m =2.0745 mM) of the free urease in the QD-entrapped membrane was about 4-fold higher than that (K m =0.549 mM) of the immobilized urease in the urease-immobilized membrane and about 12-fold higher than that (K m =0.1698 mM) of the immobilized urease in the double layer. The good stability of the three sol-gel membranes for urea sensing over 2 months showed that the use of sol-gel membranes immobilized with QDs or an enzyme is suitable for biomedical and environmental applications

  17. Use of CdSe/ZnS luminescent quantum dots incorporated within sol-gel matrix for urea detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Hong Dinh; Rhee, Jong Il

    2008-09-19

    In this work, urea detection techniques based on the pH sensitivity of CdSe/ZnS QDs were developed using three types of sol-gel membranes: a QD-entrapped membrane, urease-immobilized membrane and double layer consisting of a QD-entrapped membrane and urease-immobilized membrane. The surface morphology of the sol-gel membranes deposited on the wells in a 24-well microtiter plate was investigated. The linear detection range of urea was in the range of 0-10mM with the three types of sol-gel membranes. The urea detection technique based on the double layer consisting of the QD-entrapped membrane and urease-immobilized membrane resulted in the highest sensitivity to urea due to the Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters. That is, the Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)=2.0745mM) of the free urease in the QD-entrapped membrane was about 4-fold higher than that (K(m)=0.549mM) of the immobilized urease in the urease-immobilized membrane and about 12-fold higher than that (K(m)=0.1698mM) of the immobilized urease in the double layer. The good stability of the three sol-gel membranes for urea sensing over 2 months showed that the use of sol-gel membranes immobilized with QDs or an enzyme is suitable for biomedical and environmental applications.

  18. Slow Release of Plant Volatiles Using Sol-Gel Dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, L; Sun, X L; Cai, X M; Chen, Z M

    2014-12-01

    The black citrus aphid, also known as the tea aphid, (Toxoptera aurantii Boyer) attacks economically important crops, including tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). In the current study, silica sol-gel formulations were screened to find one that could carry and release C. sinensis plant volatiles to lure black citrus aphids in a greenhouse. The common plant volatile trans-2-hexen-1-al was used as a model molecule to screen for suitable sol-gel formulations. A zNose (Electronic Sensor Technology, Newbury Park, CA) transportable gas chromatograph was used to continuously monitor the volatile emissions. A sol-gel formulation containing tetramethyl orthosilicate and methyltrimethoxysilane in an 8:2 (vol:vol) ratio was selected to develop a slow-release dispenser. The half-life of trans-2-hexen-1-al in the sol-gel dispenser increased slightly with the volume of this compound in the dispenser. Ten different volatiles were tested in the sol-gel dispenser. Alcohols of 6-10 carbons had the longest half-lives (3.01-3.77 d), while esters of 6-12 carbons had the shortest (1.53-2.28 d). Release of these volatiles from the dispensers could not be detected by the zNose after 16 d (cis-3-hexenyl acetate) to 26 d (3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-ol). In greenhouse experiments, trans-2-hexen-1-al and cis-3-hexen-1-ol released from the sol-gel dispensers attracted aphids for ≍17 d, and release of these volatiles could not be detected by the zNose after ≍24 d. The sol-gel dispensers performed adequately for the slow release of plant volatiles to trap aphids in the greenhouse. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  19. Sol-gel encapsulation for controlled drug release and biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jonathan

    The main focus of this dissertation is to investigate the use of sol-gel encapsulation of biomolecules for controlled drug release and biosensing. Controlled drug release has advantages over conventional therapies in that it maintains a constant, therapeutic drug level in the body for prolonged periods of time. The anti-hypertensive drug Captopril was encapsulated in sol-gel materials of various forms, such as silica xerogels and nanoparticles. The primary objective was to show that sol-gel silica materials are promising drug carriers for controlled release by releasing Captopril at a release rate that is within a therapeutic range. We were able to demonstrate desired release for over a week from Captopril-doped silica xerogels and overall release from Captopril-doped silica nanoparticles. As an aside, the antibiotic Vancomycin was also encapsulated in these porous silica nanoparticles and desired release was obtained for several days in-vitro. The second part of the dissertation focuses on immobilizing antibodies and proteins in sol-gel to detect various analytes, such as hormones and amino acids. Sol-gel competitive immunoassays on antibody-doped silica xerogels were used for hormone detection. Calibration for insulin and C-peptide in standard solutions was obtained in the nM range. In addition, NASA-Ames is also interested in developing a reagentless biosensor using bacterial periplasmic binding proteins (bPBPs) to detect specific biomarkers, such as amino acids and phosphate. These bPBPs were doubly labeled with two different fluorophores and encapsulated in silica xerogels. Ligand-binding experiments were performed on the bPBPs in solution and in sol-gel. Ligand-binding was monitored by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the two fluorophores on the bPBP. Titration data show that one bPBP has retained its ligand-binding properties in sol-gel.

  20. Generation of amorphous ceramic capacitor coatings on titanium using a continuous sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, B.G.; Walsh, M.A. III; Phillips, P.G.; Morris, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    Thin amorphous films of ceramic capacitor materials were successfully deposited using sol-gel chemistry onto titanium wire using a continuous, computer controlled process. By repeatedly depositing and calcining very thin layers of material, smooth and even coats can be produced. Surface analyses revealed the layered nature of these thin coats, as well as the amorphous nature of the ceramic. The electrical properties of the better coatings, all composed of niobium, bismuth, zinc oxides, were then evaluated. copyright 1995 Materials Research Society

  1. Osteoconducting bioglass synthesis via sol-gel process; Biovidro osteocondutor sintetizado pelo processo sol-gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, R.V.; Aragones, A.; Barra, G.O.M.; Salmoria, G.V.; Fredel, M.C., E-mail: rafaelavpereira@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The presence of bioglasses in scaffolds has been studied as they promote the osteoconduction in bones. The scaffolds are developed in order to induce the repair and regeneration in bone tissue. An absorbable bioglass from SiO2-CaO-P2O5 system was synthesized by sol-gel process with the intent of producing these scaffolds. Bioglass 58S was define for these work once it presents ions (Ca and P) which assist at the carbonated apatite layer formation when released. The apatite layer presents an important role at the bone regeneration and metabolism, being involved at grow and mineralization of bones. FTIR was realized to characterize the synthesized bioglass on its chemical composition, XRD to analyze the crystalline structure, solubility test to observe the weight variance and SEM to observe the particles morphology. The obtained results confirmed the production of a bioglass with the desired composition to produce osteoconducting scaffolds. (author)

  2. New insights into uranium (VI) sol-gel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.M.; Thompson, M.C.; Buchanan, B.R.; King, R.B.; Garber, A.R.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) investigations on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory process for sol-gel synthesis of microspherical nuclear fuel (UO 2 ), has been extremely useful in sorting out the chemical mechanism in the sol-gel steps. 13 C, 15 N, and 1 H NMR studies on the HMTA gelation agent (Hexamethylene tetramine, C 6 H 12 N 4 ) has revealed near quantitative stability of this adamantane-like compound in the sol-gel process, contrary to its historical role as an ammonia source for gelation from the worldwide technical literature. 17 O NMR of uranyl (UO 2 ++ ) hydrolysis fragments produced in colloidal sols has revealed the selective formation of a uranyl trimer, [(UO 2 ) 3 (μ 3 -O)(μ 2 -OH) 3 ] + , induced by basic hydrolysis with the HMTA gelation agent. Spectroscopic results will be presented to illustrate that trimer condensation occurs during sol-gel processing leading to layered polyanionic hydrous uranium oxides in which HMTAH + is occluded as an ''intercalation'' cation. Subsequent sol-gel processing of microspheres by ammonia washing results in in-situ exchange and formation of a layered hydrous ammonium uranate with a proposed structural formula of (NH 4 ) 2 [(UO 2 ) 8 O 4 (OH) 10 ] · 8H 2 O. This compound is the precursor to sintered UO 2 ceramic fuel. 23 refs., 10 figs

  3. Sol-gel derived bioactive coating on zirconia: Effect on flexural strength and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahramian, Khalil; Leminen, Heidi; Meretoja, Ville; Linderbäck, Paula; Kangasniemi, Ilkka; Lassila, Lippo; Abdulmajeed, Aous; Närhi, Timo

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sol-gel derived bioactive coatings on the biaxial flexural strength and fibroblast proliferation of zirconia, aimed to be used as an implant abutment material. Yttrium stabilized zirconia disc-shaped specimens were cut, ground, sintered, and finally cleansed ultrasonically in each of acetone and ethanol for 5 minutes. Three experimental groups (n = 15) were fabricated, zirconia with sol-gel derived titania (TiO 2 ) coating, zirconia with sol-gel derived zirconia (ZrO 2 ) coating, and non-coated zirconia as a control. The surfaces of the specimens were analyzed through images taken using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and a non-contact tapping mode atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to record the surface topography and roughness of the coated specimens. Biaxial flexural strength values were determined using the piston-on-three ball technique. Human gingival fibroblast proliferation on the surface of the specimens was evaluated using AlamarBlue assay™. Data were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post-hoc test. Additionally, the biaxial flexural strength data was also statistically analyzed with the Weibull distribution. The biaxial flexural strength of zirconia specimens was unaffected (p > 0.05). Weibull modulus of TiO 2 coated and ZrO 2 coated groups (5.7 and 5.4, respectively) were lower than the control (8.0). Specimens coated with ZrO 2 showed significantly lower fibroblast proliferation compared to other groups (p sol-gel derived coatings have no influence on the flexural strength of zirconia. ZrO 2 coated specimens showed significantly lower cell proliferation after 12 days than TiO 2 coated or non-coated control. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2401-2407, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Porphyrinosilica and metalloporphyrinosilica: hybrid organic-inorganic materials prepared by sol-gel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamamoto; Sacco; Biazzotto; Ciuffi; Serra

    2000-01-01

    New materials porphyrinosilica and metalloporphyrinosilica template have been obtained by a sol-gel processing where functionalyzed porphyrins and metalloporphyrins "building blocks" were assembled into a three-dimensional silicate network. The optimized conditions for preparation of these materials are revised. The monomer precursors porphyrinopropylsilyl and metalloporphyrinopropylsilyl preparation reactions and subsequent one pot sol-gel processing with tetraethoxysilane are discussed. In the case of metalloporphyrins the nitrogen base coordinates to the central metal and acts as a template in the molecular imprinting technique. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic spectra, infrared spectra, luminescence spectra, surface area and electron spectroscopy imaging of the materials are used to characterize the prepared materials. The catalytic activities of these metalloporphyrinosilica-template are compared.

  5. Porphyrinosilica and metalloporphyrinosilica: hybrid organic-inorganic materials prepared by sol-gel processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YASSUKO IAMAMOTO

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available New materials porphyrinosilica and metalloporphyrinosilica template have been obtained by a sol-gel processing where functionalyzed porphyrins and metalloporphyrins "building blocks" were assembled into a three-dimensional silicate network. The optimized conditions for preparation of these materials are revised. The monomer precursors porphyrinopropylsilyl and metalloporphyrinopropylsilyl preparation reactions and subsequent one pot sol-gel processing with tetraethoxysilane are discussed. In the case of metalloporphyrins the nitrogen base coordinates to the central metal and acts as a template in the molecular imprinting technique. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic spectra, infrared spectra, luminescence spectra, surface area and electron spectroscopy imaging of the materials are used to characterize the prepared materials. The catalytic activities of these metalloporphyrinosilica- template are compared.

  6. A sol-gel method to synthesize indium tin oxide nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuhua Li; Xiujuan xu; Xin Yin; Chunzhong Li; Jianrong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles were synthesized by a novel sol-gel method.Granulated indium and tin were dissolved in HNO3 and partially complexed with citric acid.A sol-gel process was induced when tertiary butyl alcohol was added dropwise to the above solution.ITO nanoparticles with an average crystallite size of 18.5 nm and surface area of 32.6 m2/g were obtained after the gel was heat-treated at 700 C.The ITO nanoparticles showed good sinterability,the starting sintering temperature decreased sharply to 900 C,and the 1400 C sintered pellet had a density of 98.1 % of theoretical density (TD).

  7. Sol-gel derived electrode materials for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuan

    1998-12-01

    Electrochemical capacitors have been receiving increasing interest in recent years for use in energy storage systems because of their high energy and power density and long cycle lifes. Possible applications of electrochemical capacitors include high power pulsed lasers, hybrid power system for electric vehicles, etc. In this dissertation, the preparation of electrode materials for use as electrochemical capacitors has been studied using the sol-gel process. The high surface area electrode materials explored in this work include a synthetic carbon xerogel for use in a double-layer capacitor, a cobalt oxide xerogel for use in a pseudocapacitor, and a carbon-ruthenium xerogel composite, which utilizes both double-layer and faradaic capacitances. The preparation conditions of these materials were investigated in detail to maximize the surface area and optimize the pore size so that more energy could be stored while minimizing mass transfer limitations. The microstructures of the materials were also correlated with their performance as electrochemical capacitors to improve their energy and power densities. Finally, an idealistic mathematical model, including both double-layer and faradaic processes, was developed and solved numerically. This model can be used to perform the parametric studies of an electrochemical capacitor so as to gain a better understanding of how the capacitor works and also how to improve cell operations and electrode materials design.

  8. Biological influence of Ca/P ratio on calcium phosphate coatings by sol-gel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, M., E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29 (Italy); Papale, F. [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29 (Italy); Sapio, L.; Naviglio, S. [Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and General Pathology, Second University of Naples, Via L. De Crecchio 7, 80138 Naples (Italy)

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this work has been to develop low temperature sol-gel glass coatings to modify the substrate surface and to evaluate their bioactivity and biocompatibility. Glasses, based on SiO{sub 2}·CaO·P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, were synthesized by the sol-gel technique using tetraethyl orthosilicate, calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and triethyl phosphate as precursors of SiO{sub 2}, CaO and P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, respectively. Those materials, still in the sol phase, have been used to coat substrates by means of the dip-coating technique. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) has been used for characterize coatings and a microstructural analysis has been obtained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The potential applications of the coatings in the biomedical field were evaluated by bioactivity and biocompatibility tests. The coated substrate was immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 21 days and the hydroxyapatite deposition on its surface was subsequently evaluated via SEM-EDXS analysis, as an index of bone-bonding capability. In order to study the cell behavior and response to our silica based materials, prepared via the sol-gel method, with various Ca/P ratio and coating substrate, we have used the human osteoblast-like U2OS cell line. - Highlights: • Coatings consisting of SiO{sub 2}·CaO·P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glasses were prepared via sol-gel dip coating. • Ca/P molar ratio affects the film morphology and biocompatibility. • Higher cell proliferation was found in response to higher Ca/P ratios coatings. • A growth cell proliferation inhibition was observed in response to lower Ca/P ratio.

  9. Biological influence of Ca/P ratio on calcium phosphate coatings by sol-gel processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catauro, M; Papale, F; Sapio, L; Naviglio, S

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this work has been to develop low temperature sol-gel glass coatings to modify the substrate surface and to evaluate their bioactivity and biocompatibility. Glasses, based on SiO2·CaO·P2O5, were synthesized by the sol-gel technique using tetraethyl orthosilicate, calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and triethyl phosphate as precursors of SiO2, CaO and P2O5, respectively. Those materials, still in the sol phase, have been used to coat substrates by means of the dip-coating technique. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) has been used for characterize coatings and a microstructural analysis has been obtained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The potential applications of the coatings in the biomedical field were evaluated by bioactivity and biocompatibility tests. The coated substrate was immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 21days and the hydroxyapatite deposition on its surface was subsequently evaluated via SEM-EDXS analysis, as an index of bone-bonding capability. In order to study the cell behavior and response to our silica based materials, prepared via the sol-gel method, with various Ca/P ratio and coating substrate, we have used the human osteoblast-like U2OS cell line. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydroxyapatite, fluor-hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite produced via the sol-gel method: bonding to titanium and scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredwin, Christopher J; Georgiou, George; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2013-05-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA), fluor-hydroxyapatite (FHA) with varying levels of fluoride ion substitution and fluorapatite (FA) production has been characterised and optimised by the sol-gel method and the dissolution and biological properties of these materials were investigated. It was the objective of this study to investigate the potential bond strength and interaction of these materials with titanium. HA, FHA and FA were synthesised by a sol-gel method. Calcium nitrate and triethyl phosphite were used as precursors under an ethanol-water based solution. Different amounts of ammonium fluoride (NH4F) were incorporated for the preparation of the FHA and FA sol-gels. Using a spin coating technique the sol-gels were coated onto commercially pure titanium disks and crystallised at various temperatures. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and elemental analysis, the surface characteristics, coating thickness and interaction of the Ti substrate and coating were investigated. The bond strengths of the coating to the Ti were investigated using an Instron Universal Load Testing Machine. Statistical analysis was performed with a two-way analysis of variance and post hoc testing with a Bonferroni correction. (1) Coating speed inversely influenced the coating thickness. (2) Increasing fluoride ion substitution and heating temperature significantly increased bond strength and (3) increasing fluoride ion substitution increased the coating thickness. FHA and FA synthesised using the sol-gel technique may offer a superior alternative to coating titanium implants with HA and plasma spraying. HA, FHA and FA materials synthesised by the sol-gel method may also have a use as bone grafting materials. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Optical Sensors for Biomolecules Using Nanoporous Sol-Gel Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jonathan; Zhou, Jing C.; Lan, Esther H.; Dunn, Bruce; Gillman, Patricia L.; Smith, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    An important consideration for space missions to Mars is the ability to detect biosignatures. Solid-state sensing elements for optical detection of biological entities are possible using sol-gel based biologically active materials. We have used these materials as optical sensing elements in a variety of bioassays, including immunoassays and enzyme assays. By immobilizing an appropriate biomolecule in the sol-gel sensing element, we have successfully detected analytes such as amino acids and hormones. In the case of the amino acid glutamate, the enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase was the immobilized molecule, whereas in the case of the hormone cortisol, an anti-cortisol antibody was immobilized in the sensing element. In this previous work with immobilized enzymes and antibodies, excellent sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated in a variety of formats including bulk materials, thin films and fibers. We believe that the sol-gel approach is an attractive platform for bioastronautics sensing applications because of the ability to detect a wide range of entities such as amino acids, fatty acids, hopanes, porphyrins, etc. The sol-gel approach produces an optically transparent 3D silica matrix that forms around the biomolecule of interest, thus stabilizing its structure and functionality while allowing for optical detection. This encapsulation process protects the biomolecule and leads to a more "rugged" sensor. The nanoporous structure of the sol-gel matrix allows diffusion of small target molecules but keeps larger, biomolecules immobilized in the pores. We are currently developing these biologically active sol-gel materials into small portable devices for on-orbit cortisol detection

  12. Electrochemical behaviour of ceramic yttria stabilized zirconia on carbon steel synthesized via sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, M.A. Dominguez; Murillo, A. Garcia; Torres-Huerta, A.M.; Yanez-Zamora, C.; Carrillo-Romo, F. de J

    2009-01-01

    Chromate conversion coatings have been widely applied for the corrosion of different metallic substrates. However, the waste containing Cr 6+ has many limitations due to the environmental consideration and health hazards. An interesting alternative seems to be the deposition on metallic surface of thin layers of yttria or zirconia or both by the sol-gel process. In this study, Ytttria and Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ, 8% Y 2 O 3 ) thin films were used for coating commercial carbon steel substrates by sol-gel method and the dip-coating process. The evolution of organic compounds up to crystallization process as a function of heat treatments was study by FT-IR spectroscopy. The structure and morphology of the coatings were analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The anticorrosion performance of the coatings has been evaluated by using electrochemical techniques in an aggressive media (3.5 wt.% NaCl). The corrosion behaviour of sol-gel method was compared with traditional chromate conversion coatings. Differences in the electrochemical behaviour of YSZ coatings are related to the development of microcracks during the sintering process and to the presence of organic compounds during growth film. Electrochemical results showed that sol-gel YSZ and Y 2 O 3 coatings can act as protective barriers against wet corrosion; however yttria films displayed low adhesion to substrate. The corrosion parameters provide an explanation of the role of each film and show a considerable increase in the corrosion resistance for coated samples in comparison to the bare steel samples.

  13. Electrochemical behaviour of ceramic yttria stabilized zirconia on carbon steel synthesized via sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo, M.A. Dominguez, E-mail: mdominguezc@ipn.m [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Unidad Altamira (CICATA-IPN) km 14.5 Carr. Tampico-Puerto Industrial, C.P. 89600, Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Murillo, A. Garcia; Torres-Huerta, A.M. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Unidad Altamira (CICATA-IPN) km 14.5 Carr. Tampico-Puerto Industrial, C.P. 89600, Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Yanez-Zamora, C. [Estudiante del postgrado en Tecnologia Avanzada del CICATA-IPN, Unidad Altamira, km 14.5, Carr. Tampico-Puerto Industrial. C.P. 89600, Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Carrillo-Romo, F. de J [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Unidad Altamira (CICATA-IPN) km 14.5 Carr. Tampico-Puerto Industrial, C.P. 89600, Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico)

    2009-08-26

    Chromate conversion coatings have been widely applied for the corrosion of different metallic substrates. However, the waste containing Cr{sup 6+} has many limitations due to the environmental consideration and health hazards. An interesting alternative seems to be the deposition on metallic surface of thin layers of yttria or zirconia or both by the sol-gel process. In this study, Ytttria and Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ, 8% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films were used for coating commercial carbon steel substrates by sol-gel method and the dip-coating process. The evolution of organic compounds up to crystallization process as a function of heat treatments was study by FT-IR spectroscopy. The structure and morphology of the coatings were analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The anticorrosion performance of the coatings has been evaluated by using electrochemical techniques in an aggressive media (3.5 wt.% NaCl). The corrosion behaviour of sol-gel method was compared with traditional chromate conversion coatings. Differences in the electrochemical behaviour of YSZ coatings are related to the development of microcracks during the sintering process and to the presence of organic compounds during growth film. Electrochemical results showed that sol-gel YSZ and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings can act as protective barriers against wet corrosion; however yttria films displayed low adhesion to substrate. The corrosion parameters provide an explanation of the role of each film and show a considerable increase in the corrosion resistance for coated samples in comparison to the bare steel samples.

  14. Sol-gel-state of hydrated zirconium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakchiev, L.G.; Lyakhov, N.Z.

    1995-01-01

    The change in viscosity and density of a system in the course of sol-gel-xerogel has been traced. The size and molecular mass of particles in sol have been determined. Initial sol is practically a monodisperse system. Gel is a spatial net of similar particles. Reversible character of sol-gel transition with a change in water content in the system suggests instability of the bond between the particles in the structure of the solid state body formed. 11 refs.; 4 figs

  15. Silica scintillating materials prepared by sol-gel methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werst, D.W.; Sauer, M.C. Jr.; Cromack, K.R.; Lin, Y.; Tartakovsky, E.A.; Trifunac, A.D.

    1993-01-01

    Silica was investigated as a rad-hard alternative to organic polymer hosts for organic scintillators. Silica sol-gels were prepared by hydrolysis of tetramethoxysilane in alcohol solutions. organic dyes were incorporated into the gels by dissolving in methanol at the sol stage of gel formation. The silica sol-gel matrix is very rad-hard. The radiation stability of silica scintillators prepared by this method is dye-limited. Transient radioluminescence was measured following excitation with 30 ps pulses of 20 MeV electrons

  16. Functionalization of sol-gel zirconia composites with europium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danchova, Nina; Gutzov, Stoyan

    2014-01-01

    Different sol-gel strategies based on functionalization of ZrO 2 :Eu microparticles with 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and incorporation of colloidal Eu(phen) 2 (NO 3 ) 3 into zirconia have been used to obtain hybrid sol-gel composites with controlled optical properties. The process leads to materials with quantum yields of about 48 % monitoring the 615 nm emission line at 350 nm excitation. Excitation/luminescence spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction have been used to characterize the hybrid zirconia composites. (orig.)

  17. Ceramic protective coatings applied by sol-gel or electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoch, A.

    1993-01-01

    Sol-gel and electrophoresis are the complementary techniques which may be used for obtaining the ceramic coatings. The composition of such a coatings depends on the composition of electrophoresis bath or sol solution. Thermal treatment is used for densifying the coating and promoting the adherence of coating to the substrate. In presented work silica, silica-alumina or alumina coatings are applied by sol-gel dip coating procedure on steel, aluminium or ceramic substrates. Electrophoresis is employed for obtaining zirconia, alumina or hydroxyapatite coatings on stainless steel. (author). 7 refs

  18. Sol-gel processing with inorganic metal salt precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2004-10-19

    Methods for sol-gel processing that generally involve mixing together an inorganic metal salt, water, and a water miscible alcohol or other organic solvent, at room temperature with a macromolecular dispersant material, such as hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) added. The resulting homogenous solution is incubated at a desired temperature and time to result in a desired product. The methods enable production of high quality sols and gels at lower temperatures than standard methods. The methods enable production of nanosize sols from inorganic metal salts. The methods offer sol-gel processing from inorganic metal salts.

  19. Innovative Sol-Gel Routes for the Bottom-up Preparation of Heterogeneous Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debecker, Damien P

    2017-12-11

    Heterogeneous catalysts can be prepared by different methods offering various levels of control on the final properties of the solid. In this account, we exemplify bottom-up preparation routes that are based on the sol-gel chemistry and allow to tailor some decisive properties of solid catalysts. First, an emulsion templating strategy is shown to lead to macrocellular self-standing monoliths with a macroscopic 3D structure. The latter can be used as catalyst or catalyst supports in flow chemistry, without requiring any subsequent shaping step. Second, the aerosol-assisted sol-gel process allows for the one-step and continuous production of porous mixed oxides. Tailored textural properties can be obtained together with an excellent control on composition and homogeneity. Third, the application of non-hydrolytic sol-gel routes, in the absence of water, leads to mixed oxides with outstanding textural properties and with peculiar surface chemistry. In all cases, the resulting catalytic performance can be correlated with the specificities of the preparation routes presented. This is exemplified in catalytic reactions in the fields of biomass conversion, petro chemistry, enantioselective organic synthesis, and air pollution mitigation. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Sol-gel-immobilized Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) electrogenerated chemiluminescence sensor for high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Han Nim; Cho, Sung-Hee; Park, Yu-Jin; Lee, Dai Woon; Lee, Won-Yong

    2005-01-01

    The sol-gel-immobilized Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) [Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ] electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) sensor was applied to the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination of phenothiazine derivatives (promazine, chlorpromazine, triflupromazine, thioridazine, and trifluoperazine) and erythromycin in human urine samples. In this method, Ru(bpy) 3 2+ was immobilized in sol-gel-derived titania (TiO 2 )-Nafion nanocomposite films coated on a dual platinum electrode. This method eliminates an extra pump needed for the delivery of Ru(bpy) 3 2+ reagent into a reaction/observation zone in front of photomultiplier tube because the immobilized-Ru(bpy) 3 2+ is recycled on the electrode surface by an applied potential at +1.3 V versus Ag/AgCl (3 M NaCl) reference electrode. The resulting analytical performances such as detection limit, working range, sensitivity, and measurement precision were slightly worse than those obtained with the conventional post-column Ru(bpy) 3 2+ addition approach. The lack of significant interferences and the low detection limits for phenothiazine derivatives and erythromycin indicate that the proposed HPLC-Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL detection method is suitable for the determination of those compounds in biological fluids

  1. Influence of silane on the structure of polystyrene prepared by sol-gel coatings via UV curing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbay Senay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Light, heat, oxygen, moisture, ozone, atmospheric pollution and biological effects are the most important effectives wreak to chemical degradation in the polymer structure. In result of chemical degradation on the polymer consist of problems such as discoloration, brittleness, surface cracks, perspiration, crumbling, smell, surface acidity. In this work, it is aimed to improve the problem of the polystyrene (PS material against chemical degradation. For this reason, PS is coated with silica sol-gel hybrid coating. Silica sol-gel was synthesized by using vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS as a cross-linker and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS as a silica source. Firstly, four different pre-treatment technique (oven, vacuum oven, lyophilizer and freezing was studied to determine the most suitable pre-treatment technique for coating on PS substrate of sol-gel prepared with initial formulation (S1. A freezing technique gave the best results for coating sample. The change of surface colour of coated PS was measured by CIE L*a*b* methods. Secondly, the most suitable curing agent (Irgacure 184, Irgacure 819, Darocur 1173 and TiO2 as crystalline anatase phase was determined to coat the sol-gel on PS. It was determined to the lowest yellowing of PS surface hybrid coated as UV curing of TEOS sol modified by VTMS and TiO2 as photo-initiators. Finally, the chemical and morphological structure of the coated PS samples was determined by FT-IR and SEM instruments, respectively.

  2. Sol-gel coatings on carbon/carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, S.M.; Krabill, R.M.; Dalzell, W.J. Jr.; Chu, P.Y.; Clark, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    The need for structural materials that can withstand severe environments up to 4000 0 F has promulgated the investigation of sol-gel derived ceramic and composite coatings on carbon/carbon composite materials. Alumina and zirconia sols have been deposited via thermophoresis on carbon/carbon substrates

  3. Process of forming a sol-gel/metal hydride composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, James W [Aiken, SC

    2009-03-17

    An external gelation process is described which produces granules of metal hydride particles contained within a sol-gel matrix. The resulting granules are dimensionally stable and are useful for applications such as hydrogen separation and hydrogen purification. An additional coating technique for strengthening the granules is also provided.

  4. Stoichiometric hydroxyapatite obtained by precipitation and sol gel processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman V, C.; Pina B, C.; Munguia, N. [IIM-UNAM, A.P. 70-360, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: caroguz@servidor.unam.mx

    2005-07-01

    Three methods for obtaining hydroxyapatite (HA) are described. HA is a very interesting ceramic because of its many medical applications. The first two precipitation methods start from calcium and phosphorous compounds, whereas the third method is a sol-gel process that uses alkoxides. The products were characterized and compared. The observed differences are important for practical applications. (Author)

  5. Analyses of laser and furnace treated sol-gel coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hosson, JT; De Haas, M; Sudarshan, TS; Jeandin, M; Khor, KA

    1998-01-01

    Here we explore a new method that allows thin films to be made with almost any composition and degree of porosity by means of a combination of sol-gel and laser technology. Results are presented for furnace and laser treated TEOTI-(tetraethylorthotitanate as sol precursor) coated silicon samples.

  6. A Sol-gel Integrated Dual-readout Microarray Platform for Quantification and Identification of Prostate-specific Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, SangWook; Lee, Jong Hyun; Kwon, Hyuck Gi; Laurell, Thomas; Jeong, Ok Chan; Kim, Soyoun

    2018-01-01

    Here, we report a sol-gel integrated affinity microarray for on-chip matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) that enables capture and identification of prostate?specific antigen (PSA) in samples. An anti-PSA antibody (H117) was mixed with a sol?gel, and the mixture was spotted onto a porous silicon (pSi) surface without additional surface modifications. The antibody easily penetrates the sol-gel macropore fluidic network structure, making possible high affinities. To assess the capture affinity of the platform, we performed a direct assay using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled PSA. Pure PSA was subjected to on-chip MALDI-TOF-MS analysis, yielding three clear mass peptide peaks (m/z = 1272, 1407, and 1872). The sol-gel microarray platform enables dual readout of PSA both fluorometric and MALDI-TOF MS analysis in biological samples. Here we report a useful method for a means for discovery of biomarkers in complex body fluids.

  7. ITO/Poly(Aniline/Sol-Gel Glass: An Optically Transparent, pH-Responsive Substrate for Supported Lipid Bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Obeidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Described here is fabrication of a pH-sensitive, optically transparent transducer composed of a planar indium-tin oxide (ITO electrode overcoated with a poly(aniline (PANI thin film and a porous sol-gel layer. Adsorption of the PANI film renders the ITO electrode sensitive to pH, whereas the sol-gel spin-coated layer makes the upper surface compatible with fusion of phospholipid vesicles to form a planar supported lipid bilayer (PSLB. The response to changes in the pH of the buffer contacting the sol-gel/PANI/ITO electrode is pseudo-Nernstian with a slope of 52 mV/pH over a pH range of 4–9. Vesicle fusion forms a laterally continuous PSLB on the upper sol-gel surface that is fluid with a lateral lipid diffusion coefficient of 2.2 μm2/s measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. Due to its lateral continuity and lack of defects, the PSLB blocks the pH response of the underlying electrode to changes in the pH of the overlying buffer. This architecture is simpler to fabricate than previously reported ITO electrodes derivatized for PSLB formation and should be useful for optical monitoring of proton transport across supported membranes derivatized with ionophores and ion channels.

  8. The application of silicon sol-gel technology to forensic blood substitute development: Mimicking aspects of whole human blood rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotesbury, Theresa; Illes, Mike; Wilson, Paul; Vreugdenhil, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Solution-gelation chemistry has promising applications in forensic synthetic blood substitute development. This research offers a silicon-based sol-gel approach to creating stable materials that share similar rheological properties to that of whole human blood samples. Room temperature, high water content, silicon sol-gels were created using the organosilane precursors 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and tetraethylorthosilicate along with various concentrations of filler and pigment. Shear-thinning non-Newtonian properties were observed within most formulations of the presented materials. The effects of colloidal concentration, temperature, age and filler addition on the viscosity of the sol-gels were investigated. SEM-EDS analysis was used to identify the behavior of the fillers within the film and support their inclusion for basic bloodstain pattern simulation. A final proposed candidate sol-gel was assessed using a previously reported passive drip simulation test on a hard, dry surface and passed. This works represents encouraging development in providing safe material alternatives to using whole human blood for forensic training and research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. COMPARISON OF SOL-GEL SILICATE COATINGS ON Ti SUBSTRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA HORKAVCOVÁ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the submitted work was to prepare and to characterize two types of silicate coatings prepared by the sol-gel method using the dip-coating technique on a titanium substrate. Efforts have been made to use mechanical properties of bio-inert titanium and bioactive properties of a silicate layer enriched with an admixture of compounds identified below. The first group consisted of silicate coatings containing silver, brushite and monetite. The other group of silicate coatings contained calcium nitrate and triethyl phosphate. Mechanically and chemically treated titanium substrates were dipped into sols and dried and fired. Silicate coatings from the first group were also chemically treated in 10 mol.l-1 solution of sodium hydroxide. All coatings were measured to determine their adhesive and bioactive properties and furthermore the antibacterial properties were tested in the case of first group. Surfaces of the coated substrates were investigated after the firing and after the individual tests with optical and electron microscopy and X-ray microdiffraction. A tape test demonstrated excellent adhesive property of all coatings to the substrate, classified with degree 5. A static in vitro test demonstrated bioactivity of nearly all the coatings. The basic silicate coating from the first group and one type of coating from the second group were identified as inert. Antibacterial properties of silicate coatings containing silver showed to be different when tested against Escherichia coli bacteria. A complete inhibition of the growth of bacteria under our experimental conditions was observed for the coating containing silver and monetite and a partial inhibition of the growth of bacteria for coatings containing silver and silver in combination with brushite.

  10. Lithium ceramics: sol-gel preparation and tritium release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renoult, O.

    1994-04-01

    Ceramics based on lithium aluminate (LiA1O 2 ), lithium zirconate (Li 2 ZrO 3 ) and lithium titanate (Li 2 TiO 3 ) are candidates as tritium breeder blanket materials for forthcoming nuclear fusion reactors. Lithium silico-aluminate Li 4+x A1 4-3x Si 2x O 8 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0,25) powders were synthetized from alkoxyde-hydroxyde sol-gel route. By direct sintering at 850-1100 deg C (without prior calcination), ceramics with controlled stoichiometry and homogenous microstructure were obtained. We have also prepared, using a comparable method, Li 2 Zr 1-x Ti x O 3 (x = 0, x = 0,1 et x = 1) materials. All these ceramics, with different microstructures and compositions, have been tested in out-of-reactor experiments. Concerning lithium aluminate microporous ceramics, the silicon substitution leads to a significant improvement of the tritrium release. Classical models taking into account independent surface mechanisms are not able to describe correctly the observed tritium release kinetics. We show, using a simple model, that the release kinetics is in fact limited by an intergranular diffusion followed by a desorption. The delay in tritium release, which occurs when the ceramic compacity increases, is explained in terms of an enhancement of the ionic T + diffusion path length. The energy required for desorption includes a leading term independent of hydrogen contained in the sweep gas. This term is attributed to the limiting recombination step of T + in molecular species HTO. For similar microstructures, the facility of tritium release for the different studied materials is explained by three properties: the crystal structure of the ceramic, the acidity of oxides and finally the presence of electronic non-stoichiometric defects. (author). 89 refs., 50 figs., 2 tabs., 1 annexe

  11. SOL-GEL SILICA-BASED Ag–Ca–P COATINGS WITH AGRESSIVE PRETREATMENT OF TITANIUM SUBSTRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA BORSHCHEVA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was the obtaining of thin silica coatings on titanium by sol-gel method, using mechanical (SiC - paper No.180 and chemical (leaching in HF pretreatments of the titanium substrates. The solutions were based on TEOS. For the sol-gel dipping process 4 different solutions were prepared: silica, silica with AgNO3 and silica + AgNO3 with brushite (CaHPO4·2H2O or monetite (CaHPO4 powders. The solutions were aged for 7 and 14 days at laboratory temperature. After sol-gel dip-coating process the samples were dried and fired. The adhesion of fired coatings was measured by tape test according to ASTM procedure and the bioactivity of the coatings was tested using in vitro test. The surfaces of the samples after firing, tape test and in vitro test were observed with the optical and electron microscopes. The firing results showed that silica-silver coatings did not change, brushite sol-gel coatings have cracked and the monetite sol-gel coatings have cracked also, but less than brushite ones. In spite of coating´s crackings, the square’s frames made on the surfaces were without any breakdowns after tape tests and the adhesion of all coatings was very good, classified by the highest grade 5. The results of in vitro tests showed that all coatings interacted with simulated body fluid (SBF. After exposition in SBF the new layer formed on substrates. In case of 7 days aged coatings containing brushite the new layer was uniform and compact. In case of 7 days aged coatings containing monetite the new layer was formed by crystals aggregated tightly together. The monetite and brushite coatings prepared from 14 days aged sol were the same as previous ones, but they were thicker. X-ray analyses after in vitro test confirmed dellaite, titanate and hydroxyapatite phases.

  12. Lithium ceramics: sol-gel preparation and tritium release; Ceramiques lithiees: elaboration sol-gel et relachement du tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renoult, O

    1994-04-01

    Ceramics based on lithium aluminate (LiA1O{sub 2}), lithium zirconate (Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}) and lithium titanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) are candidates as tritium breeder blanket materials for forthcoming nuclear fusion reactors. Lithium silico-aluminate Li{sub 4+x}A1{sub 4-3x}Si{sub 2x}O{sub 8} (0 {<=} x {<=} 0,25) powders were synthetized from alkoxyde-hydroxyde sol-gel route. By direct sintering at 850-1100 deg C (without prior calcination), ceramics with controlled stoichiometry and homogenous microstructure were obtained. We have also prepared, using a comparable method, Li{sub 2}Zr{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3} (x = 0, x = 0,1 et x = 1) materials. All these ceramics, with different microstructures and compositions, have been tested in out-of-reactor experiments. Concerning lithium aluminate microporous ceramics, the silicon substitution leads to a significant improvement of the tritrium release. Classical models taking into account independent surface mechanisms are not able to describe correctly the observed tritium release kinetics. We show, using a simple model, that the release kinetics is in fact limited by an intergranular diffusion followed by a desorption. The delay in tritium release, which occurs when the ceramic compacity increases, is explained in terms of an enhancement of the ionic T{sup +} diffusion path length. The energy required for desorption includes a leading term independent of hydrogen contained in the sweep gas. This term is attributed to the limiting recombination step of T{sup +} in molecular species HTO. For similar microstructures, the facility of tritium release for the different studied materials is explained by three properties: the crystal structure of the ceramic, the acidity of oxides and finally the presence of electronic non-stoichiometric defects. (author). 89 refs., 50 figs., 2 tabs., 1 annexe.

  13. Evaluation of sol-gel based magnetic 45S5 bioglass and bioglass-ceramics containing iron oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankhwar, Nisha; Srinivasan, A

    2016-05-01

    Multicomponent oxide powders with nominal compositions of (45-x)·SiO2·24.5CaO·24.5Na2O·6P2O5xFe2O3 (in wt.%) were prepared by a modified sol-gel procedure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and high resolution transmission electron microscope images of the sol-gel products show fully amorphous structure for Fe2O3 substitutions up to 2 wt.%. Sol-gel derived 43SiO2·24.5CaO·24.5Na2O·6P2O5·2Fe2O3 glass (or bioglass 45S5 with SiO2 substituted with 2 wt.% Fe2O3), exhibited magnetic behavior with a coercive field of 21 Oe, hysteresis loop area of 33.25 erg/g and saturation magnetization of 0.66 emu/g at an applied field of 15 kOe at room temperature. XRD pattern of this glass annealed at 850 °C for 1h revealed the formation of a glass-ceramic containing sodium calcium silicate and magnetite phases in nanocrystalline form. Temperature dependent magnetization and room temperature electron spin resonance data have been used to obtain information on the magnetic phase and distribution of iron ions in the sol-gel glass and glass-ceramic samples. Sol-gel derived glass and glass-ceramic exhibit in-vitro bioactivity by forming a hydroxyapatite surface layer under simulated physiological conditions and their bio-response is superior to their melt quenched bulk counterparts. This new form of magnetic bioglass and bioglass ceramics opens up new and more effective biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Luminescent hybrid porphyrinosilica obtained by sol gel chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neri Cláudio Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sol-gel process is a methodology used to obtain organic-inorganic hybrid solids, which open new possibilities in the field of material science. The sol-gel technique offers a low temperature attractive approach for introducing organic molecules into amorphous materials. In order to introduce tetrakis (2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenylporphyrin covalently bounded to a silicate matrix, the inorganic precursor 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane was added (molar ratio 2:1 to the porphyrin solution in anhydrous dimethylformamide and triethylamine. The isolated porphyrin and the hybrid porphyrinosilica have excitation maximum centred at 400 nm and 424 nm, respectively and the emission spectra for both materials has bands centred at 650 nm and 713 nm. The formation of hybrid matrix was investigated by FTIR.

  15. Tough ceramic coatings: Carbon nanotube reinforced silica sol-gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A. J.; Rico, A.; Rodríguez, J.; Rams, J.

    2010-08-01

    Silica coatings reinforced with carbon nanotubes were produced via sol-gel route using two mixing techniques of the sol-gel precursors, mechanical and ultrasonic mixing, and dip-coating as deposition process on magnesium alloy substrates. Effective incorporation and distribution of 0.1 wt.% of carbon nanotubes in the amorphous silica matrix of the coatings were achieved using both techniques. Fabrication procedure determines the morphological aspects of the coating. Only mechanical mixing process produced coatings dense and free of defects. Nanoindentation technique was used to examine the influence of the fabrication process in the mechanical features of the final coatings, i.e. indentation fracture toughness, Young's modulus and hardness. A maximum toughening effect of about 24% was achieved in silica coatings reinforced with carbon nanotubes produced by the mechanical mixing route. Scanning electron microscopy investigation revealed that the toughening of these reinforced coatings was mainly due to bridging effect of the reinforcement.

  16. Electrophoretic deposition of sol-gel-derived ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Crooks, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the physical, optical, and chemical characteristics of electrophoretically and dip-coated sol-gel ceramic films are compared. The results indicate that electrophoresis may allow a higher level of control over the chemistry and structure of ceramic coatings than dip-coating techniques. For example, controlled-thickness sol-gel coatings can be prepared by adjusting the deposition time or voltage. Additionally, electrophoretic coatings can be prepared in a four-component alumino-borosilicate sol display interesting optical characteristics. For example, the ellipsometrically-measured refractive indices of electrophoretic coatings are higher than the refractive indices of dip-coated films cast from identical sols, and they are also higher than any of the individual sol components. This result suggests that there are physical and/or chemical differences between films prepared by dip-coating and electrophoresis

  17. Epoxy-silica hybrids by nonaqueous sol-gel process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ponyrko, Sergii; Kobera, Libor; Brus, Jiří; Matějka, Libor

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 23 (2013), s. 6271-6282 ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/1459 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200500903 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : epoxy-silica hybrid * nonaqueous sol-gel process * gelation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.766, year: 2013

  18. Functionalizable Sol-Gel Silica Coatings for Corrosion Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąsiorek, Jolanta; Babiarczuk, Bartosz; Kaleta, Jerzy; Jones, Walis; Krzak, Justyna

    2018-01-01

    Corrosion is constantly a major problem of the world economy in the field of metal products, metal processing and other areas that utilise metals. Previously used compounds utilizing hexavalent chromium were amongst the most effective materials for corrosion protection but regulations have been recently introduced that forbid their use. Consequently, there is a huge drive by engineers, technologists and scientists from different disciplines focused on searching a new, more effective and environmentally-friendly means of corrosion protection. One novel group of materials with the potential to solve metal protection problems are sol-gel thin films, which are increasingly interesting as mitigation corrosion barriers. These environmentally-friendly and easy-to-obtain coatings have the promise to be an effective alternative to hexavalent chromium compounds using for anti-corrosion industrial coatings. In this review the authors present a range of different solutions for slow down the corrosion processes of metallic substrates by using the oxides and doped oxides obtained by the sol-gel method. Examples of techniques used to the sol-gel coating examinations, in terms of anti-corrosion protection, are also presented. PMID:29373540

  19. Functionalizable Sol-Gel Silica Coatings for Corrosion Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Gąsiorek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is constantly a major problem of the world economy in the field of metal products, metal processing and other areas that utilise metals. Previously used compounds utilizing hexavalent chromium were amongst the most effective materials for corrosion protection but regulations have been recently introduced that forbid their use. Consequently, there is a huge drive by engineers, technologists and scientists from different disciplines focused on searching a new, more effective and environmentally-friendly means of corrosion protection. One novel group of materials with the potential to solve metal protection problems are sol-gel thin films, which are increasingly interesting as mitigation corrosion barriers. These environmentally-friendly and easy-to-obtain coatings have the promise to be an effective alternative to hexavalent chromium compounds using for anti-corrosion industrial coatings. In this review the authors present a range of different solutions for slow down the corrosion processes of metallic substrates by using the oxides and doped oxides obtained by the sol-gel method. Examples of techniques used to the sol-gel coating examinations, in terms of anti-corrosion protection, are also presented.

  20. Functionalizable Sol-Gel Silica Coatings for Corrosion Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąsiorek, Jolanta; Szczurek, Anna; Babiarczuk, Bartosz; Kaleta, Jerzy; Jones, Walis; Krzak, Justyna

    2018-01-26

    Corrosion is constantly a major problem of the world economy in the field of metal products, metal processing and other areas that utilise metals. Previously used compounds utilizing hexavalent chromium were amongst the most effective materials for corrosion protection but regulations have been recently introduced that forbid their use. Consequently, there is a huge drive by engineers, technologists and scientists from different disciplines focused on searching a new, more effective and environmentally-friendly means of corrosion protection. One novel group of materials with the potential to solve metal protection problems are sol-gel thin films, which are increasingly interesting as mitigation corrosion barriers. These environmentally-friendly and easy-to-obtain coatings have the promise to be an effective alternative to hexavalent chromium compounds using for anti-corrosion industrial coatings. In this review the authors present a range of different solutions for slow down the corrosion processes of metallic substrates by using the oxides and doped oxides obtained by the sol-gel method. Examples of techniques used to the sol-gel coating examinations, in terms of anti-corrosion protection, are also presented.

  1. Sol-gel processing of bioactive glass nanoparticles: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kai; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2017-11-01

    Silicate-based bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGN) are gaining increasing attention in various biomedical applications due to their unique properties. Controlled synthesis of BGN is critical to their effective use in biomedical applications since BGN characteristics, such as morphology and composition, determining the properties of BGN, are highly related to the synthesis process. In the last decade, numerous investigations focusing on BGN synthesis have been reported. BGN can mainly be produced through the conventional melt-quench approach or by sol-gel methods. The latter approaches are drawing widespread attention, considering the convenience and versatility they offer to tune the properties of BGN. In this paper, we review the strategies of sol-gel processing of BGN, including those adopting different catalysts for initiating the hydrolysis and condensation of silicate precursors as well as those combining sol-gel chemistry with other techniques. The processes and mechanism of different synthesis approaches are introduced and discussed in detail. Considering the importance of the BGN morphology and composition to their biomedical applications, strategies put forward to control the size, shape, pore structure and composition of BGN are discussed. BGN are particularly interesting biomaterials for bone-related applications, however, they also have potential for other biomedical applications, e.g. in soft tissue regeneration/repair. Therefore, in the last part of this review, recently reported applications of BGN in soft tissue repair and wound healing are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Influence of Microgravity on Silica Sol-Gel Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, L.; Smith, D. D.; Cronise, R.; Hunt, A. J.; Wolfe, D. B.; Snow, L. A.; Oldenberg, S.; Halas, N.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We discuss space-flight experiments involving the growth of silica particles and gels. The effect of microgravity on the growth of silica particles via the sol-gel route is profound. In four different recipes spanning a large range of the parameter space that typically produces silica nanoparticles in unit-gravity, low-density gel structures were instead formed in microgravity. The particles that did form were generally smaller and more polydisperse than those grown on the ground. These observations suggest that microgravity reduces the particle growth rate, allowing unincorporated species to form aggregates and ultimately gel. Hence microgravity favors the formation of more rarefied structures, providing a bias towards diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation. These results further suggest that in unit gravity, fluid flows and sedimentation can significantly perturb sol-gel substructures prior to gelation and these deleterious perturbations may be "frozen" into the resulting microstructure. Hence, sol-gel pores may be expected to be smaller, more uniform, and less rough when formed in microgravity.

  3. Synthesis of cadmium tungstate films via sol-gel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennstrom, Kirk; Limmer, Steven J.; Cao Guozhong

    2003-06-23

    Cadmium tungstate is a scintillator material with excellent intrinsic photoluminescent properties. It is highly resistant to gamma radiation, has an almost non-existent afterglow and is highly efficient. Cadmium tungstate is also non-hydroscopic, unlike the more prevalent thallium-doped alkali halide scintillators. In order to create thin films of cadmium tungstate with precise stoichiometric control, a sol-gel processing technique has been applied to produce this material for the first time. In addition to lower processing temperatures, sol-gel-derived cadmium tungstate is cheaper and easier than other technologies, particularly for thin films. Furthermore, it has the potential to produce nanostructured materials with good optical quality. X-Ray diffraction results of sol-gel-derived materials fired at various temperatures imply crystallization of cadmium tungstate without the intermediate formation of either tungsten oxide or cadmium oxide. Scanning electron microscopy analysis shows the formation of nano-sized particles prior to heat treatment, which form meso-sized particles after the heat treatment. Photoluminesce analysis indicates emission of derived films at 480 nm, which agrees with other published data. Finally, the efficiency of derived films was approximately 6%{+-}1.8%.

  4. Thermal properties and water repellency of cotton fabric prepared through sol-gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Jia-Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton fabrics were treated by one-step sol-gel method. The pure silica hydrosol and phosphorus-doped hydrosol were prepared with the addition of a hydrophobic hexadecyltrimethoxysilane to decrease the surface energy of cotton fabric. The thermal properties and water repellency of treated cotton fabric were characterized by thermo-gravimetric analysis, micro combustion, limiting oxygen index, and contact angle measurement. The results showed that cotton fabric treated by phosphorus-doped silica hydrosol had excellent flame retardance, and the water repellence was apparently improved with the addition of hexadecyltrimethoxysilane.

  5. The development and characterization of sol-gel substrates for chemical and optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Kevin William

    1998-12-01

    The sol gel process can be used to make monolithic porous glass for various scientific and engineering uses. The porosity of the material imparts a large surface area which is advantageous in applications such as catalyst supports or in the study of surface mediated chemical reactions. The chemical stability and transparency of the porous glass also make it suitable for use in the emerging field of optical sensors. In this study fluoride catalysis is used to produce sol gel monoliths with pore radii of up to 400 Angstroms, four times larger than any previously reported using conventional drying techniques. Gel monoliths with pore radii of 200 Angstroms were found to have the best combination of surface area, pore volume and optical transparency. Typical monoliths have surface areas of 150 m2/g and pore volumes of 1.60 cm3/g with good transparency. The monoliths are chemically stable, have good mechanical strength and can be easily rehydrated without cracking. The substrates are also suitable for sintering into dense high purity silica glass with little tendency towards foaming. An in-depth study of the catalytic effect of fluoride on the sol gel process is also included. It has been theorized that fluoride serves to expand the coordination sphere of the silicon center making it more subject to nucleophilic attack. In this work an ion-specific fluoride electrode is used to monitor free fluoride concentrations in HF catalyzed sols while silicic acid is added in the form of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). It is found that fluoride is rapidly bound by the silicic acid in a ratio of four to one, indicating the formation of silicon tetrafluoride. A concurrent decrease in pH suggests that a pentacoordinate species is formed that is more stable than previously thought. A polymerization mechanism is proposed that explains the hydrophobicity of fluoride catalyzed gels and the difficulty in retaining structural fluoride in fluoride catalyzed sol gel glasses. Finally, several

  6. Monolithic lithium-based aerogels via dispersed inorganic sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Shufang; Zhou Bin; Du Ai; Xu Xiang; Yang Xiaoyun; Shen Jun; Wu Guangming; Zhang Zhihua; Wan Huijun

    2008-01-01

    Monolithic lithium-based aerogels were prepared by poly acrylic acid (PAA) and propylene oxide (PO) via the dispersed inorganic sol-gel method and drying with CO 2 supercritical fluid dry process. The density of the prepared sample is about 150 g/m 3 . The microstructure of the lithium-based aerogels was characterized by TEM, IR, XPS and BET. The results show that the material mainly contains Li, C and O element s. BET surface area is up to 18.9 m 2 /g. (authors)

  7. Ultraviolet Stimulated Emission from Sol-Gel Spin Coated ZnO Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Razeen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Low cost ultraviolet stimulated emission has been generated using optical excitation of ZnO thin films deposited by sol-gel spin coating on n+ As-doped 100 Si-substrate. The number of deposited layers and the heat treatment have been investigated to obtain a film that can generate stimulated emission under optical excitation. The optimum condition for preparation of the film has been presented. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope have been used for structural and morphological investigations. Input-output intensity dependence and spectral width, peak emission wavelength, and the quantum efficiency versus the pump intensity have been presented. A quantum efficiency of about 24.2% has been reported, a power exponent higher than 8 has been obtained in input-output intensity dependence, and a threshold of about 23 Mw/cm2 has been evaluated for the samples. The mechanism by which stimulated emission occurs has been discussed. The results show that sol-gel spin coating is a promising method for generating ultraviolet stimulated emission from ZnO thin films.

  8. Evaluation of hybrid sol-gel incorporated with nanoparticles as nano paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameel, Zainab N.; Haider, Adawiya J.; Taha, Samar Y.; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra; Bok, Sangho

    2016-01-01

    A coating with self-cleaning characteristics has been developed using a TiO_2/SiO_2 hybrid sol-gel, TiO_2 nanoparticles and organosilicate nanoparticles (OSNP). A patented technology of the hybrid sol-gel and OSNP was combined with TiO_2 nanoparticles to create the surface chemistry for self-cleaning. Two synthesis methods have been developed to prepare TiO_2 nanoparticles (NPs), resulting in the enhancement of local paint by the addition of anatase and rutile TiO_2 phases. The NPs size as determined by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) ranges within of (3-4) and (20-42) nm, which was also confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The nanoparticles showed surface charge (zeta-potential, ζ) of +35 and +25.62 mV for the methods, respectively, and ζ values of +41.31 and 34.02 mV for anatase and rutile phases, respectively. The NPs were mixed with the coating solution (i.e., hybrid sol-gel and OSNP) in different concentrations and thin films were prepared by spin coating. Self-cleaning tests were performed using Rhodamine B (RhB) as a pollution indicator. The effect of UV-irradiation on the films was also studied. Anatase and rutile incorporated as a mixture with different ratios in local paint and washability as well as a contrast ratio tests were performed. It was found that the addition of TiO_2 NPs in combination with irradiation show a great enhancement of RhB degradation (1%) wt. with a decrease in contact angle and improved washability.

  9. Evaluation of hybrid sol-gel incorporated with nanoparticles as nano paint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameel, Zainab N., E-mail: zeinb76-alrekbe@yahoo.com; Haider, Adawiya J., E-mail: adawiyahaider@yahoo.com [Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Research Center, The University of Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); Taha, Samar Y., E-mail: samarjam2002@yahoo.com [College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad, Baghdad (Iraq); Gangopadhyay, Shubhra, E-mail: gangopadhyays@missouri.edu; Bok, Sangho, E-mail: BokSa@missouri.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer, University of Missouri, Engineering, Building West, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)

    2016-07-25

    A coating with self-cleaning characteristics has been developed using a TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} hybrid sol-gel, TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and organosilicate nanoparticles (OSNP). A patented technology of the hybrid sol-gel and OSNP was combined with TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles to create the surface chemistry for self-cleaning. Two synthesis methods have been developed to prepare TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs), resulting in the enhancement of local paint by the addition of anatase and rutile TiO{sub 2} phases. The NPs size as determined by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) ranges within of (3-4) and (20-42) nm, which was also confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The nanoparticles showed surface charge (zeta-potential, ζ) of +35 and +25.62 mV for the methods, respectively, and ζ values of +41.31 and 34.02 mV for anatase and rutile phases, respectively. The NPs were mixed with the coating solution (i.e., hybrid sol-gel and OSNP) in different concentrations and thin films were prepared by spin coating. Self-cleaning tests were performed using Rhodamine B (RhB) as a pollution indicator. The effect of UV-irradiation on the films was also studied. Anatase and rutile incorporated as a mixture with different ratios in local paint and washability as well as a contrast ratio tests were performed. It was found that the addition of TiO{sub 2} NPs in combination with irradiation show a great enhancement of RhB degradation (1%) wt. with a decrease in contact angle and improved washability.

  10. Sol-gel processes. January 1970-September 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the development and utilization of sol-gel processes and techniques. Topics include antireflective coatings, studies of sol-gel transitions, sol-gel synthesis and polymerization, sol-gel derived thin films and glasses, and sol-gel production of microspheres. Applications in nuclear waste management, nuclear-fuel manufacturing, glass optical waveguide development, and solar-energy collection are presented. (This updated bibliography contains 179 citations, 39 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  11. Synthesis of phthalocyanine doped sol-gel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    The synthesis of sol-gel silica materials doped with three different types of metallophthalocyanines has been studied. Homogeneous materials of good optical quality were prepared and the first optical limiting measurements of dyes in sol-gel hosts were carried out. The properties of these solid state limiters are similar to limiters based on phthalocyanine (Pc) in solution. Sol-gel silica materials containing copper, tin and germanium phthalocyanines were investigated. The initial step in all cases was to prepare silica sols by the sonogel method using tetramethoxy silane (TMOS), HCl and distilled water. Thereafter, the synthesis depended upon the specific Pc and its solubility characteristics. Copper phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid tetra sodium salt (CuPc4S) is soluble in water and various doping levels (1 x 10 (exp -4) M to 1 x 10 (exp -5) M) were added to the sol. The group IV Pc's, SnPc(OSi(n-hexyl)3)2 and GePc(OSi(n-hexyl)3)2, are insoluble in water and the process was changed accordingly. In these cases, the compounds were dissolved in THF and then added to the sol. The Pc concentration in the sol was 2 x 10(exp -5)M. The samples were then aged and dried in the standard method of making xerogel monoliths. Comparative nanosecond optical limiting experiments were performed on silica xerogels that were doped with the different metallophthalocyanines. The ratio of the net excited state absorption cross section (sigma(sub e)) to the ground state cross section (sigma(sub g)) is an important figure of merit that is used to characterize these materials. By this standard the SnPc sample exhibits the best limiting for the Pc doped sol-gel materials. Its cross section ratio of 19 compares favorably with the value of 22 that was measured in toluene. The GePc materials appear to not be as useful as those containing SnPc. The GePc doped solids exhibit a higher onset energy (2.5 mj and lower cross section ratio, 7. The CuPc4S sol-gel material has a still lower cross

  12. Investigation of sol-gel antireflective coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, A.; Guardalben, M.; Chipp, T.

    1984-03-01

    Very high power laser systems present material design challenges which often approach the inherent optical survival strength of components. Optical coatings in the UV region suffer from anomalously high absorption and scattering in the deposited layers. The losses caused by these effects are often unacceptable or, in the case of absorption, usually fatal to the absorbing coatings. Unfortunately, no metals exist that have high enough reflectivities in the UV to serve as uncoated mirrors as they normally do in the CO 2 region of the infrared. Adequate multilayer dielectric coatings are therefore critically important for the development and utilization of UV lasers. The same could be said for relfection suppressing antireflective coatings in that wavelength range. Antireflective properties of gradientindex designs have been rediscovered and their potential for resolving UV laser design difficulties has been vigorously tested. These antireflective properties have been attained on glass or fused silica surfaces by chemical surface treatments

  13. Development of vapor deposited silica sol-gel particles for use as a bioactive materials system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Katherine L; Holmes, Hallie R; VanWagner, Michael J; Hartman, Natalie J; Rajachar, Rupak M

    2013-06-01

    Silica-based sol-gel and bioglass materials are used in a variety of biomedical applications including the surface modification of orthopedic implants and tissue engineering scaffolds. In this work, a simple system for vapor depositing silica sol-gel nano- and micro-particles onto substrates using nebulizer technology has been developed and characterized. Particle morphology, size distribution, and degradation can easily be controlled through key formulation and manufacturing parameters including water:alkoxide molar ratio, pH, deposition time, and substrate character. These particles can be used as a means to rapidly modify substrate surface properties, including surface hydrophobicity (contact angle changes >15°) and roughness (RMS roughness changes of up to 300 nm), creating unique surface topography. Ions (calcium and phosphate) were successfully incorporated into particles, and induced apatitie-like mineral formation upon exposure to simulated body fluid Preosteoblasts (MC3T3) cultured with these particles showed up to twice the adhesivity within 48 h when compared to controls, potentially indicating an increase in cell proliferation, with the effect likely due to both the modified substrate properties as well as the release of silica ions. This novel method has the potential to be used with implants and tissue engineering materials to influence cell behavior including attachment, proliferation, and differentiation via cell-material interactions to promote osteogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Sol-Gel Derived Hydroxyapatite Coating on Mg-3Zn Alloy for Orthopedic Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjay; Manoj Kumar, R.; Kuntal, Kishor Kumar; Gupta, Pallavi; Das, Snehashish; Jayaganthan, R.; Roy, Partha; Lahiri, Debrupa

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, magnesium and its alloys have gained a lot of interest as orthopedic implant constituents because their biodegradability and mechanical properties are closer to that of human bone. However, one major concern with Mg in orthopedics is its high corrosion rate that results in the reduction of mechanical integrity before healing the bone tissue. The current study evaluates the sol-gel-derived hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on a selected Mg alloy (Mg-3Zn) for decreasing the corrosion rate and increasing the bioactivity of the Mg surface. The mechanical integrity of the coating is established as a function of the surface roughness of the substrate and the sintering temperature of the coating. Coating on a substrate roughness of 15-20 nm and sintering at 400°C shows the mechanical properties in similar range of bone, thus making it suitable to avoid the stress-shielding effect. The hydroxyapatite coating on the Mg alloy surface also increases corrosion resistance very significantly by 40 times. Bone cells are also found proliferating better in the HA-coated surface. All these benefits together establish the candidature of sol-gel HA-coated Mg-3Zn alloy in orthopedic application.

  15. Bioactivity of sol-gel-derived TiO2 coating on polyetheretherketone: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takayoshi; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Yamamoto, Koji; Otsuki, Bungo; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Tsukanaka, Masako; Kizuki, Takashi; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Kokubo, Tadashi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2016-04-15

    A polyetheretherketone (PEEK) surface was modified using a sol-gel-derived TiO2 coating in order to confer bone-bonding ability. To enhance the bonding strength of the coating layer, pretreatment with either O2 plasma or sandblasting was performed prior to sol-gel coating. Additionally, post-treatment with acid was carried out to confer apatite (calcium phosphate)-forming ability to the surface. Biomechanical and histological analyses performed using an in vivo rabbit tibia model showed that PEEK surfaces modified with sol-gel-derived TiO2 and acid post-treatment had better bone-bonding properties than uncoated PEEK surfaces. These modified surfaces also performed well in terms of their in vitro cell responses due to their modified surface chemistries and topographies. Although O2 plasma or sandblasting treatment were, for the most part, equivocal in terms of performance, we conclude that sol-gel-derived TiO2 coating followed by acid post-treatment significantly improves the bone bonding ability of PEEK surfaces, thus rendering them optimal for their use in surgical implants. The role of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) as an alternative biomaterial to conventional metallic implant materials has become increasingly important. However, its low bone bonding ability is yet to be resolved. This in vivo and in vitro investigation on the functionalization of PEEK surfaces highlights the utility of this material in clinical interventions that require implants, and may extend range of applications of PEEK. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Replication of butterfly wing and natural lotus leaf structures by nanoimprint on silica sol-gel films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saison, Tamar; Peroz, Christophe; Chauveau, Vanessa; Sondergard, Elin; Arribart, Herve; Berthier, Serge

    2008-01-01

    An original and low cost method for the fabrication of patterned surfaces bioinspired from butterfly wings and lotus leaves is presented. Silica-based sol-gel films are thermally imprinted from elastomeric molds to produce stable structures with superhydrophobicity values as high as 160 deg. water contact angle. The biomimetic surfaces are demonstrated to be tuned from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic by annealing between 200 deg. C and 500 deg. C

  17. Replication of butterfly wing and natural lotus leaf structures by nanoimprint on silica sol-gel films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saison, Tamar; Peroz, Christophe; Chauveau, Vanessa; Sondergard, Elin; Arribart, Herve [Unite mixte CNRS/Saint Gobain Saint Gobain Recherche, BP135, 93303 Aubervilliers (France); Berthier, Serge [Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, UMR 7588, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 140 rue Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France)], E-mail: cperoz@lbl.gov

    2008-12-01

    An original and low cost method for the fabrication of patterned surfaces bioinspired from butterfly wings and lotus leaves is presented. Silica-based sol-gel films are thermally imprinted from elastomeric molds to produce stable structures with superhydrophobicity values as high as 160 deg. water contact angle. The biomimetic surfaces are demonstrated to be tuned from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic by annealing between 200 deg. C and 500 deg. C.

  18. Analyses of desorbed H2O with temperature programmed desorption technique in sol-gel derived HfO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, H.; Nemoto, D.; Ikeda, M.; Nishide, T.

    2009-01-01

    Hafnium oxide (HfO 2 ) is a promising material for the gate insulator in highly miniaturized silicon (Si) ultra-large-scale-integration (ULSI) devices (32 nm and beyond). In the field chemistry, a sol-gel processing has been used to fabricate HfO 2 thin film with the advantages of low cost, relative simplicity, and easy control of the composition of the layers formed. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) has been used not only for analyzing adsorbed gases on the surfaces of bulk sol-gel-derived HfO 2 of sol-gel-derived HfO 2 thin film fired at 350, 450, 550 and 700 deg C in sol-gel derived HfO 2 films in air is investigated using TPD, and also the material characterization of HfO 2 thin films is evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The dielectric constant of the films was also estimated using the capacitance-voltage (C-V) method. TPD is essentially a method of analyzing desorped gases from samples heated by infra-red light as a function of temperature under vacuum conditions using a detector of quadruple mass spectroscopy (QMS). Sol-gel-derived HfO 2 films were fabricated on 76-mm-diameter Si(100) wafers as follows. Hafnia sol solutions were prepared by dissolving HfCl 4 in NH 4 OH solution, followed by the of HCOOH. (author)

  19. Influence of Experimental Parameters Using the Dip-Coating Method on the Barrier Performance of Hybrid Sol-Gel Coatings in Strong Alkaline Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita B. Figueira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the barrier effect and the performance of organic-inorganic hybrid (OIH sol-gel coatings are highly dependent on the coating deposition method as well as on the processing conditions. However, studies on how the coating deposition method influences the barrier properties in alkaline environments are scarce. The aim of this experimental research was to study the influence of experimental parameters using the dip-coating method on the barrier performance of an OIH sol-gel coating in contact with simulated concrete pore solutions (SCPS. The influence of residence time (Rt, a curing step between each dip step and the number of layers of sol-gel OIH films deposited on hot-dip galvanized steel to prevent corrosion in highly alkaline environments was studied. The barrier performance of these OIH sol-gel coatings, named U(400, was assessed in the first instants of contact with SCPS, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic methods. The durability and stability of the OIH coatings in SCPS was monitored during eight days by macrocell current density. The morphological characterization of the surface was performed by Scanning Electronic Microscopy before and after exposure to SCPS. Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy was used to investigate the thickness of the U(400 sol-gel coatings as a function of the number of layers deposited with and without Rt in the coatings thickness.

  20. Atomic force microscopy study of TiO2 sol-gel films thermally treated under NH3 atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapalis, C.; Todorova, N.; Anastasescu, M.; Anastasescu, C.; Stoica, M.; Gartner, M.; Zaharescu, M.; Stoica, T.

    2009-01-01

    Multilayered TiO 2 films were obtained by sol-gel and dipping deposition on quartz substrate followed by thermal treatment under NH 3 atmosphere. In an attempt to understand the close relationship between microstructural characteristics and the synthesis parameters, a systematic research of the structure and the morphology of NH 3 modified TiO 2 sol-gel films by XRD and Atomic Force Microscopy is reported. The surface morphology has been evaluated in terms of grains size, fractal dimension and surface roughness. For each surface, it was found a self-similar behavior (with mean fractal dimension in the range of 2.67-3.00) related to an optimum morphology favorable to maintain a nano-size distribution of the grains. The root mean square (RMS) roughness of the samples was found to be in the range of 0.72-6.02 nm.

  1. Persistent superhydrophilicity of sol-gel derived nanoporous silica thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganjoo, S; Azimirad, R; Akhavan, O; Moshfegh, A Z

    2009-01-01

    In this investigation, sol-gel synthesized nanoporous silica thin films, annealed at different temperatures, with long time superhydrophilic property have been studied. Two kinds of sol-gel silica thin films were fabricated by dip-coating of glass substrates in two different solutions; with low and high water. The transparent coated films were dried at 100 deg. C and then annealed in a temperature range of 200-500 deg. C. The average water contact angle of the silica films prepared with low water content and annealed at 300 deg. C measured about 5 deg. for a long time (6 months) without any UV irradiation. Instead, adding water into the sol resulted in silica films with an average water contact angle greater than 60 deg. Atomic force microscopic analysis revealed that the silica films prepared with low water had a rough surface (∼30 nm), while the films prepared with high water had a smoother surface (∼2 nm). Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we have shown that with a decrease in the surface water on the film, its hydrophilicity increases logarithmically.

  2. Preparation of Natural Rubber (NR) Based Nano-Sized Materials Using Sol-Gel Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan Mohd; Mahathir Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this project are to prepare nano-sized natural rubber-based hybrid coating material by sol-gel technique; to explore the possibility of producing ENR-Si (epoxidized natural rubber-silica) cramer with toughening effects; and to use it in radiation curing of surface coating. Since early 1960s Malaysia has introduced various forms of value-added natural rubber such as Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR), methylmethacrylate-grafted natural rubber (MG rubber), followed by liquid natural rubber and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR). Products such as liquid epoxidized natural rubber acrylate (LENRA) and thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR) are still on-going research projects in Nuclear Malaysia. The former has strong possibility to be used as radiation-sensitive comparabilities in TPNR blends, besides its original purpose for example in radiation curing of surface coating. But earlier findings indicated that, to make it (as for surface coating) more effective, reinforcement system is needed to be introduced. Strong candidate is silica by sol-gel technique, since common reinforcement filler for example carbon black has drawbacks in this particular case. This technique was introduced in late 1960s to produce metal oxides such as silica and titanium oxides in solution. (author)

  3. SOL-Gel microspheres and nanospheres for controlled release applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbe, C.; Beyer, R.; Kong, L.; Blackford, M.; Trautman, R.; Bartlett, J.

    2002-01-01

    We present a novel approach to the synthesis of inorganic sol-gel microspheres for encapsulating organic and bioactive molecules, and controlling their subsequent release kinetics. The bioactive species are incorporated, at ambient temperature, into the inorganic particles using an emulsion gelation process. Independent control of the release rate (by adapting the nanostructure of the internal pore network to the physico-chemical properties of the bioactive molecules) and particle size (by tailoring the emulsion chemistry) is demonstrated. Sol-gel chemistry has been shown to be a flexible technique for producing inorganic silica matrices with tailored microstructures, which can be used for the encapsulation and controlled release of organic and bioactive molecules. The present paper extends this concept by combining sol-gel chemistry with an emulsion approach for producing inorganic particles with controlled dimensions, and demonstrates how the particle size and microstructure can be independently controlled. Sol-Gel Chemistry and Encapsulation of Model Compounds. A stock solution of 4-(2-hydroxy-l-naphthylazo) benzene sulfonic acid (Orange II) was produced by dissolving Orange II in water (0.1 wt%), and adjusting the pH to the required value. Sol-gel solutions were subsequently prepared by mixing the aqueous solution with tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) and methanol (MeOH), to achieve H 2 O:TMOS (W] and MeOH:TMOS mole ratios (D) of four. The resulting solution was stirred and left to age at ambient temperature for one day. A transparent emulsion was prepared by mixing selected surfactants and organic solvents. The surfactants used included sorbitan monooleate, sorbitan monolaurate and bis-2-ethylhexylsulfo-succinate (AOT), while the organic phase was typically chosen from the group consisting of kerosene, hexane, heptane, octane, decane, dodecane and cyclohexane. The sol-gel solution was added to the emulsion, and the resulting mixture was stirred at 500 rpm for

  4. Preparation and characterization of ZnO transparent semiconductor thin films by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay, Chien-Yie; Fan, Kai-Shiung; Chen, Sih-Han; Tsai, Chia-Hao

    2010-01-01

    Transparent semiconductor thin films of zinc oxide (ZnO) were deposited onto alkali-free glass substrates by the sol-gel method and spin-coating technique. In this study, authors investigate the influence of the heating rate of the preheating process (4 or 10 o C/min) on the crystallization, surface morphology, and optical properties of sol-gel derived ZnO thin films. The ZnO sol was synthesized by dissolving zinc acetate dehydrate in ethanol, and then adding monoethanolamine. The as-coated films were preheated at 300 o C for 10 min and annealed at 500 o C for 1 h in air ambiance. Experimental results indicate that the heating rate of the preheating process strongly affected the surface morphology and transparency of ZnO thin film. Specifically, a heating rate of 10 o C/min for the preheating process produces a preferred orientation along the (0 0 2) plane and a high transmittance of 92% at a wavelength of 550 nm. Furthermore, this study reports the fabrication of thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a transparent ZnO active channel layer and evaluates their electrical performance.

  5. Silica doped with lanthanum sol-gel thin films for corrosion protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuin, M. [Department of Materials Physics, Complutense University at Madrid, Avda. Complutense sn, 28004 Madrid (Spain); Serrano, A. [Glass and Ceramic Institute, CSIC, C. Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Llopis, J. [Department of Materials Physics, Complutense University at Madrid, Avda. Complutense sn, 28004 Madrid (Spain); Garcia, M.A. [Glass and Ceramic Institute, CSIC, C. Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); IMDEA Nanoscience, Fco. Tomas y Valiente 7, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Carmona, N., E-mail: n.carmona@fis.ucm.es [Department of Materials Physics, Complutense University at Madrid, Avda. Complutense sn, 28004 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-06-01

    We present here anticorrosive silica coatings doped with lanthanum ions for the protection of metallic surfaces as an alternative to chromate (VI)-based conversion coatings. The coatings were synthesized by the sol-gel method starting from silicon alkoxides and two different lanthanum precursors: La (III) acetate hydrate and La (III) isopropoxide. Artificial corrosion tests in acid and alkaline media showed their effectiveness for the corrosion protection of AA2024 aluminum alloy sheets for coating prepared with both precursors. The X-ray absorption Near Edge Structure and X-ray Absorption Fine Structure analysis of the coatings confirmed the key role of lanthanum in the structural properties of the coating determining its anticorrosive properties. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silica sol-gel films doped with lanthanum ions were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films from lanthanum-acetate and La-alkoxide were prepared for comparison purposes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer La-acetate is an affordable chemical reactive preferred for the industry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films properties were explored by scanning electron microscopy and X-Ray absorption spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An alternative to anticorrosive pre-treatments for metallic surfaces is suggested.

  6. Optical Fiber Chemical Sensor with Sol-Gel Derived Refractive Material as Transducer for High Temperature Gas Sensing in Clean Coal Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiquan Tao

    2006-12-31

    The chemistry of sol-gel derived silica and refractive metal oxide has been systematically studied. Sol-gel processes have been developed for preparing porous silica and semiconductor metal oxide materials. Micelle/reversed micelle techniques have been developed for preparing nanometer sized semiconductor metal oxides and noble metal particles. Techniques for doping metal ions, metal oxides and nanosized metal particles into porous sol-gel material have also been developed. Optical properties of sol-gel derived materials in ambient and high temperature gases have been studied by using fiber optic spectroscopic techniques, such as fiber optic ultraviolet/visible absorption spectrometry, fiber optic near infrared absorption spectrometry and fiber optic fluorescence spectrometry. Fiber optic spectrometric techniques have been developed for investigating the optical properties of these sol-gel derived materials prepared as porous optical fibers or as coatings on the surface of silica optical fibers. Optical and electron microscopic techniques have been used to observe the microstructure, such as pore size, pore shape, sensing agent distribution, of sol-gel derived material, as well as the size and morphology of nanometer metal particle doped in sol-gel derived porous silica, the nature of coating of sol-gel derived materials on silica optical fiber surface. In addition, the chemical reactions of metal ion, nanostructured semiconductor metal oxides and nanometer sized metal particles with gas components at room temperature and high temperatures have also been investigated with fiber optic spectrometric methods. Three classes of fiber optic sensors have been developed based on the thorough investigation of sol-gel chemistry and sol-gel derived materials. The first group of fiber optic sensors uses porous silica optical fibers doped with metal ions or metal oxide as transducers for sensing trace NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}S in high temperature gas samples. The second group of

  7. Highly stable and imperceptible electronics utilizing photoactivated heterogeneous sol-gel metal-oxide dielectrics and semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jeong-Wan; Kim, Jaekyun; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Kang, Jin-Gu; Kim, Myung-Gil; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Ko, Hyungduk; Kim, Jiwan; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Park, Sung Kyu

    2015-02-18

    Incorporation of Zr into an AlOx matrix generates an intrinsically activated ZAO surface enabling the formation of a stable semiconducting IGZO film and good interfacial properties. Photochemically annealed metal-oxide devices and circuits with the optimized sol-gel ZAO dielectric and IGZO semiconductor layers demonstrate the high performance and electrically/mechanically stable operation of flexible electronics fabricated via a low-temperature solution process. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Preparation of ZrW{sub 2}O{sub 8} xerogel and aerogels by sol-gel chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noailles, L.; Dunn, B.; Larson, D. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Starkovich, J.; Peng, H. [Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Redondo Beach, CA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Xerogels and aerogels with the composition ZrW{sub 2}O{sub 8} have been synthesized using sol-gel chemistry. For the xerogel, trigonal phase is formed at 650 C and the cubic phase forms above 1100 C in less than 30 seconds. Aerogels have been prepared with an average pore diameter of 110 Aa and a surface area of 510 m{sup 2}g{sup -1}. (orig.)

  9. Iron porphyrins doped sol-gel glasses: a chemometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacco, Herica C.; Vidoto, Ednalva A.; Nascimento, Otaciro R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the optimized conditions for preparation of iron porphyrin-template doped silica Fe PDS-template) obtained by the sol-gel process. The following porphyrins (Fe P) were used: Fe TFPP Cl, Fe TDCSPP(Na) 4 Cl and Fe TCPP(Na) 4 Cl. Pyridine or 4-phenylimidazole was used as template. The variables that present significant influence on iron porphyrin loading on xerogel were identified and the values that maximize the iron porphyrin loading on xerogel were established . The variables (Solvent volume, fractional factorial design in two levels, 2 5-1 type, generating 16 total experiments for each Fe P studied. (author)

  10. Iron porphyrins doped sol-gel glasses: a chemometric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacco, Herica C.; Vidoto, Ednalva A.; Nascimento, Otaciro R. [Soap Paulo Univ (USP), Sao Carlos (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Biazzotto, Juliana C.; Serra, Osvaldo A.; Iamamoto, Yassuko [Sao Paulo Univ. (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras; Ciuffi, Katia J.; Mello, Cesar A.; Oliveira, Daniela C. de [Universidade de Franca , SP (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the optimized conditions for preparation of iron porphyrin-template doped silica Fe (PDS-template) obtained by the sol-gel process. The following porphyrins (Fe P) were used: Fe TFPP Cl, Fe TDCSPP(Na){sub 4}Cl and Fe TCPP(Na){sub 4} Cl. Pyridine or 4-phenylimidazole was used as template. The variables that present significant influence on iron porphyrin loading on xerogel were identified and the values that maximize the iron porphyrin loading on xerogel were established. The variables Solvent volume, fractional factorial design in two levels, 2{sup 5-1} type, generating 16 total experiments for each Fe P studied. (author)

  11. Electrochemical redox reactions in solvated silica sol-gel glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opallo, M.

    2002-01-01

    The studies of electrochemical redox reactions in solvated silica sol-gel glass were reviewed. The methodology of the experiments with emphasis on the direct preparation of the solid electrolyte and the application ultra microelectrodes was described. Generally, the level of the electrochemical signal is not much below that observed in liquid electrolyte. The current depends on time elapsed after gelation, namely the longer time, the smaller current. The differences between electrochemical behaviour of the redox couples in monoliths and thin layers were described. (author)

  12. Synthesis of lithium doped zinc oxide by sol gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meziane, K; Elhichou, A; Elhamidi, A; Almaggoussi, A; CHHIBA, M

    2016-01-01

    Li-doped ZnO thin films were prepared by sol-gel method and deposed on glass substrate using spin coating technique. The effects of Li on structural and optical properties were investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that Li incorporation leads to the great improvement of the crystalline quality of ZnO thin films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that nanowires are aligned nearly perpendicular to the substrate plane and are affected significantly by Li incorporation. The optical transmission of the films was higher than 80% in the visible region. It is found that the optical gap and the refractive index remain practically constant. (paper)

  13. Characterization of a sol-gel-entrapped artificial receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Richard A.; Narang, Upvan; Prasad, Paras N.; Bright, Frank V.

    1993-04-01

    We report on the development, characterization, and photophysics of a new fiber-optic-based sensor which uses a sol-gel entrapped recognition element. The recognition element is modified (beta) -cyclodextrin to which we have added a short tether (glycine) and a fluorophore (dansyl). This recognition element forms an intramolecular complex, and the dansyl group can include within the cyclodextrin cavity. Non-fluorescent analytes, that bind to the cyclodextrin cavity, can effectively displace the included dansyl group and result in a measurable change in signal. We report on the detection limits, dynamic range, and photophysics (i.e., transduction mechanism) of this new sensor.

  14. Sol-gel synthesis and characterization of lithiummolybdosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, I.; Nallamuthu, N.; Muralidharan, P.; Satyanarayana, N.; Venkateswarlu, M.; Balasubramanyam, S.

    2008-01-01

    10 % Li 2 O + 0.9 % MoO 3 + 89.1 %SiO 2 (LMS) glassy sample was prepared using Sol-gel process and was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. The ion conducting mechanism was studied through impedance technique at various temperatures. The conductivity of the sample was found to be 4.1257 x 10 -8 Scm -1 at 613 K. The activation energy was calculated from the log (sT) vs. 1000/T plot and it was found to be (0.1466 ± 0.012) eV. (author)

  15. Moment scaling at the sol-gel transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botet, R.

    1998-01-01

    Two standard models of sol-gel transition are revisited here from the point of view of their fluctuations in various moments of both the mass-distribution and the gel-mass. Bond-percolation model is an at-equilibrium system and undergoes a static second-order phase transition, while Monte-Carlo Smoluchowski model is an off-equilibrium one and shows a dynamical critical phenomenon. It is shown that the macroscopic quantities can be splitted into the three classes with different scaling properties of their fluctuations, depending on whether they correspond to: (i) non-critical quantities, (ii) critical quantities or to (iii) an order parameter. (author)

  16. Equipment for production of hydrogel by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanek, V.

    1975-01-01

    The method of uranyl gel preparation is described by the sol-gel process of the internal gelation type. A laboratory-scale equipment with an output of 1.5 kg of gel per hour was built at the Nuclear Research Institute, Rez; the diameter of the microspheres produced may vary between 0.5 and 4.0 mm. The reliability of the equipment was verified by producing several tens of kilograms of uranyl gels and of gels based on other non-nuclear materials. (author)

  17. Modified sol-gel coatings for biotechnological applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beganskiene, A [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Vilnius University, Vilnius LT-03225 (Lithuania); Raudonis, R [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Vilnius University, Vilnius LT-03225 (Lithuania); Jokhadar, S Zemljic [Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Biophysics, Lipiceva 2, Ljubljana SI-1000 (Slovenia); Batista, U [Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Biophysics, Lipiceva 2, Ljubljana SI-1000 (Slovenia); Kareiva, A [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Vilnius University, Vilnius LT-03225 (Lithuania)

    2007-12-15

    The modified sol-gel derived silica coatings were prepared and characterized. The amino and methyl groups were introduced onto the colloidal silica. The silica coatings with different wettability properties: coloidal silica (water contact angle 17 deg.), polysiloxane (61 deg.), methyl-modified (158 deg. and 46 deg.) coatings samples were tested for CaCo-2 cells proliferation. Methyl-modified coating (46 deg.) proved to be the best substrate for cell proliferation. CaCo-2 cell proliferation two days post seeding was significantly faster on almost laminine, fibronectin and collagen-1 coated samples compared to corresponding controls.

  18. Coating of the orthopaedic titanium alloys with sol-gel derived hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milev, A.; Green, D.; Chai, C.S.; Ben-Nissan, B.

    1999-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is known to be both biocompatible and bioactive material, however, due to its poor mechanical properties and design limitations is not suitable for applying as a load bearing implant. This could be overcome by using appropriate metallic substrates covered with HAp, derived via different techniques. These coatings allow improved adhesion strength of the load bearing substrate to the bone, resulting in shorter healing periods as well as predictable behaviour of the implant for longer periods of time. There are different techniques of producing HAp appropriate for coating purposes. Due to the small particle size of the grains derived, sol-gel route is preferable where lower sintering temperatures are of primary importance. For better adhesion between substrate and hydroxyapatite coating, the surface of titanium substrate, in this study, was converted to titanium nitride and/or oxynitride. Sintering temperatures of 900 deg C have been used for producing crystalline HAp coatings. The control of sol-gel solutions and the analysis of the coatings were carried out using XRD, SEM and DTA techniques. Results obtained indicate high quality HAp coatings can be produced on titanium substrates especially with complex shapes that benefits over the other coating methods

  19. Fabrication of mesoporous silica nanoparticles by sol gel method followed various hydrothermal temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwaningsih, Hariyati; Pratiwi, Vania Mitha; Purwana, Siti Annisa Bani; Nurdiansyah, Haniffudin; Rahmawati, Yenny; Susanti, Diah

    2018-04-01

    Rice husk is an agricultural waste that is potentially used as natural silica resources. Natural silica claimed to be safe in handling, cheap and can be generate from cheap resource. In this study mesoporous silica was synthesized using sodium silicate extracted from rice husk ash. This research's aim are to study the optimization of silica extraction from rice husk, characterizing mesoporous silica from sol-gel method and surfactant templating from rice husk and the effect of hydrothermal temperature on mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSNp) formation. In this research, rice husk was extracted with sol-gel method and was followed by hydrothermal treatment; several of hydrothermal temperatures were 85°C, 100°C, 115°C, 130°C and 145° for 24 hours. X-ray diffraction analysis was identified of α-SiO2 phase and NaCl compound impurities. Scherer's analysis method for crystallite size have resulted 6.27-40.3 nm. FTIR results of silica from extraction and MSNp indicated Si-O-Si bonds on the sample. SEM result showed the morphology of the sample that has spherical shape and smooth surface. TEM result showed particle size ranged between 69,69-84,42 nm. BET showed that the pore size classified as mesoporous with pore diameter size is 19,29 nm.

  20. A concetration-dependent model for silver colloids in nanostructured sol-gel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Macedo, Jorge A.; Franco, Alfredo; Renteria, Victor; Valverde-Aguilar, Guadalupe

    2005-08-01

    We report on the physical modelling of the photoconductive response of nanostructured sol-gel films in function of the silver nitrate concentration (ions and colloids). This model considers several factors as the silver nitrate concentration and the transport parameters obtained. The model is compared with others commonly used. 2d-hexagonal nanostructured sol-gel thin films were prepared by dip-coating method using a non-ionic diblock copolymer Brij58 (surfactant) to produce channels into the film. Silver colloids (metallic Ag0 nanoparticles ) were obtained by spontaneous reduction process of Ag+ ions to Ag0. These nanoparticles were deposited into the channels formed by the surfactant. The structure was identified by X-ray diffraction and TEM. An absorption band located at 430 nm was detected by optical absorption; it corresponds to the plasmon surface. Fit to this band with modified Gans theory is presented. Photoconductivity studies were performed on films with silver ions and films with silver colloids to characterized their mechanisms of charge transport in the darkness and under illumination at 420, 633 nm wavelengths. Transport parameters were calculated. The films with silver colloids exhibit a photovoltaic effect stronger than the films with silver ions. While, the last ones possesses a photoconductivity behaviour.

  1. Fabrication of optical chemical ammonia sensors using anodized alumina supports and sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovics, Akos; Kovács, Barna

    2013-05-15

    In this comparative study, the fabrication and the sensing properties of various reflectometric optical ammonia gas sensors are described. In the first set of experiments the role of the support material was investigated on four different sensor membranes. Two of them were prepared by the adsorption of bromocresol green indicator on anodized aluminum plates. The applied anodizing voltages were 12 V and 24 V, which resulted in different dynamic ranges and response times for gaseous ammonia. The sol-gel method was used for the preparation of the other batch of sensors. These layers were coated on anodized aluminum plates (24 V) and on standard microscope cover glasses. In spite of the identical sensing chemistry, slightly different response times were measured merely because of the aluminum surface porosity. Gas molecules can remain entrapped in the pores, which results in delayed recovery time. On the other hand, the porous oxide film provides excellent adhesion, making the anodized aluminum an attractive support for the sol-gel layer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Holographic sol-gel monoliths: optical properties and application for humidity sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilatovskii, Daniil A.; Milichko, Valentin; Vinogradov, Alexander V.; Vinogradov, Vladimir V.

    2018-05-01

    Sol-gel monoliths based on SiO2, TiO2 and ZrO2 with holographic colourful diffraction on their surfaces were obtained via a sol-gel synthesis and soft lithography combined method. The production was carried out without any additional equipment at near room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The accurately replicated wavy structure with nanoscale size of material particles yields holographic effect and its visibility strongly depends on refractive index (RI) of materials. Addition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in systems increases their RI and lends absorbing properties due to extremely high light absorption constant. Further prospective and intriguing applications based on the most successful samples, MWCNTs-doped titania, were investigated as reversible optical humidity sensor. Owing to such property as reversible resuspension of TiO2 nanoparticles while interacting with water, it was proved that holographic xerogels can repeatedly act as humidity sensors. Materials which can be applied as humidity sensors in dependence on holographic response were discovered for the first time.

  3. Improvement of Adhesion Properties and Corrosion Resistance of Sol-Gel Coating on Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savignac, Pauline; Menu, Marie-Joëlle; Gressier, Marie; Denat, Bastien; Khadir, Yacine El; Manov, Stephan; Ansart, Florence

    2018-05-03

    Corrosion is a major problem for durability of many metals and alloys. Among the efficient classical surface treatments, chromate-based treatments must be banished from industrial use due to their toxicity. At the same time, sol-gel routes have demonstrated high potential to develop an efficient barrier effect against aggressive environments. By this process, the anti-corrosion property can be also associated to others in the case of the development of multi-functional hybrid coatings. In this paper, the main goal is precisely to improve both the corrosion resistance and the adhesion properties of phosphated zinc substrates by the deposition of a hybrid (organic-inorganic) sol-gel layer. To reach this double objective, a choice between two formulations 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS)/aluminum-tri-sec-butoxide (ASB) and 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propylmethacrylate (MAP)/tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) was firstly made based on the results obtained by microstructural characterizations using SEM, optical analysis, and mechanical characterization such as shock and/or scratch tests (coupled to climatic chamber and salt spray exposure). Several investigations were performed in this study, and the best formulation and performances of the system were obtained by adding a new precursor (1-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ureido-UPS) under controlled conditions, as detailed in this paper.

  4. Composite Biomaterials Based on Sol-Gel Mesoporous Silicate Glasses: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baino, Francesco; Fiorilli, Sonia; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Bioactive glasses are able to bond to bone and stimulate the growth of new tissue while dissolving over time, which makes them ideal materials for regenerative medicine. The advent of mesoporous glasses, which are typically synthesized via sol-gel routes, allowed researchers to develop a broad and versatile class of novel biomaterials that combine superior bone regenerative potential (compared to traditional melt-derived glasses) with the ability of incorporating drugs and various biomolecules for targeted therapy in situ. Mesoporous glass particles can be directly embedded as a bioactive phase within a non-porous (e.g., microspheres), porous (3D scaffolds) or injectable matrix, or be processed to manufacture a surface coating on inorganic or organic (macro)porous substrates, thereby obtaining hierarchical structures with multiscale porosity. This review provides a picture of composite systems and coatings based on mesoporous glasses and highlights the challenges for the future, including the great potential of inorganic–organic hybrid sol-gel biomaterials. PMID:28952496

  5. Effect of UV-irradiation on sol-gel optical films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Fan; Shen Jun; Zhou Bin; Wu Guangming; Luo Aiyun; Sun Qi

    2005-01-01

    Sol-gel optical films were deposited on K9 glass and silicon wafer substrates by spin-coating method and a high-pressure mercury lamp was used to perform ultraviolet treating to solidify these films and improve their performance. SEM, AFM, IR and ellipsometer were used to characterize the structure and optical properties of the films. Mechanical property of films was measured by pencil hardness-testing device. Laser damage threshold of films was measured by a Q-switched Nd:YAG high power laser with the wave length of 1064 nm and the pulse width of 15 ns. The results show that UV-irradiation can improve the mechanical property and increase the refractive index of the films. Besides, the nodules on the surface of the films can be changed into pits by UV-irradiation process, so the laser damage threshold of sol-gel thin films will be increased. After UV-irradiation the laser damage threshold of single-layer ZrO 2 film reached 50.6 J/cm 2 (1064 nm, 1 ns). It is found that UV-irradiation is an effective method to avoid the infiltrating between the layers, and the degree of homogeneity of the multilayer films can be improved by this way. (authors)

  6. Comparison of the redox activities of sol-gel and conventionally prepared Bi-Mo-Ti mixed oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildberger, M.; Grundwaldt, J.D.; Mallat, T.; Baiker, A. [Lab. of Technical Chemistry, Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, ETH-Zentrum, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-12-31

    Novel sol-gel Bi-Mo-Ti oxides have been prepared and characterized by XRD, XPS, FT-Raman and HRTEM. The surface Bi{sup 3+} and Mo{sup 6+} species of some xerogels and an aerogel could be reduced and oxidized at room temperature, whereas the conventionally prepared reference materials were not reduced by H{sub 2} below 300 C. The unusual redox properties, under very mild conditions, are likely due to the unique morphology of Bi-Mo-oxides stabilized by titania. During butadiene oxidation to furan at above 400 C to sol-gel mixed oxides restructured considerably and their performance was barely better than that of titania-supported Bi-Mo oxides. (orig.)

  7. Synthesis of Alkylpoly glucoside from Dextrose-Decanol in the Presence of Silicotungstic Acid Sol-Gel Catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izazi Azzahidah Amin; Mohd Ambar Yarmo; Nik Idris Nik Yusoff

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to synthesis alkylpoly glucoside via condensation of decanol with dextrose in the presence of heterogenous catalyst. In this study, silicotungstic acid sol-gel (STSG) prepared using sol-gel was used as solid acid catalyst. The catalyst was characterized using BET surface area measurement, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) surface analysis. The final product was easy to be separated from catalyst without the need of a further neutralization. Silicotungstic acid sol-gel has been found efficient to be solid catalyst for synthesis alkylpoly glucosides. Condensation reaction was carried out 8 hours at 110-120 degree Celsius under vacuum condition at 10 mmHg. The determination of decyl glucoside has been achieved by LC/ ESI-MS/ MS (ToF) giving a mass peak at m/z = 343.2 correspond to the m/z of [M+Na] + . Alkylpoly glucoside produced was analysed by FTIR, 1 H and 13 C NMR spectrometric technique. (author)

  8. Administration of a Sol-Gel Formulation of Phenylephrine Using Low-Temperature Hollow Microneedle for Treatment of Intermittent Fecal Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunji; Park, Jung-Hwan; Park, Jung Ho

    2017-12-01

    A low temperature hollow microneedle system was devised to deliver sol-gel transition formulation near the surface of the skin for extended release and local delivery of drug by a non-invasive method. This new system can improve treatment of intermittent fecal incontinence. The low-temperature system was integrated with a hollow microneedle to maintain the low temperature of the sol formulation. Various sol-gel formulations using Pluronic F-127 (PF-127) and Hydroxy-propyl-methyl-cellulose (HPMC) were prepared, and their gelation temperature, flow property, and diffusion retardation were observed. Resting anal sphincter pressure in response to a phenylephrine (PE) sol-gel formulation was measured using an air-charged catheter. The biocompatibility of the sol-gel PE formulation was evaluated by observing the immunological response. When the PF-127 25%, HPMC 1% and PE formulation (PF25-HPMC1-PE) was injected through the peri-anal skin of the rat in vivo, the highest pressure on the anal sphincter muscle occurred at 6-8 h and anal pressure increased and lasted twice as long as with the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-PE formulation. There was no significant difference in the number of mast cells after administration into the rat in vivo between the PF25-HPMC1-PE formulation and the PBS-PE formulation. The combination of a low-pain hollow microneedle system and an injectable sol-gel formulation improved the efficacy of treatment of intermittent fecal incontinence. A low-temperature hollow microneedle system using a sol-gel formulation has many applications in medical treatments that require depot effect, local targeting, and pain control.

  9. Sol-gel derived antireflective coatings for silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinker, C J; Harrington, M S

    1981-08-01

    The preparation of TiO2-SiO2 AR coatings, containing from 30 to 95 mol % TiO2, from alkoxide precursor solutions (titanium tetraethoxide and silicon tetraethoxide) by a sol-gel process is presented. The preparation of the solutions is described, which involves the separate partial hydrolysis of one or both alkoxides prior to their mixing (Yoldas, 1980). The solutions are applied to polished, circular (1 and 2 in. diameter) silicon wafers by a spinning process. The coated wafers are successively heated in air at each of the following temperatures: 200, 300, 350, 400, and 450 C, and optical measurements are performed on them after each heat treatment. The durability of 90 and 95% TiO2 coatings is evaluated in both acidic and basic environments, and reflectivity, film thickness, and refractive index are measured as a function of exposure time. It is shown that sol-gel films applied at 400 C reveal broad regions of antireflectance compared to other titanium-based films.

  10. Sol-gel based sensor for selective formaldehyde determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunkoed, Opas [Trace Analysis and Biosensor Research Center, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Department of Chemistry and Center for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Davis, Frank [Cranfield Health, Cranfield University, Bedford MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Kanatharana, Proespichaya, E-mail: proespichaya.K@psu.ac.th [Trace Analysis and Biosensor Research Center, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Department of Chemistry and Center for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Thavarungkul, Panote [Trace Analysis and Biosensor Research Center, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Higson, Seamus P.J., E-mail: s.p.j.higson@cranfield.ac.uk [Cranfield Health, Cranfield University, Bedford MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-05

    We report the development of transparent sol-gels with entrapped sensitive and selective reagents for the detection of formaldehyde. The sampling method is based on the adsorption of formaldehyde from the air and reaction with {beta}-diketones (for example acetylacetone) in a sol-gel matrix to produce a yellow product, lutidine, which was detected directly. The proposed method does not require preparation of samples prior to analysis and allows both screening by visual detection and quantitative measurement by simple spectrophotometry. The detection limit of 0.03 ppmv formaldehyde is reported which is lower than the maximum exposure concentrations recommended by both the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). This sampling method was found to give good reproducibility, the relative standard deviation at 0.2 and 1 ppmv being 6.3% and 4.6%, respectively. Other carbonyl compounds i.e. acetaldehyde, benzaldehyde, acetone and butanone do not interfere with this analytical approach. Results are provided for the determination of formaldehyde in indoor air.

  11. Sol-gel based sensor for selective formaldehyde determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunkoed, Opas; Davis, Frank; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Thavarungkul, Panote; Higson, Seamus P.J.

    2010-01-01

    We report the development of transparent sol-gels with entrapped sensitive and selective reagents for the detection of formaldehyde. The sampling method is based on the adsorption of formaldehyde from the air and reaction with β-diketones (for example acetylacetone) in a sol-gel matrix to produce a yellow product, lutidine, which was detected directly. The proposed method does not require preparation of samples prior to analysis and allows both screening by visual detection and quantitative measurement by simple spectrophotometry. The detection limit of 0.03 ppmv formaldehyde is reported which is lower than the maximum exposure concentrations recommended by both the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). This sampling method was found to give good reproducibility, the relative standard deviation at 0.2 and 1 ppmv being 6.3% and 4.6%, respectively. Other carbonyl compounds i.e. acetaldehyde, benzaldehyde, acetone and butanone do not interfere with this analytical approach. Results are provided for the determination of formaldehyde in indoor air.

  12. Sol-gel applications for ceramic membrane preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, I.

    2017-02-01

    Ceramic membranes possessing superior properties compared to polymeric membranes are more durable under severe working conditions and therefore their service life is longer. The ceramic membranes are composed of some layers. The support is the layer composed of coarser ceramic structure and responsible for mechanical durability under filtration pressure and it is prepared by consolidation of ceramic powders. The top layer is composed of a finer ceramic micro-structure mainly responsible for the separation of components present in the fluid to be filtered and sol-gel method is a versatile tool to prepare such a tailor-made ceramic filtration structure with finer pores. Depending on the type of filtration (e.g. micro-filtration, ultra-filtration, nano-filtration) aiming separation of components with different sizes, sols with different particulate sizes should be prepared and consolidated with varying precursors and preparation conditions. The coating of sol on the support layer and heat treatment application to have a stable ceramic micro-structure are also important steps determining the final properties of the top layer. Sol-gel method with various controllable parameters (e.g. precursor type, sol formation kinetics, heat treatment conditions) is a practical tool for the preparation of top layers of ceramic composite membranes with desired physicochemical properties.

  13. Processing and Characterization of Sol-Gel Cerium Oxide Microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, Zachary D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Padilla Cintron, Cristina [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-27

    Of interest to space exploration and power generation, Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) can provide long-term power to remote electronic systems without the need for refueling or replacement. Plutonium-238 (Pu-238) remains one of the more promising materials for thermoelectric power generation due to its high power density, long half-life, and low gamma emissions. Traditional methods for processing Pu-238 include ball milling irregular precipitated powders before pressing and sintering into a dense pellet. The resulting submicron particulates of Pu-238 quickly accumulate and contaminate glove boxes. An alternative and dust-free method for Pu-238 processing is internal gelation via sol-gel techniques. Sol-gel methodology creates monodisperse and uniform microspheres that can be packed and pressed into a pellet. For this study cerium oxide microspheres were produced as a surrogate to Pu-238. The similar electronic orbitals between cerium and plutonium make cerium an ideal choice for non-radioactive work. Before the microspheres can be sintered and pressed they must be washed to remove the processing oil and any unreacted substituents. An investigation was performed on the washing step to find an appropriate wash solution that reduced waste and flammable risk. Cerium oxide microspheres were processed, washed, and characterized to determine the effectiveness of the new wash solution.

  14. Nanostructured energetic materials derived from sol-gel chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R L; Tillotson, T M; Hrubesh, L W; Gash, A E

    2000-01-01

    Initiation and detonation properties are dramatically affected by an energetic material's microstructural properties. Sol-gel chemistry allows intimacy of mixing to be controlled and dramatically improved over existing methodologies. One material goal is to create very high power energetic materials which also have high energy densities. Using sol-gel chemistry we have made a nanostructured composite energetic material. Here a solid skeleton of fuel, based on resorcinol-formaldehyde, has nanocrystalline ammonium perchlorate, the oxidizer, trapped within its pores. At optimum stoichiometry it has approximately the energy density of HMX. Transmission electron microscopy indicated no ammonium perchlorate crystallites larger than 20 nm while near-edge soft x-ray absorption microscopy showed that nitrogen was uniformly distributed, at least on the scale of less than 80 nm. Small-angle neutron scattering studies were conducted on the material. Those results were consistent with historical ones for this class of nanostructured materials. The average skeletal primary particle size was on the order of 2.7 nm, while the nanocomposite showed the growth of small 1 nm size crystals of ammonium perchlorate with some clustering to form particles greater than 10 nm

  15. Sol-gel derived polymer composites for energy storage and conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kuo

    conduction are still open issues to be addressed before full potential can be realized. Herein we report the percolative composites based on ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene) as the matrix and sol-gel derived SiO2 coated reduced graphene oxide nanosheets as the filler. By capitalizing on the SiO2 surface layers which have high electrical resistivity and breakdown strength, the composites exhibit superior dielectric performance as compared to the respective composites containing bare reduced graphene oxide nanosheet fillers. In addition to greatly reduced dielectric loss, little change in dielectric loss has been observed within medium frequency range (ie. 300 KHz-3 MHz) in the prepared composites even with a filler concentration beyond the percolation threshold, indicating significantly suppressed energy dissipation and the feasibility of using the conductor-insulator composites beyond the percolation threshold. Moreover, remarkable breakdown strength of 80 MV/m at the percolation threshold has been achieved in the composite, which far exceeds those of conventional percolative composites (lower than 0.1 MV/m in most cases) and thus enables the applications of the percolative composites at high electric fields. This work offers a new avenue to the percolative polymer composites exhibiting high permittivity, reduced loss and excellent breakdown strength for electrical energy storage applications. Flexible piezoelectric materials have attracted extensive attention because they can provide a practical way to scavenge energy from the environment and motions. It also provides the possibility to fabricate wearable and self-powered energy generator for powering small electronic devices. In the dissertation a new composite including BTO 3D structure and PDMS has been successfully fabricated using the sol-gel process. The structure, flexibility, dielectric and piezoelectric properties have been well studied. The new material shows a high g33 value of

  16. Comparing nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating on AZ91 alloy samples via sol-gel and electrophoretic deposition for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojaee, Ramin; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Raeissi, Keyvan

    2014-12-01

    Magnesium is one of the most critical elements in hard tissues regeneration and therefore causes speeding up the restoration of harmed bones, while high deterioration rate of magnesium in body fluid restricts it to be used as biodegradable implants. Alloying magnesium with some relatively nobler metals such as aluminium, zinc, rare earth elements, magnesium-bioceramics composites, and surface modification techniques are some of the routes to control magnesium corrosion rate. In this study AZ91 magnesium alloy had been coated by nanostructured hydroxyapatite via sol-gel dip coating and electrophoretical methods to survey the final barricade properties of the obtained coatings. In order to perform electrophoretic coating, powders were prepared by sol-gel method, and then the powders deposited on substrates utilizing direct current electricity. Zeta potentials of the electrophoresis suspensions were measured to determine a best mode for good quality coatings. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used to confirm nanoscale dimension, and the uniformity of the nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating, respectively. Fourier Transform-Infrared and X-ray diffraction analysis were utilized for functional group and phase structure evaluation of the prepared coatings, correspondingly. Electrochemical corrosion tests were performed in SBF at 37±1 (°)C which revealed considerable increase in corrosion protection resistivity and corrosion current density for electrophoretic coated specimens versus sol-gel coated specimens. Results showed that both sol-gel and electrophoretical techniques seem to be suitable to coat magnesium alloys for biomedical applications but electrophoretic coating technique is a better choice due to the more homogeneity and more crystalline structure of the coating.

  17. Methylene blue degradation by NaTaO3 sol-gel doped with Sm and La

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Martinez, Leticia M.; Cruz-Lopez, Arquimedes; Juarez-Ramirez, Isaias; Meza-de la Rosa, Ma. Elena

    2009-01-01

    In this work, NaTaO 3 compounds doped with 1 M% of La and Sm, were prepared by the sol-gel (SG) method and solid state (SS) reaction; and tested as photocatalysts on the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV light. The structural characterization by X-ray powder diffraction revealed that the crystallization of the NaTaO 3 phase prepared by the sol-gel method started at 600 deg. C, reaching maximum crystallization at 800 deg. C. It was determined that the presence of Sm and La retard the crystallization of the NaTaO 3 phase. On the other hand, the compounds synthesized in this work showed particle sizes in the nanometric scale, as it was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The specific surface area of the compounds synthesized by the sol-gel method, showed values 4 times higher than those obtained by the solid state reaction, favoring their functional and photocatalytic performance in the methylene blue degradation. In addition, the best photocatalytic performance was shown by the NaTaO 3 doped with Sm and heated at 600 deg. C, having a half-life time of 65 min.

  18. The influence of the matrix structure on the oxidation of aniline in a silica sol-gel composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widera, J.; Kijak, A.M.; Ca, D.V.; Pacey, G.E.; Taylor, R.T.; Perfect, H.; Cox, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Mesoporous and microporous silica matrices were formed on indium tin oxide electrodes for liquid-phase voltammetry and as monoliths for solid-state voltammetry of aniline. The pore structure, which was verified by scanning probe microscopy and by surface area measurement, was directed by either control of pH during sol-gel processing or by inclusion of a templating agent. Whether aniline was included as a dopant in the sol-gel or as a component of the contacting liquid, the pore size influenced the coupling of the product of its electrochemical oxidation. With microporous silica, the dominant products were dimers and related short-chain products whereas with mesoporous silica, polymerization was suggested. As a step toward the formation of polyaniline (PANI) that is covalently anchored to the sol-gel, the electrochemistry of aniline was investigated using composites prepared from sols comprising tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), 3-aminophenyl-[3-triethoxylsilyl)-propyl] urea (ormosil), and aniline in various ratios. Combinatorial chemistry identified that the optimum combination of silica precursors in terms of obtaining PANI was a 1:12 mole ratio of ormosil:TEOS

  19. A review of hydroxyapatite-based coating techniques: Sol-gel and electrochemical depositions on biocompatible metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asri, R I M; Harun, W S W; Hassan, M A; Ghani, S A C; Buyong, Z

    2016-04-01

    New promising techniques for depositing biocompatible hydroxyapatite-based coatings on biocompatible metal substrates for biomedical applications have continuously been exploited for more than two decades. Currently, various experimental deposition processes have been employed. In this review, the two most frequently used deposition processes will be discussed: a sol-gel dip coating and an electrochemical deposition. This study deliberates the surface morphologies and chemical composition, mechanical performance and biological responses of sol-gel dip coating as well as the electrochemical deposition for two different sample conditions, with and without coating. The review shows that sol-gel dip coatings and electrochemical deposition were able to obtain the uniform and homogeneous coating thickness and high adherent biocompatible coatings even in complex shapes. It has been accepted that both coating techniques improve bone strength and initial osseointegration rate. The main advantages and limitations of those techniques of hydroxyapatite-based coatings are presented. Furthermore, the most significant challenges and critical issues are also highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Integrating nanohybrid membranes of reduced graphene oxide: chitosan: silica sol gel with fiber optic SPR for caffeine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ravi; Tabassum, Rana; Gupta, Banshi D.

    2017-05-01

    Caffeine is the most popular psychoactive drug consumed in the world for improving alertness and enhancing wakefulness. However, caffeine consumption beyond limits can result in lot of physiological complications in human beings. In this work, we report a novel detection scheme for caffeine integrating nanohybrid membranes of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in chitosan modified silica sol gel (rGO: chitosan: silica sol gel) with fiber optic surface plasmon resonance. The chemically synthesized nanohybrid membrane forming the sensing route has been dip coated over silver coated unclad central portion of an optical fiber. The sensor works on the mechanism of modification of dielectric function of sensing layer on exposure to analyte solution which is manifested in terms of red shift in resonance wavelength. The concentration of rGO in polymer network of chitosan and silica sol gel and dipping time of the silver coated probe in the solution of nanohybrid membrane have been optimized to extricate the supreme performance of the sensor. The optimized sensing probe possesses a reasonably good sensitivity and follows an exponentially declining trend within the entire investigating range of caffeine concentration. The sensor boasts of an unparalleled limit of detection value of 1.994 nM and works well in concentration range of 0-500 nM with a response time of 16 s. The impeccable sensor methodology adopted in this work combining fiber optic SPR with nanotechnology furnishes a novel perspective for caffeine determination in commercial foodstuffs and biological fluids.

  1. Effects of parameters of sol-gel process on the phase evolution of sol-gel-derived hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshtiagh-Hosseini, Hossein; Housaindokht, Mohammad Reza; Chahkandi, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    It has been established that hydroxyapatite powders can be produced using an alkoxide-based sol-gel technique. Nanocrystalline powders of hydroxyapatite (HA) were prepared from Ca(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O and PO(OC 2 H 5 ) 3 as calcium and phosphorus precursors, respectively, using a sol-gel route. For a number of samples, sol of phosphorus was first hydrolyzed for 24 h with distilled water. The sol temperature, aging time and heat treatment temperature on apatite formation were systematically studied. Increasing the aging time affected the reducing of CaO. Also, increasing the mixed sol solution temperature up to 80 deg. C had a positive effect on the disappearance of impurity phases. With the increase of the calcination temperature >600 deg. C, calcium phosphate impurity phases disappeared. Structural evolution during the synthesis of hydroxyapatite is investigated by using infrared (IR) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal behavior (DTA), and elemental analysis of electron microscopy examination (SEM). X-ray diffraction with the aid of Scherrer and Williamson-Hall equations has been used to characterize the distributions of crystallite size and micro-strain of HA powders .The results indicated that mean crystallite size increased and micro-strain decreased significantly with the rise in firing temperature

  2. Transparent conducting sol-gel ATO coatings for display applications by an improved dip coating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, G.; Dahmani, B.; Puetz, J.; Aegerter, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Transparent conducting coatings of sol-gel ATO (antimony-doped tin oxide) were used to improve surface smoothness of commercial sputter-deposited ITO (indium tin oxide) coatings for application as display electrodes. In order to overcome the deteriorating evaporation-cooling during dip coating, the coating solution was heated moderately to 25 deg. C thus providing the substrate with the required heat. This way, the surface roughness of the ITO could be reduced with an only 45 nm thick ATO coating to R pv = 3.8 nm (R a = 0.4 nm) compared to 31 nm (3.8 nm) for the ITO substrate. Another benefit of such additional coating is the possibility to tailor surface properties of the electrodes in wide ranges. This was used to increase the work function of the ITO substrate from initially 4.3-4.6 eV to about 4.8-5.2 eV by the ATO coating

  3. Sol-gel based oxidation catalyst and coating system using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Anthony N. (Inventor); Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor); Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Patry, JoAnne L. (Inventor); Schryer, Jacqueline L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An oxidation catalyst system is formed by particles of an oxidation catalyst dispersed in a porous sol-gel binder. The oxidation catalyst system can be applied by brush or spray painting while the sol-gel binder is in its sol state.

  4. Bactericidal micron-thin sol-gel films prevent pin tract and periprosthetic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Haibo; Knabe, Christine; Burke, Megan; Radin, Shula; Garino, Jonathan; Schaer, Thomas; Ducheyne, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Orthopedic injuries constitute the majority of wounds sustained by U.S. soldiers in recent conflicts. The risk of infection is considerable with fracture fixation devices. In this pilot study, we examined the use of unique bactericidal micron-thin sol-gel films on fracture fixation devices and their ability to prevent and eradicate infections. External fixation was studied with micron-thin sol-gel coated percutaneous pins releasing triclosan and inserted medially into rabbit tibiae. A total of 11 rabbits received percutaneous pins that were either uncoated or sol-gel/triclosan coated. Internal fracture fixation was also studied using sol-gel coated intramedullary (IM) nails releasing vancomycin in the intramedullary tibiae. Six sheep received IM nails that were coated with a sol-gel film that either contained vancomycin or did not contain vancomycin. All animals were challenged with Staphylococcus aureus around the implant. Animals were euthanized at 1 month postoperative. Rabbits receiving triclosan/sol-gel coated percutaneous pins did not show signs of infection. Uncoated percutaneous pins had a significantly higher infection rate. In the sheep study, there were no radiographic signs of osteomyelitis with vancomycin/sol-gel coated IM nails, in contrast to the observations in the control cohort. Hence, the nanostructured sol-gel controlled release technology offers the promise of a reliable and continuous delivery system of bactericidals from orthopedic devices to prevent and treat infection. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  5. Radiation hardening in sol-gel derived Er3+-doped silica glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Babu, B.; León Pichel, Mónica; Ollier, Nadège; El Hamzaoui, Hicham; Bigot, Laurent; Savelii, Inna; Bouazaoui, Mohamed; Poumellec, Bertrand; Lancry, Matthieu; Ibarra, Angel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to report the effect of radiation on the Er 3+ -doped sol-gel silica glasses. A possible application of these sol-gel glasses could be their use in harsh radiation environments. The sol-gel glasses are fabricated by densification of erbium salt-soaked nanoporous silica xerogels through polymeric sol-gel technique. The radiation-induced attenuation of Er 3+ -doped sol-gel silica is found to increase with erbium content. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies reveal the presence of E′ δ point defects. This happens in the sol-gel aluminum-silica glass after an exposure to γ-rays (kGy) and in sol-gel silica glass after an exposure to electrons (MGy). The concentration levels of these point defects are much lower in γ-ray irradiated sol-gel silica glasses. When the samples are co-doped with Al, the exposure to γ-ray radiation causes a possible reduction of the erbium valence from Er 3+ to Er 2+ ions. This process occurs in association with the formation of aluminum oxygen hole centers and different intrinsic point defects

  6. Photostability and moisture uptake properties of wood veneers coated with a combination of thin sol-gel films and light stabilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandla A. Tshabalala; Ryan Libert; Christian M. Schaller

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in the use of inorganic UV blocking nanoparticles for photostabilization of wood surfaces. Photostability and moisture uptake properties of wood veneers coated with a combination of hybrid inorganic-organic thin sol-gel films and organic light stabilizers was investigated. The light stabilizers were applied by brushing...

  7. Structure and properties of carbon nanotubes/sol-gel nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrass, Mariana

    2013-08-01

    Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are promising filler materials owing to their exceptional mechanical, electrical, thermal and optical properties. Since their discovery in 1991, a major effort has been made in developing CNT-polymer nanocomposites, whereas CNT/ceramic based nanocomposites, in particularly, CNT/silica nanocomposites, have been very little studied. This thesis focuses on preparation and characterization of novel CNT/silica nanocomposite glasses synthesized by the Sol-Gel technology. A comprehensive analysis of their morphological, optical, and electrical properties was conducted, and analyzed according to existing theoretical models. The nanocomposites hosting matrix is a hybrid organic/inorganic glass prepared by the Fast-Sol-Gel (FSG) route. Using specific conditions in the FSG procedure, the resultant glasses are nonporous, exhibiting no contraction upon drying. Their analogous Classical-Sol-Gel (CSG) glasses, however, are porous, and do exhibit contraction upon drying. The FSG glasses are relatively new materials, and their physical and optical properties were only meagerly studied. In our present work we have conducted a comprehensive experimental research on some previously ignored characteristics such as: UV-vis-IR optical absorption and transmission, and the organic content effect on the refraction index n, density ρ, thermal expansion coefficient β, and thermo-optic coefficient dn/dT. We found that organic residues within the glass decrease the refractive index, density, and thermo-optic coefficient. The thermal expansion coefficient, however, increases with the organic content. A negative linear dependence of the thermo-optic coefficient on the thermal expansion coefficient was obtained. CNT/FSG nanocomposites were prepared by using a solution mixing method, while CNT/CSG nanocomposites were prepared by means of an in situ polymerization technique. Nanocomposites based on FSG hybrid glasses were characterized for their nonlinear optical and

  8. Anion embedded sol-gel films on Al for corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffer, Mari; Groysman, Alec; Starosvetsky, David; Savchenko, Natali; Mandler, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    We report here on the successful incorporation of organic anions into a sol-gel film on Al as a means of enhancing the protection against corrosion. Following our previous study where we showed that hydrophobic sol-gel films provided pronounced corrosion inhibition, we studied the corrosion inhibition that phenylphosphonic acid (PPA) has when embedded inside a thin sol-gel coating on Al. The anion of this organic anion tends to stay inside a phenyltrimethoxysilane (PTMOS) based sol-gel film due to π-interactions. Our findings, which are derived primarily from potentiodynamic polarization measurements, electrochemical noise, scanning electron microscopy measurements and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), clearly show that the organic phosphonate adds to the protection efficiency of the sol-gel film

  9. A novel green nonaqueous sol-gel process for preparation of partially stabilized zirconia nanopowder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Feng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel green nonaqueous sol-gel process was developed to prepare 3 mol% Y2O3-doped ZrO2 nanopowder from zirconium oxychloride and without need for washing of the obtained particles. It was shown that highly dispersive nanometer-scale zirconia powder with the particle size of 15–25 nm and BET surface area of 41.2 m2/g can be prepared. The sintering behaviour was also investigated. Density of the translucent body sintered at 1400 °C is 98.7 ± 0.3% of its theoretical density and the surface and cross section areas are dense without holes or other defects. The bending strength of the sintered sample is 928 ± 64 MPa.

  10. Incorporation of sol-gel SnO2:Sb into nanoporous SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canut, B.; Blanchin, M.G.; Ramos-Canut, S.; Teodorescu, V.; Toulemonde, M.

    2006-01-01

    Silicon oxide films thermally grown on Si(1 0 0) wafers were irradiated with 200 MeV 197 Au ions in the 10 9 -10 1 cm -2 fluence range. The targets were then etched at room temperature in aqueous HF solution (1 vol.%) for various durations. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the tapping mode was used to probe the processed surfaces. Conical holes with a low size dispersion were evidenced. Their surface diameter varies between 20 and 70 nm, depending on the etching time. Sol-gel dip coating technique, associated with a further annealing treatment performed at 500 o C for 15 min, was used to fill the nanopores created in SiO 2 with a transparent conductive oxide (SnO 2 doped with antimony). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) performed on cross-sectional specimen showed that SnO 2 :Sb crystallites of ∼5 nm mean size are trapped in the holes without degrading their geometry

  11. Monolayer nanoparticle-covered liquid marbles derived from a sol-gel coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoguang; Wang, Yiqi; Huang, Junchao; Yang, Yao; Wang, Renxian; Geng, Xingguo; Zang, Duyang

    2017-12-01

    A sol-gel coating consisting of hydrophobic SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) was used to produce monolayer NP-covered (mNPc) liquid marbles. The simplest approach was rolling a droplet on this coating, and an identifiable signet allowed determination of the coverage ratio of the resulting liquid marble. Alternatively, the particles were squeezed onto a droplet surface with two such coatings, generating surface buckling from interfacial NP jamming, and then a liquid marble was produced via a jamming-relief process in which water was added into the buckled droplet. This process revealed an ˜7% reduction in particle distance after interfacial jamming. The mNPc liquid marbles obtained by the two methods were transparent with smooth profiles, as naked droplets, and could be advantageously used in fundamental and applied researches for their unique functions.

  12. Production of TiO_2 particles by sol-gel ultrasound assisted for photocatalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Rojas, Vanessa; Solis Veliz, Jose; Gomez Leon, Monica; Matejova, Lenka; Lopez, Alcides; Cruz, Gerardo J.

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of TiO_2 particles was made by sol-gel technique assisted of ultrasonic radiation from an alcoholic solution of titanium isopropoxide. Then was subjected to a heat treatment in air at 350 °C for 1 h. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the size of the crystalline domains is between 10 and 37 nm. Infrared spectroscopy study confirms the presence of -OH groups on the surface of TiO_2. Modification of the morphology and surface area, due to the influence of exposure time to the ultrasonic radiation, is evidenced by studies of SEM and BET respectively. Properties of TiO_2 obtained were studied by monitoring the degradation of solutions of methyl orange in the presence of UV-A radiation. It was observed that larger the ultrasonic radiation exposure during the TiO_2 synthesis larger the constant velocity for the photocatalytic reaction for the methyl orange. (author)

  13. Protic ionic liquid as additive on lipase immobilization using silica sol-gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Ranyere Lucena; de Faria, Emanuelle Lima Pache; Figueiredo, Renan Tavares; Freitas, Lisiane dos Santos; Iglesias, Miguel; Mattedi, Silvana; Zanin, Gisella Maria; dos Santos, Onélia Aparecida Andreo; Coutinho, João A P; Lima, Álvaro Silva; Soares, Cleide Mara Faria

    2013-03-05

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have evolved as a new type of non-aqueous solvents for biocatalysis, mainly due to their unique and tunable physical properties. A number of recent review papers have described a variety of enzymatic reactions conducted in IL solutions, on the other hand, to improve the enzyme's activity and stability in ILs; major methods being explored include the enzyme immobilization (on solid support, sol-gel, etc.), protic ionic liquids used as an additive process. The immobilization of the lipase from Burkholderia cepacia by the sol-gel technique using protic ionic liquids (PIL) as additives to protect against inactivation of the lipase due to release of alcohol and shrinkage of the gel during the sol-gel process was investigated in this study. The influence of various factors such as the length of the alkyl chain of protic ionic liquids (monoethanolamine-based) and a concentration range between 0.5 and 3.0% (w/v) were evaluated. The resulting hydrophobic matrices and immobilized lipases were characterised with regard to specific surface area, adsorption-desorption isotherms, pore volume (V(p)) and size (d(p)) according to nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), physico-chemical properties (thermogravimetric - TG, differential scanning calorimetry - DSC and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy - FTIR) and the potential for ethyl ester and emulsifier production. The total activity yields (Y(a)) for matrices of immobilized lipase employing protic ionic liquids as additives always resulted in higher values compared with the sample absent the protic ionic liquids, which represents 35-fold increase in recovery of enzymatic activity using the more hydrophobic protic ionic liquids. Compared with arrays of the immobilized biocatalyst without additive, in general, the immobilized biocatalyst in the presence of protic ionic liquids showed increased values of surface area (143-245 m(2) g(-1)) and pore size (19-38 Å). Immobilization with

  14. Synthesis of ZNO nanoparticles by Sol-Gel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savi, B.M.; Rodrigues, L.; Uggioni, E.; Bernardin, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain and characterize ZnO nanoparticles by Sol-Gel technique. ZnCl 2 , Zn(NO 3 ) 2 , NaOH were used as precursors for the synthesis. NaOH was dissolved in distilled water at a concentration of 1.0 M with agitation to the desired reaction temperature (50°C and 90°C). 0.5 M ZnCl 2 and 0.5 M Zn(NO3)2 were added by dripping (60 and 30 min). The powder was characterized by XRD (Cu Kα), UV-Vis, and HR-TEM. Nano ZnO particles were obtained with crystallite size between 20 and 40 nm (HR-TEM and XRD). The results of UV-Vis spectrometry show that the band gap energy, given by the absorbance at 300 nm depends on the precursor used. (author)

  15. Bioorganically doped sol-gel materials containing amyloglucosidase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad-Oros Beatrice

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloglucosidase (AMG from Aspergillus niger was encapsulated in various matrices derived from tetraethoxysilane, methyltriethoxysilane, phenyltriethoxysilane and vinyltriacetoxysilane by different methods of immobilization. The immobilized enzyme was prepared by entrapment in two steps, in one-step and entrapment/deposition, respectively. The activities of the immobilized AMG were assayed and compared with that of the native enzyme. The effects of the organosilaneprecursors and their molar ratios, the immobilization method, the inorganic support (white ceramic, red ceramic, purolite, alumina, TiO2, celite, zeolite and enzyme loading upon the immobilized enzyme activity were tested. The efficiency of the sol-gel biocomposites can be improved through combination of the fundamental immobilization techniques and selection of the precursors.

  16. Polymer sol-gel composite inverse opal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoran; Blanchard, G J

    2015-03-25

    We report on the formation of composite inverse opal structures where the matrix used to form the inverse opal contains both silica, formed using sol-gel chemistry, and poly(ethylene glycol), PEG. We find that the morphology of the inverse opal structure depends on both the amount of PEG incorporated into the matrix and its molecular weight. The extent of organization in the inverse opal structure, which is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and optical reflectance data, is mediated by the chemical bonding interactions between the silica and PEG constituents in the hybrid matrix. Both polymer chain terminus Si-O-C bonding and hydrogen bonding between the polymer backbone oxygens and silanol functionalities can contribute, with the polymer mediating the extent to which Si-O-Si bonds can form within the silica regions of the matrix due to hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  17. Uranium Dioxide Powder Flow ability Improvement Using Sol-Gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juanda, D.; Sambodo Daru, G.

    1998-01-01

    The improvement of flow ability characteristics of uranium dioxide powder has been done using sol-gel process. To anticipate a pellet mass production with uniform pellet dimension, the uranium dioxide powder must be have a spherical form. Uranium dioxide spherical powder has been diluted in acid transformed into sol colloidal solution. To obtain uranium dioxide spherical form, the uranium sol-colloidal solution has been dropped in a hot paraffin ( at the temperature of 90 0 C) to form gelatinous colloid and then dried at 800 0 C, and sintered at the temperature of 1700 0 C. The flow ability of spherical uranium dioxide powder has been examined by using Flowmeter Hall (ASTM. B. 213-46T). The measurement result reveals that the spherical uranium dioxide powder has a flow ability twice than that of unprocessed uranium dioxide powder

  18. Variables of synthesis in obtaining nanosilicas with sol-gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elia, A; Martin-Aispuro, P; Musante, L; Martin-Martinez, J.M; Vazquez, P

    2008-01-01

    Amorphous silica materials and polycrystalline are now being developed for different applications as optic components, superconductors, nano-particles used as charges in adhesives and paints, among others. Some methods of obtaining these materials involve complex techniques and high costs. Generally, the materials constituents are fused, for example, using the pyrogenic silica technique, widely used industrially. Meanwhile, the sol-gel meted is based on a mixture of liquid reagents at the molecular level, to easily obtain amorphous and polycrystalline materials, even at room temperature. Therefore, the sol-gel way is a promising option for producing new materials, due to its cost advantages compared to the traditional methods. The sol-gel technique consists of the simultaneous reaction of the hydrolysis and the condensation. In this process the precursor solution, the TEOS in our case, becomes a polymeric gel network polymer. The partial hydrolysis of the orthosilicate takes place when it is mixed with water and ethanol (EtOH), the reaction that occurs is: S i(OEt) 4 + H 2 O S i(OEt) 3 (OH) + EtOH. The condensation takes place between two OH groups or between an OH group and an ethoxy to form an oxygen bridge plus water or ethanol. S i(OEt) 4 + H 2 O + S i(OEt) 3 (OH)(EtO) 3 Si-O-Si(OEt) 3 (OH) + H 2 O S i-OH + HO-Si S i-O-Si + H 2 O. The addition of a base or of an acid catalyzes the process and changes the pH of the solution influencing the condensation process and size of the final particle. This work focuses on finding different conditions by varying the pH, using HCI, with and without agitation during the addition of the HCI, and washing the solid obtained with ethanol in order to study its effect. The nanosilicas were characterized by TEM-EDX, DTA-TGA, S BET , FT-IR, DRX, DRS, SEM and pH measurements. The morphology of the nanosilicas was characterized with SEM and TEM. Using these techniques a partial conclusion showed that the samples synthesized with HCI

  19. Manufacture of Regularly Shaped Sol-Gel Pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Johnston, James C.; Kinder, James D.

    2006-01-01

    An extrusion batch process for manufacturing regularly shaped sol-gel pellets has been devised as an improved alternative to a spray process that yields irregularly shaped pellets. The aspect ratio of regularly shaped pellets can be controlled more easily, while regularly shaped pellets pack more efficiently. In the extrusion process, a wet gel is pushed out of a mold and chopped repetitively into short, cylindrical pieces as it emerges from the mold. The pieces are collected and can be either (1) dried at ambient pressure to xerogel, (2) solvent exchanged and dried under ambient pressure to ambigels, or (3) supercritically dried to aerogel. Advantageously, the extruded pellets can be dropped directly in a cross-linking bath, where they develop a conformal polymer coating around the skeletal framework of the wet gel via reaction with the cross linker. These pellets can be dried to mechanically robust X-Aerogel.

  20. Sol-Gel processing of silica nanoparticles and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lok P; Bhattacharyya, Sriman K; Kumar, Rahul; Mishra, Geetika; Sharma, Usha; Singh, Garima; Ahalawat, Saurabh

    2014-11-06

    Recently, silica nanoparticles (SNPs) have drawn widespread attention due to their applications in many emerging areas because of their tailorable morphology. During the last decade, remarkable efforts have been made on the investigations for novel processing methodologies to prepare SNPs, resulting in better control of the size, shape, porosity and significant improvements in the physio-chemical properties. A number of techniques available for preparing SNPs namely, flame spray pyrolysis, chemical vapour deposition, micro-emulsion, ball milling, sol-gel etc. have resulted, a number of publications. Among these, preparation by sol-gel has been the focus of research as the synthesis is straightforward, scalable and controllable. Therefore, this review focuses on the recent progress in the field of synthesis of SNPs exhibiting ordered mesoporous structure, their distribution pattern, morphological attributes and applications. The mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) with good dispersion, varying morphology, narrow size distribution and homogeneous porous structure have been successfully prepared using organic and inorganic templates. The soft template assisted synthesis using surfactants for obtaining desirable shapes, pores, morphology and mechanisms proposed has been reviewed. Apart from single template, double and mixed surfactants, electrolytes, polymers etc. as templates have also been intensively discussed. The influence of reaction conditions such as temperature, pH, concentration of reagents, drying techniques, solvents, precursor, aging time etc. have also been deliberated. These MSNPs are suitable for a variety of applications viz., in the drug delivery systems, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), biosensors, cosmetics as well as construction materials. The applications of these SNPs have also been briefly summarized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sol-Gel Glass Holographic Light-Shaping Diffusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kevin; Lee, Kang; Savant, Gajendra; Yin, Khin Swe (Lillian)

    2005-01-01

    Holographic glass light-shaping diffusers (GLSDs) are optical components for use in special-purpose illumination systems (see figure). When properly positioned with respect to lamps and areas to be illuminated, holographic GLSDs efficiently channel light from the lamps onto specified areas with specified distributions of illumination for example, uniform or nearly uniform irradiance can be concentrated with intensity confined to a peak a few degrees wide about normal incidence, over a circular or elliptical area. Holographic light diffusers were developed during the 1990s. The development of the present holographic GLSDs extends the prior development to incorporate sol-gel optical glass. To fabricate a holographic GLSD, one records a hologram on a sol-gel silica film formulated specially for this purpose. The hologram is a quasi-random, micro-sculpted pattern of smoothly varying changes in the index of refraction of the glass. The structures in this pattern act as an array of numerous miniature lenses that refract light passing through the GLSD, such that the transmitted light beam exhibits a precisely tailored energy distribution. In comparison with other light diffusers, holographic GLSDs function with remarkably high efficiency: they typically transmit 90 percent or more of the incident lamp light onto the designated areas. In addition, they can withstand temperatures in excess of 1,000 C. These characteristics make holographic GLSDs attractive for use in diverse lighting applications that involve high temperatures and/or requirements for high transmission efficiency for ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared light. Examples include projectors, automobile headlights, aircraft landing lights, high-power laser illuminators, and industrial and scientific illuminators.

  2. Low Concentration Fe-Doped Alumina Catalysts Using Sol-Gel and Impregnation Methods: The Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Performance during the Combustion of Trichloroethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Solis Maldonado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of iron in two modes of integration into alumina catalysts was studied at 0.39 wt% Fe and tested in trichloroethylene combustion. One modified alumina was synthesized using the sol-gel method with Fe added in situ during hydrolysis; another modification was performed using calcined alumina, prepared using the sol-gel method and impregnated with Fe. Several characterization techniques were used to study the level of Fe modification in the γ-Al2O3 phase formed and to correlate the catalytic properties during trichloroethylene (TCE combustion. The introduction of Fe in situ during the sol-gel process influenced the crystallite size, and three iron species were generated, namely, magnetite, maghemite and hematite. The impregnated Fe-alumina formed hematite and maghemite, which were highly dispersed on the γ-Al2O3 surface. The X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS, FT-IR and Mössbauer spectroscopy analyses revealed how Fe interacted with the γ-Al2O3 lattice in both catalysts. The impregnated Fe-catalyst showed the best catalytic performance compared to the catalyst that was Fe-doped in situ by the sol-gel method; both had better catalytic activity than pure alumina. This difference in activity was correlated with the accessibility of the reactants to the hematite iron species on the surface. The chlorine poisoning for all three catalysts was less than 1.8%.

  3. Low Concentration Fe-Doped Alumina Catalysts Using Sol-Gel and Impregnation Methods: The Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Performance during the Combustion of Trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Carolina Solis; De la Rosa, Javier Rivera; Lucio-Ortiz, Carlos J; Hernández-Ramírez, Aracely; Barraza, Felipe F Castillón; Valente, Jaime S

    2014-03-12

    The role of iron in two modes of integration into alumina catalysts was studied at 0.39 wt% Fe and tested in trichloroethylene combustion. One modified alumina was synthesized using the sol-gel method with Fe added in situ during hydrolysis; another modification was performed using calcined alumina, prepared using the sol-gel method and impregnated with Fe. Several characterization techniques were used to study the level of Fe modification in the γ-Al₂O₃ phase formed and to correlate the catalytic properties during trichloroethylene (TCE) combustion. The introduction of Fe in situ during the sol-gel process influenced the crystallite size, and three iron species were generated, namely, magnetite, maghemite and hematite. The impregnated Fe-alumina formed hematite and maghemite, which were highly dispersed on the γ-Al₂O 3 surface. The X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), FT-IR and Mössbauer spectroscopy analyses revealed how Fe interacted with the γ-Al₂O₃ lattice in both catalysts. The impregnated Fe-catalyst showed the best catalytic performance compared to the catalyst that was Fe-doped in situ by the sol-gel method; both had better catalytic activity than pure alumina. This difference in activity was correlated with the accessibility of the reactants to the hematite iron species on the surface. The chlorine poisoning for all three catalysts was less than 1.8%.

  4. Preparation of nickel oxide thin films at different annealing temperature by sol-gel spin coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, M. A. R., E-mail: ameerridhwan89@gmail.com; Mamat, M. H., E-mail: hafiz-030@yahoo.com; Ismail, A. S., E-mail: kyrin-samaxi@yahoo.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Malek, M. F., E-mail: firz-solarzelle@yahoo.com [NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Alrokayan, Salman A. H., E-mail: dr.salman@alrokayan.com; Khan, Haseeb A., E-mail: khan-haseeb@yahoo.com [Chair of Targeting and Treatment of Cancer Using Nanoparticles, Deanship of Scientific Research, King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Rusop, M., E-mail: rusop@salam.uitm.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    Preparation of NiO thin films at different annealing temperature by sol-gel method was conducted to synthesize the quality of the surface thin films. The effects of annealing temperature on the surface topology were systematically investigated. Our studies confirmed that the surface roughness of the thin films was increased whenever annealing temperature was increase. NiO thin films morphology structure analysis was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope. Surface roughness of the thin films was investigated by atomic force microscopy.

  5. Preparation of nickel oxide thin films at different annealing temperature by sol-gel spin coating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, M. A. R.; Mamat, M. H.; Ismail, A. S.; Malek, M. F.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2016-01-01

    Preparation of NiO thin films at different annealing temperature by sol-gel method was conducted to synthesize the quality of the surface thin films. The effects of annealing temperature on the surface topology were systematically investigated. Our studies confirmed that the surface roughness of the thin films was increased whenever annealing temperature was increase. NiO thin films morphology structure analysis was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope. Surface roughness of the thin films was investigated by atomic force microscopy.

  6. Li3PO4 surface coating on Ni-rich LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 by a citric acid assisted sol-gel method: Improved thermal stability and high-voltage performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk-Woo; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Jeong, Jun Hui; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2017-08-01

    A surface coating of Li3PO4 was applied to a Ni-rich LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 (NCM) material to improve its thermal stability and electrochemical properties via a citric acid assisted sol-gel method. The addition of citric acid effectively suppressed the instant formation of Li3PO4 in solution, resulting in successful coating of the NCM surface. The improved thermal stability of NCM after Li3PO4 surface coating was demonstrated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis and in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction (TR-XRD). In particular, the TR-XRD results showed that the improved thermal stability after Li3PO4 surface coating originates from suppression of the phase transition of charged NCM at high temperatures. Furthermore, the charge-discharge tests demonstrated that Li3PO4-coated LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 (LP-NCM) has excellent electrochemical properties. LP-NCM exhibited a specific capacity of 192.7 mAh g-1, a capacity retention of 44.1% at 10 C, and a capacity retention of 79.7% after 100 cycles at a high cut-off voltage of 4.7 V; these values represent remarkably improved electrochemical properties compared with those of bare NCM. These improved thermal and electrochemical properties were mainly attributed to the improvement of the structural stability of the material and the suppression of the interface reaction between the cathode and the electrolyte owing to the Li3PO4 coating.

  7. Organic carbon aerogels from the sol-gel polymerization of phenolic-furfural mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekala, R.W.

    1998-04-28

    The sol-gel polymerization of a phenolic-furfural mixture in dilute solution leads to a highly cross-linked network that can be supercritically dried to form a high surface area foam. These porous materials have cell/pore sizes {<=}1000 {angstrom}, and although they are dark brown in color, they can be classified as a new type of aerogel. The phenolic-furfural aerogel can be pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere at 1050 C to produce carbon aerogels. This new aerogel may be used for thermal insulation, chromatographic packing, water filtration, ion-exchange, and carbon electrodes for energy storage devices, such as batteries and double-layer capacitors. 8 figs.

  8. Organic aerogels from the sol-gel polymerization of phenolic-furfural mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekala, R.W.

    1995-12-19

    The sol-gel polymerization of a phenolic-furfural mixture in dilute solution leads to a highly cross-linked network that can be supercritically dried to form a high surface area foam. These porous materials have cell/pore sizes{<=}1000{angstrom}, and although they are dark brown in color, they can be classified as a new type of aerogel. The phenolic-furfural aerogel can be pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere at 1050 C to produce carbon aerogels. This new aerogel may be used for thermal insulation, chromatographic packing, water filtration, ion-exchange, and carbon electrodes for energy storage devices, such as batteries and double-layer capacitors. 8 figs.

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of ZnO Nanoparticles Using Sol-gel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasree ALURI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Present work structural, morphological and compositional properties of ZnO nanopowders synthesized using Zinc nitrate and NaOH using sol-gel process were reported. The synthesized nanopowders were further analyzed using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopic characterizations. Crystalline size and Lattice strain determined from XRD spectra. Morphology of Nanopowders viewed from SEM images observed at different magnifications. The presence of Functional groups analyzed from FTIR spectra. From the results it was very clear that particles synthesized using Zinc nitrate and NaOH plays a vital role on crystalline size, surface morphology of Nanopowders. Synthesized nanopowders can be utilized as building materials in fabrication of various optoelectronic devices including solar cells, LED’s etc. due to its significant structural, morphological and optical properties.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles by sol-gel route from silver nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Jorge; Moran, Jose; Quintana, Maria; Estrada, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles colloids have been synthesized by sol-gel method. This synthesis consists in silver nitrate reduction by ethylene glycol in a process called polyol. The growth of the nanoparticles have been controlled by the steric stabilization of the colloid with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, M w = 40 000). The silver nanoparticle size and structure was depending on the control of parameters such as: molar concentrations ratio of silver nitrate and PVP, temperature of reaction and the reflux time. Colloids have been characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy in the range from 300 to 1000 nm. The results show that the typical peak of surface plasmon resonance is formed at 400-450 nm indicating the formation of silver nanoparticles. The presences of silver nanoparticles of spherical shape with size among 20-40 nm were observed by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). Electron diffraction patterns confirmed that synthesized colloids contain metallic silver with a crystal structure face centered cubic FCC. (author)

  11. Sol gel coatings doped with Ce ions deposited on industrial applications metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepe, A; Aparicio, M; Duran, A; Cere, S

    2004-01-01

    Compounds that contain chromates as corrosion inhibitors are widely used. Since these compounds are highly toxic, enormous efforts are being made to replace them. The lanthanides, especially cerium, have the right properties for this substitution. Different substrates can be protected by a variety of coatings. The sol-gel derived films can be deposited on different metals or alloys to increase their resistance to corrosion or to modify their surface properties by doped with different substances that can increase their protective strength, by combining the barrier capacity of the hybrid coating with the inhibitory properties of the cerium. This work presents the conditions for obtaining soles doped with cerium III and IV salts at room temperature and humidity. The parameters are also described for obtaining coatings by free immersion-extraction of fissures and pores on metallic substrates (stainless steel AISI 304). The behavior with corrosion of the coated samples was characterized with electrochemical tests (CW)

  12. SiO2 sol-gel films after ammonia and heat two-step treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunlai; Wang Biyi; Tian Dongbin; Yin Wei; Jiang Xiaodong; Yuan Xiaodong; Yan Lianghong; Zhang Hongliang; Zhao Songnan; Lv Haibing

    2008-01-01

    SiO 2 thin films were deposited using tetraethoxylsilane as precursor, ammonia as catalyst on K9 glass by sol-gel method. These films were post-treated by ammonia and heat. The properties of the coatings were characterized by ellipsometer, UV-vis spectrophotometry, FTIR-spectroscopy, scanning probe microscope and contact angle measurement apparatus. The resuits indicate that the thickness of the films with ammonia and heat treatment tend to decrease. Both the refractive index and water contact angle increase after ammonia treatment. However, they both decrease after heat treatment. The former increases by 0.236 for the first step, then decreases by 0.202 for the second. The latter increases to 58.92 degree, then decreases to 38.07 degree. The transmittance of the coatings turn to be better and continuously shift to short wave by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The surface becomes smoother by AFM after the two-step treatment. (authors)

  13. Sol-gel synthesis and optical properties of titanium dioxide thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Irfan; Khattak, Shaukat Ali; Ahmad, Tanveer; Saman; Ludhi, Nayab Ali

    2018-03-01

    The titanium dioxide (TiO2) is synthesized by sol-gel method using titanium-tetra-iso-propoxide (TTIP) as a starting material, and deposited on the pre-cleaned glass substrate using spin coating technique at optimized parameters. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy confirms successful TiO2 growth. The optical properties concerning the transmission and absorption spectra show 85% transparency and 3.28 eV wide optical band gap for indirect transition, calculated from absorbance. The exponential behavior of absorption edge is observed and attributed to the localized states electronic transitions, curtailed in the indirect band gap of the thin film. The film reveals decreasing refractive index with increasing wavelength. The photoluminescence (PL) study ascertains that luminescent properties are due to the surface defects.

  14. Sol-gel formed spherical nanostructured titania based liquefied petroleum gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabhajeet, S. R.; Yadav, B. C.; Sonker, Rakesh K.

    2018-05-01

    The present work reports the preparation of Titania(TiO2) thin film by sol-gel technique and its Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) sensing. TiO2 exists in numerous phases possessing different structural properties like amorphous, anatase or anatase/rutile mixed phases. The structural analysis confirmed the formation of TiO2 having an average crystallite size 21 nm. SEM showed the regular and porous surface morphology. The band gap of the material was found as 3.65 eV. This film was employed for LPG sensing and variations in resistance with exposure of LPG were observed. Sensor response (S) as a function of time was calculated and its maximum value was found as 2.8 for 4% vol. of LPG with a response and recovery times of 240 sec and 248 sec respectively.

  15. A utilização de materiais obtidos pelo processo de sol-gel na construção de biossensores The utilization of materials obtained by the sol-gel process in biosensors construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A. S. Alfaya

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of sol-gel materials to develop new biosensors has received great attention due to its characteristics and versatility of sol-gel process. An overview is presented of the state-of-the-art of electrochemical biosensors employing sol-gel materials. Low-temperature, porous sol-gel ceramics represent a new class for the immobilization of biomolecules. The rational design of sol-gel sensing materials, based on the judicious choice of the starting alkoxide, encapsulated reagents, and preparation conditions, allows tailoring of material properties in a wide range, and offers great potential for the development of electrochemical biosensors.

  16. SAXS study of silica sols, gels and glasses obtained by the sol gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, D.I. dos; Aegerter, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Systematic SAXS studies have been performed at the LURE Synchrotron, Orsay, using an intense beam of point like cross-section to obtain information about the sol -> humid gel -> dried gel -> silica glass transformation. The intensity curves have been analysed in term of power law in log-log plots, whose exponent is related to mass and surface fractal dimensions of the structure. It was found that almost all phases present fractal structures and for the case of basic gels, is of hierarchical nature. The aerogels are formed by a dense matrix, with a smooth surface and exhibit a very narrow auto-similarity range that gives a mass fractal dimension. (author) [pt

  17. Formulation and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of Morus alba sol-gel against periodontal pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Gunjal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis has a multifactorial etiology, with primary etiologic agents being pathogenic bacteria that reside in the subgingival area. Recent advances in the field of alternative medicine introduced various herbal products for the treatment of periodontitis. Aim: To assess and compare the antimicrobial activity of Morus alba sol-gel with chlorhexidine sol-gel against ATCC standard strains of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia. Materials and Methods: Crude extract of Morus alba leaves was prepared by Soxhlet method by using ethanol as a solvent. Phytochemical screening of the crude extract of M. alba was performed to check the various chemical constituents. M. alba sol-gel and chlorhexidine sol-gel were formulated using Pluronic f127 and Pluronic f108 and compared for their antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration of both the gels was performed using agar well diffusion technique. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration of M. alba sol-gel and chlorhexidine sol-gel against A. actinomycetemcomitans is 19 and 17 mm, T. forsythia is 12 and 21 mm, and P. gingivalis is 16 and 18 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Both M. alba and chlorhexidine sol-gel exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against periodontal pathogens.

  18. Lithium containing MgAl mixed oxides obtained from sol-gel hydrotalcite for transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata A. B. Lima-Corrêa

    Full Text Available Abstract The innumerous advantages of heterogeneous catalysts employed in biodiesel production have stimulated the search for a solid catalyst capable of replacing the industrially used homogeneous catalysts. This paper investigates the effect of the sol-gel method in the catalytic activity and stability of Li-MgAl mixed oxides prepared by the “in situ” lithium addition to a MgAl hydrotalcite. The analyses based on N2 physisorption, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and temperature-programmed desorption of CO2 were carried out to elucidate the properties of the catalysts. Considerable differences in the physico-chemical properties of the catalysts were observed with the Li addition. Li reduced the surface area and increased the crystallite size of the oxides. Furthermore, Li-MgAl mixed oxides prepared by the calcination of the sol-gel MgAl hydrotalcites presented substantial morphological differences when compared to the same oxides obtained by heat treatment of hydrotalcites synthesized via the conventional co-precipitation route. Furthermore, Li increased the number and strength of the base sites which resulted in the increase of the oxide reactivities towards the transesterification reaction between methyl acetate and ethanol. The activity was dependent on the Li loading on the catalysts. The catalyst containing only 5 wt.% Li turned out to be highly active (( 85% conversion at 50°C, ethanol/methyl acetate molar ratio = 6/1, 4 wt.% of catalyst and 30 min of reaction. Stability tests showed that the Li-MgAl catalysts lose activity after 3 reuse cycles.

  19. Enhancement of Ce/Cr Codopant Solubility and Chemical Homogeneity in TiO2 Nanoparticles through Sol-Gel versus Pechini Syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Fan; Mofarah, Sajjad S; Hanaor, Dorian Amir Henry; Koshy, Pramod; Chen, Hsin-Kai; Jiang, Yue; Sorrell, Charles Christopher

    2018-06-18

    Ce/Cr codoped TiO 2 nanoparticles were synthesized using sol-gel and Pechini methods with heat treatment at 400 °C for 4 h. A conventional sol-gel process produced well-crystallized anatase, while Pechini synthesis yielded less-ordered mixed-phase anatase + rutile; this suggests that the latter method enhances Ce solubility and increases chemical homogeneity but destabilizes the TiO 2 lattice. Greater structural disruption from the decomposition of the Pechini precursor formed more open agglomerated morphologies, while the lower levels of structural disruption from pyrolysis of the dried sol-gel precursor resulted in denser agglomerates of lower surface areas. Codoping and associated destabilization of the lattice reduced the binding energies in both powders. Cr 4+ formation in sol-gel powders and Cr 6+ formation in Pechini powders suggest that these valence changes derive from synergistic electron exchange from intervalence and/or multivalence charge transfer. Since Ce is too large to allow either substitutional or interstitial solid solubility, the concept of integrated solubility is introduced, in which the Ti site and an adjacent interstice are occupied by the large Ce ion. The photocatalytic performance data show that codoping was detrimental owing to the effects of reduced crystallinity from lattice destabilization and surface area. Two regimes of mechanistic behavior are seen, which are attributed to the unsaturated solid solutions at lower codopant levels and supersaturated solid solutions at higher levels. The present work demonstrates that the Pechini method offers a processing technique that is superior to sol-gel because the former facilitates solid solubility and consequent chemical homogeneity.

  20. Minimally Adhesive, Advanced Non-toxic Coatings of Dendrimeric Catalysts in Sol-Gel Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-19

    Catalysts in Sol -Gel Matrices 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER N00014-09-1-0217 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Detty, Michael R. 5d...Technical Report for ONR N00014-09-1-0217 Minimally Adhesive, Advanced Non-toxic Coatings of Dendrimeric Catalysts in Sol -Gel Matrices Michael R. Detty, PI...Environmentally benign sol -gel antifouling and foul-releasing coatings. Ace. Chem. Res. 2014, 47, 678-687. 11) Alberto, E. E.; Müller, L. M

  1. Ultrasound-assisted sol-gel synthesis of ZrO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guel, Marlene Lariza Andrade; Jiménez, Lourdes Díaz; Hernández, Dora Alicia Cortés

    2017-03-01

    Synthesis of tetragonal ZrO 2 by both conventional sol-gel and ultrasound-assisted sol-gel methods and using a non-ionic surfactant Tween-20, was performed. A porous microstructure composed of nanometric particles was observed. Tetragonal ZrO 2 was obtained using a low heat treatment temperature of powders, 500°C by both methods. A higher crystallinity and a shorter reaction time were observed when ultrasound was used in the sol-gel method due to the cavitation phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of composite MAO/sol-gel coatings on magnesium alloy AZ91D using combined micro-arc oxidation and sol-gel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Wei; Chen Baizhen; Shi Xichang; Chen Ya; Xiao Xiang

    2009-01-01

    Protective composite coatings were obtained on a magnesium alloy by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and sol-gel technique. The coatings consisted of a MAO layer and a sol-gel layer. The microstructure and composition of the MAO coating and the composite coatings were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-rays (EDX). Potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and total immersion tests were used to evaluate the corrosion behavior of these coatings in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The results show that the sol-gel layer provides corrosion protection by physically sealing the pores in the MAO coating and acting as a barrier. The composite coatings can suppress the corrosion process by preventing the corrosive ions from transferring or diffusing to the magnesium alloy substrate. This enhances the corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy AZ91D significantly

  3. Synthesis of uranium and thorium dioxides by Complex Sol-Gel Processes (CSGP). Synthesis of uranium oxides by Complex Sol-Gel Processes (CSGP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptula, A.; Brykala, M.; Lada, W.; Olczak, T.; Wawszczak, D.; Chmielewski, A.G.; Modolo, G.; Daniels, H.

    2010-01-01

    In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (INCT), a new method of synthesis of uranium and thorium dioxides by original variant of sol-gel method - Complex Sol-Gel Process (CSGP), has been elaborated. The main modification step is the formation of nitrate-ascorbate sols from components alkalized by aqueous ammonia. Those sols were gelled into: - irregularly agglomerates by evaporation of water; - medium sized microspheres (diameter <150) by IChTJ variant of sol-gel processes by water extraction from drops of emulsion sols in 2-ethylhexanol-1 by this solvent. Uranium dioxide was obtained by a reduction of gels with hydrogen at temperatures >700 deg. C, while thorium dioxide by a simple calcination in the air atmosphere. (authors)

  4. Crystal structures of sol-gel deposited zirconia thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.M.; Cheary, R.W.; Rice, M.; Ben-Nissan, B.; Cocking, J.L.; Johnstone, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    The authors reports on the crystal structure of zirconia thin films by high temperature x-ray diffraction. The films were deposited by sol-gel processing onto polished stainless steel substrates, and dried at 200 deg C. X-ray diffraction at temperatures between 400 deg C and 800 deg C was carried out using an APEX diffractometer with a position sensitive detector. Previous results indicated that there was a transformation between the tetragonal phase and the monoclinic phase at approximately 770 deg C. Two experiments have been carried out: temperature runs, where the structure evolution is studied as a function of temperature; and time evolution of the structure at fixed temperatures. The results for both experiments, including structural analysis of the different phases found in the thin zirconia films and an analysis of the kinetics of the phase transformation(s) from the time evolution work are presented. This will include a comparison with theories of nucleation and crystallisation in single element films. Impurity phases introduced by interaction of the zirconia with the substrate have been observed, and the effect of increasing annealing time on the substrate-film interaction will also be discussed. 17 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  5. Control size of silver nanoparticles in sol-gel glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, Victor M.; Celis, Antonio C.; Garcia-Macedo, Jorge A.

    2000-10-01

    By the sol-gel processing, silver ions in presence of stabilizing function (3-thiocyanatopropyl)triethoxysilane are reduced by heating gels at 180 C for several times in air atmosphere. The spectroscopic Uv-Vis observations, confirm silver nanoparticles presence with peak maximum around 350 nm. The optical properties of the metallic particles are observed at room temperature as function of time, and the absorption spectra practically do not change, which indicated they are trapped and stabilized within the fine porous silica cage. Mie theory calculations, considering the mean free path effect of the conduction electrons, are compatible with experimental spectra, indicating homogeneity in size and form of the metallic nanoparticles. Smithard correlation curve, between half width height (W1/2) of the optical absorption and the particle diameter 2r, predict silver particles size between 4 and 10 nm, during composite heating. Activation energy was measured and compared with previous data on similar systems and the probable reduction process are discussed.

  6. Preparation of silica by sol-gel method using formamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F.S. Lenza

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we obtained microporous and mesoporous silica gels by sol-gel processing. Tetraethylortosilicate (TEOS was used as precursor. Nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid were used as catalysts. In order to study the affect of formamide as drying additive, we used a molar ratio alkoxide/formamide of 1/1. The performance of formamide in obtaining crack-free gels was evaluated through monolithicity measurements. The structural evolution occurring in the interconnected network of the gels during thermal treatment was monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, shrinkage and density measurements and nitrogen gas sorption. We noted that in the presence of formamide, the Si-O-Si bonds are stronger and belong to a more cross-linked structure. The samples obtained in the presence of formamide have larger pore volume and its pore structure is in the range of mesoporosity. The samples obtained without additive are microporous. Formamide allowed the preparation of crack-free silica gels stabilized at high temperatures.

  7. Synthesis of Titania-Silica Materials by Sol-Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubia F. S. Lenza

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work TiO2-SiO2 glasses containing as much as 20 mol % of TiO2 were prepared via sol-gel process using titanium and silicon alkoxides, in the presence of chlorine, in the form of titanium tetrachloride or HCl. The gels were heat-treated until 800 °C. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to understand the structural properties of TiO2-SiO2 oxides calcined at different temperatures and to evaluate the homogeneity of these materials. The degree of the compactness of the silica network is inferred from the frequency of the asymmetric stretching vibrations of Si-O-Si bonds. Formation of Si-O-Ti bridges, as monitored by the intensity of characteristic 945 cm-1 ¾ 960 cm-1 vibration, is particularly prominent if the method of basic two-step prehydrolysis of silicon alkoxide, addition of titanium alkoxide and completion of hydrolysis was used.

  8. Porous olivine composites synthesized by sol-gel technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominko, R.; Bele, M.; Gaberscek, M.; Jamnik, J. [National Institute of Chemistry, P.O. Box 660, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Remskar, M.; Hanzel, D. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Goupil, J.M. [ENSICAEN, UMR CNRS 6506, Catalyse and Spectrochimie Lab, F-14050 Caen (France); Pejovnik, S. [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Askerceva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-02-28

    Porous LiMPO{sub 4}/C composites (where M stands for Fe and/or Mn) with micro-sized particles were synthesised by sol-gel technique. Particles porosity is discussed in terms of qualitative results obtained from SEM micrographs and in terms of quantitative results obtained from N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. Porous particles could be described as an inverse picture of nanoparticulate arrangement, where the pores serve as channels for lithium supply and the distance between the pores determines the materials kinetics. Tests show that the electrochemical behaviour of porous LiMPO{sub 4}/C composite is comparable with the results from the literature. The best electrochemical results were obtained with a LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite (over 140mAhg{sup -1} at C/2 rate during continuous cycling). The capacity obtained with LiMnPO{sub 4}/C composite is much lower (40mAhg{sup -1} at C/20 rate), although the textural properties are similar to those observed in the LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite. (author)

  9. The chemistry of plutonium in sol-gel processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, M.H.; Haire, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of plutonium chemical behavior conducted in conjunction with plutonia sol-gel process development at ORNL are described. The colloidal solutions produced consist of 'Pu(IV) polymer,' and this is therefore the study of polymeric plutonium behavior. Spectrophotometric, electron diffraction, and electron microscopy studies, in addition to specific studies that were concerned with the colloidal behavior of Pu(IV) polymer, indicate several characteristics of polymer that are not generally recognized. The particle nature of Pu(IV) polymer indicated by electron microscopy, the amorphous-crystalline characteristics of primary polymer particles demonstrated by electron diffraction, and the reversible and irreversible aggregation of the primary particles shown by spectrophotometric techniques present a useful view of the nature of Pu(IV) polymer that has been helpful in solving or understanding various types of processing problems involving plutonium hydrolytic behavior. The colloidal characteristics of Pu(IV) polymer and crystallite growth of primary polymer particles by thermal denitration are also described. (orig.) [de

  10. The role of crosslinkers in epoxy-amine crosslinked silicon sol-gel barrier protection coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vreugdenhil, A.J.; Gelling, V.J.; Woods, M.E.; Schmelz, J.R.; Enderson, B.P.

    2008-01-01

    The search for chromate replacements in corrosion prevention materials has identified the use of hybrid sol-gel coatings as one, very promising approach. Appropriately functionalized hybrid sol-gel materials can be crosslinked to enhance their chemical durability and mechanical strength. In this work, we evaluate three crosslinkers used in a tetramethoxysilane-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane binary sol-gel system in order to identify the role of the crosslinkers in corrosion protection. The crosslinkers examined were ethylenediamine, N-aminethylepiperazine, and diethylenetriamine. The sol-gel coatings were examined by contact angle, atomic force microscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Circuit modeling of the EIS results yielded valuable insights into the significant differences between the durabilities of the variously crosslinked coatings. Crosslinker hydrophobicity was identified as not playing a significant role whereas the number of reactive sites per crosslinker and the resulting morphology of the material may be an important parameter

  11. Waveguide fabrication in UV-photocurable sol-gel materials: Influence of the photoinitiating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Versace, D.L.; Oubaha, M.; Copperwhite, R.; Croutxe-Barghorn, C.; MacCraith, B.D.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we identify and explain the different chemical interactions involved between a sol-gel matrix and photoinitiators used in the fabrication of optical waveguides. A well-established sol-gel matrix composed of 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, zirconium n-propoxide and methacrylic acid was developed, and two different photoinitiators (Irgacure (registered) 819 and 1800) were added to the host matrix. Optical microscopy was used to characterise the structure of the waveguides as a function of the photoinitiator nature and concentration, and aging of the hybrid sol-gel material. It is clearly demonstrated that the width of the waveguides is strongly influenced by the sol aging. Furthermore, it is shown that degradation of photoinitiators occurs during the sol-gel process. Oxidation of the phosphonyl groups by the zirconium complex accounts for this results

  12. Synthesis of Hollow Sphere and 1D Structural Materials by Sol-Gel Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fa-Liang; Zhang, Hai-Jun

    2017-08-25

    The sol-gel method is a simple and facile wet chemical process for fabricating advanced materials with high homogeneity, high purity, and excellent chemical reactivity at a relatively low temperature. By adjusting the processing parameters, the sol-gel technique can be used to prepare hollow sphere and 1D structural materials that exhibit a wide application in the fields of catalyst, drug or gene carriers, photoactive, sensors and Li-ion batteries. This feature article reviewed the development of the preparation of hollow sphere and 1D structural materials using the sol-gel method. The effects of calcination temperature, soaking time, pH value, surfactant, etc., on the preparation of hollow sphere and 1D structural materials were summarized, and their formation mechanisms were generalized. Finally, possible future research directions of the sol-gel technique were outlined.

  13. Amoeba-like self-oscillating polymeric fluids with autonomous sol-gel transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoda, Michika; Ueki, Takeshi; Tamate, Ryota; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro; Yoshida, Ryo

    2017-07-13

    In the field of polymer science, many kinds of polymeric material systems that show a sol-gel transition have been created. However, most systems are unidirectional stimuli-responsive systems that require physical signals such as a change in temperature. Here, we report on the design of a block copolymer solution that undergoes autonomous and periodic sol-gel transition under constant conditions without any on-off switching through external stimuli. The amplitude of this self-oscillation of the viscosity is about 2,000 mPa s. We also demonstrate an intermittent forward motion of a droplet of the polymer solution synchronized with the autonomous sol-gel transition. This polymer solution bears the potential to become the base for a type of slime-like soft robot that can transform its shape kaleidoscopically and move autonomously, which is associated with the living amoeba that moves forward by a repeated sol-gel transition.

  14. Preparation of oxide glasses from metal alkoxides by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, K.; Yoko, T.; Sakka, S.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation is carried out on the types of siloxane polymers produced in the course of the hydrolysis of silicon tetraethoxide, as well as the preparation of oxide glasses from metal alkoxides by the sol-gel method.

  15. Extraction of Silica from Cassava Periderm using Modified Sol-Gel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    6School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and the Built ... glycol as capping agent in modified sol-gel method for ..... Effect of Organic Acid Treatment on the Properties of ... Journal of Analytical and Applied.

  16. Study and fabrication of ZnNb2O6 thin films by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Cheng-Hsing; Yang, Pai-Chuan; Yang, Hsi-Wen; Yan, Shu-Fong; Tung, Hsin-Han

    2011-01-01

    Zinc niobium oxide (ZnNb 2 O 6 ) thin films were grown on ITO/glass substrate by sol-gel process. Microstructure and surface morphology of the ZnNb 2 O 6 thin films have been studied by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Optical properties of the ZnNb 2 O 6 thin films were obtained by UV-visible recording spectrophotometer. The dependence of the microstructure, optical transmittance spectra, optical band gap on annealing temperature was also investigated.

  17. Synthesis of yttrium silicate luminescent materials by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, D.V.; Vasina, O.Yu.; Popovich, N.V.; Galaktionov, S.S.; Soshchin, N.P.

    1996-01-01

    Several yttrium-silicate composition with Y 2 O 3 content within 44-56% have been synthesized. it is ascertained that employment of sol-gel technique permits preparation of luminescent materials on yttrium silicate basis, which compare favourably with bath-produced specimens. The influence of phase composition of sol-gel phosphors on basic performance indices: intensity and luminescence spectrum, has been analyzed

  18. Strength of interactions between immobilized dye molecules and sol-gel matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Fanya; Schoenleber, Monika; Mansour, Rolan; Bastani, Behnam; Fielden, Peter; Goddard, Nicholas J

    2011-02-21

    In this paper we present a new theory to re-examine the immobilization technique of dye doped sol-gel films, define the strength and types of possible bonds between the immobilized molecule and sol-gel glass, and show that the immobilized molecule is not free inside the pores as was previously thought. Immobilizing three different pH sensitive dyes with different size and functional groups inside the same sol-gel films revealed important information about the nature of the interaction between the doped molecule and the sol-gel matrix. The samples were characterized by means of ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer (UV-VIS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), mercury porosimetry (MP), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((29)Si NMR) and field-emission environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM-FEG). It was found that the doped molecule itself has a great effect on the strength and types of the bonds. A number of factors were identified, such as number and types of the functional groups, overall charge, size, pK(a) and number of the silanol groups which surround the immobilized molecule. These results were confirmed by the successful immobilization of bromocresol green (BCG) after a completely polymerized sol-gel was made. The sol-gel consisted of 50% tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and 50% methyltriethoxysilane (MTEOS) (w/w). Moreover, the effect of the immobilized molecule on the structure of the sol-gel was studied by means of a leaky waveguide (LW) mode for doped films made before and after polymerization of the sol-gel.

  19. Making MgO/SiO2 Glasses By The Sol-Gel Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1989-01-01

    Silicon dioxide glasses containing 15 mole percent magnesium oxide prepared by sol-gel process. Not made by conventional melting because ingredients immiscible liquids. Synthesis of MgO/SiO2 glass starts with mixing of magnesium nitrate hexahydrate with silicon tetraethoxide, both in alcohol. Water added, and transparent gel forms. Subsequent processing converts gel into glass. Besides producing glasses of new composition at lower processing temperatures, sol-gel method leads to improved homogeneity and higher purity.

  20. Morphology, structure and optical properties of sol-gel ITO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoica, T.F.; Teodorescu, V.S.; Blanchin, M.G.; Stoica, T.A.; Gartner, M.; Losurdo, M.; Zaharescu, M

    2003-08-15

    The alkoxidic route and the spinning deposition were used to prepare monolayer sol-gel indium tin oxide (ITO) films. The morphology and crystalline structure were investigated by cross-section transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The ITO sol-gel mono-layer contains three regions of different porosities. The basic crystalline structure is that of the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} lattice. The optical properties have been studied by optical transmission and spectroscopic ellipsometry.

  1. One-step sol-gel imprint lithography for guided-mode resonance structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yin; Liu, Longju; Johnson, Michael; C Hillier, Andrew; Lu, Meng

    2016-03-04

    Guided-mode resonance (GMR) structures consisting of sub-wavelength periodic gratings are capable of producing narrow-linewidth optical resonances. This paper describes a sol-gel-based imprint lithography method for the fabrication of submicron 1D and 2D GMR structures. This method utilizes a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold to fabricate the grating coupler and waveguide for a GMR device using a sol-gel thin film in a single step. An organic-inorganic hybrid sol-gel film was selected as the imprint material because of its relatively high refractive index. The optical responses of several sol-gel GMR devices were characterized, and the experimental results were in good agreement with the results of electromagnetic simulations. The influence of processing parameters was investigated in order to determine how finely the spectral response and resonant wavelength of the GMR devices could be tuned. As an example potential application, refractometric sensing experiments were performed using a 1D sol-gel device. The results demonstrated a refractive index sensitivity of 50 nm/refractive index unit. This one-step fabrication process offers a simple, rapid, and low-cost means of fabricating GMR structures. We anticipate that this method can be valuable in the development of various GMR-based devices as it can readily enable the fabrication of complex shapes and allow the doping of optically active materials into sol-gel thin film.

  2. Novel hybrid sol-gel coatings for corrosion protection of AZ31B magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamaka, S.V.; Montemor, M.F.; Galio, A.F.; Zheludkevich, M.L.; Trindade, C.; Dick, L.F.; Ferreira, M.G.S.

    2008-01-01

    This work aims to develop and study new anticorrosion films for AZ31B magnesium alloy based on the sol-gel coating approach. Hybrid organic-inorganic sols were synthesized by copolymerization of epoxy-siloxane and titanium or zirconium alkoxides. Tris(trimethylsilyl) phosphate was also used as additive to confer additional corrosion protection to magnesium-based alloy. A sol-gel coating, about 5-μm thick, shows good adhesion to the metal substrate and prevents corrosion attack in 0.005 M NaCl solution for 2 weeks. The sol-gel coating system doped with tris(trimethylsilyl)-phosphate revealed improved corrosion protection of the magnesium alloy due to formation of hydrolytically stable Mg-O-P chemical bonds. The structure and the thickness of the sol-gel film were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion behaviour of AZ31B substrates pre-treated with the sol-gel derived hybrid coatings was tested by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The chemical composition of the silylphosphate-containing sol-gel film at different depths was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with depth profiling

  3. Preparation, characterization, and applications of a novel solid-phase microextraction fiber by sol-gel technology on the surface of stainless steel wire for determination of poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aquatic environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Es-haghi, Ali; Hosseininasab, Valiallah; Bagheri, Habib

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was prepared using sol–gel technology. • Sol–gel coating was performed on stainless steel substrate. • The new fibers are robust and unbreakable with temperature stability. • The fibers were used for extraction of PAHs from aqueous samples. - Abstract: A novel solid-phase microextraction(SPME) fiber was prepared using sol–gel technology with ethoxylated nonylphenol as a fiber coating material. The fiber was employed to develop a headspace SPME–GC–MS method suitable for quantification of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water samples. Surface characteristics of the fibers were inspected by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy as well as by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM measurements showed the presence of highly porous nano-sized particles in the coating. Important parameters affecting the extraction efficiency such as extraction temperature and time, desorption conditions as well as ionic strength have been evaluated and optimized. In the next step, the validation of the new method have been performed, finding it to be specific in the trace analysis of PAHs, with the limit of detection (LOD) ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 μg L −1 and the linear range from the respective LOD to 200 μg L −1 with RSD amounting to less than 8%. The thermal stability of the fibers was investigated as well and they were found to be durable at 280 °C for 345 min. Furthermore, the proposed method was successfully applied for quantification of PAHs in real water samples

  4. Preparation, characterization, and applications of a novel solid-phase microextraction fiber by sol-gel technology on the surface of stainless steel wire for determination of poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aquatic environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es-haghi, Ali, E-mail: a.eshaghi@rvsri.ac.ir [Department of Physico Chemistry, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, PO Box 31975/148, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseininasab, Valiallah; Bagheri, Habib [Environmental and Bio-Analytical Laboratories, Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • A novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was prepared using sol–gel technology. • Sol–gel coating was performed on stainless steel substrate. • The new fibers are robust and unbreakable with temperature stability. • The fibers were used for extraction of PAHs from aqueous samples. Abstract: A novel solid-phase microextraction(SPME) fiber was prepared using sol–gel technology with ethoxylated nonylphenol as a fiber coating material. The fiber was employed to develop a headspace SPME–GC–MS method suitable for quantification of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water samples. Surface characteristics of the fibers were inspected by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy as well as by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM measurements showed the presence of highly porous nano-sized particles in the coating. Important parameters affecting the extraction efficiency such as extraction temperature and time, desorption conditions as well as ionic strength have been evaluated and optimized. In the next step, the validation of the new method have been performed, finding it to be specific in the trace analysis of PAHs, with the limit of detection (LOD) ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 μg L⁻¹ and the linear range from the respective LOD to 200 μg L⁻¹with RSD amounting to less than 8%. The thermal stability of the fibers was investigated as well and they were found to be durable at 280 °C for 345 min. Furthermore, the proposed method was successfully applied for quantification of PAHs in real water samples.

  5. Influence of New Sol-gel Refractory Coating on the Casting Properties of Cold Box and Furan Cores for Grey Cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.; Bischoff, C

    2010-01-01

    New Sol-Gel coated sand cores made from coldbox and furan binder systems were investigated. The idea of the coating was to improve the surface quality of castings. Grey iron was cast on the cores in a sand casting process. The effect of the high temperature of the melt on the cores was assessed...... by measuring the heating curves. The viscosity of the coating, moisture content and the permeability of the cores were evaluated. The surface quality of the castings was investigated using SEM and OM. The results show that the moisture content of the cores affected the permeability. In furan cores the vapour...... transport zone (VTZ) when in contact with the melt is larger than it is in a coldbox which means the furan cores have higher moisture content. The new sol-gel coating has the potential for improving the surface quality of castings without negative effects on the graphite distribution. The surface...

  6. Sol-gel processes and materials. January 1970-August 1988 (Citations from the US Patent data base). Report for January 1970-August 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning Sol-Gel processes and Sol-Gel derived materials and products. Selected patents include Sol-Gel compositions, ceramic and refractory materials, fabrication of silica glass, cataylsts and catalyst supports, nuclear fuels preparation, abrasives for grinding wheels, Sol-Gel production of microspheres, Sol-Gel thin films and coatings, photographic materials, and dental materials. (Contains 71 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  7. Synthesis of nanoparticles of magnetite by sol-gel and precipitation methods: study of chemical composition and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picasso, Gino; Vega, Jaime; Uzuriaga, Rosario; Ruiz, Gean Pieer

    2012-01-01

    In this work, nanoparticles based on magnetite have been prepared by sol-gel and precipitation methods. In the first case two variants have been applied: by growing of sol starting from nitrate precursor and ethylene glycol as solvent and to control the reduction process and force hydrolysis and steric control prepared from ferrum sulfate precursor and sodium citrate. In the second case the starting material was sulfate precursor, ammonium hydroxide as precipitaing agent and ethylene glycol as surfactant. The samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), adsorption-desorption of N 2 (BET equation model) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. XRD patterns of all samples showed typical peaks of magnetite which were detected in the following positions: 30,06 o , 35,42 o , 62,55 o . Average specific surface quantified by BET method was ranging from 40 to 50 m 2 /g with isotherm type IV corresponding to mesoporous surface. Moessbauer spectra of sample prepared from sol-gel (gel growing) carried out at home temperature detected the presence of 2 sextets consisting in 2 type of sites: first one due to octahedral positions (Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ ) and the second one due to tetrahedral positions (Fe 3+ ). Grain size of magnetite samples, evaluated by Scherrer equation and specific surface area, was ranging from 2 to 20 nm. (author).

  8. Sol-Gel Process for Making Pt-Ru Fuel-Cell Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Valdez, Thomas; Kumta, Prashant; Kim, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A sol-gel process has been developed as a superior alternative to a prior process for making platinum-ruthenium alloy catalysts for electro-oxidation of methanol in fuel cells. The starting materials in the prior process are chloride salts of platinum and ruthenium. The process involves multiple steps, is time-consuming, and yields a Pt-Ru product that has relatively low specific surface area and contains some chloride residue. Low specific surface area translates to incomplete utilization of the catalytic activity that might otherwise be available, while chloride residue further reduces catalytic activity ("poisons" the catalyst). In contrast, the sol-gel process involves fewer steps and less time, does not leave chloride residue, and yields a product of greater specific area and, hence, greater catalytic activity. In this sol-gel process (see figure), the starting materials are platinum(II) acetylacetonate [Pt(C5H7O2)2, also denoted Pt-acac] and ruthenium(III) acetylacetonate [Ru(C5H7O2)3, also denoted Ru-acac]. First, Pt-acac and Ru-acac are dissolved in acetone at the desired concentrations (typically, 0.00338 moles of each salt per 100 mL of acetone) at a temperature of 50 C. A solution of 25 percent tetramethylammonium hydroxide [(CH3)4NOH, also denoted TMAH] in methanol is added to the Pt-acac/Ruacac/ acetone solution to act as a high-molecular-weight hydrolyzing agent. The addition of the TMAH counteracts the undesired tendency of Pt-acac and Ru-acac to precipitate as separate phases during the subsequent evaporation of the solvent, thereby helping to yield a desired homogeneous amorphous gel. The solution is stirred for 10 minutes, then the solvent is evaporated until the solution becomes viscous, eventually transforming into a gel. The viscous gel is dried in air at a temperature of 170 C for about 10 hours. The dried gel is crushed to make a powder that is the immediate precursor of the final catalytic product. The precursor powder is converted to the

  9. Preparation and characterization of sol-gel derived (Th{sub x}Ce{sub 1-x})O{sub 2} microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetinkaya, Berkan; Tel, Hueseyin [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Inst. of Nuclear Sciences

    2018-04-01

    (Th{sub x}Ce{sub 1-x})O{sub 2} microspheres (x = 0.50, 0.75 and 0.95) with high homogeneity were prepared via sol-gel technique, starting from the initial chemical materials Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} . 5H{sub 2}O and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}[Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}]. The sols were prepared by addition of ammonia under pH and temperature control. Sols were gelated to spherical form in a gelation system consisting of peristaltic pump, flow regulator, nozzle and a glass column. To obtain crack-free spheres suitable for gelation, source sols neutralization conditions, drop formation and pre-hardening medium were investigated and the optimum conditions were determined. After aging, washing and drying steps, gel microspheres were characterized. For this purpose, thermal behaviors of spheres were investigated with TG/DTA analysis. Dried microspheres at 80 C were calcined at three different temperatures, namely 450 C, 800 C and 1150 C, and crystal parameters were calculated from XRD data. BET specific surface area and BJH porosity analyses were also carried out.

  10. Structural and physicochemical properties of nickel manganite NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4-δ}synthesized by sol-gel and ultra sound assisted methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alburquenque, D. [Materials Chemistry Department, USACH, Ave L.B.O' Higgins 3363, Santiago 9170022 (Chile); Metallurgy Department, USACH, Ave Ecuador 3469, Santiago 9170124 (Chile); Troncoso, L.; Denardin, J.C. [Physics Department, USACH, Ave. Ecuador 3493, Santiago 9170124 (Chile); Butera, A. [Atomic Center, CNEA, Ito. Balseiro, Bariloche Rio Negro 84000 (Argentina); Padmasree, K.D. [Cinvestav, U.Saltillo, Monterrey Km 13.5, Saltillo CP 25900 (Mexico); Ortiz, J.; Herrera, F. [Materials Chemistry Department, USACH, Ave L.B.O' Higgins 3363, Santiago 9170022 (Chile); Marco, J.F. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Rocasolano”, CSIC, Serrano 119, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Gautier, J.L., E-mail: juan.gautier@usach.cl [Materials Chemistry Department, USACH, Ave L.B.O' Higgins 3363, Santiago 9170022 (Chile)

    2016-07-05

    In this work we present the structural, magnetic and surface characterization of the ceramic nickel manganite oxide NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4-δ} synthesized by two methods: sol-gel and ultrasound-assisted sol-gel using nitrate salts as precursors. We have characterized the non-stoichiometric samples NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4-δ} using different physicochemical analyses. X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement of the X-ray data indicated that the samples crystallize in the Fd3m space group characteristic of cubic spinel-related oxides. The specific surface area of the oxides was 1.3 m{sup 2}/g (SG) and 16.3 m{sup 2}/g (UASG). SEM results showed particle agglomerates of 1.05 μm (SG) and 0.85 μm (UASG). Temperature dependence magnetization measurements were performed and a ferrimagnetic transition was identified at 103 K and 105 K depending on the preparation method (SG and UASG, respectively). The observed Curie constant was found to vary from 7.4 to 7.7 cm{sup 3} K mol{sup −1} and hysteretic magnetization vs. applied field curves at different temperatures were obtained. XPS studies of these oxides reveal the presence of Ni{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+} ions at the surface. A probable ionic distribution as a function of the synthesis method is proposed. - Highlights: • Nickel manganite was synthesized by sol gel synthesis and a novel ultrasound-assisted sol gel method. . • Bulk and surface cation distributions are proposed. • Physicochemical properties, including magnetic and surface area measurements, were studied for both types of samples.

  11. Investigation of the visible light photocatalytic activity of BiVO4 prepared by sol gel method assisted by ultrasonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deebasree, J P; Maheskumar, V; Vidhya, B

    2018-07-01

    Visible light induced photocatalyst BiVO 4 with monoclinic scheelite structure has been synthesised via sol gel method assisted by ultrasonication. The prepared samples were characterised using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-Vis diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) techniques. The photocatalytic efficiency was evaluated by decolourisation of MB under visible light irradiation. The effect of ultrasound output power on the properties of BiVO 4 during and after preparation by sol-gel method has been compared with normal agitated sample (As prepared). The power of ultrasonic vibration has been varied and an ideal output power which yields better catalytic efficiency is determined. BiVO 4 sonicated with 80 W during preparation 80 W (D) exhibited relatively high surface area, better surface morphology and better catalytic efficiency compared to other samples which were sonicated with 100, 160 and 200 W. The results signify that the photodegradation rate of BiVO 4 80 W (D) sample is high up to 96% in 90 min compared to other samples. Change in morphology leading to better catalytic efficiency was obtained just by exposing the sample to ultrasonic radiation without addition of any surfactant. The recovery test showed that the sample was stable for four consecutive cycles. Using radical test, a reasonable mechanism for photodegradation has been proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sol-Gel-Derived Hydroxyapatite-Carbon Nanotube/Titania Coatings on Titanium Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuantong Liu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, hydroxyapatite-carbon nanotube/titania (HA-CNT/TiO2 double layer coatings were successfully developed on titanium (Ti substrates intended for biomedical applications. A TiO2 coating was firstly developed by anodization to improve bonding between HA and Ti, and then the layer of HA and CNTs was coated on the surface by the sol-gel process to improve the biocompatibility and mechanical properties of Ti. The surfaces of double layer coatings were uniform and crack-free with a thickness of about 7 μm. The bonding strength of the HA-CNT/TiO2 coating was higher than that of the pure HA and HA-CNT coatings. Additionally, in vitro cell experiments showed that CNTs promoted the adhesion of preosteoblasts on the HA-CNT/TiO2 double layer coatings. These unique surfaces combined with the osteoconductive properties of HA exhibited the excellent mechanical properties of CNTs. Therefore, the developed HA-CNT/TiO2 coatings on Ti substrates might be a promising material for bone replacement.

  13. Thickness controlled sol-gel silica films for plasmonic bio-sensing devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figus, Cristiana, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Quochi, Francesco, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Artizzu, Flavia, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Saba, Michele, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Marongiu, Daniela, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Mura, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica - University of Cagliari, S.P. Km 0.7, I-09042 Monserrato (Canada) (Italy); Floris, Francesco; Marabelli, Franco; Patrini, Maddalena; Fornasari, Lucia [Dipartimento di Fisica - University of Pavia, Via Agostino Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (PV) (Italy); Pellacani, Paola; Valsesia, Andrea [Plasmore S.r.l. -Via Grazia Deledda 4, I-21020 Ranco (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy)

    2014-10-21

    Plasmonics has recently received considerable interest due to its potentiality in many fields as well as in nanobio-technology applications. In this regard, various strategies are required for modifying the surfaces of plasmonic nanostructures and to control their optical properties in view of interesting application such as bio-sensing, We report a simple method for depositing silica layers of controlled thickness on planar plasmonic structures. Tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was used as silica precursor. The control of the silica layer thickness was obtained by optimizing the sol-gel method and dip-coating technique, in particular by properly tuning different parameters such as pH, solvent concentration, and withdrawal speed. The resulting films were characterized via atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier-transform (FT) spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Furthermore, by performing the analysis of surface plasmon resonances before and after the coating of the nanostructures, it was observed that the position of the resonance structures could be properly shifted by finely controlling the silica layer thickness. The effect of silica coating was assessed also in view of sensing applications, due to important advantages, such as surface protection of the plasmonic structure.

  14. Au Nanoparticle Sub-Monolayers Sandwiched between Sol-Gel Oxide Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Gaspera, Enrico; Menin, Enrico; Sada, Cinzia

    2018-01-01

    Sub-monolayers of monodisperse Au colloids with different surface coverage have been embedded in between two different metal oxide thin films, combining sol-gel depositions and proper substrates functionalization processes. The synthetized films were TiO2, ZnO, and NiO. X-ray diffraction shows the crystallinity of all the oxides and verifies the nominal surface coverage of Au colloids. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the metal nanoparticles is affected by both bottom and top oxides: in fact, the SPR peak of Au that is sandwiched between two different oxides is centered between the SPR frequencies of Au sub-monolayers covered with only one oxide, suggesting that Au colloids effectively lay in between the two oxide layers. The desired organization of Au nanoparticles and the morphological structure of the prepared multi-layered structures has been confirmed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses that show a high quality sandwich structure. The multi-layered structures have been also tested as optical gas sensors. PMID:29538338

  15. Investigation of sol-gel transition by rheological methods. Part I. Experimental methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich

    2017-08-01

    on the chemical nature of the sol particles participating in the gelling process. This behavior of the kinetic curves is due to a change in the mechanism of the process and a decrease in the number of possible directions for the growth of fractal aggregates. At the same time the process of aggregate growth gradually shifts from three-dimensional growth to twodimensional surface geometry, and even to a one-dimensional linear geometry. This phenomenon is due to steric hindrance arising from the aggregation of the remaining particles of sol in the formed gel. Based on rheological measurements, a sol-gel transition can be classified as a Second-order phase transition.

  16. Investigation of sol-gel transition by rheological methods. Part II. Results and discussion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich

    2017-10-01

    depends on the chemical nature of the sol particles participating in the gelling process. This behavior of the kinetic curves is due to a change in the mechanism of the process and a decrease in the number of possible directions for the growth of fractal aggregates. At the same time the process of aggregate growth gradually shifts from three-dimensional growth to twodimensional surface geometry, and even to a one-dimensional linear geometry. This phenomenon is due to steric hindrance arising from the aggregation of the remaining particles of sol in the formed gel. Based on rheological measurements, a sol-gel transition can be classified as a Second-order phase transition.

  17. Efficacy of a new tan doped sol-gel sorbent for uptake of zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Ahmed, S.; Riaz, M.; Mahmood, F.; Younas Khokhar, M.

    2003-01-01

    A TAN (1-(2-Thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol) doped sol gel silica sorbent (reddish colour, porous, stable, hard, non-swelling) were prepared and investigated for the removal of Zn (II) from aqueous solutions. The kinetics, adsorption isotherm, equilibration time and pH effect on the removal were studied from non competitive aqueous solution to optimize the conditions to be utilized on a large scale. Fast equilibration was observed and adsorption equilibria were reached within 30 minutes. Adsorption of zinc ions on the blank (un-doped) sol gel was found negligible. The maximum adsorption of Zn (II) ions onto the TAN doped sol-gel from single solutions were 2.33 mg/g (0.035 mmol/g). TAN doped sol gel can be regenerated through washing with a solution of 0.1 M HCl solution. The maximum regeneration value was as high as 99.0%. The TAN-doped sol gel silica is suitable at least for four adsorption-desorption cycles without experiencing considerable loss of adsorption capacity. The uptake route and the nature of the Zn-TAN complex have been discussed. (orig.)

  18. Magnetic resonance as a structural probe of a uranium (VI) sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.M.; Thompson, M.C.; Buchanan, B.R.; King, R.B.; Garber, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    NMR investigations on the ORNL process for sol-gel synthesis of microspherical nuclear fuel (UO 2 ), has been useful in sorting out the chemical mechanism in the sol-gel steps. 13 C, 15 N, and 1 H NMR studies on the HMTA gelation agent (Hexamethylene tetramine, C 6 H l2 N 4 ) has revealed near quantitative stability of this adamantane-like compound in the sol-Gel process, contrary to its historical role as an ammonia source for gelation from the worldwide technical literature. 17 0 NMR of uranyl (UO 2 ++ ) hydrolysis fragments produced in colloidal sols has revealed the selective formation of a uranyl trimer, [(UO 2 ) 3 (μ 3 -O)(μ 2 -OH) 3 ] + , induced by basic hydrolysis with the HMTA gelation agent. Spectroscopic results show that trimer condensation occurs during sol-gel processing leading to layered polyanionic hydrous uranium oxides in which HMTAH + is occluded as an ''intercalation'' cation. Subsequent sol-gel processing of microspheres by ammonia washing results in in-situ ion exchange and formation of a layered hydrous ammonium uranate with a proposed structural formula of (NH 4 ) 2 [(UO 2 ) 8 O 4 (OH) 10 ] · 8H 2 0. This compound is the precursor to sintered U0 2 ceramic fuel

  19. Salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions of methylcellulose in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Wang, C; Tam, K C; Li, L

    2004-02-03

    The effects of various salts on the sol-gel transition of aqueous methylcellulose (MC) solutions have been studied systematically by means of a micro differential scanning calorimeter. It was found that the heating process was endothermic while the cooling process was exothermic for both MC solutions with and without salts. The addition of salts did not change the patterns of gelation and degelation of MC. However, the salts could shift the sol-gel transition and the gel-sol transition to lower or higher temperatures from a pure MC solution, depending on the salt type. These opposite effects were termed the salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions. Either the salt-assisted transition or the salt-suppressed sol-gel transition was a function of salt concentration. In addition, each salt was found to have its own concentration limit for producing a stable aqueous solution of MC at a given concentration of MC, which was related to the anionic charge density of the salt. Cations were proved to have weaker effects than anions. The "salt-out strength", defined as the salt effect per mole of anion, was obtained for each anion studied. The thermodynamic mechanisms involved in the salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions are discussed.

  20. Screen-printable sol-gel enzyme-containing carbon inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Pamidi, P V; Park, D S

    1996-08-01

    Enzymes usually cannot withstand the high-temperature curing associated with the thick-film fabrication process and require a separate immobilization step in connection with the production of single-use biosensors. We report on the development of sol-gel-derived enzyme-containing carbon inks that display compatibility with the screen-printing process. Such coupling of sol-gel and thick-film technologies offers a one-step fabrication of disposable enzyme electrodes, as it obviates the need for thermal curing. The enzyme-containing sol-gel carbon ink, prepared by dispersing the biocatalyst, along with the graphite powder and a binder, within the sol-gel precursors, is cured very rapidly (10 min) at low temperature (4 °C). The influence of the ink preparation conditions is explored, and the sensor performance is evaluated in connection with the incorporation of glucose oxidase or horseradish peroxidase. The resulting strips are stable for at least 3 months. Such sol-gel-derived carbon inks should serve as hosts for other heat-sensitive biomaterials in connection with the microfabrication of various thick-film biosensors.

  1. Optical sensing of HCl with phenol red doped sol-gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Enju; Chow, Kwok-Fan; Wang Wenqun; Wong, Crystal; Yee, Cynthia; Persad, Alvin; Mann, Jonathan; Bocarsly, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    A dye doped sol-gel for the sensing of hydrochloric acid in solution and/or gaseous phase is described. The sol-gel is obtained by acidic hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and phenyltriethoxysilane (Ph-TriEOS) in the presence of phenol red (PR) and further spin-coating onto glass slides. The sensitive response is based on an increase of the absorption band at 510 nm of phenol red entrapped in the sol-gel casting when exposed to HCl solution or gas, due to protonation of the dye. The detection limit of the sol-gel response to moisturized gaseous HCl is below 12 ppm, and its response to HCl in solution falls in the range of 0.01-6 M. The sol-gel coating has a response time of less than 40 s in steady-state, and life-time of more than a year. Weak acids such as acetic acid, benzoic acid, salicylate acid, citrate acid, and carbonic acid do not interfere the response. The responses in acid solutions are completely reversible. In the gaseous phase, response of HCl appears to be moisture sensitive

  2. Radiation hardening of sol gel-derived silica fiber preforms through fictive temperature reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari Babu, B; Lancry, Matthieu; Ollier, Nadege; El Hamzaoui, Hicham; Bouazaoui, Mohamed; Poumellec, Bertrand

    2016-09-20

    The impact of fictive temperature (Tf) on the evolution of point defects and optical attenuation in non-doped and Er3+-doped sol-gel silica glasses was studied and compared to Suprasil F300 and Infrasil 301 glasses before and after γ-irradiation. To this aim, sol-gel optical fiber preforms have been fabricated by the densification of erbium salt-soaked nanoporous silica xerogels through the polymeric sol-gel technique. These γ-irradiated fiber preforms have been characterized by FTIR, UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, and photoluminescence measurements. We showed that a decrease in the glass fictive temperature leads to a decrease in the glass disorder and strained bonds. This mainly results in a lower defect generation rate and thus less radiation-induced attenuation in the UV-vis range. Furthermore, it was found that γ-radiation "hardness" is higher in Er3+-doped sol-gel silica compared to un-doped sol-gel silica and standard synthetic silica glasses. The present work demonstrates an effective strategy to improve the radiation resistance of optical fiber preforms and glasses through glass fictive temperature reduction.

  3. Spectroscopic and electrochemical characterization of cytochrome c encapsulated in a bio sol-gel matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deriu, Daniela; Pagnotta, Sara Emanuela; Santucci, Roberto; Rosato, Nicola

    2008-08-01

    Sol-gel technique represents a remarkably versatile method for protein encapsulation. To enhance sol-gel biocompatibility, systems envisaging the presence of calcium and phosphates in the sol-gel composition were recently prepared and investigated. Unfortunately, the low pH at which solutions were prepared (pH proteins, because the acidic environment induces protein denaturation. In this paper we apply a new protocol based on the introduction of calcium nitrate to the inorganic phase, with formation of a binary bioactive system. In this case protein encapsulation results versatile and secure, being achieved at a pH close to neutrality (pH 6.0); also, the presence of calcium is expected to enhance system biocompatibility. To determine the properties of the salt-doped sol-gel and the influence exerted on entrapped biosystems, the structural and functional properties of embedded cytochrome c have been investigated. Data obtained indicate that the salt-doped sol-gel induces no significant change in the structure and the redox properties of the embedded protein; also, the matrix increases protein stability. Interestingly, the presence of calcium nitrate appears determinant for refolding of the acid-denatured protein. This is of interest in the perspective of future applications in biosensoristic area.

  4. Optical sensing of HCl with phenol red doped sol-gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Enju [Department of Chemistry, St. John' s University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Jamaica, NY 11439 (United States)]. E-mail: wange@stjohns.edu; Chow, Kwok-Fan [Department of Chemistry, St. John' s University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Jamaica, NY 11439 (United States); Wang Wenqun [Department of Chemistry, St. John' s University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Jamaica, NY 11439 (United States); Wong, Crystal [Department of Chemistry, St. John' s University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Jamaica, NY 11439 (United States); Yee, Cynthia [Department of Chemistry, St. John' s University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Jamaica, NY 11439 (United States); Persad, Alvin [Department of Chemistry, St. John' s University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Jamaica, NY 11439 (United States); Mann, Jonathan [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Bocarsly, Andrew [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2005-04-08

    A dye doped sol-gel for the sensing of hydrochloric acid in solution and/or gaseous phase is described. The sol-gel is obtained by acidic hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and phenyltriethoxysilane (Ph-TriEOS) in the presence of phenol red (PR) and further spin-coating onto glass slides. The sensitive response is based on an increase of the absorption band at 510 nm of phenol red entrapped in the sol-gel casting when exposed to HCl solution or gas, due to protonation of the dye. The detection limit of the sol-gel response to moisturized gaseous HCl is below 12 ppm, and its response to HCl in solution falls in the range of 0.01-6 M. The sol-gel coating has a response time of less than 40 s in steady-state, and life-time of more than a year. Weak acids such as acetic acid, benzoic acid, salicylate acid, citrate acid, and carbonic acid do not interfere the response. The responses in acid solutions are completely reversible. In the gaseous phase, response of HCl appears to be moisture sensitive.

  5. Nanostructured Mesoporous Titanium Dioxide Thin Film Prepared by Sol-Gel Method for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 paste was prepared by sol-gel and hydrothermal method with various precursors. Nanostructured mesoporous TiO2 thin-film back electrode was fabricated from the nanoparticle colloidal paste, and its performance was compared with that made of commercial P25 TiO2. The best performance was demonstrated by the DSSC having a 16 μm-thick TTIP-TiO2 back electrode, which gave a solar energy conversion efficiency of 6.03%. The ability of stong adhesion on ITO conducting glass substrate and the high surface area are considered important characteristics of TiO2 thin film. The results show that a thin film with good adhesion can be made from the prepared colloidal paste as a result of alleviating the possibility of electron transfer loss. One can control the colloidal particle size from sol-gel method. Therefore, by optimizing the preparation conditions, TiO2 paste with nanoparticle and narrow diameter distribution was obtained.

  6. Evaluation of the photocatalytic ability of a sol-gel-derived MgO-ZrO2 oxide material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciesielczyk Filip

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the synthesis and characterization of a novel group of potential photocatalysts, based on sol-gel-derived MgO-ZrO2 oxide material. The material was synthesized in a typical sol-gel system using organic precursors of magnesia and zirconia, ammonia as a promoter of hydrolysis and methanol as a solvent. All materials were thoroughly analyzed, including morphology and particle sizes, chemical composition, identification of characteristic functional groups, porous structure parameters and crystalline structure. The proposed methodology of synthesis resulted in obtaining pure MgO-ZrO2 oxide material with micrometric-sized particles and a relatively high surface area. The samples underwent an additional calcination process which led to the crystalline phase of zirconia being formed. The key element of the study was the evaluation of the effectiveness of decomposition of C.I. Basic Blue 9 dye. It was shown that the calcined materials exhibit both satisfactory adsorption and photocatalytic activity with respect to the decomposition of a selected model organic impurity. Total dye removal varied in the range of 50-70%, and was strongly dependent on process parameters such as quantity of photocatalyst, time of irradiation, and the addition of promoters.

  7. Computational investigation and synthesis of a sol-gel imprinted material for sensing application of some biologically active molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atta, Nada F., E-mail: Nada_fah1@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Cairo, Post Code 12613, Giza (Egypt); Hamed, Maher M.; Abdel-Mageed, Ali M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Cairo, Post Code 12613, Giza (Egypt)

    2010-05-14

    A hybrid sol-gel material was molecularly imprinted with a group of neurotransmitters. Imprinted material is a sol-gel thin film that is spin coated on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. Imprinted films were characterized electrochemically using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and the encapsulated molecules were extracted from the films and complementary molecular cavities are formed that enable their rebind. The films were tested in their corresponding template solutions for rebinding using square wave voltammetry (SWV). Computational approach for exploring the primary intermolecular forces between templates and hydrolyzed form of the precursor monomer, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), were carried out using Hartree-Fock method (HF). Interaction energy values were computed for each adduct formed between a monomer and a template. Analysis of the optimized conformations of various adducts could explain the mode of interaction between the templates and the monomer units. We found that interaction via the amino group is the common mode among the studied compounds and the results are in good agreement with the electrochemical measurements.

  8. Composite coating prepared by micro-arc oxidation followed by sol-gel process and in vitro degradation properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yi; Bai Kuifeng; Fu Zhenya; Zhang Caili; Zhou Huan; Wang Liguo; Zhu Shijie; Guan Shaokang; Li Dongsheng; Hu Junhua

    2012-01-01

    A Mg phosphate coating was prepared on home-developed Mg-Zn-Ca alloy to improve its anticorrosion performance in simulated body fluid (SBF, Kokubo solution). The coating was prepared by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) method at the working voltage of 120-140 V. Evident improvement of anticorrosion was obtained even through the surface was porous. To further diminish the contact with SBF, a TiO 2 layer was coated on the porous MAO layer by sol-gel dip coating followed by an annealing treatment. The coatings were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS). The electrochemical performance of the MAO and TiO 2 /MAO coated alloys was evaluated by anodic polarization measurements. The pores on Mg phosphate layer provided accommodation sites for the subsequent TiO 2 sol-gel coating which sealed the pores and hence significantly enhanced the anticorrosion while single MAO coating only improve anticorrosion within a limited range. The present result indicates that fabrication of composite coatings is a significant strategy to improve the corrosion resistance of Mg-Zn-Ca alloy and other alloys, thus enhancing the potential of using Mg alloys as bio-implants.

  9. Electrical stability of Al-doped ZnO transparent electrode prepared by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabassum, Samia, E-mail: shawon14@gmail.com; Yamasue, Eiji; Okumura, Hideyuki; Ishihara, Keiichi N.

    2016-07-30

    Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO thin film was deposited by sol-gel method in different annealing temperature and duration. • We examined the environmental stability in ambient and damp heat condition. • We investigated chemical state of thin film. • Better stability was observed in the film annealed at high temperature (600 °C) along with longer duration (120 min). • An ultrathin aluminum oxide layer formation was predicted by XPS measurement which protects further oxidation and improves stability. - Abstract: Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films have been considered as a promising alternative to tin doped indium oxide (ITO), which is currently used in various optoelectronic applications. However, the environmental stability of AZO film is not satisfactory, in that the resistivity is significantly increases in air. Here, we investigate the resistivity stability of AZO thin films prepared by sol-gel method using various annealing temperatures and durations. The degradation of resistivity property was observed for AZO films stored in ambient or damp heat environment, where the degradation rate was influenced by annealing temperature. A significant improvement of electrical stability was attained in AZO films that were prepared at high annealing temperature. The films, which showed the highest and the lowest increasing rate of resistivity, were further characterized in detail to shed light on the possible mechanisms explaining the improved stability through crystallinity, surface morphology and elemental state of the thin film.

  10. Electrical stability of Al-doped ZnO transparent electrode prepared by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabassum, Samia; Yamasue, Eiji; Okumura, Hideyuki; Ishihara, Keiichi N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO thin film was deposited by sol-gel method in different annealing temperature and duration. • We examined the environmental stability in ambient and damp heat condition. • We investigated chemical state of thin film. • Better stability was observed in the film annealed at high temperature (600 °C) along with longer duration (120 min). • An ultrathin aluminum oxide layer formation was predicted by XPS measurement which protects further oxidation and improves stability. - Abstract: Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films have been considered as a promising alternative to tin doped indium oxide (ITO), which is currently used in various optoelectronic applications. However, the environmental stability of AZO film is not satisfactory, in that the resistivity is significantly increases in air. Here, we investigate the resistivity stability of AZO thin films prepared by sol-gel method using various annealing temperatures and durations. The degradation of resistivity property was observed for AZO films stored in ambient or damp heat environment, where the degradation rate was influenced by annealing temperature. A significant improvement of electrical stability was attained in AZO films that were prepared at high annealing temperature. The films, which showed the highest and the lowest increasing rate of resistivity, were further characterized in detail to shed light on the possible mechanisms explaining the improved stability through crystallinity, surface morphology and elemental state of the thin film.

  11. Fabrication and study of sol-gel ZnO films for use in Si-based heterojunction photovoltaic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniya Mukhamedshina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the use of zinc oxide thin films prepared via the sol-gel route as an n-type layer in heterojunction ZnO/Si solar cells. The ZnO films were prepared via a simple spin-coating technique using zinc acetate dihydrate as a zinc precursor, isopropanol as a solvent and monoethanolamine as a stabilizing agent. Optical, structural and morphological properties of ZnO were investigated for thin films grown from sol-gel solutions with different concentrations both on glass and silicon substrates. As such, a distribution of crystallite sizes and surface topology parameters corresponding to various zinc acetate dihydrate concentrations were obtained to elucidate optimal film deposition conditions. Correlation between thin film morphology and structural characteristics of ZnO thin films was made based on atomic-force microscopy studies. Finally, our results on fabrication, characterization and simulation of ZnO/Si heterojunctions for use as photovoltaic devices are presented. Although noticeable rectifying and photovoltaic properties were observed for Al/Si/ZnO/Ti/Au devices, there appears to exist a considerable room for device improvement with simulation studies suggesting that efficiencies of the order of 24% may be obtained for devices with optimal silicon wafer passivation, i.e. with lifetimes of the order of 1000 μs.

  12. Preparation and characterization of quercetin-loaded silica microspheres stabilized by combined multiple emulsion and sol-gel processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Young Ho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite exhibiting a wide spectrum of cosmeceutical properties, flavonoids and related compounds have some limitations related to their stability and solubility in distilledwater. In this project, we prepared silica microspheres using a novel method that uses polyol-in-oil-in-water (P/O/W emulsion and sol-gel methods as techniques for stabilizing quercetin. A stable microsphere suspension was successfully preparedusing a mixed solvent system comprising a polyol-phase medium for performing the sol-gel processing of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS as an inorganic precursor with outer water phase. The morphology of the microsphere was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM, which showed a characteristic spherical particle shape with a smooth surface. Furthermore, SEM/EDSanalysis of a representative microsphere demonstrated that the inner structure of the silica microspheres was filled with quercetin. The mean diameter of the microsphere was in the range 20.6-35.0 μm, and the encapsulation efficiency ranged from 17.8% to 27.5%. The free and encapsulated quercetin samples were incubated in separateaqueous solutions at 25 and 42°C for 28 days. The residualcontent of the quercetin encapsulated by silica microspheres was 82% at 42°C. In contrast, that of the free quercetin stored at 42°C decreased to ~24%.

  13. Fabrication of highly conductive graphene/ITO transparent bi-film through CVD and organic additives-free sol-gel techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemasiri, Bastian Waduge Naveen Harindu; Kim, Jae-Kwan; Lee, Ji-Myon

    2017-12-19

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) still remains as the main candidate for high-performance optoelectronic devices, but there is a vital requirement in the development of sol-gel based synthesizing techniques with regards to green environment and higher conductivity. Graphene/ITO transparent bi-film was synthesized by a two-step process: 10 wt. % tin-doped ITO thin films were produced by an environmentally friendly aqueous sol-gel spin coating technique with economical salts of In(NO 3 ) 3 .H 2 O and SnCl 4 , without using organic additives, on surface free energy enhanced (from 53.826 to 97.698 mJm -2 ) glass substrate by oxygen plasma treatment, which facilitated void-free continuous ITO film due to high surface wetting. The chemical vapor deposited monolayer graphene was transferred onto the synthesized ITO to enhance its electrical properties and it was capable of reducing sheet resistance over 12% while preserving the bi-film surface smoother. The ITO films contain the In 2 O 3 phase only and exhibit the polycrystalline nature of cubic structure with 14.35 ± 0.5 nm crystallite size. The graphene/ITO bi-film exhibits reproducible optical transparency with 88.66% transmittance at 550 nm wavelength, and electrical conductivity with sheet resistance of 117 Ω/sq which is much lower than that of individual sol-gel derived ITO film.

  14. Structural and electrochemical behavior of sol-gel ZrO2 ceramic film on chemically pre-treated AZ91D magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qing; Chen Bo; Xu Shuqiang; Gao Hui; Zhang Liang; Liu Chao

    2009-01-01

    In the present investigation sol-gel-based ZrO 2 ceramic film was obtained using zirconium acetate as the precursor material. The film was deposited on AZ91D magnesium alloy by a dip-coating technique. An uniform stannate conversion coating as chemical pretreatment was employed as an intermediate layer prior to deposition of the ZrO 2 film in order to provide advantage for the formation of sol-gel-based ZrO 2 layer. The corrosion properties, structure, composition and morphology of these coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloy were studied by potentiodynamic polarization tests, EIS, XRD, SEM, respectively. According to the electrochemical tests, the corrosion resistance of AZ91D magnesium alloy was found to be greatly improved by means of this new environment-friendly surface treatment.

  15. Morphology of one-time coated palladium-alumina composite membrane prepared by sol-gel process and electroless plating technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, R.; Dewi, R.; Pardi; Hakim, L.; Diana, S.

    2018-03-01

    Palladium coated porous alumina ceramic membrane tube was obtained using a combination of sol-gel process and electroless plating technique. The thickness, structure and composition of palladium-alumina composite membrane were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Palladium particle size was 6.18 to 7.64 nm. Palladium membrane with thickness of approximately 301.5 to 815.1 nm was formed at the outer surface of the alumina layer. EDX data confirmed the formation of palladium-alumina membrane containing 45% of palladium. From this research it shows the combination of sol-gel process and electroless plating technique with one-time coating can produce a homogeneous and smoother palladium nano layer film on alumina substrate.

  16. Reagentless D-sorbitol biosensor based on D-sorbitol dehydrogenase immobilized in a sol-gel carbon nanotubes-poly(methylene green) composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijie; Etienne, Mathieu; Urbanova, Veronika; Kohring, Gert-Wieland; Walcarius, Alain

    2013-04-01

    A reagentless D-sorbitol biosensor based on NAD-dependent D-sorbitol dehydrogenase (DSDH) immobilized in a sol-gel carbon nanotubes-poly(methylene green) composite has been developed. It was prepared by durably immobilizing the NAD(+) cofactor with DSDH in a sol-gel thin film on the surface of carbon nanotubes functionalized with poly(methylene green). This device enables selective determination of D-sorbitol at 0.2 V with a sensitivity of 8.7 μA mmol(-1) L cm(-2) and a detection limit of 0.11 mmol L(-1). Moreover, this biosensor has excellent operational stability upon continuous use in hydrodynamic conditions.

  17. Comparative analysis of synthesis and characterization of La_0_,_9Sr_0_,_1O_3 via sol-gel and combustion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarrago, D.P.; Haeser, G.S.; Malfatti, C.F.; Sousa, V.C.

    2011-01-01

    Strontium doped lanthanum manganites (LSM) are potential materials for cathode application in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) due to their properties and compatibility with yttria stabilized zirconia. In this work a LSM powder obtained by the sol-gel process is compared others previously obtained combustion synthesis using urea or sucrose as fuel. For the synthesis of LSM the nitrates of lanthanum, strontium and manganese were dissolved in citric acid and ethylene glycol forming a gel that was calcinated at 800 deg C. Both methods allowed the synthesis of a single phase powder, according to the X-ray diffraction patterns. Through gas adsorption it was found a specific surface area of 17m²/g, an intermediary value among the combustion synthesized powders. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed more compact agglomerates in the sol-gel powder, however, the transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed smaller and more uniform particles in this powder. (author)

  18. Improvement of the titanium implant biological properties by coating with poly (ε-caprolactone)-based hybrid nanocomposites synthesized via sol-gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, Michelina; Bollino, Flavia; Papale, Ferdinando [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 21, 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    When bioactive coatings are applied to medical implants by means of sol-gel dip coating technique, the biological proprieties of the implant surface can be modified to match the properties of the surrounding tissues. In this study organo-inorganic nanocomposites materials were synthesized via sol-gel. They consisted of an inorganic zirconium-based and silica-based matrix, in which a biodegradable polymer (the poly-ε-caprolactone, PCL) was incorporated in different weight percentages. The synthesized materials, in sol phase, were used to dip-coat a substrate of commercially pure titanium grade 4 (CP Ti gr. 4) in order to improve its biological properties. A microstructural analysis of the obtained films was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Biological proprieties of the coated substrates were investigated by means of in vitro tests.

  19. Doped indium nitride thin film by sol-gel spin coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hui San; Ng, Sha Shiong; Yam, Fong Kwong

    2017-12-01

    In this study, magnesium doped indium nitride (InN:Mg) thin films grown on silicon (100) substrate were prepared via sol-gel spin coating method followed by nitridation process. A custom-made tube furnace was used to perform the nitridation process. Through this method, the low dissociation temperature issue of InN:Mg thin films can be solved. The deposited InN:Mg thin films were investigated using various techniques. The X-rays diffraction results revealed that two intense diffraction peaks correspond to wurtzite structure InN (100), and InN (101) were observed at 29° and 33.1° respectively. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images showed that the surface of the films exhibits densely packed grains. The elemental composition of the deposited thin films was analyzed using energy dispersive X-rays spectroscopy. The detected atomic percentages for In, N, and Mg were 43.22 %, 3.28 %, and 0.61 % respectively. The Raman spectra showed two Raman- and infrared-active modes of E2 (High) and A1 (LO) of the wurtzite InN. The band gap obtained from the Tauc plot showed around 1.74 eV. Lastly, the average surface roughness measured by AFM was around 0.133 µm.

  20. Synthesis of palladium-doped silica nanofibers by sol-gel reaction and electrospinning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San, Thiam Hui; Daud, Wan Ramli Wan; Kadhum, Abdul Amir Hassan; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Kamarudin, Siti Kartom; Shyuan, Loh Kee; Majlan, Edy Herianto [Fuel Cell Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Fuel Cell Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Fuel Cell Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2012-06-29

    Nanofiber is drawing great attention nowadays with their high surface area per volume and flexibility in surface functionalities that make them favorable as a proton exchange membrane in fuel cell application. In this study, incorporation of palladium nanoparticles in silica nanofibers was prepared by combination of a tetraorthosilane (TEOS) sol-gel reaction with electrospinning process. This method can prevent the nanoparticles from aggregation by direct mixing of palladium nanoparticles in silica sol. The as-produced electrospun fibers were thermally treated to remove poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and condensation of silanol in silica framework. PVP is chosen as fiber shaping agent because of its insulting and capping properties for various metal nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the silica fibers and Pd nanoparticles on the fibers. Spun fibers with average diameter ranged from 100nm to 400nm were obtained at optimum operating condition and distribution of Pd nanoparticles on silica fibers was investigated.

  1. Investigation on the utilization of ZrO2-SiO2 composite microspheres for Sr+2 sorption synthesized via sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sert, S.; Tel, H.; Altas, Y.; Eral, M.; Cetinkaya, B.; Inan, S.; Kasap, S.

    2009-01-01

    Multivalence metal ion's oxides and hydro oxides show high adsorption capacity. These are selective to some kind of ions and show thermal, chemical and radiation resistance. Because of these properties they can be used as a adsorbent for radioactive waste management. It is known that the mix oxide's acidic and basic surface sides and textural (surface area, por side and volume) properties related to mix oxide composition. The previously works shown that the ZrO 2 have high adsorption capacity for Sr + 2. Additionally ZrO 2 is used in production of heat resistance materials, glass and ceramic industries due to it's high melting point. Generally inorganic adsorbents which are crystal forms have low surface area. It is needed that the materials have high surface area and appropriate por size to targeted molecules for take inside adsorbent, in the practical adsorption proses. It is thought that the addition of oxide which has high surface area ( SiO 2 etc.) to between material layer increase it's surface area. Some works showed that the silica increase surface area when mixed Ti in materials structure. Sol-jell proses is a method which is show homogen hetero metal oxide bounds distribution and give advantages to prepare multicomponent oxide materials. In this study, ZrO 2 -SiO 2 -TiO 2 composite microspheres were synthesized by sol-gel method. In synthesis proses; peristaltic pump, nozzle-vibrator system and glass column were used. The optimum Sr 2 + adsorption conditions were determined by 'Central Composite Design' (CCD). Thermodynamic parameters related to adsorption such as ΔHo, ΔSo and ΔGo were calculated. The adsorption data have been interpreted in terms of Langmuir, Freundlich and D-R isotherms.

  2. Effects of inorganic acids and divalent hydrated metal cations (Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+)) on γ-AlOOH sol-gel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Xia, Yuguo; Zhang, Li; Chen, Dairong; Jiao, Xiuling

    2015-11-07

    In-depth understanding of the sol-gel process plays an essential role in guiding the preparation of new materials. Herein, the effects of different inorganic acids (HCl, HNO3 and H2SO4) and divalent hydrated metal cations (Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+)) on γ-AlOOH sol-gel process were studied based on experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In these experiments, the sol originating from the γ-AlOOH suspension was formed only with the addition of HCl and HNO3, but not with H2SO4. Furthermore, the DFT calculations showed that the strong adsorption of HSO4(-) on the surface of the γ-AlOOH particles, and the hydrogen in HSO4(-) pointing towards the solvent lead to an unstable configuration of electric double layer (EDL). In the experiment, the gelation time sequence of γ-AlOOH sol obtained by adding metal ions changed when the ionic strength was equal to or greater than 0.198 mol kg(-1). The DFT calculations demonstrated that the adsorption energy of hydrated metal ions on the γ-AlOOH surface can actually make a difference in the sol-gel process.

  3. Preparation and characterization of bismuth ruthenate pyrochlore via solid state reaction and sol-gel methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuree Sansernnivet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth ruthenate pyrochlores, potential cathode materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells(ITSOFCs, were prepared via solid-state and sol-gel method. Effects of the preparation routes and conditions on the phase and microstructures of the materials were investigated in this study using XRD and SEM. The study showed that the preparation method and the adding sequence of the starting meterials have a significant effect on the crystal phase and the particle size obtained. Sol-gel synthesis could yield a material with only pyrochlore structure, i.e. Bi2Ru2O7, while the solid state method yielded powder with a small amount of the secondary RuO2 phase. The sol-gel synthesis resulted in materialswith a finer particle size (~0.3-1.0 μm compared to powder synthesized via the solid state reaction method.

  4. Effect of concentrations of plasticizers on the sol-gel properties developed from alkoxides precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunst, Sandra Raquel; Longhi, Marielen; Zini, Lucas Pandolphi [Universidade de Caxias do Sul (CCET/UCS), Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia; Beltrami, Lilian Vanessa Rossa; Boniatti, Rosiana; Cardoso, Henrique Ribeiro Piaggio; Vega, Maria Rita Ortega; Malfatti, Célia de Fraga, E-mail: lvrossa@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LAPEC/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pesquisa em Corrosão

    2017-07-01

    Coatings developed through sol-gel method is presented as an interesting replacement to chromium coating. Sol-gel method present advantages as high purity and excellent distribution of the components. The objective of this work is to synthesize and characterize a film obtained by sol-gel route. The film was prepared with 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl) methacrylate (TMSPMA), tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and cerium nitrate, using water and ethanol as solvents. Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) plasticizer was added at four different concentrations. The sol was characterized by techniques of viscosity, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results showed that tetrafunctional alkoxides condensation was retarded by the plasticizer, forming a compact film. The film with 20 g.L-1 of PEG showed the best electrochemical behavior. (author)

  5. Effect of concentrations of plasticizers on the sol-gel properties developed from alkoxides precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Raquel Kunst

    Full Text Available Abstract Coatings developed through sol-gel method is presented as an interesting replacement to chromium coating. Sol-gel method present advantages as high purity and excellent distribution of the components. The objective of this work is to synthesize and characterize a film obtained by sol-gel route. The film was prepared with 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate (TMSPMA, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS and cerium nitrate, using water and ethanol as solvents. Polyethyleneglycol (PEG plasticizer was added at four different concentrations. The sol was characterized by techniques of viscosity, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The results showed that tetrafunctional alkoxides condensation was retarded by the plasticizer, forming a compact film. The film with 20 g.L-1 of PEG showed the best electrochemical behavior.

  6. Thermal stability of octadecylsilane hybrid silicas prepared by grafting and sol-gel methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, Rodrigo; Santos, Joao H.Z. dos; Miranda, Marcia S.L.; Frost, Ray L.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid silicas bearing octadecylsilane groups were prepared by grafting and sol-gel (SG) methods. The effect of the preparative route on the thermal stability was evaluated by means of thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared emission spectroscopy (IRES) and, complementary, by 13 C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13 C NMR) and matrix assisted laser deionization time of flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF-MS). Silicas prepared by the grafting route seem to be slightly more stable than those produced by the sol-gel method. This behavior seems to be associated to the preparative route, since grafting affords a liquid-like conformation, while in the case of sol-gel a highly organized crystalline chain conformation was observed

  7. Sol-gel transition accelerated by the co-assembly of two components in supramolecular hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Keigo; Shundo, Atsuomi; Ohno, Masashi; Saruhashi, Kowichiro; Miyachi, Nobuhide; Tsuruzoe, Nobutomo; Tanaka, Keiji

    2015-10-28

    N-Palmitoyl-Gly-His (PalGH) and glycerol 1-monopalmitate (GMP) in water co-assembled into fibrils with twisted ribbon structures and formed a homogeneous network, resulting in gel formation. Shaking the gel easily broke the fibril network leading to a sol in which high and low fibril density regions exist. After a period at room temperature, the higher density regions became interconnected. The spontaneous sol-gel transition did not take place for a gel made from only PalGH. Also, during the transition, the aggregation state of the co-assembly remained unchanged at a molecular level, unlike the fibril network. Thus, it can be claimed that the sol-gel transition is not associated with the assembled molecular configuration, but with the change in the fibril network. This knowledge might be useful for understanding and controlling sol-gel transition, thereby leading to the design and functionalization of hydrogels.

  8. Highly efficient solid-state neutron scintillators based on hybrid sol-gel nanocomposite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesanli, Banu; Hong, Kunlun; Meyer, Kent; Im, Hee-Jung; Dai, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    This research highlights opportunities in the formulation of neutron scintillators that not only have high scintillation efficiencies but also can be readily cast into two-dimensional detectors. Series of transparent, crack-free monoliths were prepared from hybrid polystyrene-silica nanocomposites in the presence of arene-containing alkoxide precursor through room temperature sol-gel processing. The monoliths also contain lithium-6 salicylate as a target material for neutron-capture reactions and amphiphilic scintillator solution as a fluorescent sensitizer. Polystyrene was functionalized by trimethoxysilyl group in order to enable the covalent incorporation of aromatic functional groups into the inorganic sol-gel matrices for minimizing macroscopic phase segregation and facilitating lithium-6 doping in the sol-gel samples. Neutron and alpha responses of these hybrid polystyrene-silica monoliths were explored

  9. Stability of erbium and silver implanted in silica-titania sol-gel films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, A.R.; Marques, C.; Alves, E.; Marques, A.C.; Almeida, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    We implanted silica-titania sol-gel films with 3 x 10 15 at./cm 2 , 180 keV Er + and 6 x 10 16 at./cm 2 , 140 keV Ag + ions. The energies were chosen so that the profiles of Ag and Er overlap. RBS and ERDA were used to study the behaviour of Ag, Er and H during the heat treatments used to density the films. Implantation causes H depletion at the film surface and an increase in H concentration just beneath the implanted Ag and Er profiles. The total H content decreases by 27% to 75% during implantation. During annealing the H content decreases, with an almost complete H loss after annealing for 35 min at 800 deg. C. The Ag profile remains stable up to 600 deg. C. Above 700 deg. C Ag becomes increasingly mobile. Annealing at 800 deg. C for 35 min results in a nearly constant Ag distribution in the film. The Er profile remains unchanged with heat treatment up to the maximum temperature used (800 deg. C)

  10. Optical Constants of Crystallized TiO2 Coatings Prepared by Sol-Gel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Titanium oxide coatings have been deposited by the sol-gel dip-coating method. Crystallization of titanium oxide coatings was then achieved through thermal annealing at temperatures above 400 °C. The structural properties and surface morphology of the crystallized coatings were studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. Characterization technique, based on least-square fitting to the measured reflectance and transmittance spectra, is used to determine the refractive indices of the crystallized TiO2 coatings. The stability of the synthesized sol was also investigated by dynamic light scattering particle size analyzer. The influence of the thermal annealing on the optical properties was then discussed. The increase in refractive index with high temperature thermal annealing process was observed, obtaining refractive index values from 1.98 to 2.57 at He-Ne laser wavelength of 633 nm. The Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy studies indicate that the index variation is due to the changes in crystalline phase, density, and morphology during thermal annealing.

  11. Synthesis of hybrid chitosan/calcium aluminosilicate using a sol-gel method for optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elnahrawy, Amany Mohamed [Department of Solid State, Physics Division, National Research Center (NRC), Giza 12622, Cairo (Egypt); Kim, Yong Soo, E-mail: yskim2@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Energy Harvest-Storage Research Center (EHSRC), University of Ulsan, Ulsan 44610 (Korea, Republic of); Ali, Ahmed I., E-mail: Ahmed_ali_2010@helwan.edu.eg [Department of Physics and Energy Harvest-Storage Research Center (EHSRC), University of Ulsan, Ulsan 44610 (Korea, Republic of); Basic Science Department, Faculty of Industrial Education & Technology, Helwan University, Cairo 11281 (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    Hybrid chitosan (CS)/calcium aluminosilicate nanocomposites thin films and membranes were prepared using a sol–gel method with three different concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (5, 7 and 10 mol. %). The prepared nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The optical properties of the prepared samples were analyzed by UV/Vis spectrophotometry and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The optical parameters revealed an increase in both the refractive index and band gap of the nanocomposites with increasing Al concentration. In addition, the PL spectra revealed a blue shift that was consistent with an increase in the optical band gap. These results suggest that CS/calcium aluminosilicate in two different forms can be a good candidate for optical sensors applications. - Highlights: • We show a large specific surface area of hybrid CS/calcium aluminosilicate thin films and membranes using sol-gel method. • Inorganic SiO{sub 2}-based phase are perfectly embedded onto chitosan matrix has a reliable stability. • CS/calcium aluminosilicate could be usable for optical sensors, planar waveguide, and bio-sensing.

  12. Low temperature synthesis of hydroxyapatite nano-rods by a modified sol-gel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadalannagari, Sushma; More, Sandeep; Kowshik, Meenal; Ramanan, Sutapa Roy

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) nano-rods were successfully synthesized by a modified sol-gel method using a solution of CaCl 2 .2H 2 O in water, along with a solution of H 3 PO 4 in triethylamine and NH 4 OH as starting materials. The Ca/P molar ratio was maintained at 1.67. The sol obtained was dried in an oven for 2 days at 100 deg. C after being dialyzed for 12 h. Pellets were made from the crystalline powders and immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) to check its biocompatibility after 15, 45 and 180 days of immersion. The HAp powders and pellets were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction crystallography (XRD), Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The HAp nano-rods had an average diameter of 25 nm and length 110-120 nm. Immersion of the HAp pellets in SBF led to the formation of a highly porous interconnecting HAp layer on the surface. The porosity increased with increase in immersion time. Highlights: → Low temperature synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanorods using Ca and P sources and triethylamine. → The synthesis time was only 0.5 hours. → Crystalline material was obtained after drying at 100oC only in air. → SBF studies showed the HAP bodies to be biocompatible.

  13. Natamycin based sol-gel antimicrobial coatings on polylactic acid films for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantano, Claudia; Alfieri, Ilaria; Cavazza, Antonella; Corradini, Claudio; Lorenzi, Andrea; Zucchetto, Nicola; Montenero, Angelo

    2014-12-15

    In this work a comprehensive study on a new active packaging obtained by a hybrid organic-inorganic coating with antimicrobial properties was carried out. The packaging system based on polylactic acid was realised by sol-gel processing, employing tetraethoxysilane as a precursor of the inorganic phase and polyvinyl alcohol as the organic component, and incorporating natamycin as the active agent. Films with different organic-inorganic ratios (in a range between 1:19 and 1:4) were prepared, and the amount of antimycotic entrapped was found to be modulated by the sol composition, and was between 0.18 and 0.25mg/dm(2). FTIR microspectroscopic measurements were used to characterise the prepared coatings. The antifungal properties of the films were investigated against mould growth on the surface of commercial semi-soft cheese. The release of natamycin from the films to ethanol 50% (v/v) was studied by means of HPLC UV-DAD. The maximal level released was about 0.105 mg/dm(2), which is far below the value allowed by legislation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Partial Oxidation of n-Butane over a Sol-Gel Prepared Vanadium Phosphorous Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Salazar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium phosphorous oxide (VPO is traditionally manufactured from solid vanadium oxides by synthesizing VOHPO4∙0.5H2O (the precursor followed by in situ activation to produce (VO2P2O7 (the active phase. This paper discusses an alternative synthesis method based on sol-gel techniques. Vanadium (V triisopropoxide oxide was reacted with ortho-phosphoric acid in an aprotic solvent. The products were dried at high pressure in an autoclave with a controlled excess of solvent. This procedure produced a gel of VOPO4 with interlayer entrapped molecules. The surface area of the obtained materials was between 50 and 120 m2/g. Alcohol produced by the alkoxide hydrolysis reduced the vanadium during the drying step, thus VOPO4 was converted to the precursor. This procedure yielded non-agglomerated platelets, which were dehydrated and evaluated in a butane-air mixture. Catalysts were significantly more selective than the traditionally prepared materials with similar intrinsic activity. It is suggested that the small crystallite size obtained increased their selectivity towards maleic anhydride.

  15. Porous MnO2 prepared by sol-gel method for electrochemical supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, K.; Kumar, A.; Jayakumar, O. D.; Nazri, G. A.; Naik, V. M.; Naik, R.

    2015-03-01

    MnO2 has attracted great attention as material for electrochemical pseudocapacitor due to its high theoretical specific faradic capacitance (~ 1370 F .g-1) , environmental friendliness and wide potential window in both aqueous and nonaqueous electrolytes. However, the MnO2 has a low surface area which depresses its electrochemical performance. The amorphous α-MnO2 composite was synthesized by sol gel method in the presence of the tri-block copolymer P123. Our aim is to investigate the role of P123 on the electrochemical performance of MnO2. The samples with and without P123 were prepared and characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, TEM and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The electrochemical performances of the amorphous MnO2 composites as the electrode materials for supercapacitors were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and AC impedance measurements in a 1M Na2SO4 solution. The results show that the sample prepared without P123 exhibited a relatively low specific capacitance of 28F .g-1, whereas the porous MnO2 prepared with P123 exhibited 117 F .g-1at 5 mV/s. The results of crystalline MnO2 composites will also be presented. The authors acknowledge the support from the Richard J. Barber Foundation for Interdisciplinary Research.

  16. Chirality of Single-Handed Twisted Titania Tubular Nanoribbons Prepared Through Sol-gel Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sibing; Zhang, Chuanyong; Li, Yi; Li, Baozong; Yang, Yonggang

    2015-08-01

    Single-handed twisted titania tubular nanoribbons were prepared through sol-gel transcription using a pair of enantiomers. Handedness was controlled by that of the template. The obtained samples were characterized using field-emission electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, diffuse reflectance circular dichroism (DRCD), and X-ray diffraction. The DRCD spectra indicated that the titania nanotubes exhibit optical activity. Although the tubular structure was destroyed after being calcined at 700 °C for 2.0 h, DRCD signals were still identified. However, the DRCD signals disappeared after being calcined at 1000 °C for 2.0 h. The optical activity of titania was proposed to be due to chiral defects. Previous results showed that straight titania tubes could be used as asymmetric autocatalysts, indicating that titania exhibit chirality at the angstrom level. Herein, it was found that they also exhibit DRCD signals, indicating that there are no obvious relationships between morphology at the nano level and chirality at the angstrom level. The nanotube chirality should originate from the chiral defects on the nanotube inner surface. The Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated that the chirality of the titania was transferred from the gelators through the hydrogen bonding between N-H and Ti-OH. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Mullite fibres preparation by aqueous sol-gel process and activation energy of mullitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Hongbin; Ding Yaping; Yang Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    Mullite fibres were prepared by sol-gel process using aluminum carboxylates (ACs) and silica sol. ACs was synthesized from dissolving aluminum powder in a mixture of formic acid and oxalic acid using aluminum chloride hexahydrate as catalyst. A molar ratio of 1:2:1 for aluminum, formic acid and oxalic acid was optimized to obtain clear solution and viscous ACs sol for fibres synthesis. Thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were used to characterize the properties of the gel and ceramic fibres. The gel fibres completely transformed to mullite at 1200 o C, with a smooth surface and uniform diameter. The activation energy for mullite formation in precursor gel fibres was determined by means of differential thermal analysis. The value obtained, E a = 741.4 kJ/mol, was lower than most data reported in the literatures, which was attributed to the silica-alumina micro-phase separation when organic acids decomposed during gel fibres heating.

  18. A Comparative Study of Solvothermal and Sol-Gel-Derived Nanocrystalline Alumina Catalysts for Ethanol Dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingkwan Wannaborworn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol dehydration to ethylene over alumina catalysts prepared by solvothermal and sol-gel methods was investigated. Also, a commercial alumina was used for comparison purposes. The results showed that the catalytic activity depends on the properties of catalyst derived from different preparation methods and reaction temperature. The alumina synthesized by solvothermal method exhibited the highest activity. This can be attributed to the higher surface area and larger amount of acid site, especially the ratio of weak/strong acid strength as determined by N2 physisorption and NH3-TPD studies. The solvothermal-derived catalyst exhibited an excellent performance with complete ethanol conversion and 100% selectivity to ethylene at 350°C in comparison with other ones. In addition, we further studied the catalytic dehydration of alumina catalyst modified with Fe. The presence of 10 wt.% Fe decreased both conversion and ethylene selectivity. However, the acetaldehyde selectivity apparently increased. It was related to the dehydrogenation pathway that takes place on Fe species.

  19. Effects of PEG4000 template on sol-gel synthesis of porous cerium titanate photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjie; Tao, Yingjie; Li, Chuanguo

    2018-04-01

    Porous cerium titanate was synthesized by sol-gel method, using polyethylene glycol (PEG4000) as template agent. Brannerite structured CeTi2O6 in monoclinic system is the major substance formed in the materials. Formation of CeO2 and rutile TiO2 depends on the amount of PEG4000. The addition of PEG4000 leads to production of fine particles in the samples, but it does not apparently affect the band gap energy. Pore volume of the cerium titanate sample continuously increases with rising PEG4000 amount. The sample obtained using 3.5 g PEG4000 has BET surface area of 16.2 m2/g and pore volume of 0.0232 cm3/g. The addition of PEG4000 can obviously promote photocatalytic activity of cerium titanate, which can be proven by both enhanced production of hydroxyl radical and ofloxacin degradation efficiency. As much as 95.2% of the initial ofloxacin molecules are removed from the solution after 50 min of photocatalytic degradation on the cerium titanate obtained using 3.5 g PEG4000, while only 48.4% ofloxacin is removed on cerium titanate obtained without PEG4000.

  20. Zinc oxide films impurified with Ti and prepared by the Sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirado G, S.; Cazares R, J.M.; Maldonado, A.

    2006-01-01

    Titanium-doped zinc oxide thin films have been prepared on silicon substrate using the Sol-Gel technique. The structural, morphology, electrical and optical properties of such thin films were studied as a function of titanium concentration (0.5, 1 and 1.5 %) and the thin films thickness. Zinc acetate dihydrate and titanium (VI)-oxy acetylacetonate were used as precursor materials, using 2-methoxyethanol and monoethanolamine as via. The X-ray diffraction spectra show polycrystalline films in all the cases. It can see for all the thin films a preferential growth along the (002) planes where the titanium concentration and also the thin films thickness play an important rule. No structural changes are observed at all. The surface morphology studied shows as the grain size decreases when thin thickness is increases. For titanium concentration of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 % values the grains size increase also. The thin films thickness for titanium concentration of 1.5 % was 500 nm (4v), 400 nm (3v), 180 nm (2v) and 130 nm (1v), values obtained from cross-section micrographs. Highly resistive samples are obtained for substrate soda-lime even showing high transmittance. Better physical properties are required for gas sensors or semitransparent electrodes and other possible applications. (Author)

  1. Optimization of sol-gel medium for entrapment of acetylcholinesterase enzyme in biosensor for pesticide detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti, S. D.; Rahayu, F. S.; Widyaningsih, T. D.

    2018-03-01

    Pesticides are chemical substances used to kill and control pests or diseases that can damage crops. The use of pesticides should be done precisely because the accumulation of chemicals contained in pesticides can cause various health effects. Therefore, detection of pesticide residues on plants is important to reduce the risk of poisoning due to pesticide residues. Some of the conventional methods that have been done to detect pesticide residues have weaknesses among expensive tools, takes a long time, and are generally performed by trained laboratory technicians. Biosensors are analytical devices that can measure the quantitative or semi-quantitative targets of analyte by utilizing a bioreceptor such as enzyme. Several studies have shown that enzyme-based acetylcholinesterase-based biosensors can be used to detect pesticide residues in vegetable samples. The objective of this research was to get a proper silica based sol-gel formulation with molar ratio of H2O:TEOS and NaOH concentration as immobilization medium of acetylcholinesterase enzyme for biosensor application. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used in order to determine the interaction between the parameters studied and resulting responses which were amount and activity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme. Based on the research, the best result for immobilized enzyme activity was shown by molar ratio (H2O: TEOS) 1: 8 and 4 mM NaOH treatment.

  2. Sol-gel preparation of ion-conducting ceramics for use in thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauser, M.I.

    1992-12-01

    A metal alkoxide sol-gel solution suitable for depositing a thin film of La 0.6 Sr 0.4 CoO 3 on a porous substrate has been developed; such films should be useful in fuel cell electrode and oxygen separation membrane manufacture. Crack-free films have been deposited on both dense and porous substrates by dip-coating and spin-coating techniques followed by a heat treatment in air. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the chemical structure of metal alkoxide solution system. X-ray diffraction was used to determine crystalline phases formed at various temperatures, while scanning electron microscopy was used to determine physical characteristics of the films. Surface coatings have been successfully applied to porous substrates through the control of the substrate pore size, deposition parameters, and firing parameters. Conditions have been defined for which films can be deposited, and for which the physical and chemical characteristics of the film can be improved. A theoretical discussion of the chemical reactions taking place before and after hydrolysis in the mixed alkoxide solutions is presented, and the conditions necessary for successful synthesis are defined. Applicability of these films as ionic and electronic conductors is discussed

  3. Fe-Doped Sol-Gel Glasses and Glass-Ceramics for Magnetic Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Baino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the synthesis and characterization of novel Fe-containing sol-gel materials obtained by modifying the composition of a binary SiO2-CaO parent glass with the addition of Fe2O3. The effect of different processing conditions (calcination in air vs. argon flowing on the formation of magnetic crystalline phases was investigated. The produced materials were analyzed from thermal (hot-stage microscopy, differential thermal analysis, and differential thermal calorimetry and microstructural (X-ray diffraction viewpoints to assess both the behavior upon heating and the development of crystalline phases. N2 adsorption–desorption measurements allowed determining that these materials have high surface area (40–120 m2/g and mesoporous texture with mesopore size in the range of 18 to 30 nm. It was assessed that the magnetic properties can actually be tailored by controlling the Fe content and the environmental conditions (oxidant vs. inert atmosphere during calcination. The glasses and glass-ceramics developed in this work show promise for applications in bone tissue healing which require the use of biocompatible magnetic implants able to elicit therapeutic actions, such as hyperthermia for bone cancer treatment.

  4. Synthesis, structure and electromagnetic properties of Mn-Zn ferrite by sol-gel combustion technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjie; Zang, Chongguang; Jiao, Qingjie

    2014-01-01

    The electromagnetic absorbing behaviors of a thin coating fabricated by mixing Mn-Zn ferrite with epoxy resin (EP) were studied. The spinel ferrites Mn1-xZnxFe2O4 (x=0.2, 0.5 and 0.8) were synthesized with citrate acid as complex agent by sol-gel combustion method. The microstructure and surface morphology of Mn-Zn ferrite powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The complex permittivity and complex permeability of the fabricated ferrite/EP composites were investigated in terms of their contributions to the absorbing properties in the low frequency (10 MHz to 1 GHz). The microwave absorption of the prepared ferrite/EP composites could be tailored by matching the dielectric loss and magnetic loss and by controlling the doped metal ratio. The composites with the ferrite composition x=0.2 are found to show higher reflection loss compared with the composites with other compositions. It is proposed that the prepared composites can potentially be applied in electromagnetic microwave absorbing field.

  5. Phase Composition of Samarium Niobate and Tantalate Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruncková, H.; Medvecký, Ľ.; Múdra, E.; Kovalčiková, A.; Ďurišin, J.; Šebek, M.; Girman, V.

    2017-12-01

    Samarium niobate SmNbO4 (SNO) and tantalate SmTaO4 (STO) thin films ( 100 nm) were prepared by sol-gel/spin-coating process on alumina substrates with PZT interlayer and annealing at 1000°C. The precursors of films were synthesized using Nb or Ta tartrate complexes. The improvement of the crystallinity of monoclinic M'-SmTaO4 phase via heating was observed through the coexistence of small amounts of tetragonal T-SmTa7O19 phase in STO precursor at 1000°C. The XRD results of SNO and STO films confirmed monoclinic M-SmNbO4 and M'-SmTaO4 phases, respectively, with traces of orthorhombic O-SmNbO4 (in SNO). In STO film, the single monoclinic M'-SmTaO4 phase was revealed. The surface morphology and topography of thin films were investigated by SEM and AFM analysis. STO film was smoother with roughness 3.2 nm in comparison with SNO (6.3 nm). In the microstructure of SNO film, small spherical ( 50 nm) and larger cuboidal particles ( 100 nm) of the SmNbO4 phase were observed. In STO, compact clusters composed of fine spherical SmTaO4 particles ( 20-50 nm) were found. Effect of samarium can contribute to the formation different polymorphs of these films for the application to environmental electrolytic thin film devices.

  6. Obtaining of Sol-Gel Ketorolac-Silica Nanoparticles: Characterization and Drug Release Kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerne, T.M.L.; Garcia, M.G.L.; Grada, G.R.; Perez, I.O.; Goerne, T.M.L.; Garcia, M.G.L.; Grada, G.R.; Perez, I.O.; Lemus, M.A.A.; Goerne, T.M.L.; Loez, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among most commonly prescribed medications worldwide. NSAIDs play an important role due to their pronounced analgesic potency, anti-inflammatory effects, and lesser side effects compared to opioids. However, adverse effects including gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects seriously complicate their prolonged use. In the present work we prepare SiO 2 -based nanoparticles with ketorolac, for controlled release proposes. The nano materials were prepared by the sol-gel technology at acidic conditions and two different water/alcoxide ratios were used. FTIR spectroscopy was performed in order to characterize the solids and drug-SiO 2 interactions. Thermal analysis and nitrogen adsorption isotherms showed thermal stability of the drug and confirmed the presence of particles with high surface area. Transmission electron micrographs of the samples showed the nano size particles (20 nm) forming aggregates. Drug release profiles were collected by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy and kinetic analysis was developed. Release data were fitted and 1:8 sample showed a sustained release over ten hours; 90% of the drug was delivered at the end of the time.

  7. Improved electrochromical properties of sol-gel WO3 thin films by doping gold nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseri, N.; Azimirad, R.; Akhavan, O.; Moshfegh, A.Z.

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, the effect of gold nanocrystals on the electrochromical properties of sol-gel Au doped WO 3 thin films has been studied. The Au-WO 3 thin films were dip-coated on both glass and indium tin oxide coated conducting glass substrates with various gold concentrations of 0, 3.2 and 6.4 mol%. Optical properties of the samples were studied by UV-visible spectrophotometry in a range of 300-1100 nm. The optical density spectra of the films showed the formation of gold nanoparticles in the films. The optical bandgap energy of Au-WO 3 films decreased with increasing the Au concentration. Crystalline structure of the doped films was investigated by X-ray diffractometry, which indicated formation of gold nanocrystals in amorphous WO 3 thin films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study the surface chemical composition of the samples. XPS analysis indicated the presence of gold in metallic state and the formation of stoichiometric WO 3 . The electrochromic properties of the Au-WO 3 samples were also characterized using lithium-based electrolyte. It was found that doping of Au nanocrystals in WO 3 thin films improved the coloration time of the layer. In addition, it was shown that variation of Au concentration led to color change in the colored state of the Au-WO 3 thin films.

  8. Hybrid manganese oxide films for supercapacitor application prepared by sol-gel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chin-Yi; Wang, Sheng-Chang; Tien, Yue-Han; Tsai, Wen-Ta; Lin, Chung-Kwei

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid films were prepared by adding various concentrations of meso-carbon microbeads (MCMB) during sol-gel processing of manganese oxide films. The heat-treated films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, electrochemical performance of the MCMB-added Mn-oxide hybrid coatings was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and compared with its unadded counterpart. Experimental results showed that Mn-oxide films exhibited a mixture of Mn 2 O 3 and Mn 3 O 4 phases. The higher the heat-treatment temperature, the more Mn 2 O 3 can be observed. The specific capacitance of the unadded Mn-oxide electrodes is 209 F/g. Because the MCMB particles provide more interfacial surface area for electrochemical reactions, a significant improvement can be noticed by adding MCMB in Mn-oxide coatings. The 300 o C heat-treated hybrid Mn-oxide coating with a Mn/MCMB ratio of 10/1 exhibits the highest value of 350 F/g, showing a ∼ 170% increase in specific capacitance.

  9. Optical spectroscopy of arsenic- and silver-containing sol-gel coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.A.; Paje, S.E.; Llopis, J. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Villegas, M.A.; Fernandez Navarro, J.M. [Departamento de Vidrios, Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, Madrid (Spain)

    1999-05-07

    Sol-gel silica coatings doped with 1 mol% silver and/or 1 mol% arsenic oxide have been investigated by photoluminescence (PL) and optical absorption (OA) spectroscopy. The presence of Ag{sup +} ions in the silica host has been monitored by recording a luminescence peak located between 320 and 330 nm upon excitation with 228 nm light, whereas the formation of small particles of metallic silver has been assessed by recording the absorption band centred at about 405 nm. The luminescence peak has been related to the d{sup 10} 10 {r_reversible} d{sup 9} s parity-forbidden transitions in Ag{sup +}, which are partially allowed by odd-phonon assistance. On the other hand, the absorption peak at about 405 nm arises from the well known surface-plasmon resonance of silver particles. Coating densification under various atmospheres gives rise to significant effects on the PL and OA spectra. Results indicate that, after coating densification in air, most of the silver appears as Ag{sup +} ions, in contrast to coating densification under a 90% N{sub 2}-10% H{sub 2} atmosphere, which favours the formation of small particles of metallic silver. The presence of arsenic oxide in the silver coatings densified in air has been found to improve the stabilization of Ag{sup +} ions, so that partially prevents the formation of colloidal silver under reducing atmospheres. (author)

  10. Effect of calcium source on structure and properties of sol-gel derived bioactive glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bobo; Turdean-Ionescu, Claudia A; Martin, Richard A; Newport, Robert J; Hanna, John V; Smith, Mark E; Jones, Julian R

    2012-12-18

    The aim was to determine the most effective calcium precursor for synthesis of sol-gel hybrids and for improving homogeneity of sol-gel bioactive glasses. Sol-gel derived bioactive calcium silicate glasses are one of the most promising materials for bone regeneration. Inorganic/organic hybrid materials, which are synthesized by incorporating a polymer into the sol-gel process, have also recently been produced to improve toughness. Calcium nitrate is conventionally used as the calcium source, but it has several disadvantages. Calcium nitrate causes inhomogeneity by forming calcium-rich regions, and it requires high temperature treatment (>400 °C) for calcium to be incorporated into the silicate network. Nitrates are also toxic and need to be burnt off. Calcium nitrate therefore cannot be used in the synthesis of hybrids as the highest temperature used in the process is typically 40-60 °C. Therefore, a different precursor is needed that can incorporate calcium into the silica network and enhance the homogeneity of the glasses at low (room) temperature. In this work, calcium methoxyethoxide (CME) was used to synthesize sol-gel bioactive glasses with a range of final processing temperatures from 60 to 800 °C. Comparison is made between the use of CME and calcium chloride and calcium nitrate. Using advanced probe techniques, the temperature at which Ca is incorporated into the network was identified for 70S30C (70 mol % SiO(2), 30 mol % CaO) for each of the calcium precursors. When CaCl(2) was used, the Ca did not seem to enter the network at any of the temperatures used. In contrast, Ca from CME entered the silica network at room temperature, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction, (29)Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and dissolution studies. CME should be used in preference to calcium salts for hybrid synthesis and may improve homogeneity of sol-gel glasses.

  11. Sol-gel encapsulation of pullulanase in the presence of hybrid magnetic (Fe3O4-chitosan) nanoparticles improves thermal and operational stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jie; Li, Xingfei; Zhan, Xiaobei; Xu, Xueming; Tian, Yaoqi; Xie, Zhengjun; Jin, Zhengyu

    2017-06-01

    Pullulanase was sol-gel encapsulated in the presence of magnetic chitosan/Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. The resulting immobilized pullulanase was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that the addition of pullulanase created a more regular surface on the sol-gel matrix and an enhanced magnetic response to an applied magnetic field. The maximal activity retention (83.9%) and specific activity (291.7 U/mg) of the immobilized pullulanase were observed under optimized conditions including an octyltriethoxysilane:tetraethoxysilane (OTES:TEOS) ratio of 1:2 and enzyme concentration of 0.484 mg/mL sol. The immobilized enzyme exhibited good thermal stability. When the temperature was above 60 °C, the immobilized pullulanase showed significantly higher activity than the free enzyme (p sol-gel encapsulation and co-immobilized by crosslinking-encapsulation retained 52 and 69% of their initial activity after 5 h at 62 °C, respectively, compared to 11% for the free enzyme. Moreover, the stability of the pullulanase was improved by crosslinking-encapsulation, as the enzyme retained more than 85 and 81% of its original activity after 5 and 6 consecutive reuses, respectively, compared to 80 and 72% of its original activity for simple sol-gel encapsulated enzymes. This indicated the leakage of enzyme molecules through the pores of the gel was substantially abated by cross-linking. Such immobilized pullulanase provides high stability and ease of enzyme recovery, characteristics that are advantageous for applications in the food industry that involve continuous starch processing.

  12. Fabrication of carbon microcapsules containing silicon nanoparticles-carbon nanotubes nanocomposite by sol-gel method for anode in lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Joonwon

    2011-01-01

    Carbon microcapsules containing silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs)-carbon nanotubes (CNTs) nanocomposite (Si-CNT-C) have been fabricated by a surfactant mediated sol-gel method followed by a carbonization process. Silicon nanoparticles-carbon nanotubes (Si-CNT) nanohybrids were produced by a wet-type beadsmill method. To obtain Si-CNT nanocomposites with spherical morphologies, a silica precursor (tetraethylorthosilicate, TEOS) and polymer (PMMA) mixture was employed as a structure-directing medium. Thus the Si-CNT/Silica-Polymer microspheres were prepared by an acid catalyzed sol-gel method. Then a carbon precursor such as polypyrrole (PPy) was incorporated onto the surfaces of pre-existing Si-CNT/silica-polymer to generate Si-CNT/Silica-Polymer-PPy microspheres. Subsequent thermal treatment of the precursor followed by wet etching of silica produced Si-CNT-C microcapsules. The intermediate silica/polymer must disappear during the carbonization and etching process resulting in the formation of an internal free space. The carbon precursor polymer should transform to carbon shell to encapsulate remaining Si-CNT nanocomposites. Therefore, hollow carbon microcapsules containing Si-CNT nanocomposites could be obtained (Si-CNT-C). The successful fabrication was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These final materials were employed for anode performance improvement in lithium ion battery. The cyclic performances of these Si-CNT-C microcapsules were measured with a lithium battery half cell tests. - Graphical Abstract: Carbon microcapsules containing silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs)-carbon nanotubes (CNTs) nanocomposite (Si-CNT-C) have been fabricated by a surfactant mediated sol-gel method. Highlights: → Polymeric microcapsules containing Si-CNT transformed to carbon microcapsules. → Accommodate volume changes of Si NPs during Li ion charge/discharge. → Sizes of microcapsules were controlled by experimental parameters.

  13. Development of novel Sol-Gel Indicators (SGI's) for in-situ environmental measurements: Part 1, Program and a new pH Sol-Gel Indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, R.R.; Baylor, L.; Wicks, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of incorporating analytical indicators into a sol-gel glassy matrix and then coating substrates with this composite material has bee demonstrated. Substrates coated include paper, wood, glass, and the lens of an analytical probe. The first SRTC sol-gel indicator, comprising bromophenol blue dispersed in a silica matrix, was fabricated and successfully used to measure solution pH in the range of pH 3.0 to 7.5. material exhibited a quick response time, as measured by color changes both qualitatively and quantitatively, and the measuring device was reversible or reusable. Additional indicators with responses over other ranges as well as indicators sensitive to the presence of elements of interest, are also under development. The new SGI composites possess promising properties and an excellent potential for performing a variety important in-situ environmental measurements and area discussed in this report

  14. Sol-Gel Production; Proceedings of the First International Conference on Application and Commercialization of Sol-Gel Processing Held in Saarbruecken, Germany on 24-25 May 1993

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmidt, Helmut

    1998-01-01

    ...; Sol-Gel Coatings on Large Glass Substrates for Multilayer Interference Systems; A SiO2-ZrO2 Gel Film doped with Organic Pigments Made by the Sol-Gel Method for Contrast Enhancement of Color Picture Tubes...

  15. Sol-gel process for the manufacture of high power switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landingham, Richard L.; Satcher, Jr, Joe; Reibold, Robert

    2016-09-27

    According to one embodiment, a photoconductive semiconductor switch includes a structure of nanopowder of a high band gap material, where the nanopowder is optically transparent, and where the nanopowder has a physical characteristic of formation from a sol-gel process. According to another embodiment, a method includes mixing a sol-gel precursor compound, a hydroxy benzene and an aldehyde in a solvent thereby creating a mixture, causing the mixture to gel thereby forming a wet gel, drying the wet gel to form a nanopowder, and applying a thermal treatment to form a SiC nanopowder.

  16. Sol-gel synthesis of lanthanum-gallate-based ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubko, N.V.; Kaleva, G.M.; Roginskaya, Yu.E.; Politova, E.D.

    2007-01-01

    Phase-pure (La 0.9 Sr 0.1 )(Ga 0.7 Fe 0.3 )O 3-y and (Sr 1.8 La 0.2 )(GaFe)O 5.1 solid solutions with the perovskite and brownmillerite structures have been prepared from salt solutions by sol-gel processing at temperatures from 570 to 870 K. Ceramic coatings up to 100 μm in thickness have been produced by applying suspensions of the sol-gel powders to various substrates. The structure and microstructure of the ceramic coatings have been studied by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy [ru

  17. Fundamental electrochemiluminescence characteristics of fluorine-doped tin oxides synthesized by sol-gel combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, B H; Chaoumead, A; Sung, Y M

    2013-10-01

    Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) materials synthesized by sol-gel combustion method were investigated for electrochemical luminescence (ECL) application. Effects of sol-gel combustion conditions on the structures and morphology of the porous FTO (p-FTO) materials were studied. ECL efficiency of p-FTO-based cell was about 251 cd/m2 at 4 V bias, which is higher than the sell using only FTO electrodes (102.8 cd/m2). The highest intensity of the emitting light was obtained at the wavelength of about 610 nm. The porous FTO layer was effective for increasing ECL intensities.

  18. Application of sol-gel process on the elaboration of SnO2 based ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescatan, R.T.; Silva, D.V. da; Hiratsuka, R.S.; Santilli, C.V.; Pulcinelli, S.H.

    1990-01-01

    The electrical, optical and chemical peculiar properties of SnO 2 confers it-self some potential application. The densification difficulty during sintering of SnO 2 compromises its elaboration by ceramic conventional process. In this work the preparation of SnO 2 ceramics by sol-gel process was investigated. Some parameters envolved on the colloidal stability, sol-gel transition and drying process were analysed. The obtained materials were characterized by rheological, X-ray diffraction, infra-red spectroscopy and pores size distribution measurements. The results show that a considerable densification during sintering at 400 and 600 0 C was obtained. (author) [pt

  19. Micro- and nanostructured sol-gel-based materials for optical chemical sensing (2005–2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barczak, Mariusz; McDonagh, Colette; Wencel, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    This review (with 172 references) highlights the progress made in the past 10 years in silica sol-gel-based materials for use in optical chemical sensing. Following an introduction, the processes leading to the sol-gel-based and ormosil materials, their printability and methods for characterisation are discussed. Then various classes of optical sensors, with a focus on sensors for pH values, oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia (also in dissolved form), and heavy metal ions are described. A further section covers nanoparticle-based optical sensors mainly for use in intracellular sensing of the above species. Recent developments in this area are also emphasised and future trends discussed. (author)

  20. Deposition of sol-gel sensor spots by nanoimprint lithography and hemi-wicking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Morten Bo Lindholm; Marie, Rodolphe; Hansen, Jan H.

    2011-01-01

    We present a method for homogeneous deposition of sol-gel sensor materials, which enable fabrication of sensor spots for optical pH and oxygen measurements inside plastic containers. A periodic pattern of posts is imprinted into a polycarbonate substrate and, using the principle of hemi-wicking, ......We present a method for homogeneous deposition of sol-gel sensor materials, which enable fabrication of sensor spots for optical pH and oxygen measurements inside plastic containers. A periodic pattern of posts is imprinted into a polycarbonate substrate and, using the principle of hemi...

  1. Positron annihilation lifetime studies of sol-gel transition of carrageenan gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Y.; Ito, K.; Li, H.L.; Ujihara, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime measurement was applied to study the sol-gel transition of anionic polysaccharide aqueous solutions in terms of free-volume parameters the size, intensity, and size distribution of free volumes of the gelation of K-form κ-carrageenan solutions as a function of temperature. Slight variations of free volume size and intensity against temperature were observed near 295 K. The correlation of free-volume data with other physical properties vibrational spectra (IR and Raman), conductivity, SAXS, elastic measurement, differential scanning calorimetry were investigated to understand the mechanism of sol-gel transition of carrageenan. (author)

  2. Porous Silica Sol-Gel Glasses Containing Reactive V2O5 Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegman, Albert E.

    1995-01-01

    Porous silica sol-gel glasses into which reactive vanadium oxide functional groups incorporated exhibit number of unique characteristics. Because they bind molecules of some species both reversibly and selectively, useful as chemical sensors or indicators or as scrubbers to remove toxic or hazardous contaminants. Materials also oxidize methane gas photochemically: suggests they're useful as catalysts for conversion of methane to alcohol and for oxidation of hydrocarbons in general. By incorporating various amounts of other metals into silica sol-gel glasses, possible to synthesize new materials with broad range of new characteristics.

  3. Site selective generation of sol-gel deposits in layered bimetallic macroporous electrode architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalo, Hélène; Bon-Saint-Côme, Yémima; Plano, Bernard; Etienne, Mathieu; Walcarius, Alain; Kuhn, Alexander

    2012-02-07

    The elaboration of an original composite bimetallic macroporous electrode containing a site-selective sol-gel deposit is reported. Regular colloidal crystals, obtained by a modified Langmuir-Blodgett approach, are used as templates for the electrogeneration of the desired metals in the form of a well-defined layered bimetallic porous electrode. This porous matrix shows a spatially modulated electroactivity which is subsequently used as a strategy for targeted electrogeneration of a sol-gel deposit, exclusively in one predefined part of the porous electrode.

  4. Architectural optimization of an epoxy-based hybrid sol-gel coating for the corrosion protection of a cast Elektron21 magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Gutiérrez, N. V.; Ansart, F.; Bonino, J.-P.; Kunst, S. R.; Malfatti, C. F.

    2014-08-01

    An epoxy-based hybrid sol-gel coating was prepared in various architectural configurations has been studied for the corrosion protection of a cast Elektron21 magnesium alloy. The creation of a single layer of this coating presents defects consisting of macro-pores and protuberances, which opens access for corrosive species to reach the metallic substrate. These defects are suspected to result from the high reactivity of the substrate, as well as to the irregular topography of the substrate disrupted by the microstructure of the own magnesium alloy. Hence, a sol-gel coating in bilayer architecture is proposed, where the first layer would “inert” the surface of the magnesium substrate, and the second layer would cover the defects of the first layer and also thickening the coating. The morphological characteristics of the sol-gel coatings were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and their corrosion behavior was evaluated by OCP (open circuit potential) monitoring and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in chloride media. It is shown that both the architectural arrangement and the individual thickness of the first and second layers have an important influence on the anticorrosion performances of the protective system, just as much as its global thickness.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro bioactivity of sol-gel-derived SiO2-CaO-P2O5-MgO bioglass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboori, A.; Rabiee, M.; Moztarzadeh, F.; Sheikhi, M.; Tahriri, M.; Karimi, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the synthesis of SiO 2 -CaO-P 2 O 5 -MgO bioactive glass was performed by the sol-gel method. Sol-gel-derived bioglass material was produced both in powder and in discs form by uniaxial pressing, followed by sintering at 700 deg. C. The obtained material was evaluated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. The biocompatibility evaluation of the formed glass was assessed through in vitro cell culture [alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity of osteoblasts] experiments and immersion studies in simulated body fluid (SBF) for different time intervals while monitoring the pH changes and the concentration of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium in the SBF medium. The SEM, XRD and FTIR studies were conducted before and after soaking of the material in SBF. At first, an amorphous calcium phosphate was formed; after 7 days this surface consisted of deposited crystalline apatite. The present investigation also revealed that the sol-gel derived quaternary bioglass system has the ability to support the growth of human fetal osteoblastic cells (hFOB 1.19). Finally, this material proved to be non-toxic and compatible for the proposed work in segmental defects in the goat model in vivo

  6. Poly(aniline) nanowires in sol-gel coated ITO: A pH-responsive substrate for planar supported lipid bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Chenhao; Orosz, Kristina S.; Armstrong, Neal R.; Saavedra, S. Scott

    2011-01-01

    Facilitated ion transport across an artificial lipid bilayer coupled to a solid substrate is a function common to several types of bioelectronic devices based on supported membranes, including biomimetic fuel cells and ion channel biosensors. Described here is fabrication of a pH-sensitive transducer composed of a porous sol-gel layer derivatized with poly(aniline) (PANI) nanowires grown from an underlying planar indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode. The upper sol-gel surface is hydrophilic, smooth, and compatible with deposition of a planar supported lipid bilayer (PSLB) formed via vesicle fusion. Conducting tip AFM was used to show that the PANI wires are connected to the ITO, which convert this electrode into a potentiometric pH sensor. The response to changes in the pH of the buffer contacting the PANI nanowire/sol-gel/ITO electrode is blocked by the very low ion permeability of the overlying, fluid PSLB. The feasibility of using this assembly to monitor facilitated proton transport across the PSLB was demonstrated by doping the membrane with lipophilic ionophores that respond to a transmembrane pH gradient, which produced an apparent proton permeability several orders of magnitude greater than values measured for undoped lipid bilayers. PMID:21707069

  7. Infrared and Raman spectroscopic studies of tris-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] isocyanurate, its sol-gel process, and coating on aluminum and copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Sing; Church, Jeffrey S; Woodhead, Andrea L; Vecchio, Nicolas E; Yang, Johnny

    2014-11-11

    Tris-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] isocyanurate (TTPI) has been used as a precursor to prepare a sol using ethanol as the solvent under acidic conditions. The sol-gel was applied for the surface treatment of aluminum and copper. Infrared and Raman spectra have been recorded for pure TTPI and the TTPI sol, xerogel and TTPI sol-gel coated metals. From the vibrational spectra, TTPI is likely to have the C1 point group. Vibrational assignments are suggested based on group frequencies, the expected reactions in the sol-gel process and the vibrational studies of some related molecules. From the experimental infrared spectra of xerogels annealed at different temperatures and from the thermal-gravimetric analysis, it is found that the TTPI xerogel decomposes at around 450°C with silica being the major decomposition product. A cyclic voltammetric study of the metal electrodes coated with different concentrations of TTPI ranging from 5% to 42% (v/v) has shown that the films with high concentrations of sol would provide better corrosion protection for aluminum and copper. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Improving the scratch resistance of sol-gel metal oxide coatings cured at 250 C through use of thermogenerated amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langanke, J.; Arfsten, N.; Buskens, P.; Habets, R.; Klankermayer, J.; Leitner, W.

    2013-01-01

    Scratch resistant sol-gel metal oxide coatings typically require a thermal post-treatment step (curing process) at temperatures between 400 and 700 C. In this report, we demonstrate that the in situ generation of amines within sol-gel films facilitates the preparation of scratch resistant metal

  9. On the healing mechanism of sol-gel derived hybrid materials containing dynamic di-sulfide bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AbdolahZadeh, M.; Esteves, A.C.C.; Van der Zwaag, S.; Garcia Espallargas, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Sol-gel technology is increasingly being used in coatings for corrosion protection and adhesion improvement. So far, the self-healing concept in sol-gel coatings has only been approached from extrinsic healing perspective (i.e. use of nano and micro carriers of corrosion inhibitors) [1]. Despite the

  10. Nanostructured sol-gel coatings doped with cerium nitrate as pre-treatments for AA2024-T3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheludkevich, M.L.; Serra, R.; Montemor, M.F.; Yasakau, K.A.; Salvado, I.M. Miranda; Ferreira, M.G.S.

    2005-01-01

    Nanostructured hybrid sol-gel coatings doped with cerium ions were investigated in the present work as pre-treatments for the AA2024-T3 alloy. The sol-gel films have been synthesized from tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) precursors. Additionally the hybrid sol was doped with zirconia nanoparticles prepared from hydrolyzed tetra-n-propoxyzirconium (TPOZ). Cerium nitrate, as corrosion inhibitor, was added into the hybrid matrix or into the oxide nanoparticles. The chemical composition and the structure of the hybrid sol-gel films were studied by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and AFM (atomic force microscopy), respectively. The evolution of the corrosion protection properties of the sol-gel films was studied by EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy), which can provide quantitative information on the role of the different pre-treatments. Different equivalent circuits, for different stages of the corrosion processes, were used in order to model the coating degradation. The models were supported by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) measurements. The results show that the sol-gel films containing zirconia nanoparticles present improved barrier properties. Doping the hybrid nanostructured sol-gel coatings with cerium nitrate leads to additional improvement of the corrosion protection. The zirconia particles present in the sol-gel matrix seem to act as nanoreservoirs providing a prolonged release of cerium ions. The nanostructured sol-gel films doped with cerium nitrate can be proposed as a potential candidate for substitution of the chromate pre-treatments for AA2024-T3

  11. THERMALLY STABLE NANOCRYSTALLINE TIO2 PHOTOCATALYSTS SYNTHESIZED VIA SOL-GEL METHODS MODIFIED WITH IONIC LIQUID AND SURFACTANT MOLECULES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, sol-gel methods employing ionic liquids (ILs) have shown significant implications for the synthesis of well-defined nanostructured inorganic materials. Herein, we synthesized nanocrystalline TiO2 particles via an alkoxide sol-gel method employing a water-immi...

  12. Uniform Thin Films of CdSe and CdSe(ZnS) Core(shell) Quantum Dots by Sol-Gel Assembly: Enabling Photoelectrochemical Characterization and Electronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korala, Lasantha; Wang, Zhijie; Liu, Yi; Maldonado, Stephen; Brock, Stephanie L.

    2013-01-01

    Optoelectronic properties of quantum dot (QD) films are limited by (1) poor interfacial chemistry and (2) non-radiative recombination due to surface traps. To address these performance issues, sol-gel methods are applied to fabricate thin films of CdSe and core(shell) CdSe(ZnS) QDs. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) imaging with chemical analysis confirms that the surface of the QDs in the sol-gel thin films are chalcogen-rich, consistent with an oxidative-induced gelation mechanism in which connectivity is achieved by formation of dichalcogenide covalent linkages between particles. The ligand removal and assembly process is probed by thermogravimetric, spectroscopic and microscopic studies. Further enhancement of inter-particle coupling via mild thermal annealing, which removes residual ligands and reinforces QD connectivity, results in QD sol-gel thin films with superior charge transport properties, as shown by a dramatic enhancement of electrochemical photocurrent under white light illumination relative to thin films composed of ligand-capped QDs. A more than 2-fold enhancement in photocurrent, and a further increase in photovoltage can be achieved by passivation of surface defects via overcoating with a thin ZnS shell. The ability to tune interfacial and surface characteristics for the optimization of photophysical properties suggests that the sol-gel approach may enable formation of QD thin films suitable for a range of optoelectronic applications. PMID:23350924

  13. Effectiveness of silica based sol-gel microencapsulation method for odorants and flavors leading to sustainable environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Khan, Aysha Masood; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Sarfraz, Maliha

    2015-01-01

    Microencapsulation has become a hot topic in chemical research. Technology mainly used for control release and protection purposes. The sol-gel micro encapsulation approach for fragrance and aroma in porous silica-based materials leads to sustainable odorant and flavored materials with novel and unique beneficial properties. Sol-gel encapsulation of silica based micro particles considered economically cheap as capital investment in manufacturing is very low and environmentally friendly. Amorphous sol-gel SiO2 is non-toxic and safe, whereas the sol-gel entrapment of delicate chemicals in its inner pores results in pronounced chemical and physical stabilization of the entrapped active agents, thereby broadening the practical utilization of chemically unstable essential oils (EOs). Reviewing progress in the fabrication of diverse odorant and flavored sol-gels, shows us how different synthetic strategies are appropriate for practical application with important health and environmental benefits.

  14. Effectiveness of silica based sol-gel microencapsulation method for odorants and flavors leading to sustainable environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Khan, Aysha Masood; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Sarfraz, Maliha

    2015-01-01

    Microencapsulation has become a hot topic in chemical research. Technology mainly used for control release and protection purposes. The sol-gel micro encapsulation approach for fragrance and aroma in porous silica-based materials leads to sustainable odorant and flavored materials with novel and unique beneficial properties. Sol-gel encapsulation of silica based micro particles considered economically cheap as capital investment in manufacturing is very low and environmentally friendly. Amorphous sol-gel SiO2 is non-toxic and safe, whereas the sol-gel entrapment of delicate chemicals in its inner pores results in pronounced chemical and physical stabilization of the entrapped active agents, thereby broadening the practical utilization of chemically unstable essential oils (EOs). Reviewing progress in the fabrication of diverse odorant and flavored sol-gels, shows us how different synthetic strategies are appropriate for practical application with important health and environmental benefits. PMID:26322304

  15. Effect of cobalt sources on properties of co-b catalysts synthesized by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figen, Aysel Kantürk; Co ú kuner, Bilge; Özdemir, Özgül Dere [Department of Chemical Engineering, Yildiz Technical University Istanbul (Turkey); Burçin Pi ú kin, Mehmet [Department of Bioengineering, Y Õ ld Õ z Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2013-07-01

    In this studying, Co-B catalysts were prepared by sol-gel method via kinds of cobalt source for clarifying the effect of these for characteristic properties of Co-B catalysts. Co sources, cobalt(II)chloride (CoCl{sub 2} .6H{sub 2}O), cobalt(II)sulfate (CoSO{sub 4} .7H{sub 2}O) and cobalt(II)nitrate (Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} .6H{sub 2}O), were used as a metal source with boron oxide (B{sub 2}O{sub 3} ) while citric acid (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 7} ) used as organic ligand to forming sol-gel structure. The crystalline structures of Co-B catalysts were determined by X-ray diffraction. The N{sub 2} sorption technique was used for analyzing catalysts surface area. The variety of Co-B catalysts morphological properties were investigated via scanning electron microscope. By the effect of cobalt sources the Co-B catalyst’s properties were altered that clarified from analysis results. The amorphous Co-B catalyst produced from CoCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2} O as metal source had the largest porous surface area with 122.7 m 2 .g -1 . Investigation of hydrolysis were performed under variety of temperatures (22, 40 and 60 o C), NaOH concentrations (1-15 wt. %) and NaBH 4 /Co-B catalyst ratio (2-40 wt./wt.) ratios in order to investigate the activation of Co-B catalyst. The maximum hydrogen generation rate 0.84L H 2 .min -1 .g -1 was obtained under 40 °C, 10 wt. % NaOH and 9.52wt./wt. NaBH{sub 4}/Co-B catalyst ratio. Yet the kinetic investigations, the reaction order was found that zero order with 0.9954 coefficient of correlation and 51.83 kJ/mol activation energy. Key words: Sol-gel, Co-B Catalyst, Boron.

  16. Organization in sol-gel polymerization of methacrylate co-oligomers containing trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vraštil, J.; Matějka, Libor; Špaček, V.; Večeřa, M.; Prokůpek, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 25 (2005), s. 11232-11240 ISSN 0032-3861 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : organic-inorganic hybrid * sol-gel process * oligomers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.849, year: 2005

  17. Analysis and theory of gas transport in microporous sol-gel derived ceramic membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, R.S.A.; de Lange, Rob; Keizer, Klaas; Burggraaf, Anthonie; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Sol-gel modification of mesoporous alumina membranes is a very successful technique to improve gas separation performance. Due to the formed microporous top layer, the membranes show activated transport and molecular sieve-like separation factors. This paper concentrates on the mechanism of

  18. Study of positron lifetime spectrum for Zn O varistor ceramics fabricated by Sol-gel route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xigui; Wei Shutao; Zhang Ruiying; Cheng Guosheng; Dai Xianqi; Zhang Jincang; Xing Huaimin

    2000-01-01

    An investigation of positron lifetime spectrum for ZnO varistor ceramics fabricated by Sol-gel route was carried out. The relationship between lifetime parameters and the densification and nonlinear coefficient α was given. The dependence of electrical properties on sintering temperature and duration was discussed

  19. Amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide based on hemoglobin entrapped in titania sol-gel film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jiuhong; Ju Huangxian

    2003-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) was entrapped in a titania sol-gel matrix and used as a mimetic peroxidase to construct a novel amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide. The Hb entrapped titania sol-gel film was obtained with a vapor deposition method, which simplified the traditional sol-gel process for protein immobilization. The morphologies of both titania sol-gel and the Hb films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and proved to be chemically clean, porous, homogeneous. This matrix provided a biocompatible microenvironment for retaining the native structure and activity of the entrapped Hb and a very low mass transport barrier to the substrates. H 2 O 2 could be reduced by the catalysis of the entrapped hemoglobin at -300 mV without any mediator. The reagentless H 2 O 2 sensor exhibited a fast response (less than 5 s) and sensitivity as high as 1.29 mA mM -1 cm -2 . The linear range for H 2 O 2 determination was from 5.0x10 -7 to 5.4x10 -5 M with a detection limit of 1.2x10 -7 M. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant of the encapsulated hemoglobin was calculated to be 0.18±0.02 mM. The stability of the biosensor was also evaluated

  20. Sol-gel technology applied to alternative high-level waste forms development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, P.; Stinton, D.P.; Vavruska, J.S.; Caputo, A.J.; Lackey, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Sol-gel technology appears applicable to waste solidification. It is attractive for remote operation, and a variety of waste compositions and forms can be produced. Spheres and pellets of gel-derived Synroc waste forms were produced. Spheres of the Synroc-B type were coated with pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. Partitioning of actinides in Synroc-B was experimentally determined

  1. Tin dioxide sol-gel derived films doped with platinum and antimony deposited on porous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savaniu, C.; Arnautu, A.; Cobianu, C.; Craciun, G.; Flueraru, C.; Zaharescu, M.; Parlog, C.; Paszti, F.; van den Berg, Albert

    1999-01-01

    SnO2 sol-gel derived thin films doped simultaneously with Pt and Sb are obtained and reported for the first time. The Sn sources were tin(IV) ethoxide or tin(II) ethylhexanoate, while hexachloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) and antimony chloride (SbCl3) were used as platinum and antimony sources,

  2. Sol-Gel Synthesis of Phosphate-Based Glasses for Hydrophilic Enamel Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae-Sung; Ryu, Bong-ki [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    In this study, quaternary phosphate-based sol-gel derived glasses were synthesized from a P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-CaO-Na{sub 2}O-TiO{sub 2} system with a high TiO{sub 2} content of up to 50 mol%. The sol-gel method was chosen because incorporating a high percentage of titanium into a phosphate network via traditional melt-quench methods is non-trivial. The structure and thermal properties of the obtained stabilized sol-gel glasses were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The XRD results confirmed the amorphous nature of all of the stabilized sol–gel derived glasses. The FTIR results revealed that added TiO{sub 2} enters the network as (TiO{sub 6}), which likely acts as a modifier oxide. Consequently, the number of terminal oxygen atoms increases, leading to an increase in the number of P-OH bonds. In addition, DSC results confirmed a decrease in glass transition and crystallization temperatures with increasing TiO{sub 2} content. This is the first report of a sol-gel synthesis strategy combined with enameling to prepare glass at low processing temperatures and the first use of such a system for both hydrophilic and chemical resistance purposes.

  3. Sol-gel/hydrothermal synthesis of mixed metal oxide of Titanium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mixed metal oxides of titanium and zinc nanocomposites were prepared through sol-gel method under hydrothermal condition using titanium oxy-(1, 2 - pentadione) and zinc acetate without hazardous additives. The resulting composites were characterized by X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope ...

  4. Patterned transparent zinc oxide films produced by sol-gel embossing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, J.; Koh, L.H.K.; Crean, G.M. [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland); Department of Microelectronic Engineering, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); O' Brien, S. [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland); Winfield, R.J.

    2008-08-15

    A low cost zinc oxide embossing technique is reported as a method of fabricating structures relevant to a variety of applications. A zinc based sol-gel material was prepared from zinc acetate[Zn(C{sub 2}H{sub 3}O{sub 2}){sub 2}], monoethanolamine[H{sub 2}NC{sub 2}H{sub 4}OH] and isopropanol. The sol-gel was cast into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mould a track design, placed in contact with the substrate and dried under vacuum at 70 C for 3 hours. The formed track pattern was further densified to provide a stable conductor film that retained the embossed shape. An optimum Zn sol-gel content of 0.6 M was identified. The embossed films had a transparency of greater than 83% in the visible region. The optical bandgap energy was evaluated to be 3.306 eV. The influence of ZnO sol-gel film synthesis and embossing parameters on the microstructure, morphology and optical transparency of fabricated structures is described. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Sol-Gel Synthesis of Phosphate-Based Glasses for Hydrophilic Enamel Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae-Sung; Ryu, Bong-ki

    2017-01-01

    In this study, quaternary phosphate-based sol-gel derived glasses were synthesized from a P 2 O 5 -CaO-Na 2 O-TiO 2 system with a high TiO 2 content of up to 50 mol%. The sol-gel method was chosen because incorporating a high percentage of titanium into a phosphate network via traditional melt-quench methods is non-trivial. The structure and thermal properties of the obtained stabilized sol-gel glasses were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The XRD results confirmed the amorphous nature of all of the stabilized sol–gel derived glasses. The FTIR results revealed that added TiO 2 enters the network as (TiO 6 ), which likely acts as a modifier oxide. Consequently, the number of terminal oxygen atoms increases, leading to an increase in the number of P-OH bonds. In addition, DSC results confirmed a decrease in glass transition and crystallization temperatures with increasing TiO 2 content. This is the first report of a sol-gel synthesis strategy combined with enameling to prepare glass at low processing temperatures and the first use of such a system for both hydrophilic and chemical resistance purposes.

  6. Analysis of coupled mass transfer and sol-gel reaction in a two-phase system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castelijns, H.J.; Huinink, H.P.; Pel, L.; Zitha, P.L.J.

    2006-01-01

    The coupled mass transfer and chemical reactions of a gel-forming compound in a two-phase system were studied in detail. Tetra-methyl-ortho-silicate (TMOS) is often used as a precursor in sol-gel chemistry to produce silica gels in aqueous systems. TMOS can also be mixed with many hydrocarbons

  7. Nanocrystalline Ni-Zn ferrites prepared by sol-gel method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popovici, M.; Savii, C.; Nižňanský, Daniel; Šubrt, Jan; Boháček, Jaroslav; Becherescu, D.; Caizer, C.; Enache, C.; Ionescu, C.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2003), s. 251-256 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : nanostructures * sol-gel processing * XRD Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.996, year: 2003

  8. Foldable and Cytocompatible Sol-gel TiO2 Photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Wei-Ming; Lin, Hongtao; Zerdoum, Aidan B; Geiger, Sarah J; Liu, Yangchen; Xiao, Nicholas; Zou, Yi; Ogbuu, Okechukwu; Du, Qingyang; Jia, Xinqiao; Li, Jingjing; Hu, Juejun

    2015-09-07

    Integrated photonics provides a miniaturized and potentially implantable platform to manipulate and enhance the interactions between light and biological molecules or tissues in in-vitro and in-vivo settings, and is thus being increasingly adopted in a wide cross-section of biomedical applications ranging from disease diagnosis to optogenetic neuromodulation. However, the mechanical rigidity of substrates traditionally used for photonic integration is fundamentally incompatible with soft biological tissues. Cytotoxicity of materials and chemicals used in photonic device processing imposes another constraint towards these biophotonic applications. Here we present thin film TiO2 as a viable material for biocompatible and flexible integrated photonics. Amorphous TiO2 films were deposited using a low temperature (<250 °C) sol-gel process fully compatible with monolithic integration on plastic substrates. High-index-contrast flexible optical waveguides and resonators were fabricated using the sol-gel TiO2 material, and resonator quality factors up to 20,000 were measured. Following a multi-neutral-axis mechanical design, these devices exhibit remarkable mechanical flexibility, and can sustain repeated folding without compromising their optical performance. Finally, we validated the low cytotoxicity of the sol-gel TiO2 devices through in-vitro cell culture tests. These results demonstrate the potential of sol-gel TiO2 as a promising material platform for novel biophotonic devices.

  9. Sol-gel immobilization of serine proteases for application in organic solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Unen, D.J.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Reinhoudt, David

    2001-01-01

    The serine proteases α-chymotrypsin, trypsin, and subtilisin Carlsberg were immobilized in a sol-gel matrix and the effects on the enzyme activity in organic media are evaluated. The percentage of immobilized enzyme is 90% in the case of α-chymotrypsin and the resulting specific enzyme activity in

  10. Sol-gel coatings of ceramic fibres for composites with ceramic matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, B.; Grathwohl, G.; Spallek, M.; Pannhorst, W.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this work was to show the feasibility in principle of sol-gel coating of ceramic reinforcement components for composites from technical aspects as well. The complexity of the coating task rises with the transition from individual fibres to bundles of fibres of different thickness to weaves, and finally to composites. (orig.) [de

  11. The increase in pH during aging of porous sol-gel silica spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Titulaer, M.K.; Kegel, W.K.; Jansen, J.B.H.; Geus, John W.

    1994-01-01

    The increase in pH in the hydrothermal fluid is studied after hydrothermal aging of porous silica gel spheres of 1–3 mm diameter. The porous silica spheres are formed by the sol-gel process from a supersaturated silica solution. The increase of the pH of the hydrothermal solution affects the silica

  12. Sol-gel deposition of buffer layers on biaxially textured metal substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoup, Shara S.; Paranthamam, Mariappan; Beach, David B.; Kroeger, Donald M.; Goyal, Amit

    2000-01-01

    A method is disclosed for forming a biaxially textured buffer layer on a biaxially oriented metal substrate by using a sol-gel coating technique followed by pyrolyzing/annealing in a reducing atmosphere. This method is advantageous for providing substrates for depositing electronically active materials thereon.

  13. Sol-gel coatings on large area glass sheets for electrochromic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroon, Z.A.E.P.; Spee, C.I.M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The preparation of vanadium and tungsten oxide coatings is described using vanadium oxide tri-2-propoxide/2-propanol and tungsten penta-ethoxide/2-propanol solutions. These solutions are dip coated onto K-glass substrates and cured. For vanadium oxide coatings it is shown that sol-gel/dip coat

  14. Improving the temperature performance of low-density ceramic heatshields through sol-gel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Jeffrey; Leiser, Daniel; Sommers, Jeneen; Esfahani, Lili

    1991-01-01

    The performance of rigid insulations for use as thermal protection materials on reentry vehicles can be characterized by their resistance to dimensional and morphological change when exposed to an isothermal environment equivalent to that generated in entry. Improvements in these material characteristics for alumina-enhanced thermal barrier insulation by compositional modification through sol-gel processing are reported.

  15. Ternary Phase-Separation Investigation of Sol-Gel Derived Silica from Ethyl Silicate 40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengnan; Wang, David K.; Smart, Simon; Diniz da Costa, João C.

    2015-01-01

    A ternary phase-separation investigation of the ethyl silicate 40 (ES40) sol-gel process was conducted using ethanol and water as the solvent and hydrolysing agent, respectively. This oligomeric silica precursor underwent various degrees of phase separation behaviour in solution during the sol-gel reactions as a function of temperature and H2O/Si ratios. The solution composition within the immiscible region of the ES40 phase-separated system shows that the hydrolysis and condensation reactions decreased with decreasing reaction temperature. A mesoporous structure was obtained at low temperature due to weak drying forces from slow solvent evaporation on one hand and formation of unreacted ES40 cages in the other, which reduced network shrinkage and produced larger pores. This was attributed to the concentration of the reactive sites around the phase-separated interface, which enhanced the condensation and crosslinking. Contrary to dense silica structures obtained from sol-gel reactions in the miscible region, higher microporosity was produced via a phase-separated sol-gel system by using high H2O/Si ratios. This tailoring process facilitated further condensation reactions and crosslinking of silica chains, which coupled with stiffening of the network, made it more resistant to compression and densification. PMID:26411484

  16. Gel stabilization in chelate sol-gel preparation of Bi-2223 superconductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rubešová, K.; Jakeš, V.; Hlásek, T.; Vašek, Petr; Matějka, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 3 (2012), s. 448-453 ISSN 0022-3697 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : superconductors * sol-gel growth * infrared spectroscopy * thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.527, year: 2012

  17. Epoxy-based organic-inorganic nanocomposite coatings and films prepared by sol-gel process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špírková, Milena; Brus, Jiří; Matějka, Libor

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 6, 3-4 (2004), s. 7-15 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/01/0735; GA AV ČR IAA4050008; GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : sol-gel process * nanocomposite s * solid-state NMR Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  18. Supercritical fluid extraction of silicone oil from uranate microspheres prepared by sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Venkatakrishnan, R.; Sivaraman, N.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2005-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction of silicone oil from urania microspheres prepared through sol-gel route was investigated. The influence of pressure, temperature, and flow rate on the extraction efficiency was studied. Experimental conditions were optimised for the complete removal of silicone oil from urania microspheres. (author)

  19. Active corrosion protection of AA2024 by sol-gel coatings with corrosion inhibitors =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasakau, Kiryl

    A industria aeronautica utiliza ligas de aluminio de alta resistencia para o fabrico dos elementos estruturais dos avioes. As ligas usadas possuem excelentes propriedades mecanicas mas apresentam simultaneamente uma grande tendencia para a corrosao. Por esta razao essas ligas necessitam de proteccao anticorrosiva eficaz para poderem ser utilizadas com seguranca. Ate a data, os sistemas anticorrosivos mais eficazes para ligas de aluminio contem cromio hexavalente na sua composicao, sejam pre-tratamentos, camadas de conversao ou pigmentos anticorrosivos. O reconhecimento dos efeitos carcinogenicos do cromio hexavalente levou ao aparecimento de legislacao banindo o uso desta forma de cromio pela industria. Esta decisao trouxe a necessidade de encontrar alternativas ambientalmente inocuas mas igualmente eficazes. O principal objectivo do presente trabalho e o desenvolvimento de pretratamentos anticorrosivos activos para a liga de aluminio 2024, baseados em revestimentos hibridos produzidos pelo metodo sol-gel. Estes revestimentos deverao possuir boa aderencia ao substrato metalico, boas propriedades barreira e capacidade anticorrosiva activa. A proteccao activa pode ser alcancada atraves da incorporacao de inibidores anticorrosivos no pretratamento. O objectivo foi atingido atraves de uma sucessao de etapas. Primeiro investigou-se em detalhe a corrosao localizada (por picada) da liga de aluminio 2024. Os resultados obtidos permitiram uma melhor compreensao da susceptibilidade desta liga a processos de corrosao localizada. Estudaram-se tambem varios possiveis inibidores de corrosao usando tecnicas electroquimicas e microestruturais. Numa segunda etapa desenvolveram-se revestimentos anticorrosivos hibridos organico-inorganico baseados no metodo sol-gel. Compostos derivados de titania e zirconia foram combinados com siloxanos organofuncionais a fim de obter-se boa aderencia entre o revestimento e o substrato metalico assim como boas propriedades barreira. Testes

  20. Iron specificity of a biosensor based on fluorescent pyoverdin immobilized in sol-gel glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Two current technologies used in biosensor development are very promising: 1. The sol-gel process of making microporous glass at room temperature, and 2. Using a fluorescent compound that undergoes fluorescence quenching in response to a specific analyte. These technologies have been combined to produce an iron biosensor. To optimize the iron (II or III) specificity of an iron biosensor, pyoverdin (a fluorescent siderophore produced by Pseudomonas spp.) was immobilized in 3 formulations of porous sol-gel glass. The formulations, A, B, and C, varied in the amount of water added, resulting in respective R values (molar ratio of water:silicon) of 5.6, 8.2, and 10.8. Pyoverdin-doped sol-gel pellets were placed in a flow cell in a fluorometer and the fluorescence quenching was measured as pellets were exposed to 0.28 - 0.56 mM iron (II or III). After 10 minutes of exposure to iron, ferrous ion caused a small fluorescence quenching (89 - 97% of the initial fluorescence, over the range of iron tested) while ferric ion caused much greater quenching (65 - 88%). The most specific and linear response was observed for pyoverdin immobilized in sol-gel C. In contrast, a solution of pyoverdin (3.0 μM) exposed to iron (II or III) for 10 minutes showed an increase in fluorescence (101 - 114%) at low ferrous concentrations (0.45 - 2.18 μM) while exposure to all ferric ion concentrations (0.45 - 3.03 μM) caused quenching. In summary, the iron specificity of pyoverdin was improved by immobilizing it in sol-gel glass C. PMID:21554740

  1. Synthesis by Sol-gel and characterization of catalysts Ag/Al2O3-CeO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayas, M.L.; Perez H, R.; Rubio, E.; Velasco, A.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminia, cerium and mixed oxides Al 2 O 3 -CeO 2 with different relationship Al/Ce (0.75, 0.50 and 0.25) were prepared by sol-gel and used as support for the Ag. The samples were characterized by XRD, DRIFT, TPR and adsorption of N 2 to temperature of liquid nitrogen. The surface area BET showed that the materials that contain aluminia present near values among them. XRD allowed to identify to the cerianite in the oxides that whose support contains cerium and to the α-aluminia. A mixture of phases was observed in the aluminia. Vibration bands attributed to the bond Al-O and Ce-O were observed by DRIFT in the catalytic materials. TPR showed differences in the reducibility of the Ag precursor in the indicative catalysts of a different interaction with the support. (Author)

  2. Defect-induced luminescence in sol-gel silica samples doped with Co(II) at different concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Sandoval, S. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados, Queretaro, Apdo. Postal 1-798, Queretaro, Qro. 76001 (Mexico); Estevez, M. [Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 1-1010, Queretaro, Qro. 76000 (Mexico); Pacheco, S. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Av. 100 metros (Mexico); Vargas, S. [Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 1-1010, Queretaro, Qro. 76000 (Mexico); Rodriguez, R. [Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 1-1010, Queretaro, Qro. 76000 (Mexico)], E-mail: rogelior@servidor.unam.mx

    2007-12-20

    The defect-induced luminescence properties of silica samples prepared by the sol-gel method and doped with Co(II) are reported. Silica monoliths doped with different concentrations of Co(II) were laser irradiated (He-Ne 632.8 nm) producing fluorescence. However, this fluorescence is exponentially reduced with the irradiation time, to practically disappear. The rate the fluorescence decays can be well modeled with a double exponential function of the irradiation time, containing two different relaxation times; a baseline is also required to take into account some residual fluorescence. The characteristic times involved in this luminescence quenching process are in the range of seconds. This luminescence suppression can be associated to the local heating produced by the laser irradiation when focused in a small area (2 {mu}m in diameter) on the sample. This heating process reduces physical (grain boundaries, surface states) and chemical (oxygen vacancies produced by the dopant) defects in the sample.

  3. Trimetallic oxide nanocomposites of transition metals titanium and vanadium by sol-gel technique: synthesis, characterization and electronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Sachan, Komal; Ali, Md Asif; Soaham Gupta, Sachchidanand; Singh, Rajeev

    2018-04-01

    Novel titanium and vanadium based trimetallic oxide nanocomposites (TMONCs) have been synthesized using metal salts of titanium-vanadium along with three others metals viz. tin, aluminium and zinc as precursors by the sol-gel method. Aqueous ammonia and hydrazine hydrate were used as the reducing agents. The preparations of nanocomposites were monitored by observing the visual changes during each step of synthesis. The synthesized TMONCs were characterized using UV–vis, SEM, EDX, TEM and DLS. Band gap of the synthesized TMONCs ranges from 3–4.5 eV determined using tauc plot. FTIR study revealed the molecular stretching and bending peaks of corresponding M–O/M–O–M bonds thus confirming their formation. Molecular composition and particle size were determined using EDX and DLS respectively. Molecular shape, size and surface morphology have been examined by SEM and TEM.

  4. Fabrication of ceramic oxide-coated SWNT composites by sol-gel process with a polymer glue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Gao, Lei; Chen, Yongming

    2011-09-01

    The functional copolymer bearing alkoxysilyl and pyrene groups, poly[3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate]- co-[(1-pyrene-methyl) methacrylate] (TEPM13- co-PyMMA3), was synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization. Attributing the π-π interaction of pyrene units with the walls of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), this polymer could disperse and exfoliate SWNTs in different solvents through physical interaction as demonstrated by TEM, UV/Vis absorption, and FT-IR analysis. The alkoxysilyl groups functionalized SWNTs were reacted with different inorganic precursors via sol-gel reaction, and, as a results, silica, titania, and alumina were coated onto the surface of SWNTs, respectively via copolymers as a molecular glue. The nanocomposites of ceramic oxides/SWNTs were characterized by SEM analysis. Dependent upon the feed, the thickness of inorganic coating can be tuned easily. This study supplies a facile and general way to coat SWNTs with ceramic oxides without deteriorating the properties of pristine SWNTs.

  5. Structural and electrical characteristics of ZrO2-TiO2 thin films by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Cheng-Hsing; Tseng, Ching-Fang; Lai, Chun-Hung; Tung, Hsin-Han; Lin, Shih-Yao

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated electrical properties and microstructures of ZrTiO 4 (ZrO 2 -TiO 2 ) thin films prepared by the sol-gel method on ITO substrates at different annealing temperatures. All films exhibited ZrTiO 4 (1 1 1) and (1 0 1) orientations perpendicular to the substrate surface, and the grain size increased with increase in the annealing temperature. A low leakage current density of 2.06 x 10 -6 A/cm 2 was obtained for the prepared films. Considering the primary memory switching behavior of ZrTiO 4 , ReRAM based on ZrTiO 4 shows promise for future nonvolatile memory applications.

  6. Modeling of optical absorption of silver prolate nanoparticles embedded in sol-gel glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renteria, V.M.; Garcia-Macedo, J.

    2005-01-01

    Silver prolate nanoparticles were obtained in silica gels prepared by the sol-gel process. Heating them at 900 deg. C for few minutes, the samples showed a yellow-orange color. A strong optical absorption with an asymmetric peak centred at 425 nm due to surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles was observed. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images showed silver prolate particles (average axial ratio AR = 0.76) randomly oriented with broad size distribution. The size changed from 9 to 3 nm and the prolate form changed to almost spherical (AR = 0.92) when the samples were heated longer time at 900 deg. C. In these samples, the absorption peak was shifted from 425 up to 460 nm. After heat treatment, the absorption spectrum did not change any more in some months, indicating that the particles obtained through this method are stable at room temperature. The Gans theory was used to fit the experimental spectra. The fit was not good until we assumed in the calculations all the physical features come from the system such as the volume fraction, shape and size of the metallic particles, and refractive index of the silica matrix. It was necessary to consider also a refractive index that come from oxidation on the surface of the metallic particles. With these considerations the fit with the Gans theory was good enough, and the difference between the calculated and experimental spectra was very small, factor 20 better than when oxidation is ignored. So then, the oxidation from the metallic particles must be taken in account to explain the experimental absorption spectra. These results are discussed

  7. Modeling of optical absorption of silver prolate nanoparticles embedded in sol-gel glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renteria, V.M. [Departamento de Estado Solido, Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, P.O. Box 20-364, 01000 Mexico, Distrito Federal (Mexico); Garcia-Macedo, J. [Departamento de Estado Solido, Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, P.O. Box 20-364, 01000 Mexico, Distrito Federal (Mexico)]. E-mail: gamaj@fisica.unam.mx

    2005-05-15

    Silver prolate nanoparticles were obtained in silica gels prepared by the sol-gel process. Heating them at 900 deg. C for few minutes, the samples showed a yellow-orange color. A strong optical absorption with an asymmetric peak centred at 425 nm due to surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles was observed. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images showed silver prolate particles (average axial ratio AR = 0.76) randomly oriented with broad size distribution. The size changed from 9 to 3 nm and the prolate form changed to almost spherical (AR = 0.92) when the samples were heated longer time at 900 deg. C. In these samples, the absorption peak was shifted from 425 up to 460 nm. After heat treatment, the absorption spectrum did not change any more in some months, indicating that the particles obtained through this method are stable at room temperature. The Gans theory was used to fit the experimental spectra. The fit was not good until we assumed in the calculations all the physical features come from the system such as the volume fraction, shape and size of the metallic particles, and refractive index of the silica matrix. It was necessary to consider also a refractive index that come from oxidation on the surface of the metallic particles. With these considerations the fit with the Gans theory was good enough, and the difference between the calculated and experimental spectra was very small, factor 20 better than when oxidation is ignored. So then, the oxidation from the metallic particles must be taken in account to explain the experimental absorption spectra. These results are discussed.

  8. Blade-coated sol-gel indium-gallium-zinc-oxide for inverted polymer solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Huei Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The inverted organic solar cell was fabricated by using sol-gel indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO as the electron-transport layer. The IGZO precursor solution was deposited by blade coating with simultaneous substrate heating at 120 °C from the bottom and hot wind from above. Uniform IGZO film of around 30 nm was formed after annealing at 400 °C. Using the blend of low band-gap polymer poly[(4,8-bis-(2-ethylhexyloxy-benzo(1,2-b:4,5-b’dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt- (4-(2-ethylhexanoyl-thieno [3,4-b]thiophene--2-6-diyl] (PBDTTT-C-T and [6,6]-Phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester ([70]PCBM as the active layer for the inverted organic solar cell, an efficiency of 6.2% was achieved with a blade speed of 180 mm/s for the IGZO. The efficiency of the inverted organic solar cells was found to depend on the coating speed of the IGZO films, which was attributed to the change in the concentration of surface OH groups. Compared to organic solar cells of conventional structure using PBDTTT-C-T: [70]PCBM as active layer, the inverted organic solar cells showed significant improvement in thermal stability. In addition, the chemical composition, as well as the work function of the IGZO film at the surface and inside can be tuned by the blade speed, which may find applications in other areas like thin-film transistors.

  9. The chemical and catalytic properties of nanocrystalline metal oxides prepared through modified sol-gel synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Corrie Leigh

    The goal of this research was to synthesize, characterize and study the chemical properties of nanocrystalline metal oxides. Nanocrystalline (NC) ZnO, CuO, NiO, Al2O3, and the binary Al2O 3/MgO and ZnO/CuO were prepared through modified sol gel methods. These NC metal oxides were studied in comparison to the commercial (CM) metal oxides. The samples were characterized by XRD, TGA, FTIR, BET, and TEM. The NC samples were all accompanied by a significant increase in surface area and decrease in crystallite size. Several chemical reactions were studied to compare the NC samples to the CM samples. One of the reactions involved a high temperature reaction between carbon tetrachloride and the oxide to form carbon dioxide and the corresponding metal chloride. A similar high temperature reaction was conducted between the metal oxide and hydrogen sulfide to form water and the corresponding metal sulfide. A room temperature gas phase adsorption was studied where SO2 was adsorbed onto the oxide. A liquid phase adsorption conducted at room temperature was the destructive adsorption of paraoxon (a toxic insecticide). In all reactions the NC samples exhibited greater activity, destroying or adsorbing a larger amount of the toxins compared to the CM samples. To better study surface area effects catalytic reactions were also studied. The catalysis of methanol was studied over the nanocrystalline ZnO, CuO, NiO, and ZnO/CuO samples in comparison to their commercial counterparts. In most cases the NC samples proved to be more active catalysts, having higher percent conversions and turnover numbers. A second catalytic reaction was also studied, this reaction was investigated to look at the support effects. The catalysis of cyclopropane to propane was studied over Pt and Co catalysts. These catalysts were supported onto NC and CM alumina by impregnation. By observing differences in the catalytic behavior, support effects have become apparent.

  10. TiO₂ sol-gel for formaldehyde photodegradation using polymeric support: photocatalysis efficiency versus material stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Monique S; Oliveira, Michel P; Waldman, Walter R; Sánchez, Benigno; Canela, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalysts supported on polymers are not frequently used in heterogeneous photocatalysis because of problems such as wettability and stability that affect photocatalysis conditions. In this work, we used polypropylene as support for TiO2 sol-gel to evaluate its stability and efficiency under UV radiation. We also tested the effect of the thermo-pressing PP/TiO2 system on the photocatalytic efficiency and stability under UV radiation. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The SEM micrographs showed that the films of TiO2 sol-gel onto PP has approximately 1.0-μm thick and regular surface and the generation of polypropylene nanowires on hot-pressed samples. XRD showed the formation of TiO2 anatase on the surface of the films made by dip-coating. All photocatalysts were tested in decontaminating air-containing gaseous formaldehyde (70 ppmv) presenting degradation of the target compound to the limit of detection. The photocatalysts showed no deactivation during the entire period tested (30 h), and its reuse after washing showed better photocatalytic performance than on first use. The photocatalyst showed the best results were tested for 360 h with no observed deactivation. Aging studies showed that the film of TiO2 causes different effects on the photostability of composites, with stabilizing effect when exposed to most energetic UVC radiation (λmax = 254 nm) and degradative effects when exposed to UVA radiation (λmax = 365 nm).

  11. Laser sintering of doped strontium aluminate via modified sol-gel for use as a ceramic pigment; Sinterizacao a laser do aluminato de estroncio dopado via sol-gel modificado para aplicacao como pigmento ceramico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, F.M. dos S.; Valerio, M.E.G. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Powder of Dy{sup 3+} co-doped SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} :Eu{sup 3+} was produced via proteic sol-gel method, a modified sol-gel route which allows the formation of oxides at lower temperatures than other methods. CO{sub 2} laser sintering was used as a method for heat treatment, effective in reducing trivalent europium ions in doped samples. Thermal analysis of the precursors, performed by TG and DTA, revealed that the crystallization of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase occurred at approximately 1060 °C. X-ray diffraction showed that the samples, before and after sintering, had monoclinic and hexagonal phases formation. DLS technique revealed the presence of nanosized and micrometric particles, and particle agglomerates, confirmed by SEM images. Micrographs of the fracture surface of a sintered pellet revealed a high degree of densification caused by heat treatment. Photoluminescence measurements showed that the samples after synthesis and before heat treatment with laser had reddish emission, composed of characteristic narrow emission lines from Eu{sup 3+} and more intense emission when the samples were excited at 265 nm. The laser treatment promoted the reduction of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} and this effect was confirmed by the presence of a wide emission band in the green region of the spectrum with a maximum emission obtained after excitation at 350 nm. The luminescent decay time of the thermally treated sample was approximately 100 min. Via XRF measurements of acquired frit and DTA and TG of the frit, pigment and mixtures of both, it was noticed good compatibility in terms of thermal processes, that indicated that the pigment has a potential to be used in ceramic tiles. (author)

  12. Sol-Gel Derived Adsorbents with Enzymatic and Complexonate Functions for Complex Water Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman P. Pogorilyi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sol-gel technology is a versatile tool for preparation of complex silica-based materials with targeting functions for use as adsorbents in water purification. Most efficient removal of organic pollutants is achieved by using enzymatic reagents grafted on nano-carriers. However, enzymes are easily deactivated in the presence of heavy metal cations. In this work, we avoided inactivation of immobilized urease by Cu (II and Cd (II ions using magnetic nanoparticles provided with additional complexonate (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid or DTPA functions. Obtained nanomaterials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. According to TGA, the obtained Fe3O4/SiO2-NH2-DTPA nanoadsorbents contained up to 0.401 mmol/g of DTPA groups. In the concentration range Ceq = 0–50 mmol/L, maximum adsorption capacities towards Cu (II and Cd (II ions were 1.1 mmol/g and 1.7 mmol/g, respectively. Langmuir adsorption model fits experimental data in concentration range Ceq = 0–10 mmol/L. The adsorption mechanisms have been evaluated for both of cations. Crosslinking of 5 wt % of immobilized urease with glutaraldehyde prevented the loss of the enzyme in repeated use of the adsorbent and improved the stability of the enzymatic function leading to unchanged activity in at least 18 cycles. Crosslinking of 10 wt % urease on the surface of the particles allowed a decrease in urea concentration in 20 mmol/L model solutions to 2 mmol/L in up to 10 consequent decomposition cycles. Due to the presence of DTPA groups, Cu2+ ions in concentration 1 µmol/L did not significantly affect the urease activity. Obtained magnetic Fe3O4/SiO2-NH2-DTPA-Urease nanocomposite sorbents revealed a high potential for urease decomposition, even in presence of heavy metal ions.

  13. rhEGF-containing thermosensitive and mucoadhesive polymeric sol-gel for endoscopic treatment of gastric ulcer and bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jin Hee; So, Jung Won; Kim, Jungju; Kim, In Ae; Jung, Ji Hoon; Min, Kyunghyun; Lee, Don Haeng; Yang, Su-Geun

    2014-03-01

    Gastrointestinal endoscopy is a standard diagnostic tool for gastrointestinal ulcers and cancer. In this study, we have developed recombinant human epidermal growth factor-containing ulcer-coating polymeric sol-gel for endoscopic application. Chitosan and pluronic F127 were employed for their thermoresponsive and bioadhesive properties. At temperatures below 21, polymeric sol-gel remains liquid during endoscopic application and transforms to gel at body temperature after application on ulcers. In an in vitro cellular wounding assay, recombinant human epidermal growth factor sol-gel significantly enhanced the cell migration and decreased the wounding area (68%) compared to nontreated, recombinant human epidermal growth factor solution, and sol-gel without recombinant human epidermal growth factor (42, 49, and 32 % decreased at day 1). The in vivo ulcer-healing study was performed in an acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer rat model and proved that our recombinant human epidermal growth factor endoscopic sol-gel facilitated the ulcer-healing process more efficiently than the other treatments. Ulcer sizes in the recombinant human epidermal growth factor sol-gel group were decreased 2.9- and 2.1-fold compared with those in the nontreated group on days 1 and 3 after ulceration, respectively. The mucosal thickness in the recombinant human epidermal growth factor sol-gel group was significantly increased compared to that in the nontreated group (3.2- and 6.9-fold on days 1 and 3 after ulceration, respectively). In a gastric retention study, recombinant human epidermal growth factor sol-gel stayed on the gastric mucosa more than 2 h after application. The present study suggests that recombinant human epidermal growth factor sol-gel is a prospective candidate for treating gastric ulcers via endoscopic application.

  14. Characterization and hydrogen gas sensing properties of TiO{sub 2} thin films prepared by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haidry, Azhar Ali [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Puskelova, Jarmila [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Plecenik, Tomas; Durina, Pavol; Gregus, Jan; Truchly, Martin; Roch, Tomas; Zahoran, Miroslav [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Vargova, Melinda [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kus, Peter; Plecenik, Andrej [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Plesch, Gustav, E-mail: plesch@fns.uniba.sk [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preparation and characterization of hydrogen sensing TiO{sub 2} thin films by sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The annealing effect on the structure, electrical, optical and sensing properties was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The best sensitivity show the films composed of rutile with grain size of {approx}100 nm. - Abstract: Thin films of titanium dioxide with thickness of about 150 nm were deposited by spin coating method on a sapphire substrate from a sol-gel and annealed at various temperatures (from 600 Degree-Sign C to 1000 Degree-Sign C). Structural, optical and hydrogen gas sensing properties of the films were investigated. The annealing temperatures from 600 to 800 Degree-Sign C led to anatase phase with grain size in the range of 14-28 nm. Further increase of the annealing temperature resulted in transformation to rutile phase with larger grain size of about 100-120 nm. The optical band gap tended to decrease with increasing annealing temperature. The estimated values of activation energy for charge transport were in the range of 0.6-1.0 eV for films annealed at temperatures from 600 Degree-Sign C to 800 Degree-Sign C and 0.37-0.38 eV for films annealed at 900 Degree-Sign C and 1000 Degree-Sign C. The films annealed at 900 Degree-Sign C and 1000 Degree-Sign C showed better hydrogen sensitivity, what can be at least partially caused by their higher surface roughness.

  15. Laser sintering of doped strontium aluminate via modified sol-gel for use as a ceramic pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, F.M. dos S.; Valerio, M.E.G.

    2017-01-01

    Powder of Dy"3"+ co-doped SrAl_2O_4 :Eu"3"+ was produced via proteic sol-gel method, a modified sol-gel route which allows the formation of oxides at lower temperatures than other methods. CO_2 laser sintering was used as a method for heat treatment, effective in reducing trivalent europium ions in doped samples. Thermal analysis of the precursors, performed by TG and DTA, revealed that the crystallization of SrAl_2O_4 phase occurred at approximately 1060 °C. X-ray diffraction showed that the samples, before and after sintering, had monoclinic and hexagonal phases formation. DLS technique revealed the presence of nanosized and micrometric particles, and particle agglomerates, confirmed by SEM images. Micrographs of the fracture surface of a sintered pellet revealed a high degree of densification caused by heat treatment. Photoluminescence measurements showed that the samples after synthesis and before heat treatment with laser had reddish emission, composed of characteristic narrow emission lines from Eu"3"+ and more intense emission when the samples were excited at 265 nm. The laser treatment promoted the reduction of Eu"3"+ to Eu"2"+ and this effect was confirmed by the presence of a wide emission band in the green region of the spectrum with a maximum emission obtained after excitation at 350 nm. The luminescent decay time of the thermally treated sample was approximately 100 min. Via XRF measurements of acquired frit and DTA and TG of the frit, pigment and mixtures of both, it was noticed good compatibility in terms of thermal processes, that indicated that the pigment has a potential to be used in ceramic tiles. (author)

  16. Sol-gel processes and materials. November 1971-October 1989 (Citations from the US Patent data base). Report for November 1971-October 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning sol-gel processes and sol-gel derived materials and products. Selected patents include sol-gel compositions, ceramic and refractory materials, fabrication of silica glass, sol-gel thin films and coatings, transparent inorganic oxide glass, luminescent quartz glass, cataylsts and catalyst supports, nuclear fuels preparation, abrasives for grinding wheels, sol-gel production of microspheres, alumina composites, photographic materials, and dental materials. (This updated bibliography contains 120 citations, 12 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  17. Sol-gel processes and materials. January 1970-August 1989 (Citations from the US Patent data base). Report for January 1970-August 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning Sol-Gel processes and Sol-Gel derived materials and products. Selected patents include Sol-Gel compositions, ceramic and refractory materials, fabrication of silica glass, Sol-Gel thin films and coatings, transparent inorganic oxide glass, luminescent quartz glass, cataylsts and catalyst supports, nuclear fuels preparation, abrasives for grinding wheels, Sol-Gel production of microspheres, alumina composites, photographic materials, and dental materials. (This updated bibliography contains 108 citations, 37 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  18. A Urea Biosensor from Stacked Sol-Gel Films with Immobilized Nile Blue Chromoionophore and Urease Enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Alqasaimeh, Muawia Salameh; Heng, Lee Yook; Ahmad, Musa

    2007-01-01

    An optical urea biosensor was fabricated by stacking several layers of sol-gel films. The stacking of the sol-gel films allowed the immobilization of a Nile Blue chromoionophore (ETH 5294) and urease enzyme separately without the need of any chemical attachment procedure. The absorbance response of the biosensor was monitored at 550 nm, i.e. the deprotonation of the chromoionophore. This multi-layer sol-gel film format enabled higher enzyme loading in the biosensor to be achieved. The urea op...

  19. Compacting and crystallisation of transparent conductive oxidic sol-gel layers as illustrated by the example of zinc oxide; Verdichtung und Kristallisation von transparenten leitfaehigen oxidischen Sol-gel-Schichten am Beispiel des Zinkoxids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuler, T.

    2003-07-01

    It is shown that doped zinc oxide films on glass can be obtained by a low-cost sol-gel dip coating process. The lowest possible specific resistance is 1.1x10{sup -3}ohmcm for multiple layers of aluminium-doped zinc oxide. It was shown that for thick layers the crystallite size depends on the doping of the sol, the temperature and the sintering time while the film thickness is largely defined by the concentration (viscosity) of the solution and the drawing time. On this basis, a model of the observed structures was obtained which is also applicable to other sol-gel layers. Using the process parameter p of the equation ESD = p x IKG, the morphology of multiple layers can thus be defined. The structural change from a grain structure to a layered structure was at p = 2.4 to 3 and the transition from layer structure to columnar structure at p = 1. A comparison with spray pyrolysis showed that the suggested model is also suitable as a prototype model for film growth and may possibly applied to physical coating technologies as well. The observed morphology affects the electric and optical properties of the layers, as a result of grain boundaries and compacting. With increasing compacting, the specific resistance of the layer will get lower. It was demonstrated that the coating temperature can be reduced from 550 deg C to 450 deg C without impairing conductivity by reducing the thickness of individual films. Further, possibilities were shown of improving film characteristics or reducing process time by means of other sinter technologies, e.g. pyrolytic gas flame sintering and laser sintering. The biggest problem of sol-gel coating was the segregation of dopands. For all systems, it is assumed that the dopands not converted into (optical) charge carriers will segregate on the surfaces of the crystallites and may even agglomerate into X-ray amorphous oxidic phases if dopand concentrations are high enough. In any case, potential barriers will result which slow down current

  20. Manufacture of amorphous and poly-crystalline materials with the sol-gel process; Fabricacion de materiales amorfos y policristalinos con la ruta sol-gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda-Contreras, J. [Centro Universitario de Los Lagos, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2006-01-15

    The sun-gel process is a chemical route that allows the manufacture of amorphous and poly-crystalline materials in a relatively simple way. New materials can be obtained, materials that through the traditional manufacture methods, are very difficult to obtain, such as oxide combinations (SiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, etc.), and that, when being produced by traditional methods, they run the risk of being contaminated with rare earth ions or organic dyes. The unique structures, micro- structures and compounds that can be made with the sun-gel process open many possibilities for practical applications, to name a few: the manufacture of optical components, preforms for optical fibers, dielectric coatings, superconductors, waveguides, nanoparticles, solar cells, etc. [Spanish] El proceso sol-gel es una ruta quimica que permite fabricar materiales amorfos y policristalinos de forma relativamente sencilla. Se pueden obtener nuevos materiales que a traves de los metodos tradicionales de fabricacion son muy dificiles de obtener, tales como combinaciones de oxidos (SiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, etc.), y que, de ser producidos por metodos tradicionales corren el riesgo de contaminarse con iones de tierras raras o colorantes organicos. Las estructuras unicas, micro estructuras y compuestos que pueden hacerse con el proceso sol-gel abren muchas posibilidades para aplicaciones practicas, por nombrar algunas, la fabricacion de componentes opticos, preformas para fibras opticas, recubrimientos dielectricos, superconductores, guias de onda, nanoparticulas, celdas solares, etc.

  1. A Review of Photocatalysts Prepared by Sol-Gel Method for VOCs Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Ke Tseng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The sol-gel process is a wet-chemical technique (chemical solution deposition, which has been widely used in the fields of materials science, ceramic engineering, and especially in the preparation of photocatalysts. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are prevalent components of indoor air pollution. Among the approaches to remove VOCs from indoor air, photocatalytic oxidation (PCO is regarded as a promising method. This paper is a review of the status of research on the sol-gel method for photocatalyst preparation and for the PCO purification of VOCs. The review and discussion will focus on the preparation and coating of various photocatalysts, operational parameters, and will provide an overview of general PCO models described in the literature.

  2. Innovative Formulation Combining Al, Zr and Si Precursors to Obtain Anticorrosion Hybrid Sol-Gel Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Genet

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study is to improve the aluminium alloy corrosion resistance with Organic-Inorganic Hybrid (OIH sol-gel coating. Coatings are obtained from unusual formulation with precursors mixing: glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS, zirconium (IV propoxide (TPOZ and aluminium tri-sec-butoxide (ASB. This formulation was characterized and compared with sol formulations GPTMS/TPOZ and GPTMS/ASB. In each formulation, a corrosion inhibitor, cerium (III nitrate hexahydrate, is employed to improve the corrosion performance. Coatings obtained from sol based on GPTMS/TPOZ/ASB have good anti-corrosion performances with Natural Salt Spray (NSS resistance of 500 h for a thickness lower than 4 µm. Contact angle measurement showed a coating hydrophobic behaviour. To understand these performances, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analyses were performed, results make sol-gel coating condensation evident and are in very good agreement with previous results.

  3. Innovative Formulation Combining Al, Zr and Si Precursors to Obtain Anticorrosion Hybrid Sol-Gel Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Clément; Menu, Marie-Joëlle; Gavard, Olivier; Ansart, Florence; Gressier, Marie; Montpellaz, Robin

    2018-05-10

    The aim of our study is to improve the aluminium alloy corrosion resistance with Organic-Inorganic Hybrid (OIH) sol-gel coating. Coatings are obtained from unusual formulation with precursors mixing: glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS), zirconium (IV) propoxide (TPOZ) and aluminium tri-sec-butoxide (ASB). This formulation was characterized and compared with sol formulations GPTMS/TPOZ and GPTMS/ASB. In each formulation, a corrosion inhibitor, cerium (III) nitrate hexahydrate, is employed to improve the corrosion performance. Coatings obtained from sol based on GPTMS/TPOZ/ASB have good anti-corrosion performances with Natural Salt Spray (NSS) resistance of 500 h for a thickness lower than 4 µm. Contact angle measurement showed a coating hydrophobic behaviour. To understand these performances, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses were performed, results make sol-gel coating condensation evident and are in very good agreement with previous results.

  4. Enhanced optical band-gap of ZnO thin films by sol-gel technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghu, P., E-mail: dpr3270@gmail.com; Naveen, C. S.; Shailaja, J.; Mahesh, H. M., E-mail: hm-mahesh@rediffmail.com [Thin Film and Solar Cell Laboratory, Department of Electronic Science, Bangalore University, Jnanabharathi, Bangalore -560056 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Transparent ZnO thin films were prepared using different molar concentration (0.1 M, 0.2 M & 0.8 M) of zinc acetate on soda lime glass substrates by the sol-gel spin coating technique. The optical properties revealed that the transmittance found to decrease with increase in molar concentration. Absorption edge showed that the higher concentration film has increasingly red shifted. An increased band gap energy of the thin films was found to be direct allowed transition of ∼3.9 eV exhibiting their relevance for photovoltaic applications. The extinction coefficient analysis revealed maximum transmittance with negligible absorption coefficient in the respective wavelengths. The results of ZnO thin film prepared by sol-gel technique reveal its suitability for optoelectronics and as a window layer in solar cell applications.

  5. Radiation hardness of Ce-doped sol-gel silica fibers for high energy physics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cova, Francesca; Moretti, Federico; Fasoli, Mauro; Chiodini, Norberto; Pauwels, Kristof; Auffray, Etiennette; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Baccaro, Stefania; Cemmi, Alessia; Bártová, Hana; Vedda, Anna

    2018-02-15

    The results of irradiation tests on Ce-doped sol-gel silica using x- and γ-rays up to 10 kGy are reported in order to investigate the radiation hardness of this material for high-energy physics applications. Sol-gel silica fibers with Ce concentrations of 0.0125 and 0.05 mol. % are characterized by means of optical absorption and attenuation length measurements before and after irradiation. The two different techniques give comparable results, evidencing the formation of a main broad radiation-induced absorption band, peaking at about 2.2 eV, related to radiation-induced color centers. The results are compared with those obtained on bulk silica. This study reveals that an improvement of the radiation hardness of Ce-doped silica fibers can be achieved by reducing Ce content inside the fiber core, paving the way for further material development.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Ferritic Steel via a Sol-Gel Route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Qinxing; Zhang Tao; Wang Xianping; Fang Qianfeng; Hu Jing; Liu Changsong

    2012-01-01

    Nanocrystalline oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel powders with nominal composition of Fe-14Cr-3W-0.3Ti-0.4Y 2 O 3 are synthesized using sol-gel method and hydrogen reduction. At low reduction temperature the impurity phase of CrO is detected. At higher reduction temperature the impurity phase is Cr 2 O 3 which eventually disappears with increasing reduction time. A pure ODS ferritic steel phase is obtained after reducing the sol-gel resultant products at 1200°C for 3 h. The HRTEM and EDS mapping indicate that the Y 2 O 3 particles with a size of about 15 nm are homogenously dispersed in the alloy matrix. The bulk ODS ferritic steel samples prepared from such powders exhibit good mechanical performance with an ultimate tensile stress of 960 MPa.

  7. Incorporation of europium III complex into nanoparticles and films obtained by the Sol-Gel methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faley Jean de Sousa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The sol-gel process is very effective for the preparation of new materials with potential applications in optics, sensors, catalyst supports, coatings, and specialty inorganic polymers that can be used as hosts for the accommodation of organic molecules. The low temperature employed in the process is the main advantage of this methodology. In this work, the europium (III complex with 1,10-phenantroline was prepared, and this luminescent complex was incorporated into silica nanoparticles and films by the sol-gel process. The nanoparticles were obtained by the modified Stöber methodology. The films were obtained by the dip-coating technique, at different deposition rates and numbers of layers. The nanoparticles and films were characterized by photoluminescence, thermal analysis, and Raman and infrared spectroscopies. Characterization revealed that the europium (III complex was not affected upon incorporation into the nanoparticles and films, opening a new field for the application of these materials.

  8. Hydrogen permeation through steel coated with erbium oxide by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Zhenyu; Suzuki, Akihiro; Levchuk, Denis; Chikada, Takumi; Tanaka, Teruya; Muroga, Takeo; Terai, Takayuki

    2009-01-01

    Er 2 O 3 coating is formed on austenitic stainless steel 316ss by sol-gel method. The results showed good crystallization of coating by baking in high purity flowing-argon at 973 K, and indicated that a little oxygen in baking atmosphere is necessary to crystallization of coating. The best baking temperature could be thought as 973 K, to get good crystallization of coating and avoid strong oxidation of steel substrate. The deuterium permeation test was performed for coated and bare 316ss, to evaluate the property of Er 2 O 3 sol-gel coating as a potential tritium permeation barrier. In this study, the deuterium permeability of coated 316ss is about 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than that of bare 316ss, and is about 2-3 orders of magnitude than the referred data of bare Eurofer97 and F82H martensitic steel.

  9. Sol gel based fiber optic sensor for blook pH measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, S. A.; Glass, R. S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a fiber-optic pH sensor based upon sol-gel encapsulation of a self-referencing dye, seminaphthorhodamine-1 carboxylate (SNARF-1C). The simple sol-gel fabrication procedure and low coating leachability are ideal for encapsulation and immobilization of dye molecules onto the end of an optical fiber. A miniature bench-top fluorimeter system was developed for use with the optical fiber to obtain pH measurements. Linear and reproducible responses were obtained in human blood in the pH range 6.8 to 8.0, which encompasses the clinically-relevant range. Therefore, this sensor can be considered for in vivo use

  10. Zr alkoxide chain effect on the sol-gel synthesis of lithium metazirconate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, Heriberto; Bosch, Pedro; Bulbulian, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Lithium metazirconate (Li 2 ZrO 3 ) was synthesized by the sol-gel method, using four different Zr alkoxides: zirconium ethoxide, zirconium iso-propoxide, zirconium propoxide and zirconium butoxide. The syntheses were made under two different catalytic regimes, acid and basic. The resulting powders were mixtures of Li 2 ZrO 3 and ZrO 2 . The best yield of Li 2 ZrO 3 (100%) was obtained when the sol-gel reaction was developed with lithium methoxide and zirconium ethoxide under acid catalysis regime. This study establishes that, for base-catalyzed reactions the ZrO 2 formation decreases when the alkyl-chain increases in the alkoxides. By contrast, for acid-catalyzed reactions the ZrO 2 formation increases as the alkyl-chain increases. Finally, when Zr propoxide and Zr iso-propoxide were used, the Li 2 ZrO 3 amounts were different due to steric effects

  11. Melting Behavior of Organic Nanocrystals Grown in Sol-gel Matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, N.; Boudet, A.; Ibanez, A.

    2002-01-01

    We have characterized the thermal stability of organic nanocrystals grown in the pores of sol-gel matrices. The structure has been measured with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Depending on the nature of organic molecules and sol-gel matrices, we have modified the dye-matrix interactions and the interfacial structure between nanocrystals and gel-glasses. When the dye-matrix interactions are weak (Van der Waals' bonds), the corresponding interfacial structure observed by TEM is sharp and the nanocrystals melt below the bulk melting point. On the other hand, when the dye-matrix interactions are strong (hydrogen bonds), the interfacial structure is fuzzy and a great superheating of organic nanocrystals is observed in comparison to the bulk melting point of the dye

  12. Moisture sensor based on evanescent wave light scattering by porous sol-gel silica coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shiquan; Singh, Jagdish P.; Winstead, Christopher B.

    2006-05-02

    An optical fiber moisture sensor that can be used to sense moisture present in gas phase in a wide range of concentrations is provided, as well techniques for making the same. The present invention includes a method that utilizes the light scattering phenomenon which occurs in a porous sol-gel silica by coating an optical fiber core with such silica. Thus, a porous sol-gel silica polymer coated on an optical fiber core forms the transducer of an optical fiber moisture sensor according to an embodiment. The resulting optical fiber sensor of the present invention can be used in various applications, including to sense moisture content in indoor/outdoor air, soil, concrete, and low/high temperature gas streams.

  13. Dissolution testing of intermediary products in uranium dioxide production by the sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melichar, F.; Landspersky, H.; Urbanek, V.

    1979-01-01

    A method was developed of dissolving polyuranates and uranium dioxides in sulphuric acid and in carbonate solutions for testing intermediate products in the sol-gel process preparation of uranium dioxide. A detailed granulometric analysis of spherical particle dispersion was included as part of the tests. Two different production methods were used for the two types of studied materials. The test results show that the test method is suitable for determining temperature sensitivity of the materials to dissolution reaction. The geometrical distribution of impurities in the spherical particles can be determined from the dissolution kinetics. The method allows the determination of the effect of carbon from impurities on the process of uranium dioxide leaching and is thus applicable for testing materials prepared by the sol-gel method. (Z.M.)

  14. Ultrapure glass optical waveguide development in microgravity by the sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Containerless melting of glasses in space for the preparation of ultrapure homogeneous glass for optical waveguides is discussed. The homogenization of the glass using conventional raw materials is normally achieved on Earth either by the gravity induced convection currents or by the mechanical stirring of the melt. Because of the absence of gravity induced convection currents, the homogenization of glass using convectional raw materials is difficult in the space environment. Multicomponent, homogeneous, noncrystalline oxide gels can be prepared by the sol-gel process and these gels are promising starting materials for melting glasses in the space environment. The sol-gel process is based on the polymerization reaction of alkoxysilane with other metal alkoxy compounds or suitable metal salts. Many of the alkoxysilanes or other metal alkoxides are liquids and thus can be purified by distillation.

  15. Optical characterization of Er-implanted ZnO films formed by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukudome, T.; Kaminaka, A.; Isshiki, H.; Saito, R.; Yugo, S.; Kimura, T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the 1.54 μm photoluminescence (PL) of Er-implanted ZnO thin films formed by a sol-gel method on Si substrates. In spite of the polycrystalline structure of the sol-gel ZnO thin films, they showed strong PL emissions due to the near band edge recombination at 375 nm as well as the Er-related luminescence at 1.54 μm. The Er-related luminescence showed no decrease (quench) in the intensity up to the Er concentration of 1.5 x 10 21 cm -3 . The PL intensity of Er-implanted ZnO at 1.54 μm was found to be as strong as Er-doped PS (porous Si) at 20 K, and the intensity reduced to 1/3 at room temperature

  16. Preparation and characterization of silk/silica hybrid biomaterials by sol-gel crosslinking process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Aiqin, E-mail: aiqinhou@dhu.edu.c [National Engineering Research Center for Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles, Donghua University, 3H, 2999 North Renmin Road, Songjiang, Shanghai 201620 (China); Chen Huawei [National Engineering Research Center for Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles, Donghua University, 3H, 2999 North Renmin Road, Songjiang, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2010-03-15

    The silk/silica hybrid biomaterials are synthesized by sol-gel crosslinking process. The chemical and morphological structures of silk/silica hybrids are investigated with micro-FT-IR spectra, X-ray diffraction, SEM, AFM, and DSC. The results show that the crosslinking reactions among inorganic nano-particles, fibroin and 2,4,6-tri[(2-epihydrin-3-bimethyl-ammonium)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine chloride (Tri-EBAC) take place during sol-gel process. The silk/silica hybrids form new molecular structures containing not only organic fibroin but also inorganic nano-silica particles. The inorganic particles are bounded to the fibroin through covalent bonds. The silk/silica hybrids can form excellent film with very even nanometer particles. The thermal properties of organic/inorganic hybrid are improved.

  17. Preparation and characterization of silk/silica hybrid biomaterials by sol-gel crosslinking process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Aiqin; Chen Huawei

    2010-01-01

    The silk/silica hybrid biomaterials are synthesized by sol-gel crosslinking process. The chemical and morphological structures of silk/silica hybrids are investigated with micro-FT-IR spectra, X-ray diffraction, SEM, AFM, and DSC. The results show that the crosslinking reactions among inorganic nano-particles, fibroin and 2,4,6-tri[(2-epihydrin-3-bimethyl-ammonium)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine chloride (Tri-EBAC) take place during sol-gel process. The silk/silica hybrids form new molecular structures containing not only organic fibroin but also inorganic nano-silica particles. The inorganic particles are bounded to the fibroin through covalent bonds. The silk/silica hybrids can form excellent film with very even nanometer particles. The thermal properties of organic/inorganic hybrid are improved.

  18. Comparative study of ZnO thin films prepared by different sol-gel route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Esmaieli Ghodsi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available   Retraction Notice    The paper "Comparative study of ZnO thin films prepared by different sol-gel route" by H. Absalan and F. E. Ghodsi, which appeared in Iranian Journal of Physics Research, Vol. 11, No. 4, 423-428 (in Farsi is translation of the paper "Comparative Study of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Different Sol-Gel Route" by F. E. Ghodsi and H. Absalan, which appeared in ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, Vol 118 (2010 (in English and for this reason is retracted from this journal.The corresponding author  (and also the first author is the only responsible person for this action.   

  19. Exploratory experiments on the feasibility of Th and Pu sol-gel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhellemont, G.; Beullens, J.; Bairiot, H.

    1965-05-01

    The sol-gel process as developed by the O.E.C.D. Dragon Project has been applied by the Plutonium Project at Mol to determine the feasibility of producing spherical particles containing Th02, Pu02 and C, in the proportions necessary to fabricate thorium-plutonium carbide kernels for irradiation specimens and for fuel cartridges for the Dragon Reactor Experiment. The process has been extended successfully to the preparation of thorium and plutonium gels, having a significant excess of carbon, with the object of evaluating the feasibility of the sol-gel process for the production of Th, C-10 type kernels. Other experiments have been performed to test the feasibility of incorporating U02 powder into the gel spheres. By using this technique, U to Th ratios of up to 9:1 have been obtained. (author)

  20. Microcontroller based instrumentation for the fuel pin preparation facility by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhasini, B.; Prabhakar Rao, J.; Srinivas, K.C.

    2009-01-01

    The fuel pin preparation facility by Sol-Gel route has been set up at Chemistry Group at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam. Sol-Gel, a solution-gelation process involves conversion of solutions of nitrates of uranium-plutonium (at 0 deg C) into gel microspheres. To measure the exact quantities of the above solutions and to ensure their temperatures, a variety of sensors have been used at various stages in the plant. To monitor and acquire the data of process parameters used in the production and for an automated operation of the plant, a PC (master)-microcontroller (slave) based instrumentation has been developed along with acquisition software and a GU interface developed in Visual Basic. (author)

  1. Exploring encapsulation mechanism of DNA and mononucleotides in sol-gel derived silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusuz, Derya; Durucan, Caner

    2017-07-01

    The encapsulation mechanism of DNA in sol-gel derived silica has been explored in order to elucidate the effect of DNA conformation on encapsulation and to identify the nature of chemical/physical interaction of DNA with silica during and after sol-gel transition. In this respect, double stranded DNA and dAMP (2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-monophosphate) were encapsulated in silica using an alkoxide-based sol-gel route. Biomolecule-encapsulating gels have been characterized using UV-Vis, 29 Si NMR, FTIR spectroscopy and gas adsorption (BET) to investigate chemical interactions of biomolecules with the porous silica network and to examine the extent of sol-gel reactions upon encapsulation. Ethidium bromide intercalation and leach out tests showed that helix conformation of DNA was preserved after encapsulation. For both biomolecules, high water-to-alkoxide ratio promoted water-producing condensation and prevented alcoholic denaturation. NMR and FTIR analyses confirmed high hydraulic reactivity (water adsorption) for more silanol groups-containing DNA and dAMP encapsulated gels than plain silica gel. No chemical binding/interaction occurred between biomolecules and silica network. DNA and dAMP encapsulated silica gelled faster than plain silica due to basic nature of DNA or dAMP containing buffer solutions. DNA was not released from silica gels to aqueous environment up to 9 days. The chemical association between DNA/dAMP and silica host was through phosphate groups and molecular water attached to silanols, acting as a barrier around biomolecules. The helix morphology was found not to be essential for such interaction. BET analyses showed that interconnected, inkbottle-shaped mesoporous silica network was condensed around DNA and dAMP molecules.

  2. Processing of non-oxide ceramics from sol-gel methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landingham, Richard; Reibold, Robert A.; Satcher, Joe

    2014-12-12

    A general procedure applied to a variety of sol-gel precursors and solvent systems for preparing and controlling homogeneous dispersions of very small particles within each other. Fine homogenous dispersions processed at elevated temperatures and controlled atmospheres make a ceramic powder to be consolidated into a component by standard commercial means: sinter, hot press, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), hot/cold extrusion, spark plasma sinter (SPS), etc.

  3. In situ ion-beam analysis and modification of sol-gel zirconia thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, T.E.; Mayer, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    We report the investigation of ion-beam-induced densification of sol-gel zirconia thin films via in situ ion backscattering spectrometry. We have irradiated three regions of a sample with neon, argon, and krypton ions. For each ion species, a series of irradiation and analysis steps were performed using an interconnected 3 MV tandem accelerator. The technique offers the advantages of minimizing the variation of experimental parameters and sequentially monitoring the densification phenomenon with increasing ion dose

  4. Performance of the sol-gel method for the preparation of optical fibers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějec, Vlastimil; Hayer, Miloš; Mrázek, Jan; Kašík, Ivan; Podrazký, Ondřej; Pospíšilová, Marie

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 10 (2007), s. 991-998 ISSN 0035-3930. [Physical Chemistry Conference ROMPHYSCHEM /12./. Bucharest, 06.09.2006-08.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/05/0956 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : sol-gel processing * optical fibres * chemical sensors Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.262, year: 2007

  5. Fabrications and properties of doped porous polysiloxane sol-gel layers on optical fibers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berková, Daniela; Sedlář, Miroslav; Matějec, Vlastimil; Kašík, Ivan; Chomát, Miroslav; Abdelghani, A.; Jaffrezic-Renault, N.; Lacroix, M.

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 13, 1/3 (1998), s. 569-573 ISSN 0928-0707. [Glasses, Ceramics, Hybrids and Nanocomposites from Gels - SOL-GEL'97 /9./. Sheffield, 31.08.1997-05.09.1997] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/95/0871; GA ČR GA102/96/0939 Keywords : nonelectric sensing devices * optical fibres Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.526, year: 1997

  6. Li+ ions diffusion into sol-gel V2O5 thin films: electrochromic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmoussa, M.; Outzourhit, A.; Bennouna, A.; Ihlal, A.

    2009-10-01

    V{2}O{5} thin films were prepared by the sol-gel spin coating process. The Li+ ions insertion effect on optical and electrochromic properties of those films was studied. The diffusion coefficient was calculated using both cyclic voltammograms and chronoamperometric curves. The amount x of Li+ ions in LixV{2}O{5} was also calculated. Finally, the electrochromic performance evolution characteristics such as the reversibility, coloration efficiency, coloration memory stability and response time were studied.

  7. Sol-gel synthesis of 45S5 bioglass – Prosthetic coating by electrophoretic deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faure Joel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the 45S5 bioactive glass has been prepared by the sol-gel process using an organic acid catalyst instead of nitric acid usually used. The physico-chemical and structural characterizations confirmed and validated the elemental composition of the resulting glass. In addition, the 45S5 bioactive glass powder thus obtained was successfully used to elaborate by electrophoretic deposition a prosthetic coating on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V.

  8. The role sol-gel process for nuclear fuels - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.

    2009-01-01

    The paper reviews the sol-gel methods used for the preparation of fuel materials in the form of microspheres. It also discusses how these microspheres can be fabricated into nuclear fuels for reactors like High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors and Fast Reactors. Performance of these microsphere based fuels is reviewed. More recent applications, like transmutation of minor actinides, (Np, Am and Cm) and hydrogen production, are also briefly covered. (author)

  9. Microstructure of Zirconia-Based Sol-Gel Glasses Studied by SANS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ryukhtin, Vasyl; Strunz, Pavel; Kopitsa, G. P.; Ezdakova, K. V.; Gubanova, N. N.; Ivanov, V. K.; Baranchikov, A. Y.; Angelov, Borislav; Feoktistov, A.; Pipich, V.; Levinský, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 4 (2015), s. 582-584 ISSN 0587-4246. [ISPMA 13 - 13th INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON PHYSICS OF MATERIALS. Praha, 31.08.2014 - 04.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G; GA MŠk LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : sol-gel method * SANS * USANS Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.525, year: 2015

  10. Ultrapure glass optical waveguide: Development in microgravity by the sol gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S. P.; Debsikdar, J. C.; Beam, T.

    1983-01-01

    The sol-gel process for the preparation of homogeneous gels in three binary oxide systems was investigated. The glass forming ability of certain compositions in the selected oxide systems (SiO-GeO2, GeO2-PbO, and SiO2-TiO2) were studied based on their potential importance in the design of optical waveguide at longer wavelengths.

  11. Development of novel sol-gel indicators (SGI's) for in-situ environmental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, R.R.; Wicks, G.G.; Baylor, L.C.; Whitaker, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Organic indicator molecules have been incorporated in a porous sol- gel matrix coated on the end of a fiber-optic lens assembly to create sensors for in situ environmental measurements. Probes have been made that are sensitive to pH and uranyl concentration. The use of fiber optics allows the probe to be lowered into a well or bore hole, while support equipment such as a spectrophotometer and computer may be situated hundreds of meters away

  12. Mesoscopic objects, porous layers and nanocomposites-Possibilities of sol-gel chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piwonski, Ireneusz

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to prepare mesoscopic objects, thin porous films and nanocomposite coatings with the use of sol-gel technique. Silica nanotubes, titania nanoparticles, porous titania and zirconia coatings as well as titania nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by changing the type of sol-gel precursor, sol composition and applying dip-coating deposition procedure in order to obtain thin films or coatings. All materials were visualized and characterized by the Atomic Force Microcscopy (AFM) technique. Moreover, characterization of titania nanocomposites was extended to the tribological tests performed by means of microtribometer operating in normal loads range of 30-100 mN. The AFM analysis of mesoscopic objects and nanoparticles showed that the diameter of synthesized silica nanotubes was 60-70 nm and the size of titania nanoparticles was 43 nm. In case of porous layers the pore size in titania and zirconia coatings oscillated between 100 and 240 nm, however their shape and distribution were irregular. Microtribological studies of nanocomposites revealed the moderate decrease of the coefficient of friction for samples containing 5, 15 and 5 wt.% of zirconia nanoparticles in titania coatings annealed at 100, 500 and 1000 deg. C respectively. An enhancement of antiwear properties was already observed for 1 wt.% of nanophase content, except the sample annealed at 500 deg. C. It was also found that the annealing at high temperatures is a primary factor which affects the reduction of friction and wear of titania coatings while the presence of nanoparticles has secondary effect. Investigations in this study carried out with the use of the AFM technique highlighted the potential and flexibility of sol-gel approach in designing of various types of advanced materials in a form of mesoscopic objects, porous coatings and composite layers. Results collected in this study clearly demonstrated that sol-gel technique can be applied effectively in preparation of

  13. Sol-gel-derived mesoporous silica films with low dielectric constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seraji, S.; Wu, Yun; Forbess, M.; Limmer, S.J.; Chou, T.; Cao, Guozhong [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2000-11-16

    Mesoporous silica films with low dielectric constants and possibly closed pores have been achieved with a multiple step sol-gel processing technique. Crack-free films with approximately 50% porosity and 0.9 {mu}m thicknesses were obtained, a tape-test revealing good adhesion between films and substrates or metal electrodes. Dielectric constants remained virtually unchanged after aging at room temperature at 56% humidity over 6 days. (orig.)

  14. Diffusion structural analysis study of titania films deposited by sol-gel technique on silica glass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balek, V.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Bountseva, I.M.; Haneda, H.; Málek, Z.; Šubrt, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 26, 1-3 (2003), s. 185-189 ISSN 0928-0707. [International Workshop on Glasses, Ceramics, Hybrids and Nanocomposites from Gels /11./. Abano Terme, 16.09.2001-21.09.2001] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : titania film * diffusion structural analysis * sol-gel Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.546, year: 2003

  15. All-silica nanofluidic devices for DNA-analysis fabricated by imprint of sol-gel silica with silicon stamp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Morten Bo Lindholm; Letailleur, Alban A; Søndergård, Elin

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple and cheap method for fabrication of silica nanofluidic devices for single-molecule studies. By imprinting sol-gel materials with a multi-level stamp comprising micro- and nanofeatures, channels of different depth are produced in a single process step. Calcination of the imprin......We present a simple and cheap method for fabrication of silica nanofluidic devices for single-molecule studies. By imprinting sol-gel materials with a multi-level stamp comprising micro- and nanofeatures, channels of different depth are produced in a single process step. Calcination...... of the imprinted hybrid sol-gel material produces purely inorganic silica, which has very low autofluorescence and can be fusion bonded to a glass lid. Compared to top-down processing of fused silica or silicon substrates, imprint of sol-gel silica enables fabrication of high-quality nanofluidic devices without...

  16. Acquisition of a Scanning Ultrasound Analyzer for Gelation and Drying Studies in Sol-Gel Ceramic Coatings and Monoliths

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archer, Lynden

    1997-01-01

    The overall goal of this research project was to develop a fundamental understanding of how colloid chemistry influences structure and properties of ceramic monoliths fabricated by sol-gel synthesis...

  17. Modified thermoresponsive Poloxamer 407 and chitosan sol-gels as potential sustained-release vaccine delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kojarunchitt, Thunjiradasiree; Baldursdottir, Stefania; Dong, Yao-Da

    2015-01-01

    Thermoresponsive, particle-loaded, Poloxamer 407 (P407)-Pluronic-R® (25R4) or chitosan-methyl cellulose (MC) formulations were developed as single-dose, sustained release vaccines. The sol-gels, loaded either with a particulate vaccine (cubosomes) or soluble antigen (ovalbumin) and adjuvants (Quil...... the chitosan-MC sol-gels sustained the release of antigen up to at least 14 days after administration. The chitosan-MC sol-gels stimulated both cellular and humoral responses. The inclusion of cubosomes in the sol-gels did not provide a definitive beneficial effect. Further analysis of the formulations...... with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that while cubosomes were stable in chitosan-MC gels they were not stable in P407-25R4 formulations. The reason for the mixed response to cubosome-loaded vehicles requires more investigation, however it appears that the cubosomes did not facilitate...

  18. Sol - gel inorganic ion exchangers for conditioning of medium level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcangeli, G.; Traverso, D.M.; Gerontopoulos, P.; Fava, R.

    1988-01-01

    Decontamination of high-level liquid wastes and medium activity wastes streams by inorganic ion exchange combined with the conversion of the spent inorganic ion exchange material to waste ceramics presents a considerable potential for utilisation in waste conditioning. Ceramic waste forms are found superior to other candidate waste immobilisation forms but practical implementation is hampered because of the complexity of the related fabrication technology. This report shows the possibility of improving this situation by resorting to sol gel techniques earlier developed for preparation of nuclear fuel ceramics. The principal findings are: - superior quality ion exchange xerogel titanates in the form of mechanically resistant, size controlled microspheres can be prepared using a simple sol-gel technique; - the titanate particles can be also used as precursors in Evaporative Deposition on Xerogel Particles (EDXP) a new waste solidification process based on physical impregnation of the xerogel material with the waste liquid followed by evaporation; - waste loaded ion exchange microspheres can be converted to leach resistant ceramics by firing and/or cold pressing and sintering at 900 0 -1100 0 C; - sol-gel inorganic ion exchange and EDXP may find useful application in conditioning MAW streams. 44 figs., 43 refs

  19. Sol-gel derived flexible silica aerogel as selective adsorbent for water decontamination from crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolghasemi Mahani, A; Motahari, S; Mohebbi, A

    2018-04-01

    Oil spills are the most important threat to the sea ecosystem. The present study is an attempt to investigate the effects of sol-gel parameters on seawater decontamination from crude oil by use of flexible silica aerogel. To this goal, methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) based silica aerogels were prepared by two-step acid-base catalyzed sol-gel process, involving ambient pressure drying (APD) method. To investigate the effects of sol-gel parameters, the aerogels were prepared under two different acidic and basic pH values (i.e. 4 and 8) and varied ethanol/MTMS molar ratios from 5 to 15. The adsorption capacity of the prepared aerogels was evaluated for two heavy and light commercial crude oils under multiple adsorption-desorption cycles. To reduce process time, desorption cycles were carried out by using roll milling for the first time. At optimum condition, silica aerogels are able to uptake heavy and light crude oils with the order of 16.7 and 13.7, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Amperometric detector for gas chromatography based on a silica sol-gel solid electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinecker, William H; Miecznikowski, Krzysztof; Kulesza, Pawel J; Sandlin, Zechariah D; Cox, James A

    2017-11-01

    An electrochemical cell comprising a silica sol-gel solid electrolyte, a working electrode that protrudes into a gas phase, and reference and counter electrodes that contact the solid electrolyte comprises an amperometric detector for gas chromatography. Under potentiostatic conditions, a current related to the concentration of an analyte in the gas phase is produced by its oxidation at the three-phase boundary among the sol-gel, working electrode, and the gas phase. The sol-gel is processed to contain an electrolyte that also serves as a humidistat to maintain a constant water activity even in the presence the gas chromatographic mobile phase. Response was demonstrated toward a diverse set of analytes, namely hydrogen, 1,2-ethandithiol, phenol, p-cresol, and thioanisole. Using flow injection amperometry of hydrogen with He as the carrier gas, 90% of the steady-state current was achieved in < 1s at a flow rate of 20mLmin -1 . A separation of 1,2-ethandithiol, phenol, p-cresol, and thioanisole at a 2.2mLmin -1 flow rate was achieved with respective detection limits (k = 3 criterion) of 4, 1, 3, and 70 ppmv when the working electrode potential was 800mV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of cobalt ferrite powder preparation employing the sol-gel technique and its structural characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjia, M.; Oubaha, M.; Prescott, T.; Olabi, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: This work focuses on the sol-gel process and the effects that the initial parameters have on the final product, which is the cobalt ferrite powder, in addition to the heat treatment. Particular interest is devoted to understand how the crosslinker and the chelating agent work and affect the final product. - Abstract: This work focuses on the development of a method to make cobalt ferrite powder using the sol-gel process. A particular emphasis is devoted to the understanding of the role of the chemical parameters involved in the sol-gel technique, and of the heat treatment on the structures and morphologies of the materials obtained. Several samples of cobalt ferrite powder were obtained by varying the initial parameters of the process in addition to the heat treatment temperature. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to identify the structure and morphology of samples demonstrating the influence of the initial parameters. DTA/TGA was carried out on two standard samples to identify important reaction temperatures during the heat treatment. The average size of the nano crystallites was estimated for a sample by the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the strongest X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak. It has been found that the chelating agent and the crosslinker have a critical influence on the resultant structure, the particle size and the particle size distribution.

  2. High-power microcavity lasers based on highly erbium-doped sol-gel aluminosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc Chung; Chu Thi Thu Ha; Nguyen Thu Trang; Pham Thu Nga; Pham Van Hoi; Bui Van Thien

    2006-01-01

    High-power whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) lasing from highly erbium-doped sol-gel aluminosilicate microsphere cavity coupled to a half-tapered optical fiber is presented. The lasing output power as high as 0.45 mW (-3.5 dBm) was obtained from sol-gel glass microsphere cavity with diameters in the range of 40-150 μm. The sol-gel method for making highly concentration Er-doped aluminosilicate glasses with Er-ion concentrations from 0.125 to 0.65 mol% of Er 3+ is described. Controlling collected lasing wavelength at each WGM is possible by adjusting the distance between the half-taper fiber and the microcavity and by diameter of the waist of half-taper fiber. Using the analytic formulas we calculated the TE and TM lasing modes and it is shown that the experimental results are in good agreement with the calculation prediction

  3. Effect of Precursor Concentration of MgO nanostructure by using Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.T. Srisuvetha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available MgO thin flims have been prepared on substrates by a novel and simple sol-gel method using magnesium nitrate and collusion as starting material.The MgO nano catalyst with good sensor crystallization were obtained after annealing at 100°C Magnesium oxide was prepared by sol-gel method. The method involves the hydrolysis of magnesium alkoxide in the presence of acid or basic catalysts followed by a Oxalic acid reaction. The synthesized solids were characterized by IR spectroscopy X-ray diffraction electron microscopy. Ultraviolet visible absorbance measurement photoluminescence and Raman scattering spectra. X-ray diffraction (XRD characterization showed the formation of smaller particles after sol gel irradiation the structure and morphology of the MgO particles were analyzed byXRD. These articles were used for FTIR spectroscopic measurement and spectra were collected. In EDS we calculated the peak intensity the SEM the images of metal oxide.UV (Ultra Violet refers to adsorption spectroscopy optical properties of assorption, band gap energy.This means if use light in the visible and adjacent ranges.

  4. Colloidal sol-gel synthesis of oxides: application to the precursors of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossard, Alban

    2014-01-01

    One of the main objectives for the future nuclear fuel cycle is the recycling of the minor actinides. Different options are considered: their integration into a new fuel for a prospect of a closed fuel cycle or their transmutation in order to significantly decrease the long-term radiotoxicity of ultimate wastes. In both cases, the synthesis of new advanced materials integrating the actinides jointly is required. Sol-gel processes allow the organization of the material at the colloidal scale or the insertion of controlled porosity using 'templates'. Furthermore, the possibility to work in a 'wet environment' prevents the formation of pulverulent powders which are contaminant in the case of materials incorporating radioactive elements. The main purpose of this work is to demonstrate the adaptability of this route to the nuclear field. Firstly, a methodology of synthesis from a colloidal sol-gel route was set up on a non-radioactive zirconium-based system in order to characterize and understand of the different mechanisms of this synthesis. Then, studies on shaping, including insertion of porosity, were performed. Zirconia monoliths have been obtained thanks to a coupling between a colloidal sol-gel process and the formation of an emulsion stabilized by clusters of solid particles. Finally, a transposition of this work to an uranium-based system was introduced, pointing out different promising perspectives specially concerning the possibilities of shaping of the final material. (author) [fr

  5. Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of sol-gel derived Ca doped PbTiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Arun Kumar Singh; Gupta, Vinay; Sreenivas, K.

    2006-01-01

    Synthesis of Ca doped PbTiO 3 powder by a chemically derived sol-gel process is described. Crystallization characteristics of different compositions Pb 1-x Ca x TiO 3 (PCT) with varying calcium (Ca) content in the range x = 0-0.45 has been investigated by DTA/TGA, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The crystallization temperature is found to decrease with increasing calcium content. X-ray diffraction reveals a tetragonal structure for PCT compositions with x ≤ 0.35, and a cubic structure for x = 0.45. Dielectric properties on sintered ceramics prepared with fine sol-gel derived powders have been measured. The dielectric constant is found to increase with increasing Ca content, and the dielectric loss decreases continuously. Sol-gel derived Pb 1-x Ca x TiO 3 ceramics with x = 0.45 after poling exhibit infinite electromechanical anisotropy (k t /k p ) with a high d 33 = 80 pC/N, ε' = 298 and low dielectric loss (tan δ = 0.0041)

  6. MICROSTRUCTURE CHARACTERISTIC OF ALUMINUM TITANATE SYNTHESIED BY BOTH SOLID- STATE AND SOL-GEL PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khosravi Saghezchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparing study on formation and microstructure features of aluminum titanate is investigated through both solid-state and sol-gel processes. Aluminum titanate formed by firing at 1350ºC and 1450ºC for 4h in solid-state process. In the sol-gel process formation of submicron sized particles is followed by addition of sucrose into the transparent sol. XRD analysis was confirmed the formation of aluminum titanate at 1400ºC  in lower duration of calcination (3h without any additives in the sol-gel process. In this work 2wt% MgO is added to the samples as the additive for forming acceleration of aluminum titanate. The influence of MgO addition and heat treatment are studied on phase formation and microstructure development of aluminum titanate in both procedures. Additive optimizes aluminum titanate formation at lower temperatures (1300-1350ºC. Phase and microstructure studies of Mg containing samples optimally show significance in aluminum titanate formation.

  7. Antioxidant Sol-Gel Improves Cutaneous Wound Healing in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yen-Hsien; Chang, Jung-Jhih; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Yang, Ming-Chien; Chien, Hsiung-Fei

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of vitamin C in Pluronic F127 on diabetic wound healing. Full-thickness excision skin wounds were made in normal and diabetic Wistar rats to evaluate the effect of saline, saline plus vitamin C (antioxidant sol), Pluronic F127, or Pluronic F127 plus vitamin C (antioxidant sol-gel). The rate of wound contraction, the levels of epidermal and dermal maturation, collagen synthesis, and apoptosis production in the wound tissue were determined. In vitro data showed that after 6 hours of air exposure, the order of the scavenging abilities for HOCl, H2O2, and O2  − was antioxidant sol-gel > antioxidant saline > Pluronic F127 = saline. After 7 and 14 days of wound injury, the antioxidant sol-gel improved wound healing significantly by accelerated epidermal and dermal maturation, an increase in collagen content, and a decrease in apoptosis formation. However, the wounds of all treatments healed mostly at 3 weeks. Vitamin C in Pluronic F127 hastened cutaneous wound healing by its antioxidant and antiapoptotic mechanisms through a good drug delivery system. This study showed that Pluronic F127 plus vitamin C could potentially be employed as a novel wound-healing enhancer. PMID:22919368

  8. Sol-Gel Material-Enabled Electro-Optic Polymer Modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelhuber, Roland; Norwood, Robert A.; Enami, Yasufumi; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Sol-gels are an important material class, as they provide easy modification of material properties, good processability and are easy to synthesize. In general, an electro-optic (EO) modulator transforms an electrical signal into an optical signal. The incoming electrical signal is most commonly information encoded in a voltage change. This voltage change is then transformed into either a phase change or an intensity change in the light signal. The less voltage needed to drive the modulator and the lower the optical loss, the higher the link gain and, therefore, the better the performance of the modulator. In this review, we will show how sol-gels can be used to enhance the performance of electro-optic modulators by allowing for designs with low optical loss, increased poling efficiency and manipulation of the electric field used for driving the modulator. The optical loss is influenced by the propagation loss in the device, as well as the losses occurring during fiber coupling in and out of the device. In both cases, the use of sol-gel materials can be beneficial due to the wide range of available refractive indices and low optical attenuation. The influence of material properties and synthesis conditions on the device performance will be discussed. PMID:26225971

  9. Determination of Insulator-to-Semiconductor Transition in Sol-Gel Oxide Semiconductors Using Derivative Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woobin; Choi, Seungbeom; Kim, Kyung Tae; Kang, Jingu; Park, Sung Kyu; Kim, Yong-Hoon

    2015-12-23

    We report a derivative spectroscopic method for determining insulator-to-semiconductor transition during sol-gel metal-oxide semiconductor formation. When an as-spun sol-gel precursor film is photochemically activated and changes to semiconducting state, the light absorption characteristics of the metal-oxide film is considerable changed particularly in the ultraviolet region. As a result, a peak is generated in the first-order derivatives of light absorption ( A' ) vs. wavelength (λ) plots, and by tracing the peak center shift and peak intensity, transition from insulating-to-semiconducting state of the film can be monitored. The peak generation and peak center shift are described based on photon-energy-dependent absorption coefficient of metal-oxide films. We discuss detailed analysis method for metal-oxide semiconductor films and its application in thin-film transistor fabrication. We believe this derivative spectroscopy based determination can be beneficial for a non-destructive and a rapid monitoring of the insulator-to-semiconductor transition in sol-gel oxide semiconductor formation.

  10. Preparation and characterization of sol-gel derived TiO2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Y.J.; Brungs, M.P.; Chaplin, R.P.; Sizgek, E.

    2001-01-01

    Crack-free transparent titania films have been prepared through a new sol-gel process combined with hydrogen peroxide treatment. Hydrogen peroxide and HCl were used to dissolve amorphous titania powder which is obtained by drying common sol-gel titania sol. The peroxo-titania sol produced a thicker film than the common sol-gel titania sol due to a higher degree of condensation. Film thickness could be further increased by controlled drying conditions of the amorphous titania powder or 'aging' the sol. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and chemical additives were effective in controlling condensation rate by preventing rapid condensation during curing of the film. When these two components were incorporated, it was possible to create a 0.5μm transparent film and PEG could also control the porosity of the film. The cured film was analysed by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. In order to measure the reflective index and thickness of the titania film, an ellipsometer was used. Copyright (2001) The Australian Ceramic Society

  11. Fabrication and characterization of sol-gel based nanoparticles for drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Reeta

    Nanogels are cross linked polymeric sol-gel based nanoparticles that offer an interior network for incorporation and protection of biomolecules, exhibiting unique advantages for polymer based delivery systems. We have successfully synthesized stable sol-gel nanoparticles by means of [a] silicification reactions using cationic peptides like polylysine as gelating agents, and [b] lyophilization of sol-gels. Macromolecules such as Hemoglobin and Glucose Oxidase and small molecules such as Sodium Nitroprusside (SNP) and antibiotics were encapsulated within the nanogels. We have used transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential analysis, and spectroscopy to perform a physicochemical characterization of the nanogels resulting from the two approaches. Our studies have indicated that the nanogel encapsulated proteins and small molecules remain intact, stable and functional. A Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) and Nitric Oxide (NO) generating drug carrier was synthesized using these nanogels and the effect of generation of H2O2 from Glucose Oxidase encapsulated nanogels and NO from SNP encapsulated nanogels was tested on E.coli. The results show that the nanoparticles exert antimicrobial activity against E.Coli, in addition NO generating nanogels potentiated H2O2 generating nanogels induced killing. These data suggest that these NO and H2O2 releasing nanogels have the potential to serve as a novel class of antimicrobials for the treatment of multidrug resistant bacteria. The unique properties of these protein/drug incorporated nanogels raise the prospect of fine tailoring to specific applications such as drug delivery and bio imaging.

  12. Excimer laser processing of ZnO thin films prepared by the sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, R.J.; Koh, L.H.K.; O'Brien, Shane; Crean, Gabriel M.

    2007-01-01

    ZnO thin films were prepared on soda-lime glass from a single spin-coating deposition of a sol-gel prepared with anhydrous zinc acetate [Zn(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 ], monoethanolamine [H 2 NC 2 H 4 OH] and isopropanol. The deposited films were dried at 50 and 300 deg. C. X-ray analysis showed that the films were amorphous. Laser annealing was performed using an excimer laser. The laser pulse repetition rate was 25 Hz with a pulse energy of 5.9 mJ, giving a fluence of 225 mJ cm -2 on the ZnO film. Typically, five laser pulses per unit area of the film were used. After laser processing, the hexagonal wurtzite phase of zinc oxide was observed from X-ray diffraction pattern analysis. The thin films had a transparency of greater than 70% in the visible region. The optical band-gap energy was 3.454 eV. Scanning electron microscopy and profilometry analysis highlighted the change in morphology that occurred as a result of laser processing. This comparative study shows that our sol-gel processing route differs significantly from ZnO sol-gel films prepared by conventional furnace annealing which requires temperatures above 450 deg. C for the formation of crystalline ZnO

  13. Hybrid titanium dioxide/PS-b-PEO block copolymer nanocomposites based on sol-gel synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, J; Tercjak, A; Garcia, I; Peponi, L; Mondragon, I

    2008-01-01

    The poly(styrene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (SEO) amphiphilic block copolymer, with two different molecular weights, has been used as a structure directing agent for generating nanocomposites of TiO 2 /SEO via the sol-gel process. SEO amphiphilic block copolymers are designed with a hydrophilic PEO-block which can interact with inorganic molecules, as well as a hydrophobic PS-block which builds the matrix. The addition of different amounts of sol-gel provokes strong variations in the self-assembled morphology of TiO 2 /SEO nanocomposites with respect to the neat block copolymer. As confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), TiO 2 /PEO-block micelles get closer, forming well-ordered spherical domains, in which TiO 2 nanoparticles constitute the core surrounded by a corona of PEO-blocks. Moreover, for 20 vol% sol-gel the generated morphology changes to a hexagonally ordered structure for both block copolymers. The cylindrical structure of these nanocomposites has been confirmed by the two-dimensional Fourier transform power spectrum of the corresponding AFM height images. Affinity between titanium dioxide precursor and PEO-block of SEO allows us to generate hybrid inorganic/organic nanocomposites, which retain the optical properties of TiO 2 , as evaluated by UV-vis spectroscopy

  14. Matrix molecularly imprinted mesoporous sol-gel sorbent for efficient solid-phase extraction of chloramphenicol from milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanidou, Victoria; Kehagia, Maria; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G

    2016-03-31

    Highly selective and efficient chloramphenicol imprinted sol-gel silica based inorganic polymeric sorbent (sol-gel MIP) was synthesized via matrix imprinting approach for the extraction of chloramphenicol in milk. Chloramphenicol was used as the template molecule, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES) and triethoxyphenylsilane (TEPS) as the functional precursors, tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) as the cross-linker, isopropanol as the solvent/porogen, and HCl as the sol-gel catalyst. Non-imprinted sol-gel polymer (sol-gel NIP) was synthesized under identical conditions in absence of template molecules for comparison purpose. Both synthesized materials were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nitrogen adsorption porosimetry, which unambiguously confirmed their significant structural and morphological differences. The synthesized MIP and NIP materials were evaluated as sorbents for molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) of chloramphenicol in milk. The effect of critical extraction parameters (flow rate, elution solvent, sample and eluent volume, selectivity coefficient, retention capacity) was studied in terms of retention and desorption of chloramphenicol. Competition and cross reactivity tests have proved that sol-gel MIP sorbent possesses significantly higher specific retention and enrichment capacity for chloramphenicol compared to its non-imprinted analogue. The maximum imprinting factor (IF) was found as 9.7, whereas the highest adsorption capacity of chloramphenicol by sol-gel MIP was 23 mg/g. The sol-gel MIP was found to be adequately selective towards chloramphenicol to provide the necessary minimum required performance limit (MRPL) of 0.3 μg/kg set forth by European Commission after analysis by LC-MS even without requiring time consuming solvent evaporation and sample reconstitution step, often considered as an integral part in solid phase extraction work-flow. Intra and

  15. Hydroxyapatite, fluor-hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite produced via the sol-gel method. Optimisation, characterisation and rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredwin, Christopher J; Young, Anne M; Georgiou, George; Shin, Song-Hee; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2013-02-01

    Currently, most titanium implant coatings are made using hydroxyapatite and a plasma spraying technique. There are however limitations associated with plasma spraying processes including poor adherence, high porosity and cost. An alternative method utilising the sol-gel technique offers many potential advantages but is currently lacking research data for this application. It was the objective of this study to characterise and optimise the production of Hydroxyapatite (HA), fluorhydroxyapatite (FHA) and fluorapatite (FA) using a sol-gel technique and assess the rheological properties of these materials. HA, FHA and FA were synthesised by a sol-gel method. Calcium nitrate and triethylphosphite were used as precursors under an ethanol-water based solution. Different amounts of ammonium fluoride (NH4F) were incorporated for the preparation of the sol-gel derived FHA and FA. Optimisation of the chemistry and subsequent characterisation of the sol-gel derived materials was carried out using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA). Rheology of the sol-gels was investigated using a viscometer and contact angle measurement. A protocol was established that allowed synthesis of HA, FHA and FA that were at least 99% phase pure. The more fluoride incorporated into the apatite structure; the lower the crystallisation temperature, the smaller the unit cell size (changes in the a-axis), the higher the viscosity and contact angle of the sol-gel derived apatite. A technique has been developed for the production of HA, FHA and FA by the sol-gel technique. Increasing fluoride substitution in the apatite structure alters the potential coating properties. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Photodegradation of indigo carmine and methylene blue dyes in aqueous solution by SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts prepared by sol-gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Solis, Christian [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi Av. Manuel Nava 6, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. 78290 (Mexico); Juarez-Ramirez, Isaias, E-mail: isajua13@yahoo.com [Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energia, Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Moctezuma, Edgar [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi Av. Manuel Nava 6, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. 78290 (Mexico); Torres-Martinez, Leticia M. [Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energia, Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photodegradation of organic dyes is possible using sol-gel SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiC-TiO{sub 2} makes a synergy effect that enhances its catalytic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sol-gel allows good dispersion and attachment of TiO{sub 2} particles on SiC surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiC-TiO{sub 2} exhibits better activity than TiO{sub 2} (P25) on organic dyes degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts are settled down and easily separated after photocatalysis. - Abstract: Indigo carmine and methylene blue dyes in aqueous solution were photodegraded using SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts prepared by sol-gel method. After thermal treatment at 450 Degree-Sign C, SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts prepared in this work showed the presence of SiC and TiO{sub 2} anatase phase. Those compounds showed specific surface area values around 22-25 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, and energy band gap values close to 3.05 eV. In comparison with TiO{sub 2} (P25), SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts showed the highest activity for indigo carmine and methylene blue degradation, but this activity cannot be attributed to the properties above mentioned. Therefore, photocatalytic performance is due to the synergy effect between SiC and TiO{sub 2} particles caused by the sol-gel method used to prepare the SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are well dispersed onto SiC surface allowing the transfer of electronic charges between SiC and TiO{sub 2} semiconductors, which avoid the fast recombination of the electron-hole pair during the photocatalytic process.

  17. Sol-Gel Entrapped Levonorgestrel Antibodies: Activity and Structural Changes as a Function of Different Polymer Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Moran; Miriam, Altstein

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes development of a sol-gel based immunoaffinity method for the steroid hormone levonorgestrel (LNG) and the effects of changes in the sol-gel matrix format on the activity of the entrapped antibodies (Abs) and on matrix structure. The best sol-gel format for Ab entrapment was found to be a tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) based matrix at a TMOS:water ratio of 1:8, containing 10% polyethylene glycol (PEG) of MW 0.4 kDa. Addition of higher percentages of PEG or a higher MW PEG did not improve activity. No activity was obtained with a TMOS:water ratio of 1:12, most likely because of the very dense polymer that resulted from these polymerization conditions. Only minor differences in the non-specific binding were obtained with the various formats. TMOS was found to be more effective than tetrakis (2-hydroxyethyl)orthosilicate (THEOS) for entrapment of anti-levonorgestrel (LNG) Abs. However, aging the THEOS-based sol-gel for a few weeks at 4 °C stabilized the entrapped Abs and increased its binding capacity. Confocal fluorescent microscopy with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled immunoglobulines (IgGs) entrapped in the sol-gel matrix showed that the entrapped Abs were distributed homogenously within the gel. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images have shown the diverse structures of the various sol-gel formats and precursors. PMID:28880001

  18. Molecularly imprinted sol-gel nanofibers based solid phase microextraction coupled on-line with high performance liquid chromatography for selective determination of acesulfame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Mohammad Mahdi; Javanbakht, Mehran; Karimi, Mohammad; Akbari-Adergani, Behrouz

    2015-03-01

    Sol-gel based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanofiber was successfully fabricated by electrospinning technique on the surface of a stainless steel bar. The manufactured tool was applied for on-line selective solid phase microextraction (SPME) and determination of acesulfame (ACF) as an artificial sweetener with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The selective ability of method for the extraction of ACF was investigated in the presence of some selected sweeteners such as saccharine (SCH), aspartame (ASP) and caffeine (CAF). Electrospinning of MIP sol-gel solution on the stainless steel bar provided an unbreakable sorbent with high thermal, mechanical, and chemical stability. Moreover, application of the MIP-SPME tool revealed a unique approach for the selective microextraction of the analyte in beverage samples. In this work, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propylamine (TMSPA) was chosen as a precursor due to its ability to imprint the analyte by hydrogen bonding, Van der Walls, and dipole-dipole interactions. Nylon 6 was also added as a backbone and support for the precursor in which sol could greatly growth during the sol-gel process and makes the solution electrospinable. Various effective parameters in the extraction efficiency of the MIP-SPME tool such as loading time, flow rate, desorption time, selectivity, and the sample volume were evaluated. The linearity for the ACF in beverage sample was in the range of 0.78-100.5 ng mL(-1). Limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.23 and 0.78 ng mL(-1) respectively. The RSD values (n=5) were all below 3.5%at the 20 ng mL(-1) level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel route for rapid sol-gel synthesis of hydroxyapatite, avoiding ageing and using fast drying with a 50-fold to 200-fold reduction in process time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Arfa, Basam A E; Salvado, Isabel M Miranda; Ferreira, José M F; Pullar, Robert C

    2017-01-01

    We have developed an innovative, rapid sol-gel method of producing hydroxyapatite nanopowders that avoids the conventional lengthy ageing and drying processes (over a week), being 200 times quicker in comparison to conventional aqueous sol-gel preparation, and 50 times quicker than ethanol based sol-gel synthesis. Two different sets of experimental conditions, in terms of pH value (5.5 and 7.5), synthesis temperature (45 and 90°C), drying temperature (60 and 80°C) and calcination temperature (400 and 700°C) were explored. The products were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and specific surface area (SSA) measurements. Pure hydroxyapatite (Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 , HAp) was obtained for the powders synthesised at pH7.5 and calcined at 400°C, while biphasic mixtures of HAp/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , TCP) were produced at pH5.5 and (pH7.5 at elevated temperature). The novel rapid drying was up to 200 times faster than conventional drying, only needing 1h with no prior ageing step, and favoured the formation of smaller/finer nanopowders, while producing pure HAp or phase mixtures virtually identical to those obtained from the slow conventional drying method, despite the absence of a slow ageing process. The products of this novel rapid process were actually shown to have smaller crystallite sizes and larger SSA, which should result in increased bioactivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Quasi-one-dimensional nanostructured cobalt (Co) intercalated vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}): Peroxovanadate sol gel synthesis and structural study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langie da Silva, Douglas, E-mail: douglas.langie@ufpel.edu.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, Pelotas 96010-900 (Brazil); Moreira, Eduardo Ceretta [Laboratório de Espectroscopia, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Campus Bagé, Bagé 96400-970 (Brazil); Dias, Fábio Teixeira; Neves Vieira, Valdemar das [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, Pelotas 96010-900 (Brazil); Brandt, Iuri Stefani; Cas Viegas, Alexandre da; Pasa, André Avelino [Laboratório de Filmes Finos e Superfícies, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Caixa Postal 476, Florianópolis 88.040-900 (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Nanostructured cobalt vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) xerogels spread onto crystalline Si substrates were synthesized via peroxovanadate sol gel route. The resulting products were characterized by distinct experimental techniques. The surface morphology and the nanostructure of xerogels correlate with Co concentration. The decrease of the structural coherence length is followed by the formation of a loose network of nanopores when the concentration of intercalated species was greater than 4 at% of Co. The efficiency of the synthesis route also drops with the increase of Co concentration. The interaction between the Co(OH{sub 2}){sub 6}{sup 2+} cations and the (H{sub 2}V{sub 10}O{sub 28}){sup 4−} anions during the synthesis was suggested as a possible explanation for the incomplete condensation of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} gel. Finally the experimental results points for the intercalation of Co between the bilayers of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. In this scenario two possible preferential occupation sites for the metallic atoms in the framework of the xerogel were proposed. - Graphical abstract: Quasi-one-dimensional nanostructured cobalt (Co) intercalated vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) nanoribbons synthesized by peroxovanadate sol gel route. - Highlights: • Nanostructured cobalt V{sub 2}O{sub 5} gel spread onto c{sub S}i were synthesized via peroxovanadate sol gel route. • The micro and nanostructure correlates with the cobalt content. • The efficiency of the synthesis route shows to be also dependent of Co content. • The experimental results points for the intercalation of Co between the bilayers of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} xerogel.