Sample records for surface slightly separated

  1. Mechanical interlocking of cotton fibers on slightly textured surfaces of metallic cylinders (United States)

    Zhang, Youqiang; Tian, Yu; Meng, Yonggang


    Mechanical interlocking is widely applied in industry and general lives of human beings. In this work, we realized the control of locking or sliding states of cotton fibers on the metal surfaces with slightly different textures through traditional machining. Three types of sliding states, i.e., locking, one-way sliding, and two-way sliding have been achieved. It is found that the locking or sliding of the cotton fibers on the metallic cylinder depends on the friction coefficient and the ratio of cotton fiber diameter, 2r, to the height of the rough peaks, h, of metal surfaces. When the critical ratio h/r exceeds 1, the cotton fibers could tightly attach to the metallic surface through mechanical interlocking. This work provided a convenient and universal method for the control of interlocking or sliding of fiber-based materials on textured surfaces.

  2. Electronic Phase Separation in the Slightly Underdoped Iron Pnictide Superconductor Ba1-xKxFe2As2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, J.T.; Inosov, D.S.; Niedermayer, C.


    Here we present a combined study of the slightly underdoped novel pnictide superconductor Ba1-xKxFe2As2 by means of x-ray powder diffraction, neutron scattering, muon-spin rotation (µSR), and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). Static antiferromagnetic order sets in below Tm70 K as inferred from......-state regions on a lateral scale of several tens of nanometers. Our findings indicate that such mesoscopic phase separation can be considered an intrinsic property of some iron pnictide superconductors....

  3. Electronic phase separation in the slightly underdoped iron pnictide superconductor Ba1-xKxFe2As2. (United States)

    Park, J T; Inosov, D S; Niedermayer, Ch; Sun, G L; Haug, D; Christensen, N B; Dinnebier, R; Boris, A V; Drew, A J; Schulz, L; Shapoval, T; Wolff, U; Neu, V; Yang, Xiaoping; Lin, C T; Keimer, B; Hinkov, V


    Here we present a combined study of the slightly underdoped novel pnictide superconductor Ba1-xKxFe2As2 by means of x-ray powder diffraction, neutron scattering, muon-spin rotation (microSR), and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). Static antiferromagnetic order sets in below T{m} approximately 70 K as inferred from the neutron scattering and zero-field-microSR data. Transverse-field microSR below Tc shows a coexistence of magnetically ordered and nonmagnetic states, which is also confirmed by MFM imaging. We explain such coexistence by electronic phase separation into antiferromagnetic and superconducting- or normal-state regions on a lateral scale of several tens of nanometers. Our findings indicate that such mesoscopic phase separation can be considered an intrinsic property of some iron pnictide superconductors.

  4. Cloud droplet activation and surface tension of mixtures of slightly soluble organics and inorganic salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henning


    Full Text Available Critical supersaturations for internally mixed particles of adipic acid, succinic acid and sodium chloride were determined experimentally for dry particles sizes in the range 40–130 nm. Surface tensions of aqueous solutions of the dicarboxylic acids and sodium chloride corresponding to concentrations at activation were measured and parameterized as a function of carbon content. The activation of solid particles as well as solution droplets were studied and particle phase was found to be important for the critical supersaturation. Experimental data were modelled using Köhler theory modified to account for limited solubility and surface tension lowering.

  5. Electromagnetic Scattering and Inverse Scattering of Layered Media with a Slightly Rough Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhi-Wei; XU Xin ZHANG Xiao-Juan; FANG Guang-You


    An electromagnetic (EM) scattering model for layered media covered by a 3D infinite rough surface and the corresponding inversion technique are investigated. The work aims at remote sensing the surface roughness and dielectric constant for different depths of bear soil through radar measurement data. The forward problem is carried out by the wave decomposition method. The small perturbation method (SPM) and EM boundary conditions are employed to solve the integral equations introduced by the wave decomposition method. The second-order SPM solution of the scattering field is involved in the computation of the forward problem for the first time. The backscattering coefficients of multiple frequencies, multiple angles and multiple polarizations are employed to create a nonlinear optimization problem. A genetic algorithm is introduced to help the inversion procedure approach to the global minimum of the cost function. Examples are carried out to validate the inversion technique. The inversion results show good agreement with the forward problem with given parameters and pose good tolerance to the input data with the additive white Gaussian noise.

  6. High concentration powdered activated carbon-membrane bioreactor (PAC-MBR) for slightly polluted surface water treatment at low temperature. (United States)

    Ma, Cong; Yu, Shuili; Shi, Wenxin; Tian, Wende; Heijman, S G J; Rietveld, L C


    In this study, different concentrations of PAC combined with MBR were carried out to treat slightly polluted surface water (SPSW) at low temperature (10°C). Effects of PAC on the efficiencies of operation, treatment, and the performance of the process were investigated. It was found that the effluent quality, performance efficiency, resistance of shock load were all enhanced and chemical irreversible membrane fouling was reduced with increasing dosage of PAC in MBR. Only when the concentration of PAC which acted as biological carriers was high enough (i.g., 50 g/L), nitrification without initial inoculation in the filtration tank could start within 19 days and be completed within 35 days at 10°C. Fifty grams per liter PAC was the optimal dosage in MBR for stable and extended operation. Under this condition, mean removal efficiencies of ammonia nitrogen (NH(3)-N), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and UV(254) were 93%, 75%, and 85%, respectively.

  7. Wetting and phase separation at surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay Puri; Kurt Binder


    We study the problem of surface-directed spinodal decomposition, viz., the dynamical interplay of wetting and phase separation at surfaces. In particular, we focus on the kinetics of wetting-layer growth in a semi-infinite geometry for arbitrary surface potentials and mixture compositions. We also present representative results for phase separation in confined geometries, e.g., cylindrical pores, thin films, etc.

  8. Influence of slight microstructural gradients on the surface properties of Ti6Al4V irradiated by UV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo-Moreno, A.M. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Extremadura, Av. Elvas s/n, 06071-Badajoz (Spain) and Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Badajoz (Spain); Multigner, M. [National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Madrid (Spain); Pacha-Olivenza, M.A. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Extremadura, Av. Elvas s/n, 06071-Badajoz (Spain) and Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Badajoz (Spain); Lieblich, M.; Jimenez, J.A. [National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Carrasco, J.L. [National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Martin, M.L., E-mail: [Department of Applied Physics, University of Extremadura, Av. Elvas s/n, 06071-Badajoz (Spain) and Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Badajoz (Spain)


    Ti6Al4V alloy is one of the most widely used materials for biomedical implants. Among its properties, it is remarkable the photoactivity displayed by its passive layer, which is mainly composed by titanium dioxide. However, variations in the processing conditions may yield to differences in the microstructure which can be reflected on the surface properties of the machined product. From contact angle measurements taken on different zones of samples removed from a commercial bar of Ti6Al4V, it has been shown that the modifications of the surface Gibbs energy suffered by the alloy under UV irradiation have a radial dependence. This behaviour is related to slight microstructural changes of the alloy, particularly with an increase in the volume fraction of the {beta}-phase when moving to the interior of the sample, which alters the composition and/or microstructure of the passive layer along its radius. This study shows that gradients in the microstructure and physical properties are sample size dependent and are likely related to thermal gradients during processing.

  9. Modeling disinfection of plastic poultry transport cages inoculated with Salmonella enteritids by slightly acidic electrolyzed water using response surface methodology. (United States)

    Zang, Y T; Li, B M; Bing, Sh; Cao, W


    In order to reduce the risk of enteric pathogens transmission in animal farms, the disinfection effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW, pH 5.85 to 6.53) for inactivating Salmonella Enteritidis on the surface of plastic poultry transport cages was evaluated. The coupled effects of the tap water cleaning time (5 to 15 s), SAEW treatment time (20 to 40 s), and available chlorine concentrations (ACCs) of 30 to 70 mg/l on the reductions of S. Enteritidis on chick cages were investigated using a central composite design of the response surface methodology (RSM). The established RS model had a goodness of fit quantified by the parameter R2 (0.971), as well as a lack of fit test (P>0.05). The maximum reduction of 3.12 log10 CFU/cm2 for S. Enteritidis was obtained for the cage treated with tap water cleaning for 15 s followed by SAEW treatment for 40 s at an ACC of 50 mg/l. Results indicate that the established RS model has shown the potential of SAEW in disinfection of bacteria on cages. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Suppression of the Structural Phase Transition and Lattice Softening in Slightly Underdoped Ba1−xKxFe2As2 with Electronic Phase Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inosov, D.; Leineweber, A; Yang, X; Park, J; Christensen, N; Dinnebier, R; Sun, G; Niedermayer, C; Haug, H; et. al.


    We present x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and neutron-diffraction measurements on the slightly underdoped iron-pnictide superconductor Ba1-xKxFe2As2, Tc=32 K. Below the magnetic-transition temperature Tm=70 K, both techniques show an additional broadening of the nuclear Bragg peaks, suggesting a weak structural phase transition. However, macroscopically the system does not break its tetragonal symmetry down to 15 K. Instead, XRPD patterns at low temperature reveal an increase in the anisotropic microstrain proportionally in all directions. We associate this effect with the electronic phase separation previously observed in the same material and with the effect of lattice softening below the magnetic phase transition. We employ density-functional theory to evaluate the distribution of atomic positions in the presence of dopant atoms both in the normal and magnetic states and to quantify the lattice softening, showing that it can account for a major part of the observed increase in the microstrain.

  11. The amphoteric effect on friction between the bovine cartilage/cartilage surfaces under slightly sheared hydration lubrication mode. (United States)

    Pawlak, Zenon; Gadomski, Adam; Sojka, Michal; Urbaniak, Wieslaw; Bełdowski, Piotr


    The amphoteric effect on the friction between the bovine cartilage/cartilage contacts has been found to be highly sensitive to the pH of an aqueous solution. The cartilage surface was characterized using a combination of the pH, wettability, as well as the interfacial energy and friction coefficient testing methods to support lamellar-repulsive mechanism of hydration lubrication. It has been confirmed experimentally that phospholipidic multi-bilayers are essentially described as lamellar frictionless lubricants protecting the surface of the joints against wear. At the hydrophilicity limit, the low friction would then be due to (a) lamellar slippage of bilayers and (b) a short-range (nanometer-scale) repulsion between the interfaces of negatively charged (PO4(-)) cartilage surfaces, and in addition, contribution of the extracellular matrix (ECM) collagen fibers, hyaluronate, proteoglycans aggregates (PGs), glycoprotein termed lubricin and finally, lamellar PLs phases. In this paper we demonstrate experimentally that the pH sensitivity of cartilage to friction provides a novel concept in joint lubrication on charged surfaces.

  12. Suppression of the structural phase transition and lattice softening in slightly underdoped Ba1-xKxFe2As2 with electronic phase separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inosov, D.S.; Leineweber, A.; Yang, X.P.;


    We present x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and neutron-diffraction measurements on the slightly underdoped iron-pnictide superconductor Ba1−xKxFe2As2, Tc=32 K. Below the magnetic-transition temperature Tm=70 K, both techniques show an additional broadening of the nuclear Bragg peaks, suggesting a...... the lattice softening, showing that it can account for a major part of the observed increase in the microstrain....

  13. Atmospheric-pressure plasma activation and surface characterization on polyethylene membrane separator (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Chien; Li, Hsiao-Ling; Huang, Chun


    The surface hydrophilic activation of a polyethylene membrane separator was achieved using an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. The surface of the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated membrane separator was found to be highly hydrophilic realized by adjusting the plasma power input. The variations in membrane separator chemical structure were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Chemical analysis showed newly formed carbonyl-containing groups and high surface concentrations of oxygen-containing species on the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated polymeric separator surface. It also showed that surface hydrophilicity primarily increased from the polar component after atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment. The surface and pore structures of the polyethylene membrane separator were examined by scanning electron microscopy, revealing a slight alteration in the pore structure. As a result of the incorporation of polar functionalities by atmospheric-pressure plasma activation, the electrolyte uptake and electrochemical impedance of the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated membrane separator improved. The investigational results show that the separator surface can be controlled by atmospheric-pressure plasma surface treatment to tailor the hydrophilicity and enhance the electrochemical performance of lithium ion batteries.

  14. Surface engineering of polymer membrane for air separation (United States)

    Himma, Nurul Faiqotul; Wenten, I. Gede


    Gas separation has been an important process in chemical industries. Polymer membranes have been widely developed for gas separation due to the main advantages such as light weight, low cost, and easy preparation procedure. However, a trade-off between permeability and selectivity of the polymer membrane becomes a significant hurdle for its application in gas separation. Moreover, in the case of air separation where the oxygen and nitrogen molecules have a very close diameter, a high selectivity is more difficult to be achieved. Therefore, numerous researches were directed to improve the performance of the polymer membrane. Surface modification is an attractive way to enhance the selectivity while maintaining the high permeability of the base membrane. This paper provides a review of surface modification of polymer membrane which aims to enhance the air separation performance. The discussion includes surface engineering strategies of polymer membrane and their performances in air separation. In the end, the conclusions and future directions are pointed out.

  15. Separation Surfaces in the Spectral TV Domain for Texture Decomposition (United States)

    Horesh, Dikla; Gilboa, Guy


    In this paper we introduce a novel notion of separation surfaces for image decomposition. A surface is embedded in the spectral total-variation (TV) three dimensional domain and encodes a spatially-varying separation scale. The method allows good separation of textures with gradually varying pattern-size, pattern-contrast or illumination. The recently proposed total variation spectral framework is used to decompose the image into a continuum of textural scales. A desired texture, within a scale range, is found by fitting a surface to the local maximal responses in the spectral domain. A band above and below the surface, referred to as the \\textit{Texture Stratum}, defines for each pixel the adaptive scale-range of the texture. Based on the decomposition an application is proposed which can attenuate or enhance textures in the image in a very natural and visually convincing manner.

  16. A dry-surface coating method for visualization of separation (United States)

    Sadeh, W. Z.; Brauer, H. J.; Durgin, J. R.


    A simple and reasonably accurate dry-surface coating method for the visualization of the separation line on a bluff body is described. This method is not restricted to any particular Reynolds-number range and it supplies a clear permanent record of good photographic quality. Examination of this technique in visualizing the separation angle on a circular cylinder indicated that it is accurate within about + or - 4 percent.

  17. Microphase separated structure and surface properties of fluorinated polyurethane resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto; Nishino, T.; Hori, Y.; Nakamae, K. [Dept. Chem. Sci. and Eng., Faculty of Engineering, Kobe University, Kobe (Japan)


    The effect of fluorination on microphase separation and surface properties of segmented polyurethane (PU) resin were investigated. A series of fluorinated polyurethane resin (FPU) was synthesized by reacting a fluorinated diol with aromatic diisocyanate. The microphase separated structure of FPU was studied by thermal analysis, and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) as well as wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). The surface structure and properties were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and dynamic contact angle measurement. The incorporation of fluorine into hard segment brings the FPU to have a higher hard domain cohesion and increase the phase separation, however localization of fluorine on the surface could not be observed. On the other hands, localization of fluorine on the surface could be achieved for soft segment fluorinated PU without any significant change in microphase separated structure. The result from this study give an important basic information for designing PU coating material with a low surface energy and strong adhesion as well as for development of release film on pressure sensitive adhesive tape. (author)

  18. Injection Induced Mixing in Flows Separating From Smooth Surfaces (United States)

    Adamczyk, John J. (Technical Monitor); Wundrow, David W.


    An analytic model for predicting the effect of unsteady local surface injection on the flow separating from a streamlined body at angle of attack is proposed. The model uses the premise that separation control results from enhanced mixing along the shear layer that develops between the main stream and the fluid in the underlying recirculation zone. High-Reynolds-number asymptotic methods are used to connect the unsteady surface injection to an instability wave propagating on the separating shear layer and then to the large-scale coherent structures that produce the increased mixing. The results is a tool that can guide the choice of fluid-actuator parameters to maximize flow-control effectiveness and may also facilitate computer-based numerical experiments.

  19. Integral methods for shallow free-surface flows with separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watanabe, S.; Putkaradze, V.; Bohr, Tomas


    eddy and separated flow. Assuming a variable radial velocity profile as in Karman-Pohlhausen's method, we obtain a system of two ordinary differential equations for stationary states that can smoothly go through the jump. Solutions of the system are in good agreement with experiments. For the flow down......, and stationary jumps, obtained, for instance, behind a sluice gate. We then include time dependence in the model to study the stability of these waves. This allows us to distinguish between sub- and supercritical flows by calculating dispersion relations for wavelengths of the order of the width of the layer.......We study laminar thin film flows with large distortions of the free surface, using the method of averaging across the flow. Two specific problems are studied: the circular hydraulic jump and the flow down an inclined plane. For the circular hydraulic jump our method is able to handle an internal...

  20. Integral methods for shallow free-surface flows with separation

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, S; Bohr, T; Watanabe, Shinya; Putkaradze, Vachtang; Bohr, Tomas


    We study laminar thin film flows with large distortions in the free surface using the method of averaging across the flow. Two concrete problems are studied: the circular hydraulic jump and the flow down an inclined plane. For the circular hydraulic jump our method is able to handle an internal eddy and separated flow. Assuming a variable radial velocity profile like in Karman-Pohlhausen's method, we obtain a system of two ordinary differential equations for stationary states that can smoothly go through the jump where previous studies encountered a singularity. Solutions of the system are in good agreement with experiments. For the flow down an inclined plane we take a similar approach and derive a simple model in which the velocity profile is not restricted to a parabolic or self-similar form. Two types of solutions with large surface distortions are found: solitary, kink-like propagating fronts, obtained when the flow rate is suddenly changed, and stationary jumps, obtained, e.g., behind a sluice gate. We ...

  1. Optimized wavelets for blind separation of nonstationary surface myoelectric signals. (United States)

    Farina, Dario; Lucas, Marie-Françoise; Doncarli, Christian


    Surface electromyography (EMG) signals detected over the skin surface may be mixtures of signals generated by many active muscles due to poor spatial selectivity of the recording. In this paper, we propose a new method for blind source separation (BSS) of nonstationary signals modeled as linear instantaneous mixtures. The method is based on whitening of the observations and rotation of the whitened observations. The rotation is performed by joint diagonalization of a set of spatial wavelet distributions (SWDs). The SWDs depend on the selection of the mother wavelet which can be defined by unconstrained parameters via the lattice parameterization within the multiresolution analysis framework. As the sources are classically supposed to be mutually uncorrelated, the design parameters of the mother wavelet can be blindly optimized by minimizing the average (over time lags) cross correlation between the estimated sources. The method was tested on simulated and experimental surface EMG signals and results were compared with those obtained with spatial time-frequency distributions and with second-order statistics (only spectral information). On a set of simulated signals, for 10-dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the cross-correlation coefficient between original and estimated sources was 0.92 +/- 0.07 with wavelet optimization, 0.74 +/- 0.09 with the wavelet leading to the poorest performance, 0.85 +/- 0.07 with Wigner-Ville distribution, 0.86 +/- 0.07 with Choi-Williams distribution, and 0.73 +/- 0.05 with second-order statistics. In experimental conditions, when the flexor carpi radialis and pronator teres were concomitantly active for 50% of the time, crosstalk was 55.2 +/- 10.0% before BSS and was reduced to 15.2 +/- 6.3% with wavelet optimization, 30.1 +/- 15.0% with the worst wavelet, 28.3 +/- 12.3% with Wigner-Ville distribution, 26.2 +/- 12.0% with Choi-Williams distribution, and 35.1 +/- 15.5% with second-order statistics. In conclusion, the proposed approach

  2. Theory of slightly fluctuating ratchets (United States)

    Rozenbaum, V. M.; Shapochkina, I. V.; Lin, S. H.; Trakhtenberg, L. I.


    We consider a Brownian particle moving in a slightly fluctuating potential. Using the perturbation theory on small potential fluctuations, we derive a general analytical expression for the average particle velocity valid for both flashing and rocking ratchets with arbitrary, stochastic or deterministic, time dependence of potential energy fluctuations. The result is determined by the Green's function for diffusion in the time-independent part of the potential and by the features of correlations in the fluctuating part of the potential. The generality of the result allows describing complex ratchet systems with competing characteristic times; these systems are exemplified by the model of a Brownian photomotor with relaxation processes of finite duration.

  3. A plateau-valley separation method for multifunctional surfaces characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Kühle, A.; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    Turned multifunctional surfaces are a new typology of textured surfaces presenting a flat plateau region and deterministically distributed lubricant reservoirs. Existing standards are not suitable for the characterization of such surfaces, providing at times values without physical meaning. A new...

  4. Energy conversion by surface-tension driven charge separation

    CERN Document Server

    Pini, Cesare; Dietzel, Mathias


    In this work, the shear-induced electrokinetic streaming potential present in free-surface electrolytic flows subjected to a gradient in surface tension is assessed. Firstly, for a Couette flow with fully resolved electric double layer (EDL), the streaming potential per surface stress as a function of the Debye parameter and surface potential is analyzed. By contrast to the Smoluchowski limit in pressure-driven channel flow, the shear-induced streaming potential vanishes for increasing Debye parameter (infinitely thin EDL), unless the free surface contains (induced) surface charge or the flow at the charged, solid wall is permitted to slip. Secondly, a technical realization of surface-tension induced streaming is proposed, with surface stress acting on the free (slipping) surfaces of a micro-structured, superhydrophobic wall. The streaming potential is analyzed with respect to the slip parameter and surface charge. Finally, the surface tension is assumed to vary with temperature (thermocapillarity) or with su...

  5. Super-virtual Interferometric Separation and Enhancement of Back-scattered Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen


    Back-scattered surface waves can be migrated to detect near-surface reflectors with steep dips. A robust surface-wave migration requires the prior separation of the back-scattered surface-wave events from the data. This separation is often difficult to implement because the back-scattered surface waves are masked by the incident surface waves. We mitigate this problem by using a super-virtual interferometric method to enhance and separate the back-scattered surface waves. The key idea is to calculate the virtual back-scattered surface waves by stacking the resulting virtual correlated and convolved traces associated with the incident and back-scattered waves. Stacking the virtual back-scattered surface waves improves their signal-to-noise ratio and separates the back-scattered surface-waves from the incident field. Both synthetic and field data results validate the robustness of this method.

  6. Single-step spatial rotation error separation technique for the ultraprecision measurement of surface profiles. (United States)

    Hou, Maosheng; Qiu, Lirong; Zhao, Weiqian; Wang, Fan; Liu, Entao; Ji, Lin


    To improve the measurement accuracy of the profilometer for large optical surfaces, a new single-step spatial rotation error separation technique (SSEST) is proposed to separate the surface profile error and spindle spatial rotation error, and a novel SSEST-based system for surface profile measurement is developed. In the process of separation, two sets of measured results at the ith measurement circle are obtained before and after the rotation of error separation table, the surface profile error and spatial rotation error of spindle can be determined using discrete Fourier-transform and harmonic analysis. Theoretical analyses and experimental results indicate that SSEST can accurately separate spatial rotation error of spindle from the measured surface profile results within the range of 1-100 upr and improve the accuracy of surface profile measurements.

  7. Superoleophobic yet Superhydrophilic surfaces for Continuous Liquid-Liquid Separation (United States)


    Hlavacek, Break-up of Oil-in-Water Emulsions Induced by Permeation through a Microfiltration Membrane . Journal of Membrane Science 102, 1 (1995). 5...conditions on emulsion microfiltration . Journal of Membrane Science 294, 30 (2007). 9. M. Kukizaki, M. Goto, Demulsification of water-in-oil emulsions...Traditional membrane -based separation technologies for oil-water mixtures are energy-intensive and further limited, either by fouling or the inability of


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-li He; Lin-xi Zhang


    The phase behaviors of symmetric diblock copolymer thin films confined between two hard, parallel and diversified patterned surfaces are investigated by three-dimensional dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations. The induction of diversified patterned surfaces on phase separation of symmetric diblock copolymer films in snapshots, density profiles and concentration diagrams of the simulated systems are presented. The phase separations can be controlled by the patterned surfaces. In the meantime, the mean-square end-to-end distance of the confined polymer chains (R2) is also discussed. Surface-induced phase separation for diblock copolymers can help us to create novel and controlled nanostructured materials.

  9. Sound field separating on arbitrary surfaces enclosing a sound scatterer based on combined integral equations. (United States)

    Fan, Zongwei; Mei, Deqing; Yang, Keji; Chen, Zichen


    To eliminate the limitations of the conventional sound field separation methods which are only applicable to regular surfaces, a sound field separation method based on combined integral equations is proposed to separate sound fields directly in the spatial domain. In virtue of the Helmholtz integral equations for the incident and scattering fields outside a sound scatterer, combined integral equations are derived for sound field separation, which build the quantitative relationship between the sound fields on two arbitrary separation surfaces enclosing the sound scatterer. Through boundary element discretization of the two surfaces, corresponding systems of linear equations are obtained for practical application. Numerical simulations are performed for sound field separation on different shaped surfaces. The influences induced by the aspect ratio of the separation surfaces and the signal noise in the measurement data are also investigated. The separated incident and scattering sound fields agree well with the original corresponding fields described by analytical expressions, which validates the effectiveness and accuracy of the combined integral equations based separation method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 微酸性电解水对物体表面擦拭消毒的效果评价%Evaluation of the disinfection efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed water in surface wiping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕; 钱培芬; 孙芳艳


    目的 探讨微酸性电解水在医院儿科物体表面擦拭消毒中的效果.方法 于2012年1月应用微酸性电解水和500 mg/L有效氯溶液对医院儿科床旁桌台面进行擦拭消毒,分别在消毒前,消毒后5min、4h和8h进行微生物采样,比较两种消毒液的细菌杀菌率和消毒的持久性.结果 微酸性电解水对物体表面擦拭消毒后5 min的细菌杀菌率为99.32%,优于500 mg/L有效氯溶液的97.74%,两者比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).两组台面擦拭消毒后不同时段的细菌总数均有上升,且消毒8h后两组的细菌总数均> 10 CFU/cm2的国家标准,两者比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 微酸性电解水的即时杀菌效果优于含氯消毒剂,且安全、环保,但物体表面消毒后易再次污染,可增加消毒的频率.%Objective To evaluate the disinfection efficacy of a novel disinfectant, slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SLAEW) in surface wiping. Methods In January 2012 the countertops of bedside tables in a hospital were disinfected with SLAEW and 500 mg/L chlorine solution respectively. Microbial samples were collected before disinfection, and 5 min ,4 h and 8 h after disinfection. The bacterial killing rate and the disinfection persistence were compared between the two groups. Results The average bacterial killing rate at 5 min after SLAEW disinfection was 99. 32% ,better than 97. 74% of 500 mg/L chlorine solution(P 0. 05 ) . Conclusion The immediate bactericidal effect of SLAEW is superior to chlorine disinfectant in addition to more safety and environmental protection. It is recommended for use in clinic. Because the surface chould be easily recontaminated after disinfection, the disinfection frequency should be increased.

  11. Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath (United States)

    ... your desktop! more... Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath Article Chapters Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce ... oral cavity. Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Halitosis (Bad Breath) Do You Have Traveler's Breath? Does a ...

  12. 7 CFR 51.775 - Slightly misshapen. (United States)


    ... Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.775 Slightly misshapen. Slightly misshapen means that the fruit has fairly good shape characteristic of the variety and is not more than...

  13. An approach to the synthesis of separate surface automatic flight control systems. (United States)

    Roskam, J.; Henry, S.


    A method is presented for the analysis of separate surface automatic flight control systems. The feasibility of such systems is demonstrated by the analysis of an example system, a separate surface wing-leveler for a Cessna 172. This example system employs a separate surface aileron with 15% of the basic airplane roll control power. A 90% reduction in bank-angle gust response can be obtained when compared with the basic airplane. The system does not feed back to the pilot's wheel. When failed (even hardover) the pilot retains more than adequate control of the airplane.

  14. Flotation separation of polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene terephthalate plastics combined with surface modification for recycling. (United States)

    Wang, Chongqing; Wang, Hui; Fu, Jiangang; Zhang, Lingling; Luo, Chengcheng; Liu, Younian


    Surface modification with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution was developed for separation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste plastics. The floatability of PVC decreases with increasing of KMnO4 concentration, treatment time, temperature and stirring rate, while that of PET is unaffected. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis confirms that mechanism of surface modification may be due to oxidization reactions occurred on PVC surface. The optimum conditions are KMnO4 concentration 1.25 mM/L, treatment time 50 min, temperature 60°C, stirring rate 300 r/min, frother concentration 17.5 g/L and flotation time 1 min. PVC and PET with different particle sizes were separated efficiently through two-stage flotation. Additionally, after ultrasonic assisted surface modification, separation of PVC and PET with different mass ratios was obtained efficiently through one-stage flotation. The purity and the recovery of the obtained products after flotation separation are up to 99.30% and 99.73%, respectively. A flotation process was designed for flotation separation of PVC and PET plastics combined with surface modification. This study provides technical insights into physical separation of plastic wastes for recycling industry.

  15. Simulation of disinfection optimization of vehicle tire surface using slightly acidic electrolyzed water%微酸性电解水对污染轮胎表面的模拟消毒优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧一天; 李星烁; 李保明; 曹薇


    为降低鸡场肠病原体疫病传播风险和兽药残留,通过响应面中和设计法,该试验评估了微酸性电解水(pH值 5.85~6.53)对大肠杆菌和沙门氏菌混合污染轮胎的消毒效果,并探讨了清洗时间,消毒时间及有效氯浓度3个因素对微酸性电解水消毒效果的影响及相互作用规律,同时建立二次多项回归模型,并对消毒工艺进行优化.结果表明,3 个因素皆对消毒效果有显著影响(p消毒时间>清洗时间;模型决定系数和调整决定系数分别为0.984和0.969,验证试验中,试验值与预测值的相关系数为0.97;消毒时间5 min、清洗时间4 min、有效氯浓度140 mg/L时,可以达到1.38 log10cfu/cm2的杀菌数.该研究为微酸性电解水消毒提供了参考,并证明了微酸性电解水在畜牧业的应用潜力.%The process of transport has long been considered an important risk factor for pathogens entry into farms. Disinfection is a generally agreed concept to prevent the introduction of both endemic and epidemic infections, however, potentially toxic, corrosive or volatile problems have arisen because of the use of chemicals as disinfecting agents. Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) is considered environmental friendly as it is generated from water and dilute salt solution and reverts to water after use. Also, it has the advantages of possessing broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, reducing corrosion of surface and minimizing the potential of damage to human health. To reduce the risk of enteric pathogens transmission and leave little residue in animal farms, the disinfection effectiveness of SAEW with pH value of 5.85-6.53 for inactivatingEscherichia coli (E. coli) andSalmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis) mixture on the surface of vehicle tires was evaluated. The coupled effects of tap water washing time (from 2 to 4 min), SAEW treatment time (from 3 to 7 min) and available chlorine concentration (ACC) (from 80 to 140 mg/L) on the reduction

  16. Adaptable bioinspired special wetting surface for multifunctional oil/water separation (United States)

    Kavalenka, Maryna N.; Vüllers, Felix; Kumberg, Jana; Zeiger, Claudia; Trouillet, Vanessa; Stein, Sebastian; Ava, Tanzila T.; Li, Chunyan; Worgull, Matthias; Hölscher, Hendrik


    Inspired by the multifunctionality of biological surfaces necessary for the survival of an organism in its specific environment, we developed an artificial special wetting nanofur surface which can be adapted to perform different functionalities necessary to efficiently separate oil and water for cleaning accidental oil spills or separating industrial oily wastewater. Initial superhydrophobic nanofur surface is fabricated using a hot pulling method, in which nano- and microhairs are drawn out of the polymer surface during separation from a heated sandblasted steel plate. By using a set of simple modification techniques, which include microperforation, plasma treatment and subsequent control of storage environment, we achieved selective separation of either water or oil, variable oil absorption and continuous gravity driven separation of oil/water mixtures by filtration. Furthermore, these functions can be performed using special wetting nanofur made from various thermoplastics, including biodegradable and recyclable polymers. Additionally, nanofur can be reused after washing it with organic solvents, thus, further helping to reduce the environmental impacts of oil/water separation processes.

  17. A dry-surface coating method for visualization of separation. [bluff bodies (United States)

    Sadeh, W. Z.; Brauer, H. J.; Durgin, J. R.


    A relatively simple and reasonably accurate dry-surface coating method for visualization of the separation line on a bluff body was devised and successfully tested. This technique is based on the color reaction of a dry film containing a pH indicator with an appropriate gas released in the body wake. The dry-surface coating method is effective at any Reynolds number and for both incident laminar and turbulent flows. It further supplies a colorful permanent of consistently good photographic quality of the separation line. The effectiveness and accuracy of this technique were tested in visualizing the separation angle on a circular cylinder in both laminar and turbulent crossflows at subcritical Reynolds numbers. Separation angles revealed by the visualization were within + or - 4 percent of their counterparts deduced from the mean wall pressure distribution.

  18. Effect of Surface Defect States on Valence Band and Charge Separation and Transfer Efficiency (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Teng, Yiran; Teng, Fei


    Both energy band and charge separation and transfer are the crucial affecting factor for a photochemical reaction. Herein, the BiOCl nanosheets without and with surface bismuth vacancy (BOC, V-BOC) are prepared by a simple hydrothermal method. It is found that the new surface defect states caused by bismuth vacancy have greatly up-shifted the valence band and efficiently enhanced the separation and transfer rates of photogenerated electron and hole. It is amazing that the photocatalytic activity of V-BOC is 13.6 times higher than that of BOC for the degradation methyl orange (MO). We can develop an efficient photocatalyst by the introduction of defects.

  19. Tailoring surface properties of polyethylene separator by low pressure 13.56 MHz RF oxygen plasma glow discharge (United States)

    Li, Chun; Liang, Chia-Han; Huang, Chun


    Low-pressure plasma surface modification in a radio-frequency capacitively coupled glow discharge of oxygen gas was carried out to induce polar functional groups onto polyethylene membrane separator surfaces to enhance its hydrophilicity. The surface changes in surface free energy were monitored by static contact angle measurement. A significant increase in the surface energy of polyethylene membrane separators caused by the oxygen gas plasma modifications was observed. The static water contact angle of the plasma-modified membrane separator significantly decreased with the increase in treatment duration and plasma power. An obvious increase in the surface energy of the membrane separators owing to the oxidative effect of oxygen-gas-plasma modifications was also observed. Optical emission spectroscopy was carried out to analyze the chemical species generated by oxygen gas plasma surface modification. The variations in the surface morphology and chemical structure of the separators were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS showed significantly higher surface concentrations of oxygen functional groups in the oxygen-gas-plasma-modified polymeric separator surfaces than in the unmodified polymeric separator surface. The experimental results show the important role of chemical species in the interaction between oxygen gas plasmas and the separator surface, which can be controlled by surface modification to tailor the hydrophilicity of the separator.

  20. Surface patterning of polymeric separation membranes and its influence on the filtration performance (United States)

    Maruf, Sajjad

    Polymeric membrane based separation technologies are crucial for addressing the global issues such as water purification. However, continuous operations of these processes are often hindered by fouling which increases mass transport resistance of the membrane to permeation and thus the energy cost, and eventually replacement of the membrane in the system. In comparison to other anti-fouling strategies, the use of controlled surface topography to mitigate fouling has not been realized mainly due to the lack of methods to create targeted topography on the porous membrane surface. This thesis aims to develop a new methodology to create surface-patterned polymeric separation membrane to improve their anti-fouling characteristics during filtration. First, successful fabrication of sub-micron surface patterns directly on a commercial ultrafiltration (UF) membrane surface using nanoimprint lithographic (NIL) technique was demonstrated. Comprehensive filtration studies revealed that the presence of these sub-micron surface patterns mitigates not only the onset of colloidal particle deposition, but also lowers the rate of growth of cake layer after initial deposition, in comparison with un-patterned membranes. The anti-fouling effects were also observed for model protein solutions. Staged filtration experiments, with backwash cleaning, revealed that the permeate flux of the patterned membrane after protein fouling was considerably higher than that of the pristine or un-patterned membrane. In addition to the surface-patterning of UF membranes, successful fabrication of a surface-patterned thin film composite (TFC) membrane was shown for the first time. A two-step fabrication process was carried out by (1) nanoimprinting a polyethersulfone (PES) support using NIL, and (2) forming a thin dense film atop the PES support via interfacial polymerization (IP). Fouling experiments suggest that the surface patterns alter the hydrodynamics at the membrane-feed interface, which is

  1. Percutaneous penetration through slightly damaged skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper B


    Guidelines for experimental studies of percutaneous penetration prescribe optimal barrier integrity of the skin. The barrier integrity of the skin exposed in occupational or household situations is, however, not always ideal, and skin problems are among the most dominant reasons for absence from...... work. We have therefore evaluated an experimental model for percutaneous penetration through slightly damaged skin. The influence of a slight damage to the skin was evaluated using five pesticides covering a wide range of solubilities. We used an experimental model with static diffusion cells mounted...... with human skin. A slight damage to the barrier integrity was induced by pre-treatment of the skin with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) before pesticide exposure. The experimental model with 3 h pre-treatment with SLS (0.1% or 0.3%) assured a significant but controlled damage to the barrier integrity, a damage...

  2. 100% foundry compatible packaging and full wafer release and die separation technique for surface micromachined devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A completely foundry compatible chip-scale package for surface micromachines has been successfully demonstrated. A pyrex (Corning 7740) glass cover is placed over the released surface micromachined die and anodically bonded to a planarized polysilicon bonding ring. Electrical feedthroughs for the surface micromachine pass underneath the polysilicon sealing ring. The package has been found to be hermetic with a leak rate of less than 5 x 10{sup {minus}8} atm cm{sup {minus}3}/s. This technology has applications in the areas of hermetic encapsulation and wafer level release and die separation.

  3. Separation of Escherichia coli bacteria from peripheral blood mononuclear cells using standing surface acoustic waves. (United States)

    Ai, Ye; Sanders, Claire K; Marrone, Babetta L


    A microfluidic device was developed to separate heterogeneous particle or cell mixtures in a continuous flow using acoustophoresis. In this device, two identical surface acoustic waves (SAWs) generated by interdigital transducers (IDTs) propagated toward a microchannel, which accordingly built up a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW) field across the channel. A numerical model, coupling a piezoelectric effect in the solid substrate and acoustic pressure in the fluid, was developed to provide a better understanding of SSAW-based particle manipulation. It was found that the pressure nodes across the channel were individual planes perpendicular to the solid substrate. In the separation experiments, two side sheath flows hydrodynamically focused the injected particle or cell mixtures into a very narrow stream along the centerline. Particles flowing through the SSAW field experienced an acoustic radiation force that highly depends on the particle properties. As a result, dissimilar particles or cells were laterally attracted toward the pressure nodes at different magnitudes, and were eventually switched to different outlets. Two types of fluorescent microspheres with different sizes were successfully separated using the developed device. In addition, Escherichia coli bacteria premixed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were also efficiently isolated using the SSAW-base separation technique. Flow cytometric analysis on the collected samples found that the purity of separated E. coli bacteria was 95.65%.

  4. Tailorable Surface Morphology of 3D Scaffolds by Combining Additive Manufacturing with Thermally Induced Phase Separation. (United States)

    Di Luca, Andrea; de Wijn, Joost R; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Camarero-Espinosa, Sandra; Moroni, Lorenzo


    The functionalization of biomaterials substrates used for cell culture is gearing towards an increasing control over cell activity. Although a number of biomaterials have been successfully modified by different strategies to display tailored physical and chemical surface properties, it is still challenging to step from 2D substrates to 3D scaffolds with instructive surface properties for cell culture and tissue regeneration. In this study, additive manufacturing and thermally induced phase separation are combined to create 3D scaffolds with tunable surface morphology from polymer gels. Surface features vary depending on the gel concentration, the exchanging temperature, and the nonsolvent used. When preosteoblasts (MC-3T3 cells) are cultured on these scaffolds, a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity is measured for submicron surface topography, suggesting a potential role on early cell differentiation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Optically transparent, mechanically durable, nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces enabled by spinodally phase-separated glass thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aytug, Tolga; Simpson, John T.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Trejo, Rosa M.; Jellison, Gerald E.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Hillesheim, Daniel A.; Winter, Kyle O.; Christen, David K.; Hunter, Scott R.; Allen Haynes, J.


    Inspired by highly non-wetting natural biological surfaces (e.g., lotus leaves and water strider legs), artificial superhydrophobic surfaces that exhibit water droplet contact angles exceeding 150o have previously been constructed by utilizing various synthesis strategies.[ , , ] Such bio-inspired, water-repellent surfaces offer significant potential for numerous uses ranging from marine applications (e.g., anti-biofouling, anti-corrosion), anti-condensation (e.g., anti-icing, anti-fogging), membranes for selective separation (e.g., oil-water, gas-liquid), microfluidic systems, surfaces requiring reduced maintenance and cleaning, to applications involving glasses and optical materials.[ ] In addition to superhydrophobic attributes, for integration into device systems that have extended operational limits and overall improved performance, surfaces that also possess multifunctional characteristics are desired, where the functionality should match to the application-specific requirements.

  6. Ultrafast magneto-photocurrents in GaAs: Separation of surface and bulk contributions

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Christian B; Tarasenko, Sergey A; Bieler, Mark


    We induce ultrafast magneto-photocurrents in a GaAs crystal employing interband excitation with femtosecond laser pulses at room temperature and non-invasively separate surface and bulk contributions to the overall current response. The separation between the different symmetry contributions is achieved by measuring the simultaneously emitted terahertz radiation for different sample orientations. Excitation intensity and photon energy dependences of the magneto-photocurrents for linearly and circularly polarized excitations reveal an involvement of different microscopic origins, one of which we believe is the inverse Spin-Hall effect. Our experiments are important for a better understanding of the complex momentum-space carrier dynamics in magnetic fields.

  7. Bacterial surface layer proteins as a novel capillary coating material for capillary electrophoretic separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Gordaliza, Estefanía, E-mail: [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Stigter, Edwin C.A. [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Molecular Cancer Research, Universitair Medisch Centrum Utrecht, Wilhelmina Kinder Ziekenhuis, Lundlaan 6, 3584, EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Lindenburg, Petrus W.; Hankemeier, Thomas [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands)


    A novel concept for stable coating in capillary electrophoresis, based on recrystallization of surface layer proteins on hydrophobized fused silica capillaries, was demonstrated. Surface layer protein A (SlpA) from Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria was extracted, purified and used for coating pre-silanized glass substrates presenting different surface wettabilities (either hydrophobic or hydrophilic). Contact angle determination on SlpA-coated hydrophobic silica slides showed that the surfaces turned to hydrophilic after coating (53 ± 5°), due to a protein monolayer formation by protein-surface hydrophobic interactions. Visualization by atomic force microscopy demonstrated the presence of a SlpA layer on methylated silica slides displaying a surface roughness of 0.44 ± 0.02 nm. Additionally, a protein layer was visualized by fluorescence microscopy in methylated silica capillaries coated with SlpA and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled. The SlpA-coating showed an outstanding stability, even after treatment with 20 mM NaOH (pH 12.3). The electroosmotic flow in coated capillaries showed a partial suppression at pH 7.50 (3.8 ± 0.5 10{sup −9} m{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}) when compared with unmodified fused silica (5.9 ± 0.1 10{sup −8} m{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}). To demonstrate the potential of this novel coating, the SlpA-coated capillaries were applied for the first time for electrophoretic separation, and proved to be very suitable for the isotachophoretic separation of lipoproteins in human serum. The separations showed a high degree of repeatability (absolute migration times with 1.1–1.8% coefficient-of-variation (CV) within a day) and 2–3% CV inter-capillary reproducibility. The capillaries were stable for more than 100 runs at pH 9.40, and showed to be an exceptional alternative for challenging electrophoretic separations at long-term use. - Highlights: • New coating using recrystallized surface-layer proteins on

  8. Surface curvature of pelvic joints from three laser scanners: separating anatomy from measurement error. (United States)

    Villa, Chiara; Gaudio, Daniel; Cattaneo, Cristina; Buckberry, Jo; Wilson, Andrew S; Lynnerup, Niels


    Recent studies have reported that quantifying symphyseal and auricular surface curvature changes on 3D models acquired by laser scanners has a potential for age estimation. However, no tests have been carried out to evaluate the repeatability of the results between different laser scanners. 3D models of the two pelvic joints were generated using three laser scanners (Custom, Faro, and Minolta). The surface curvature, the surface area, and the distance between co-registered meshes were investigated. Close results were found for surface areas (differences between 0.3% and 2.4%) and for distance deviations (average laser scanners, but still showing similar trends with increasing phases/scores. Applying a smoothing factor to the 3D models, it was possible to separate anatomy from the measurement error of each instrument, so that similar curvature values could be obtained (p laser scanner.

  9. Mechanisms of surface pressure distribution within a laminar separation bubble at different Reynolds numbers (United States)

    Lee, Donghwi; Kawai, Soshi; Nonomura, Taku; Anyoji, Masayuki; Aono, Hikaru; Oyama, Akira; Asai, Keisuke; Fujii, Kozo


    Mechanisms behind the pressure distribution and skin friction within a laminar separation bubble (LSB) are investigated by large-eddy simulations around a 5% thickness blunt flat plate at the chord length based Reynolds number 5.0 × 103, 6.1 × 103, 1.1 × 104, and 2.0 × 104. The characteristics inside the LSB change with the Reynolds number; a steady laminar separation bubble (LSB_S) at the Reynolds number 5.0 × 103 and 6.1 × 103, and a steady-fluctuating laminar separation bubble (LSB_SF) at the Reynolds number 1.1 × 104, and 2.0 × 104. Different characteristics of pressure and skin friction distributions are observed by increasing the Reynolds number, such that a gradual monotonous pressure recovery in the LSB_S and a plateau pressure distribution followed by a rapid pressure recovery region in the LSB_SF. The reasons behind the different characteristics of pressure distributions at different Reynolds numbers are discussed by deriving the Reynolds averaged pressure gradient equation. It is confirmed that the viscous stress distributions near the surface play an important role in determining the formation of different pressure distributions. Depending on the Reynolds numbers, the viscous stress distributions near the surface are affected by the development of a separated laminar shear layer or the Reynolds shear stress. In addition, we show that the same analyses can be applied to the flows around a NACA0012 airfoil.

  10. Superhydrophobic, Hybrid, Electrospun Cellulose Acetate Nanofibrous Mats for Oil/Water Separation by Tailored Surface Modification. (United States)

    Arslan, Osman; Aytac, Zeynep; Uyar, Tamer


    Electrospun cellulose acetate nanofibers (CA-NF) have been modified with perfluoro alkoxysilanes (FS/CA-NF) for tailoring their chemical and physical features aiming oil-water separation purposes. Strikingly, hybrid FS/CA-NF showed that perfluoro groups are rigidly positioned on the outer surface of the nanofibers providing superhydrophobic characteristic with a water contact angle of ∼155°. Detailed analysis showed that hydrolysis/condensation reactions led to the modification of the acetylated β(1 → 4) linked d-glucose chains of CA transforming it into a superhydrophobic nanofibrous mat. Analytical data have revealed that CA-NF surfaces can be selectively controlled for fabricating the durable, robust and water resistant hybrid electrospun nanofibrous mat. The -OH groups available on the CA structure allowed the basic sol-gel reactions started by the reactive FS hybrid precursor system which can be monitored by spectroscopic analysis. Since alkoxysilane groups on the perfluoro silane compound are capable of reacting for condensation together with the CA, superhydrophobic nanofibrous mat is obtained via electrospinning. This structural modification led to the facile fabrication of the novel oil/water nanofibrous separator which functions effectively demonstrated by hexane/oil and water separation experiments. Perfluoro groups consequently modified the hydrophilic CA nanofibers into superhydrophobic character and therefore FS/CA-NF could be quite practical for future applications like water/oil separators, as well as self-cleaning or water resistant nanofibrous structures.

  11. A plateau–valley separation method for textured surfaces with a deterministic pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Kühle, Anders; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    The effective characterization of textured surfaces presenting a deterministic pattern of lubricant reservoirs is an issue with which many researchers are nowadays struggling. Existing standards are not suitable for the characterization of such surfaces, providing at times values without physical...... division of the two regions, which can be studied separately according to their specific function. The case of a turned multifunctional profile is presented depicting the lacks in efficacy of standardized methods and therefore studied with this new methodology. Limitations of the method are eventually...

  12. Simulation and simulator development of a separate surface attitude command control system for light aircraft (United States)

    Roskam, J.


    A detailed description is presented of the simulation philosophy and process used in the development of a Separate Surface Attitude Command control system (SSAC) for a Beech Model 99 Airliner. The intent of this system is to provide complete three axes stability augmentation at low cost and without the need for system redundancy. The system, although aimed at the general aviation market, also has applications to certain military airplanes as well as to miniature submarines.

  13. Photochemical charge separation in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films observed with surface photovoltage spectroscopy


    Osterloh, FE; Holmes, MA; Chang, L.; Moulé, AJ; Zhao, J.


    Surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) was used to probe photon induced charge separation in thin films of regioregular and regiorandom poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as a function of excitation energy. Both positive and negative photovoltage signals were observed under sub-band-gap (2.0 eV) excitation of the polymer. The dependence of the spectra on substrate work function, thermal annealing, film thickness, and illumination intensity was investigated, allowing the identification of interfac...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lootsik M. D.


    Full Text Available The recognition and isolation of specific mammalian cells by the biocompatible polymer coated super-paramagnetic particles with determined surface functionality were studied. The method of synthesis of nanoscaled particles on a core of iron III oxide (Fe2O3, magemit coated with a polymer shell containing reactive oligoperoxide groups for attachment of ligands is described. By using the developed superparamagnetic particles functionalized with peanut agglutinin (PNA we have separated the sub-populations of PNA+ and PNA– cells from ascites of murine Nemeth-Kellner lymphoma. In another type of experiment, the particles were opsonized with proteins of the fetal calf serum that improved biocompatibility of the particles and their ingestion by cultivated murine macrophages J774.2. Macrophages loaded with the particles were effeciently separated from the particles free cells by using the magnet. Thus, the developed surface functionalized superparamagnetic particles showed to be a versatile tool for cell separation independent on the mode of particles’ binding with cell surface or their engulfment by the targeted cells.

  15. A smart surface in a microfluidic chip for controlled protein separation. (United States)

    Mu, Li; Liu, Ying; Cai, Shaoyu; Kong, Jilie


    The smart surface created in a microfluidic chip has shown the capability of adsorbing and releasing proteins under electrical control. The inner surface of the chip channel was first coated by a thin layer of Au through sputtering and was subsequently modified with loosely packed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of thiols with terminal carboxylic or amino groups. Upon application of an external electric potential to the gold substrate, reversible conformational transformation between "bent" and "straight" states for the anchored mercapto chains could be modulated, through the electrostatic effect between the ionized terminal groups and the charged gold substrate. Thus, a hydrophobic or hydrophilic channel surface was established and could be reversibly switched electrochemically. Accordingly, the microchips prepared in this way can reversibly and selectively adsorb and release differently charged proteins under electrical control. Two model proteins, avidin and streptavidin, were demonstrated to be readily adsorbed by the smart chips under negative and positive potential, respectively. Also, more than 90 % of the adsorbed proteins could be released upon an electrical command. Furthermore, these chips were applied to the controlled separation of avidin and streptavidin mixtures with 1:1 and 1:1000 molar ratios. Under specific applied potentials, the chips adsorbed a certain protein from the mixture whereas the other protein was allowed to flow out, after which the adsorbed protein could be released by switching the applied potential. Thus, two eluted protein fractions were obtained and the separation of the two proteins was achieved. For the former mixture, each eluted fraction contained up to approximately 80-90 % avidin or streptavidin. For the latter mixture, the resulting separation efficiency indicated that the molar ratio of avidin and streptavidin could be increased from 1:1000 to about 32:1 after five run separations.

  16. Microphase separation patterns in diblock copolymers on curved surfaces using a nonlocal Cahn-Hilliard equation. (United States)

    Jeong, Darae; Kim, Junseok


    We investigate microphase separation patterns on curved surfaces in three-dimensional space by numerically solving a nonlocal Cahn-Hilliard equation for diblock copolymers. In our model, a curved surface is implicitly represented as the zero level set of a signed distance function. We employ a discrete narrow band grid that neighbors the curved surface. Using the closest point method, we apply a pseudo-Neumann boundary at the boundary of the computational domain. The boundary treatment allows us to replace the Laplace-Beltrami operator by the standard Laplacian operator. In particular, we can apply standard finite difference schemes in order to approximate the nonlocal Cahn-Hilliard equation in the discrete narrow band domain. We employ a type of unconditionally stable scheme, which was introduced by Eyre, and use the Jacobi iterative to solve the resulting implicit discrete system of equations. In addition, we use the minimum number of grid points for the discrete narrow band domain. Therefore, the algorithm is simple and fast. Numerous computational experiments are provided to study microphase separation patterns for diblock copolymers on curved surfaces in three-dimensional space.

  17. Energy-separated sequential irradiation for ripple pattern tailoring on silicon surfaces (United States)

    Kumar, Tanuj; Kumar, Manish; Panchal, Vandana; Sahoo, P. K.; Kanjilal, D.


    Nanoscale ripples on semiconductor surfaces have potential application in biosensing and optoelectronics, but suffer from uncontrolled surface-amorphization when prepared by conventional ion-irradiation methods. A two-step, energy-separated sequential-irradiation enables simultaneous control of surface-amorphization and ripple-dimensions on Si(1 0 0). The evolution of ripples using 100 keV Ar+ bombardment and further tuning of the patterns using a sequential-irradiation by 60 keV Ar+ at different fluences are demonstrated. The advantage of this approach as opposed to increased fluence at the same energy is clarified by atomic force microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy investigations. The explanation of our findings is presented through DAMAGE simulation.

  18. Pulse laser particulate separation from polycarbonate: surface acoustic wave and thermomechanical mechanisms (United States)

    Arif, S.; Armbruster, O.; Kautek, W.


    The mechanisms of graphite particle and polystyrene-co-divinyl benzene microsphere removal from flat polycarbonate substrates by nanosecond pulse laser interaction at 532 nm were studied both experimentally and theoretically. These model contaminants exhibited an extremely contrasting behavior in respect to phase separation and collateral damage to the polycarbonate substrate. Opaque graphite particles within the irradiated spot area either desorbed due to their thermal expansion or undertook vaporization/ablation. The transparent polystyrene microspheres caused local ablation of the substrate in their optical near-field. This process led to the removal of the particles, but eradicated the available cleaning fluence window. The opaque graphite particles, on the other hand, showed efficient clearance, particularly in a practicable cleaning window above 0.5~J/cm2 and low pulse numbers of about two. Besides the mechanisms occurring within the irradiated spot, a separation process in the proximity beyond the laser spot (more than double the Gaussian radius) could be related to the action of high-amplitude surface acoustic waves (SAW). A minimum surface acceleration of 109~cm/s2 was calculated to be sufficient to overcome the adhesion forces in this particle separation model.

  19. Smart surfaces with switchable superoleophilicity and superoleophobicity in aqueous media: Toward controllable oil/water separation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, L.


    Advanced materials with surfaces that have controllable oil wettability when submerged in aqueous media have great potential for various underwater applications. Here we have developed smart surfaces on commonly used materials, including non-woven textiles and polyurethane sponges, which are able to switch between superoleophilicity and superoleophobicity in aqueous media. The smart surfaces are obtained by grafting a block copolymer, comprising blocks of pH-responsive poly(2-vinylpyridine) and oleophilic/hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (i.e., P2VP-b-PDMS) on these materials. The P2VP block can alter its wettability and its conformation via protonation and deprotonation in response to the pH of the aqueous media, which provides controllable and switchable access of oil by the PDMS block, resulting in the switchable surface oil wettability in the aqueous media. On the other hand, the high flexibility of the PDMS block facilitates the reversible switching of the surface oil wettability. As a proof of concept, we also demonstrate that materials functionalized with our smart surfaces can be used for highly controllable oil/water separation processes.

  20. Separation of top and bottom surface conduction in Bi2Te3 thin films. (United States)

    Yu, Xinxin; He, Liang; Lang, Murong; Jiang, Wanjun; Xiu, Faxian; Liao, Zhiming; Wang, Yong; Kou, Xufeng; Zhang, Peng; Tang, Jianshi; Huang, Guan; Zou, Jin; Wang, Kang L


    Quantum spin Hall (QSH) systems are insulating in the bulk with gapless edges or surfaces that are topologically protected and immune to nonmagnetic impurities or geometric perturbations. Although the QSH effect has been realized in the HgTe/CdTe system, it has not been accomplished in normal 3D topological insulators. In this work, we demonstrate a separation of two surface conductions (top/bottom) in epitaxially grown Bi(2)Te(3) thin films through gate dependent Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations. By sweeping the gate voltage, only the Fermi level of the top surface is tuned while that of the bottom surface remains unchanged due to strong electric field screening effects arising from the high dielectric constant of Bi(2)Te(3). In addition, the bulk conduction can be modulated from n- to p-type with a varying gate bias. Our results on the surface control hence pave a way for the realization of QSH effect in topological insulators which requires a selective control of spin transports on the top/bottom surfaces.

  1. Rapid Detection of Melamine in Milk Using Immunological Separation and Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Li, Xiyuan; Feng, Shaolong; Hu, Yaxi; Sheng, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Shifang; Zeng, Haishan; Wang, Shuo; Lu, Xiaonan


    We integrated immunological separation and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to detect melamine in milk. Antimelamine was produced by New Zealand white rabbits following the injection with melamine hapten-ovalbumin immunogen. Melamine was separated from milk by binding to the converted protein G-antimelamine complex. After releasing antimelamine and melamine from the complex, the eluents were deposited directly onto the silver dendrite SERS-active substrate for spectral collection. Multivariate statistical analysis including unsupervised principal component analysis and supervised soft independent modeling of class analogy validated the feasibility of applying this method to detect trace levels of melamine in milk. The limit of detection can be as low as 0.79×10(-3) mmol/L. The overall analysis can be completed in 20 min, thus, it is a high-throughput technique to screen for melamine in milk samples.

  2. Photochemical Charge Separation in Nanocrystal Photocatalyst Films: Insights from Surface Photovoltage Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Osterloh, Frank E


    Photochemical charge generation, separation, and transport at nanocrystal interfaces are central to photoelectrochemical water splitting, a pathway to hydrogen from solar energy. Here, we use surface photovoltage spectroscopy to probe these processes in nanocrystal films of HCa2Nb3O10, a proven photocatalyst. Charge injection from the nanoparticles into the gold support can be observed, as well as oxidation and reduction of methanol and oxygen adsorbates on the nanosheet films. The measured photovoltage depends on the illumination intensity and substrate material, and it varies with illumination time and with film thickness. The proposed model predicts that the photovoltage is limited by the built-in potential of the nanosheet-metal junction, that is, the difference of Fermi energies in the two materials. The ability to measure and understand these light-induced charge separation processes in easy-to-fabricate films will promote the development of nanocrystal applications in photoelectrochemical cells, photovoltaics, and photocatalysts.

  3. Bioinspired polydopamine particles-assisted construction of superhydrophobic surfaces for oil/water separation. (United States)

    Shang, Bin; Wang, Yanbing; Peng, Bo; Deng, Ziwei


    Frequent oil spillages and industrial discharge of oils/organic solvents have induced severe environmental pollution and ecological damage, and a great cost in energy and finance has been consumed to solve the problems raised. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a surface hydrophobic modification that can be applied to materials with desired properties of high separation efficiency, excellent selectivity and stable performance in extreme conditions during the oil/water separation. Herein, with combined bioinspirations from mussel adhesive protein (polydopamine) and superhydrophobic lotus leaf (hierarchical structures), we develop a general way to superhydrophobically modify various commercial materials, aiming for the selective removal of oils/organic solvents from water. In this procedure, immersing commercial materials (e.g. melamine sponge, stainless steel mesh, nylon netting and cotton cloth) into water/ethanol/ammonia mixtures at a low concentration of dopamine (DA, 2mg/mL) allows a polydopamine (PDA) coating with a tunable roughness appearing on the substrate in one step. This is because DA can self-polymerize and form PDA particles with a catalyst of ammonia, attaching to any surfaces due to abundant catechol and amine groups in PDA, and ultimately, resulting in hierarchical structures. The subsequent decoration with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecanethiol features the surface superhydrophobic and superoleophilic. This approach is straightforward and economic, and carried out under a mild, environmental-benign circumstance, with nonspecific substrate demands. In addition, the as-prepared superhydrophobic materials exhibit excellent separation performances including high absorption/separation capacity, excellent selectivity, and extraordinary recyclability for collecting various oils/organic solvents from water. These superhydrophobic materials have also verified to be highly chemical resistant, environment stable and mechanically durable. Therefore, this

  4. Dry-surface coating method for visualization of separation on a bluff body (United States)

    Sadeh, W. Z.; Brauer, H. J.; Durgin, J. R.


    A simple and relatively accurate dry-surface coating method for visualization of the flow separation on a circular cylinder (or any bluff body) during wind tunnel tests is described. The technique consists of (1) application of a thin coating composed of an indicator and a paint carrier; (2) drying of the film; (3) conditioning of the coating with an acidic solution to ensure a suitable color reaction; (4) release into the body wake of a gas able to produce a base through chemical reaction with the solvent of the conditioning solution; and (5) color reaction according to pH.

  5. Surface hot-film method for the measurement of transition, separation and reattachment points (United States)

    Nakayama, Akihiko; Stack, John P.; Lin, John C.; Valarezo, Walter O.


    A real-time method of determining positions of laminar-to-turbulent transition region, separation and reattachment points and stagnation points using an array of simultaneously operated surface-mounted hot-film sensors has been developed and applied to a wind-tunnel test of a multielement airfoil model. Determination of various types of transitions and flow directions in various regimes of flows seen on multielement airfoils are possible without precise sensor calibration or laborious post-test data analysis. The results agree with established method and theoretical methods, but determination of turbulent reattachment points are not yet satisfactory.

  6. Planet formation in slightly inclined binary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge J.


    Full Text Available One of the major problems of planet formation in close binary systems, such as α Centauri AB, is the formation of planetary embryos or cores by mutual accretion of km-sized planetesimals. In this contribution, we test the planetesimal accretion in such close binary systems but with small inclinations iB = 0.1–10° between the binary orbital plane and the gas disk plane. Compared to previous studies (coplanar case with iB = 0, we find that (1 planetesimal disk is stratified in the vertical direction and planetesimals are redistributed on different orbit groups with respect to their sizes, thus (2 collisions between similar-sized bodies dominate, leading to low dV and favoring planetesimal accretion (3 the planetesimal collision timescale at 1–2 AU is estimated as: T ∼ (1 + 100iB × 103 yrs, where 0 ≤ iB ≤ 10°. As a conclusion, although planetesimal accretion are much more favored in slightly inclined binary systems, it is significantly less efficient and slowed-down as compared to the single-star case.

  7. Evidence for photo-induced charge separation between dye molecules adsorbed to aluminium oxide surfaces. (United States)

    Cappel, Ute B; Moia, Davide; Bruno, Annalisa; Vaissier, Valerie; Haque, Saif A; Barnes, Piers R F


    Excited state dynamics and photo-induced charge transfer of dye molecules have been widely studied due to their relevance for organic and dye-sensitised solar cells. Herein, we present a femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy study of the indolene dye D131 when adsorbed to inert Al2O3 substrates for different surface concentration of the dye. Surprisingly, we find that at high surface concentrations, the first singlet excited state of the dye is converted into a new state with an efficiency of about 80%. We assign the absorption features of this state to the oxidised dye and discuss the possibility of photo-induced charge separation between neighboring dye molecules. Our study is the first to show that this process can be highly efficient without the use of donor and acceptor molecules of different chemical structures.

  8. Non-selective Separation of Bacterial Cells with Magnetic Nanoparticles Facilitated by Varying Surface Charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Lei Gao


    Full Text Available Recovering microorganisms from environmental samples is a crucial primary step for understanding microbial communities using molecular ecological approaches. It is often challenging to harvest microorganisms both efficiently and unselectively, guaranteeing a similar microbial composition between original and separated biomasses. A magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs based method was developed to effectively separate microbial biomass from glass fiber pulp entrapped bacteria. Buffering pH and nanoparticle silica encapsulation significantly affected both biomass recovery and microbial selectivity. Under optimized conditions (using citric acid coated Fe3O4, buffering pH=2.2, the method was applied in the pretreatment of TSP sampler collected bioaerosols, the effective volume for DNA extraction was increased 10-folds, and the overall method detection limit of microbial contaminants in bioaerosols significantly decreased. A consistent recovery of the majority of airborne bacterial populations was demonstrated by in-depth comparison of microbial composition using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing. Surface charge was shown as the deciding factor for the interaction between MNPs and microorganisms, which helps developing materials with high microbial selectivity. To our knowledge, this study is the first report using MNPs to separate diverse microbial community unselectively from a complex environmental matrix. The technique is convenient and sensitive, as well as feasible to apply in monitoring of microbial transport and other related fields.

  9. CO2 adsorption and separation from natural gason phosphorene surface: Combining DFT and GCMC calculations (United States)

    Zhang, Yayun; Liu, Chao; Hao, Feng; Xiao, Hang; Zhang, Shiwei; Chen, Xi


    We have examined the performance of phosphorene-based material, phosphorene slit pores (PSP), in CO2 adsorption and separation from natural gas by using Density Function Theory (DFT) calculation and Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations. First, the adsorption of CH4 and CO2molecules on phosphorene sheet were conducted by DFT study. Then, adsorption performances of natural gas components as well as their binary CO2/CH4 gas mixture were investigated at 300 K with the pressure up to 3.0 MPa. The effects of slit pore width, H, and mole ratio of CO2/CH4in the gas phase on the separation of CO2 from mixtures of CO2/CH4 were also investigated. Our DFT calculation results show that the CO2 moleculehas higher adsorption energy than that of CH4, which implies that it can be easily adsorbed to the phosphorene surface than CH4. Detailed GCMC simulations reveal that the phosphorene slit pore has a high performance in separating CO2fromnature gas and achieves the highest gas selectivity at H = 1.0 nm at pressures lower than 0.1 MPa. Moreover, the selectivity of CO2 overCO2/CH4gas mixture increases with increasing the mole ratio of CO2/CH4due to the enhanced adsorbate-adsorbent interactions for the favorable component. Therefore, it is suggested that the phosphorene is a promising candidate for natural gas purification and possessing practical potential applications in gas adsorption.

  10. 7 CFR 51.647 - Slightly colored. (United States)


    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... aggregate of green color, the portion of the fruit surface which is not discolored shows some yellow color. ...

  11. Superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic surface-enhanced separation performance of porous inorganic membranes for biomass-to-biofuel conversion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Michael Z.; Engtrakul, Chaiwat; Bischoff, Brian L.; Jang, Gyoung G.; Theiss, Timothy J.; Davis, Mark F.


    A new class of porous membranes is introduced to provide unique separation mechanisms by surface interactions and capillary condensation. High-performance architectural surface selective (HiPAS) membranes were designed for high perm-selective flux and high-temperature tolerance for hot vapor processing and liquid processing Due to surface-enhanced selectivity, larger-fluxes were achieved by utilizing larger pore sizes (~8 nm for vapor phase and micron-sized pores for liquid phase separations). This paper describes a membrane-based separation concept for biomass conversion pathways and demonstrates the initial data for selective permeation of toluene-water and toluene-phenol-water relevant to biofuel processing.

  12. An enhanced trend surface analysis equation for regional-residual separation of gravity data (United States)

    Obasi, A. I.; Onwuemesi, A. G.; Romanus, O. M.


    Trend surface analysis is a geological term for a mathematical technique which separates a given map set into a regional component and a local component. This work has extended the steps for the derivation of the constants in the trend surface analysis equation from the popularly known matrix and simultaneous form to a more simplified and easily achievable format. To achieve this, matrix inversion was applied to the existing equations and the outcome was tested for suitability using a large volume of gravity data set acquired from the Anambra Basin, south-eastern Nigeria. Tabulation of the field data set was done using the Microsoft Excel spread sheet, while gravity maps were generated from the data set using Oasis Montaj software. A comparison of the residual gravity map produced using the new equations with its software derived counterpart has shown that the former has a higher enhancing capacity than the latter. This equation has shown strong suitability for application in the separation of gravity data sets into their regional and residual components.

  13. Particle Separation inside a Sessile Droplet with Variable Contact Angle Using Surface Acoustic Waves. (United States)

    Destgeer, Ghulam; Jung, Jin Ho; Park, Jinsoo; Ahmed, Husnain; Sung, Hyung Jin


    A sessile droplet of water carrying polystyrene microparticles of different diameters was uniformly exposed to high frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) produced by an interdigitated transducer (IDT). We investigated the concentration behavior of the microparticles as the SAWs generated a strong acoustic streaming flow (ASF) inside the water droplet and exerted a direct acoustic radiation force (ARF) on the suspended particles, the magnitude of which depended upon the particle diameter. As a result of the ARF, the microparticles were concentrated according to their diameters at different positions inside the sessile droplet placed in the path of the SAW, right in front of the IDT. The microparticle concentration behavior changed as the sessile droplet contact angle with the substrate was varied by adding surfactant to the water or by gradually evaporating the water. The positions at which the smaller and larger microparticles were concentrated remained distinguishable, even at very different experimental conditions. The long-term exposure of the droplets to the SAWs was accompanied by the gradual evaporation of the carrier fluid, which dynamically changed the droplet contact angle as well as the concentration of particles. Complete evaporation of the fluid left behind several concentrated yet separated clusters of particles on the substrate surface. The effect of the droplet contact angle on particles' concentration behavior and consequent separation of particles has been uniquely studied in this SAW-based report.

  14. Surveillance of parasitic Legionella in surface waters by using immunomagnetic separation and amoebae enrichment. (United States)

    Hsu, Tsui-Kang; Wu, Shu-Fen; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Kao, Po-Min; Tao, Chi-Wei; Shen, Shu-Min; Ji, Wen-Tsai; Huang, Wen-Chien; Fan, Cheng-Wei


    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are potential reservoirs of Legionella in aquatic environments. However, the parasitic relationship between various Legionella and amoebae remains unclear. In this study, surface water samples were gathered from two rivers for evaluating parasitic Legionella. Warmer water temperature is critical to the existence of Legionella. This result suggests that amoebae may be helpful in maintaining Legionella in natural environments because warmer temperatures could enhance parasitisation of Legionella in amoebae. We next used immunomagnetic separation (IMS) to identify extracellular Legionella and remove most free Legionella before detecting the parasitic ones in selectively enriched amoebae. Legionella pneumophila was detected in all the approaches, confirming that the pathogen is a facultative amoebae parasite. By contrast, two obligate amoebae parasites, Legionella-like amoebal pathogens (LLAPs) 8 and 9, were detected only in enriched amoebae. However, several uncultured Legionella were detected only in the extracellular samples. Because the presence of potential hosts, namely Vermamoeba vermiformis, Acanthamoeba spp. and Naegleria gruberi, was confirmed in the samples that contained intracellular Legionella, uncultured Legionella may survive independently of amoebae. Immunomagnetic separation and amoebae enrichment may have referential value for detecting parasitic Legionella in surface waters.

  15. Mechanism of selective separation on the surface of ionic sieve of removal of lead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This note describes a kind of ionic sieve with high selectivity to remove trace lead in water, in which stannic molybdopyrophosphate is used to be the substrate. The mechanism of selective separation on the surface of ionic sieve of removal of lead was explored by analyzing fourier transformation infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) and the results of selective adsorptivity experiment. The investigation suggests that in the process of synthesizing ionic sieve the olation reactions occur in solid phase by thermodynamic recrystallization and the adsorp- tion units with special selectivity to lead are formed by chemical modification. After the ion exchange for Pb2+, the oaltion reactions not only keep the microstructures of adsorption units from collapse, but also provide lead cavties with special selectivity to lead ion that are capable of having special binding "memory effect" to Pb2+ by SnO32? and P2O74 ? groups on the surface of this ionic sieve. Meanwhile, the selective separation capacity is a kind of weak chemical effect that is relative to the valence electron state of the adsorbed ion directly and tightly.

  16. Estimation of Supersonic Stage Separation Aerodynamics of Winged-Body Launch Vehicles Using Response Surface Methods (United States)

    Erickson, Gary E.


    Response surface methodology was used to estimate the longitudinal stage separation aerodynamic characteristics of a generic, bimese, winged multi-stage launch vehicle configuration at supersonic speeds in the NASA LaRC Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The Mach 3 staging was dominated by shock wave interactions between the orbiter and booster vehicles throughout the relative spatial locations of interest. The inference space was partitioned into several contiguous regions within which the separation aerodynamics were presumed to be well-behaved and estimable using central composite designs capable of fitting full second-order response functions. The underlying aerodynamic response surfaces of the booster vehicle in belly-to-belly proximity to the orbiter vehicle were estimated using piecewise-continuous lower-order polynomial functions. The quality of fit and prediction capabilities of the empirical models were assessed in detail, and the issue of subspace boundary discontinuities was addressed. Augmenting the central composite designs to full third-order using computer-generated D-optimality criteria was evaluated. The usefulness of central composite designs, the subspace sizing, and the practicality of fitting lower-order response functions over a partitioned inference space dominated by highly nonlinear and possibly discontinuous shock-induced aerodynamics are discussed.

  17. Problem of time in slightly inhomogeneous cosmology (United States)

    Anderson, Edward


    The problem of time (PoT) is a multi-faceted conceptual incompatibility between various areas of Theoretical Physics. While usually stated as between GR and QM, in fact 8/9ths of it is already present at the classical level. Thus we adopt a ‘top-down’ classical and then quantum approach. I consider a local resolution to the PoT that is Machian, which was previously realized for relational triangle and minisuperspace models. This resolution has three levels: classical, semiclassical and combined semiclassical-histories-records. This article’s specific model is a slightly inhomogeneous cosmology considered for now at the classical level. This is motivated by how the inhomogeneous fluctuations that underlie structure formation—galaxies and CMB hotspots—might have been seeded by quantum cosmological fluctuations, as magnified by some inflationary mechanism. In particular, I consider the perturbations about {{{S}}}3 case of this involving up to second order, which has a number of parallels with the Halliwell-Hawking model but has a number of conceptual differences and useful upgrades. The article’s main features are that the elimination part of the model’s thin sandwich is straightforward, but the modewise split of the constraints fail to be first-class constraints. Thus the elimination part only arises as an intermediate geometry between superspace and Riem. The reduced geometries have surprising singularities influenced by the matter content of the Universe, though the N-body problem anticipates these with its collinear singularities. I also give a ‘basis set’ of Kuchař beables for this model arena.

  18. Assessment of Cold Welding Between Separable Contact Surfaces Due to Impact and Fretting under Vacuum (United States)

    Merstallinger, A.; Sales, M.; Semerad, E.; Dunn, B. D.


    A common failure mode seen during the testing and operation of spacecraft is termed "cold welding". European laboratories refer to this as "adhesion", "sticking" or "stiction". This publication is intended to provide the space community with the most recent understanding of the phenomenon of "cold welding" in relation to spacecraft mechanisms with separable contact surfaces. It presents some basic theory and describes a test method and the required equipment. Cold welding between two contacting surfaces can occur under conditions of impact or fretting. These surfaces may be bare metals, or inorganically or organically coated metals and their alloys. Standard procedures for quantifying the propensity of material surface pairs to cold weld to each other are proposed. Of particular interest will be the contact data of different materials, which are presented in numerical form and as tables summarising contacts between materials that can be either recommended or considered unsuitable for use under vacuum. The data have been compiled in a database that can be accessed online.

  19. Microchannel anechoic corner for size-selective separation and medium exchange via traveling surface acoustic waves. (United States)

    Destgeer, Ghulam; Ha, Byung Hang; Park, Jinsoo; Jung, Jin Ho; Alazzam, Anas; Sung, Hyung Jin


    We demonstrate a miniaturized acoustofluidic device composed of a pair of slanted interdigitated transducers (SIDTs) and a polydimethylsiloxane microchannel for achieving size-selective separation and exchange of medium around polystyrene particles in a continuous, label-free, and contactless fashion. The SIDTs, deposited parallel to each other, produce tunable traveling surface acoustic waves (TSAWs) at desired locations, which, in turn, yield an anechoic corner inside the microchannel that is used to selectively deflect particles of choice from their streamlines. The TSAWs with frequency fR originating from the right SIDT and propagating left toward the microchannel normal to the fluid flow direction, laterally deflect larger particles with diameter d1 from the hydrodynamically focused sample fluid that carries other particles as well with diameters d2 and d3, such that d1 > d2 > d3. The deflected particles (d1) are pushed into the top-left corner of the microchannel. Downstream, the TSAWs with frequency fL, such that fL > fR, disseminating from the left SIDT, deflect the medium-sized particles (d2) rightward, leaving behind the larger particles (d1) unaffected in the top-left anechoic corner and the smaller particles (d3) in the middle of the microchannel, thereby achieving particle separation. A particle not present in the anechoic corner could be deflected rightward to realize twice the medium exchange. In this work, the three-way separation of polystyrene particles with diameters of 3, 4.2, and 5 μm and 3, 5, and 7 μm is achieved using two separate devices. Moreover, these devices are used to demonstrate multimedium exchange around polystyrene particles ∼5 μm and 7 μm in diameter.

  20. Instantaneous generation of charge-separated state on TiO₂ surface sensitized with plasmonic nanoparticles. (United States)

    Long, Run; Prezhdo, Oleg V


    Photoexcitation of the plasmon band in metallic nanoparticles adsorbed on a TiO2 surface initiates many important photovoltaic and photocatalytic processes. The traditional view on the photoinduced charge separation involves excitation of a surface plasmon, its subsequent dephasing into electron-hole pairs, followed by electron transfer (ET) from the metal nanoparticle into TiO2. We use nonadiabatic molecular dynamics combined with time-domain density functional theory to demonstrate that an electron appears inside TiO2 immediately upon photoexcitation with a high probability (~50%), bypassing the intermediate step of electron-hole thermalization inside the nanoparticle. By providing a detailed, atomistic description of the charge separation, energy relaxation, and electron-hole recombination processes, the simulation rationalizes why the experimentally observed ultrafast photoinduced ET in an Au-TiO2 system is possible in spite of the fast energy relaxation. The simulation shows that the photogenerated plasmon is highly delocalized onto TiO2, and thus, it is shared by the electron donor and acceptor materials. In the 50% of the cases remaining after the instantaneous photogeneration of the charge-separated state, the electron injects into TiO2 on a sub-100 fs time scale by the nonadiabatic mechanism due to high density of acceptor states. The electron-phonon relaxation parallels the injection and is slower, resulting in a transient heating of the TiO2 surface by 40 K. Driven by entropy, the electron moves further into TiO2 bulk. If the electron remains trapped at the TiO2 surface, it recombines with the hole on a picosecond time scale. The obtained ET and recombination times are in excellent agreement with the experiment. The delocalized plasmon state observed in our study establishes a novel concept for plasmonic photosensitization of wide band gap semiconductors, leading to efficient conversion of photons to charge carriers and to hybrid materials with a wide

  1. Blind separation of linear instantaneous mixtures of nonstationary surface myoelectric signals. (United States)

    Farina, Dario; Févotte, Cédric; Doncarli, Christian; Merletti, Roberto


    Electromyographic (EMG) recordings detected over the skin may be mixtures of signals generated by different active muscles due to the phenomena related to volume conduction. Separation of the sources is necessary when single muscle activity has to be detected. Signals generated by different muscles may be considered uncorrelated but in general overlap in time and frequency. Under certain assumptions, mixtures of surface EMG signals can be considered as linear instantaneous but no a priori information about the mixing matrix is available when different muscles are active. In this study, we applied blind source separation (BSS) methods to separate the signals generated by two active muscles during a force-varying task. As the signals are non stationary, an algorithm based on spatial time-frequency distributions was applied on simulated and experimental EMG signals. The experimental signals were collected from the flexor carpi radialis and the pronator teres muscles which could be activated selectively for wrist flexion and rotation, respectively. From the simulations, correlation coefficients between the reference and reconstructed sources were higher than 0.85 for signals largely overlapping both in time and frequency and for signal-to-noise ratios as low as 5 dB. The Choi-Williams and Bessel kernels, in this case, performed better than the Wigner-Ville one. Moreover, the selection of time-frequency points for the procedure of joint diagonalization used in the BSS algorithm significantly influenced the results. For the experimental signals, the interference of the other source in each reconstructed source was significantly attenuated by the application of the BSS method. The ratio between root-mean-square values of the signals from the two sources detected over one of the muscles increased from (mean +/- standard deviation) 2.33 +/- 1.04 to 4.51 +/- 1.37 and from 1.55 +/- 0.46 to 2.72 +/- 0.65 for wrist flexion and rotation, respectively. This increment was


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL PRC) is proud to submit the Slightly Irradiated Fuel (SIF) Interim Disposition Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2010. The SIF Project was a set of six interrelated sub-projects that delivered unique stand-alone outcomes, which, when integrated, provided a comprehensive and compliant system for storing high risk special nuclear materials. The scope of the six sub-projects included the design, construction, testing, and turnover of the facilities and equipment, which would provide safe, secure, and compliant Special Nuclear Material (SNM) storage capabilities for the SIF material. The project encompassed a broad range of activities, including the following: Five buildings/structures removed, relocated, or built; Two buildings renovated; Structural barriers, fencing, and heavy gates installed; New roadways and parking lots built; Multiple detection and assessment systems installed; New and expanded communication systems developed; Multimedia recording devices added; and A new control room to monitor all materials and systems built. Project challenges were numerous and included the following: An aggressive 17-month schedule to support the high-profile Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) decommissioning; Company/contractor changeovers that affected each and every project team member; Project requirements that continually evolved during design and construction due to the performance- and outcome-based nature ofthe security objectives; and Restrictions imposed on all communications due to the sensitive nature of the projects In spite of the significant challenges, the project was delivered on schedule and $2 million under budget, which became a special source of pride that bonded the team. For years, the SIF had been stored at the central Hanford PFP. Because of the weapons-grade piutonium produced and stored there, the PFP had some of the tightest security on the Hanford

  3. Construction of Renewable Superhydrophobic Surfaces via Thermally Induced Phase Separation and Mechanical Peeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Zhu; Yuan Yu; Qing-Yun Wu; Lin Gu


    We report a simple preparation method of a renewable superhydrophobic surface by thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) and mechanical peeling.Porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes with hierarchical structures were prepared by a TIPS process under different cooling conditions,which were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry.After peeling off the top layer,rough structures with hundreds of nanometers to several microns were obtained.A digital microscopy determines that the surface roughness of peeled PVDF membranes is much higher than that of the original PVDF membrane,which is important to obtain the superhydrophobicity.Water contact angle and sliding angle measurements demonstrate that the peeled membrane surfaces display superhydrophobicity with a high contact angle (152°) and a low sliding angle (7.2°).Moreover,the superhydrophobicity can be easily recovered for many times by a simple mechanical peeling,identical to the original superhydrophobicity.This simple preparation method is low cost,and suitable for large-scale industrialization,which may offer more opportunities for practical applications.

  4. Reactive Separation of Gallic Acid: Experimentation and Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rewatkar


    Full Text Available Gallic acid is a major phenolic pollutant present in the wastewater generated from cork boiling, olive mill, and pharmaceutical industries. Experimental and statistical modelling using response surface methodology (RSM and artificial neural network (ANN were carried out for reactive separation of gallic acid from aqueous stream using tri-nbutyl phosphate (TBP in hexanol. TBP has a more significant effect on extraction efficiency as compared to temperature and pH. The optimum conditions of 2.34 g L–1, 65.65 % v/v, 19 oC, and 1.8 of initial concentration of gallic acid, concentration of TBP, temperature, and pH, respectively, were obtained using RSM. Under optimum conditions, extraction efficiency of 99.45 % was obtained for gallic acid. The ANN and RSM results were compared with experimental unseen data. Error analysis suggested the better performance of ANN for extraction efficiency predictions.

  5. Influence of nanoparticle-graphene separation on the localized surface plasmon resonances of metal nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Saadabad, Reza Masoudian; Shirdel-Havar, Amir Hushang; Havar, Majid Shirdel


    We develop a theory to model the interaction of graphene substrate with localized plasmon resonances in metallic nanoparticles. The influence of a graphene substrate on the surface plasmon resonances is described using an effective background permittivity that is derived from a pseudoparticle concept using the electrostatic method. For this purpose, the interaction of metal nanoparticle with graphene sheet is studied to obtain the optical spectrum of gold nanoparticles deposited on a graphene substrate. Then, we introduce a factor based on dipole approximation to predict the influence of the separation of nanoparticles and graphene on the spectral position of the localized plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles. We applied the theory for a 4 nm radius gold nanosphere placed near 1.5 nm graphene layer. It is shown that a blue shift is emerged in the position of plasmon resonance when the nanoparticle moves away from graphene.

  6. Protein separation and identification using magnetic beads encoded with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Jun, Bong-Hyun; Noh, Mi Suk; Kim, Gunsung; Kang, Homan; Kim, Jong-Ho; Chung, Woo-Jae; Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Yong-Kweon; Cho, Myung-Haing; Jeong, Dae Hong; Lee, Yoon-Sik


    This article presents a prototype of a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-encoded magnetic bead of 8mum diameter. The core part of the bead is composed of a magnetic nanoparticle (NP)-embedded sulfonated polystyrene bead. The outer part of the bead is embedded with Ag NPs on which labeling molecules generating specific SERS bands are adsorbed. A silica shell is fabricated for further bioconjugation and protection of SERS signaling. Benzenethiol, 4-mercaptotoluene, 2-naphthalenethiol, and 4-aminothiophenol are used as labeling molecules. The magnetic SERS beads are used as substrates for protein sensing and screening with easy handling. As a model application, streptavidin-bound magnetic SERS beads are used to illustrate selective separation in a flow cytometry system, and the screened beads are spectrally recognized by Raman spectroscopy. The proposed magnetic SERS beads are likely to be used as a versatile solid support for protein sensing and screening in multiple assay technology.

  7. Immunomagnetic separation of tumor initiating cells by screening two surface markers (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Hsieh, Yuan-Pang; Ma, Sai; Geng, Shuo; Cao, Zhenning; Li, Liwu; Lu, Chang


    Isolating tumor initiating cells (TICs) often requires screening of multiple surface markers, sometimes with opposite preferences. This creates a challenge for using bead-based immunomagnetic separation (IMS) that typically enriches cells based on one abundant marker. Here, we propose a new strategy that allows isolation of CD44+/CD24− TICs by IMS involving both magnetic beads coated by anti-CD44 antibody and nonmagnetic beads coated by anti-CD24 antibody (referred to as two-bead IMS). Cells enriched with our approach showed significant enhancement in TIC marker expression (examined by flow cytometry) and improved tumorsphere formation efficiency. Our method will extend the application of IMS to cell subsets characterized by multiple markers. PMID:28074882

  8. Evaluation of Immunomagnetic Separation for the Detection of Salmonella in Surface Waters by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Yu Hsu


    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. is associated with fecal pollution and capable of surviving for long periods in aquatic environments. Instead of the traditional, time-consuming biochemical detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR allows rapid identification of Salmonella directly concentrated from water samples. However, prevalence of Salmonella may be underestimated because of the vulnerability of PCR to various environmental chemicals like humic acid, compounded by the fact that various DNA polymerases have different susceptibility to humic acid. Because immunomagnetic separation (IMS theoretically could isolate Salmonella from other microbes and facilitate removal of aquatic PCR inhibitors of different sizes, this study aims to compare the efficiency of conventional PCR combined with immunomagnetic separation (IMS for Salmonella detection within a moderately polluted watershed. In our study, the positive rate was increased from 17.6% to 47% with nearly ten-fold improvement in the detection limit. These results suggest the sensitivity of Salmonella detection could be enhanced by IMS, particularly in low quality surface waters. Due to its effects on clearance of aquatic pollutants, IMS may be suitable for most DNA polymerases for Salmonella detection.

  9. Performance impact of dynamic surface coatings on polymeric insulator-based dielectrophoretic particle separators. (United States)

    Davalos, Rafael V; McGraw, Gregory J; Wallow, Thomas I; Morales, Alfredo M; Krafcik, Karen L; Fintschenko, Yolanda; Cummings, Eric B; Simmons, Blake A


    Efficient and robust particle separation and enrichment techniques are critical for a diverse range of lab-on-a-chip analytical devices including pathogen detection, sample preparation, high-throughput particle sorting, and biomedical diagnostics. Previously, using insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) in microfluidic glass devices, we demonstrated simultaneous particle separation and concentration of various biological organisms, polymer microbeads, and viruses. As an alternative to glass, we evaluate the performance of similar iDEP structures produced in polymer-based microfluidic devices. There are numerous processing and operational advantages that motivate our transition to polymers such as the availability of numerous innate chemical compositions for tailoring performance, mechanical robustness, economy of scale, and ease of thermoforming and mass manufacturing. The polymer chips we have evaluated are fabricated through an injection molding process of the commercially available cyclic olefin copolymer Zeonor 1060R. This publication is the first to demonstrate insulator-based dielectrophoretic biological particle differentiation in a polymeric device injection molded from a silicon master. The results demonstrate that the polymer devices achieve the same performance metrics as glass devices. We also demonstrate an effective means of enhancing performance of these microsystems in terms of system power demand through the use of a dynamic surface coating. We demonstrate that the commercially available nonionic block copolymer surfactant, Pluronic F127, has a strong interaction with the cyclic olefin copolymer at very low concentrations, positively impacting performance by decreasing the electric field necessary to achieve particle trapping by an order of magnitude. The presence of this dynamic surface coating, therefore, lowers the power required to operate such devices and minimizes Joule heating. The results of this study demonstrate that iDEP polymeric

  10. Ultrasensitive detection of deltamethrin by immune magnetic nanoparticles separation coupled with surface plasmon resonance sensor. (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Li, Lei; Liu, You-Qian; Shi, Xing-Bo; Li, Wen-Jin; Yang, Yang; Mao, Lu-Gang


    Small molecules or analytes present in trace level are difficult to be detected directly using conventional surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor, due to its small changes in the refractive index induced by the binding of these analytes on the sensor surface. In this paper, a new approach that combines SPR sensor technology with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) assays is developed for directly detecting of deltamethrin in soybean. The Fe3O4 MNPs conjugated with antibodies specific to antigen serves as both labels for enhancing refractive index change due to the capture of target analyte, and "vehicles" for the rapid delivery of analyte from a sample solution to the sensor surface. Meanwhile, SPR direct detection format without Fe3O4 MNPs and gas chromatography (GC) analysis were conducted for detection of deltamethrin in soybean to demonstrate the amplification effect of Fe3O4 MNPs. A good linear relationship was obtained between SPR responses and deltamethrin concentrations over a range of 0.01-1 ng/mL with the lowest measurable concentration of 0.01 ng/mL. The results reveal that the detection sensitivity for deltamethrin was improved by 4 orders of magnitude compared with SPR direct detection format. The recovery of 95.5-119.8% was obtained in soybean. The excellent selectivity of the present biosensor is also confirmed by two kinds of pesticides (fenvalerate and atrazine) as controls. This magnetic separation and amplification strategy has great potential for detection of other small analytes in trace level concentration, with high selectivity and sensitivity by altering the target-analyte-capture agent labeled to the carboxyl-coated Fe3O4 MNPs.

  11. A Simple, Cost-Efficient Method to Separate Microalgal Lipids from Wet Biomass Using Surface Energy-Modified Membranes. (United States)

    Kwak, Moo Jin; Yoo, Youngmin; Lee, Han Sol; Kim, Jiyeon; Yang, Ji-Won; Han, Jong-In; Im, Sung Gap; Kwon, Jong-Hee


    For the efficient separation of lipid extracted from microalgae cells, a novel membrane was devised by introducing a functional polymer coating onto a membrane surface by means of an initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) process. To this end, a steel-use-stainless (SUS) membrane was modified in a way that its surface energy was systemically modified. The surface modification by conformal coating of functional polymer film allowed for selective separation of oil-water mixture, by harnessing the tuned interfacial energy between each liquid phase and the membrane surface. The surface-modified membrane, when used with chloroform-based solvent, exhibited superb permeate flux, breakthrough pressure, and also separation yield: it allowed separation of 95.5 ± 1.2% of converted lipid (FAME) in the chloroform phase from the water/MeOH phase with microalgal debris. This result clearly supported that the membrane-based lipid separation is indeed facilitated by way of membrane being functionalized, enabling us to simplify the whole downstream process of microalgae-derived biodiesel production.

  12. Surface electrochemical control for fine coal and pyrite separation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsworth, M.E.; Bodily, D.M.; Hu, Weibai; Chen, Wanxiong; Huang, Qinping; Liang, Jun; Riley, A.M.; Li, Jun; Wann, Jyi-Perng; Zhong, Tingke; Zhu, Ximeng


    Laboratory flotation tests were carried out on three coals and on coal pyrite. Floatability measurements included natural floatability, flotation with a xanthate collector and salt flotation. The ranking of the floatability of the three coals were: Upper Freeport > Pittsburgh > Illinois. The floatability of mineral pyrite and coal pyrite increased markedly with xanthate concentration, but decreased with increased pH. In general, coal pyrite was more difficult to float than mineral pyrite. This was attributed to the presence of surface carbonaceous and mineral matter, since floatability of coal pyrite improved by acid pretreatment. Flotation tests demonstrated that the floatability of coal and mineral pyrite was greatly enhanced by the presence of an electrolyte. Flotation was also enhanced by the addition of modifiers such as CuSO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2} and EDTA. Lime additions markedly reduced the floatability of coal pyrite. Enhanced floatability of coal pyrite resulted when the pyrite was anodically oxidized in a specially constructed electrochemical flotation cell Pretreatment in potential ranges previously observed for polysulfide and sulfur film formation resulted in the enhanced floatability. While interesting trends and influences, both chemical and electrochemical, markedly improved the floatability of coal, there is little hope for reverse flotation as an effective technology for coal/coal-pyrite separations. The effects of poor liberation and entrainment appear overriding.

  13. Extraction, stability, and separation of betalains from Opuntia joconostle cv. using response surface methodology. (United States)

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, Noe; Jaime-Fonseca, Monica R; San Martin-Martinez, Eduardo; Zepeda, L Gerardo


    Betalains were extracted and analyzed from Opuntia joconostle (the prickly pear known as xoconostle in Mexico). For the extraction, two solvent systems were used, methanol/water and ethanol/water. A three-variable Box-Behnken statistical design was used for extraction: solvent concentration (0-80%, v/v), temperature (5-30 °C), and treatment time (10-30 min). The extraction and stability of betalains from xoconostle were studied using response surface methodology (RSM). Techniques such as UV-vis, column chromatography, and HPLC were employed for the separation and analysis of the main pigments present in the extracts. Maximum pigment concentration (92 mg/100 g of fruit) was obtained at a temperature of 15 °C and a time of 10 min for methanol/water (20:80), whereas maximum stability of the pigment was observed at pH 5 and a temperature of 25 °C. HPLC chromatograms showed the main betalains of the xoconostle characterized were betalain, betanidin, and isobetalain.

  14. Informed Source Separation of Atmospheric and Surface Signal Contributions in Shortwave Hyperspectral Imagery using Non-negative Matrix Factorization (United States)

    Wright, L.; Coddington, O.; Pilewskie, P.


    Current challenges in Earth remote sensing require improved instrument spectral resolution, spectral coverage, and radiometric accuracy. Hyperspectral instruments, deployed on both aircraft and spacecraft, are a growing class of Earth observing sensors designed to meet these challenges. They collect large amounts of spectral data, allowing thorough characterization of both atmospheric and surface properties. The higher accuracy and increased spectral and spatial resolutions of new imagers require new numerical approaches for processing imagery and separating surface and atmospheric signals. One potential approach is source separation, which allows us to determine the underlying physical causes of observed changes. Improved signal separation will allow hyperspectral instruments to better address key science questions relevant to climate change, including land-use changes, trends in clouds and atmospheric water vapor, and aerosol characteristics. In this work, we investigate a Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) method for the separation of atmospheric and land surface signal sources. NMF offers marked benefits over other commonly employed techniques, including non-negativity, which avoids physically impossible results, and adaptability, which allows the method to be tailored to hyperspectral source separation. We adapt our NMF algorithm to distinguish between contributions from different physically distinct sources by introducing constraints on spectral and spatial variability and by using library spectra to inform separation. We evaluate our NMF algorithm with simulated hyperspectral images as well as hyperspectral imagery from several instruments including, the NASA Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), NASA Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) and National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) Imaging Spectrometer.

  15. Nanoporous, Metal Carbide, Surface Diffusion Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Way, J.; Wolden, Colin


    Colorado School of Mines (CSM) developed high temperature, hydrogen permeable membranes that contain no platinum group metals with the goal of separating hydrogen from gas mixtures representative of gasification of carbon feedstocks such as coal or biomass in order to meet DOE NETL 2015 hydrogen membrane performance targets. We employed a dual synthesis strategy centered on transition metal carbides. In the first approach, novel, high temperature, surface diffusion membranes based on nanoporous Mo{sub 2}C were fabricated on ceramic supports. These were produced in a two step process that consisted of molybdenum oxide deposition followed by thermal carburization. Our best Mo{sub 2}C surface diffusion membrane achieved a pure hydrogen flux of 367 SCFH/ft{sup 2} at a feed pressure of only 20 psig. The highest H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity obtained with this approach was 4.9. A transport model using “dusty gas” theory was derived to describe the hydrogen transport in the Mo{sub 2}C coated, surface diffusion membranes. The second class of membranes developed were dense metal foils of BCC metals such as vanadium coated with thin (< 60 nm) Mo{sub 2}C catalyst layers. We have fabricated a Mo{sub 2}C/V composite membrane that in pure gas testing delivered a H{sub 2} flux of 238 SCFH/ft{sup 2} at 600 °C and 100 psig, with no detectable He permeance. This exceeds the 2010 DOE Target flux. This flux is 2.8 times that of pure Pd at the same membrane thickness and test conditions and over 79% of the 2015 flux target. In mixed gas testing we achieved a permeate purity of ≥99.99%, satisfying the permeate purity milestone, but the hydrogen permeance was low, ~0.2 SCFH/ft{sup 2}.psi. However, during testing of a Mo{sub 2}C coated Pd alloy membrane with DOE 1 feed gas mixture a hydrogen permeance of >2 SCFH/ft{sup 2}.psi was obtained which was stable during the entire test, meeting the permeance associated with the 2010 DOE target flux. Lastly, the Mo{sub 2}C/V composite

  16. Surface Confined Ionic Liquid-A New Stationary Phase for the Separation of Ephedrines in High-performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Juan LIU; Feng ZHOU; Xiao Hua XIAO; Liang ZHAO; Xia LIU; Sheng Xiang JIANG


    In this article, a new and effective stationary phase based on ionic liquid modified silica is first reported and used for the separation of ephedrines in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The separation results indicate the high efficiency and reproducibility of the stationary phase. The electrostatic interaction, ion-exchange interaction between the solutes and the stationary phase are considered to attribute the effective separation. Moreover, the free silanols on the surface of the silica are effectively masked by the immobilized ionic liquid, a result of which is to decrease the non-specific absorption.

  17. Slightly Conductive Transparent Films for Space Applications: Manufacturability and Durability (United States)

    Uppala, N.; Griffin, J.; Vemulapalli, J.; Hambourger, P. D.


    Highly transparent, slightly conductive films of co-deposited indium tin oxide (ITO) and MgF, have possible applications for environmental protection of exterior surfaces of spacecraft. Reliable preparation of films with the desired sheet resistivity (approximately 10(exp 8) ohms/square) is difficult because the electrical properties of ITO-Mg F, are highly dependent on film composition. We have investigated the use of plasma emission monitoring to improve the reproducibility of films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering. While considerable improve ment was observed, it appears that some in-situ electrical or optica l characterization will be needed for reliable production coating wit h ITO-MgF,. We have also done further evaluation of a possibly undesi rable photoconductive effect previously observed in these films.

  18. Response surface methodology to optimize gradient ion chromatographic separation of inorganic anions and organic acids in tobacco leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Qi Wang; Na Ni Wang; Jia Jie Zhang; Yan Zhu


    The separation optimization of nine organic and inorganic anions in tobacco leaves using gradient ion chromatography by response surface methodology was investigated. In order to achieve this goal the usefulness of the chromatographic response function (CRF) for the evaluation of the two different chromatographic performance goals (resolution and analysis time) was tested. The experiments were performed according to a Box-Behnken design response surface experimental design.

  19. Mechanics of the Separating Surface for a Two-Phase Co-current Flow in a Porous Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander A.


    A mechanical description of an unsteady two-phase co-current flow in a porous medium is developed based on the analysis of the geometry and motion of the surface separating the two phases. It is demonstrated that the flow should be considered as essentially three-dimensional, even if the phase ve...

  20. Surface-Modified Membrane as A Separator for Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Young Kim


    Full Text Available This paper describes the fabrication of novel modified polyethylene (PE membranes using plasma technology to create high-performance and cost-effective separator membranes for practical applications in lithium-ion polymer batteries. The modified PE membrane via plasma modification process plays a critical role in improving wettability and electrolyte retention, interfacial adhesion between separators and electrodes, and cycle performance of lithium-ion polymer batteries. This paper suggests that the performance of lithium-ion polymer batteries can be greatly enhanced by the plasma modification of commercial separators with proper functional materials for targeted application.

  1. Polydimethylsiloxane-Based Superhydrophobic Surfaces on Steel Substrate: Fabrication, Reversibly Extreme Wettability and Oil-Water Separation. (United States)

    Su, Xiaojing; Li, Hongqiang; Lai, Xuejun; Zhang, Lin; Liang, Tao; Feng, Yuchun; Zeng, Xingrong


    Functional surfaces for reversibly switchable wettability and oil-water separation have attracted much interest with pushing forward an immense influence on fundamental research and industrial application in recent years. This article proposed a facile method to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces on steel substrates via electroless replacement deposition of copper sulfate (CuSO4) and UV curing of vinyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). PDMS-based superhydrophobic surfaces exhibited water contact angle (WCA) close to 160° and water sliding angle (WSA) lower than 5°, preserving outstanding chemical stability that maintained superhydrophobicity immersing in different aqueous solutions with pH values from 1 to 13 for 12 h. Interestingly, the superhydrophobic surface could dramatically switch to the superhydrophilic state under UV irradiation and then gradually recover to the highly hydrophobic state with WCA at 140° after dark storage. The underlying mechanism was also investigated by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Additionally, the PDMS-based steel mesh possessed high separation efficiency and excellent reusability in oil-water separation. Our studies provide a simple, fast, and economical fabrication method for wettability-transformable superhydrophobic surfaces and have the potential applications in microfluidics, the biomedical field, and oil spill cleanup.

  2. Disinfection effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolysed water in swine barns. (United States)

    Hao, X X; Li, B M; Zhang, Q; Lin, B Zh; Ge, L P; Wang, C Y; Cao, W


    To evaluate the disinfection effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolysed water (SAEW, pH 6·25-6·53), a new environmental friendly agent for inactivating micro-organisms adhered to the facility and aerosolized in the air of the swine barns and to explore the application of SAEW in livestock industries. Bacteria and fungi were isolated from the swine house air and treated by SAEW. The SAEW solution was flushed onto surfaces and sprayed within the whole swine barn. SAEW with an available chlorine concentration (ACC) of 300 mg l(-1) can inhibit isolated microbes completely. The usage of SAEW (300 mg l(-1) ) resulted in a significant (P reduced 59% of the airborne organisms in 30 min and kept the population of microbes at a reduced level for at least 8 h. SAEW treatment also reduced pathogens on surfaces (P reduce infections in swine barns. The results of this study provide information on the antimicrobial efficiency of SAEW on the airborne bacteria and fungi in swine barns. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Analysis of the separated boundary layer flow on the surface and in the wake of blunt trailing edge airfoils (United States)

    Goradia, S. H.; Mehta, J. M.; Shrewsbury, G. S.


    The viscous flow phenomena associated with sharp and blunt trailing edge airfoils were investigated. Experimental measurements were obtained for a 17 percent thick, high performance GAW-1 airfoil. Experimental measurements consist of velocity and static pressure profiles which were obtained by the use of forward and reverse total pressure probes and disc type static pressure probes over the surface and in the wake of sharp and blunt trailing edge airfoils. Measurements of the upper surface boundary layer were obtained in both the attached and separated flow regions. In addition, static pressure data were acquired, and skin friction on the airfoil upper surface was measured with a specially constructed device. Comparison of the viscous flow data with data previously obtained elsewhere indicates reasonable agreement in the attached flow region. In the separated flow region, considerable differences exist between these two sets of measurements.

  4. Surface-Modified Membrane as A Separator for Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery


    Jun Young Kim; Dae Young Lim


    This paper describes the fabrication of novel modified polyethylene (PE) membranes using plasma technology to create high-performance and cost-effective separator membranes for practical applications in lithium-ion polymer batteries. The modified PE membrane via plasma modification process plays a critical role in improving wettability and electrolyte retention, interfacial adhesion between separators and electrodes, and cycle performance of lithium-ion polymer batteries. This paper suggests ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of preparation of polyimide/polyethersulfone (PI/PES blending-zeolite mixed matrix membrane through the manipulation of membrane production variables such as polymer concentration, blending composition and zeolite loading. Combination of central composite design and response surface methodology were applied to determine the main effect and interaction effects of these variables on membrane separation performance. The quadratic models between each response and the independent parameters were developed and the response surface models were tested with analysis of variance (ANOVA. In this study, PI/ (PES–zeolite 4A mixed matrix membranes were casted using dry/wet phase inversion technique. The separation performance of mixed matrix membrane had been tested using pure gases such as CO2 and CH4. The results showed that zeolite loading was the most significant variable that influenced the CO2/CH4 selectivity among three variables and the experimental results were in good agreement with those predicted by the proposed regression models. The gas separation performance of the membrane was relatively higher as compare to polymeric membrane. Therefore, combination of central composite design and response surface methodology can be used to prepare optimal condition for mixed matrix membrane fabrication. The incorporation of 20 wt% zeolite 4A into 25 wt% of PI/PES matrix had resulted in a high separation performance of membrane material.

  6. Surface Modification for Superhydrophilicity and Underwater Superoleophobicity: Applications in Antifog, Underwater Self-Cleaning, and Oil-Water Separation. (United States)

    Huang, Kang-Ting; Yeh, Shiou-Bang; Huang, Chun-Jen


    A facile yet effective surface modification strategy for superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity was developed by silanization of zwitterionic sulfobetaine silane (SBSi) on oxidized surfaces. The coatings exhibit excellent wetting properties, as indicated by static contact angles of water separation. The SBSi glasses retained their optical transmittance because of the rapid formation of coalesced water thin films on surfaces in contact with water vapor and moisture. In addition, the underwater-oil contact-angle measurements verified the underwater superoleophobicity of the zwitterionic SBSi coatings. The oil spills on the SBSi coating could be readily removed in contact with water to realize the self-cleaning property. Besides, we modified stainless steel wire meshes with SBSi for oil-water separation. The optimal oil recovery rate for the oil-water mixtures reached >99.5% when using the SBSi-coated meshes with a pore size of 17 μm. More importantly, the water flux with modified meshes achieved 6.5 × 10(7) L/m(2)·h·bar, enabling gravity-driven and energy-saving separation. Consequently, we demonstrated the superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity of SBSi, offering promise in solving technological problems of interfacial fog, oil spills, and oil-water separation and thereby showing great potential in large-scale commercial applications.

  7. A self-cleaning polybenzoxazine/TiO2 surface with superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity for oil/water separation (United States)

    Zhang, Wenfei; Lu, Xin; Xin, Zhong; Zhou, Changlu


    Two important properties--the low surface free energy of polybenzoxazine (PBZ) and the photocatalysis-induced self-cleaning property of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles--are combined to develop a promising approach for oil/water separation. They are integrated into a multifunctional superhydrophobic and superoleophilic material, PBZ/TiO2 modified polyester non-woven fabrics (PBZT), through a simple dip coating and subsequent thermal curing method. The resulting PBZT reveals excellent mechanical durability and strong resistance to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as well as acid and alkali. This durable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic fabric is efficient for separating oil/water mixtures by gravity with high separation efficiency, and it can also purify wastewater that contains soluble dyes, which makes it more effective and promising in treating water pollution. Importantly, PBZT demonstrates an integrated self-cleaning performance on the removal of both oil and particle contamination. It is expected that this simple process can be readily adopted for the design of multifunctional PBZ/TiO2 based materials for oil/water separation.Two important properties--the low surface free energy of polybenzoxazine (PBZ) and the photocatalysis-induced self-cleaning property of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles--are combined to develop a promising approach for oil/water separation. They are integrated into a multifunctional superhydrophobic and superoleophilic material, PBZ/TiO2 modified polyester non-woven fabrics (PBZT), through a simple dip coating and subsequent thermal curing method. The resulting PBZT reveals excellent mechanical durability and strong resistance to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as well as acid and alkali. This durable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic fabric is efficient for separating oil/water mixtures by gravity with high separation efficiency, and it can also purify wastewater that contains soluble dyes, which makes it more effective and

  8. Tailoring Surface Properties of Polymeric Separators for Lithium-Ion Batteries by 13.56 MHz Radio-Frequency Plasma Glow Discharge (United States)

    Liang, Chia-Han; Juang, Ruey-Shin; Tsai, Ching-Yuan; Huang, Chun


    The hydrophilic surface modification of the polymeric separator is achieved by low-pressure 13.56 MHz radio-frequency Ar and He gas plasma treatments. The changes in surface hydrophilicity and surface free energy were examined by static contact angle analysis. The static water contact angle of the plasma-modified polymeric separator particularly decreased with the increase in treatment time. An obvious increase in the surface energy of polymeric separators owing to the crosslinking by activated species of inert gases effect of monatomic-gas-plasma treatments was also observed. Optical emission spectroscopy was carried out to analyze the chemical species generated after Ar and He gas plasma treatments. The variations in the surface morphology and chemical structure of the polymeric separators were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. XPS analysis showed significantly higher surface concentrations of oxygen functional groups for monatomic-gas-plasma-modified polymeric separator surfaces than for the unmodified polymeric separator surface. The experimental results show the important role of chemical species in the interaction between Ar and He gas plasmas and the polymeric separator surface, which can be controlled by surface modification to tailor the hydrophilicity of the polymeric separator.

  9. Ion chromatography separation of cotton surface melezitose and raffinose: entomological vs. plant sugars (United States)

    According to previous studies, certain levels of the carbohydrates melezitose and trehalulose deposited on the surface of cotton are indicative of either whitefly or aphid contamination, which may cause problems during cotton processing. Obtaining reliable IC values for those surface sugars is para...

  10. Removal of bacteria from coastal seawater by foam separation using dispersed bubbles and surface-active substances. (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Hanagasaki, Nobuaki; Furukawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Terutoyo


    The removal of bacteria from rearing water and washing water in aquaculture systems, aquariums and fishing port facilities is the most important means of diminishing the risk of fish diseases, improving public health and ensuring high food quality. However, there are few methods of bacterial elimination, e.g., disinfection. Thus, it is necessary to develop a technology for bacterial removal from coastal seawater. In this study, the removal efficiency for several groups of bacteria by foam separation using dispersed bubbles and surface-active substances was determined using both batch equipment and a continuous-flow unit. By batch processing with only 1 mg/l milk casein added as a surface-active substance and by supplying bubbles, viable bacteria, enterococci, Vibrio, and Salmonella-like bacteria were removed effectively at removal efficiencies of 80% or greater. In addition, suspended solids were also removed from coastal seawater. However, fecal coliforms were difficult to remove by foam separation. The removal efficiency for viable bacteria was greater than 70% using a continuous system. Bacteria were concentrated in a very small amount of generated foam and removed from the water. The foam separation using dispersed bubbles and surface-active substances is a feasible convenient technology for seawater purification as a treatment prior to membrane filtration or ultraviolet irradiation.

  11. Surface modification of polytetrafluoroethylene column for two-stationary phase separations by counter-current chromatography. (United States)

    Quan, Kai-jun; Huang, Xin-yi; Li, Xiao-ting; Wang, Gao-hong; Liu, Yan-juan; Duan, Wen-da; Di, Duo-long


    To improve the separation capability of CCC, a novel solid-liquid two-stationary phases CCC (ASP-CCC) column was prepared employing graphene oxide (GO) conjugated poly-dopamine (PD) coating (GO/PD) as auxiliary stationary phase (ASP). The results of Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that nanostructured GO and PD were successfully grafted on the inner wall of the PTFE column. Three alkaloid compounds were selected as the target analytes to evaluate the performance of the novel column. Because of the intermolecular force (hydrogen bond, electrostatic interaction and π-π interaction) between the ASP and model compounds, three analytes were well separated with this novel ASP-CCC column. Additionally, the novel column exhibited higher stationary phase retention ratio, about 8%, than original column without changing the chromatographic condition. Furthermore, the eluotropic sequence of analytes on novel column was in accordance with that in the original column. This suggested that the novel column is a CCC column with auxiliary stationary phase (ASP) in its own right, and the present separation mode is the combination of partition chromatography and adsorption chromatography.

  12. Multiple pole electromagnetic propulsion system with separated ballistic guidance and electrical current contact surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, Jr., James R. (Los Alamos, NM)


    An electromagnetic propulsion system is disclosed having separate rails for ballistic guidance and for carrying current. In this system, one or more pairs of ballistic guidance rails are provided, with each ballistic guidance rail having a pair of current carrying rails joined to it to form a combined rail. Each combined rail is separated electrically from adjacent combined rails by electrically insulating blocks. Each of the current carrying rails in a given combined rail pair have the same electrical polarity, and the polarities alternate between adjacent combined rails. Armatures contact current carrying rails to complete the circuit to generate the accelerating Lorentz force on the armatures. Bore riders on the sabot and/or projectile are in contact with the ballistic guide rails. Separation of the current carrying and ballistic guidance functions increases resistance of the system to rail movement and bending, as well as reduced wear/damage to the rails. In further embodiments, a circumferential over wrap providing compressive force on the rails further increases resistance of the system to rail movement and bending.

  13. Smart surfaces with switchable superoleophilicity and superoleophobicity in aqueous media: toward controllable oil/water separation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lianbin Zhang; Zhonghai Zhang; Peng Wang


    .... Here we have developed smart surfaces on commonly used materials, including non-woven textiles and polyurethane sponges, which are able to switch between superoleophilicity and superoleophobicity in aqueous media...

  14. Fabrication of superhydrophobic copper surface on various substrates for roll-off, self-cleaning, and water/oil separation. (United States)

    Sasmal, Anup Kumar; Mondal, Chanchal; Sinha, Arun Kumar; Gauri, Samiran Sona; Pal, Jaya; Aditya, Teresa; Ganguly, Mainak; Dey, Satyahari; Pal, Tarasankar


    Superhydrophobic surfaces prevent percolation of water droplets and thus render roll-off, self-cleaning, corrosion protection, etc., which find day-to-day and industrial applications. In this work, we developed a facile, cost-effective, and free-standing method for direct fabrication of copper nanoparticles to engender superhydrophobicity for various flat and irregular surfaces such as glass, transparency sheet (plastic), cotton wool, textile, and silicon substrates. The fabrication of as-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces was accomplished using a simple chemical reduction of copper acetate by hydrazine hydrate at room temperature. The surface morphological studies demonstrate that the as-prepared surfaces are rough and display superhydrophobic character on wetting due to generation of air pockets (The Cassie-Baxter state). Because of the low adhesion of water droplets on the as-prepared surfaces, the surfaces exhibited not only high water contact angle (164 ± 2°, 5 μL droplets) but also superb roll-off and self-cleaning properties. Superhydrophobic copper nanoparticle coated glass surface uniquely withstands water (10 min), mild alkali (5 min in saturated aqueous NaHCO3 of pH ≈ 9), acids (10 s in dilute HNO3, H2SO4 of pH ≈ 5) and thiol (10 s in neat 1-octanethiol) at room temperature (25-35 °C). Again as-prepared surface (cotton wool) was also found to be very effective for water-kerosene separation due to its superhydrophobic and oleophilic character. Additionally, the superhydrophobic copper nanoparticle (deposited on glass surface) was found to exhibit antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  15. Corrugation of Phase-Separated Lipid Bilayers Supported by Nanoporous Silica Xerogel Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goksu, E I; Nellis, B A; Lin, W; Satcher Jr., J H; Groves, J T; Risbud, S H; Longo, M L


    Lipid bilayers supported by substrates with nanometer-scale surface corrugations holds interest in understanding both nanoparticle-membrane interactions and the challenges of constructing models of cell membranes on surfaces with desirable properties, e.g. porosity. Here, we successfully form a two-phase (gel-fluid) lipid bilayer supported by nanoporous silica xerogel. Surface topology, diffusion, and lipid density in comparison to mica-supported lipid bilayers were characterized by AFM, FRAP, FCS, and quantitative fluorescence microscopy, respectively. We found that the two-phase lipid bilayer follows the xerogel surface contours. The corrugation imparted on the lipid bilayer results in a lipid density that is twice that on a flat mica surface. In direct agreement with the doubling of actual bilayer area in a projected area, we find that the lateral diffusion coefficient (D) of lipids on xerogel ({approx}1.7 {micro}m{sup 2}/s) is predictably lower than on mica ({approx}4.1 {micro}m{sup 2}/s) by both FRAP and FCS techniques. Furthermore, the gel-phase domains on xerogel compared to mica were larger and less numerous. Overall, our results suggest the presence of a relatively defect-free continuous two-phase bilayer that penetrates approximately midway into the first layer of {approx}50 nm xerogel beads.

  16. Fano interference and a slight fluctuation of the Majorana hallmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seridonio, A. C. [Instituto de Geociências e Ciências Exatas-IGCE, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Física, 13506-970, Rio Claro, São Paulo (Brazil); Departamento de Física e Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 15385-000, Ilha Solteira, São Paulo (Brazil); Siqueira, E. C.; Dessotti, F. A.; Machado, R. S. [Departamento de Física e Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 15385-000, Ilha Solteira, São Paulo (Brazil); Yoshida, M. [Instituto de Geociências e Ciências Exatas-IGCE, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Física, 13506-970, Rio Claro, São Paulo (Brazil)


    According to the Liu and Baranger [Phys. Rev. B 84, 201308(R) (2011)], an isolated Majorana state bound to one edge of a long enough Kitaev chain in the topological phase and connected to a quantum dot, results in a robust transmittance of 1/2 at zero-bias. In this work, we show that the removal of such a hallmark can be achieved by using a metallic surface hosting two adatoms in a scenario where there is a lack of symmetry in the Fano effect, which is feasible by coupling the Kitaev chain to one of these adatoms. Thus in order to detect this feature experimentally, one should apply the following two-stage procedure: (i) first, attached to the adatoms, one has to lock AFM tips in opposite gate voltages (symmetric detuning of the levels Δε) and measure by an STM tip, the zero-bias conductance; (ii) thereafter, the measurement of the conductance is repeated with the gates swapped. For |Δε| away from the Fermi energy and in the case of strong coupling tip-host, this approach reveals in the transmittance, a persistent dip placed at zero-bias and immune to the aforementioned permutation, but characterized by an amplitude that fluctuates slightly around 1/2. However, in the case of a tip acting as a probe, the adatom decoupled from the Kitaev chain becomes completely inert and no fluctuation is observed. Therefore, the STM tip must be considered in the same footing as the “host+adatoms” system. As a result, we have found that despite the small difference between these two Majorana dips, the zero-bias transmittance as a function of the symmetric detuning yields two distinct behaviors, in which one of them is unpredictable by the standard Fano's theory. Therefore, to access such a non trivial pattern of Fano interference, the hypothesis of the STM tip acting as a probe should be discarded.

  17. A self-cleaning polybenzoxazine/TiO2 surface with superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity for oil/water separation. (United States)

    Zhang, Wenfei; Lu, Xin; Xin, Zhong; Zhou, Changlu


    Two important properties-the low surface free energy of polybenzoxazine (PBZ) and the photocatalysis-induced self-cleaning property of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles-are combined to develop a promising approach for oil/water separation. They are integrated into a multifunctional superhydrophobic and superoleophilic material, PBZ/TiO2 modified polyester non-woven fabrics (PBZT), through a simple dip coating and subsequent thermal curing method. The resulting PBZT reveals excellent mechanical durability and strong resistance to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as well as acid and alkali. This durable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic fabric is efficient for separating oil/water mixtures by gravity with high separation efficiency, and it can also purify wastewater that contains soluble dyes, which makes it more effective and promising in treating water pollution. Importantly, PBZT demonstrates an integrated self-cleaning performance on the removal of both oil and particle contamination. It is expected that this simple process can be readily adopted for the design of multifunctional PBZ/TiO2 based materials for oil/water separation.

  18. Metal-insulator transition and nanoscale phase separation in a hole-doped surface reconstruction (United States)

    Mulugeta, Daniel; Snijders, Paul; Weitering, Hanno


    Doping, the deliberate introduction of impurities to alter electronic or magnetic properties, has been a tremendously successful method to study and understand systems with multiple competing interactions, as reflected in both the widespread use of doped semiconductors and in the large number of emergent electronic phases in doping-dependent phase diagrams of e.g. complex oxides. In low dimensional systems, however, the perturbation to the crystal lattice by the dopant atoms can overwhelm a delicate balance of interactions in e.g. a ground state with coexisting phases. Here we introduce a modulation doping technique used to dope holes in a surface reconstruction of Sn on Si(111). Using variable and low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, we observe a doping-induced metal-insulator phase transition that is of a displacive nature, contrasting with the order-disorder nature of other surface phase transitions. Moreover, the transition leads to an intrinsic nanoscale phase coexistence at 5 K never before observed on semiconductor surfaces. Clearly, modulation doping allows us to study the delicate balance of interactions in the phase diagram of low-dimensional electronic surface systems that is otherwise experimentally inaccessible. Funded by NSF DMR.

  19. Obstetric Complications Tied to Slightly Upped Risk for Autism (United States)

    ... Obstetric Complications Tied to Slightly Upped Risk for Autism Study suggests link, but one expert stressed that most complicated pregnancies result in babies without autism To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  20. Antidepressants in Pregnancy Tied to Slight Increase in Autism (United States)

    ... 167328.html Antidepressants in Pregnancy Tied to Slight Increase in Autism But difference in risk is quite ... to rule out the possibility that depression itself increases the risk of autism, rather than the medications ...

  1. Net profit increased slightly in most clothing listed companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Entering July, listed companies’ performance report in the first half of 2012 will be disclosed. Up to July 16th, 54 textile and clothing listed companies published performance report. Among them, 5 companies’ net profit increased, 23 companies’ net profit slightly increased , 6 companies’ net profit slightly reduced, 4 companies’ net profit reduced compared with the expectation, 6 companies had losses for the first time, 9 companies sustained losses and 1 company made up the deficits and got surpluses.

  2. Slight head extension: does it change the sagittal cervical curve?


    Harrison, Deed E.; Harrison, Donald D.; Janik, Tadeusz J.; Holland, Burt; Siskin, Leonard A.


    It is commonly believed that slight flexion/extension of the head will reverse the cervical lordosis. The goal of the present study was to determine whether slight head extension could result in a cervical kyphosis changing into a lordosis. Forty consecutive volunteer subjects with a cervical kyphosis and with flexion in their resting head position had a neutral lateral cervical radiograph followed immediately by a lateral cervical view taken in an extended head position to level the bite lin...

  3. Study on Fault Current of DFIG during Slight Fault Condition


    Xiangping Kong; Zhe Zhang; Xianggen Yin; Zhenxing Li


    In order to ensure the safety of DFIG when severe fault happens, crowbar protection is adopted. But during slight fault condition, the crowbar protection will not trip, and the DFIG is still excited by AC-DC-AC converter. In this condition, operation characteristics of the converter have large influence on the fault current characteristics of DFIG. By theoretical analysis and digital simulation, the fault current characteristics of DFIG during slight voltage dips are studied. And the influenc...

  4. Gas separation using Knudsen and surface diffusion II: Effects of surface modification of epoxy/porous SiO2 composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Isobe


    Full Text Available Epoxy/porous SiO2 composites were prepared with the pore surface modified using various silane coupling agents. The N2 adsorption and desorption isotherm shows that the porous SiO2 used for raw materials has sufficiently high pore volume. Their pore sizes, calculated using Barrett–Joyner–Halenda method as less than 20 nm was markedly smaller than the mean free path of the gases used for this study. The respective degrees of gas selectivity CO2/N2, CH4/N2, and O2/N2 were measured. Results show that the epoxy/porous SiO2 composite surface-modified by APTES only exhibits CO2/N2 gas selectivity at a lower pressure drop. It originates in the affinity between amino group of the APTES and CO2 gas. The epoxy/porous SiO2 composite treated by APTES also shows gas separation capability. The 80% N2/20% CO2 mix gas was converted into 68.2% N2/31.8% CO2 gas after gas separation tests at 25 °C. The gas separation capability was maintained at high temperatures. The 80% N2/20% CO2 mix gas was converted into 70.8% N2/29.2% CO2 gas at 100 °C.

  5. Surface initiated polymerization of a cationic monomer on inner surfaces of silica capillaries: analyte separation by capillary electrophoresis versus polyelectrolyte behavior. (United States)

    Witos, Joanna; Karesoja, Mikko; Karjalainen, Erno; Tenhu, Heikki; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa


    [2-(Methacryloyl)oxyethyl]trimethylammonium chloride was successfully polymerized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization method on the inner surface of fused-silica capillaries resulting in a covalently bound poly([2-(methacryloyl)oxyethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) coating. The coated capillaries provided in capillary electrophoresis an excellent run-to-run repeatability, capillary-to-capillary and day-to-day reproducibility. The capillaries worked reliably over 1 month with EOF repeatability below 0.5%. The positively charged coated capillaries were successfully applied to the capillary electrophoretic separation of three standard proteins and five β-blockers with the separation efficiencies ranging from 132,000 to 303,000 plates/m, and from 82,000 to 189,000 plates/m, respectively. In addition, challenging high- and low-density lipoprotein particles could be separated. The hydrodynamic sizes of free polymer chains in buffers used in the capillary electrophoretic experiments were measured for the characterization of the coatings.

  6. Well-defined nanostructured surface-imprinted polymers for highly selective magnetic separation of fluoroquinolones in human urine. (United States)

    He, Yonghuan; Huang, Yanyan; Jin, Yulong; Liu, Xiangjun; Liu, Guoquan; Zhao, Rui


    The construction of molecularly imprinted polymers on magnetic nanoparticles gives access to smart materials with dual functions of target recognition and magnetic separation. In this study, the superparamagnetic surface-molecularly imprinted nanoparticles were prepared via surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization using ofloxacin (OFX) as template for the separation of fluoroquinolones (FQs). Benefiting from the living/controlled nature of RAFT reaction, distinct core-shell structure was successfully constructed. The highly uniform nanoscale MIP layer was homogeneously grafted on the surface of RAFT agent TTCA modified Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles, which favors the fast mass transfer and rapid binding kinetics. The target binding assays demonstrate the desirable adsorption capacity and imprinting efficiency of Fe3O4@MIP. High selectivity of Fe3O4@MIP toward FQs (ofloxacin, pefloxacin, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, and gatifloxacin) was exhibited by competitive binding assay. The Fe3O4@MIP nanoparticles were successfully applied for the direct enrichment of five FQs from human urine. The spiked human urine samples were determined and the recoveries ranging from 83.1 to 103.1% were obtained with RSD of 0.8-8.2% (n = 3). This work provides a versatile approach for the fabrication of well-defined MIP on nanomaterials for the analysis of complicated biosystems.

  7. ZnO-Nanowires-Coated Smart Surface Mesh with Reversible Wettability for Efficient On-Demand Oil/Water Separation. (United States)

    Raturi, Parul; Yadav, Kavita; Singh, J P


    The rapid industrial growth has led to the large production of oily wastewater. Treatment of oily wastewater is an inevitable challenge to manage the greater demand of clean water for the rapidly growing population and economy. In the present work, we have developed a smart surface mesh with reversible wetting properties via a simple, ecofriendly, and scalable approach for on-demand oil-water separation. ZnO nanowires (NWs) obtained from the chemical vapor deposition method were coated on a stainless steel (SS) mesh. The as-synthesized ZnO-NWs-coated mesh shows superhydrophilic/underwater superoleophobic behavior. This mesh works in "water-removing" mode, where the superhydrophilic as well as underwater superoleophobic nature allows the water to permeate easily through the mesh while preventing oil. The wetting property of ZnO-NWs-coated mesh can be switched easily from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic state and vice versa by simply annealing it at 300 °C alternatively under hydrogen and oxygen environment. The separation is solely driven by gravity. Thus, the reversible wettability of ZnO NWs provides a smart surface mesh which can be switched between "oil-removing" and "water-removing" modes. It was found that for more than 10 cycles of mesh reutilization in both modes alternatively, the separation efficiency of 99.9% stayed relatively invariant, indicating a prolonged antifouling property and excellent recyclability. This work provides a simple, fast, cost-effective, and on-demand solution for oily wastewater treatment and opens up new perspectives in the field of controllable oil-water separation.

  8. Hydrophobic modification on surface of chitin sponges for highly effective separation of oil. (United States)

    Duan, Bo; Gao, Huimin; He, Meng; Zhang, Lina


    A highly hydrophobic and oleophilic chitin sponge was synthesized, for the first time, via a freeze-dried method and then by using a thermal chemical vapor deposition of methyltrichlorosilane (MTCS) at different relative humidity. Fourier-transform infrared, energy-dispersive X-ray spectra, and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the silanization occurred on the pore wall surface of the chitin sponge. The MTCS-coated chitin sponge had interconnected open-cell structures with the average pore size from 20 to 50 μm, and the MTCS nanofilaments immobilized on the chitin matrix, leading to the high hydrophobicity, as a result of the existence of a solid/air composite rough surface. Cyclic compression test indicated that the hydrophobic chitin sponges exhibited excellent elasticity and high mechanical durability. The sponges could efficiently collect organics both on the surface and bottom from the water with the highest 58 times of their own weight absorption capacities through the combination of the particular wettability and great porosity. Furthermore, the biodegradation kinetics of the chitin sponge forecasted that the chitin could be completely biodegraded within 32 days by the microorganisms in the soil. This work provided a new pathway to prepare the chitin-based materials for highly effective removal of oil from water, showing potential application in the pollutant remediation field.

  9. Solvent Separating Secondary Metabolites Directly from Biosynthetic Tissue for Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rudd


    Full Text Available Marine bioactive metabolites are often heterogeneously expressed in tissues both spatially and over time. Therefore, traditional solvent extraction methods benefit from an understanding of the in situ sites of biosynthesis and storage to deal with heterogeneity and maximize yield. Recently, surface-assisted mass spectrometry (MS methods namely nanostructure-assisted laser desorption ionisation (NALDI and desorption ionisation on porous silicon (DIOS surfaces have been developed to enable the direct detection of low molecular weight metabolites. Since direct tissue NALDI-MS or DIOS-MS produce complex spectra due to the wide variety of other metabolites and fragments present in the low mass range, we report here the use of “on surface” solvent separation directly from mollusc tissue onto nanostructured surfaces for MS analysis, as a mechanism for simplifying data annotation and detecting possible artefacts from compound delocalization during the preparative steps. Water, ethanol, chloroform and hexane selectively extracted a range of choline esters, brominated indoles and lipids from Dicathais orbita hypobranchial tissue imprints. These compounds could be quantified on the nanostructured surfaces by comparison to standard curves generated from the pure compounds. Surface-assisted MS could have broad utility for detecting a broad range of secondary metabolites in complex marine tissue samples.

  10. In situ Silver Spot Preparation and on-Plate Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Detection in Thin Layer Chromatography Separation (United States)

    Herman, K.; Mircescu, N. E.; Szabo, L.; Leopold, L. F.; Chiş, V.; Leopold, N.


    An improved approach for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of mixture constituents after thin layer chromatography (TLC) separation is presented. A SERS active silver substrate was prepared under open air conditions, directly on the thin silica film by photo-reduction of silver nitrate, allowing the detection of binary mixtures of cresyl violet, bixine, crystal violet, and Cu(II) complex of 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol. The recorded SERS spectrum provides a unique spectral fingerprint for each molecule; therefore the use of analyte standards is avoided, thus rendering the presented procedure advantageous compared to the conventional detection methodology in TLC.

  11. Zeolite-mediated photochemical charge separation using a surface-entrapped ruthenium-polypyridyl complex. (United States)

    Kim, Yanghee; Lee, Hyunjung; Dutta, Prabir K; Das, Amitava


    Employing the strategy of quaternization of the 2,2' N atoms of the conjugated bipyridine ligand 1,4-bis[2-(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyrid-4-yl)ethenyl]benzene (L), a polypyridyl complex of ruthenium(II) was tethered on the surface of zeolite Y. Electrochemical and spectroscopic properties of the complex suggest that, upon visible photoexcitation of the MLCT band, the electron is localized on the conjugated ligand rather than the bipyridines. Electron transfer from the surface complex to bipyridinium ions (methyl viologen) within the zeolite was observed. Visible light photolysis of the ruthenium-zeolite solid ion-exchanged with diquat and suspended in a propyl viologen sulfonate solution led to permanent formation of the blue propyl viologen sulfonate radical ion in solution. The model that is proposed involves intrazeolitic charge transfer to ion-exchanged diquat followed by interfacial (zeolite to solution) electron transfer to propyl viologen sulfonate in solution. Because of the slow intramolecular back-electron-transfer reaction and the forward electron propagation via the ion-exchanged diquat, Ru(III) is formed. This Ru(III) complex formed on the zeolite is proposed to react rapidly with water in the presence of light, followed by reaction with the propyl viologen sulfonate, to form pyridones and regeneration of Ru(II), which then continues the photochemical process.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Gedeonov


    Full Text Available Due to nuclear weapon testing, nuclear reactor accidents, uranium mining and nuclear fuel reprocessing, additional uranium has been introduced into the environment. 236U isotope is produced from 235U by capture of a thermal neutron and it can be used as an indicator for artificial uranium in the environment. In this paper the sensitive method for236U determination in the surface air is described. This method includes a total dissolution of the air dust in a mixture of mineral acids, uranium concentration and purification by anion-exchange chromatography. Long time measurements of the separated uranium fraction are made with the use of alpha-spectrometer based on PIPS-detector. The lower limit of detection for 236U in the surface air is determined as 5 • 10-9 Bq/m3 (2 ng/m3.

  13. Digitized crime scene forensics: automated trace separation of toolmarks on high-resolution 2D/3D CLSM surface data (United States)

    Clausing, Eric; Vielhauer, Claus


    Locksmith forensics is an important and very challenging part of classic crime scene forensics. In prior work, we propose a partial transfer to the digital domain, to effectively support forensic experts and present approaches for a full process chain consisting of five steps: Trace positioning, 2D/3D acquisition with a confocal 3D laser scanning microscope, detection by segmentation, trace type determination, and determination of the opening method. In particular the step of trace segmentation on high-resolution 3D surfaces thereby turned out to be the part most difficult to implement. The reason for that is the highly structured and complex surfaces to be analyzed. These surfaces are cluttered with a high number of toolmarks, which overlap and distort each other. In Clausing et al., we present an improved approach for a reliable segmentation of relevant trace regions but without the possibility of separating single traces out of segmented trace regions. However, in our past research, especially features based on shape and dimension turned out to be highly relevant for a fully automated analysis and interpretation. In this paper, we consequently propose an approach for this separation. To achieve this goal, we use our segmentation approach and expand it with a combination of the watershed algorithm with a graph-based analysis. Found sub-regions are compared based on their surface character and are connected or divided depending on their similarity. We evaluate our approach with a test set of about 1,300 single traces on the exemplary locking cylinder component 'key pin' and thereby are able of showing the high suitability of our approach.

  14. QoSLight: a new quality of service FSO software (United States)

    Chabane, Mourad; Alnaboulsi, Maher; Sizun, Herve; Bouchet, Olivier


    The atmospheric optical links (FSO) in visible and infrared wavelengths constitute an interesting alternative to creation of new transmission channels for the cordless phone, data-processing networks and high definition television. One finds a choice of varied manufacturers and they propose products whose performances are characterized by a raised rate of transmission, from 2 Mbps to 10 Gbps. But the announced ranges are very important, from 100 to 10,000 meters, in spite of the fact that many manufacturers try to indicate the possible ranges according to time, these indications completely miss standardization and are hardly exploitable because, generally, it is very difficult to know the percentage of time during which a value is reached or exceeded. Availability and reliability of a FSO link depend on used systems but also on climatic and atmospheric parameters such as rain, snow or fog. Library search underlined the lack of reliable data to be able to lay down, in a precise way, the statistical availability of such links, like one usually does for the radio transmission. Before to implement an effective FSO links, we need to know their availability and their reliability. It is the purpose of our study. Its finality is a software which integrate (1) Results of a library search (geometrical attenuation, aerosols, scintillation, environment light, etc), (2) English and French integrated surface weather data, hour per hour, over several years (1995-1999). The result is the presentation of this software, "QoSLight" (Quality of Service Light), making it possible to predict; starting from the data of equipment (power, wavelength, receiver sensibility), geographical situation of a site in France or England (geographical coordinates, altitude, height/ground) and climatic and atmospheric parameter (relative humidity, ground rugosity, albedo, solar radiation, etc) the availability of a FSO link for the following period (year, the most unfavourable month, 8am to 8pm period

  15. Cell-surface modification of non-GMO without chemical treatment by novel GMO-coupled and -separated cocultivation method. (United States)

    Miura, Natsuko; Aoki, Wataru; Tokumoto, Naoki; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi


    We developed a novel method to coat living non-genetically modified (GM) cells with functional recombinant proteins. First, we prepared GM yeast to secrete constructed proteins that have two domains: a functional domain and a binding domain that recognizes other cells. Second, we cocultivated GM and non-GM yeasts that share and coutilize the medium containing recombinant proteins produced by GM yeasts using a filter-membrane-separated cultivation reactor. We confirmed that GM yeast secreted enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fusion proteins to culture medium. After cocultivation, EGFP fusion proteins produced by GM yeast were targeted to non-GM yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741DeltaCYC8 strain) cell surface. Yeast cell-surface engineering is a useful method that enables the coating of GM yeast cell surface with recombinant proteins to produce highly stable and accumulated protein particles. The results of this study suggest that development of cell-surface engineering from GM organisms (GMOs) to living non-GMOs by our novel cocultivation method is possible.

  16. Controlled Growth of Well-Defined Conjugated Polymers from the Surfaces of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes: Photoresponse Enhancement via Charge Separation. (United States)

    Hou, Wenpeng; Zhao, Ning-Jiu; Meng, Dongli; Tang, Jing; Zeng, Yi; Wu, Yu; Weng, Yangziwan; Cheng, Chungui; Xu, Xiulai; Li, Yi; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Huang, Yong; Bielawski, Christopher W; Geng, Jianxin


    The installation of heterojunctions on the surfaces of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is an effective method for promoting the charge separation processes needed for CNT-based electronics and optoelectronics applications. Conjugated polymers are proven state-of-the-art candidates for modifying the surfaces of CNTs. However, all previous attempts to incorporate conjugated polymers to CNTs resulted in unordered interfaces. Herein we show that well-defined chains of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) were successfully grown from the surfaces of multiwalled CNTs (MWNTs) using surface-initiated Kumada catalyst-transfer polycondensation. The polymerization was found to proceed in a controlled manner as chains of tunable lengths were prepared through variation of the initial monomer-to-initiator ratio. Moreover, it was determined that large-diameter MWNTs afforded highly ordered P3HT aggregates, which exhibited a markedly bathochromically shifted optical absorption due to a high grafting density induced planarization of the polymer chains. Using ultrafast spectroscopy, the heterojunctions formed between the MWNTs and P3HT were shown to effectively overcome the binding energy of excitons, leading to photoinduced electron transfer from P3HT to MWNTs. Finally, when used as prototype devices, the individual MWNT-g-P3HT core-shell structures exhibited excellent photoresponses under a low illumination density.

  17. Preparation of a surface-grafted imprinted ceramic membrane for selective separation of molybdate anion from water solutions. (United States)

    Zeng, Jianxian; Dong, Zhihui; Zhang, Zhe; Liu, Yuan


    A surface-grafted imprinted ceramic membrane (IIP-PVI/CM) for recognizing molybdate (Mo(VI)) anion was prepared by surface-initiated graft-polymerization. Firstly, raw alumina ceramic membrane (CM) was deposited with SiO2 active layer by situ hydrolysis deposition method. Subsequently, γ-methacryloxy propyl trimethoxyl silane (MPS) was used as a coupling agent to introduce double bonds onto the SiO2 layer (MPS-CM). Then, 1-vinylimidazole (VI) was employed as a functional monomer to graft-polymerization onto the MPS-CM (PVI-CM). During the graft-polymerization, the influence factors of grafting degree of PVI were investigated in detail. Under optimum conditions (monomer concentration 20wt%, temperature 70°C, initiator amount 1.1wt% and reaction time 8h), the grafting degree of 20.39g/100g was obtained. Further, Mo(VI) anion was used as a template to imprint in the PVI-CM by employing 1,6-dibromohexane as a cross-linking agent, and then Mo(VI) was removed, obtaining the IIP-PVI/CM with many imprinted cavities for Mo(VI). Thereafter, static adsorption and dynamic separation properties of IIP-PVI/CM for Mo(VI) were studied. Results indicate that IIP-PVI/CM shows a specific selectivity for Mo(VI) with the adsorption capacity of 0.69mmol/100g, and the selectivity coefficient of IIP-PVI/CM is 7.48 for molybdate to tungstate anions. During the dynamic separation, IIP-PVI/CM has also good selectivity for separation of Mo(VI) and W(VI) anions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tunable surface waves at the interface separating different graphene-dielectric composite hyperbolic metamaterials. (United States)

    Gric, Tatjana; Hess, Ortwin


    Despite the fact that metal is the most common conducting constituent element in the fabrication of metamaterials, one of the advantages of graphene over metal is that its conductivity can be controlled by the Fermi energy. Here, we theoretically investigate multilayer structures comprising alternating graphene and dielectric layers as a class of hyperbolic metamaterials for THz frequencies based on a general simple model of the graphene and the dielectric layers. By employing a method of matching the tangential components of the electrical and magnetic fields, we derive the relevant dispersion relations and demonstrate that tuning can be achieved by modifying the Fermi energy. Moreover, tunability of the graphene-dielectric heterostructures can be enhanced further by changing either the thickness of the dielectric layers or the number of graphene sheets employed. Calculated dispersion relations, propagation lengths of plasmon modes in the system are presented. This allows us to characterize and categorize the modes into two groups: Ferrel-Berreman modes and surface plasmon polaritons.

  19. Comparing Methods of Separating Bacterial Biofilms on the Surface of Water Transportation Pipes and Equipment of Milking in the Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    setareh nabizadeh


    Full Text Available Introduction Bacterial biofilms can be both useful and harmful based on their combination and locations. Biofilm formation occurs as a stepwise process. Their formation in liquid transportation pipes used for milking system and drinking water in animal farms may create some problems and is a potential source of pollution. Speed of biofilm formation depends on many factors including: construction and functional characteristics of bacteria, the composition and culture conditions such as temperature and substratum. In this research the Bacillus subtillis bacteria with special characteristics was selected due to its capability for biofilm creation. Bacillus subtillis bacteria is mobility and a stronger connection than other bacteria levels are created. In the research conducted in the biofilm there are many resources on biofilm formation by Bacillus subtillis bacteria. Bacillus subtillis is saprophytic in the soil, water and air. There is also the ability to form spores of Bacillus subtillis. Materials and Methods Firstly the possibility of creating biofilms on different Plastic (polyvinilchlorid, polypropylene, polyethylengelycole, alluminum and glass surfaces in three temperatures of 4°C, 30°C and 37°C were studied. Two different methods of biofilms separation including separating swap and vortex were tested and their efficienceies were calculated. After biofilm formation on parts of the vortex separation method after washing parts in sterile conditions in a tube containing normal saline for 4 minutes was vortex. The bacterial suspension decreasing dilution series was created. Pour plate in medium using agar plate count agar and was cultured at 30°C for 24-48 hours. Numbers of colonies were counted. The numbers of biofilm cells were calculated. In swap method after biofilm formation on parts using a cotton swap was isolated biofilms. The swap was transferred to tube containing normal saline and the bacterial suspension decreasing dilution

  20. Separation followed by direct SERS detection of explosives on a novel black silicon multifunctional nanostructured surface prepared in a microfluidic channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talian, Ivan; Hübner, Jörg


    The article describes the multifunctionality of a novel black silicon (BS) nanostructured surface covered with a thin layer of noble metal prepared in the a microfluidic channel. It is focused on the separation properties of the BS substrate with direct detection of the separated analytes utilizing...

  1. Effect of UV-ozone treatment on poly(dimethylsiloxane) membranes: surface characterization and gas separation performance. (United States)

    Fu, Ywu-Jang; Qui, Hsuan-zhi; Liao, Kuo-Sung; Lue, Shingjiang Jessie; Hu, Chien-Chieh; Lee, Kueir-Rarn; Lai, Juin-Yih


    A thin SiO(x) selective surface layer was formed on a series of cross-linked poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membranes by exposure to ultraviolet light at room temperature in the presence of ozone. The conversion of the cross-linked polysiloxane to SiO(x) was monitored by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis, contact angle analysis, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The conversion of the cross-linked polysiloxane to SiO(x) increased with UV-ozone exposure time and cross-linking agent content, and the surface possesses highest conversion. The formation of a SiO(x) layer increased surface roughness, but it decreased water contact angle. Gas permeation measurements on the UV-ozone exposure PDMS membranes documented interesting gas separation properties: the O(2) permeability of the cross-linked PDMS membrane before UV-ozone exposure was 777 barrer, and the O(2)/N(2) selectivity was 1.9; after UV-ozone exposure, the permeability decreased to 127 barrer while the selectivity increased to 5.4. The free volume depth profile of the SiO(x) layer was investigated by novel slow positron beam. The results show that free volume size increased with the depth, yet the degree of siloxane conversion to SiO(x) does not affect the amount of free volume.

  2. Study on Fault Current of DFIG during Slight Fault Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangping Kong


    Full Text Available In order to ensure the safety of DFIG when severe fault happens, crowbar protection is adopted. But during slight fault condition, the crowbar protection will not trip, and the DFIG is still excited by AC-DC-AC converter. In this condition, operation characteristics of the converter have large influence on the fault current characteristics of DFIG. By theoretical analysis and digital simulation, the fault current characteristics of DFIG during slight voltage dips are studied. And the influence of controller parameters of converter on the fault current characteristics is analyzed emphatically. It builds a basis for the construction of relay protection which is suitable for the power gird with accession of DFIG.

  3. Slightly Two or Three Dimensional Self-Similar Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Sari, Re'em; Yalinewich, Almog; MacFadyen, Andrew


    Self similarity allows for analytic or semi-analytic solutions to many hydrodynamics problems. Most of these solutions are one dimensional. Using linear perturbation theory, expanded around such a one-dimensional solution, we find self-similar hydrodynamic solutions that are two- or three-dimensional. Since the deviation from a one-dimensional solution is small, we call these slightly two-dimensional and slightly three-dimensional self-similar solutions, respectively. As an example, we treat strong spherical explosions of the second type. A strong explosion propagates into an ideal gas with negligible temperature and density profile of the form rho(r,theta,phi)=r^{-omega}[1+sigma*F(theta,phi)], where omega>3 and sigma << 1. Analytical solutions are obtained by expanding the arbitrary function F(theta,phi) in spherical harmonics. We compare our results with two dimensional numerical simulations, and find good agreement.

  4. Corrosion inhibitor development for slightly sour environments with oxygen intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylde, J.; Wang, H.; Li, J. [Clariant Oil Services North America, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This presentation reported on a study that examined the effect of oxygen on the inhibition of carbon steel in slightly sour corrosion, and the initiation and propagation of localized attack. Oxygen can enter sour water injection systems through the vapor space in storage tanks and process system. Oxygen aggravates the corrosion attack by participating in the cathodic reaction under full or partial diffusion control. Laboratory testing results were reported in this presentation along with the development of corrosion inhibitors for such a slightly sour system. Bubble testing cells were used with continuous H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixture gas sparging and occasional oxygen intrusion of 2 to 4 hours during a week long test. Linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements and weight loss corrosion coupons were used to quantify the corrosion attack. The findings were presented in terms of the magnitude of localized attacks at different oxygen concentrations and intrusion periods, with and without the presence of corrosion inhibitors. tabs., figs.

  5. Phase separation of monomer in liquid crystal mixtures and surface morphology in polymer-stabilized vertical alignment liquid crystal displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Jae Jin; Lee, Jun Hyup; Kim, Kyeong Hyeon [Development Center, LCD Business, SAMSUNG Electronics Co. LTD., Tangjeong-Myeon, Asan, Chungnam 336-741 (Korea, Republic of); Kikuchi, Hirotsuku; Higuchi, Hiroki [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-Koen, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Kim, Dae Hyun; Lee, Seung Hee, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of BIN Fusion Technology and Department of Polymer-Nano Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)


    The polymer-stabilized vertically aligned (PS-VA) liquid crystal display (LCD) driving mode has high potential for manufacturing low power consuming displays due to the higher transmittance and fast response as compared with the existing patterned vertically aligned and multi-domain vertically aligned modes. In this paper we have investigated the reaction mechanisms of monomer-liquid crystal blends to form a surface pre-tilt angle of liquid crystal in vertical alignment LCD associated with a fishbone electrode structure. The observed sizes of polymer bumps formed on the substrates were found to be dependent on the exposed UV wavelength and were almost equal in both top and bottom substrates. When a large UV wavelength was used, the phase separation mechanism of monomer in PS-VA mode was found nearly isotropic rather than anisotropic in contrast to the previous studies.

  6. Improving optical and charge separation properties of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} by surface modification with vitamin C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajh, T.; Nedeljkovic, J.M.; Chen, L.X.; Poluektov, O.; Thurnauer, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.


    The structural and electrochemical properties of nanoparticles were found to be different from those of the corresponding bulk semiconductors. Due to the specific binding of modifiers to corner defects, the optical properties of small titania particles were red shifted 1.6 eV compared to unmodified nanocrystallites. It was found using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) that, as with organic charge transfer superconductors, these novel nanocrystallites operate with a charge-transfer mechanism, and exhibit semiconducting properties through both constituents (large band gap semiconductor and organic modifier). The EPR spectra were consistent with hole trapping on the surface modifier and electron trapping on shallow interstitial and partially delocalized Ti sites. These systems have an important feature in that charge pairs are instantaneously separated into two phases--the holes on the donating organic modifier and the electrons in the conduction band of TiO{sub 2}.

  7. Cell surface engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae combined with membrane separation technology for xylitol production from rice straw hydrolysate. (United States)

    Guirimand, Gregory; Sasaki, Kengo; Inokuma, Kentaro; Bamba, Takahiro; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko


    Xylitol, a value-added polyol deriving from D-xylose, is widely used in both the food and pharmaceutical industries. Despite extensive studies aiming to streamline the production of xylitol, the manufacturing cost of this product remains high while demand is constantly growing worldwide. Biotechnological production of xylitol from lignocellulosic waste may constitute an advantageous and sustainable option to address this issue. However, to date, there have been few reports of biomass conversion to xylitol. In the present study, xylitol was directly produced from rice straw hydrolysate using a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae YPH499 strain expressing cytosolic xylose reductase (XR), along with β-glucosidase (BGL), xylosidase (XYL), and xylanase (XYN) enzymes (co-)displayed on the cell surface; xylitol production by this strain did not require addition of any commercial enzymes. All of these enzymes contributed to the consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of the lignocellulosic hydrolysate to xylitol to produce 5.8 g/L xylitol with 79.5 % of theoretical yield from xylose contained in the biomass. Furthermore, nanofiltration of the rice straw hydrolysate provided removal of fermentation inhibitors while simultaneously increasing sugar concentrations, facilitating high concentration xylitol production (37.9 g/L) in the CBP. This study is the first report (to our knowledge) of the combination of cell surface engineering approach and membrane separation technology for xylitol production, which could be extended to further industrial applications.

  8. A rapid method for detection of genetically modified organisms based on magnetic separation and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. (United States)

    Guven, Burcu; Boyacı, İsmail Hakkı; Tamer, Ugur; Çalık, Pınar


    In this study, a new method combining magnetic separation (MS) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was developed to detect genetically modified organisms (GMOs). An oligonucleotide probe which is specific for 35 S DNA target was immobilized onto gold coated magnetic nanospheres to form oligonucleotide-coated nanoparticles. A self assembled monolayer was formed on gold nanorods using 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) and the second probe of the 35 S DNA target was immobilized on the activated nanorod surfaces. Probes on the nanoparticles were hybridized with the target oligonucleotide. Optimization parameters for hybridization were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography. Optimum hybridization parameters were determined as: 4 μM probe concentration, 20 min immobilization time, 30 min hybridization time, 55 °C hybridization temperature, 750 mM buffer salt concentration and pH: 7.4. Quantification of the target concentration was performed via SERS spectra of DTNB on the nanorods. The correlation between the target concentration and the SERS signal was found to be linear within the range of 25-100 nM. The analyses were performed with only one hybridization step in 40 min. Real sample analysis was conducted using Bt-176 maize sample. The results showed that the developed MS-SERS assay is capable of detecting GMOs in a rapid and selective manner.

  9. Continuously Phase-Modulated Standing Surface Acoustic Waves for Separation of Particles and Cells in Microfluidic Channels Containing Multiple Pressure Nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Junseok; Kang, Byungjun; Lee, Hyungsuk


    This paper describes continuously phase-modulated standing surface acoustic waves (CPM-SSAW) and its application for particle separation in multiple pressure nodes. A linear change of phase in CPM-SSAW applies a force to particles whose magnitude depends on their size and contrast factors. During continuous phase modulation, we demonstrate that particles with the target dimension are translated in the direction of moving pressure nodes, whereas smaller particles show oscillatory movements. The rate of phase modulation is optimized for separation of target particles from the relationship between mean particle velocity and period of oscillation. The developed technique is applied to separate particles of the target dimension from the particle mixture. Furthermore, we also demonstrate human keratinocyte cells can be separated in the cell and bead mixture. The separation technique is incorporated with a microfluidic channel spanning multiple pressure nodes, which is advantageous over separation in a single pressu...

  10. Continuously phase-modulated standing surface acoustic waves for separation of particles and cells in microfluidic channels containing multiple pressure nodes (United States)

    Lee, Junseok; Rhyou, Chanryeol; Kang, Byungjun; Lee, Hyungsuk


    This paper describes continuously phase-modulated standing surface acoustic waves (CPM-SSAW) and its application for particle separation in multiple pressure nodes. A linear change of phase in CPM-SSAW applies a force to particles whose magnitude depends on their size and contrast factors. During continuous phase modulation, we demonstrate that particles with a target dimension are translated in the direction of moving pressure nodes, whereas smaller particles show oscillatory movements. The rate of phase modulation is optimized for separation of target particles from the relationship between mean particle velocity and period of oscillation. The developed technique is applied to separate particles of a target dimension from the particle mixture. Furthermore, we also demonstrate human keratinocyte cells can be separated in the cell and bead mixture. The separation technique is incorporated with a microfluidic channel spanning multiple pressure nodes, which is advantageous over separation in a single pressure node in terms of throughput.

  11. Growing bubbles in a slightly supersaturated liquid solution

    CERN Document Server

    Enríquez, Oscar R; Bruggert, Gert-Wim; Lohse, Detlef; Prosperetti, Andrea; van der Meer, Devaraj; Sun, Chao


    We have designed and constructed an experimental system to study gas bubble growth in slightly supersatu- rated liquids. This is achieved by working with carbon dioxide dissolved in water, pressurized at a maximum of 1 MPa and applying a small pressure drop from saturation conditions. Bubbles grow from hydrophobic cavities etched on silicon wafers, which allows us to control their number and position. Hence, the experiment can be used to investigate the interaction among bubbles growing in close proximity when the main mass transfer mechanism is diffusion and there is a limited availability of the dissolved species.

  12. Two Slightly-Entangled NP-Complete Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Orus, R


    We perform a mathematical analysis of the classical computational complexity of two genuine quantum-mechanical problems, which are inspired in the calculation of the expected magnetizations and the entanglement between subsystems for a quantum spin system. These problems, which we respectively call SES and SESSP, are specified in terms of pure slightly-entangled quantum states of n qubits, and rigorous mathematical proofs that they belong to the NP-Complete complexity class are presented. Both SES and SESSP are, therefore, computationally equivalent to the relevant 3-SAT problem, for which an efficient algorithm is yet to be discovered.

  13. Static slightly non-spherically symmetric, and slowly rotating linearised vacuum spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Saw, Vee-Liem


    We apply the general method of constructing manifolds of revolution around a given curve to derive first order perturbations on the Schwarzschild metric. Two different perturbations are carried out separately: 1) Non-rotating 2-spheres are added along a plane curve slightly deviated from the "Schwarzschild line"; 2) Slow-rotating 2-spheres are added along the "Schwarzschild line". For (1), we obtain the first order vacuum solution, representing the exterior region of a static slightly non-spherically symmetric body. No higher order vacuum solution exists. For (2), we find that the first order vacuum solution is equivalent to the slowly rotating Kerr metric. This is hence a much simpler and geometrically insightful derivation as compared to the gravitomagnetic one, where this rotating-shells construction is a direct manifestation of the frame-dragging phenomenon. A (full non-perturbative) generalisation to this method is explored here, by adding rotating 2-ellipsoids. It turns out however, that this cannot pro...

  14. Optimization of parameters for obtaining surimi-like material from mechanically separated chicken meat using response surface methodology. (United States)

    Cortez-Vega, William Renzo; Fonseca, Gustavo Graciano; Prentice, Carlos


    Surimi is a semi-processed washed fish mince protein concentrate mixed with cryoprotectants for frozen storage, which is the primary constituent of processed foods. Mechanically separated chicken meat (MSCM) is a common ingredient of comminuted sausages mainly due to its low price. The present work aimed to define the adequate parameters to obtain surimi-like material from MSCM using response surface methodology, and to characterize the chemical and textural properties of this product. The MSCM was utilized in the elaboration of surimi-like material using the bleaching method with sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride solutions. For this purpose, the effect of process parameters viz: temperature (T = 2, 7, and 12 °C), time (t = 5, 10, and 15 min/cycles) and washing solution:MSCM ratio (R = 2:1, 4:1, and 6:1 w/w) were evaluated using response surface methodology. The highest composite design averages obtained were 10.7 % for protein content, 1,003.4 g for breaking force, 645.8 for gel strength, 9.0 N for cutting strength, and 24.1 N.s for work of shearing at the optimum combination of processing conditions of 7 °C, 10 min and 4:1 washing solution:MSCM ratio, corresponding to the central points of the proposed experimental design. The obtained models had high determination coefficients, explaining 95.85, 98.23, 98.41, and 96.08 % of total variability in protein content, cutting strength, breaking force, and work of shearing variabilities, respectively. According to the folding test the surimi-like material presented the same characteristics of a high quality surimi (FT = 5).

  15. China Textile Export Increased Slightly in the First Three Quarters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The General Administration of Customs released the latest information about China's foreign trade. According to the customs statistics, in the first quarters of this year, China's import and export value reached $2.84247 triUion, an increase of 6.2% against the same period last year, including $1.49539 trillion of exports, an increased of 7.4%, $1.34708 trillion of imports, up 4.8%, and $148.31 billion of trade surplus. In terms of the export products, the textile and garment exports grew slightly. In the first three quarters, the garment exports reached $116.06 billion, an increase of 0.7%; textile exports realized $71.05 billion, an increase of 0.2%, and the footwear reached $34.63 billion.

  16. Mirrors fabricated with slightly oxidized C/C composites (United States)

    Wang, Yongjie; Xu, Liang; Ding, Jiaoteng; Xie, Yongjie; Ma, Zhen


    Up to now, traditional materials, such as glass, metal and SiC ceramic, gradually begin to be unsatisfied development of the future mirrors. Designable carbon fiber reinforced composites became optimized material for large aperture lightweight mirrors. Carbon/carbon composites exhibit low thermal expansion and no moisture-absorption expansion problem, therefore, they get particular attention in the space reflector field. Ni was always employed as optical layer in the mirror, however, the coating behaved poor bond with substrate and often peeled off during optical processing. In order to solve this problem, slight oxidation was carried on the C/C composites before Ni plated. The Ni coating exhibited stronger coherence and better finish performance. Finally, a 100mm diameter plane mirror was successful fabricated.

  17. Super revivals of a slightly relativistic particle in a box

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Suranjana


    The time evolution of a particle, caught in an infinitely deep square well, is an apparently well studied and understood subject. However, unexpected features emerge, when one includes small relativistic effects. Indeed, even the smallest corrections to the nonrelativistic quadratic spectrum manifest themselves in a dramatic way. Our theoretical analysis brings to light a completely new time scale, at which the system exhibits surprisingly perfect revivals. This longer time scale rules the system dynamics and replaces the original revival time of the unperturbed system. We investigate the role and the interplay between these two time scales in the slightly relativistic case. Moreover, the examination of sub-Planck structures in phase space allows us to compare the finest details of wave packet dynamics for different values of the relativistic corrections.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A series of slightly crosslinked polyethylenes (SXLPE) was prepared by a one-step method using dicumyl peroxide as crosslinking agent in a Haake Mixer. The gel contents G (Soxhlet extracted) of the samples are in the range from 5% to 20% by weight.Their shear viscosity, crystallization and melting behavior, dynamic mechanical properties and shape recovery effect were systematically investigated in terms of the content of the crosslinking agent. It shows that under certain experimental conditions the SXLPE's may exhibit good shape fixation ability and shape memory properties, which are similar to those of the commercially available shape memory polyethylenes prepared by gamma-irradiation technique. However the shape memory behavior of these samples is not very stable due to their low crosslinking degree, or gel content. Thus their application is limited in special cases with fast strain fixing procedures.

  19. Tunable thermal conductivity in mesoporous silicon by slight porosity change (United States)

    Seol, Jae Hun; Barth, David S.; Zhu, Jia; Ćoso, Dušan; Hippalgaonkar, Kedar; Lim, Jongwoo; Han, Junkyu; Zhang, Xiang; Majumdar, Arun


    We report the thermal conductivity of photoelectrochemically synthesized mesoporous silicon (MPS), with ˜20-nm diameter pores and 52%-58% porosity. The thermal conductivity of MPS samples with a thickness of a few microns was measured using the three omega (3 ω ) differential technique. We experimentally demonstrated that the thermal conductivity of MPS varies between 3 and 7 W/m K at room temperature and is dependent on the photoelectrochemical etching times used during the MPS synthesis, which induces a slight change in the MPS porosity. Calculations were conducted using the Boltzmann transport equation in the relaxation time approximation, with the results suggesting that the large thermal conductivity reduction in the MPSs was not entirely explained by the pore boundary scattering. Our findings indicate that elastic softening in the mesoporous structure may be responsible for the reduction in the thermal conductivity.

  20. Surface behavior and kinetic analysis of macromolecules separated from beer in aqueous solution; Biru yori bunrishita kobunshi no suiyoeki deno hyomen kyodo to sono sokudo ronteki kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segawa, S.; Mitani, Y. [Sapporo Breweries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Brewing Research Lab.; Ogaki, K. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Division of Chemical Engineering


    In a solution of macromolecules such as proteins that have surface activity, the macromolecules stabilize the foam by adsorbing at the bubble surface. These surface-active macromolecules at the gas/liquid interface lower surface energy. The macromolecules adhere to the gas/liquid interface, and then change their shapes. Hydrophobic groups in the molecule turn to the gas phase and hydrophilic groups turn to the liquid phase. The macromolecules separated from beer were dissolved in an acetic acid buffer solution, and then the surface behavior was speculated by the surface tension change. Their surface tension did not reach a constant value for several seconds, not like the low molecular solutions such as ethanol. The decrease in this surface tension could be kinetically analyzed. The surface tension decreased by the adsorption of macromolecules on the liquid surface, and by the shape changes in the molecule (the extension of molecule at the surface). In the {beta}-casein solution, the surface tension decreased in 2 steps that were more clear than in the beer macromolecule solution. This surface tension decrease is also supposed to show the adsorption of protein molecules and the shape change at the liquid surface. (author)

  1. On the use of response surface strategy to elucidate the electrophoretic migration of carbohydrates and optimize their separation. (United States)

    Sarazin, Cédric; Delaunay, Nathalie; Costanza, Christine; Eudes, Véronique; Gareil, Pierre; Vial, Jérôme


    This paper focuses on the optimization with a design of experiments of a new CE method for the simultaneous separation of four carbohydrates of interest (fructose, glucose, lactose, and sucrose) and five potentially interfering carbohydrates (ribose, xylose, maltose, mannose, and galactose) with a highly alkaline separation electrolyte for subsequent applications to food, beverage, forensic, or pharmaceutical samples. First, the factors that potentially affect the carbohydrate migration were identified: NaOH concentration in the separation electrolyte, separation temperature, and separation electrolyte conductivity. A central composite design was then carried out to determine and model the effects of these three factors on normalized migration times and separation efficiency. From the model, an optimization of the separation was carried out using a desirability analysis based on resolutions between adjacent peaks and analysis time. The optimum conditions obtained were a separation electrolyte composed of 98 mM NaOH and 120 mM NaCl to adjust the conductivity at 4.29 S/m and a separation temperature fixed at 26.5°C. Finally, these conditions were experimentally confirmed and the robustness of the obtained separation was checked.

  2. Effects of slightly acidic electrolysed drinking water on mice. (United States)

    Inagaki, Hideaki; Shibata, Yoshiko; Obata, Takahiro; Kawagoe, Masami; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Sato, Masayoshi; Toida, Kazumi; Kushima, Hidemi; Matsuda, Yukihisa


    Slightly acidic electrolysed (SAE) water is a sanitizer with strong bactericidal activity due to hypochlorous acid. We assessed the safety of SAE water as drinking water for mice at a 5 ppm total residual chlorine (TRC) concentration to examine the possibility of SAE water as a labour- and energy-saving alternative to sterile water. We provided SAE water or sterile water to mice for 12 weeks, during which time we recorded changes in body weight and weekly water and food intakes. At the end of the experiment, all of the subject animals were sacrificed to assess serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and creatinine levels and to examine the main organs histopathologically under a light microscope. In addition, we investigated the bacteria levels of both types of water. We found no difference in functional and morphological health condition indices between the groups. Compared with sterile water, SAE water had a relatively higher ability to suppress bacterial growth. We suggest that SAE water at 5 ppm TRC is a safe and useful alternative to sterile water for use as drinking water in laboratory animal facilities.

  3. The slight spin of the old stellar halo (United States)

    Deason, Alis J.; Belokurov, Vasily; Koposov, Sergey E.; Gómez, Facundo A.; Grand, Robert J.; Marinacci, Federico; Pakmor, Rüdiger


    We combine Gaia data release 1 astrometry with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images taken some ∼10-15 years earlier, to measure proper motions of stars in the halo of our Galaxy. The SDSS-Gaia proper motions have typical statistical errors of 2 mas yr-1 down to r ∼ 20 mag, and are robust to variations with magnitude and colour. Armed with this exquisite set of halo proper motions, we identify RR Lyrae, blue horizontal branch (BHB), and K giant stars in the halo, and measure their net rotation with respect to the Galactic disc. We find evidence for a gently rotating prograde signal (〈Vϕ〉 ∼ 5-25 km s-1) in the halo stars, which shows little variation with Galactocentric radius out to 50 kpc. The average rotation signal for the three populations is 〈Vϕ〉 = 14 ± 2 ± 10 (syst.) km s-1. There is also tentative evidence for a kinematic correlation with metallicity, whereby the metal richer BHB and K giant stars have slightly stronger prograde rotation than the metal poorer stars. Using the Auriga simulation suite, we find that the old (T >10 Gyr) stars in the simulated haloes exhibit mild prograde rotation, with little dependence on radius or metallicity, in general agreement with the observations. The weak halo rotation suggests that the Milky Way has a minor in situ halo component, and has undergone a relatively quiet accretion history.

  4. Multifunctional superparamagnetic nanoshells: combining two-photon luminescence imaging, surface-enhanced Raman scattering and magnetic separation (United States)

    Jin, Xiulong; Li, Haiyan; Wang, Shanshan; Kong, Ni; Xu, Hong; Fu, Qihua; Gu, Hongchen; Ye, Jian


    With the increasing need for multi-purpose analysis in the biomedical field, traditional single diagnosis methods cannot meet the requirements. Therefore new multifunctional technologies and materials for the integration of sample collection, sensing and imaging are in great demand. Core-shell nanoparticles offer a unique platform to combine multifunctions in a single particle. In this work, we have constructed a novel type of core-shell superparamagnetic nanoshell (Fe3O4@SiO2@Au), composed of a Fe3O4 cluster core, a thin Au shell and a SiO2 layer in between. The obtained multifunctional nanoparticles combine the magnetic properties and plasmonic optical properties effectively, which were well investigated by a number of experimental characterization methods and theoretical simulations. We have demonstrated that Fe3O4@SiO2@Au nanoparticles can be utilized for two-photon luminescence (TPL) imaging, near-infrared surface-enhanced Raman scattering (NIR SERS) and cell collection by magnetic separation. The TPL intensity could be further greatly enhanced through the plasmon coupling effect in the self-assembled nanoparticle chains, which were triggered by an external magnetic field. In addition, Fe3O4@SiO2@Au nanoparticles may have great potential applications such as enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photo-thermotherapy. Successful combination of multifunctions including magnetic response, biosensing and bioimaging in single nanoparticles allows further manipulation, real-time tracking, and intracellular molecule analysis of live cells at a single-cell level.With the increasing need for multi-purpose analysis in the biomedical field, traditional single diagnosis methods cannot meet the requirements. Therefore new multifunctional technologies and materials for the integration of sample collection, sensing and imaging are in great demand. Core-shell nanoparticles offer a unique platform to combine multifunctions in a single particle. In this work, we have

  5. Hybrid selective surface hydrophilization and froth flotation separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste with novel nanoscale metallic calcium composite. (United States)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Heo, Je Haeng; Park, Min Hee


    Treatment by a nanometallic Ca/CaO composite has been found to selectively hydrophilize the surface of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), enhancing its wettability and thereby promoting its separation from E-waste plastics by means of froth flotation. The treatment considerably decreased the water contact angle of PVC, by about 18°. The SEM images of the PVC plastic after treatment displayed significant changes in their surface morphology compared to other plastics. The SEM-EDS results reveal that a markedly decrease of [Cl] concentration simultaneously with dramatic increase of [O] on the surface of the PCV samples. XPS results further confirmed an increase of hydrophilic functional groups on the PVC surface. Froth flotation at 100rpm mixing speed was found to be optimal, separating 100% of the PVC into a settled fraction of 96.4% purity even when the plastics fed into the reactor were of nonuniform size and shape. The total recovery of PVC-free plastics in E-waste reached nearly 100% in the floated fraction, significantly improved from the 20.5wt% of light plastics that can be recovered by means of conventional wet gravity separation. The hybrid method of nanometallic Ca/CaO treatment and froth flotation is effective in the separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste plastics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of a Stereo Constructed Wetland Mode to the Treatment of Slightly Polluted Source Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Yu-quan; ZUO; Zhuo; GUO; Xiao


    [Objective] The study aimed to discuss the application of a stereo constructed wetland to the treatment of slightly polluted source water. [Method] In this study, a new stereo constructed wetland mode was put forward, and a pilot project of water ecological purification in Xinsheng River, the diversion channel of Shijiuyang Waterwork in Jiaxing City, were analyzed. Afterwards, the impact factors of water purification by the technology were discussed from water quality and quantity, season and climate, species configuration, management and maintenance. [Result] Under three different hydraulic loading conditions, the pilot project effectively improved water SD and DO level, and reduced SS, CODCr, NH3-N, TN and TP significantly in summer and autumn, so that effluent water quality reached surface water standard at Grade III. [Conclusion] The stereo constructed wetland mode composed of constructed wetland and underwater forest used to treat slightly polluted source water is feasible and has a good promotion prospect.

  7. Trapping and Propelling Microparticles at Long Range by Using an Entirely Stripped and Slightly Tapered No-Core Optical Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Si Huang


    Full Text Available A stripped no-core optical fiber with a 125 µm diameter was transformed into a symmetric and unbroken optical fiber that tapers slightly to a 45-µm-diameter waist. The laser light can be easily launched into the no-core optical fiber. The enhanced evanescent wave of the slightly tapered no-core optical fiber can attract nearby 5-µm-diameter polystyrene microparticles onto the surface of the tapered multimode optical fiber within fast flowing fluid and propel the trapped particles in the direction of the light propagation to longer delivery range than is possible using a slightly tapered telecom single-mode optical fiber.

  8. Trapping and propelling microparticles at long range by using an entirely stripped and slightly tapered no-core optical fiber. (United States)

    Sheu, Fang-Wen; Huang, Yen-Si


    A stripped no-core optical fiber with a 125 µm diameter was transformed into a symmetric and unbroken optical fiber that tapers slightly to a 45-µm-diameter waist. The laser light can be easily launched into the no-core optical fiber. The enhanced evanescent wave of the slightly tapered no-core optical fiber can attract nearby 5-µm-diameter polystyrene microparticles onto the surface of the tapered multimode optical fiber within fast flowing fluid and propel the trapped particles in the direction of the light propagation to longer delivery range than is possible using a slightly tapered telecom single-mode optical fiber.

  9. Fabrication of a SU-8-based polymer-enclosed channel with a penetrating UV/ozone-modified interior surface for electrokinetic separation of proteins (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Jung; Yang, Chung-Shi; Lan, Li-Hua; Wang, Pen-Cheng; Tseng, Fan-Gang


    This paper introduces electrokinetic separation inside fully cross-linked epoxy-based polymer channels that were batch modified on the inner surfaces using a penetrating UV/ozone treatment from the outside. The treatment can employ either a 254 nm UV source in an ozone-rich environment or a stand-alone 172 nm UV source to directly generate C=O hydrophilic functional groups on the embedded polymer channel wall surfaces. Short-wavelength UV radiation was employed to break polymer surface bonds inside the channel. Ozone generated directly from air or supplied externally oxidized the reaction site on the activated polymer surface to generate the desired functional groups. An epoxy-based photoresist compound, SU-8 (MicroChem, MA), which is widely used in microfluidic systems, was employed to demonstrate the surface modification. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and high resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HRXPS) were employed to characterize the functional groups that formed after the UV/ozone surface modification and to confirm the formation of O-H functional groups from the phenol group covalently bonded to the SU-8 surface, attributed mostly to the surface hydrophilicity modification. Water contact angles on the modified surface ranged from 72° to 12° depending on the processing time, UV power and ozone concentration. These angles were retained for at least 4 weeks after the process. Finally, the inner wall surfaces of the SU-8-enclosed channels were successfully modified using this technology, and rapid water transportation and EOF pumping were visualized inside the channel after surface modification. Successful electrokinetic separation of 10 mM BSA and 10 mM anti-rabbit IgG labeled with FITC inside the channel was also carried out. The polymer channel revealed a surface charge density of 75% of the zeta potential on a microslide glass surface, indicating the potential for molecule separation using polymer channels instead of glass channels

  10. Spike avalanches in vivo suggest a driven, slightly subcritical brain state. (United States)

    Priesemann, Viola; Wibral, Michael; Valderrama, Mario; Pröpper, Robert; Le Van Quyen, Michel; Geisel, Theo; Triesch, Jochen; Nikolić, Danko; Munk, Matthias H J


    In self-organized critical (SOC) systems avalanche size distributions follow power-laws. Power-laws have also been observed for neural activity, and so it has been proposed that SOC underlies brain organization as well. Surprisingly, for spiking activity in vivo, evidence for SOC is still lacking. Therefore, we analyzed highly parallel spike recordings from awake rats and monkeys, anesthetized cats, and also local field potentials from humans. We compared these to spiking activity from two established critical models: the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model, and a stochastic branching model. We found fundamental differences between the neural and the model activity. These differences could be overcome for both models through a combination of three modifications: (1) subsampling, (2) increasing the input to the model (this way eliminating the separation of time scales, which is fundamental to SOC and its avalanche definition), and (3) making the model slightly sub-critical. The match between the neural activity and the modified models held not only for the classical avalanche size distributions and estimated branching parameters, but also for two novel measures (mean avalanche size, and frequency of single spikes), and for the dependence of all these measures on the temporal bin size. Our results suggest that neural activity in vivo shows a mélange of avalanches, and not temporally separated ones, and that their global activity propagation can be approximated by the principle that one spike on average triggers a little less than one spike in the next step. This implies that neural activity does not reflect a SOC state but a slightly sub-critical regime without a separation of time scales. Potential advantages of this regime may be faster information processing, and a safety margin from super-criticality, which has been linked to epilepsy.

  11. Spike avalanches in vivo suggest a driven, slightly subcritical brain state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola ePriesemann


    Full Text Available In self-organized critical (SOC systems avalanche size distributions follow power-laws. Power-laws have also been observed for neural activity, and so it has been proposed that SOC underlies brain organization as well. Surprisingly, for spiking activity in vivo, evidence for SOC is still lacking. Therefore we analyzed highly parallel spike recordings from awake rats and monkeys, anaesthetized cats, and also local field potentials from humans. We compared these to spiking activity from two established critical models: the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model, and a stochastic branching model. We found fundamental differences between the neural and the model activity. These differences could be overcome for both models through a combination of three modifications: (1 subsampling, (2 increasing the input to the model (this way eliminating the separation of time scales, which is fundamental to SOC and its avalanche definition, and (3 making the model slightly sub-critical. The match between the neural activity and the modified models held not only for the classical avalanche size distributions and estimated branching parameters, but also for two novel measures (mean avalanche size, and frequency of single spikes, and for the dependence of all these measures on the temporal bin size.Our results suggest that neural activity in vivo shows a mélange of avalanches, and not temporally separated ones, and that their global activity propagation can be approximated by the principle that one spike on average triggers a little less than one spike in the next step. This implies that neural activity does not reflect a SOC state but a slightly sub-critical regime without a separation of time scales. Potential advantages of this regime may be faster information processing, and a safety margin from super-criticality, which has been linked to epilepsy.

  12. Immobilization of Styrene-acrylamide Co-polymer on Either Silica Particles or Inner Surface of Silica Capillary for the Separation of D-Glucose Anomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Faiz; Kim, Yune Sung; Cheong, Won Jo [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Styrene-acrylamide co-polymer was immobilized on porous partially sub-2 μm silica monolith particles and inner surface of fused silica capillary (50 μm ID and 28 cm length) to result in μLC and CEC stationary phases, respectively, for separation of anomeric D-glucose derivatives. Reversed addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization was incorporated to induce surface polymerization. Acrylamide was employed to incorporate amide-functionality in the stationary phase. The resultant μLC and CEC stationary phases were able to separate isomers of D-glucose derivatives with high selectivity and efficiency. The mobile phase of 75/ 25 (v/v) acetonitrile (ACN)/water with 0.1% TFA, was used for HPLC with a packed column (1 mm ID, 300 mm length). The effects of pH and ACN composition on anomeric separation of D-glucose in CEC have been examined. A mobile phase of 85/15 (v/v) ACN/30 mM sodium acetate pH 6.7 was found the optimized mobile phase for CEC. The CEC stationary phase also gave good separation of other saccharides such as maltotriose and Dextran 1500 (MW∼1500) with good separation efficiency (number of theoretical plates ∼300,000/m)

  13. On the possibility of producing alumina ceramic with a slight electrical conductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Fritz


    Antistatic alumina ceramic is desirable for certain particle accelerator applications. In general, highly insulating surface close to a charged particle beam must be avoided in order to prevent the formation of ion pockets and other unwanted electrical effects. For the AA vacuum chamber (UHV), an antistatic ferrite has been produced and successfully installed. The fabrication of antistatic alumina might be possible in a similar way. By using certain metal oxides in the cement, which holds the alumina particles together, a slight conductivity could be obtained after the firing and sintering process, without deteriorating the mechanical and outgassing properties of the alumina compound.

  14. Growth of a gas bubble in a supersaturated and slightly compressible liquid at low Mach number (United States)

    Mohammadein, S. A.; Mohamed, K. G.


    In this paper, the growth of a gas bubble in a supersaturated and slightly compressible liquid is discussed. The mathematical model is solved analytically by using the modified Plesset and Zwick method. The growth process is affected by: sonic speed in the liquid, polytropic exponent, diffusion coefficient, initial concentration difference, surface tension, viscosity, adjustment factor and void fraction. The famous formula of Plesset and Zwick is produced as a special case of the result at some values of the adjustment factor. Moreover, the resultant formula is implemented to the case of the growth of underwater gas bubble.

  15. Separation and characterization of effective demulsifying substances from surface of Alcaligenes sp. S-XJ-1 and its application in water-in-kerosene emulsion. (United States)

    Huang, Xiangfeng; Peng, Kaiming; Feng, Yi; Liu, Jia; Lu, Lijun


    The main goal of this work was to analyze the effect of surface substances on demulsifying capability of the demulsifying strain Alcaligenes sp. S-XJ-1. The demulsifying substances were successfully separated from the cell surface with dichloromethane-alkali treatment, and exhibited 67.5% of the demulsification ratio for water-in-kerosene emulsions at a dosage of 356mg/L. FT-IR, TLC and ESI-MS analysis confirmed the presence of a carbohydrate-protein-lipid complex in the demulsifying substances with the major molecular ions from mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) 165 to 814. After the substances separated, the cell morphology changed from aggregated to dispersed, and the concentration of cell surface functional groups decreased. Cell surface hydrophobicity and the ability of cell adhesion to hydrophobic surface of the treated cells was also reduced compared with original cell. It was proved that the demulsifying substances had a significant effect on cell surface properties and accordingly with demulsifying capability of Alcaligenes sp. S-XJ-1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Flotation separation of PET from a PET, PVC and PS mixture by the hydrofilization of the PET surface in NaOH solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Kozáková


    Full Text Available Recycling is the most effective method of waste minimization created by the human activity. The idea of waste re-use as a result of environmental, social and economical factors is becoming very relevant in the last decades. The portion of plastics in the municipal waste is growing year by year as also is its use in the wrapping industry. A condition for recycling technologies is the input of highly pure plastics (without undesirable admixtures suitable for recycling. Various separation technologies can be used which provide separation of particular components of plastic waste and contaminants. Flotation is one of the separation methods used especially for the ore beneficiation but recently is widely also used for the separation of various types of waste. Plastics, which are not possible to be separated by gravitational methods (because they have almost the same density, PET from beverage bottles, PVC from bottles and foils and PS from beverage beakers, were studied. By changing the surface properties of PET from naturally hydrophobic to hydrophilic by the adjustment in a NaOH solution, PET with the recovery of up to 99 % in the non-foamy product and with the product purity of up to 98 % was acquired by the flotation.

  17. Modification of Classical SPM for Slightly Rough Surface Scattering with Low Grazing Angle Incidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on the impedance/admittance rough boundaries, the reflection coefficients and the scattering cross section with low grazing angle incidence are obtained for both VV and HH polarizations. The error of the classical perturbation method at grazing angle is overcome for the vertical polarization at a rough Neumann boundary of infinite extent. The derivation of the formulae and the numerical results show that the backscattering cross section depends on the grazing angle to the fourth power for both Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions with low grazing angle incidence. Our results can reduce to that of the classical small perturbation method by neglecting the Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions.

  18. Numerical study of the effect of an embedded surface-heat source on the separation bubble of supersonic flow (United States)

    Degani, D.


    A numerical study of the conjugated problem of a separated supersonic flow field and a conductive solid wall with an embedded heat source is presented. Implicit finite-difference schemes were used to solve the two-dimensional time-dependent compressible Navier-Stokes equations and the time-dependent heat-conduction equation for the solid in both general coordinate systems. A detailed comparison between the thin-layer and Navier-Stokes models was made for steady and unsteady supersonic flow and showed insignificant differences. Steady-state and transient cases were computed and the results show that a temperature pulse at the solid-fluid interface can be used to detect the flow direction near the wall in the vicinity of separation without significant distortion of the flow field.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Yongxing; YU Xiaojie; FENG Linxian; YANG Shilin


    This paper reported the research results concerning the surface characterization ofpolystyrene-graft- w -stearyl poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-g-SPEO) by means of XPS,contactangle measurement and TEM, and its in vitro blood compatibility assessment by measuringthe plasma recalcification time (RT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT). The XPSresults demonstrated that the surface and bulk composition of the PS-g-SPEO graftcopolymers differ remarkably from each other,and that SPEO component was constantlyenriched at the copolymer/air interface. Contact angle studies indicated that the surfacewater wettability can be adjusted effectively by changing the composition of the copolymer.PS-g-SPEO graft copolymers can undergo microphase separation as clearly illustrated byTEM photographs. The relationship between the surface properties of PS-g-SPEO graftcopolymer and its blood compatibility was also discussed.

  20. Vapor-Liquid Sol-Gel Approach to Fabricating Highly Durable and Robust Superhydrophobic Polydimethylsiloxane@Silica Surface on Polyester Textile for Oil-Water Separation. (United States)

    Su, Xiaojing; Li, Hongqiang; Lai, Xuejun; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Jing; Liao, Xiaofeng; Zeng, Xingrong


    Large-scale fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with excellent durability by simple techniques has been of considerable interest for its urgent practical application in oil-water separation in recent years. Herein, we proposed a facile vapor-liquid sol-gel approach to fabricating highly durable and robust superhydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane@silica surfaces on the cross-structure polyester textiles. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that the silica generated from the hydrolysis-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) gradually aggregated at microscale driven by the extreme nonpolar dihydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS(OH)). This led to construction of hierarchical roughness and micronano structures of the superhydrophobic textile surface. The as-fabricated superhydrophobic textile possessed outstanding durability in deionized water, various solvents, strong acid/base solutions, and boiling/ice water. Remarkably, the polyester textile still retained great water repellency and even after ultrasonic treatment for 18 h, 96 laundering cycles, and 600 abrasion cycles, exhibiting excellent mechanical robustness. Importantly, the superhydrophobic polyester textile was further applied for oil-water separation as absorption materials and/or filter pipes, presenting high separation efficiency and great reusability. Our method to construct superhydrophobic textiles is simple but highly efficient; no special equipment, chemicals, or atmosphere is required. Additionally, no fluorinated slianes and organic solvents are involved, which is very beneficial for environment safety and protection. Our findings conceivably stand out as a new tool to fabricate organic-inorganic superhydrophobic surfaces with strong durability and robustness for practical applications in oil spill accidents and industrial sewage emission.

  1. Design and characterization of materials with microphase-separated surface patterns for screening osteoblast response to adhesion (United States)

    Wingkono, Gracy A.

    Combinatorial techniques have changed the paradigm of materials research by allowing efficient screening of complex materials problems with large, multidimensional parameter spaces. The focus of this thesis is to demonstrate combinatorial methods (CM) and high-throughput methods (HTM) applied to biomaterials design, characterization, and screening. In particular, this work focuses on screening the effects of biomaterial surface features on adherent bone cell cultures. Polymeric biomaterials were prepared on two-dimensional combinatorial libraries that systematically varied the size and shape of chemically-distinct microstructural patterns. These libraries were generated from blends of biodegradable polyurethanes and polyesters prepared with thickness, composition and temperature gradient techniques. Characterization and screening were performed with high-throughput optical and fluorescence microscopy. A unique advance of this work is the application of data mining techniques to identify the controlling structural features that affect cell behavior from among the myriad variety of metrics from the microscope images. Libraries were designed to exhibit chemically-distinct cell-adhesive versus non-adhesive microstructural domains that improve library performance compared to previous implementations that had employed only modest chemical differences. Improving adhesive contrast should minimize combination of effects of chemistry and physical structure, making data interpretation simpler. To accomplish this, a method of blending and crosslinking cell-non-adhesive poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with cell-adhesive poly(·-caprolactone) (PCL) was developed. The behavior of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells cultured on the PCL-PEG libraries were observed, equivalent to thousands of distinct chemistries and microstructures. Cell spreading area, shape, and density upon adhesion on surface patterns are observed in this study. Characterization of the surface library and screening of

  2. Scale separation for multi-scale modeling of free-surface and two-phase flows with the conservative sharp interface method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, L.H., E-mail:; Hu, X.Y., E-mail:; Adams, N.A., E-mail:


    In this paper we present a scale separation approach for multi-scale modeling of free-surface and two-phase flows with complex interface evolution. By performing a stimulus-response operation on the level-set function representing the interface, separation of resolvable and non-resolvable interface scales is achieved efficiently. Uniform positive and negative shifts of the level-set function are used to determine non-resolvable interface structures. Non-resolved interface structures are separated from the resolved ones and can be treated by a mixing model or a Lagrangian-particle model in order to preserve mass. Resolved interface structures are treated by the conservative sharp-interface model. Since the proposed scale separation approach does not rely on topological information, unlike in previous work, it can be implemented in a straightforward fashion into a given level set based interface model. A number of two- and three-dimensional numerical tests demonstrate that the proposed method is able to cope with complex interface variations accurately and significantly increases robustness against underresolved interface structures.

  3. Selective separation and enrichment of glibenclamide in health foods using surface molecularly imprinted polymers prepared via dendritic grafting of magnetic nanoparticles. (United States)

    Wang, Ruoyu; Wang, Yang; Xue, Cheng; Wen, Tingting; Wu, Jinhua; Hong, Junli; Zhou, Xuemin


    In this paper, the novel surface molecularly imprinted polymers based on dendritic-grafting magnetic nanoparticles were developed to enrich and separate glibenclamide in health foods. The density functional theory method was used to give theoretical directions to the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers. The polymers were prepared by using magnetic nanoparticles as supporting materials, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker. The characteristics of magnetic nanoparticles and polymers were measured by transmission electron microscope and SEM, respectively. The enriching ability of molecularly imprinted polymers was measured by Freundlich Isotherm. The molecularly imprinted polymers were used as dispersive SPE materials to enrich, separate, and detect glibenclamide in health foods by HPLC. The average recoveries of glibenclamide in spiked health foods were 81.46-93.53% with the RSD < 4.07%.

  4. Structure, morphology and cell affinity of poly(L-lactide) films surface-functionalized with chitosan nanofibers via a solid–liquid phase separation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jianhao, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Han, Wanqing; Tang, Minjian [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Tu, Mei; Zeng, Rong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Liang, Zhihong [Analytical and Testing Center, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhou, Changren [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China)


    Poly(L-lactide) films with a nano-structured surface by immobilizing chitosan nanofibers (CSNFs) for improving the cell affinity were fabricated via a solid-liquid phase separation technique. The successful grafting of CSNFs on the surface of poly(L-lactide) films was confirmed by the binding energy of N1s at 398.0 eV in the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the amide I and II bands of chitosan at 1650 and 1568 cm{sup −1} in the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Compared with the poly(L-lactide) film, the hydrophilicity was improved with a lower water contact angle of 83.3 ± 1.9° and 75.3 ± 2.5° for the CSNFs-grafted and CSNFs-grafted/anchored poly(L-lactide) films respectively. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy analyses showed that the grafted CSNFs with 50–500 nm in diameter were randomly arranged on the film surface and entangled with the anchored CSNFs on the outermost layer. The 3T3 fibroblasts culture indicated cells tended to attach and stretch along the CSNFs on the film surface. The cell viability measurement revealed that among all the samples, the film with both grafted and anchored CSNFs exhibited the highest cell proliferation rate that was twice as much of the poly(L-lactide) film at 7 d. Herein, engineering a nano-structured surface by solid–liquid phase separation will be a promising tool for surface modification of biomaterials. Highlights: ► A surface nano-structured poly(L-lactide) film with chitosan nanofibers was prepared. ► Grafted and anchored chitosan nanofibers were obtained by different treatment ways. ► Hydrophilicity was improved by immobilizing chitosan nanofibers on the film surface. ► Cell viability was enhanced on modified poly(L-lactide) film with chitosan nanofibers. ► Cells tended to attach and stretch along chitosan nanofibers on the film surface.

  5. Impacts of land surface properties and atmospheric CO2 on the Last Glacial Maximum climate: a factor separation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Munhoven


    Full Text Available Many sensitivity studies have been carried out, using climate models of different degrees of complexity to test the climate response to Last Glacial Maximum boundary conditions. Here, instead of adding the forcings successively as in most previous studies, we applied the separation method of U. Stein et P. Alpert 1993, in order to determine rigorously the different contributions of the boundary condition modifications, and isolate the pure contributions from the interactions among the forcings. We carried out a series of sensitivity experiments with the model of intermediate complexity Planet Simulator, investigating the contributions of the ice sheet expansion and elevation, the lowering of the atmospheric CO2 and of the vegetation cover change on the LGM climate. The separation of the ice cover and orographic contributions shows that the ice albedo effect is the main contributor to the cooling of the Northern Hemisphere, whereas orography has only a local cooling impact over the ice sheets. The expansion of ice cover in the Northern Hemisphere causes a disruption of the tropical precipitation, and a southward shift of the ITCZ. The orographic forcing mainly contributes to the disruption of the atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere, leading to a redistribution of the precipitation, but weakly impacts the tropics. The isolated vegetation contribution also induces strong cooling over the continents of the Northern Hemisphere that further affects the tropical precipitation and reinforce the southward shift of the ITCZ, when combined with the ice forcing. The combinations of the forcings generate many non-linear interactions that reinforce or weaken the pure contributions, depending on the climatic mechanism involved, but they are generally weaker than the pure contributions. Finally, the comparison between the LGM simulated climate and climatic reconstructions over Eurasia suggests that our results reproduce well the south-west to

  6. Hydrophobically-associating cationic polymers as micro-bubble surface modifiers in dissolved air flotation for cyanobacteria cell separation. (United States)

    Yap, R K L; Whittaker, M; Diao, M; Stuetz, R M; Jefferson, B; Bulmus, V; Peirson, W L; Nguyen, A V; Henderson, R K


    Dissolved air flotation (DAF), an effective treatment method for clarifying algae/cyanobacteria-laden water, is highly dependent on coagulation-flocculation. Treatment of algae can be problematic due to unpredictable coagulant demand during blooms. To eliminate the need for coagulation-flocculation, the use of commercial polymers or surfactants to alter bubble charge in DAF has shown potential, termed the PosiDAF process. When using surfactants, poor removal was obtained but good bubble adherence was observed. Conversely, when using polymers, effective cell removal was obtained, attributed to polymer bridging, but polymers did not adhere well to the bubble surface, resulting in a cationic clarified effluent that was indicative of high polymer concentrations. In order to combine the attributes of both polymers (bridging ability) and surfactants (hydrophobicity), in this study, a commercially-available cationic polymer, poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (polyDMAEMA), was functionalised with hydrophobic pendant groups of various carbon chain lengths to improve adherence of polymer to a bubble surface. Its performance in PosiDAF was contrasted against commercially-available poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (polyDADMAC). All synthesised polymers used for bubble surface modification were found to produce positively charged bubbles. When applying these cationic micro-bubbles in PosiDAF, in the absence of coagulation-flocculation, cell removals in excess of 90% were obtained, reaching a maximum of 99% cell removal and thus demonstrating process viability. Of the synthesised polymers, the polymer containing the largest hydrophobic functionality resulted in highly anionic treated effluent, suggesting stronger adherence of polymers to bubble surfaces and reduced residual polymer concentrations.

  7. An asymmetric and slightly dimerized structure for the tetanus toxoid protein used in glycoconjugate vaccines. (United States)

    Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Morris, Gordon A; Adams, Gary G; Rowe, Arthur J; Laloux, Olivier; Cerny, Louis; Bonnier, Benjamin; Duvivier, Pierre; Conrath, Karel; Lenfant, Christophe; Harding, Stephen E


    Tetanus toxoid protein has been characterized with regard oligomeric state and hydrodynamic (low-resolution) shape, important parameters with regard its use in glycoconjugate vaccines. From sedimentation velocity and sedimentation equilibrium analysis in the analytical ultracentrifuge tetanus toxoid protein is shown to be mostly monomeric in solution (~86%) with approximately 14% dimer. The relative proportions do not appear to change significantly with concentration, suggesting the two components are not in reversible equilibrium. Hydrodynamic solution conformation studies based on high precision viscometry, combined with sedimentation data show the protein to be slightly extended conformation in solution with an aspect ratio ~3. The asymmetric structure presents a greater surface area for conjugation with polysaccharide than a more globular structure, underpinning its popular choice as a conjugation protein for glycoconjugate vaccines.

  8. The role of phase separation for self-organized surface pattern formation by ion beam erosion and metal atom co-deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofsaess, H.; Zhang, K.; Pape, A.; Bobes, O.; Broetzmann, M. [Georg-August University Goettingen, II. Institute of Physics, Goettingen (Germany)


    We investigate the ripple pattern formation on Si surfaces at room temperature during normal incidence ion beam erosion under simultaneous deposition of different metallic co-deposited surfactant atoms. The co-deposition of small amounts of metallic atoms, in particular Fe and Mo, is known to have a tremendous impact on the evolution of nanoscale surface patterns on Si. In previous work on ion erosion of Si during co-deposition of Fe atoms, we proposed that chemical interactions between Fe and Si atoms of the steady-state mixed Fe{sub x} Si surface layer formed during ion beam erosion is a dominant driving force for self-organized pattern formation. In particular, we provided experimental evidence for the formation of amorphous iron disilicide. To confirm and generalize such chemical effects on the pattern formation, in particular the tendency for phase separation, we have now irradiated Si surfaces with normal incidence 5 keV Xe ions under simultaneous gracing incidence co-deposition of Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo, W, Pt, and Au surfactant atoms. The selected metals in the two groups (Fe, Ni, Cu) and (W, Pt, Au) are very similar regarding their collision cascade behavior, but strongly differ regarding their tendency to silicide formation. We find pronounced ripple pattern formation only for those co deposited metals (Fe, Mo, Ni, W, and Pt), which are prone to the formation of mono and disilicides. In contrast, for Cu and Au co-deposition the surface remains very flat, even after irradiation at high ion fluence. Because of the very different behavior of Cu compared to Fe, Ni and Au compared to W, Pt, phase separation toward amorphous metal silicide phases is seen as the relevant process for the pattern formation on Si in the case of Fe, Mo, Ni, W, and Pt co-deposition. (orig.)

  9. Excess Pre-Pregnancy Weight May Slightly Raise Baby's Cerebral Palsy Risk (United States)

    ... Excess Pre-Pregnancy Weight May Slightly Raise Baby's Cerebral Palsy Risk But, study found overall odds remain quite ... slight increased risk of having a baby with cerebral palsy, a new study suggests. After reviewing data from ...

  10. Impacts of land surface properties and atmospheric CO2 on the Last Glacial Maximum climate: a factor separation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Munhoven


    Full Text Available Many sensitivity studies have been carried out, using simplified GCMs to test the climate response to Last Glacial Maximum boundary conditions. Here, instead of adding the forcings successively as in previous studies, we applied the separation method of Stein and Alpert (1993, in order to determine rigourously the different contributions of the boundary condition modifications, and isolate the pure contributions from the interactions among the forcings. We carried out a series of sensitivity experiments with the model of intermediate complexity Planet Simulator, investigating the contributions of the ice sheet expansion and elevation, the lowering of the atmospheric CO2 and of the vegetation cover change on the LGM climate. The results clearly identify the ice cover forcing as the main contributor to the cooling of the Northern Hemisphere, and also to the tropical precipitation disruption, leading to the shouthward shift of the ITCZ, while the orographic forcing mainly contributes to the disruption of the atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere. The isolated vegetation contribution also induces strong cooling over the continents of the Northern Hemisphere, that is further sufficient to affect the tropical precipitation and reinforce the southwards shift of the ITCZ, when combined with the ice forcing. The combinations of the forcings generate many non linear interactions, that reinforce or weaken the pure contributions, depending on the climatic mechanism involved, but they are generally weaker than the pure contributions. Finally, the comparison between the LGM simulated climate and climatic reconstructions over Eurasia suggests that our results reproduce well the south-west to north-east temperature gradients over Eurasia.

  11. Superhydrophobic and superoleophillic surface of porous beaded electrospun polystrene and polysytrene-zeolite fiber for crude oil-water separation (United States)

    Alayande, S. Oluwagbemiga; Dare, E. Olugbenga; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Akinlabi, A. Kehinde; Aiyedun, P. O.


    This research presents a cheap route procedure for the preparation of a potential adsorbent with superhydrophobic/superoleophillic properties for selective removal of crude oil from water. In this study, expanded polystyrene (EPS) was electrospun to produce beaded fibers in which zeolite was introduced to the polymer matrix in order to impart rough surface to non-beaded fiber. Films of the EPS and EPS/Zeolite solutions were also made for comparative study. The electrospun fibers EPS, EPS/Zeolite and resultant films were characterized using SEM, BET, FTIR and optical contact angle. The fibers exhibited superhydrophobic and superoleophillic wetting properties with water (>1500) and crude oil (00). The selective removal of crude oil presents new opportunity for the re-use of EPS as adsorbent in petroleum/petrochemical industry.

  12. Superhydrophobic Cu2S@Cu2O film on copper surface fabricated by a facile chemical bath deposition method and its application in oil-water separation (United States)

    Pi, Pihui; Hou, Kun; Zhou, Cailong; Li, Guidong; Wen, Xiufang; Xu, Shouping; Cheng, Jiang; Wang, Shuangfeng


    Cu2S and Cu2O composite (Cu2S@Cu2O) film with micro/nano binary structure was created on copper surface using the mixing solution of sodium thiosulphate and copper sulfate by a facile chemical bath deposition method. After modification with low-cost polydimethylsioxane (PDMS), the superhydrophobic Cu2S@Cu2O film was obtained. The as-prepared film shows outstanding water repellency with a water contact angle larger than 150° and long-term storage stability. The geometric morphology and chemical composition of the film were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), respectively. Moreover, the same method was used to fabricate superhydrophobic/superoleophilic copper mesh, and it could realize separation of various oily sewages with separation efficiency above 94%. This strategy has potential to fabricate the practical superhydrophobic Cu2S@Cu2O film on copper surface on a large scale due to its simplicity and low cost.

  13. Effects of changes in the interparticle separation induced by alkanethiols on the surface plasmon band and other properties of nanocrystalline gold films. (United States)

    Agrawal, Ved Varun; Varghese, Neenu; Kulkarni, G U; Rao, C N R


    Effects of changing the interparticle separation on the surface plasmon bands of ultrathin films of gold nanoparticles have been investigated by examining the interaction of alkanethiols of varying chain length on nanocrystalline gold films generated at the organic-aqueous interface. Adsorption of alkanethiols causes blue-shifts of the surface plasmon adsorption band, the magnitude of the shift being proportional to the chain length. The disordered nanocrystals thus created (lambdamax, 530 m) are in equilibrium with the ordered nanocrystals in the film (lambdamax, 700 m) as indicated by an isosbestic point around 600 nm. Long chain thiols disintegrate or disorder the gold films more effectively, as demonstrated by the increased population of the thiol-capped gold nanocrystals in solution. The rate of interaction of the thiols with the film decreases with the decreasing chain length. The effect of an alkanethiol on the spectrum of the gold film is specific, in that the effects with long and short chains are reversible. The changes in the plasmon band of gold due to interparticle separation can be satisfactorily modeled on the basis of the Maxwell-Garnett formalism. Spectroscopic studies, augmented by calorimetric measurements, suggest that the interaction of alkanethiols involves two steps, the first step being the exothermic gold film-thiol interaction and the second step includes the endothermic disordering process followed by further thiol capping of isolated gold particles.

  14. Fabrication of Polyimide Membrane Incorporated with Functional Graphene Oxide for CO2 Separation: The Effects of GO Surface Modification on Membrane Performance. (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Cheng, Cheng; Wu, Li-Guang; Shen, Jiang-Nan; Van der Bruggen, Bart; Chen, Qian; Chen, Di; Dong, Chun-Ying


    Two kinds of isocyanate were used to modify graphene oxide (GO) samples. Then, polyimide (PI) hybrid membranes containing GO and modified GO were prepared by in situ polymerization. The permeation of CO2 and N2 was studied using these novel membranes. The morphology experiments showed that the isocyanate groups were successfully grafted on the surface of GO by replacement of the oxygen-containing functional groups. After modification, the surface polarity of the GO increased, and more defect structures were introduced into the GO surface. This resulted in a good distribution of more modified GO samples in the PI polymer matrix. Thus, the PI hybrid membranes incorporated by modified GO samples showed a high gas permeability and ideal selectivity of membranes. In addition, enhancement of the selectivity due to the solubility of CO2 played a major role in the increase in the separation performance of the hybrid membranes for CO2, although the diffusion coefficients for CO2 also increased. Both the higher condensability and the strong affinity between CO2 molecules and GO in the polymer matrix caused an enhancement of the solubility selectivity higher than the diffusion selectivity after GO surface modification.

  15. The Impact of Surface Boundary Forcing on Simulation of the 1998 Summer Drought Over the US Midwest Using Factor Separation Technique (United States)

    Stein, Uri; Fox-Rabinovitz, Michael


    The factor separation (FS) technique has been utilized to evaluate quantitatively the impact of surface boundary forcings on simulation of the 1988 summer drought over the Midwestern part of the U.S. The four surface boundary forcings used are: (1)Sea Surface Temperature (SST), (2) soil moisture, (3) snow cover, and (4) sea ice. The Goddard Earth Observing System(GEOS) General Circulation Model (GCM) is used to simulate the 1988 U.S. drought. A series of sixteen simulations are performed with climatological and real 1988 surface boundary conditions. The major single and mutual synergistic factors/impacts are analyzed. The results show that SST and soil moisture are the major single pro-drought factors. The couple synergistic effect of SST and soil moisture is the major anti-drought factor. The triple synergistic impact of SST, soil moisture, and snow cover is the strongest pro-drought impact and is, therefore, the main contributor to the generation of the drought. The impact of the snow cover and sea ice anomalies for June 1988 on the drought is significant only when combined with the SST and soil moisture anomalies.

  16. Continuous-flow separation and pre-concentration coupled on-line to solid-surface fluorescence spectroscopy for the simultaneous determination of o-phenylphenol and thiabendazole. (United States)

    García Reyes, J F; Llorent Martínez, E J; Ortega Barrales, P; Molina Díaz, A


    A novel and single flow-injection system combined with solid-surface fluorescence detection is proposed in this work for the resolution of a mixture of two widely used pesticides (o-phenylphenol and thiabendazole). The continuous-flow methodology is based on the implementation of on-line pre-concentration and separation of both analytes on the surface of C18 silica gel beads placed just inside the flow cell, implemented with gel-phase fluorimetric multi-wavelength detection (using 305/358 and 250/345 nm as excitation/emission wavelengths for thiabendazole and o-phenylphenol, respectively). The separation of the pesticides was possible owing to the different retention/desorption kinetics of their interactions with the solid support in the zone where the stream impinges on the solid material. No previous separation of the analytes before they reach the flow cell is needed thereby simplifying substantially both the procedure and the manifold. By using a sample volume of 2,600 microL, the system was calibrated in the range 0.5-16 and 5-120 ng mL(-1) with detection limits of 0.09 and 0.60 ng mL(-1) for thiabendazole and o-phenylphenol, respectively. The RSD values (n=10) were about 1% for both analytes. The proposed methodology was applied to environmental water samples and also to various commercial pesticide formulations containing both analytes. Recovery percentages were 97-103% and 98-102% for thiabendazole and o-phenylphenol, respectively.

  17. Separation of surface, subsurface and volume fatigue damage effects in AISI 348 steel for power plant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Martin; Nowak, David; Walther, Frank [Technical Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Dept. of Materials Test Engineering (WPT); Starke, Peter [Saarland Univ., Saarbruecken (Germany). Chair of Non-Destructive Testing and Quality Assurance; Boller, Christian [Saarland Univ., Saarbruecken (Germany). Chair of Non-Destructive Testing and Quality Assurance; Fraunhofer IZFP, Saarbruecken (Germany)


    A wide range of industries including energy, chemistry, pharmacy, textiles, food and drink, pulp and paper, etc. is using stainless steels. Metastable austenitic steels such as used in power plants and chemical industry are subjected to cyclic mechanical and thermal loading in air as well as under the influence of corrosive media. This paper provides an overview on different nondestructive and electrochemical measurement techniques, which allow differentiating fatigue damage effects in total strain controlled multiple and constant amplitude tests with respect to damage appearance on surface, in subsurface area as well as in volume of specimens or components microstructure. In addition to conventional mechanical stress-strain hysteresis curves, electrical resistance, magnetic and open circuit potential measurements have been applied to characterize the cyclic deformation behavior of the metastable austenitic steel AISI 348 (X10CrNiNb18-9) in laboratory air and in distilled water. Based on these results obtained, the paper provides an outlook on the possibility for an efficient (remaining) fatigue life evaluation approach, which is adapted to the needs of the application areas.

  18. Anti-biotic Effect of Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water on Plant Bacterial / Fungal Pathogen


    津野, 和宣; 中村, 悌一


    The anti-biotic effect of slightly acidic electrolyzed water on plant pathogen was determined. The spores of 4 kinds of fungal pathogen and 17 kinds of plant pathogenic bacteria were applied at different concentration.###Slightly acidic electrolyzed water showed strong growth inhibition in germination of fungi spores tested. In addition, by the treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water for 30 sec., all kinds of bacteria tested were inhibited to grow on the medium.###The anti-biotic ef...

  19. Determination of 2-propanol in surface cleaning solutions used for copper continuous casting process by flow injection-spectrophotometric detection with on-line column separation. (United States)

    Hayashibe, Yutaka; Tokuda, Masahiro; Takeya, Minoru


    A flow-injection system has been developed for the determination of 2-propanol in the surface cleaning solutions used in the copper continuous cast rod making system. Adsorption chromatography in nitric acid medium was used for the on-line separation of oily substances in the sample solution. Cerium(IV) diammonium nitrate was utilized as the chromogenic reagent for the spectrophotometric detection of 2-propanol. The system permits a throughput of one sample per hour for the oily sample, and of 12 samples per hour for the none-oily sample. The reproducibility has been proven to be satisfactory with a relative standard deviation of less than 6.0% (2.2%(V/V) 2-propanol level, n = 23). The detection limit is 0.01% (V/V).

  20. Surface modified microporous membrane as the separator of lithium ion batteries%聚烯烃型隔膜的表面亲液改性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨振萍; 吴月浩; 边清泉


    Modified polyolefin microporous membrane was prepared as the separator for Li-ion batteries by surface radiation coating of methoxy poly (ethylene oxide) acrylate ester.The modified membrane can be well wetted by liquid electrolyte.The ion conductivity of the membrane is easily achieved by absorbing the liquid electrolyte due to the high amphoteric character surface.With the modified membrane as a separator,the graphite/cathode cell exhibited a good capacity retention.It is also found that the Li-ion cell fabricated in this manner not only has stable capacity retention,but also show good high-rate performance.%为提高锂离子电池聚烯烃多孔膜的亲电液性,增加其离子导电性能,采用辐射聚合甲氧基聚氧化乙烯丙烯酸酯对聚烯烃隔膜进行表面改性.改性后的隔膜对高极性电解液具有良好的湿润性.由于对电解液更高的吸附作用,通过吸附更多的液态电解液,使膜更易传导锂离子.改性膜作为隔膜制备的碳/正极材料锂离子电池不仅具有优良的容量保持性,也具有良好的倍率放电性能.

  1. Non-Gaussian polymers described by alpha-stable chain statistics: Model, effective interactions in binary mixtures, and application to on-surface separation (United States)

    Majka, M.; Góra, P. F.


    The Gaussian chain model is the classical description of a polymeric chain, which provides analytical results regarding end-to-end distance, the distribution of segments around the mass center of a chain, coarse-grained interactions between two chains and effective interactions in binary mixtures. This hierarchy of results can be calculated thanks to the α stability of the Gaussian distribution. In this paper we show that it is possible to generalize the model of Gaussian chain to the entire class of α -stable distributions, obtaining the analogous hierarchy of results expressed by the analytical closed-form formulas in the Fourier space. This allows us to establish the α -stable chain model. We begin with reviewing the applications of Levy flights in the context of polymer sciences, which include: chains described by the heavy-tailed distributions of persistence length; polymers adsorbed to the surface; and the chains driven by a noise with power-law spatial correlations. Further, we derive the distribution of segments around the mass center of the α -stable chain and construct the coarse-grained interaction potential between two chains. These results are employed to discuss the model of binary mixture consisting of the α -stable chains. In what follows, we establish the spinodal decomposition condition generalized to the mixtures of the α -stable polymers. This condition is further applied to compare the on-surface phase separation of adsorbed polymers (which are known to be described with heavy-tailed statistics) with the phase separation condition in the bulk. Finally, we predict the four different scenarios of simultaneous mixing and demixing in the two- and three-dimensional systems.

  2. Mechanism of separating pyrite and dolomite by flotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anping Liu; Wen Ni; Wei Wu


    To study the mechanism of separating pyrite and dolomite by flotation, the acting mechanisms of WHL depressor and both the minerals were studied by means of thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), Fourier transform infrareddiffuse reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-DRS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that WHL formed metal salts with metal ions dissolved in water from dolomite and pyrite, which then deposited on their surfaces. Both of the minerals could be depressed by WHL. In the process of flotation, sulfur was created besides the WHL being absorbed on the surface of the sulfur concentrate, and its recovery rate was slightly affected.

  3. Separation techniques: Chromatography


    Coskun, Ozlem


    Chromatography is an important biophysical technique that enables the separation, identification, and purification of the components of a mixture for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Proteins can be purified based on characteristics such as size and shape, total charge, hydrophobic groups present on the surface, and binding capacity with the stationary phase. Four separation techniques based on molecular characteristics and interaction type use mechanisms of ion exchange, surface adsorp...

  4. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation (United States)

    Li, Sixing; Ma, Fen; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E.; Zeng, Xiangqun; Huang, Tony Jun


    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device.

  5. Inhibition of cobalt active dissolution by benzotriazole in slightly alkaline bicarbonate aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallant, Danick [Departement de Chimie, Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Departement de Biologie, Chimie et Geographie, Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 300, Allee des Ursulines, Rimouski, Quebec (Canada); E-mail:; Pezolet, Michel [Departement de Chimie, Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail:; Simard, Stephan [Departement de Chimie, Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Departement de Biologie, Chimie et Geographie, Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 300, Allee des Ursulines, Rimouski, Quebec (Canada); E-mail:


    The efficiency of benzotriazole as inhibiting agent for the corrosion of cobalt was probed at pH ranging from 8.3 to 10.2 in a sodium bicarbonate solution, chosen to simulate mild natural environments. From electrochemical, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry experiments, we have demonstrated that benzotriazole markedly affects the electrodissolution reactions, which become modeled by the formation of a [Co(II)(BTA){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O] {sub n} film according to two different mechanisms. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy has shown that the polarization of a cobalt electrode at cathodic potentials with respect to its potential of zero charge allows a mechanism of specific adsorption of the neutral form of benzotriazole to take place through a suspected metal-to-molecule electron transfer and which follows Frumkin's adsorption isotherms. At the onset of the anodic dissolution, some experimental evidence suggests that these adsorbed neutral benzotriazole molecules deprotonate to yield a very thin [Co(II)(BTA){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O] {sub n} polymer-like and water-insoluble protective film, responsible for the inhibition of active dissolution processes occurring at slightly more anodic potentials. In the anodic dissolution region, deprotonated benzotriazole species present in the bulk solution favors the formation of a multilayered [Co(II)(BTA){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O] {sub n} film, which also contributes to the inhibition of any further cobalt dissolution usually observed at higher electrode potentials.

  6. Preparation of modified waterworks sludge particles as adsorbent to enhance coagulation of slightly polluted source water. (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Gao, Xiaohong; Xu, Hang; Wang, Kang; Chen, Taoyuan


    Without treatment, waterworks sludge is ineffective as an adsorbent. In this study, raw waterworks sludge was used as the raw material to prepare modified sludge particles through high-temperature calcination and alkali modification. The feasibility of using a combination of modified particles and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) as a coagulant for treatment of slightly polluted source water was also investigated. The composition, structure, and surface properties of the modified particles were characterized, and their capabilities for removing ammonia nitrogen and turbidity were determined. The results indicate that the optimal preparation conditions for the modified sludge particles were achieved by preparing the particles with a roasting temperature of 483.12 °C, a roasting time of 3.32 h, and a lye concentration of 3.75%. Furthermore, enhanced coagulation is strengthened with the addition of modified sludge particles, which is reflected by reduction of the required PAC dose and enhancement of the removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen and turbidity by over 80 and 93%, respectively. Additional factors such as pH, temperature, dose, and dosing sequence were also evaluated. The optimum doses of modified particles and PAC were 40 and 15 mg/L, respectively, and adding modified particles at the same time as or prior to adding PAC improves removal efficiency.

  7. Effects of Microporosity and Surface Chemistry on Separation Performances of N-Containing Pitch-Based Activated Carbons for CO2/N2 Binary Mixture (United States)

    Lee, Min-Sang; Park, Mira; Kim, Hak Yong; Park, Soo-Jin


    In this study, N-containing pitch-based activated carbons (NPCs) were prepared using petroleum pitch with a low softening point and melamine with a high nitrogen content. The major advantage of the preparation method is that it enables variations in chemical structures and textural properties by steam activation at high temperatures. The adequate micropore structures, appropriate chemical modifications, and high adsorption enthalpies of NPCs are favorable for CO2 adsorption onto carbon surfaces. Furthermore, the structure generates a considerable gas/N-containing carbon interfacial area, and provides selective access to CO2 molecules over N2 molecules by offering an increased number of active sites on the carbon surfaces. The highest CO2/N2 selectivity, i.e., 47.5, and CO2 adsorption capacity for a CO2/N2 (0.15:0.85) binary gas mixture, i.e., 5.30 wt%, were attained at 298 K. The NPCs also gave reversible and durable CO2-capturing performances. All the results suggest that NPCs are promising CO2 sorbents, which can meet the challenges of current CO2 capture and separation techniques.

  8. Effects of Microporosity and Surface Chemistry on Separation Performances of N-Containing Pitch-Based Activated Carbons for CO2/N2 Binary Mixture (United States)

    Lee, Min-Sang; Park, Mira; Kim, Hak Yong; Park, Soo-Jin


    In this study, N-containing pitch-based activated carbons (NPCs) were prepared using petroleum pitch with a low softening point and melamine with a high nitrogen content. The major advantage of the preparation method is that it enables variations in chemical structures and textural properties by steam activation at high temperatures. The adequate micropore structures, appropriate chemical modifications, and high adsorption enthalpies of NPCs are favorable for CO2 adsorption onto carbon surfaces. Furthermore, the structure generates a considerable gas/N-containing carbon interfacial area, and provides selective access to CO2 molecules over N2 molecules by offering an increased number of active sites on the carbon surfaces. The highest CO2/N2 selectivity, i.e., 47.5, and CO2 adsorption capacity for a CO2/N2 (0.15:0.85) binary gas mixture, i.e., 5.30 wt%, were attained at 298 K. The NPCs also gave reversible and durable CO2-capturing performances. All the results suggest that NPCs are promising CO2 sorbents, which can meet the challenges of current CO2 capture and separation techniques. PMID:26987683

  9. Separation of flow

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Paul K


    Interdisciplinary and Advanced Topics in Science and Engineering, Volume 3: Separation of Flow presents the problem of the separation of fluid flow. This book provides information covering the fields of basic physical processes, analyses, and experiments concerning flow separation.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the flow separation on the body surface as discusses in various classical examples. This text then examines the analytical and experimental results of the laminar boundary layer of steady, two-dimensional flows in the subsonic speed range. Other chapt

  10. Method development and validation for optimised separation of salicylic, acetyl salicylic and ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical formulations by hydrophilic interaction chromatography and response surface methodology. (United States)

    Hatambeygi, Nader; Abedi, Ghazaleh; Talebi, Mohammad


    This paper introduces a design of experiments (DOE) approach for method optimisation in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC). An optimisation strategy for the separation of acetylsalicylic acid, its major impurity salicylic acid and ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical formulations by HILIC is presented, with the aid of response surface methodology (RSM) and Derringer's desirability function. A Box-Behnken experimental design was used to build the mathematical models and then to choose the significant parameters for the optimisation by simultaneously taking both resolution and retention time as the responses. The refined model had a satisfactory coefficient (R²>0.92, n=27). The four independent variables studied simultaneously were: acetonitrile content of the mobile phase, pH and concentration of buffer and column temperature each at three levels. Of these, the concentration of buffer and its cross-product with pH had a significant, positive influence on all studied responses. For the test compounds, the best separation conditions were: acetonitrile/22 mM ammonium acetate, pH 4.4 (82:18, v/v) as the mobile phase and column temperature of 28°C. The methodology also captured the interaction between variables which enabled exploration of the retention mechanism involved. It would be inferred that the retention is governed by a compromise between hydrophilic partitioning and ionic interaction. The optimised method was further validated according to the ICH guidelines with respect to linearity and range, precision, accuracy, specificity and sensitivity. The robustness of the method was also determined and confirmed by overlying counter plots of responses which were derived from the experimental design utilised for method optimisation.

  11. Experimental Investigations on the Interactions Between Liquids and Structures to Passively Control the Surface-Driven Capillary Flow in Microfluidic Lab-On Systems to Separate the Microparticles for Bioengineering Applications (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhadeep

    In this research paper, total 246 individual microfluidic devices have been fabricated by maskless lithography, hot embossing lithography and direct bonding technique. The effect of surface area to volume ratio on the surface-driven capillary flow of different liquids has been experimentally investigated in these microfluidic devices fabricated by polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Also, the individual effects of liquid viscosity and surface wettability on the surface-driven capillary flow of different liquids are experimentally investigated. The polystyrene particles of 10μm diameters have been separated from the aqueous microparticle suspensions in the microfluidic lab-on-a-chip systems with 100% separation efficiency. Also, the polystyrene particles of 5μm diameters have been separated from a different set of aqueous microparticle suspensions in the microfluidic lab-on-a-chip systems with 100% separation efficiency. The individual designs of the microfluidic lab-on-a-chip systems are a novel approach in this research paper. The effect of surface area to volume ratio on the separation time is experimentally investigated as another novel approach of this research paper.

  12. A comparison of cellulosic fuel yields and separated soil-surface CO2 fluxes in maize and prairie biofuel cropping systems (United States)

    Nichols, Virginia A.

    It has been suggested that strategic incorporation of perennial vegetation into agricultural landscapes could provide ecosystem services while maintaining agricultural productivity. To evaluate potential use of prairie as a Midwestern cellulosic feedstock, we investigated theoretical cellulosic fuel yields, as well as soil-surface carbon dioxide emissions of prairie-based biofuel systems as compared to maize-based systems on fertile soils in Boone County, IA, USA. Investigated systems were: a maize-soybean rotation grown for grain only, continuous maize grown for grain and stover both with and without a winter rye cover crop, and a 31-species reconstructed prairie grown with and without spring nitrogen fertilization for fall-harvested biomass. From 2009-2013, the highest producing system was N-fertilized prairie, averaging 10.4 Mg ha -1 yr-1 above-ground biomass with average harvest removals of 7.8 Mg ha-1 yr-1. The unfertilized prairie produced 7.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1, averaging harvests of 5.3 Mg ha-1 yr-1. Lowest cellulosic biomass harvests were realized from continuous maize systems, averaging 3.5 Mg ha -1 yr-1 when grown with, and 3.7 Mg ha-1 yr-1 when grown without a winter rye cover crop, respectively. Un-fertilized prairie biomass and maize stover had equivalent dietary conversion ratios at 330 g ethanol kg-1 dry biomass, but N-fertilized prairie was lower at 315. Over four years prairie systems averaged 1287 L cellulosic ethanol ha-1 yr-1 more than maize systems, with fertilization increasing prairie ethanol production by 865 L ha-1 yr-1. Harvested biomass accounted for >90% of ethanol yield variation. A major hurdle in carbon cycling studies is the separation of the soil-surface CO2 flux into its respective components. From 2012-2013 we used a shading method to separate soil-surface CO2 resulting from oxidation of soil organic matter and CO2 derived from live-root activity in three systems: unfertilized prairie, N-fertilized prairie, and continuous maize

  13. Separation Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynolds, John C.


    expressions) for accessing and modifying shared structures, and for explicit allocation and deallocation of storage. Assertions are extended by introducing a "separating conjunction" that asserts that its sub-formulas hold for disjoint parts of the heap, and a closely related "separating implication". Coupled......, dynamically allocated arrays, and recursive procedures. We will also discuss promising future directions....

  14. Radial flow of slightly compressible fluids: A finite element-finite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Radial flow of slightly compressible fluids: A finite element-finite differences approach. JA Akpobi, ED Akpobi ...

  15. Propagation, reflection, and transmission of SH-waves in slightly compressible, finitely deformed elastic media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The propagation, reflection, and transmission of SH waves in slightly com-pressible, finitely deformed elastic media are considered in this paper. The dispersion relation for SH-wave propagation in slightly compressible, finitely deformed layer over-lying a slightly compressible, finitely deformed half-space is derived. The present paper also deals with the reflection and refraction (transmission) phenomena due to the SH wave incident at the plane interface between two distinct slightly compressible, finitely deformed elastic media. The closed form expressions for the amplitude ratios of reflection and refraction coefficients of the reflected and refracted SH waves are obtained from suit-able boundary conditions. For the numerical discussions, we consider the Neo-Hookean form of a strain energy function. The phase speed curves, the variations of reflection, and transmission coefficients with the angle of incidence, and the plots of the slowness sections are presented by means of graphs.

  16. Distribution and Niche Separation of Planktonic Microbial Communities in the Water Columns from the Surface to the Hadal Waters of the Japan Trench under the Eutrophic Ocean (United States)

    Nunoura, Takuro; Hirai, Miho; Yoshida-Takashima, Yukari; Nishizawa, Manabu; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Yokokawa, Taichi; Miyazaki, Junichi; Koide, Osamu; Makita, Hiroko; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Sunamura, Michinari; Takai, Ken


    The Japan Trench is located under the eutrophic Northwestern Pacific while the Mariana Trench that harbors the unique hadal planktonic biosphere is located under the oligotrophic Pacific. Water samples from the sea surface to just above the seafloor at a total of 11 stations including a trench axis station, were investigated several months after the Tohoku Earthquake in March 2011. High turbidity zones in deep waters were observed at most of the sampling stations. The small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene community structures in the hadal waters (water depths below 6000 m) at the trench axis station were distinct from those in the overlying meso-, bathy and abyssopelagic waters (water depths between 200 and 1000 m, 1000 and 4000 m, and 4000 and 6000 m, respectively), although the SSU rRNA gene sequences suggested that potential heterotrophic bacteria dominated in all of the waters. Potential niche separation of nitrifiers, including ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), was revealed by quantitative PCR analyses. It seems likely that Nitrosopumilus-like AOAs respond to a high flux of electron donors and dominate in several zones of water columns including shallow and very deep waters. This study highlights the effects of suspended organic matter, as induced by seafloor deformation, on microbial communities in deep waters and confirm the occurrence of the distinctive hadal biosphere in global trench environments hypothesized in the previous study. PMID:27559333

  17. Application of response surface methodology and central composite rotatable design for modeling the influence of some operating variables of a Multi-Gravity Separator for coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Aslan [Cumhuriyet University, Sivas (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department


    In this study, the application of response surface methodology (RSM) and central composite rotatable design (CCRD) for modeling the influence of some operating variables on the performance of a Multi-Gravity Separator (MGS) for coal cleaning was discussed. Four operating variables of MGS, namely drum speed, tilt angle, wash water and feed solids were changed during the tests based on the CCRD. In order to produce clean coal with MGS, mathematical model equations were derived by computer simulation programming applying least squares method using MATLAB 7.1. These equations that are second-order response functions representing ash content and combustible recovery of clean coal were expressed as functions of four operating parameters of MGS. Predicted values were found to be in good agreement with experimental values (R{sup 2} values of 0.84 and 0.93 for ash content and combustible recovery of clean coal, respectively). This study has shown that the CCRD and RSM could efficiently be applied for the modeling of MGS for coal and it is economical way of obtaining the maximum amount of information in a short period of time and with the fewest number of experiments. 12 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.


    Skarstrom, C.


    A centrifugal separator is described for separating gaseous mixtures where the temperature gradients both longitudinally and radially of the centrifuge may be controlled effectively to produce a maximum separation of the process gases flowing through. Tbe invention provides for the balancing of increases and decreases in temperature in various zones of the centrifuge chamber as the result of compression and expansions respectively, of process gases and may be employed effectively both to neutralize harmful temperature gradients and to utilize beneficial temperaturc gradients within the centrifuge.

  19. Continuous acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation and gas production under slight pressure in a membrane bioreactor. (United States)

    Chen, Chunyan; Wang, Linyuan; Xiao, Guoqing; Liu, Yucheng; Xiao, Zeyi; Deng, Qing; Yao, Peina


    Two rounds of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation under slight pressure were carried out in the continuous and closed-circulating fermentation (CCCF) system. Spores of the clostridium were observed and counted, with the maximum number of 2.1 × 10(8) and 2.3 × 10(8)ml(-1) separately. The fermentation profiles were comparable with that at atmospheric pressure, showing an average butanol productivity of 0.14 and 0.13 g L(-1)h(-1). Moreover, the average gas productivities of 0.28 and 0.27 L L(-1)h(-1) were obtained in two rounds of CCCF, and the cumulative gas production of 52.64 and 25.92 L L(-1) were achieved, with the hydrogen volume fraction of 41.43% and 38.08% respectively. The results suggested that slight pressures have no obvious effect on fermentation performance, and also indicated the significance and feasibility of gas recovery in the continuous ABE fermentation process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of a surface-grafted Cd(II) ion-imprinted polymer for selective separation of Cd(II) ion from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Min [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Feng, Changgen, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Li, Mingyu; Zeng, Qingxuan; Gan, Qiang [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Yang, Haiyan [Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China)


    Highlights: • Cd(II) ion-imprinted polymer (Cd(II)-IIP) is prepared. • Cd(II)-IIP shows high stability, good selectivity and reusability. • Cd(II)-IIP can be used as a sorbent for selective removal of Cd(II) ion. - Abstract: A novel Cd(II) ion-imprinted polymer (Cd(II)-IIP) was prepared with surface imprinting technology by using cadmium chloride as a template and allyl thiourea (ATU) as a functional monomer for on-line solid-phase extraction of trace Cd(II) ion and selective separation Cd(II) ion in water samples. The Cd(II)-IIP exhibited good chemical performance and thermal stability. Kinetics studies showed that the equilibrium adsorption was achieved within 8.0 min and the adsorption process can be described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Compared to the Cd(II) non-imprinted polymer (Cd(II)-NIP), the Cd(II)-IIP had a higher adsorption capacity and selectivity for Cd(II) ion. The maximum adsorption capacities of the Cd(II)-IIP and Cd(II)-NIP for Cd(II) were 38.30 and 13.21 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. The relative selectivity coefficients of the adsorbent for Cd(II) in the presence of Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} were 2.86, 6.42, 11.50, 9.46 and 3.73, respectively. In addition, the Cd(II) ion adsorbed was easy to remove from sorbent and the Cd(II)-IIP exhibited good stability and reusability. The adsorption capacity had no obvious decrease after being used six times. The accuracy of this method was verified by the standard reference material, it was then applied for cadmium ion determination in different types of water samples.

  1. Automatic analysis of the slight change image for unsupervised change detection (United States)

    Yang, Jilian; Sun, Weidong


    We propose an unsupervised method for slight change extraction and detection in multitemporal hyperspectral image sequence. To exploit the spectral signatures in hyperspectral images, autoregressive integrated moving average and fitting models are employed to create a prediction of single-band and multiband time series. Minimum mean absolute error index is then applied to obtain the preliminary change information image (PCII), which contains slight change information. After that, feature vectors are created for each pixel in the PCII using block processing and locally linear embedding. The final change detection (CD) mask is obtained by clustering the extracted feature vectors into changed and unchanged classes using k-means clustering algorithm with k=2. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method extracts the slight change information efficiently in the hyperspectral image sequence and outperforms the state-of-the-art CD methods quantitatively and qualitatively.

  2. Separation techniques: Chromatography (United States)

    Coskun, Ozlem


    Chromatography is an important biophysical technique that enables the separation, identification, and purification of the components of a mixture for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Proteins can be purified based on characteristics such as size and shape, total charge, hydrophobic groups present on the surface, and binding capacity with the stationary phase. Four separation techniques based on molecular characteristics and interaction type use mechanisms of ion exchange, surface adsorption, partition, and size exclusion. Other chromatography techniques are based on the stationary bed, including column, thin layer, and paper chromatography. Column chromatography is one of the most common methods of protein purification. PMID:28058406

  3. On the stability of slightly relativistic stars in f(R) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Emilio, E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander (Spain)


    Slightly relativistic stars with equation of state of the form p≃Kρ{sup 4/3} are studied in f(R) gravity. It is shown that the instability induced by general relativity may be compensated to some extent by the modified gravity. An explicit expression is given for the effective gravitational field. -- Highlights: ► Modified gravity usually leads to local anisotropy. ► f(R) gravity may stabilize slightly relativistic stars. ► Effective field is derived in f(R) gravity for almost Newtonian stars.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ren; CHWANG Allen T.


    Accurate prediction of the motion of a body moving around another one in an unbounded fluid and determi-nation of the hydrodynamic interaction between them are im-portant in the coastal and offshore engineering. For two-dimensional cases, most of the previous studies were focused on the interaction between circular cylinders without considering the non-circular situation. To break through the limitation of"circular" bodies, in the present paper the boundary perturbation method was employed to investigate the motion of a slightly distorted circular cylinder around a circular one. An approximate complex velocity potential in terms of double infinite series expanded at two singular points was derived using the method of continued fractions. The hydrodynamic interaction between two cylinders was computed by solving the dynamical equations of motion. In a relative coordinate system moving with the uniform stream, the kinetic energy of the fluid was expressed as a function of fifteen added masses. Approximate analytical solutions of added masses in the series form were obtained and applied to determine the trajectories of the slightly distorted circular cylinder around a fixed circular one. Numerical results show that the presence of the circular cylinder affects the planar motion of the slightly distorted cirular cylinder and the initial configuration of the slightly distorted circular cylinder has a decisive influence on the development of its rotational motion.

  5. A Numerical Investigation into the Anomalous Slight NOx Increase when Burning Biodiesel: A New (Old) Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban-Weiss, G A; Chen, J Y; Buchholz, B A; Dibble, R W


    Biodiesel is a notable alternative to petroleum derived diesel fuel because it comes from natural domestic sources and thus reduces dependence on diminishing petroleum fuel from foreign sources, it likely lowers lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, and it lowers an engine's emission of most pollutants as compared to petroleum derived diesel. However, the use of biodiesel often slightly increases a diesel engine's emission of smog forming nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) relative to petroleum diesel. In this paper, previously proposed theories for this slight NOx increase are reviewed, including theories based on biodiesel's cetane number, which leads to differing amounts of charge preheating, and theories based on the fuel's bulk modulus, which affects injection timing. This paper proposes an additional theory for the slight NO{sub x} increase of biodiesel. Biodiesel typically contains more double bonded molecules than petroleum derived diesel. These double bonded molecules have a slightly higher adiabatic flame temperature, which leads to the increase in NOx production for biodiesel. Our theory was verified using numerical simulations to show a NOx increase, due to the double bonded molecules, that is consistent with observation. Further, the details of these numerical simulations show that NOx is predominantly due to the Zeldovich mechanism.

  6. Effect of surface permeability on the structure of a separated turbulent flow and heat transfer behind a backward-facing step (United States)

    Terekhov, V. V.; Terekhov, V. I.


    The structure and heat transfer in a turbulent separated flow in a suddenly expanding channel with injection (suction) through a porous wall are numerically simulated with the use of two-dimensional averaged Navier-Stokes equations, energy equations, and v 2- f turbulence model. It is shown that enhancement of the intensity of the transverse mass flux on the wall reduces the separation region length in the case of suction and increases the separation region length in the case of injection up to complete boundary layer displacement. The maximum heat transfer coefficient as a function of permeability is accurately described by the asymptotic theory of a turbulent boundary layer.

  7. GPS Separator

    CERN Multimedia


    Footage of the 70 degree ISOLDE GPS separator magnet MAG70 as well as the switchyard for the Central Mass and GLM (GPS Low Mass) and GHM (GPS High Mass) beamlines in the GPS separator zone. In the GPS20 vacuum sector equipment such as the long GPS scanner 482 / 483 unit, faraday cup FC 490, vacuum valves and wiregrid piston WG210 and WG475 and radiation monitors can also be seen. Also the RILIS laser guidance and trajectory can be seen, the GPS main beamgate switch box and the actual GLM, GHM and Central Beamline beamgates in the beamlines as well as the first electrostatic quadrupoles for the GPS lines. Close up of the GHM deflector plates motor and connections and the inspection glass at the GHM side of the switchyard.

  8. HRS Separator

    CERN Multimedia


    Footage of the 90 and 60 degree ISOLDE HRS separator magnets in the HRS separator zone. In the two vacuum sectors HRS20 and HRS30 equipment such as the HRS slits SL240, the HRS faraday cup FC300 and wiregrid WG210 can be spotted. Vacuum valves, turbo pumps, beamlines, quadrupoles, water and compressed air connections, DC and signal cabling can be seen throughout the video. The HRS main and user beamgate in the beamline between MAG90 and MAG60 and its switchboxes as well as all vacuum bellows and flanges are shown. Instrumentation such as the HRS scanner unit 482 / 483, the HRS WG470 wiregrid and slits piston can be seen. The different quadrupoles and supports are shown as well as the RILIS guidance tubes and installation at the magnets and the different radiation monitors.

  9. Effects of citric acid on separation of sillimanite from quartz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晔; 雷东升; 鲁巍; 许时


    Quartz is the main gangue mineral of sillimanite. The results show that Al3+ and Fe3+ ion can activate the floatation of quartz and make the separation of quartz and sillimanite difficult when anion collector is used, and citric acid can inhibit the quartz activated by metallic ion and have slight influence on the sillimanite. X-ray photoelectronic energy spectrum analysis indicates that there are obvious electronic energy peaks on the surface of the quartz before citric acid is added into the ore pulp in presence of Al3+ and Fe3+, and after citric acid is added, the energy peak vanished. So citric acid can make Al3+ and Fe3+ on the surface of quartz solve and decrease the active points on the surface of quartz which can adsorb anion collector.

  10. A Simple Method for Estimation of Dielectric Constants and Polarizabilities of Nonpolar and Slightly Polar Hydrocarbons (United States)

    Panuganti, Sai R.; Wang, Fei; Chapman, Walter G.; Vargas, Francisco M.


    Many of the liquids that are used as electrical insulators are nonpolar or slightly polar petroleum-derived hydrocarbons, such as the ones used for cable and/or transformer oils. In this work, semi-empirical expressions with no adjustable parameters for the dielectric constant and the polarizability of nonpolar and slightly polar hydrocarbons and their mixtures are proposed and validated. The expressions that were derived using the Vargas-Chapman One-Third rule require the mass density and the molecular weight of the substance of interest. The equations were successfully tested for various hydrocarbons and polymers with dipole moments eliminate the need of extensive experimental data and require less input parameters compared to existing correlations.

  11. Interferometric phase microscopy using slightly-off-axis reflective point diffraction interferometer (United States)

    Bai, Hongyi; Zhong, Zhi; Shan, Mingguang; Liu, Lei; Guo, Lili; Zhang, Yabin


    An interferometric phase microscopy (IPM) is proposed using slightly-off-axis reflective point diffraction interferometry for quantitative phase imaging. A retro-reflector consisting two mirrors is used to generate an angle between the object beam and reference beam, and a 45° tilted polarizing beam splitter is used to split the horizontal and vertical components of the both beams. Two carrier interferograms with π/2 phase-shift can be acquired in one shot, and the phase distribution of a thin specimen can be retrieved using a fast reconstruction method. The new IPM without loss in the utilization of the input-plane field of view combines the real time and optimizing detector bandwidth measurement benefit associated with slightly-off-axis method, high stability associated with common path geometry, and simplicity in terms of procedure and setup. Experiments are carried out on both static and dynamic specimens to demonstrate the validity and stability of the proposed method.

  12. Turbulent mixing of a slightly supercritical Van der Waals fluid at Low-Mach number

    CERN Document Server

    Battista, Francesco; Casciola, Carlo Massimo


    Supercritical fluids near the critical point are characterized by liquid-like densities and gas-like transport properties. These features are purposely exploited in different contexts ranging from natural products extraction/fractionation to aerospace propulsion. Large part of studies concerns this last context, focusing on the dynamics of supercritical fluids at high Mach number where compressibility and thermodynamics strictly interact. Despite the widespread use also at low Mach number, the turbulent mixing properties of slightly supercritical fluids have still not investigated in detail in this regime. This topic is addressed here by dealing with Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of a coaxial jet of a slightly supercritical Van der Waals fluid. Since acoustic effects are irrelevant in the Low Mach number conditions found in many industrial applications, the numerical model is based on a suitable low-Mach number expansion of the governing equation. According to experimental observations, the weakly superc...

  13. Influence of proprioceptive insoles on spinal curvature in patients with slight idiopathic scoliosis. (United States)

    Noll, Christine; Steitz, Vanessa; Daentzer, Dorothea


    Proprioceptive insoles are known to influence the functions of posture and gait by modulations of the sensory structures at the sole of the foot. Literature has shown that they could improve the position of the upper-body in patients with postural complaints of the musculoskeletal system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of proprioceptive insoles on the spinal curvature in patients with slight idiopathic scoliosis. Eighteen patients were included in this prospective, single-centre, randomized study. All patients needed to have a relevant growth potential and suffered from a slight idiopathic scoliosis. Two groups were used, where group 1 performed physiotherapy twice a week, whereas group 2 was additionally supplied with proprioceptive insoles. Patients underwent three-dimensional rasterstereography for back-shape analysis. Furthermore, a conventional x-ray imaging of the spine was performed at the beginning and 1 year later to document the curvatures. There was no statistical difference in the Cobb angles, and in almost all parameters of the rasterstereography, there was no statistically significant change between and within both groups. According to the results of this study, there was no evidence of any statistical significant effect of proprioceptive insoles on spinal curvature in patients with slight idiopathic scoliosis.

  14. Adolescents in Peer Groups Make More Prudent Decisions When a Slightly Older Adult Is Present. (United States)

    Silva, Karol; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence


    Adolescents make more reckless decisions when with peers than when alone, which poses a challenge for organizations that place adolescents in situations in which risky and myopic decision making is problematic. We asked whether the effect of peers on adolescents' decision making is mitigated by the presence of a slightly older adult. We examined whether target subjects' risk taking was greater when they were in groups of 4 late-adolescent males (ages 18-22) than when they were in groups that mixed 3 late-adolescent males with 1 slightly older adult (age 25-30); risk taking in both of these conditions was compared with that of adolescents tested alone. We found that adolescents took more risks and expressed stronger preference for immediate rewards when they were grouped with 3 same-age peers than when they were alone. When 1 adolescent was replaced by someone slightly older, however, adolescents' decision making and reward processing resembled that seen when adolescents were tested alone. Adding a young adult to a work team of adolescents may improve group decision making.

  15. Visible-light photocatalysis in Cu2Se nanowires with exposed {111} facets and charge separation between (111) and (1[combining macron]1[combining macron]1[combining macron]) polar surfaces. (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Ning, Lichao; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Congjie; Yang, Heqing; Liu, Shengzhong Frank


    The search for active narrow band gap semiconductor photocatalysts that directly split water or degrade organic pollutants under solar irradiation remains an open issue. We synthesized Cu2Se nanowires with exposed {111} facets using ethanol and glycerol as morphology controlling agents. The {111} facets were found to be the active facets for decomposing organic contaminants in the entire solar spectrum. Based on the polar structure of the Cu2Se {111} facets, a charge separation model between polar (111) and (1[combining macron]1[combining macron]1[combining macron]) surfaces is proposed. The internal electric field between polar (111) and (1[combining macron]1[combining macron]1[combining macron]) surfaces created by spontaneous polarization drives charge separation. The reduction and oxidation reactions occur on the positive (111) and negative (1[combining macron]1[combining macron]1[combining macron]) polar surfaces, respectively. This suggests the surface-engineering of narrow band gap semiconductors as a strategy to fabricate photocatalysts with high reactivity in the entire solar spectrum. The charge separation model can deepen the understanding of charge transfer in other semiconductor nanocrystals with high photocatalytic activities and offer guidance to design more effective photocatalysts as well as new types of solar cells, photoelectrodes and photoelectric devices.

  16. Feasibility test program of application of coalescing phase oil/water separators to self compensating fuel tanks in surface ships. Final report, Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaiz, J.B.; Batutis, E.


    The report covers the evaluation of the General Electric Coalescing Plate Oil/Water Separator concept as applied to ballast water discharged from a ship equipped with self compensating fuel tanks during fueling operations. It was used to remove the entrained fuel oil from de-ballasted water being discharged during routine fueling operations. This separator was chosen because it has a cross sectional area and volume very nearly equivalent to a DE-1040 forward fuel tank. By attaching the separator directly to the ship's discharge port and refuelling at several flow rates it was possible to evaluate the performance of the coalescing plate banks in a de-ballasting operation.

  17. Heterogeneous nano-Fe/Ca/CaO catalytic ozonation for selective surface hydrophilization of plastics containing brominated and chlorinated flame retardants (B/CFRs): separation from automobile shredder residue by froth flotation. (United States)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Lee, Byoung Ho; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Simion, Cristian


    One method of weakening the inherently hydrophobic surface of plastics relevant to flotation separation is heterogeneous nano-Fe/Ca/CaO catalytic ozonation. Nano-Fe/Ca/CaO-catalyzed ozonation for 15 min efficiently decreases the surface hydrophobicity of brominated and chlorinated flame retardant (B/CFR)-containing plastics (such as acrylonitrile-butadienestyrene (ABS), high-impact polystyrene (HIPS), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) in automobile shredder residue (ASR) to such an extent that their flotation ability is entirely depressed. Such a hydrophilization treatment also stimulates the ABS, HIPS, and PVC surface roughness, wetting of the surface, and the thermodynamic equilibrium conditions at the surface and ultimately changes surface polarity. SEM-EDS, AFM, and XPS analyses of the PVC and ABS surfaces demonstrated a marked decrease in [Cl/Br] and a significant increase in the number of hydrophilic groups, such as C-O, C=O, and (C=O)-O. Under froth flotation conditions at 50 rpm, about 99.5 % of ABS and 99.5 % of HIPS in ASR samples settled out, resulting in a purity of 98 and 98.5 % for ABS and HIPS in ASR samples, respectively. Furthermore, at 150 rpm, we also obtained 100 % PVC separation in the settled fraction, with 98 % purity in ASR. Total recovery of non-B/CFR-containing plastics reached nearly 100 % in the floating fraction. The amount of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO reagent employed during ozonation is very small, and additional removal of surface contaminants from the recycled ASR plastic surfaces by ozonation makes the developed process simpler, greener, and more effective.

  18. Vinyl acetate degradation by Brevibacillus agri isolated from a slightly aerated methanogenic reactor. (United States)

    Lara-Mayorga, I; Durán-Hinojosa, U; Arana-Cuenca, A; Monroy-Hermosillo, O; Ramírez-Vives, F


    In a previous paper, the authors showed that a slight aeration of a methanogenic reactor treating wastewater from the manufacture of polymeric resins could improve its performance, by increasing or allowing the removal of some of its contaminants, including vinyl acetate (VA). This paper reports the isolation under aerobic conditions of a VA-biodegrading axenic culture (strain C1) retrieved from the sludge of a slightly aerated methanogenic reactor at 1 mg L(-1) d(-1) of dissolved oxygen (DO). The axenic culture obtained was phenotypically (morphology, biochemical properties, VA consumption kinetics) and phylogenetically characterized. It formed white colonies with a branched and flat morphology on solid medium. The cell morphology of the isolate was bacillus with round endings and flagellate. The cells could form chains and were stained Gram-negative. The isolate required simple nutritional elements and had a growth rate of 0.024 h(-1). The phylogenetical analysis showed that the aerobic bacterium was identified as Brevibacillus agri, with 99.3% similarity. The VA consumption kinetics in the methanogenic sludge were: volumetric consumption rate (rVA) of 1.74 +/- 0.2 mg L(-1) h(-1), maximum specific consumption rate (qVAmax) of 3.98 mg g(-1) volatile suspended solids (VSS) h(-1) and affinity constant (Ks) of 457.1 mg L(-1). The same parameters in the axenic culture were 1.69 +/- 0.04 mg L(-1) (h-1), 4.09 mg g(-1) dry weight h(-1) and 421.9 mg L(-1), respectively. These results show evidence that the aerobic isolated bacterium, identified as Brevibacillus agri, carried out the VA hydrolysis in the slightly aerated methanogenic sludge, which is the limiting step in the degradation of this compound.

  19. Synthesis of Intermittent-Motion Linkages with Slight Difference in Length Between Links

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xin-bo; YU Zhen


    The design of intermittent-motion linkages using traditional methods iS usually complicated.In this paper,(1)a new method for realizing intermittent motion,using linkages with a slight difference in length between links,is studied;(2)some new types of intermittent-motion linkages and their software for visual analysis and design are developed;and(3)influences of some design parameters on intermittent.motion characteristics are clarifled.Results confirmed that the theory and the software are useful,making the synthesis of intermittent-motion linkages clear and easy.

  20. The Stabilizing Granular Soil with Slow-setting and Slight-expansive Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ming-kai; SHENG Wei-guo; TIAN Zhong-qing


    According to the characteristics of granular soil, the technological requirements of the specialpurpose cement for stabilizing granular soil are pat forward to meet the demands of implementation of highway base engineering. A kind of slow-setting and slight-expansive cement is developed by the cross experiment method in slag-clinker-gypsum-alkaline system, the final setting time of the cement can be prolonged to 8 h, and it has properties of low dry shrirkage , high flexural strength and good crack resistance. The strength of granular soil stabilized by the cement is increased by 20% compared with that stabilized by Chinese 425-Grade slag cement.

  1. Stable Self-Similar Blow-Up Dynamics for Slightly {L^2}-Supercritical Generalized KDV Equations (United States)

    Lan, Yang


    In this paper we consider the slightly {L^2}-supercritical gKdV equations {partial_t u+(u_{xx}+u|u|^{p-1})_x=0}, with the nonlinearity {5 < p < 5+\\varepsilon} and {0 < \\varepsilon≪ 1}. We will prove the existence and stability of a blow-up dynamics with self-similar blow-up rate in the energy space {H^1} and give a specific description of the formation of the singularity near the blow-up time.

  2. Pre-irradiation grafting of cellulose and slightly carboxymethylated cellulose (CMC) fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benke, N. [Institute of Isotopes, HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Takacs, E. [Institute of Isotopes, HAS, Budapest (Hungary)]. E-mail:; Wojnarovits, L. [Institute of Isotopes, HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Borsa, J. [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary)


    Acrylamide, hydroxypropyl acrylate, hydroxypropyl methacrylate and 2-ethylhexyl methacrylate vinyl monomers were grafted onto cellulose as well as onto cellulose of improved accessibility (slightly carboxymethylated cellulose (CMC)) by the pre-irradiation grafting technique. The effect of dose, monomer structure, crosslinking agent and carboxymethylation on the grafting yield was studied and the optimal conditions for the grafting were established. Grafting, with the exception of acrylamide (AAm), decreased the swelling of the samples, which is advantageous for some applications. In case of AAm decrease in swelling was observed only when crosslinking agent was applied. At low doses (<5 kGy) the high accessibility of carboxymethylated cellulose resulted in a higher grafting yield.

  3. A finite-dimensional reduction method for slightly supercritical elliptic problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Molle


    Full Text Available We describe a finite-dimensional reduction method to find solutions for a class of slightly supercritical elliptic problems. A suitable truncation argument allows us to work in the usual Sobolev space even in the presence of supercritical nonlinearities: we modify the supercritical term in such a way to have subcritical approximating problems; for these problems, the finite-dimensional reduction can be obtained applying the methods already developed in the subcritical case; finally, we show that, if the truncation is realized at a sufficiently large level, then the solutions of the approximating problems, given by these methods, also solve the supercritical problems when the parameter is small enough.

  4. Production of renewable electricity rises slightly; Productie hernieuwbare elektriciteit stijgt licht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segers, R.; Wilmer, M.


    The production of electricity from renewable energy sources was 12.2 billion kWh in 2012. This represents over 10 percent of the total electricity consumption in the Netherlands and was slightly more than in 2011. Electricity production from wind increased, the production from biomass remained the same [Dutch] De productie van hernieuwbare elektriciteit was 12,2 miljard kWh in 2012. Dat komt overeen met ruim 10 procent van het totale elektriciteitsverbruik in Nederland en was iets meer dan in 2011. De elektriciteitsproductie uit wind nam toe, de productie uit biomassa bleef gelijk.

  5. Nonlinear property of slightly compressible media permeated with air-filled bubbles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo QIN


    Based on the nonlinear oscillation of an air- filled bubble in weakly compressible media at prestressed state, the effective medium method is used to study the nonlinear property of the slightly compressible media permeated with air bubbles. It is this nonlinear oscilla- tion of air bubbles that results in the nonlinear property of the porous media. Numerical results have confirmed that the nonlinearity of the porous media is usually high, though the optimal porosity is very small. Moreover, the nonlinear property is greatly affected by the prestressed state, porosity, and shear modulus of the matrix media.

  6. [Olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy with personality changes and slight disturbance of intelligence]. (United States)

    Deshimaru, M; Miyakawa, T; Suzuki, T


    H. I., a housewife aged 55 years, began feeling a gait disturbance at 48 years old. After this she had incoordination of arms, dysarthria and tremor of hands. Aged 54 years, she could not stand up by herself. In addition to these neurological signs she had a change of character, such as losing control of herself, unreservedness and unceremoniousness, and slight disturbance of intelligence. She died at the age of 55 years about seven years after the onset. Histopathologically, noticeable changes were observed on the medulla oblongata, pons and cerebellum; the severe neuronal loss of the pontine nuclei and the olivary nuclei with demyelination and gliosis of the cerebellopetal fibers. Especially a great deal of lipofuscin granules in the nerve cells of the frontal and temporal lobe were observed. In the substantia nigra some pigmented cells were deleted. This case was diagnosed as olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy clinico-histopathologically. We discussed conserning the etiology of the changes of personality and slight disturbance of intelligence in relation to histopathological changes. It is speculated that the mental disorders are due to the degeneration of the nerve cells in the frontal and temporal lobes.

  7. Aggregation pattern transitions by slightly varying the attractive/repulsive function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Cheng

    Full Text Available Among collective behaviors of biological swarms and flocks, the attractive/repulsive (A/R functional links between particles play an important role. By slightly changing the cutoff distance of the A/R function, a drastic transition between two distinct aggregation patterns is observed. More precisely, a large cutoff distance yields a liquid-like aggregation pattern where the particle density decreases monotonously from the inside to the outwards within each aggregated cluster. Conversely, a small cutoff distance produces a crystal-like aggregation pattern where the distance between each pair of neighboring particles remains constant. Significantly, there is an obvious spinodal in the variance curve of the inter-particle distances along the increasing cutoff distances, implying a legible transition pattern between the liquid-like and crystal-like aggregations. This work bridges the aggregation phenomena of physical particles and swarming of organisms in nature upon revealing some common mechanism behind them by slightly varying their inter-individual attractive/repulsive functions, and may find its potential engineering applications, for example, in the formation design of multi-robot systems and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs.

  8. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons (United States)

    Chang, Y. Alice; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.


    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture through a polymeric membrane. The membrane which is utilized to effect the separation comprises a polymer which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds and which has been modified by being subjected to the action of a sulfonating agent. Sulfonating agents which may be employed will include fuming sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, etc., the surface or bulk modified polymer will contain a degree of sulfonation ranging from about 15 to about 50%. The separation process is effected at temperatures ranging from about ambient to about C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psig.

  9. Optimization of wet shaking table process using response surface methodology applied to the separation of copper and aluminum from the fine fraction of shredder ELVs. (United States)

    Jordão, Helga; Sousa, António Jorge; Carvalho, M Teresa


    With the purpose of reducing the waste generated by end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) by enhancing the recovery and recycling of nonferrous metals, an experimental study was conducted with the finest size fraction of nonferrous stream produced at an ELV shredder plant. The aim of this work was to characterize the nonferrous stream and to evaluate the efficiency of a gravity concentration process in separating light and heavy nonferrous metal particles that could be easily integrated in a ELV shredder plant (in this case study the separation explicitly addressed copper and aluminum separation). The characterization of a sample of the 0-10mm particle size fraction showed a mixture of nonferrous metals with a certain degree of impurity due to the present of contaminants such as plastics. The majority of the particles exhibited a wire shape, preventing an efficient separation of materials without prior fragmentation. The gravity concentration process selected for this study was the wet shaking table and three operating parameters of the equipment were manipulated. A full factorial design in combination with a central composite design was employed to model metals recovery. Two second order polynomial equations were successfully fitted to describe the process and predict the recovery of copper and aluminum in Cu concentrate under the conditions of the present study. The optimum conditions were determined to be 11.1° of inclination, 2.8L/min of feed water flow and 4.9L/min of wash water flow. All three final products of the wet shaking table had a content higher than 90% in relation to one of the metals, wherein a Cu concentrate product was obtained with a Cu content of 96%, and 78% of Cu recovery and 2% of Al recovery.

  10. Tandem assays of protein and glucose with functionalized core/shell particles based on magnetic separation and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. (United States)

    Kong, Xianming; Yu, Qian; Lv, Zhongpeng; Du, Xuezhong


    Tandem assays of protein and glucose in combination with mannose-functionalized Fe3 O4 @SiO2 and Ag@SiO2 tag particles have promising potential in effective magnetic separation and highly sensitive and selective SERS assays of biomaterials. It is for the first time that tandem assay of glucose is developed using SERS based on the Con A-sandwiched microstructures between the functionalized magnetic and tag particles.

  11. ESI-MS compatible permanent coating of glass surfaces using poly(ethylene glycol)-terminated alkoxysilanes for capillary zone electrophoretic protein separations. (United States)

    Razunguzwa, Trust T; Warrier, Manoj; Timperman, Aaron T


    Thin poly(ethylene glycol) silane (PEG-silane) coatings formed from N-(triethoxysilyl propyl)-O-poly(ethylene oxide) urethane with different chain lengths of poly(ethylene glycol) (MW 750 and 4000-5000) are used to modify glass microfluidic channels and fused-silica capillaries for electrophoretic separations of proteins. These coatings combine three important properties, which make them favorable for proteomic analyses including reduction of protein adsorption, compatibility with mass spectrometry due to their stability, and the ability to control the magnitude of electroosmotic flow (EOF). The coatings have been successfully used in microfluidic chips and fused-silica capillaries for separation of protein sample mixtures under low EOF conditions. The long-chain and mixed PEG-silane coatings suppress electroosmotic flow by more than 90%, whereas the short-chain PEG silane suppresses EOF by 65-75% at pH values of 3-9. The long-chain and mixed PEG-silane coatings are suitable for low EOF applications or for cases where negative effects of EOF are to be minimized. Efficient separations of unlabeled basic proteins at low pH and FITC-labeled proteins at high pH were achieved, as well as excellent stability for at least 200 electrophoretic runs. Additionally, these covalent coatings produce no detectable background ions in ESI-MS, making them compatible with on-line mass spectrometry.

  12. Preparation of RF-(VM-SiO2n-RF/AM-Cellu Nanocomposites, and Use Thereof for the Modification of Glass and Filter Paper Surfaces: Creation of a Glass Thermoresponsive Switching Behavior and an Efficient Separation Paper Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Sawada


    Full Text Available Fluoroalkyl end-capped vinyltrimethoxysilane oligomeric silica/alkyl-modified cellulose (AM-Cellu nanocomposites [RF-(CH2-CHSiO2n-RF/AM-Cellu; n = 2, 3; RF = CF(CF3OC3F7] were prepared by the sol-gel reactions of the corresponding oligomer [RF-(CH2-CHSi(OMe3n-RF] in the presence of AM-Cellu. The nanocomposites thus obtained were applied to the surface modification of glass to exhibit a highly oleophobic/superhydrophilic characteristic on the modified surface at 20 °C. Interestingly, a temperature dependence of contact angle values of dodecane and water was observed on the modified surface at 20~70 °C, and the dodecane contact angle values were found to decrease with increasing the temperatures from 20 to 70 °C to provide from highly oleophobic to superoleophilic characteristics on the surface. On the other hand, the increase of the water contact angle values was observed with the increase in the temperatures under similar conditions to supply superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic characteristics on the modified surface. The corresponding nanocomposites were also applied to the surface modification of the filter paper under similar conditions to afford a superoleophilic/superhydrophobic characteristic on the surface. It was demonstrated that the modified filter paper is effective for the separation membrane for W/O emulsion to isolate the transparent colorless oil.

  13. Long liquid slugs in stratified gas/liquid flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadri, U.


    Long liquid slugs reaching several hundreds pipe diameter may appear when transporting gas and liquid in horizontal and near horizontal pipes. The long slugs cause system vibration and separation difficulties that may lead to operational failures. Identifying and predicting the time and length scale

  14. Long liquid slugs in stratified gas/liquid flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadri, U.


    Long liquid slugs reaching several hundreds pipe diameter may appear when transporting gas and liquid in horizontal and near horizontal pipes. The long slugs cause system vibration and separation difficulties that may lead to operational failures. Identifying and predicting the time and length scale

  15. Gulf stream separation dynamics (United States)

    Schoonover, Joseph

    Climate models currently struggle with the more traditional, coarse ( O(100 km) ) representation of the ocean. In these coarse ocean simulations, western boundary currents are notoriously difficult to model accurately. The modeled Gulf Stream is typically seen exhibiting a mean pathway that is north of observations, and is linked to a warm sea-surface temperature bias in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Although increased resolution ( O(10 km) ) improves the modeled Gulf Stream position, there is no clean recipe for obtaining the proper pathway. The 70 year history of literature on the Gulf Stream separation suggests that we have not reached a resolution on the dynamics that control the current's pathway just south of the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Without a concrete knowledge on the separation dynamics, we cannot provide a clean recipe for accurately modeling the Gulf Stream at increased resolutions. Further, any reliable parameterization that yields a realistic Gulf Stream path must express the proper physics of separation. The goal of this dissertation is to determine what controls the Gulf Stream separation. To do so, we examine the results of a model intercomparison study and a set of numerical regional terraforming experiments. It is argued that the separation is governed by local dynamics that are most sensitive to the steepening of the continental shelf, consistent with the topographic wave arrest hypothesis of Stern (1998). A linear extension of Stern's theory is provided, which illustrates that wave arrest is possible for a continuously stratified fluid.

  16. Annealing Behavior at Triple Junctions in High-Purity Aluminum After Slight Cold Rolling (United States)

    Yin, Wenhong; Wang, Weiguo; Fang, Xiaoying; Qin, Congxiang


    High-purity polycrystalline aluminum samples with a typical grain size of approximately 30 μm were slightly cold-rolled with a thickness reduction of 15%, and then, off-line in situ electron backscatter diffraction was used to identify the annealing behavior at triple junctions during annealing at 400 °C. The results show that recrystallization nuclei are developed at some triple junctions during annealing. High-angle grain boundaries migrate from harder grains to softer grains at the triple junctions leading to the formation of nuclei. All such nuclei show Σ3 orientation relationships with the parent grains, and the bounded Σ3 boundaries are found to be incoherent. During further annealing, these nuclei are consumed by other growing grains, indicating that their presence is just a release of the strain concentration at the triple junctions.

  17. A Slight Excess of Large Scale Power from Moments of the Peculiar Velocity Field

    CERN Document Server

    Macaulay, Edward; Ferreira, Pedro G; Hudson, Michael J; Watkins, Richard


    The peculiar motions of galaxies can be used to infer the distribution of matter in the Universe. It has recently been shown that measurements of the peculiar velocity field indicates an anomalously high bulk flow of galaxies in our local volume. In this paper we find the implications of the high bulk flow for the power spectrum of density fluctuations. We find that analyzing only the dipole moment of the velocity field yields an average power spectrum amplitude which is indeed higher than the LCDM value at over 2 sigma confidence. However, by also including shear and octupole moments of the velocity field, and marginalizing over possible values for the growth rate, an average power spectrum amplitude which is consistent with LCDM is recovered. We attempt to infer the shape of the matter power spectrum from moments of the velocity field, and find a slight excess of power on scales ~ h-1 Gpc.

  18. Treatment of Slightly Polluted Wastewater in an Oil Refinery Using a Biological Aerated Filter Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wenyu; ZHONG Li; CHEN Jianjun


    The slightly polluted wastewater from oil refinery contains some COD, oil pollutants and suspended solids (SS). A small-scale fixed film biological aerated filter (BAF) process was used to treat the wastewater. The influences of hydraulic retention time (HRT), air/water volume flow ratio and backwashing cycle on treatment efficiencies were investigated. The wastewater was treated by the BAF process under optimal conditions: the HRT of backwashing cycle of every 4-7 days. The results showed that the average removal efficiency of COD, oil pollutants and SS was 84.5%, 94.0% and 83.4%, respectively. And the average effluent concentration of COD, oil pollutants and SS was 12.5, 0.27, 14.5the BAF process is a suitable and highly efficient method to treat the wastewater.

  19. Slightly generalized Maxwell classical electrodynamics can be applied to inneratomic phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Simulik, V M


    In order to extend the limits of classical theory application in the microworld some weak generalization of Maxwell electrodynamics is suggested. It is shown that slightly generalized classical Maxwell electrodynamics can describe the intraatomic phenomena with the same success as relativistic quantum mechanics can do. Group-theoretical grounds for the description of fermionic states by bosonic system are presented briefly. The advantages of generalized electrodynamics in intraatomic region in comparison with standard Maxwell electrodynamics are demonstrated on testing example of hydrogen atom. We are able to obtain some results which are impossible in the framework of standard Maxwell electrodynamics. The Sommerfeld - Dirac formula for the fine structure of the hydrogen atom spectrum is obtained on the basis of such Maxwell equations without appealing to the Dirac equation. The Bohr postulates and the Lamb shift are proved to be the consequences of the equations under consideration. The relationship of the n...

  20. Annealing Behavior at Triple Junctions in High-Purity Aluminum After Slight Cold Rolling (United States)

    Yin, Wenhong; Wang, Weiguo; Fang, Xiaoying; Qin, Congxiang


    High-purity polycrystalline aluminum samples with a typical grain size of approximately 30 μm were slightly cold-rolled with a thickness reduction of 15%, and then, off-line in situ electron backscatter diffraction was used to identify the annealing behavior at triple junctions during annealing at 400 °C. The results show that recrystallization nuclei are developed at some triple junctions during annealing. High-angle grain boundaries migrate from harder grains to softer grains at the triple junctions leading to the formation of nuclei. All such nuclei show Σ3 orientation relationships with the parent grains, and the bounded Σ3 boundaries are found to be incoherent. During further annealing, these nuclei are consumed by other growing grains, indicating that their presence is just a release of the strain concentration at the triple junctions.

  1. A finite difference technique for solving a time strain separable K-BKZ constitutive equation for two-dimensional moving free surface flows (United States)

    Tomé, M. F.; Bertoco, J.; Oishi, C. M.; Araujo, M. S. B.; Cruz, D.; Pinho, F. T.; Vynnycky, M.


    This work is concerned with the numerical solution of the K-BKZ integral constitutive equation for two-dimensional time-dependent free surface flows. The numerical method proposed herein is a finite difference technique for simulating flows possessing moving surfaces that can interact with solid walls. The main characteristics of the methodology employed are: the momentum and mass conservation equations are solved by an implicit method; the pressure boundary condition on the free surface is implicitly coupled with the Poisson equation for obtaining the pressure field from mass conservation; a novel scheme for defining the past times t‧ is employed; the Finger tensor is calculated by the deformation fields method and is advanced in time by a second-order Runge-Kutta method. This new technique is verified by solving shear and uniaxial elongational flows. Furthermore, an analytic solution for fully developed channel flow is obtained that is employed in the verification and assessment of convergence with mesh refinement of the numerical solution. For free surface flows, the assessment of convergence with mesh refinement relies on a jet impinging on a rigid surface and a comparison of the simulation of a extrudate swell problem studied by Mitsoulis (2010) [44] was performed. Finally, the new code is used to investigate in detail the jet buckling phenomenon of K-BKZ fluids.

  2. Slightly thermal springs and non-thermal springs at Mount Shasta, California: Chemistry and recharge elevations (United States)

    Nathenson, M.; Thompson, J.M.; White, L.D.


    Temperature measurements, isotopic contents, and dissolved constituents are presented for springs at Mount Shasta to understand slightly thermal springs in the Shasta Valley based on the characteristics of non-thermal springs. Non-thermal springs on Mount Shasta are generally cooler than mean annual air temperatures for their elevation. The specific conductance of non-thermal springs increases linearly with discharge temperature. Springs at higher and intermediate elevations on Mount Shasta have fairly limited circulation paths, whereas low-elevation springs have longer paths because of their higher-elevation recharge. Springs in the Shasta Valley are warmer than air temperatures for their elevation and contain significant amounts of chloride and sulfate, constituents often associated with volcanic hydrothermal systems. Data for the Shasta Valley springs generally define mixing trends for dissolved constituents and temperature. The isotopic composition of the Shasta Valley springs indicates that water fell as precipitation at a higher elevation than any of the non-thermal springs. It is possible that the Shasta Valley springs include a component of the outflow from a proposed 210??C hydrothermal system that boils to supply steam for the summit acid-sulfate spring. In order to categorize springs such as those in the Shasta Valley, we introduce the term slightly thermal springs for springs that do not meet the numerical criterion of 10??C above air temperature for thermal springs but have temperatures greater than non-thermal springs in the area and usually also have dissolved constituents normally found in thermal waters. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. How does incomplete fusion show up at slightly above barrier energies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad R.


    Full Text Available Experimental results on the onset of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies are discussed in this paper. Spin-distributions of evaporation residues populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion of 12C,16O (Elab ≈ 4–7 MeV with 169Tm have been measured to probe associated ℓ–values. Particle (Z=1,2 – γ – coincidence technique has been used for channel selection. Entirely different entry state spin populations have been observed during the de-excitation of complete and incomplete composites. The complete fusion residues are found to be strongly fed over a broad spin range. While, a narrow range feeding for only high spin states has been observed in case of incomplete fusion residues. In the present work, incomplete fusion is shown to be a promising tool to populate high spin states in final reaction products. For better insight into the onset and strength of incomplete fusion, the relative contributions of complete and incomplete fusion have been deduced from the analysis of excitation functions and forward recoil ranges. A significant fraction of ICF has been observed even at energy as low as ≈ 7% above the barrier. The relative strengths of complete and incomplete fusion deduced from the analysis of forward-recoil-ranges and excitation functions complement each other. All the available results are discussed in light of the Morgenstern’s mass-asymmetry systematics. Incomplete fusion fraction is found to be large for more mass-asymmetric systems for individual projectiles, which points towards the projectile structure effect on incomplete fusion fraction. Experimentally measured forward ranges of recoils complement the existence of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies, where more than one linear-momentum-transfer components associated with full- and/or partial-fusion of projectile(s have been observed. Present results conclusively demonstrate the possibility to selectively populate high spin states

  4. Effects of cattle-slurry treatment by acidification and separation on nitrogen dynamics and global warming potential after surface application to an acidic soil. (United States)

    Fangueiro, David; Pereira, José; Bichana, André; Surgy, Sónia; Cabral, Fernanda; Coutinho, João


    Cattle-slurry (liquid manure) application to soil is a common practice to provide nutrients and organic matter for crop growth but it also strongly impacts the environment. The objective of the present study was to assess the efficiency of cattle-slurry treatment by solid-liquid separation and/or acidification on nitrogen dynamics and global warming potential (GWP) following application to an acidic soil. An aerobic laboratory incubation was performed over 92 days with a Dystric Cambisol amended with raw cattle-slurry or separated liquid fraction (LF) treated or not by acidification to pH 5.5 by addition of sulphuric acid. Soil mineral N contents and NH3, N2O, CH4 and CO2 emissions were measured. Results obtained suggest that the acidification of raw cattle-slurry reduced significantly NH3 emissions (-88%) but also the GWP (-28%) while increased the N availability relative to raw cattle-slurry (15% of organic N applied mineralised against negative mineralisation in raw slurry). However, similar NH3 emissions and GWP were observed in acidified LF and non-acidified LF treatments. On the other hand, soil application of acidified cattle-slurry rather than non-acidified LF should be preferred attending the lower costs associated to acidification compared to solid-liquid separation. It can then be concluded that cattle-slurry acidification is a solution to minimise NH3 emissions from amended soil and an efficient strategy to decrease the GWP associated with slurry application to soil. Furthermore, the more intense N mineralisation observed with acidified slurry should lead to a higher amount of plant available N and consequently to higher crop yields.

  5. Seeing Beyond the Painting Surface with Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI): a signal separation method for extracting images of buried individual layers in paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filtenborg, Troels Folke; Skou-Hansen, Jakob; Koch Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica


    In this study, the 18C easel painting The Dying Messalina and her Mother, by Nicolai Abildgaard (Statens Museum for Kunst collection, Copenhagen, Denmark), has been investigated by Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI) in reflection set-up. Despite the validity of traditional deconvolution...... and denoising methods used to resolve temporal features of THz reflected signals, they result impractical if applied to large images analysis. Therefore, we presented a simple, fast and effective method to separate single THz pulses of interest from the entire signal recorded at each spatial coordinate...

  6. A neutral polyacrylate copolymer coating for surface modification of thiol-ene microchannels for improved performance of protein separation by microchip electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mesbah, Kiarach; Mai, T.D.; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam


    We have investigated the behavior of thiol-ene substrates that is a class of promising materials for lab-on-a-chip electrophoresis applications. Two polymeric materials were prepared by copolymerization of N, N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA), (3-(methacryloyl-oxy)propyl)trimethoxysilane (PMA) and 3......-(DMA-PMAMAPS) copolymer were evaluated in terms of surface hydrophilicity, suppression and stability of electro-osmotic flow and prevention of protein adsorption. Surface modification of thiol-ene containing a 20 % excess of thiols with the terpolymer p-(DMA-PMA-MAPS) was found to offer the most stable coating and most...

  7. Numerical study of shear rate effect on unsteady flow separation from the surface of the square cylinder using structural bifurcation analysis (United States)

    Ray, Rajendra K.; Kumar, Atendra


    In this paper, an incompressible two-dimensional shear flow past a square cylinder problem is investigated numerically using a higher order compact finite difference scheme. Simulations are presented for three sets of Reynolds numbers, 100, 200, and 500, with various shear parameter (K) values ranging from 0.0 to 0.4. The purpose of the present study is to elaborate the influence of shear rate on the vortex shedding phenomenon behind the square cylinder. The results presented here show that the vortex shedding phenomenon strongly depends on Re as well as K. The strength and size of vortices shed behind the cylinder vary as a function of Re and K. When K is larger than a critical value, the vortex shedding phenomenon has completely disappeared depending on the Reynolds number. Apart from the numerical study, a thorough theoretical investigation has been done by using a topology based structural bifurcation analysis for unsteady flow separations from the walls of the cylinder. Through this analysis, we study the exact locations of the bifurcation points associated with secondary and tertiary vortices with appropriate non-dimensional time of occurrence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time, a topological aspect based structural bifurcation analysis has been done to understand the vortex shedding phenomenon and flow separation for this problem.

  8. Oxidizing dissolution mechanism of an irradiated MOX fuel in underwater aerated conditions at slightly acidic pH (United States)

    Magnin, M.; Jégou, C.; Caraballo, R.; Broudic, V.; Tribet, M.; Peuget, S.; Talip, Z.


    The (U,Pu)O2 matrix behavior of an irradiated MIMAS-type (MIcronized MASter blend) MOX fuel, under radiolytic oxidation in aerated pure water at pH 5-5.5 was studied by combining chemical and radiochemical analyses of the alteration solution with Raman spectroscopy characterizations of the surface state. Two leaching experiments were performed on segments of irradiated fuel under different conditions: with or without an external γ irradiation field, over long periods (222 and 604 days, respectively). The gamma irradiation field was intended to be representative of the irradiation conditions for a fuel assembly in an underwater interim storage situation. The data acquired enabled an alteration mechanism to be established, characterized by uranium (UO22+) release mainly controlled by solubility of studtite over the long-term. The massive precipitation of this phase was observed for the two experiments based on high uranium oversaturation indexes of the solution and the kinetics involved depended on the irradiation conditions. External gamma irradiation accelerated the precipitation kinetics and the uranium concentrations (2.9 × 10-7 mol/l) were lower than for the non-irradiated reference experiment (1.4 × 10-5 mol/l), as the quantity of hydrogen peroxide was higher. Under slightly acidic pH conditions, the formation of an oxidized UO2+x phase was not observed on the surface and did not occur in the radiolysis dissolution mechanism of the fuel matrix. The Raman spectroscopy performed on the heterogeneous MOX fuel matrix surface, showed that the fluorite structure of the mainly UO2 phase surrounding the Pu-enriched aggregates had not been particularly impacted by any major structural change compared to the data obtained prior to leaching. For the plutonium, its behavior in solution involved a continuous release up to concentrations of approximately 3 × 10-6 mol L-1 with negligible colloid formation. This data appears to support a predominance of the +V oxidation

  9. Kepler-413B: A slightly misaligned, Neptune-size transiting circumbinary planet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostov, V. B.; McCullough, P. R.; Tsvetanov, Z. I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Carter, J. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Deleuil, M.; Díaz, R. F. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, 38 rue Frédéric Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille cedex 13 (France); Fabrycky, D. C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Hébrard, G. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS, Université Pierre and Marie Curie, 98 bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Hinse, T. C. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Advanced Astronomy and Space Science Division, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Mazeh, T. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Orosz, J. A.; Welsh, W. F., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States)


    We report the discovery of a transiting, R{sub p} = 4.347 ± 0.099R {sub ⊕}, circumbinary planet (CBP) orbiting the Kepler K+M eclipsing binary (EB) system KIC 12351927 (Kepler-413) every ∼66 days on an eccentric orbit with a{sub p} = 0.355 ± 0.002 AU, e{sub p} = 0.118 ± 0.002. The two stars, with M{sub A} = 0.820 ± 0.015 M {sub ☉}, R{sub A} = 0.776 ± 0.009 R {sub ☉} and M{sub B} = 0.542 ± 0.008 M {sub ☉}, R{sub B} = 0.484 ± 0.024 R {sub ☉}, respectively, revolve around each other every 10.11615 ± 0.00001 days on a nearly circular (e {sub EB} = 0.037 ± 0.002) orbit. The orbital plane of the EB is slightly inclined to the line of sight (i {sub EB} = 87.°33 ± 0.°06), while that of the planet is inclined by ∼2.°5 to the binary plane at the reference epoch. Orbital precession with a period of ∼11 yr causes the inclination of the latter to the sky plane to continuously change. As a result, the planet often fails to transit the primary star at inferior conjunction, causing stretches of hundreds of days with no transits (corresponding to multiple planetary orbital periods). We predict that the next transit will not occur until 2020. The orbital configuration of the system places the planet slightly closer to its host stars than the inner edge of the extended habitable zone. Additionally, the orbital configuration of the system is such that the CBP may experience Cassini State dynamics under the influence of the EB, in which the planet's obliquity precesses with a rate comparable to its orbital precession. Depending on the angular precession frequency of the CBP, it could potentially undergo obliquity fluctuations of dozens of degrees (and complex seasonal cycles) on precession timescales.

  10. Turbulence driven by precession in spherical and slightly elongated spheroidal cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Susumu, E-mail: [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Matsunaga, Arihiro; Tsuda, Shinya [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Fujiwara, Masahiro; Yamato, Masahiro [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Okayama University 3-1-1, Tsushima-naka, Kita, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Nishioka, Michio [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Kida, Shigeo [Organization for Advanced Research and Education, Doshisha University, 1-3, Tatara-miyakodani, Kyotanabe 610-0394 (Japan)


    Motivated by the fascinating fact that strong turbulence can be sustained in a weakly precessing container, we conducted a series of laboratory experiments on the flow in a precessing spherical cavity, and in a slightly elongated prolate spheroidal cavity with a minor-to-major axis ratio of 0.9. In order to determine the conditions required to sustain turbulence in these cavities, and to investigate the statistics of the sustained turbulence, we developed an experimental technique to conduct high-quality flow visualizations as well as measurements via particle image velocimetry on a turntable and by using an intense laser. In general, flows in a precessing cavity are controlled by two non-dimensional parameters: the Reynolds number Re (or its reciprocal, the Ekman number) which is defined by the cavity size, spin angular velocity, and the kinematic viscosity of the confined fluid, and the Poincaré number Po, which is defined by the ratio of the magnitude of the precession angular velocity to that of the spin angular velocity. However, our experiments show that the global flow statistics, such as the mean velocity field and the spatial distribution of the intensity of the turbulence, are almost independent of Re, and they are determined predominantly by Po, whereas the instability of these global flow structures is governed by Re. It is also shown that the turbulence statistics are most likely similar in the two cavities due to the slight difference between their shapes. However, the condition to sustain the unsteady flows, and therefore the turbulence, differs drastically depending on the cavity shape. Interestingly, the asymmetric cavity, i.e., the spheroid, requires a much stronger precession than a sphere to sustain such unsteady flows. The most developed turbulence for a given Re is generated in these cavities when 0.04 ≲ Po ≲ 0.1. In such cases, the sustained turbulence is always accompanied by vigorous large-scale vortical structures, and shearing

  11. Research of Hollow Cathode Remote Plasma Polymerization on Surface of Secondary Battery Separator%电池隔膜表面空心阴极等离子体接枝聚合研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温贻芳; 陈新; 芮延年; 王红卫


    The surface of non-woven polypropylene secondary battery separator was modified by hollow cathode remote plasma polymerizatioa The polymerization mechanism was analyzed, and the effects of working parameters (such as discharge power, working gas flow rate, sample position etc. ) on the polymerization rate were studied systematically. The IR and SEM were used to analyze the chemical composition and the surface morphology. The results show that the hydrophilic group was imported on the surface of polypropylene after hollow cathode remote plasma modification, so that the wettability of the non-woven polypropylene secondary battery separator was greatly improved.%应用自制的空心阴极等离子体装置,引发丙烯酸在丙纶表面的接枝聚合,研究了等离子体接枝聚合作用机理,分析了等离子体接枝聚合各参数(放电功率、气体流量、丙烯酸蒸气流量、样品位置等)对聚合速率的影响.通过红外光谱、扫描电镜等对丙纶接枝聚合膜表面的化学组成和形态结构等进行了表征分析,证明了亲水基团的引入,改善了丙纶隔膜的亲水性能.

  12. Geometrical and Friction Properties of Perennial Grasses and Their Weeds in View of an Electro-Separation Method (United States)

    Kovalyshyn, Stepan J.; Dadak, Viktor O.; Sokolyk, Vitalij V.; Grundas, Stanisław; Stasiak, Mateusz; Tys, Jerzy


    Many seed mixtures of herbs are difficult to separate. This is confirmed by studies determining the basic geometrical and friction properties of the seeds of perennial grasses and seeds of their weeds. The results show that in most cases the value of their geometrical parameters (length, thickness, and width) and friction properties (friction coefficients for different external surfaces of internal friction coefficients) are substantially similar and differ slightly among each other. This is the evidence that these properties are impractical to use in the process of separation as signs of divisibility. In the paper, a method for electro-separation of seed mixtures of herbs based on the use of complex physical, mechanical properties and electrical components in the separation are presented. The electric field that acts as an additional working body allows considering the surface conditions and biological status of seed mixtures of particles and significantly expands the functionality of the separators. Confirmation of the effectiveness of the proposed method for separation can be seen in the example of purification of red clover and sorrel seeds. By imposition of an electric field on an inclined moving separating plane, we can completely separate weed seeds from the main crop. The results confirm the effectiveness of the electro-separating method.

  13. Development of flexible LEO-resistant PI films for space applications using a self-healing mechanism by surface-directed phase separation of block copolymers. (United States)

    Fischer, Hartmut R; Tempelaars, Karin; Kerpershoek, Aat; Dingemans, Theo; Iqbal, M; Lonkhuyzen, Henk van; Iwanowsky, Boris; Semprimoschnig, Christopher


    Polimide-block-polydimethylsiloxane (PI-b-PDMS) block copolymers have been synthesized from commercially available amino-terminated polysiloxanes with different molecular weights, for use as polymeric materials resistant to the low earth orbit (LEO) space environment. A structural optimization with respect to maximum environmental protection has been performed by varying the PDMS block length as well as the architecture of the block copolymers spanning from multiblock to triblock and star-shaped morphologies. The synthesized polymers and casted films show good mechanical and thermal performance. For block copolymers with a load of 2% PDMS (in the case of the multiblock copolymers), a complete surface coverage of the PDMS has been found. It has been shown that the transfer of the surface enriched PDMS layer into a thin silica layer after atomic oxygen (AO) exposure results in a drastic decrease in AO erosion rate. The silica layer protects the underlying material from oxygen initiated erosion resulting in a drastic decrease of surface roughness. This phenomena is observable for loads as small as 6 wt % PDMS.

  14. Effect of water hardness on the production and microbicidal efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed water. (United States)

    Forghani, Fereidoun; Park, Joong-Hyun; Oh, Deog-Hwan


    Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) has been proved as an effective sanitizer against microorganisms attached to foods. However, its physical properties and inactivation efficacy are affected by several factors such as water hardness. Therefore, in this study the effect of water hardness on SAEW properties were studied. Pure cultures of foodborne bacteria were used in vitro and in vivo to evaluate the inactivation efficacy of the SAEWs produced. Results obtained showed water hardness to be an important factor in the production of SAEW. Low water hardness may result in the necessity of further optimization of production process. In this study the addition of 5% HCl and 2 M NaCl at 1.5 mL/min flow rate was found to be the best electrolyte concentration for the optimization of SAEW production from low hardness water (34 ± 2 mg/L). Furthermore, the results showed that pre-heating was a better approach compared to post-production heating of SAEW, resulting in higher ACC values and therefor better sanitization efficacy.

  15. Molecular Analysis of Dominant Microbial Populations in Heavily and Slightly Polluted Aquifers by a Seaside Landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yangjie; YANG Hong; LI Daotang; WU Xiujuan


    The microbial populations were investigated in two groundwater samples, GW-H and GW-S, which represented heavily and slightly polluted aquifers by a seaside landfill. The concentrations of dissolved redox-relevant species suggested that iron-reduction/sulfate-reduction and denitrification were major redox processes for GW-H and GW-S. The dominant microbial populations were determined using restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. These microbes were then further studied by sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. The results indicate an obvious variation of the dominant populations between the two samples. The coexistence of sequences related to denitrifiers, sulfur-reducers, and methanotrophic bacteria was found in the GW-S sample, and a sequence associated with a sulfate-reducer was also found in the GW-H sample using molecular analyses. These results suggest that the molecular approach may be an important supplement to other approaches in characterizing the redox processes in polluted aquifers.

  16. Resolution of Racemic Acids, Esters and Amines by Candida rugosa Lipase in Slightly Hydrated Organic Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés R. Alcántara


    Full Text Available Commercial crude lipase from Candida rugosa is widely used as a biocatalyst in the resolution of racemic mixtures and in organic synthesis in slightly hydrated organic solvents. In many cases, reproducible results are not obtained when the same crude lipase is used, but from different suppliers of lots, this being due to the presence of different isoenzymes. The current work addresses this problem and strategies to overcome it. The yeast Candida rugosa ATCC 14380 was cultivated in a minimal culture medium, using different substances as inducers and carbon sources. The percentage of inducer that gave the optimum productivity of extracellular lipases was determined. Lyophilized extracellular enzymes were characterized by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing (IEF. Depending on the nature of the carbon source, different isoenzymes were produced in various proportions. These samples were partially purified by different methodologies, including dialysis, adsorption chromatography and precipitation with ammonium sulfate or organic solvents. These characterizations allowed us to explain the relative catalytic activity of different samples, showing that in biocatalysis enzymes should not be treated simply as a »white magic powder« that can solve all the challenges in organic synthesis. Heptyl oleate synthesis, alcoxycarbonylation of amines and hydrolysis of the ester of ketoprofen are excellent reaction tests for the evaluation of lipase samples as biocatalysts.

  17. Kepler-413b: a slightly misaligned, Neptune-size transiting circumbinary planet

    CERN Document Server

    Kostov, Veselin B; Carter, Joshua A; Deleuil, Magali; Diaz, Rodrigo F; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Hebrard, Guillaume; Hinse, Tobias C; Mazeh, Tsevi; Orosz, Jerome A; Tsvetanov, Zlatan I; Welsh, William F


    We report the discovery of a transiting, Rp = 4.347+/-0.099REarth, circumbinary planet (CBP) orbiting the Kepler K+M Eclipsing Binary (EB) system KIC 12351927 (Kepler-413) every ~66 days on an eccentric orbit with ap = 0.355+/-0.002AU, ep = 0.118+/-0.002. The two stars, with MA = 0.820+/-0.015MSun, RA = 0.776+/-0.009RSun and MB = 0.542+/-0.008MSun, RB = 0.484+/-0.024RSun respectively revolve around each other every 10.11615+/-0.00001 days on a nearly circular (eEB = 0.037+/-0.002) orbit. The orbital plane of the EB is slightly inclined to the line of sight (iEB = 87.33+/-0.06 degrees) while that of the planet is inclined by ~2.5 degrees to the binary plane at the reference epoch. Orbital precession with a period of ~11 years causes the inclination of the latter to the sky plane to continuously change. As a result, the planet often fails to transit the primary star at inferior conjunction, causing stretches of hundreds of days with no transits (corresponding to multiple planetary orbital periods). We predict t...

  18. A predictive model for the release of slightly water-soluble drugs from HPMC matrices. (United States)

    Fu, X C; Wang, G P; Wang, Y H; Liang, W Q


    A model to predict the fraction of slightly water-soluble drug released as a function of release time (t, h), HPMC concentration (C(H), w/w), drug solubility in distilled water at 37 degrees C (C(s), g/100 mL), and volume of drug molecule (V, nm3) was derived when theophyline, tinidazole, and propylthiouracil were selected as model drugs. The model is log (M(t)/M(infinity)) = 0.8683 logt-0.1930C(s) logt + 0.5406V logt-1.227C(H) + 0.1594C(s) + 0.4423C(H)C(s) - 0.8655 (n = 130, r = 0.9969), where Mt is the amount of drug released at time t, Minfinity is the amount of drug released over a very long time, which corresponds in principle to the initial loading, n is the number of samples, and r is the correlation coefficient. The model was validated using sulfamethoxazole and satisfactory results were obtained. The model can be used to predict the release fraction of variousslightly water-soluble drugs from HPMC matrices having different polymer levels.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓小刚; 庄逢甘


    By analyzing the characteristics of low Mach number perfect gas flows, a novel Slightly Compressible Model (SCM) for low Mach number perfect gas flows is derived. In view of numerical calculations, this model is proved very efficient,for it is kept within the p-v frame but does not have to satisfy the time consuming divergence-free condition in order to get the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation solutions. Writing the equations in the form of conservation laws, we have derived the characteristic systems which are necessary for numerical calculations. A cellcentered finite-volume method with flux difference upwind-biased schemes is used for the equation solutions and a new Exact Newton Relaxation (ENR) implicit method is developed. Various computed results are presented to validate the present model.Laminar flow solutions over a circular cylinder with wake developing and vortex shedding are presented. Results for inviscid flow over a sphere are compared in excellent agreement with the exact analytic incompressible solution. Three-dimensional viscous flow solutions over sphere and prolate spheroid are also calculated and compared well with experiments and other incompressible solutions. Finally, good convergent performaces are shown for sphere viscous flows.

  20. Isolation and characterization of aniline degradation slightly halophilic bacterium, Erwinia sp. Strain HSA 6. (United States)

    Li, Junmin; Jin, Zexin; Yu, Binbin


    The isolated strain HSA6 is classified as Erwinia amylovora based on 16S rDNA sequence and the morphological and physiological properties. Strain HSA6 is the first reported E. amylovora in pure culture growing with aniline as sole electron donor and carbon source. The suitable pH for strain HSA6 is wide (from 5 to 11). Strain HSA6 is slightly halophilic with growth occurring at 0-10% (v/v) NaCl, and the suitable NaCl concentration for strain HSA6 is from 0% to 6%. The number of bacteria appeared to decrease with an increase in aniline concentration. The number of bacteria appeared to be constant as the wastewater concentration increased from 0% to 20%. However, the number of cells decreased with an increase in wastewater concentration from 30% to 50% and grew very slowly at 50%. The degradation rate of aniline was 100% at 0.5% aniline concentration after 24 h culture. The degradation rate of aniline was found to descend as the concentration of aniline increased from 0.5% to 3% and rose as the culture time increased. Strain HSA6 contains a plasmid with molecular weight higher than 42 kDA. Plasmid curing test and quantitative degradation test showed that strain requires the plasmid for aniline degradation. The gene cluster degrading aniline was determined in the plasmid by PCR amplification.

  1. Size-selective sliding of sessile drops on a slightly inclined plane using low-frequency AC electrowetting. (United States)

    Hong, Jiwoo; Lee, Seung Jun; Koo, Bonchull C; Suh, Yong Kweon; Kang, Kwan Hyoung


    When placed on an inclined solid plane, drops often stick to the solid surface due to pinning forces caused by contact angle hysteresis. When the drop size or the plane's incline angle is small, the drop is difficult to slide due to a decrease in gravitational force. Here we demonstrate that small drops (0.4-9 μL) on a slightly inclined plane (~12°, Teflon and parylene-C surface) can be mobilized through patterned electrodes by applying low-frequency ac electrowetting under 400 Hz (110-180 V(rms)), which has a mechanism different from that of the high-frequency ac method that induces sliding by reducing contact angle hysteresis. We attribute the sliding motion of our method to a combination of contact angle hysteresis and interfacial oscillation driven by ac electrowetting instead of the minimization of contact angle hysteresis at a high frequency. We investigated the effects of ac frequency on the sliding motion and terminal sliding of drops; the terminal sliding velocity is greatest at resonance frequency. Varying the electrowetting number (0.21-0.56) at a fixed frequency (40 Hz) for 5 μL drops, we found an empirical relationship between the electrowetting number and the terminal sliding velocity. Using the relationship between the drop size and ac frequency, we can selectively slide drops of a specific size or merge two drops along an inclined plane. This simple method will help with constructing microfluidic platforms with sorting, merging, transporting, and mixing of drops without a programmable control of electrical signals. Also, this method has a potential in heat transfer applications because heat removal capacity can be enhanced significantly through drop oscillation.

  2. Effects of pressure, temperature and atomic exchanges on phase separation dynamics in Au/Ni(111) surface alloy: Kinetic Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvejnieks, G. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Kengaraga 8, LV-1063 Riga (Latvia); Ibenskas, A., E-mail: [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Semiconductor Physics Institute, Gostauto 11, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania); Tornau, E.E. [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Semiconductor Physics Institute, Gostauto 11, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)


    Instability of the Au/Ni(111) surface alloy is studied in different CO gas pressure, p, and temperature limits using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We analyze the reaction front dynamics and formation of Au clusters using the model which takes into account surface adatom pair and three-body interactions, CO adsorption and desorption, catalytic carbonyl formation reaction, Au and Ni adatom diffusion and their concerted exchange. Variation of interaction parameters allows us to identify three possible reaction front propagation limits with different pressure dependencies: (i) slow channel-like flow in agreement with experimental data [1] (step flow rate, R, increases with p), (ii) intermediate regime (weak p–dependence), and (iii) fast homogeneous flow (R decreases with p). We find that only Au–Ni exchange, contrary to both Ni–CO and Au–CO exchanges, significantly reduces the number of screened Ni atoms inside the Au clusters and stimulates the occurrence of Ni-free Au clusters. The size of Au islands depends on both pressure and temperature. At a fixed temperature it decreases with pressure due to an increased step flow rate. In the high temperature limit, despite the step flow rate exponential increase with temperature, the cluster size increases due to an enhanced Au mobility. - Highlights: • Kinetic Monte Carlo study of Au–Ni surface alloy instability to CO pressure and temperature. • Three reaction front propagation regimes. • In channel-like regime, the step flow rate increases with CO pressure as in experiment. • Ni-free Au islands are obtained when Au-Ni adatom exchange mechanism is considered. • The size of Au islands decreases with pressure and increases with temperature.

  3. Battery separator manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, N.I.; Sugarman, N.


    A battery with a positive plate, a negative plate, and a separator of polymeric resin having a degree of undesirable hydrophobia, solid below 180/sup 0/F, extrudable as a hot melt, and resistant to degradation by at least either acids or alkalies positioned between the plates is described. The separator comprises a nonwoven mat of fibers, the fibers being comprised of the polymeric resin and a wetting agent in an amount of 0.5 to 20 percent by weight based on the weight of the resin with the amount being incompatible with the resin below the melting point of the resin such that the wetting agent will bloom over a period of time at ambient temperatures in a battery, yet being compatible with the resin at the extrusion temperature and bringing about blooming to the surface of the fibers when the fibers are subjected to heat and pressure.

  4. Urine sodium excretion increased slightly among U.S. adults between 1988 and 2010. (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Hughes, Jeffery P; Cogswell, Mary E; Burt, Vicki L; Lacher, David A; Lavoie, Donna J; Rabinowitz, Daniel J; Johnson, Clifford L; Pirkle, James L


    Little information is available on temporal trends in sodium intake in the U.S. population using urine sodium excretion as a biomarker. Our aim was to assess 1988-2010 trends in estimated 24-h urine sodium (24hUNa) excretion among U.S. adults (age 20-59 y) participating in the cross-sectional NHANES. We used subsamples from a 1988-1994 convenience sample, a 2003-2006 one-third random sample, and a 2010 one-third random sample to comply with resource constraints. We estimated 24hUNa excretion from measured sodium concentrations in spot urine samples by use of calibration equations (for men and women) derived from the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure study. Estimated 24hUNa excretion increased over the 20-y period [1988-1994, 2003-2006, and 2010; means ± SEMs (n): 3160 ± 38.4 mg/d (1249), 3290 ± 29.4 mg/d (1235), and 3290 ± 44.4 mg/d (525), respectively; P-trend = 0.022]. We observed significantly higher mean estimated 24hUNa excretion in each survey period (P 1988-1994 and using estimated 24hUNa excretion as a biomarker of sodium intake), these first NHANES data suggest that mean estimated 24hUNa excretion increased slightly in U.S. adults over the past 2 decades, and this increase may be explained by a shift in the distribution of BMI.

  5. Airborne bacterial reduction by spraying slightly acidic electrolyzed water in a laying-hen house. (United States)

    Zheng, Weichao; Kang, Runmin; Wang, Hongning; Li, Baoming; Xu, Changwen; Wang, Shuang


    Spraying slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) has been considered as a potential approach to reduce airborne bacteria in laying-hen houses. In this study, the effects of spraying SAEW on airborne bacterial reduction were investigated in a laying-hen house as compared with using diluted didecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB). Averaged air temperature reduced by approximate 1 degrees C and average relative humidity increased by 3% at a stable ventilation rate (about 2.5 m3 hr(-1) per bird) in the laying-hen house 30 min after spraying (120 mL m(-2)). Compared with the control without spraying, the airborne bacterial concentration was reduced by about 0.70 and 0.37 log10 colony-forming units (CFU) m(-3) in the 4 hr after spraying 120 mL m(-2) SAEW (available chlorine concentration [ACC] of 156 mg L(-1)) and diluted DDAB (active compound concentration of 167 mg L(-1)), respectively. Compared with spraying diluted DDAB, spraying SAEW was determined to be more effective for reducing airborne bacterial in laying-hen houses. The effects of spraying SAEW and diluted DDAB on airborne bacterial reduction in the laying-hen house increased with the increasing available chlorine concentrations for SAEW (156, 206, 262 mg L(-1)) and increasing active compound concentrations for diluted DDAB (167, 333, 500 mg L(-1)), respectively. Spraying SAEW and diluted DDAB with two levels of spraying volumes (120 and 90 mL m(-2)) both showed significant differences on airborne bacterial reduction in the laying-hen house (P < 0.05).

  6. Slightly modified technique of the original essed plication procedure for congenital penile deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Van Der Horst


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The Schroeder-Essed plication procedure is a standard technique for the correction of penile curvature. In a retrospective analysis we compared functional results and quality of life (LQ of the original technique with inverted sutures as described by Schroeder-Essed and our slight modification consisting of horizontal incisions into the tunica albuginea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with congenital penis deviation were treated for penile deviation by the original Schroeder-Essed plication with inverted sutures (11 patients and by the described modification (15 patients. In case of modified technique, horizontal and parallel incisions 4 mm to 6 mm apart and about 8 mm - 10 mm long were made through the tunica albuginea. The outer edges of the incisions were then approximated with permanent inverted sutures (Gore-Tex® 3-0. Mean age was 21.6 years in the first group and 23.2 years in the second group. Average follow-up was 28 months and 13 months, respectively. The preoperative penile deviation angle was > 25º in all patients without difference between the 2 groups. RESULTS: All patients in both groups reported an improvement in their quality of life and full ability to engage in sexual intercourse. Nine patients (88% in the first group and 14 patients (93% in the second group were satisfied with the cosmetic result. In contrast, 10 patients (91% of the first and 13 patients (87% of the second group complained of penile shorting. Recurrence of deviation was only noticed in 2 males in the first group (18%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that this simple modification of the Schroeder-Essed plication offers good functional and cosmetic results. Most patients were satisfied with the penile angle correction results.

  7. Microgravity Passive Phase Separator (United States)

    Paragano, Matthew; Indoe, William; Darmetko, Jeffrey


    A new invention disclosure discusses a structure and process for separating gas from liquids in microgravity. The Microgravity Passive Phase Separator consists of two concentric, pleated, woven stainless- steel screens (25-micrometer nominal pore) with an axial inlet, and an annular outlet between both screens (see figure). Water enters at one end of the center screen at high velocity, eventually passing through the inner screen and out through the annular exit. As gas is introduced into the flow stream, the drag force exerted on the bubble pushes it downstream until flow stagnation or until it reaches an equilibrium point between the surface tension holding bubble to the screen and the drag force. Gas bubbles of a given size will form a front that is moved further down the length of the inner screen with increasing velocity. As more bubbles are added, the front location will remain fixed, but additional bubbles will move to the end of the unit, eventually coming to rest in the large cavity between the unit housing and the outer screen (storage area). Owing to the small size of the pores and the hydrophilic nature of the screen material, gas does not pass through the screen and is retained within the unit for emptying during ground processing. If debris is picked up on the screen, the area closest to the inlet will become clogged, so high-velocity flow will persist farther down the length of the center screen, pushing the bubble front further from the inlet of the inner screen. It is desired to keep the velocity high enough so that, for any bubble size, an area of clean screen exists between the bubbles and the debris. The primary benefits of this innovation are the lack of any need for additional power, strip gas, or location for venting the separated gas. As the unit contains no membrane, the transport fluid will not be lost due to evaporation in the process of gas separation. Separation is performed with relatively low pressure drop based on the large surface

  8. Reactive fluxes delivered by dielectric barrier discharge filaments to slightly wounded skin (United States)

    Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Kushner, Mark J.


    The application of atmospheric-pressure plasmas to human tissue has been shown to have therapeutic effects for wound healing and in treatment of skin diseases. In this paper, we report on a computational study of the intersection of plasma filaments in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) with a small wound in human skin in the context of plasma medicine. The wound is represented as a small cut in the epidermal layer of cells. Intracellular structures and their electrical properties were incorporated into the two-dimensional computational mesh in order to self-consistently couple gas phase plasma transport with the charging of the surface of the wound. We quantify the fluxes of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, ions and photons produced in or diffusing into the wound as might occur during the first few discharge pulses of treatment. Comparison is made to fluxes predicted by global modelling. We show that the relative location of the plasma filament with respect to the wound is important on plasma time scales (ns) for ions and photons, and for radicals directly produced by electron impact processes. On the longer-term diffusion time scales (ms) the position of the plasma filament relative to the wound is not so critical. For typical DBD conditions, the magnitude of these fluxes to the cellular surfaces corresponds to fluences of radicals nearly equal to the surface site density. These results imply that the biological reactivity is limited by reaction probabilities and not the availability of radical fluxes.

  9. Spinodal Theory: A Common Rupturing Mechanism in Spinodal Dewetting and Surface Directed Phase Separation (Some Technological Aspects: Spatial Correlations and the Significance of Dipole-Quadrupole Interaction in Spinodal Dewetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Pal Singh


    Full Text Available The emerging structures in spinodal dewetting of thin nano films and spinodal decomposition of binary mixtures are found to be similar with certain differences attributed to the nonlinearities inherent in the wetting forces. This paper deals with the technological aspects of the spinodal processes by giving a brief account of the theory and to correlate the two phenomena termed as spinodal dewetting of thin nanofilms and surface-directed phase separation. The MC simulation micrographs at early stage of spinodal dewetting of a (linear polymer film confined between two hard walls (using FENE potential between the beads on same chain and Morse potential between inter and intra chain beads show similarities with surface-directed phase separation (using metropolis algorithm in creation of holes. The spinodal dewetting is also criticized on the basis of global minimization of free energy emerging from dipole-quadrupole interactions. A novel molecular scale-driving mechanism coming from asymmetric interface formation in spinodal processes is also proposed. It can be believed that the modeling done with the films under confinement of two walls works as a classical mathematical ansatz to the dipole-quadrupole interaction coming from quantum origins and giving rise to lateral interactions in the process reflecting a colossal behavior in thin nano films though weak in nature.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid A. Abdulrahman


    Full Text Available Simulated column performance curves were constructed for existing paraffin separation vacuum distillation column in LAB plant (Arab Detergent Company/Baiji-Iraq. The variables considered in this study are the thermodynamic model option, top vacuum pressure, top and bottom temperatures, feed temperature, feed composition & reflux ratio. Also simulated columns profiles for the temperature, vapor & liquid flow rates composition were constructed. Four different thermodynamic model options (SRK, TSRK, PR, and ESSO were used, affecting the results within 1-25% variation for the most cases.The simulated results show that about 2% to 8 % of paraffin (C10, C11, C12, & C13 present at the bottom stream which may cause a problem in the LAB plant. The major variations were noticed for the top temperature & the  paraffin weight fractions at bottom section with top vacuum pressure. The bottom temperature above 240 oC is not recommended because the total bottom flow rate decreases sharply, where as  the weight fraction of paraffins decrease slightly. The study gives evidence about a successful simulation with CHEMCAD

  11. Interplay Between Structural, Jahn-Teller, and Magnetic States of Slightly Doped Lanthanum Manganites (United States)

    Golenishchev-Kutuzov, V. A.; Golenishchev-Kutuzov, A. V.; Kalimullin, R. I.; Semennikov, A. V.


    By combining the results of elastic moduli, electrical resistivity, and magnetization measurements for La_{1-x}SrxMnO3 ( x = 0.125, x = 0.15, and x = 0.175), we have constructed a phase diagram that describes the structural, magnetic, transport properties and the relationships among them as a function of the composition and temperature (140-340 K). The local, intermediate, and cooperative Jahn-Teller distortions of the octahedral structural units MnO6 have been studied. It is common for these distortions to be observed using probes of intermediate structures (domains or super-cells), but they are absent in the averaged crystallographic structure. In the cooperative Jahn-Teller distorted phase, the macroscopic sample length is temperature dependent. We presume that the structural transitions from the cooperative Jahn-Teller phase to the charge ordering phase at low temperatures (150 and 180 K at x = 0.125 and x = 0.15) are due to the increase in the spontaneous magnetization with the conservation of the local deformations of separate octahedra. The agreement between the types of the orbital ordering and the local, intermediate, and Jahn-Teller cooperative distortions of octahedra was established.

  12. Surface reconstructions

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, David J


    It is well-known, even at the most elementary level of scientific knowledge, that free surfaces have properties which make them differ from the underlying bulk material. In the case of liquids, it is common knowledge - even among laymen - that the liquid surface acts as though it were a distinct skin-like material. At a slightly more advanced level, it is known that the liquid surface will seek to minimize its total surface energy by minimizing its surface area; thereby affecting its local vapor-pressure and adsorption behavior. In the case of solids too, it has long been known that different

  13. Seasonal variations of natural ventilation and radon-222 exhalation in a slightly rising dead-end tunnel. (United States)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Richon, Patrick; Gautam, Umesh; Tiwari, Dilli Ram; Shrestha, Prithvi; Sapkota, Soma Nath


    The concentration activity of radon-222 has been monitored, with some interruptions, from 1997 to 2005 in the end section of a slightly rising, dead-end, 38-m long tunnel located in the Phulchoki hill, near Kathmandu, Nepal. While a high concentration varying from 6 x 10(3) Bq m(-3) to 10 x 10(3) Bq m(-3) is observed from May to September (rainy summer season), the concentration remains at a low level of about 200 Bq m(-3) from October to March (dry winter season). This reduction of radon concentration is associated with natural ventilation of the tunnel, which, contrary to expectations for a rising tunnel, takes place mainly from October to March when the outside air temperature drops below the average tunnel temperature. This interpretation is supported by temperature measurements in the atmosphere of the tunnel, a few meters away from the entrance. The temporal variations of the diurnal amplitude of this temperature indeed follow the ventilation rate deduced from the radon measurements. In the absence of significant ventilation (summer season), the radon exhalation flux at the rock surface into the tunnel atmosphere can be inferred; it exhibits a yearly variation with additional transient reductions associated with heavy rainfall, likely to be due to water infiltration. No effect of atmospheric pressure variations on the radon concentration is observed in this tunnel. This experiment illustrates how small differences in the location and geometry of a tunnel can lead to vastly different behaviours of the radon concentration versus time. This observation has consequences for the estimation of the dose rate and the practicability of radon monitoring for tectonic purposes in underground environments.

  14. Oxidizing dissolution mechanism of an irradiated MOX fuel in underwater aerated conditions at slightly acidic pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnin, M., E-mail:; Jégou, C.; Caraballo, R.; Broudic, V.; Tribet, M.; Peuget, S.; Talip, Z.


    Highlights: • Oxidizing dissolution mechanism of MOX fuel. • Effect of the influence of the interim storage conditions. • Raman spectroscopy characterizations. • Precipitation of Studtite-type secondary phases. • Heterogeneous microstructure of the (U,Pu)O{sub 2} oxide. - Abstract: The (U,Pu)O{sub 2} matrix behavior of an irradiated MIMAS-type (MIcronized MASter blend) MOX fuel, under radiolytic oxidation in aerated pure water at pH 5–5.5 was studied by combining chemical and radiochemical analyses of the alteration solution with Raman spectroscopy characterizations of the surface state. Two leaching experiments were performed on segments of irradiated fuel under different conditions: with or without an external γ irradiation field, over long periods (222 and 604 days, respectively). The gamma irradiation field was intended to be representative of the irradiation conditions for a fuel assembly in an underwater interim storage situation. The data acquired enabled an alteration mechanism to be established, characterized by uranium (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) release mainly controlled by solubility of studtite over the long-term. The massive precipitation of this phase was observed for the two experiments based on high uranium oversaturation indexes of the solution and the kinetics involved depended on the irradiation conditions. External gamma irradiation accelerated the precipitation kinetics and the uranium concentrations (2.9 × 10{sup −7} mol/l) were lower than for the non-irradiated reference experiment (1.4 × 10{sup −5} mol/l), as the quantity of hydrogen peroxide was higher. Under slightly acidic pH conditions, the formation of an oxidized UO{sub 2+x} phase was not observed on the surface and did not occur in the radiolysis dissolution mechanism of the fuel matrix. The Raman spectroscopy performed on the heterogeneous MOX fuel matrix surface, showed that the fluorite structure of the mainly UO{sub 2} phase surrounding the Pu-enriched aggregates had

  15. Experimental study of air-cooled water condensation in slightly inclined circular tube using infrared temperature measurement technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyungdae [Nuclear Engineering Department, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Tae-Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Eok, E-mail: [Department of Precision Mechanical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Sangju (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Air-cooled condensation experiments in an inclined Pyrex glass tube were performed. • High-resolution wall temperature data and flow regime formations could be obtained. • The local heat flux was strongly dependent on the air-side heat transfer. • A CFD analysis was conducted for calculating the local heat flux distribution. - Abstract: This study presents the results of an investigation of the air-cooled water condensation heat transfer characteristics inside a slightly inclined circular tube made of transparent Pyrex glass. The high-resolution wall temperature data and stratified film formations could be obtained with the assistance of an infrared (IR) thermometry technique and side-view visualization using a CCD camera. In all experimental cases, the condensation flow patterns were in the fully-stratified flow region. In addition, the experimentally measured void fraction corresponded well with the logarithmic mean void fraction model. The local temperature differences in the cooling air flow across the condenser tube and high-resolution temperature profiles on the tube’s outer wall were obtained in the experimental measurements. Under the experimental conditions of this study, the local heat flux distributions in the longitudinal direction of the test tube were strongly dependent on the cooling air velocity. And, with the help of IR thermometry, the tube outer wall temperature data at 45 local points could be measured. From the data, the asymmetry distribution of the local wall temperatures and the accurate location of the transition from two-phase mixture to single phase liquid inside the tube could be obtained. Also, the analysis of the thermal resistances by condensation, wall conduction and air convection showed that the air convective heat transfer behavior can play a dominant role to the local heat transfer characteristics. Finally, in order to obtain the local heat flux distribution along the tube’s outer wall, a two

  16. Investigation into formation of nanoparticles of tetravalent neptunium in slightly alkaline aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husar, Richard


    Considering the worldwide growing discharge of minor actinides and the current need for geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste, this work provides a contribution to the safety case concerning Np transport if it would be released from deep repository sites and moving from alkaline cement conditions (near-field) to more neutral environmental conditions (far-field). The reducing conditions in a nuclear waste repository render neptunium tetravalent, which is assumed to be immobile in aqueous environment due to the low solubility solution of Np(IV). For tetravalent actinide nuclides, the most significant transport should occur via colloidal particles. This work demonstrates the formation of intrinsic neptunium dioxide nanocrystals and amorphous Np(IV) silica colloids under environmentally relevant conditions. The dissociation of the initial soluble Np(IV) complex (i.e. [Np(IV)(CO{sub 3}){sub 5}]{sup 6-}) induces the intrinsic formation of nanocrystalline NpO{sub 2} in the solution phase. The resulting irregularly shaped nanocrystals with an average size of 4 nm exhibit a face-centered cubic (fcc), fluorite-type structure (space group Fm anti 3m). The NCs tend to agglomerate under ambient conditions due to the weakly charged hydrodynamic surface at neutral pH (zetapotential ζ ∝0 mV). The formation of micron-sized agglomerates, composed of nanocrystals of 2-5 nm in size, and the subsequent precipitation cause immobilization of the major amount of Np(IV) in the Np carbonate system. Agglomeration of NpO{sub 2} nanocrystals in dependence on time was indicated by PCS and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy with the changes of baseline characteristics and absorption maximum at 742 nm. Hitherto, unknown polynuclear species as intermediate species of NpO{sub 2} nanocrystal formation were isolated from solution and observed by HR-TEM. These polynuclear Np species appear as dimers, trimers and hexanuclear compounds in analogy with those reported for other actinides

  17. Surface Deposition and Coalescence and Coacervation Phase Separation Methods: In Vitro Study and Compatibility Analysis of Eudragit RS30D, Eudragit RL30D, and Carbopol-PLA Loaded Metronidazole Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irin Dewan


    Full Text Available Metronidazole (MTZ has extremely broad spectrum of protozoal and antimicrobial activity and is clinically effective in trichomoniasis, amoebic colitis, and giardiasis. This study was performed to formulate and evaluate the MTZ loaded microspheres by coacervation phase separation and surface deposition and coalescence methods using different polymers like Gelatin, Carbopol 934P, Polylactic Acid (PLA, Eudragit RS30D, and Eudragit RL30D to acquire sustained release of drug. In vitro dissolution studies were carried out in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4 for 8 hours according to USP paddle method. The maximum and minimum release of MTZ from microspheres observed were 84.81% and 76.6% for coacervation and 95.07% and 80.07% for surface deposition method, respectively, after 8 hours. Release kinetics was studied in different mathematical release models. The SEM and FTIR studies confirm good spheres and smooth surface as well as interaction between drug and polymers. Though release kinetic is uncertain, the best fit was obtained with the Korsmeyer kinetic model with release exponent (n lying between 0.45 and 0.89. In vitro studies showed that MTZ microspheres with different polymers might be a good candidate as sustained drug delivery system to treat bacterial infections.

  18. Effect of hypnosis on masseter EMG recorded during the 'resting' and a slightly open jaw posture. (United States)

    Al-Enaizan, N; Davey, K J; Lyons, M F; Cadden, S W


    The aim of this experimental study was to determine whether minimal levels of electromyographic activity in the masseter muscle are altered when individuals are in a verified hypnotic state. Experiments were performed on 17 volunteer subjects (8 male, 9 female) all of whom gave informed consent. The subjects were dentate and had no symptoms of pain or masticatory dysfunction. Surface electromyograms (EMGs) were made from the masseter muscles and quantified by integration following full-wave rectification and averaging. The EMGs were obtained (i) with the mandible in 'resting' posture; (ii) with the mandible voluntarily lowered (but with the lips closed); (iii) during maximum voluntary clenching (MVC). The first two recordings were made before, during and after the subjects were in a hypnotic state. Susceptibility to hypnosis was assessed with Spiegel's eye-roll test, and the existence of the hypnotic state was verified by changes in ventilatory pattern. On average, EMG levels expressed as percentages of MVC were less: (i) when the jaw was deliberately lowered as opposed to being in the postural position: (ii) during hypnosis compared with during the pre- and post-hypnotic periods. However, analysis of variance followed by post hoc tests with multiple comparison corrections (Bonferroni) revealed that only the differences between the level during hypnosis and those before and after hypnosis were statistically significant (P hypnosis, it appears that part of that EMG is of biological origin.

  19. Toroidal surfaces compared with spherocylindrical surfaces (United States)

    Malacara-Doblado, Daniel; Malacara-Hernandez, Daniel; Garcia-Marquez, Jorge L.


    Toroidal and sphero-cylindrical optical surfaces are two different kinds of surfaces (Menchaca and Malacara, 1986), but they are almost identical in the vicinity of the optical axis. The separation between these two surfaces increases when the distance to the optical axis increases. In this work the separation between these two surfaces outside of the central region is analytically studied.

  20. Fictional Separation Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Buhrkal; Birkedal, Lars


    , separation means physical separation. In this paper, we introduce \\emph{fictional separation logic}, which includes more general forms of fictional separating conjunctions P * Q, where "*" does not require physical separation, but may also be used in situations where the memory resources described by P and Q...

  1. Surface molecular imprinting onto fluorescein-coated magnetic nanoparticlesvia reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization: A facile three-in-one system for recognition and separation of endocrine disrupting chemicals (United States)

    Li, Ying; Dong, Cunku; Chu, Jia; Qi, Jingyao; Li, Xin


    In this study, we present a general protocol for the making of surface-imprinted magnetic fluorescence beads viareversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The resulting composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The as-synthesized beads exhibited homogeneous polymer films (thickness of about 5.7 nm), spherical shape, high fluorescence intensity and magnetic property (Magnetization (Ms) = 3.67 emu g-1). The hybrids bind the original template 17β-estradiol with an appreciable selectivity over structurally related compounds. In addition, the resulting hybrids performed without obvious deterioration after five repeated cycles. This study therefore demonstrates the potential of molecularly imprinted polymers for the recognition and separation of endocrine disrupting chemicals.In this study, we present a general protocol for the making of surface-imprinted magnetic fluorescence beads viareversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The resulting composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The as-synthesized beads exhibited homogeneous polymer films (thickness of about 5.7 nm), spherical shape, high fluorescence intensity and magnetic property (Magnetization (Ms) = 3.67 emu g-1). The hybrids bind the original template 17β-estradiol with an appreciable selectivity over structurally related compounds. In addition, the resulting hybrids performed without obvious deterioration after five repeated cycles. This study therefore demonstrates the potential of molecularly imprinted polymers for the recognition and separation of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Electronic

  2. Separation Anxiety (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Separation Anxiety KidsHealth > For Parents > Separation Anxiety Print A A ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  3. Separation Anxiety (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Separation Anxiety KidsHealth > For Parents > Separation Anxiety A A A ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  4. Separation of BSA through FAU-Type Zeolite Ceramic-Composite Membrane Formed on Tubular Ceramic Support: Optimization of Process Parameters by Hybrid Response Surface Methodology and Bi-Objective Genetic Algorithm. (United States)

    Kumar, R Vinoth; Moorthy, I Ganesh; Pugazhenthi, G


    In this study, Faujasite (FAU) zeolite was coated on low cost tubular ceramic support as a separating layer via hydrothermal route. The mixture of silicate and aluminate solutions was used to create a zeolitic separation layer on the support. The prepared zeolite ceramic-composite membrane was characterized by using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), particle size distribution (PSD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and zeta potential measurements. The porosity of ceramic support (53%) was reduced by the deposition of FAU (43%) zeolite layer. The pore size and water permeability of the membrane were evaluated as 0.179 µm and 1.62 × 10(-7) m(3)/m(2)s.kPa, respectively, which are lower than that of the support (pore size of 0.309 µm and water permeability of 5.93 × 10(-7) m(3)/m(2)s.kPa). The permeate flux and rejection potential of the prepared membrane was evaluated by microfiltration of bovine serum albumin (BSA). To study the influences of three independent variables such as operating pressure (68.94 - 275.79 kPa), concentration of BSA (100 - 500 ppm) and solution pH (2 - 4) on permeate flux and percentage of rejection, the RSM (Response Surface Methodology) was employed. The predicted models for permeate flux and rejection were further subjected to bi-objective Genetic Algorithm (GA). The hybrid RSM-GA approach resulted a maximum permeate flux of 2.66 × 10(-5) m(3)/m(2)s and BSA rejection of 88.02%, at which the optimum conditions were attained as 100 ppm BSA concentration, 2 pH solution and 275.79 kPa applied pressure. In addition, the separation efficiency was compared with other membranes applied for BSA separation in order to know the potential of the fabricated FAU zeolite ceramic-composite membrane.

  5. Design of a nanocarrier with regulated drug release ability utilizing a reversible conformational transition of a peptide, responsive to slight changes in pH. (United States)

    Murai, Kazuki; Higuchi, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Takatoshi; Nagata, Kenji; Kato, Katsuya


    We investigated the drug releasing behavior of a novel nanocarrier system, utilizing a peptide to act as a nanogate to the mesopore, on a mesoporous silica nanoparticle. The surface peptide on mesoporous silica displayed pH-dependant mesopore cap-uncap switching behavior, enabled by the reversible β-sheet-to-random coil conformational transition resulting from slight pH changes between 8.0 and 6.0. The peptide adopted a β-sheet structure under weakly basic conditions (pH 8.0) and a random coil conformation under weakly acidic conditions (pH 6.0). We demonstrated the pH-dependant regulation of the material's drug release property by the reversible conformational transition of the surface peptide. Under basic pH conditions, the drug release from the nanocarrier was significantly inhibited. However, under acidic pH conditions, the drug in the mesopore was gradually released.

  6. Printed Spacecraft Separation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmans, Walter [Planetary Systems Corporation, Silver Springs, MD (United States); Dehoff, Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    In this project Planetary Systems Corporation proposed utilizing additive manufacturing (3D printing) to manufacture a titanium spacecraft separation system for commercial and US government customers to realize a 90% reduction in the cost and energy. These savings were demonstrated via “printing-in” many of the parts and sub-assemblies into one part, thus greatly reducing the labor associated with design, procurement, assembly and calibration of mechanisms. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned several of the components of the separation system based on additive manufacturing principles including geometric flexibility and the ability to fabricate complex designs, ability to combine multiple parts of an assembly into a single component, and the ability to optimize design for specific mechanical property targets. Shock absorption was specifically targeted and requirements were established to attenuate damage to the Lightband system from shock of initiation. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned components based on these requirements and sent the designs to Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be printed. ORNL printed the parts using the Arcam electron beam melting technology based on the desire for the parts to be fabricated from Ti-6Al-4V based on the weight and mechanical performance of the material. A second set of components was fabricated from stainless steel material on the Renishaw laser powder bed technology due to the improved geometric accuracy, surface finish, and wear resistance of the material. Planetary Systems Corporation evaluated these components and determined that 3D printing is potentially a viable method for achieving significant cost and savings metrics.

  7. Controlling Separation in Turbomachines (United States)

    Evans, Simon; Himmel, Christoph; Power, Bronwyn; Wakelam, Christian; Xu, Liping; Hynes, Tom; Hodson, Howard


    Four examples of flow control: 1) Passive control of LP turbine blades (Laminar separation control). 2) Aspiration of a conventional axial compressor blade (Turbulent separation control). 3) Compressor blade designed for aspiration (Turbulent separation control). 4.Control of intakes in crosswinds (Turbulent separation control).

  8. Transformation of the bridge during drop separation (United States)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.; Prokhorov, V. E.


    The geometry of flows during separation of pendant drops of liquids with significantly different physical properties (alcohol, water, glycerin, oil) has been studied by high-speed video recording. The dynamics of the processes involving the formation of bridges of two characteristic shapes—slightly nonuniform in thickness and with thinning of the upper and lower ends—has been investigated. It has been shown that the shape change of the separated bridge has a number of stages determined by the properties of the liquid. As a result, the bridge is transformed into a small drop—a satellite drop.

  9. About Slight Slowdown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Fears of a "double-dip" recession are haunting the world economy.But a "double-dip" recession is quite unlikely in China as long as the Chinese Government can properly deal with the real estate market, control credit expansion and stabilize the stock markets

  10. About Slight Slowdown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Fears of a"double-dip"recession are haunting the world economy.But a"double-dip"recession is quite unlikely in China as long as the Chinese Government can properly deal with the real estate market,control credit expansion and stabilize the stock markets,said Yi Xianrong,a senior researcher at the Institute of Finance and Banking of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences,in an article in Shanghai Securities News.Edited excerpts follow:

  11. Cyclist: slightly foxed. (United States)

    Goel, Rishi; Kuganolipava, Shophia; Krokiadis, Miltiadis; Wilkinson, Mark


    Abnormal liver function tests (LFTs) are a common cause for referral to hepatology outpatient departments. Cross-sectional imaging may reveal a liver lesion. We report the case of a 33-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain and deranged LFTs and was found to have a large liver cyst on ultrasound scanning. Specific Echinococcus multilocularis serology testing was positive and he underwent triple phase CT, MRI and positron emission tomography-CT to further characterise the lesion. He was treated with long-term albendazole with subsequent improvement in symptoms, blood results and cyst size on follow-up imaging.

  12. Marital separation and health: stress and intervention. (United States)

    Wertlieb, D; Budman, S; Demby, A; Randall, M


    Marital separation is a stressful life event implicated in much current thinking and practice in mental health, health psychology and psychosomatic medicine. This study examines marital separation in a controlled, prospective design. The participants were 314 Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) subscribers followed over a two year period. Marital separation was experienced by 127 of these participants early in the two-year study period. A stratified random half of these separated individuals participated in a short-term psychoeducational group intervention, "Seminars for the Separated." Measures of psychosocial adjustment and medical utilization were analyzed to describe correlates of marital separation and to evaluate the intervention. Statistically significant increases in medical utilization by people experiencing marital separation were observed in comparisons with married control subjects. Much of this increased utilization occurred in the year surrounding the actual separation and may be accounted for by mental health visits as well as nonmental health contacts with the health plan. The effects of the intervention were not evident until controls for baseline levels of medical utilization were introduced into the multivariate analysis. Even then, intervention effects were slight. Methodological problems and implications for further study are presented.

  13. Optimization on separation technology of the quercetin from the Forsythia by ion precipitation methods with response surface methodology%响应面优化连翘槲皮素的离子沉淀法分离工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    旷超阳; 欧阳玉祝; 陈实; 张辞海


    利用响应面法(RSM)优化离子沉淀法分离连翘槲皮素的工艺条件.在单因素实验基础上,选取醋酸锌和碳酸钠用量以及沉淀温度为影响因子,以槲皮素提取率为响应值,应用Box-behnken中心组合试验设计建立数学模型,并进行响应面分析.结果表明,碳酸钠和醋酸锌用量分别为0.65 g和1.41 g,50℃下沉淀40 min,连翘槲皮素的提取率为9.76%.%Separation technology of quercetin from the Forsythia by ion precipitation methods was optimized with response surface methodology (RSM). According to single factor experiment result,the mathematical model was established by Box-behnken central composite design using the zinc acetate and sodium carbonate dosage, precipitation temperature as influencing factors, and the quercetin extraction ratio as response value. The results showed that extraction rate of quercetin from Forsythia was 9.76% under the sodium carbonate and zinc acetate dosage for 0.65 g and 1.41 g,50℃ precipitation 40 min.

  14. Exposure to an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field only slightly modifies the proteome of Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472


    Baraúna, Rafael A.; Santos, Agenor V; Graças, Diego A.; Daniel M. Santos; Rubens Ghilardi Júnior; Adriano M. C. Pimenta; Marta S.P. Carepo; Maria P.C. Schneider; Artur Silva


    Several studies of the physiological responses of different organisms exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) have been described. In this work, we report the minimal effects of in situ exposure to ELF-EMF on the global protein expression of Chromobacterium violaceum using a gel-based proteomic approach. The protein expression profile was only slightly altered, with five differentially expressed proteins detected in the exposed cultures; two of these proteins (DNA-...

  15. In Healthy Young Men, a Short Exhaustive Exercise Alters the Oxidative Stress Only Slightly, Independent of the Actual Fitness. (United States)

    Finkler, Maya; Hochman, Ayala; Pinchuk, Ilya; Lichtenberg, Dov


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the apparent disagreement regarding the effect of a typical cycling progressive exercise, commonly used to assess VO2max, on the kinetics of ex vivo copper induced peroxidation of serum lipids. Thirty-two (32) healthy young men, aged 24-30 years, who do not smoke and do not take any food supplements, participated in the study. Blood was withdrawn from each participant at three time points (before the exercise and 5 minutes and one hour after exercise). Copper induced peroxidation of sera made of the blood samples was monitored by spectrophotometry. For comparison, we also assayed TBARS concentration and the activity of oxidation-related enzymes. The physical exercise resulted in a slight and reversible increase of TBARS and slight changes in the activities of the studied antioxidant enzymes and the lag preceding peroxidation did not change substantially. Most altered parameters returned to baseline level one hour after exercise. Notably, the exercise-induced changes in OS did not correlate with the physical fitness of the subjects, as evaluated in this study (VO2max = 30-60 mL/min/kg). We conclude that in healthy young fit men a short exhaustive exercise alters only slightly the OS, independent of the actual physical fitness.

  16. Effects of Slight Plastic Deformation on Magnetic Properties and Giant Magnetoimpedance of FeCoCrSiB Amorphous Ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.O.Volchkov; M.A.Cerdeira; V.V.Gubernatorov; E.I.Duhan; A.P.Potapov; V.A.Lukshina


    Slight plastic deformation of 0 to 1% by cold rolling is proposed as a treatment which may modify the responses of magnetoimpedance (MI) sensor with an amorphous ribbon used as a sensitive element. The dependence of the magnetic properties of melt spun Fe3Co67Cr3Si15B12 amorphous ribbons and their MI responses in the initial state and after slight plastic deformation on the value of the deformation were comparatively analysed. The shape of the hysteresis loops shows a clear correlation with the value of the deformation. The variations of the total impedance, the real and the imaginary components, are measured for the current intensity of 1.5mA for the frequency of 10 MHz. Slight plastic deformation affects both real and imaginary components and allows a control of the shape of the MI curves in a small Geld in a range usually used in biomedical applications. The proposed deformation treatments can be useful for the construction of the MI sensitive elements with a new type of the responses.

  17. Behavioral manifestations of audiometrically-defined "slight" or "hidden" hearing loss revealed by measures of binaural detection. (United States)

    Bernstein, Leslie R; Trahiotis, Constantine


    This study assessed whether audiometrically-defined "slight" or "hidden" hearing losses might be associated with degradations in binaural processing as measured in binaural detection experiments employing interaurally delayed signals and maskers. Thirty-one listeners participated, all having no greater than slight hearing losses (i.e., no thresholds greater than 25 dB HL). Across the 31 listeners and consistent with the findings of Bernstein and Trahiotis [(2015). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 138, EL474-EL479] binaural detection thresholds at 500 Hz and 4 kHz increased with increasing magnitude of interaural delay, suggesting a loss of precision of coding with magnitude of interaural delay. Binaural detection thresholds were consistently found to be elevated for listeners whose absolute thresholds at 4 kHz exceeded 7.5 dB HL. No such elevations were observed in conditions having no binaural cues available to aid detection (i.e., "monaural" conditions). Partitioning and analyses of the data revealed that those elevated thresholds (1) were more attributable to hearing level than to age and (2) result from increased levels of internal noise. The data suggest that listeners whose high-frequency monaural hearing status would be classified audiometrically as being normal or "slight loss" may exhibit substantial and perceptually meaningful losses of binaural processing.

  18. Separation anxiety in children (United States)

    ... page: // Separation anxiety in children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Separation anxiety in children is a developmental stage in which ...

  19. Ionene membrane battery separator (United States)

    Moacanin, J.; Tom, H. Y.


    Ionic transport characteristics of ionenes, insoluble membranes from soluble polyelectrolyte compositions, are studied for possible application in a battery separator. Effectiveness of the thin film of separator membrane essentially determines battery lifetime.

  20. Magnetic separation of algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.


    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  1. Resveratrol does not influence metabolic risk markers related to cardiovascular health in overweight and slightly obese subjects: a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne M van der Made

    Full Text Available In vitro and animal studies have shown positive effects of resveratrol on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, but human studies specifically designed to examine these effects are lacking.The primary outcome parameter of this study in overweight and slightly obese subjects was the effect of resveratrol on apoA-I concentrations. Secondary outcome parameters were effects on other markers of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, glucose metabolism, and markers for inflammation and endothelial function.This randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted in 45 overweight and slightly obese men (n = 25 and women (n = 20 with a mean age of 61 ± 7 years. Subjects received in random order resveratrol (150 mg per day or placebo capsules for 4 weeks, separated by a 4-week wash-out period. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of each intervention period.Compliance was excellent as indicated by capsule count and changes in resveratrol and dihydroresveratrol concentrations. No difference between resveratrol and placebo was found in any of the fasting serum or plasma metabolic risk markers (mean ± SD for differences between day 28 values of resveratrol vs. placebo: apoA-I; 0.00 ± 0.12 g/L (P = 0.791, apoB100; -0.01 ± 0.11 g/L (P = 0.545, HDL cholesterol; 0.00 ± 0.09 mmol/L (P = 0.721, LDL cholesterol -0.03 ± 0.57 mmol/L (P = 0.718, triacylglycerol; 0.10 ± 0.54 mmol/L (P = 0.687, glucose; -0.08 ± 0.28 mmol/L (P = 0.064, insulin; -0.3 ± 2.5 mU/L (P = 0.516. Also, no effects on plasma markers for inflammation and endothelial function were observed. No adverse events related to resveratrol intake were observed.150 mg of daily resveratrol intake for 4 weeks does not change metabolic risk markers related to cardiovascular health in overweight and slightly obese men and women. Effects on glucose metabolism warrant further NCT01364961.

  2. Thermography pattern analysis and separation (United States)

    Gao, Bin; Bai, Libing; Woo, W. L.; Tian, Guiyun


    Analysis of thermography spatial-transient patterns has considerable potential to enable automatic identification and quantification of defects in non-destructive testing and evaluation. This Letter proposes a non-negative pattern separation model for eddy current pulsed thermography to automatically extract important spatial and time patterns according to the transient thermal sequences without any pre-training or prior knowledge. In particular, the method is scale-invariant, such that large differences in surface emissivity, hot spots, and cool areas with dynamic range of thermal contrast can be extracted. Finally, an artificial slot in a steel sample with shining, black strip on the surface is tested to validate the proposed method.

  3. Kinetic Gravity Separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kooy, L.; Mooij, M.; Rem, P.


    Separations by density, such as the separation of non-ferrous scrap into light and heavy alloys, are often realized by means of heavy media. In principle, kinetic gravity separations in water can be faster and cheaper, because they do not rely on suspensions or salt solutions of which the density

  4. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N


    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  5. US Military Service Members Vaccinated Against Smallpox in 2003 and 2004 Experience a Slightly Higher Risk of Hospitalization Postvaccination (United States)


    conditions 18 0.0 7 0.0 1.92 0.79, 4.69 280 Iron deficiency anemias 16 0.0 7 0.0 1.52 0.60, 3.84 288 Diseases of white blood cells 11 0.0 6 0.0 1.43...public release: distribution is unlimited. Naval Health Research Center 140 Sylvester Road San Diego, California 92106 This article appeared...Naval Health Research Center US Military Service Members Vaccinated Against Smallpox in 2003 and 2004 Experience a Slightly Higher Risk of

  6. Frequency-offset separated oscillatory fields (United States)

    Vutha, A. C.; Hessels, E. A.


    A frequency-offset separated-oscillatory-field technique is presented. The technique is a modification of the Ramsey method of separated oscillatory fields [Phys. Rev. 76, 996 (1949), 10.1103/PhysRev.76.996], in which the frequencies of the two separated oscillatory fields are slightly offset from each other, so that the relative phase of the two fields varies continuously with time. With this technique, the detection signal oscillates in time at the offset frequency, and the resonance frequency is obtained by using a simple straight-line fit of the phase of this signal. The technique has the advantages of being insensitive to the frequency response of the experimental system, of being sensitive only to noise at the offset frequency, and of allowing systematic effects to be more cleanly resolved due to the simple lineshape.

  7. Temporal variation of nitrogen balance within constructed wetlands treating slightly polluted water using a stable nitrogen isotope experiment. (United States)

    Zhang, Wanguang; Lei, Qiongye; Li, Zhengkui; Han, Huayang


    Slightly polluted water has become one of the main sources of nitrogen contaminants in recent years, for which constructed wetlands (CW) is a typical and efficient treatment. However, the knowledge about contribution of individual nitrogen removal pathways and nitrogen balance in constructed wetlands is still limited. In this study, a stable-isotope-addition experiment was performed in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands treating slightly polluted water to determine quantitative contribution of different pathways and temporal variation of nitrogen balance using Na(15)NO3 as tracer. Microbial conversion and substrate retention were found to be the dominant pathways in nitrogen removal contributing 24.4-79.9 and 8.9-70.7 %, respectively, while plant contributed only 4.6-11.1 % through direct assimilation but promoted the efficiency of other pathways. In addition, microbial conversion became the major way to remove N whereas nitrogen retained in substrate at first was gradually released to be utilized by microbes and plants over time. The findings indicated that N2 emission representing microbial conversion was not only the major but also permanent nitrogen removal process, thus keeping a high efficiency of microbial conversion is important for stable and efficient nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands.

  8. Spectral and Spatial UV Sky Radiance Measurements at a Seaside Resort Under Clear Sky and Slightly Overcast Conditions. (United States)

    Sandmann, Henner; Stick, Carsten


    Spatial measurements of the diffusely scattered sky radiance at a seaside resort under clear sky and slightly overcast conditions have been used to calculate the sky radiance distribution across the upper hemisphere. The measurements were done in the summer season when solar UV radiation is highest. The selected wavelengths were 307, 350 and 550 nm representing the UVB, UVA and VIS band. Absolute values of radiance differ considerably between the wavelengths. Normalizing the measured values by use of direct solar radiance made the spatial distributions of unequal sky radiance comparable. The results convey a spatial impression of the different distributions of the radiance at the three wavelengths. Relative scattered radiance intensity is one order of magnitude greater in UVB than in VIS, whereas in UVA lies roughly in between. Under slightly overcast conditions scattered radiance is increased at all three wavelengths by about one order of magnitude. These measurements taken at the seaside underline the importance of diffuse scattered radiance. The effect of shading parts of the sky can be estimated from the distribution of sky radiance. This knowledge might be useful for sun seekers and in the treatment of people staying at the seaside for therapeutic purposes.

  9. Performances for confocal X-ray diffraction technology based on polycapillary slightly focusing X-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hehe; Liu, Zhiguo [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Peng, Song [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Yongzhong [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, Beijing 100013 (China); Sun, Weiyuan; Li, Yude; Lin, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Weigang; Zhao, Guangcui; Luo, Ping; Pan, Qiuli; Ding, Xunliang [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)


    The confocal X-ray diffraction (XRD) technology based on a polycapillary slightly focusing X-ray lens (PSFXRL) in excitation channel and a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL) with a long input focal distance in detection channel was developed. The output focal spot of the PSFXRL and the input focal spot of the PPXRL were adjusted in confocal configuration, and only the X-rays from the volume overlapped by these foci could be accordingly detected. This confocal configuration was helpful in decreasing background. The convergence of the beam focused by the PSFXRL and divergence of the beam which could be collected by the PPXRL with a long input focal distance were both about 9 mrad at 8 keV. This was helpful in improving the resolution of lattice spacing of this confocal XRD technology. The gain in power density of such PSFXRL and PPXRL was about 120 and 7 at 11 keV, respectively, which was helpful in using the low power source to perform XRD analysis efficiently. The performances of this confocal XRD technology were provided, and some common plastics were analyzed. The experimental results demonstrated that the confocal diffraction technology base on polycapillary slightly focusing X-ray optics had wide potential applications.

  10. The effect of slightly warm temperature on work performance and comfort in open-plan offices - a laboratory study. (United States)

    Maula, H; Hongisto, V; Östman, L; Haapakangas, A; Koskela, H; Hyönä, J


    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a temperature of 29°C on performance in tasks involving different cognitive demands and to assess the effect on perceived performance, subjective workload, thermal comfort, perceived working conditions, cognitive fatigue, and somatic symptoms in a laboratory with realistic office environment. A comparison was made with a temperature of 23°C. Performance was measured on the basis of six different tasks that reflect different stages of cognitive performance. Thirty-three students participated in the experiment. The exposure time was 3.5 h in both thermal conditions. Performance was negatively affected by slightly warm temperature in the N-back working memory task. Temperature had no effect on performance in other tasks focusing on psychomotor, working memory, attention, or long-term memory capabilities. Temperature had no effect on perceived performance. However, slightly warm temperature caused concentration difficulties. Throat symptoms were found to increase over time at 29°C, but no temporal change was seen at 23°C. No effect of temperature on other symptoms was found. As expected, the differences in thermal comfort were significant. Women perceived a temperature of 23°C colder than men.

  11. [Separation anxiety in children]. (United States)

    Purper-Ouakil, Diane; Franc, Nathalie


    Separation anxiety disorder can be differentiated from developmental anxiety because of its intensity, persistence and negative impact on adaptive functioning. This disorder is closely linked to other anxiety and mood disorders and can also be associated with externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. Severe separation anxiety can result in school refusal and intra-familial violence. Cognitive behavioral therapies have the best evidence-based support for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder in children and adolescents. In addition, it is important to detect factors associated with persistence of anxiety such as systematic avoidance of separation and parental overprotection. The role of pediatricians and general practitioners in recognizing clinical separation anxiety and encouraging appropriate care and positive parental attitudes is essential, as separation anxiety is often associated with a variety of somatic symptoms.

  12. [Separation anxiety. Theoretical considerations]. (United States)

    Blandin, N; Parquet, P J; Bailly, D


    The interest in separation anxiety is nowadays increasing: this disorder appearing during childhood may predispose to the occurrence of anxiety disorders (such as panic disorder and agoraphobia) and major depression into adulthood. Psychoanalytic theories differ on the nature of separation anxiety and its place in child development. For some authors, separation anxiety must be understood as resulting from the unconscious internal conflicts inherent in the individuation process and gradual attainment of autonomy. From this point of view, the fear of loss of mother by separation is not regarded as resulting from a real danger. However, Freud considers the primary experience of separation from protecting mother as the prototype situation of anxiety and compares the situations generating fear to separation experiences. For him, anxiety originates from two factors: the physiological fact is initiated at the time of birth but the primary traumatic situation is the separation from mother. This point of view may be compared with behavioral theories. Behavioral theories suggest that separation anxiety may be conditioned or learned from innate fears. In Freud's theory, the primary situation of anxiety resulting from the separation from mother plays a role comparable to innate fears. Grappling with the problem of separation anxiety, Bowlby emphasizes then the importance of the child's attachment to one person (mother or primary caregiver) and the fact that this attachment is instinctive. This point of view, based on the watch of infants, is akin to ethological theories on behaviour of non human primates. Bowlby especially shows that the reactions of infant separated from mother evolve on three stages: the phase of protestation which may constitute the prototype of adulthood anxiety, the phase of desperation which may be the prototype of depression, and the phase of detachment. He emphasizes so the role of early separations in the development of vulnerability to depression

  13. Separation medium containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide (United States)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor)


    A separation medium, such as a chromatography filling or packing, containing a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m.sup.2/g to 2600 m.sup.2/g, wherein the thermally exfoliated graphite oxide has a surface that has been at least partially functionalized.

  14. The separation of adult separation anxiety disorder. (United States)

    Baldwin, David S; Gordon, Robert; Abelli, Marianna; Pini, Stefano


    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) categorization of mental disorders places "separation anxiety disorder" within the broad group of anxiety disorders, and its diagnosis no longer rests on establishing an onset during childhood or adolescence. In previous editions of DSM, it was included within the disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence, with the requirement for an onset of symptoms before the age of 18 years: symptomatic adults could only receive a retrospective diagnosis, based on establishing this early onset. The new position of separation anxiety disorder is based upon the findings of epidemiological studies that revealed the unexpectedly high prevalence of the condition in adults, often in individuals with an onset of symptoms after the teenage years; its prominent place within the DSM-5 group of anxiety disorders should encourage further research into its epidemiology, etiology, and treatment. This review examines the clinical features and boundaries of the condition, and offers guidance on how it can be distinguished from other anxiety disorders and other mental disorders in which "separation anxiety" may be apparent.

  15. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of pentathionate ion by chlorine dioxide in a slightly acidic medium. (United States)

    Xu, Li; Csekő, György; Petz, Andrea; Horváth, Attila K


    The chlorine dioxide-pentathionate reaction has been studied at a slightly acidic medium by conventional UV-vis spectroscopy monitoring the absorbance at 430 nm. We have shown that pentathionate was oxidized to sulfate, but chlorate is also a marginal product of the reaction besides the chloride ion. The stoichiometry of the reaction can be established as a linear combination of two limiting stoichiometries under our experimental conditions. Kinetics of the reaction was found to be also complex because initial rate studies revealed that formal kinetic orders of both the hydrogen ion and chlorine dioxide is far from unity. Moreover, log-log plot of the initial rate against pentathionate concentration indicated a nonconstant formal kinetic order. We also observed a significant catalytic effect of chloride ion. Based on our observations and simultaneous evaluation of the kinetic curves, an 11-step kinetic model is obtained with 6 fitted rate coefficients. A relatively simple rate equation has also been derived and discussed.

  16. A case of eosinophilic cystitis in patients with abdominal pain, dysuria, genital skin hyperemia and slight toxocariasis. (United States)

    Cerruto, Maria Angela; D'Elia, Carolina; Artibani, Walter


    Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare inflammatory disease with controversial aetiology and treatment. We report the case of a 61-year-old man presented with lower quadrant abdominal pain and lower urinary tract symptoms, non responsive to antibiotics and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Physical examination was substantially negative, such as laboratory parameters, microscopic, bacteriological and serological evaluations. Cystoscopy revealed red areas involving the mucosa of the bladder and transurethral biopsies revealed infiltrating eosinophils. The patient was treated with corticosteroids and montelukast sodium with improving of the symptoms, and at 5 weeks postoperative pain score was reduced. After discontinuing corticosteroids dysuria recurred with the development of hyperemia at the genital skin; the specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies against several parasites was slightly positive for Toxocara species. Montelukast sodium was discontinued and corticosteroid therapy was started together with albendazole, with improving of patient’s symptoms and pain decreasing after one week.

  17. Exposure to an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field only slightly modifies the proteome of Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Baraúna


    Full Text Available Several studies of the physiological responses of different organisms exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF have been described. In this work, we report the minimal effects of in situ exposure to ELF-EMF on the global protein expression of Chromobacterium violaceum using a gel-based proteomic approach. The protein expression profile was only slightly altered, with five differentially expressed proteins detected in the exposed cultures; two of these proteins (DNA-binding stress protein, Dps, and alcohol dehydrogenase were identified by MS/MS. The enhanced expression of Dps possibly helped to prevent physical damage to DNA. Although small, the changes in protein expression observed here were probably beneficial in helping the bacteria to adapt to the stress generated by the electromagnetic field.

  18. Exposure to an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field only slightly modifies the proteome of Chromobacterium violaceumATCC 12472. (United States)

    Baraúna, Rafael A; Santos, Agenor V; Graças, Diego A; Santos, Daniel M; Ghilardi, Rubens; Pimenta, Adriano M C; Carepo, Marta S P; Schneider, Maria P C; Silva, Artur


    Several studies of the physiological responses of different organisms exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) have been described. In this work, we report the minimal effects of in situ exposure to ELF-EMF on the global protein expression of Chromobacterium violaceum using a gel-based proteomic approach. The protein expression profile was only slightly altered, with five differentially expressed proteins detected in the exposed cultures; two of these proteins (DNA-binding stress protein, Dps, and alcohol dehydrogenase) were identified by MS/MS. The enhanced expression of Dps possibly helped to prevent physical damage to DNA. Although small, the changes in protein expression observed here were probably beneficial in helping the bacteria to adapt to the stress generated by the electromagnetic field.

  19. Aerosol Disinfection Capacity of Slightly Acidic Hypochlorous Acid Water Towards Newcastle Disease Virus in the Air: An In Vivo Experiment. (United States)

    Hakim, Hakimullah; Thammakarn, Chanathip; Suguro, Atsushi; Ishida, Yuki; Nakajima, Katsuhiro; Kitazawa, Minori; Takehara, Kazuaki


    Existence of bioaerosol contaminants in farms and outbreaks of some infectious organisms with the ability of transmission by air increase the need for enhancement of biosecurity, especially for the application of aerosol disinfectants. Here we selected slightly acidic hypochlorous acid water (SAHW) as a candidate and evaluated its virucidal efficacy toward a virus in the air. Three-day-old conventional chicks were challenged with 25 doses of Newcastle disease live vaccine (B1 strain) by spray with nebulizer (particle size Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain Sato, too, was immediately inactivated by SAHW containing 50 ppm chlorine in the aqueous phase. These data suggest that SAHW containing 100 ppm chlorine can be used for aerosol disinfection of NDV in farms.

  20. Changes in dominant fermentation type during anaerobic digestion of high-loading glycerol with slight glucose content. (United States)

    Tokumoto, Hayato; Kashiwagi, Mai


    High-loading glycerol containing slight amounts of five different monosaccharides was inoculated with seed sludge obtained from a methane fermentation reactor. The use of different monosaccharides as fermentation promoters resulted in changes in fermentation types; in particular, glucose induced the formation of 1,3-propanediol. After 9 days incubation with glucose, glycerol levels had fallen by 81%, while molar yields of organic acids and 1,3-propanediol (per mole of glycerol degraded) were 0.22 and 0.39, respectively. Other monosaccharides enhanced methane production after 14 days of incubation in the following order: galactose, galacturonic acid, mannose and arabinose. Hydrogen was generated (together with a negligible amount of methane) only in the presence of glucose. When glucose was introduced to a methane-producing reactor (promoted by galacturonic acid), hydrogen production began 5 days later and displaced the methane production after 12 days. These results suggest that glucose catalyzes glycerol degradation, resulting in the production of hydrogen.

  1. Loss of lingual sensitivity and slightly increased size signaling schwannoma in a patient with mixed conjunctive tissue disease. (United States)

    Ferreira, D C; Nogueira, G; Cancio, V A; Cavalcante, F S; Godefroy, P; Sousa, D S C; Hespanhol, W; dos Santos, K R N; Cavalcante, M A B


    The purpose of this study was to describe an unusual case of a lingual schwannoma associated with a mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). A case report. A lingual schwannoma with loss of lingual sensitivity and slightly increased size in an 18-year-old patient with MCTD was correctly diagnosed through a biopsy and no reoccurrence was observed one year after the surgical removal of the tumor and sensitivity returned 3 months after surgery. This case was considered uncommon, making the clinical diagnosis challenging in view of the diversity of possibilities for its differential diagnosis, thus showing the importance of a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis and long term follow up in such cases.

  2. Effect of acute, slightly increased intra-abdominal pressure on intestinal permeability and oxidative stress in a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Leng

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH is known as a common, serious complication in critically ill patients. Bacterial translocation and permeability changes are considered the pathophysiological bases for IAH-induced enterogenic endotoxemia and subsequent multiorgan failure. Nevertheless, the effects of slightly elevated intra-abdominal pressures (IAPs on the intestinal mucosa and the associated mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: To investigate the acute effects of different nitrogen pneumoperitoneum grades on colonic mucosa, male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to six groups with different IAPs (0 [control], 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 mmHg, n = 6/group. During 90 min of exposure, we dynamically monitored the heart rate and noninvasive hemodynamic parameters. After gradual decompression, arterial blood gas analyses were conducted. Thereafter, structural injuries to the colonic mucosa were identified using light microscopy. Colon permeability was determined using the expression of tight junction proteins, combined with fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FD-4 absorption. The pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance was determined based on the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and antioxidant enzymes. RESULTS: IAH significantly affected the histological scores of the colonic mucosa, tight junction protein expression, mucosal permeability, and pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance. Interestingly, elevations of IAP that were lower than the threshold for IAH also showed a similar, undesirable effect. In the 8 mmHg group, mild hyponatremia, hypocalcemia, and hypoxemia occurred, accompanied by reduced blood and abdominal perfusion pressures. Mild microscopic inflammatory infiltration and increased MDA levels were also detected. Moreover, an 8-mm Hg IAP markedly inhibited the expression of tight junction proteins, although no significant differences in FD-4 permeability were observed between the 0- and 8-mmHg groups. CONCLUSIONS: Acute exposure to slightly

  3. Working with Separation (United States)

    Krugman, Dorothy C.


    Discusses the role of the caseworker in providing support to children experiencing separation from their families and emphasizes the need to recognize that there are differences between those separation experiences dictated by the needs of children and those dictated by arbitrary or noncasework factors. (AJ)

  4. Separation anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Sturmey, P.; Hersen, M.


    Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is the only anxiety disorder that is specific to childhood; however, SAD has hardly ever been addressed as a separate disorder in clinical trials investigating treatment outcome. So far, only parent training has been developed specifically for SAD. This particular t

  5. Social Separation in Monkeys. (United States)

    Mineka, Susan; Suomi, Stephen J.


    Reviews phenomena associated with social separation from attachment objects in nonhuman primates. Evaluates four theoretical treatments of separation in light of existing data: Bowlby's attachment-object-loss theory, Kaufman's conservation-withdrawal theory, Seligman's learned helplessness theory, and Solomon and Corbit's opponent-process theory.…

  6. Nonterminal Separating Macro Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendorp, Jan Anne; Asveld, P.R.J.; Nijholt, A.; Verbeek, Leo A.M.


    We extend the concept of nonterminal separating (or NTS) context-free grammar to nonterminal separating $m$-macro grammar where the mode of derivation $m$ is equal to "unrestricted". "outside-in' or "inside-out". Then we show some (partial) characterization results for these NTS $m$-macro grammars.

  7. Spiral microfluidic nanoparticle separators (United States)

    Bhagat, Ali Asgar S.; Kuntaegowdanahalli, Sathyakumar S.; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.; Papautsky, Ian


    Nanoparticles have potential applications in many areas such as consumer products, health care, electronics, energy and other industries. As the use of nanoparticles in manufacturing increases, we anticipate a growing need to detect and measure particles of nanometer scale dimensions in fluids to control emissions of possible toxic nanoparticles. At present most particle separation techniques are based on membrane assisted filtering schemes. Unfortunately their efficiency is limited by the membrane pore size, making them inefficient for separating a wide range of sizes. In this paper, we propose a passive spiral microfluidic geometry for momentum-based particle separations. The proposed design is versatile and is capable of separating particulate mixtures over a wide dynamic range and we expect it will enable a variety of environmental, medical, or manufacturing applications that involve rapid separation of nanoparticles in real-world samples with a wide range of particle components.

  8. Separation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) from automobile shredder residue (ASR) by froth flotation with ozonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Mallampati Srinivasa [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Kurose, Keisuke [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Okuda, Tetsuji [Environmental Research and Management Center, Hiroshima University, 1-5-3 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8513 (Japan); Nishijima, Wataru [Environmental Research and Management Center, Hiroshima University, 1-5-3 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8513 (Japan); Okada, Mitsumasa [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)


    The purpose of this study is to develop froth flotation to separate polyvinyl chloride (PVC) from automobile shredder residue (ASR) plastic mixtures of variable composition. Some polymers in ASR polymer mixtures have similar density and hydrophobicity with PVC and thus selective flotation of PVC from ASR polymer mixtures cannot be achieved. The present study focused on the surface modification of PVC with ozonation, and then the modified PVC can be separated from other polymers by the following froth flotation. The results of this study indicate that the selective recovery of PVC from real ASR polyethylene tetra pethelate (PET), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polybutyl methacralate (PBMA), ethyl acrylate (EA), polycarbonate (PC) and rubber mixtures can be accomplished in a three-step process involving a gravity separation, ozonation and froth flotation. The rubber was removed from other heavy ASR (PVC, PET, PMMA, PBMA, EA and PC) polymers by froth flotation without mixing. It was found that ozonation process produced the desired difference in contact angle required (from 89.5 to 73.0{sup o}) for separation of PVC from other heavy ASR polymers, whereas the contact angles of other polymers was slightly decreased. The most of the load ASR, i.e. about 72.4% is floated away and 27.6% was settled down. The highest component 96.7% of PVC was recovered in the settled fraction. As a result of this research effort, the surface modification of PVC with ozonation can be efficiently useful to separate the PVC from other similar density ASR mixed polymers.

  9. Materials for carbon dioxide separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qingqing


    The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at room temperature have been investigated by comparing carbon nanotubes, fullerene, graphenes, graphite and granular activated carbons. It turned out that the amount of the micropore surface area was dominating the CO{sub 2} adsorption ability. Another promising class of materials for CO{sub 2} capture and separation are CaO derived from the eggshells. Two aspects were studied in present work: a new hybrid materials synthesized by doping the CaTiO{sub 3} and the relationship between physisorption and chemisorption properties of CaO-based materials.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛成华; 邓小刚; 毛枚良


    A novel slightly compressible model(SCM)is very efficient for low Mach number flow,in which it does not have to satisfy the divergence-free condition in order to get the solutions of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation by time marching method.The efficiency and precision of SCM is studied.Preconditioning technique has been introduced into SCM for acceleration of convergence.Then the preconditioned equations and its characteristic system including the preconditioned construct of flux are recommended.By numerical simulations with the cases of circular cylinder,cavity flow,NACA0012 and 6:1 prolate spheroid,SCM is proved to be efficient and precise;on the other hand,it shows that preconditioning technique plays an important role in acceleration of convergence and improves the precision of results.SCM would be applied to engineering simulations in the future.%微可压缩模型(slightly compressible model,SCM)是求解低马赫数流动的一种有效模型,SCM在求解过程中不必满足速度散度为零的条件,可直接应用时间推进方法求解得到不可压缩N-S方程的解.深入研究了该模型的效率和精度;为了提高收敛速度将预处理技术引入到该模型中,推导了预处理后的控制方程和特征系统,并构造了预处理后的通量.通过对圆柱绕流、方腔流动、NACA0012翼型和6:1椭球的数值模拟,一方面,进一步展示了SCM的可行性与健壮性,表明SCM适合于低马赫流动的数值模拟;另一方面,充

  11. Radiochemical separation of Cobalt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkelens, P.C. van


    A method is described for the radiochemical separation of cobalt based on the extraordinary stability of cobalt diethyldithiocarbamate. Interferences are few; only very small amounts of zinc and iron accompany cobalt, which is important in neutron-activation analysis.

  12. On Separate Universes

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Liang; Schmidt, Fabian


    The separate universe conjecture states that in General Relativity a density perturbation behaves locally (i.e. on scales much smaller than the wavelength of the mode) as a separate universe with different background density and curvature. We prove this conjecture for a spherical compensated tophat density perturbation of arbitrary amplitude and radius in $\\Lambda$CDM. We then use Conformal Fermi Coordinates to generalize this result to scalar perturbations of arbitrary configuration and scale in a general cosmology with a mixture of fluids, but to linear order in perturbations. In this case, the separate universe conjecture holds for the isotropic part of the perturbations. The anisotropic part on the other hand is exactly captured by a tidal field in the Newtonian form. We show that the separate universe picture is restricted to scales larger than the sound horizons of all fluid components. We then derive an expression for the locally measured matter bispectrum induced by a long-wavelength mode of arbitrary...

  13. Electroextraction separation of dyestuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, G.S.; Yu, M.J.; Jiang, W.B.; Zhu, S.L.; Dai, Y.Y. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    Electroseparation technologies have prospects for significant growth well into the next century. Electroextraction, a coupled separation technique of solvent extraction with electrophoresis, was used to remove dyestuffs from their aqueous stream. A study on the characteristics of the separation technique was carried out with n-butanol/acid-chrom blue K/water and n-butanol/methyl blue/water as working systems. A continuous separation equipment was designed and sued in this work. The influences of two-phase flow, field strength, and concentration of the feed on the recovery of solute were studied. The results showed that much higher recovery of solute with less solvent consumption could be achieved by using this technique to remove dyes from their aqueous streams, especially for the separation of the dilute solution. When the field strength is increased, the recovery and mass flux increase. When the feed flow rate and the initial solute concentration are increased, the recovery decreases and the mass flux increases.

  14. Shoulder separation - aftercare (United States)

    ... and top of your shoulder blade A severe shoulder separation You may need surgery right away if you have: Numbness in your fingers Cold fingers Muscle weakness in your arm Severe deformity of the joint

  15. Radiochemical separation of Cobalt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkelens, P.C. van


    A method is described for the radiochemical separation of cobalt based on the extraordinary stability of cobalt diethyldithiocarbamate. Interferences are few; only very small amounts of zinc and iron accompany cobalt, which is important in neutron-activation analysis.

  16. Validation of the 2010 ACR/EULAR classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis: slight improvement over the 1987 ACR criteria. (United States)

    Britsemmer, Karin; Ursum, Jennie; Gerritsen, Martijn; van Tuyl, L H; van Tuyl, Lilian; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan


    Recently, an American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) collaboration developed new classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To evaluate the diagnostic and discriminative ability of these new criteria compared with the 1987 ACR criteria and the Visser decision rule. 455 patients with early arthritis were studied. The diagnostic performance of the criteria was evaluated using methotrexate treatment within 1 year, expert opinion RA and erosive disease as 'gold standards'. Erosive disease was defined as a 0-3 year change in radiographic score of ≥5. The discriminative ability of the three criteria sets (2010 ACR/EULAR, 1987 ACR criteria and Visser algorithm) was similar with areas under the curve of 0.71-0.78 ('gold standard' methotrexate), 0.74-0.80 (gold standard expert opinion RA) and 0.63-0.67 (gold standard erosive disease after 3 years). The sensitivity of the 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria was highest with 0.85 (gold standard methotrexate). 86% of patients with RA and 51% of 'non-RA' patients according to the new criteria used methotrexate. The 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria were slightly more sensitive, but otherwise performed similarly to the older criteria. A high percentage of 'non-RA' patients used methotrexate, the gold standard for RA. The ability of the new criteria to identify patients with erosive disease was low, possibly owing to the effect of intensive treatment.

  17. Slight Fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium Improves the Taste (Sugar:Acid Ratio) of Citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. chachiensis) Juice. (United States)

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Fu, Manqin; Wen, Jing


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium, which can metabolize citric acid, could be applied in improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice. During fermentation, the strain of L. fermentium can preferentially utilize citric acid of citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. Chachiensis) juice to support the growth without the consumption of sugar. After 6 h of fermentation with L. fermentium at 30 °C, the sugar:acid ratio of citrus juice increased to 22:1 from 12:1, which resulted in that the hedonic scores of sweetness, acidity and overall acceptability of fermented-pasteurized citrus juice were higher than the unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice, the ORAC value and total amino acid showed a reduction, and no significant change (P > 0.05) in the L*, a*, b*, total soluble phenolics and ascorbic acid (Vc) content in the fermented-pasteurized citrus juice was observed as compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Hence, slight fermentation with L. fermentium can be used for improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice with the well retaining of quality.

  18. Al-doped ZnO films deposited on a slightly reduced buffer layer by reactive dc unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusayanagi, Minehide; Uchida, Azusa; Oka, Nobuto; Jia, Junjun [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan); Nakamura, Shin-ichi [Center for Instrumental Analysis, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan); Shigesato, Yuzo, E-mail: [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan)


    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films were deposited on a fused silica glass substrate by reactive dc unbalanced magnetron sputtering using a Zn–Al (Al: 3.6 at.%) alloy target with an impedance control system. A very thin slightly reduced AZO buffer layer was inserted between the glass substrate and AZO films. For the AZO films deposited at 200 °C, the lowest resistivity in the absence of the buffer layer was 8.0 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm, whereas this was reduced to 5.9 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm after introducing a 5-nm-thick buffer layer. The transmittance for all the films was above 80% in the visible region. The effects of the buffer layer were analysed and discussed in detail. It is found that the insertion of the buffer layer can improve the crystallinity of the AZO film. - Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films with AZO buffer layers were deposited. • Reactive dc unbalance magnetron sputtering with impedance control was used. • Insertion of a buffer layer can lead to a lower resistivity. • Insertion of a buffer layer improved the crystallinity of AZO films.

  19. Inactivation of Escherichia coli by photochemical reaction of ferrioxalate at slightly acidic and near-neutral pHs. (United States)

    Cho, Min; Lee, Yunho; Chung, Hyenmi; Yoon, Jeyong


    Fenton chemistry, which is known to play an effective role in degrading toxic chemicals, is difficult to apply to disinfection in water treatment, since its reaction is effective only at the acidic pH of 3. The presence of oxalate ions and UV-visible light, which is known as a photoferrioxalate system, allows the Fe(III) to be dissolved at slightly acidic and near-neutral pHs and maintains the catalytic reaction of iron. This study indicates that the main oxidizing species in the photoferrioxalate system responsible for microorganism inactivation is OH radical. Escherichia coli was used as an indicator microorganism. The CT value (OH radical concentration x contact time; used to indicate the effect of the combination of the concentration of the disinfectant and the contact time on inactivation) for a 2-log inactivation of E. coli was approximately 1.5 x 10(-5) mg/liter/min, which is approximately 2,700 times lower than that of ozone as estimated by the delayed Chick-Watson model. Since the light emitted by the black light blue lamp is similar to sunlight in the specific wavelength range of 300 to 420 nm, the photoferrioxalate system, which can have a dual function, treating water for both organic pollutants and microorganisms simultaneously, shows promise for the treatment of water or wastewater in remote or rural sites. However, the photoferrioxalate disinfection system is slower in inactivating microorganisms than conventional disinfectants are.

  20. The Influence of Slight Protuberances in a Micro-Tube Reactor on Methane/Moist Air Catalytic Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruirui Wang


    Full Text Available The combustion characteristics of methane/moist air in micro-tube reactors with different numbers and shapes of inner wall protuberances are investigated in this paper. The micro-reactor with one rectangular protuberance (six different sizes was studied firstly, and it is shown that reactions near the protuberance are mainly controlled by diffusion, which has little effect on the outlet temperature and methane conversion rate. The formation of cavities and recirculation zones in the vicinity of protuberances leads to a significant increase of the Arrhenius reaction rate of CH4 and gas velocity. Next, among the six different simulated conditions (0–5 rectangular protuberances, the micro-tube reactor with five rectangular protuberances shows the highest methane conversion rate. Finally, the effect of protuberance shape on methane/moist air catalytic combustion is confirmed, and it is found that the protuberance shape has a greater influence on methane conversion rate than the number of protuberances. The methane conversion rate in the micro-tube decreases progressively in the following order: five triangular slight protuberances > five rectangular protuberances > five trapezoidal protuberances > smooth tube. In all tests of methane/moist air combustion conditions, the micro-tube with five triangular protuberances has the peak efficiency and is therefore recommended for high efficiency reactors.

  1. US military service members vaccinated against smallpox in 2003 and 2004 experience a slightly higher risk of hospitalization postvaccination. (United States)

    Jacobson, Isabel G; Smith, Tyler C; Smith, Besa; Wells, Timothy S; Reed, Robert J; Ryan, Margaret A K


    This study explores adverse events severe enough to warrant hospitalization that may have been associated with receiving the smallpox vaccine in conjunction with military service. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to identify the risk of hospitalization among US active-duty military personnel during a 1-year period following receipt of the smallpox vaccine. The reference group consisted of active-duty military personnel who also received the smallpox vaccine after the conclusion of their health care observation period, allowing for comparison to a temporally and demographically similar population. The risk of hospitalization was slightly elevated among the postvaccine group for any-cause hospitalization and for hospitalization in several broad diagnostic categories. Hospitalizations for asthma, autoimmune diseases, and myopericarditis, were more likely in the postvaccine group. The increased risk of hospitalization for varied outcomes does not necessarily imply a cause-effect relationship, but it does offer areas for more focused study, using longitudinal data to explore the long-term impact of smallpox vaccination on the health of young adults.

  2. Epicatechin Reduces Striatal MPP+-Induced Damage in Rats through Slight Increases in SOD-Cu,Zn Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rubio-Osornio


    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by movement alterations caused by reduced dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nigrostriatal pathway, presumably by oxidative stress (OS. MPP+ intrastriatal injection leads to the overproduction of free radicals (FR. The increasing formation of FR produces OS, a decline in dopamine (DA content, and behavioral disorders. Epicatechin (EC has shown the ability to be FR scavenger, an antioxidant enzyme inductor, a redox state modulator, and transition metal chelator. Acute administration of 100 mg/kg of EC significantly prevented (P<0.05 the circling MPP+-induced behavior (10 μg/8 μL. Likewise, EC significantly (P<0.05 reduced the formation of fluorescent lipid products caused by MPP+. MPP+ injection produced (P<0.05 increased enzymatic activity of the constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS. This effect was blocked with acute EC pretreatment. Cu/Zn-dependent superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD activity was significantly (P<0.05 reduced as a consequence of MPP+ damage. EC produced a slight increase (≈20% in Cu/Zn-SOD activity in the control group. Such effects persisted in animals injured with MPP+. The results show that EC is effective against MPP+-induced biochemical and behavioral damage, which is possible by an increase in Cu/Zn-SOD activity.

  3. Wound Healing Effect of Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water on Cutaneous Wounds in Hairless Mice via Immune-Redox Modulation. (United States)

    You, Hae Sun; Fadriquela, Ailyn; Sajo, Ma Easter Joy; Bajgai, Johny; Ara, Jesmin; Kim, Cheol Su; Kim, Soo-Ki; Oh, Jin Rok; Shim, Kwang Yong; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Lee, Kyu-Jae


    Acidic electrolyzed water is an innovative sanitizer having a wide-spectrum of applications in food industry, and healthcare industry but little is known on its effect and mechanism in wound healing. The study was conducted to identify the effect and mechanism of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) on cutaneous wounds in hairless mice. SAEW (pH: 5-6.5, oxidation reduction potential: 800 mV, chlorine concentration: 25 ppm) was prepared through electrolysis of water and was applied to the wounds of hairless mice three times a day for seven days. Wound size, immune response and oxidative stress were explored and compared to conventional agents such as Betadine and alcohol. We found that SAEW-treated group showed the highest wound reduction percentage (phealing. In line, SAEW treatment decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, keratinocyte chemoattractant, and tumor necrosis factor-α] in serum. Other hallmarks of wound healing, matrixmetalloproteinases (MMP)1 and MMP9 were also upregulated. Collectively, our study indicates that SAEW is effective in wound healing of hairless mice via immune-redox modulation, and heals better/faster than conventional agents.

  4. Visualization of two-phase gas-liquid flow regimes in horizontal and slightly-inclined circular tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Livia Alves [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail:; Cunha Filho, Jurandyr; Su, Jian [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Engineering Program], Emails:,; Faccini, Jose Luiz Horacio [Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail:


    In this paper a flow visualization study was performed for two-phase gas-liquid flow in horizontal and slightly inclined tubes. The test section consists of a 2.54 cm inner diameter stainless steel circular tube, followed by a transparent acrylic tube with the same inner diameter. The working fluids were air and water, with liquid superficial velocities ranging from 0:11 to 3:28 m/s and gas superficial velocities ranging from 0:27 to 5:48 m/s. Flow visualization was executed for upward flow at 5 deg and 10 deg and downward flow at 2:5 deg, 5 deg and 10 deg, as well as for horizontal flow. The visualization technique consists of a high-speed digital camera that records images at rates of 125 and 250 frames per second of a concurrent air-water mixture through a transparent part of the tube. From the obtained images, the flow regimes were identified (except for annular flow), observing the effect of inclination angles on flow regime transition boundaries. Finally, the experimental results were compared with empirical and theoretical flow pattern maps available in literature. (author)

  5. Migration of grain boundaries and triple junctions in high-purity aluminum during annealing after slight cold rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Wenhong [Institute of Materials, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Wang, Weiguo, E-mail: [Institute of Materials, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou 350118 (China); Fang, Xiaoying [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Qin, Congxiang [Institute of Materials, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Xing, Xiaoguang [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China)


    Grain orientations and grain boundary migrations near triple junctions in a high purity aluminum were analyzed by electron back scattered diffraction. The results indicate that there are good correlations between the Schmid factors or Taylor factors and the misorientation values of point to original point in grains near the triple junctions in a slightly deformed sample. Grains with higher Schmid factors or lower Taylor factors typically correspond to higher misorientation values near the triple junctions. In a subsequent annealing at 400 °C, both grain boundaries and triple junctions migrate, but the former leave ghost lines. During such migration, a grain boundary grows from the grain with lower Schmid factor (higher Taylor factor) into the grain with higher Schmid factor (lower Taylor factor). Usually, the amount of migration of a grain boundary is considerably greater than that of a triple junction, and the grain boundary becomes more curved after migration. These observations indicate that the triple junctions have drag effects on grain boundary migration. - Highlights: • Polycrystalline aluminum with fine grains about 30 μm were used. • Off-line in situ EBSD was used to identify TJs before and after annealing. • Grains with higher SFs have higher misorientation values near TJs after deformation. • Grain boundaries grow from hard grains into soft grains during annealing. • Triple junctions have drag effects on grain boundaries migration.

  6. Differential proteomics to explore the inhibitory effects of acidic, slightly acidic electrolysed water and sodium hypochlorite solution on Vibrio parahaemolyticus. (United States)

    Chen, Tai-Yuan; Kuo, Shu-Hao; Chen, Shui-Tein; Hwang, Deng-Fwu


    Slightly acidic electrolysed water (SlAEW) and acidic electrolysed water (AEW) have been demonstrated to effectively inactivate food-borne pathogens. However, the underlying mechanism of inactivation remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, a differential proteomic platform was used to investigate the bactericidal mechanism of SlAEW, AEW, and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions against Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The upregulated proteins after SlAEW, AEW, and NaOCl treatments were identified as outer membrane proteins K and U. The downregulated proteins after the SlAEW, AEW, and NaOCl treatments were identified as adenylate kinase, phosphoglycerate kinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and enolase, all of which are responsible for energy metabolism. Protein synthesis-associated proteins were downregulated and identified as elongation factor Tu and GAPDH. The inhibitory effects of SlAEW and AEW solutions against V. parahaemolyticus may be attributed to the changes in cell membrane permeability, protein synthesis activity, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) biosynthesis pathways such as glycolysis and ATP replenishment.

  7. Safe Separators for Treewidth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodlaender, H.L.; Koster, A.M.C.A.


    A set of vertices S Í V is called a safe separator for treewidth, if S is a separator of G, and the treewidth of G equals the maximum of the treewidth over all connected components W of G - S of the graph, obtained by making S a clique in the subgraph of G, induced by W È S. We show that such safe s

  8. Hydrogen separation process (United States)

    Mundschau, Michael [Longmont, CO; Xie, Xiaobing [Foster City, CA; Evenson, IV, Carl; Grimmer, Paul [Longmont, CO; Wright, Harold [Longmont, CO


    A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

  9. Distal humeral epiphyseal separation. (United States)

    Moucha, Calin S; Mason, Dan E


    Distal humeral epiphyseal separation is an uncommon injury that is often misdiagnosed upon initial presentation. To make a timely, correct diagnosis, the treating physician must have a thorough understanding of basic anatomical relationships and an awareness of the existence of this injury. This is a case of a child who sustained a separation of the distal humeral epiphysis, as well as multiple other bony injuries, secondary to child abuse.

  10. Experimental Research on Flow Separation Control using Synthetic Jet Actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, E.; Hoeijmakers, H.W.M.


    Airplane wings can suffer from flow separation, which greatly decreases their aerodynamic per-formance. The flow separates due to the bound-ary layer possessing insufficient momentum to engage the adverse pressure gradient along the airfoil surface. Flow separation control actively influences the fl

  11. Experimental research on flow separation control using synthetic jet actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, E.; Hoeijmakers, H.W.M.


    Airplane wings can suffer from flow separation, which greatly decreases their aerodynamic per-formance. The flow separates due to the bound-ary layer possessing insufficient momentum to engage the adverse pressure gradient along the airfoil surface. Flow separation control actively influences the fl

  12. New Green Tea Cultivar 'Yumewakaba' which Quality is High on Aroma and Taste by Slight Half Fermentation of Leaves. (United States)

    Uchino, Hiroshi; Honda, Yusuke; Nakajima, Kenta; Sasaki, Koji; Kobayashi, Akira; Tanaka, Eri; Kume, Nobuo; Sakai, Takashi; Shimazaki, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Iwao; Okano, Nobuo; Kyougoku, Hideo; Funakoshi, Shouji; Kitada, Kaichi; Fuchinoue, Yasumoto; Tanaka, Mankichi

    New green tea cultivar‘Yumewakaba’has been bred at the Green Tea and Local Products Laboratory of Saitama Prefectural Agriculture and Forestry Research Center. The clone was crossed between‘Yabukita’and Saitama No.9’in 1968. Local adaptability, tolerance to bark split frost injury, and Blister blight were tested at 17 prefectural tea experiment stations from 1994 to 2002. It was registered as ‘Norin No.53’and named ‘Yumewakaba’in 20The characteristics of the cultivar are as follows The shape of the cultivar is erect type, and spread of tea bush is the same as‘Yabukita’.The size of mature leaves are smaller than those of ‘Yabukita’. Immature leaves are lustrougreen and soft. The rooting ability of nursery plants are high and taking roots after planting is good. The plucking time of the first crop of this cultivar in Saitama is 1 or 2 days later than that of ‘Yabukita’.‘Yumewakaba’is middle budding cultivar. The yield of 1st or 2nd crop is the same that of‘Yabukita. ‘Yumewakaba’is resistance to cold drought and bark split frost injury. Thlevel of resistance to freezing injur y is stronger than that of ‘Yabukita’ The damage Anthracnose is less than that of ‘Yabukita. The appearance is better than that of ‘Yabukita’, and the quality of liquor is the same as ‘Yabukita’. The quality of processed goods from slightly half fermented leaves of this cultivar is high on the aroma and the taste. ‘Yumewakaba’is suitable for northern tea producing areas, and cool semi-mountainousareas.

  13. Blotched snakehead virus is a new aquatic birnavirus that is slightly more related to avibirnavirus than to aquabirnavirus. (United States)

    Da Costa, Bruno; Soignier, Stéphanie; Chevalier, Christophe; Henry, Celine; Thory, Corinne; Huet, Jean-Claude; Delmas, Bernard


    By different approaches, we characterized the birnavirus blotched snakehead virus (BSNV). The sequence of genomic segment A revealed the presence of two open reading frames (ORFs): a large ORF with a 3,207-bp-long nucleotide sequence and a 417-nucleotide-long small ORF located within the N-terminal half of the large ORF, but in a different reading frame. The large ORF was found to encode a polyprotein cotranslationally processed by the viral protease VP4 to generate pVP2 (the VP2 precursor), a 71-amino-acid-long peptide ([X]), VP4, and VP3. The two cleavage sites at the [X]-VP4 and VP4-VP3 junctions were identified by N-terminal sequencing. We showed that the processing of pVP2 generated VP2 and several small peptides (amino acids [aa] 418 to 460, 461 to 467, 468 to 474, and 475 to 486). Two of these peptides (aa 418 to 460 and 475 to 486) were positively identified in the viral particles with 10 additional peptides derived from further processing of the peptide aa 418 to 460. The results suggest that VP4 cleaves multiple Pro-X-Ala downward arrow Ala motifs, with the notable exception of the VP4-VP3 junction. Replacement of the members of the predicted VP4 catalytic dyad (Ser-692 and Lys-729) confirmed their indispensability in the polyprotein processing. The genomic segment B sequence revealed a single large ORF encoding a putative polymerase, VP1. Our results demonstrate that BSNV should be considered a new aquatic birnavirus species, slightly more related to IBDV than to IPNV.

  14. Organic Separation Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.


    Separable organics have been defined as “those organic compounds of very limited solubility in the bulk waste and that can form a separate liquid phase or layer” (Smalley and Nguyen 2013), and result from three main solvent extraction processes: U Plant Uranium Recovery Process, B Plant Waste Fractionation Process, and Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Process. The primary organic solvents associated with tank solids are TBP, D2EHPA, and NPH. There is concern that, while this organic material is bound to the sludge particles as it is stored in the tanks, waste feed delivery activities, specifically transfer pump and mixer pump operations, could cause the organics to form a separated layer in the tank farms feed tank. Therefore, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is experimentally evaluating the potential of organic solvents separating from the tank solids (sludge) during waste feed delivery activities, specifically the waste mixing and transfer processes. Given the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste acceptance criteria per the Waste Feed Acceptance Criteria document (24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014) that there is to be “no visible layer” of separable organics in the waste feed, this would result in the batch being unacceptable to transfer to WTP. This study is of particular importance to WRPS because of these WTP requirements.

  15. Separably injective Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Avilés, Antonio; Castillo, Jesús M F; González, Manuel; Moreno, Yolanda


    This monograph contains a detailed exposition of the up-to-date theory of separably injective spaces: new and old results are put into perspective with concrete examples (such as l∞/c0 and C(K) spaces, where K is a finite height compact space or an F-space, ultrapowers of L∞ spaces and spaces of universal disposition). It is no exaggeration to say that the theory of separably injective Banach spaces is strikingly different from that of injective spaces. For instance, separably injective Banach spaces are not necessarily isometric to, or complemented subspaces of, spaces of continuous functions on a compact space. Moreover, in contrast to the scarcity of examples and general results concerning injective spaces, we know of many different types of separably injective spaces and there is a rich theory around them. The monograph is completed with a preparatory chapter on injective spaces, a chapter on higher cardinal versions of separable injectivity and a lively discussion of open problems and further lines o...

  16. Mass Separation by Metamaterials. (United States)

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan Manuel; Maldovan, Martin


    Being able to manipulate mass flow is critically important in a variety of physical processes in chemical and biomolecular science. For example, separation and catalytic systems, which requires precise control of mass diffusion, are crucial in the manufacturing of chemicals, crystal growth of semiconductors, waste recovery of biological solutes or chemicals, and production of artificial kidneys. Coordinate transformations and metamaterials are powerful methods to achieve precise manipulation of molecular diffusion. Here, we introduce a novel approach to obtain mass separation based on metamaterials that can sort chemical and biomolecular species by cloaking one compound while concentrating the other. A design strategy to realize such metamaterial using homogeneous isotropic materials is proposed. We present a practical case where a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen is manipulated using a metamaterial that cloaks nitrogen and concentrates oxygen. This work lays the foundation for molecular mass separation in biophysical and chemical systems through metamaterial devices.

  17. Phaco slice and separate. (United States)

    Arshinoff, S A


    Phaco slice and separate retains the advantages of the chopping techniques of Nagahara, Koch, and Fukasaku but replaces chopping or snapping with slicing across the center of the phaco-tip-stabilized nucleus using a Nagahara chopper and then repositioning the chopper to optimally separate the divided lens halves. As the lens is rotated in the capsular bag, small pieces of the nuclear pie are sliced off, separated, emulsified, and aspirated. Emulsification and aspiration can alternatively be left until most or all the slices have been made. This technique works with a broader range of lens densities than other chopping techniques and uses no sculpting and very little phaco time. The phaco time required for this technique is relatively independent of nuclear density compared with a sculpting technique.

  18. The traction angle and cervical intervertebral separation. (United States)

    Wong, A M; Leong, C P; Chen, C M


    Seventeen normal young adults were evaluated for cervical intervertebral separation under different traction angles through motorized intermittent traction in the supine position. In all cases, the anterior and posterior intervertebral spaces were increased by traction at neutral position and in 30 degrees flexion, but not in 15 degrees extension. The effects of separation were 1) neutral position: anterior intervertebral separation C4-5 (12%) greater than C3-4 (8%), posterior intervertebral separation C6-7 (37%) greater than C3-4 (22%) greater than C4-5 (19%); and 2) 30 degrees flexion: anterior intervertebral separation C2-3 (21%) greater than C4-5 (16%) greater than C5-6 (15%) greater than C3-4 (10%), posterior intervertebral separation C6-7 (20%) greater than C5-6 (19%) greater than C4-5 (17%). There was a significant decrease in intervertebral separation posteriorly in extension traction, especially at C6-7 (-50%), C5-6 (-37%), C4-5 (-26%), and C3-4 (-14%). The separation of facet joint surfaces was found after traction at 15 degrees extension, but not in the neutral or flexion positions.

  19. Gas separation membranes (United States)

    Schell, William J.


    A dry, fabric supported, polymeric gas separation membrane, such as cellulose acetate, is prepared by casting a solution of the polymer onto a shrinkable fabric preferably formed of synthetic polymers such as polyester or polyamide filaments before washing, stretching or calendering (so called griege goods). The supported membrane is then subjected to gelling, annealing, and drying by solvent exchange. During the processing steps, both the fabric support and the membrane shrink a preselected, controlled amount which prevents curling, wrinkling or cracking of the membrane in flat form or when spirally wound into a gas separation element.

  20. Separation membrane development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.W. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)


    A ceramic membrane has been developed to separate hydrogen from other gases. The method used is a sol-gel process. A thin layer of dense ceramic material is coated on a coarse ceramic filter substrate. The pore size distribution in the thin layer is controlled by a densification of the coating materials by heat treatment. The membrane has been tested by permeation measurement of the hydrogen and other gases. Selectivity of the membrane has been achieved to separate hydrogen from carbon monoxide. The permeation rate of hydrogen through the ceramic membrane was about 20 times larger than Pd-Ag membrane.

  1. Learning Isometric Separation Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Vasiloglou, Nikolaos; Anderson, David V


    Maximum Variance Unfolding (MVU) and its variants have been very successful in embedding data-manifolds in lower dimensionality spaces, often revealing the true intrinsic dimensions. In this paper we show how to also incorporate supervised class information into an MVU-like method without breaking its convexity. We call this method the Isometric Separation Map and we show that the resulting kernel matrix can be used for a binary/multiclass Support Vector Machine in a semi-supervised (transductive) framework. We also show that the method always finds a kernel matrix that linearly separates the training data exactly without projecting them in infinite dimensional spaces.

  2. Separators for electrochemical cells (United States)

    Carlson, Steven Allen; Anakor, Ifenna Kingsley


    Provided are separators for use in an electrochemical cell comprising (a) an inorganic oxide and (b) an organic polymer, wherein the inorganic oxide comprises organic substituents. Preferably, the inorganic oxide comprises an hydrated aluminum oxide of the formula Al.sub.2O.sub.3.xH.sub.2O, wherein x is less than 1.0, and wherein the hydrated aluminum oxide comprises organic substituents, preferably comprising a reaction product of a multifunctional monomer and/or organic carbonate with an aluminum oxide, such as pseudo-boehmite and an aluminum oxide. Also provided are electrochemical cells comprising such separators.

  3. Unsteady fluid flow in a slightly curved annular pipe: The impact of the annulus on the flow physics (United States)

    Messaris, Gerasimos A. T.; Karahalios, George T.


    The motivation of the present study is threefold. Mainly, the etiological explanation of the Womersley number based on physical reasoning. Next, the extension of a previous work [Messaris, Hadjinicolaou, and Karahalios, "Unsteady fluid flow in a slightly curved pipe: A comparative study of a matched asymptotic expansions solution with a single analytical solution," Phys. Fluids 28, 081901 (2016)] to the annular pipe flow. Finally, the discussion of the effect of the additional stresses generated by a catheter in an artery and exerted on the arterial wall during an in vivo catheterization. As it is known, the square of the Womersley number may be interpreted as an oscillatory Reynolds number which equals to the ratio of the inertial to the viscous forces. The adoption of a modified Womersley number in terms of the annular gap width seems therefore more appropriate to the description of the annular flow than an ordinary Womersley number defined in terms of the pipe radius. On this ground, the non-dimensional equations of motion are approximately solved by two analytical methods: a matched asymptotic expansions method and a single. In the first method, which is valid for very large values of the Womersley number, the flow region consists of the main core and the two boundary layers formed at the inner and outer boundaries. In the second, the fluid is considered as one region and the Womersley number can vary from finite values, such that they fit to the blood flow in the aorta and the main arteries, to infinity. The single solution predicts increasing circumferential and decreasing axial stresses with increasing catheter radius at a prescribed value of the Womersley parameter in agreement with analogous results from other theoretical and numerical solutions. It also predicts the formation of pinches on the secondary flow streamlines and a third boundary layer, additional to those formed at the boundary walls. Finally, we show that the insertion of a catheter in an

  4. Method and device for ion mobility separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Garimella, Sandilya V. B.; Smith, Richard D.


    Methods and devices for ion separations or manipulations in gas phase are disclosed. The device includes a single non-planar surface. Arrays of electrodes are coupled to the surface. A combination of RF and DC voltages are applied to the arrays of electrodes to create confining and driving fields that move ions through the device. The DC voltages are static DC voltages or time-dependent DC potentials or waveforms.

  5. diffusive phase separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kenmochi


    w is constrained to have double obstacles σ*≤w≤σ* (i.e., σ* and σ* are the threshold values of w. The objective of this paper is to discuss the semigroup {S(t} associated with the phase separation model, and construct its global attractor.

  6. Phase separation micro molding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, Laura


    The research described in this thesis concerns the development of a new microfabrication method, Phase Separation Micro Molding (PSμM). While microfabrication is still best known from semiconductor industry, where it is used to integrate electrical components on a chip, the scope has immensely expan

  7. Fathering After Marital Separation (United States)

    Keshet, Harry Finkelstein; Rosenthal, Kristine M.


    Deals with experiences of a group of separated or divorced fathers who chose to remain fully involved in the upbringing of their children. As they underwent transition from married parenthood to single fatherhood, these men learned that meeting demands of child care contributed to personal stability and growth. (Author)

  8. Isotope hydrograph separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, P. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum, Centre of Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Leipzig (Germany)


    Storm-runoff thus reflects the complex hydraulic behaviour of drainage basins and water-links of such systems. Water of different origin may participate in the events and in this lecture, the application of isotope techniques to separate storm hydrographs into different components will be presented.

  9. Unity Through Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Hans B.

    This PhD thesis asks how we can conceptualize the current separation doctrine of religion and politics in a country like Denmark, where the structure of the established church and peoplehood overlap. In order to answer this question, Hans Bruun Dabelsteen maps the current discussion of secularism...

  10. Acromioclavicular Joint Separations (United States)


    Published online: 16 December 2012 # Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012 Abstract Acromioclavicular (AC) joint separations are common...injuries. The sports most likely to cause AC joint dislocations are football, soccer , hockey, rugby, and skiing, among others [9, 28, 29]. The major cause

  11. Pre-Separation Guide (United States)


    SEPARATEES Defense Outplacement Referral System (DORS) Since most of us are not independently wealthy, we will need a job after separation. DORS is...Job Assistance SPOUSES OF ALL SEPARATEES As a spouse you may take advantage of preparing Standard Form 17 1’s and resu- the outplacement services

  12. Separation of Powers. (United States)

    Bill of Rights in Action, 1987


    The dimensions of the separation of powers principle are explored through three lessons in the subject areas of U.S. history, U.S. government, and world history. In 1748, a French nobleman, Baron de Montesquieu, wrote a book called "The Spirit of the Laws," in which he argued that there could be no liberty when all government power was…

  13. 分壁塔响应面法优化分离芳烃混合物研究%Optimization of the Separation Process of Aromatic Hydrocarbons With Dividing Wall Column by Using Response Surface Mehtodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高景山; 张英; 薄德臣


    以 Hysys 软件对分壁塔分离芳烃混合物进行研究,采用 Box-Behnken 方法对影响分离效果的因素进行了优化,并进行了数学模型的研究,建立了以组分分离纯度为目标值,各工艺参数为因素的二次多项式模型。结果表明:进料温度和液体分配比对整体分离效果的影响显著,气体分配比对苯的分离影响显著,进料温度和液体分配比对甲苯和二甲苯分离交互作用影响显著。分壁塔分离的最优工艺条件为:进料温度122℃、回流比7、液体分配比0.62、气体分配比0.45。%Hysys software was used to simulate the separation process of aromatic hydrocarbons with dividing wall column. Based on the results of single-factor design, Box-Behnken design method was used to optimize the factors to affect the separation effect. A mathematical model was also established to predict the experiment results. The results show that feed temperature and reflux ratio have significant effect on the separation result; distribution ratio of vapor has significant effect on the separation of benzene; feed temperature and distribution ratio of liquid have significant effect on the separation of toluene and exylene.The optimum conditions are as follows: the feed temperature 122℃,the reflux ratio 7,the distribution ratio of liquid 0.65, the distribution ratio of vapor 0.45.

  14. Laminar separation bubbles: Dynamics and control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sourabh S Diwan; O N Ramesh


    This work is an experimental investigation of the dynamics and control of the laminar separation bubbles which are typically present on the suction surface of an aerofoil at a large angle of attack. A separation bubble is produced on the upper surface of a flat plate by appropriately contouring the top wall of the wind tunnel. First, a basic (unforced) separation bubble is obtained to set a benchmark for further experiments. Parametric study is done where the reference velocity is decreased to quantify its effect on the aspect ratio of the bubble. It is found that with decrease in Reynolds number, the height of the bubble increases at a greater rate than the length. This feature could be useful in characterising separation bubbles especially from the point of view of low Reynolds number aerofoil design. Artificial disturbance is introduced at two different initial amplitudes (infinitesimal and finite) upstream of separation location and hotwire anemometry is used to trace the wave packet as it is advected downstream. The evolution of wave packets is seen to take place in two distinct stages. Finite amplitude forcing causes periodic quenching of the bubble. Interestingly, even an infinitesimally small forcing is seen to modify and thereby control the separation bubble.

  15. Hotspots engineering by grafting Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles on the Au film over slightly etched nanoparticles substrate for on-site paraquat sensing. (United States)

    Wang, Chaoguang; Wu, Xuezhong; Dong, Peitao; Chen, Jian; Xiao, Rui


    Paraquat (PQ) pollutions are ultra-toxic to human beings and hard to be decomposed in the environment, thus requiring an on-site detection strategy. Herein, we developed a robust and rapid PQ sensing strategy based on the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique. A hybrid SERS substrate was prepared by grafting the Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) on the Au film over slightly etched nanoparticles (Au FOSEN). Hotspots were engineered at the junctions as indicated by the finite difference time domain calculation. SERS performance of the hybrid substrate was explored using p-ATP as the Raman probe. The hybrid substrate gives higher enhancement factor comparing to either the Au FOSEN substrate or the Au@Ag core-shell NPs, and exhibits excellent reproducibility, homogeneity and stability. The proposed SERS substrates were prepared in batches for the practical PQ sensing. The total analysis time for a single sample, including the pre-treatment and measurement, was less than 5min with a PQ detection limit of 10nM. Peak intensities of the SERS signal were plotted as a function of the PQ concentrations to calibrate the sensitivity by fitting the Hill's equation. The plotted calibration curve showed a good log-log linearity with the coefficient of determination of 0.98. The selectivity of the sensing proposal was based on the "finger print" Raman spectra of the analyte. The proposed substrate exhibited good recovery when it applied to real water samples, including lab tap water, bottled water, and commercially obtained apple juice and grape juice. This SERS-based PQ detection method is simple, rapid, sensitive and selective, which shows great potential in pesticide residue and additives abuse monitoring.

  16. Application of PVDF composite for lithium-ion battery separator (United States)

    Sabrina, Q.; Majid, N.; Prihandoko, B.


    In this study a composite observed in PVDF composite as lithium ion battery separator. Observation of performance cell battery with cyclic voltametry and charge discharge capacity. Surface morphology PVDF separator and commercial separator observed with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cyclic Voltamerty test (CV) and Charge Discharge (CD) showed a capacity value on the coin cell. Coin cell is composed of material LiFePO4 cathode, anode material of lithium metal and varies as graphite, liquid electrolyte varied use LiBOB and LiPF6. While the PVDF as compared to the commercial separator. Coin cell commercial separator has a better high capacity value when compared with Coin cell with the PVDF separator. Life cycle coin cell with the commercial separator material is still longer than coin cell separator with PVDF Copolymer. Development of PVDF as separator remains to be done in order to improve the performance of the battery exceeds the usage of commercial material.

  17. A high-efficiency superhydrophobic plasma separator. (United States)

    Liu, Changchun; Liao, Shih-Chuan; Song, Jinzhao; Mauk, Michael G; Li, Xuanwen; Wu, Gaoxiang; Ge, Dengteng; Greenberg, Robert M; Yang, Shu; Bau, Haim H


    To meet stringent limit-of-detection specifications for low abundance target molecules, a relatively large volume of plasma is needed for many blood-based clinical diagnostics. Conventional centrifugation methods for plasma separation are not suitable for on-site testing or bedside diagnostics. Here, we report a simple, yet high-efficiency, clamshell-style, superhydrophobic plasma separator that is capable of separating a relatively large volume of plasma from several hundred microliters of whole blood (finger-prick blood volume). The plasma separator consists of a superhydrophobic top cover with a separation membrane and a superhydrophobic bottom substrate. Unlike previously reported membrane-based plasma separators, the separation membrane in our device is positioned at the top of the sandwiched whole blood film to increase the membrane separation capacity and plasma yield. In addition, the device's superhydrophobic characteristics (i) facilitates the formation of well-defined, contracted, thin blood film with a high contact angle; (ii) minimizes biomolecular adhesion to surfaces; (iii) increases blood clotting time; and (iv) reduces blood cell hemolysis. The device demonstrated a "blood in-plasma out" capability, consistently extracting 65 ± 21.5 μL of plasma from 200 μL of whole blood in less than 10 min without electrical power. The device was used to separate plasma from Schistosoma mansoni genomic DNA-spiked whole blood with a recovery efficiency of >84.5 ± 25.8%. The S. mansoni genomic DNA in the separated plasma was successfully tested on our custom-made microfluidic chip by using loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method.

  18. Hybrid membranes for selective carbon dioxide separation from fuel gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Luebke; Christina Myers; Henry Pennline [United States Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory


    The potential of hybrid membranes as a CO{sub 2} capture technology for integrated gasification combined cycle applications was evaluated. Commercial {gamma}-alumina supports were modified with a variety of trichlorosilanes intended to enhance the surface adsorption of CO{sub 2}. The resulting hybrids were characterized using X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and tested for performance in the separation of He and CO{sub 2}. The silanization temperature was determined to be important because membranes fabricated at 273 K had substantially different performance properties than those fabricated at room temperature. Specifically, the permeances of membranes modified with alkyltrichlorosilanes at reduced temperatures were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those of membranes fabricated at room temperature, and the selectivities of these low-temperature silanized membranes were relatively similar to those expected from Knudsen diffusion. Supports modified with silanes containing one of a variety of functionalities were tested for CO{sub 2}/He selectivity. Membranes modified with 2-acetoxyethyl, 2-carbomethoxyethyl, and 3-aminopropyl groups exhibited CO{sub 2} selectivity, with the highest values approaching 7 for 2-carbomethoxyethyl-silated membranes at 50{sup o}C. Temperature dependences resulted in selectivity maxima for the 2-acetoxyethyl and 2-carbomethoxyethyl membranes. Mixed-gas selectivities were slightly higher than pure-gas selectivities because of a decrease in He permeance with a relatively minor reduction in CO{sub 2} permeance. Transport in the selective membranes is believed to occur by a combination of activated and solution diffusion for He and a combination of activated and surface diffusion for CO{sub 2}. 25 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Shell Separation for Mirror Replication (United States)


    NASA's Space Optics Manufacturing Center has been working to expand our view of the universe via sophisticated new telescopes. The Optics Center's goal is to develop low-cost, advanced space optics technologies for the NASA program in the 21st century - including the long-term goal of imaging Earth-like planets in distant solar systems. To reduce the cost of mirror fabrication, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed replication techniques, the machinery, and materials to replicate electro-formed nickel mirrors. Optics replication uses reusable forms, called mandrels, to make telescope mirrors ready for final finishing. MSFC optical physicist Bill Jones monitors a device used to chill a mandrel, causing it to shrink and separate from the telescope mirror without deforming the mirror's precisely curved surface.

  20. Separating detection and catalog production

    CERN Document Server

    Akhlaghi, Mohammad


    In the coming era of massive surveys (e.g. LSST, SKA), the role of the database designers and the algorithms they choose to adopt becomes the decisive factor in scientific progress. Systems that allow/encourage users/scientists to be more creative with the reduction/analysis algorithms can greatly enhance scientific productivity. The separation/modularity of the detection processes and catalog production is one proposal for achieving `Reduction/analysis algorithms for large databases and vice versa' (a key theme for the 26th ADASS). With the new noise-based detection paradigm, non-parametric detection is now possible for astronomical objects to very low surface brightness limits. In our implementation, one software (NoiseChisel) is in charge of detection and another (MakeCatalog) is in charge of catalog production. This modularity has many advantages for pipeline developers, and more importantly, it empowers scientific curiosity and creativity.

  1. GPS Separator HD

    CERN Multimedia


    Footage of the 70 degree ISOLDE GPS separator magnet MAG70 as well as the switchyard for the Central Mass and GLM (GPS Low Mass) and GHM (GPS High Mass) beamlines in the GPS separator zone. In the GPS20 vacuum sector equipment such as the long GPS scanner 482 / 483 unit, faraday cup FC 490, vacuum valves and wiregrid piston WG210 and WG475 and radiation monitors can also be seen. Also the RILIS laser guidance and trajectory can be seen, the GPS main beamgate switch box and the actual GLM, GHM and Central Beamline beamgates in the beamlines as well as the first electrostatic quadrupoles for the GPS lines. Close up of the GHM deflector plates motor and connections and the inspection glass at the GHM side of the switchyard.

  2. HRS Separator HD

    CERN Multimedia


    Footage of the 90 and 60 degree ISOLDE HRS separator magnets in the HRS separator zone. In the two vacuum sectors HRS20 and HRS30 equipment such as the HRS slits SL240, the HRS faraday cup FC300 and wiregrid WG210 can be spotted. Vacuum valves, turbo pumps, beamlines, quadrupoles, water and compressed air connections, DC and signal cabling can be seen throughout the video. The HRS main and user beamgate in the beamline between MAG90 and MAG60 and its switchboxes as well as all vacuum bellows and flanges are shown. Instrumentation such as the HRS scanner unit 482 / 483, the HRS WG470 wiregrid and slits piston can be seen. The different quadrupoles and supports are shown as well as the RILIS guidance tubes and installation at the magnets and the different radiation monitors.

  3. Nylon separators. [thermal degradation (United States)

    Lim, H. S.


    A nylon separator was placed in a flooded condition in K0H solution and heated at various high temperatures ranging from 60 C to 110 C. The weight decrease was measured and the molecular weight and decomposition product were analyzed to determine: (1) the effect of K0H concentration on the hydrolysis rate; (2) the effect of K0H concentration on nylon degradation; (3) the activation energy at different K0H concentrations; and (4) the effect of oxygen on nylon degradation. The nylon hydrolysis rate is shown to increase as K0H concentration is decreased 34%, giving a maximum rate at about 16%. Separator hydrolysis is confirmed by molecular weight decrease in age of the batteries, and the reaction of nylon with molecular oxygen is probably negligible, compared to hydrolysis. The extrapolated rate value from the high temperature experiment correlates well with experimental values at 35 degrees.

  4. Unity Through Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Hans B.

    analysis, Dabelsteen study Danish secularism as an ideological concept. He finds that the conceptual structure of Danish secularism holds separation-as-principled distance at its core. Institutionally this particularly pertains to the establishment arrangement, and in practice it translates...... and proposes two conceptual expansions. The first is to include modest establishment in a framework of secularism defensible by political liberalism, and the second is to consider secularism in close connection to a theory of peoplehood. Methodologically positioned between interpretive realism and policy...... into the principle of treating everybody equally (with religious freedom, equality and Danish peoplehood as the most important principles adjacent to secularism). In a study of the historical roots of the separation doctrine and two current policy cases (same-sex marriage and reforms of church governance...

  5. Acoustophoresis separation method (United States)

    Heyman, Joseph S. (Inventor)


    A method and apparatus are provided for acoustophoresis, i.e., the separation of species via acoustic waves. An ultrasonic transducer applies an acoustic wave to one end of a sample container containing at least two species having different acoustic absorptions. The wave has a frequency tuned to or harmonized with the point of resonance of the species to be separated. This wave causes the species to be driven to an opposite end of the sample container for removal. A second ultrasonic transducer may be provided to apply a second, oppositely directed acoustic wave to prevent undesired streaming. In addition, a radio frequency tuned to the mechanical resonance and coupled with a magnetic field can serve to identify a species in a medium comprising species with similar absorption coefficients, whereby an acoustic wave having a frequency corresponding to this gyrational rate can then be applied to sweep the identified species to one end of the container for removal.

  6. Separation of enantiomers

    CERN Document Server

    Todd , Matthew H


    In one handy volume this handbook summarizes the most common synthetic methods for the separation of racemic mixtures, allowing an easy comparison of the different strategies described in the literature.Alongside classical methods, the authors also consider kinetic resolutions, dynamic kinetic resolutions, divergent reactions of a racemic mixture, and a number of ""neglected"" cases not covered elsewhere, such as the use of circularly polarized light, polymerizations, ""ripening"" processes, dynamic combinatorial chemistry, and several thermodynamic processes. The result is a thorough introdu

  7. Separation Logic and Concurrency (United States)

    Bornat, Richard

    Concurrent separation logic is a development of Hoare logic adapted to deal with pointers and concurrency. Since its inception, it has been enhanced with a treatment of permissions to enable sharing of data between threads, and a treatment of variables as resource alongside heap cells as resource. An introduction to the logic is given with several examples of proofs, culminating in a treatment of Simpson's 4-slot algorithm, an instance of racy non-blocking concurrency.

  8. Innovative Separations Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Tripp; N. Soelberg; R. Wigeland


    Reprocessing used nuclear fuel (UNF) is a multi-faceted problem involving chemistry, material properties, and engineering. Technology options are available to meet a variety of processing goals. A decision about which reprocessing method is best depends significantly on the process attributes considered to be a priority. New methods of reprocessing that could provide advantages over the aqueous Plutonium Uranium Reduction Extraction (PUREX) and Uranium Extraction + (UREX+) processes, electrochemical, and other approaches are under investigation in the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) Separations Campaign. In an attempt to develop a revolutionary approach to UNF recycle that may have more favorable characteristics than existing technologies, five innovative separations projects have been initiated. These include: (1) Nitrogen Trifluoride for UNF Processing; (2) Reactive Fluoride Gas (SF6) for UNF Processing; (3) Dry Head-end Nitration Processing; (4) Chlorination Processing of UNF; and (5) Enhanced Oxidation/Chlorination Processing of UNF. This report provides a description of the proposed processes, explores how they fit into the Modified Open Cycle (MOC) and Full Recycle (FR) fuel cycles, and identifies performance differences when compared to 'reference' advanced aqueous and fluoride volatility separations cases. To be able to highlight the key changes to the reference case, general background on advanced aqueous solvent extraction, advanced oxidative processes (e.g., volumetric oxidation, or 'voloxidation,' which is high temperature reaction of oxide UNF with oxygen, or modified using other oxidizing and reducing gases), and fluorination and chlorination processes is provided.

  9. Colour Separation and Aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Haigh


    Full Text Available Aversion to achromatic patterns is well documented but relatively little is known about discomfort from chromatic patterns. Large colour differences are uncommon in the natural environment and deviation from natural statistics makes images uncomfortable (Fernandez and Wilkins 2008, Perception, 37(7, 1098–113; Juricevic et al 2010, Perception, 39(7, 884–899. We report twelve studies documenting a linear increase in aversion to chromatic square-wave gratings as a function of the separation in UCS chromaticity between the component bars, independent of their luminance contrast. Two possible explanations for the aversion were investigated: (1 accommodative response, or (2 cortical metabolic demand. We found no correlation between chromaticity separation and accommodative lag or variance in lag, measured using an open-field autorefractor. However, near infrared spectroscopy of the occipital cortex revealed a larger oxyhaemoglobin response to patterns with large chromaticity separation. The aversion may be cortical in origin and does not appear to be due to accommodation.

  10. Experimental research on surface modification of fine coal strengthening desulfurization and ash reduction through rotation friction electric separation%微粉煤表面改性强化旋转摩擦电选脱硫降灰试验研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋傲; 陶有俊; 羡宇帅; 张学彬; 丁晴晴


    为了提高微粉煤摩擦电选脱硫降灰的效果,采用表面改性的方法对微粉煤进行预处理,并使用旋转摩擦电选机对其分选。试验结果表明,当改性剂选用煤油、改性剂用量为10169 g/t以及改性时间为5 s时,微粉煤旋转摩擦电选效果最佳,可燃体回收率、脱灰率以及脱硫率分别为44.16%、80.96%和73.36%,表面改性后精煤产率提高了约5%、精煤灰分降低了约3%、精煤硫分降低了约0.4%。分析对比改性前后电选效果认为,表面改性能显著强化微粉煤旋转摩擦静电分选的脱硫降灰效果。%The authors preprocessed fine coal by using surface modification method and used rotation friction electricity separation in order to improve effects of fine coal friction electrostatic separation desulfurization and ash reduction.The test results showed that when the modifier was kerosene with 10169g/t dosage and 5s modification time,the effects of fine coal rotary friction e-lectric separation were best;combustible recovery,deashing and desulphurization values were 44.16%、80.96%、70.36%;after surface modification,the clean coal productivity increased 5%, clean ash decreased 3% and the sulphur content of clean coal decreased 0.4%.According to com-parative analyzing electrostatic separation before and after surface modification,surface modifica-tion performance can significantly enhance the desulfurization and deashing effects of fine coal with rotary friction electric separation.

  11. Design of analog signal separation in computerized well logging surface system%数控测井地面系统中模拟信号分离单元的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超波; 高嵩; 何宁; 袁晓伟


    在全面、细致地分析了井下仪器回传信号的类型、数据通信的特点基础上,测井仪器的回传的模拟信号均是低频信号,因此模拟信号分离单元电路采用压控电压源二阶低通滤波及电压跟随电路,可将低频模拟信号有效地分离出来。以磁记号信号为例,实验表明,模拟信号经过分离单元,滤除了高频干扰信号,为后期模拟量信号的采集处理提供了可靠保障。%By analyzing the types of return signals from the downhole instrument and the characteristics of data communications entirely, the analog signal of logging instrument back has low frequency. Then, the analog signal separation unit, which uses voltage-controlled voltage source order low pass filter and voltage follower circuits, can isolate the low-frequency signal effectively. For example, high-frequency interference signal in the magnetic signal has been removed by the analog signal separation unit. It can provide reliable guarantee for the late analog signal acquisition.

  12. Hydrophobic character of surface regions and total hydrophobicity of four variants of chromosomal class C beta-lactamase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa are identical. Chromatographic comparison of the hydrophobic character of the variants and the effect of focusing buffer composition on the separation of the variants by chromatofocusing with internal and external pH gradients. (United States)

    Walther-Rasmussen, J; Høiby, N


    The hydrophobic character of class C beta-lactamase molecular variants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was compared by hydrophobic interaction chromatography and reversed-phase liquid chromatography, respectively. Separation of the variants by hydrophobic interaction chromatography was not achieved by modifying salt and pH of mobile phases. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography of the variants resulted in almost identical retention times. The results showed that the hydrophobic character of surface regions as well as total hydrophobicity of the variants are identical. The resolving power of external, internal and gradient chromatofocusing of the variants on strong and weak anion exchangers using low-molecular-mass buffers was compared to that of commercial ampholytes and showed no difference in separation pattern of the variants. Comparisons of variant isoelectric point (pI) values determined by chromatofocusing and isoelectric focusing showed that pI values determined by gradient chromatofocusing were most similar to the pI values determined by isoelectric focusing.

  13. Eddy current separation apparatus, separation module, separation method and method for adjusting an eddy current separation apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Bakker, M.C.M.; Berkhout, S.P.M.; Rahman, M.A.


    Eddy current separation apparatus (1) for separating particles (20) from a particle stream (w), wherein the apparatus (1) comprises a separator drum (4) adapted to create a first particle fraction (21) and a second particle fraction (23), a feeding device (2) upstream of the separator drum (4) for s


    Maddock, A.G.; Smith, F.


    A method is described for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products by treating a nitrate solution of fission products, uranium, and hexavalent plutonium with a relatively water-insoluble fluoride to adsorb fission products on the fluoride, treating the residual solution with a reducing agent for plutonium to reduce its valence to four and less, treating the reduced plutonium solution with a relatively insoluble fluoride to adsorb the plutonium on the fluoride, removing the solution, and subsequently treating the fluoride with its adsorbed plutonium with a concentrated aqueous solution of at least one of a group consisting of aluminum nitrate, ferric nitrate, and manganous nitrate to remove the plutonium from the fluoride.


    Karraker, D.G.


    A liquid-liquid extraction process is presented for the recovery of polonium from lead and bismuth. According to the invention an acidic aqueous chloride phase containing the polonium, lead, and bismuth values is contacted with a tributyl phosphate ether phase. The polonium preferentially enters the organic phase which is then separated and washed with an aqueous hydrochloric solution to remove any lead or bismuth which may also have been extracted. The now highly purified polonium in the organic phase may be transferred to an aqueous solution by extraction with aqueous nitric acid.


    Beaufait, L.J. Jr.; Stevenson, F.R.; Rollefson, G.K.


    The recovery of plutonium ions from neutron irradiated uranium can be accomplished by bufferlng an aqueous solutlon of the irradiated materials containing tetravalent plutonium to a pH of 4 to 7, adding sufficient acetate to the solution to complex the uranyl present, adding ferric nitrate to form a colloid of ferric hydroxide, plutonlum, and associated fission products, removing and dissolving the colloid in aqueous nitric acid, oxldizlng the plutonium to the hexavalent state by adding permanganate or dichromate, treating the resultant solution with ferric nitrate to form a colloid of ferric hydroxide and associated fission products, and separating the colloid from the plutonlum left in solution.

  17. A High-Throughput SU-8Microfluidic Magnetic Bead Separator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; Christensen, T. B.; Smistrup, Kristian


    We present a novel microfluidic magnetic bead separator based on SU-8 fabrication technique for high through-put applications. The experimental results show that magnetic beads can be captured at an efficiency of 91 % and 54 % at flow rates of 1 mL/min and 4 mL/min, respectively. Integration...... of soft magnetic elements in the chip leads to a slightly higher capturing efficiency and a more uniform distribution of captured beads over the separation chamber than the system without soft magnetic elements....

  18. Effect of the treatment by slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid in germinated brown millet. (United States)

    Li, Xingfeng; Hao, Jianxiong; Liu, Xianggui; Liu, Haijie; Ning, Yawei; Cheng, Ruhong; Tan, Bin; Jia, Yingmin


    The accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid and the microbial decontamination are concerned increasingly in the production of sprouts. In this work, the effect of the treatment by slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid in the germinated brown millet was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography during germination. The results showed that slightly acidic electrolyzed water with appropriate available chlorine (15 or 30 mg/L) could promote the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid by up to 21% (P treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water could not enhance the sprouts growth of the germinated brown millet. The catalase and peroxidase activities of the germinated brown millet during germination were in agreement with the sprouts growth. Our results suggested that the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid was independent of the length of sprouts in germinated grains. Moreover, the treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water significantly reduced the microbial counts in the germinated millet (P treatment with high available chlorine concentration (15 and 30 mg/L) showed stronger anti-infection potential in the germinated brown millet than that of lower available chlorine concentration (5 mg/L). In conclusion, the treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water is an available approach to improve the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid and anti-infection potential in the germinated brown millet, and it can avoid too long millet sprouts.

  19. Recent Applications of Ionic Liquids in Separation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Han


    Full Text Available Ionic liquids (ILs have been applied in different areas of separation, such as ionic liquid supported membranes, as mobile phase additives and surface-bonded stationary phases in chromatography separations and as the extraction solvent in sample preparations, because they can be composed from various cations and anions that change the properties and phase behavior of liquids. Although the applications of ILs in separations are still in their early stages, the academic interest in ILs is increasing. An overview of the principle applications of ILs in separation technology is present in this work. Furthermore, the prospects of the ILs in separation techniques are discussed.

  20. Virus separation using membranes. (United States)

    Grein, Tanja A; Michalsky, Ronald; Czermak, Peter


    Industrial manufacturing of cell culture-derived viruses or virus-like particles for gene therapy or vaccine production are complex multistep processes. In addition to the bioreactor, such processes require a multitude of downstream unit operations for product separation, concentration, or purification. Similarly, before a biopharmaceutical product can enter the market, removal or inactivation of potential viral contamination has to be demonstrated. Given the complexity of biological solutions and the high standards on composition and purity of biopharmaceuticals, downstream processing is the bottleneck in many biotechnological production trains. Membrane-based filtration can be an economically attractive and efficient technology for virus separation. Viral clearance, for instance, of up to seven orders of magnitude has been reported for state of the art polymeric membranes under best conditions.This chapter summarizes the fundamentals of virus ultrafiltration, diafiltration, or purification with adsorptive membranes. In lieu of an impractical universally applicable protocol for virus filtration, application of these principles is demonstrated with two examples. The chapter provides detailed methods for production, concentration, purification, and removal of a rod-shaped baculovirus (Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus, about 40 × 300 nm in size, a potential vector for gene therapy, and an industrially important protein expression system) or a spherical parvovirus (minute virus of mice, 22-26 nm in size, a model virus for virus clearance validation studies).

  1. Radiochemical separation of gallium by amalgam exchange (United States)

    Ruch, R.R.


    An amalgam-exchange separation of radioactive gallium from a number of interfering radioisotopes has been developed. A dilute (ca. 0.3%) gallium amalgam is agitated with a slightly acidic solution of 72Ga3+ containing concentrations of sodium thiocyanate and either perchlorate or chloride. The amalgam is then removed and the radioactive gallium stripped by agitation with dilute nitric acid. The combined exchange yield of the perchlorate-thiocyanate system is 90??4% and that of the chloride-thiocyanate system is 75??4%. Decontamination yields of most of the 11 interfering isotopes studied were less than 0.02%. The technique is applicable for use with activation analysis for the determination of trace amounts of gallium. ?? 1969.

  2. Cyclonic Separation Technology: Researches and Developments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪华林; 张艳红; 王剑刚; 刘洪来


    Centered on thetechniques and industrial applications of the reinforced cyclonic separation process, its principles and mechanism for separation ot ions, molecules and their aggregates using polyalsperse aroplets are discussed generally; the characteristics and influential factors of fish-hook phenomenon of the grade efficiency curve in cyclonic separation for both gas and liquid are analyzed; and the influence of shear force on particle be- havior (or that of particle swarm) is also summarized. A novel idea for cyclonic separation is presented here: enhancing the cyclonic seoaration process of ions, molecules and their aggregates with monodisperse microspheres and their surface grafting, rearranging the distribution of particles by size using centrifugal field, reinforcing the cyclonic separation performance with orderly arranged particle swarm. Also the investigation of the shortcut flow, recirculation flow, the asymmetric structure and non-linear characteristics of the cyclonic flow field with a com-bined method of Volumetric 3-component Velocimetry (V3V) and Phase-Doppler Particle Anemometer (PDPA) are elaborated. It is recommended to develop new systems for the separation of heterogeneous phases with cyclonic technology, in accordance with the capture and reuse of CO2, methanol to olefins (MTO) process, coal transfer, andthe exploitation of oil shale.

  3. Actinide-Lanthanide separation by an electrolytic method in molten salt media: feasibility assessment of a renewed liquid cathode; Un nouveau concept de separation actinides-lanthanides en milieu sel fondu: mise en oeuvre d'une cathode liquide a surface renouvelee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huguet, A.


    This study is part of a research program concerning the assessment of pyrochemical methods for the nuclear waste processing. The An-Ln partitioning could be achieved by an electrolytic selective extraction in molten salt media. It has been decided to focus on liquid reactive cathode which better suits to a group actinides co-recycling. The aim of the study is to propose, define and initiate the development of an electrolytic pyro-process dedicated to the quantitative and selective recovery of the actinides. Quantitativeness is related to technology, whereas selectivity is governed by chemistry. The first step consisted in selecting the adequate operating conditions, which enables a sufficient An-Ln separation. The first step consisted, by means of thermodynamic calculi and electrochemical investigations, in selecting a promising combination between molten electrolyte and cathodic material, regarding the process constraints. To improve the recovery yield, it is necessary to develop a disruptive technology: here comes the concept of a dynamic electrodeposition carried out onto liquid metallic drops. The next step consisted in designing and manufacturing a lab-scale device which enables dropping flow studies. Since interfacial phenomena are of primary meaning in such a concept, it has been decided to focus on high temperature liquid-liquid interfacial measurements. (author)

  4. Separation method in the problem of a beam-plasma interaction in bounded warm plasma under the effect of HF electric field

    CERN Document Server

    Ei-Shorbagy, K H


    The stabilization effect of a strong HP electric field on beam-plasma instability in a cylindrical warm plasma waveguide is discussed. A new mathematical technique 'separation method' which has been applied to the two-fluid plasma model to separate the equations, which describe the system, into two parts, temporal and space parts. Plasma electrons are considered to have a thermal velocity. It is shown that a HF electric field has no essential influence on dispersion characteristics of unstable surface waves excited in a warm plasma waveguide by a low-density electron beam. The region of instability only slightly narrowing and the growth rate decreases by a small parameter and this result has been reduced compared to cold plasma. Also, it is found that the plasma electrons have not affected the solution of the space part of the problem.

  5. The TR method: the use of slip preference to separate heterogeneous fault-slip data in compressional stress regimes. The surface rupture of the 1999 Chi-Chi Taiwan earthquake as a case study (United States)

    Tranos, Markos D.


    Synthetic contractional fault-slip data have been considered in order to examine the validity of widely applied criteria such as the slip preference, slip tendency, kinematic (P and T) axes, transport orientation and strain compatibility in different Andersonian compressional stress regimes. Radial compression (RC), radial-pure compression (RC-PC), pure compression (PC), pure compression-transpression (PC-TRP), and transpression (TRP) are examined with the aid of the Win-Tensor stress inversion software. Furthermore, the validity of the recently proposed graphical TR method, which uses the concept of slip preference for the separation of heterogeneous fault-slip data, is also examined for compressional stress regimes. In these regimes only contractional faults can be activated, and their slip preferences imply the distinction between “real”, i.e., RC, RC-PC and PC, and “hybrid”, i.e., PC-TRP and TRP stress regimes. For slip tendency values larger than 0.6, the activated faults dip at angles from 10° to 50°, but in the “hybrid” regimes faults can dip with even higher angles. The application of the TR method is here refined by introducing two controlling parameters, the coefficient of determination (R2) of the Final Tensor Ratio Line (FTRL) and the “normal” or “inverse” distribution of the faults plotted within the Final Tensor Ratio Belt (FTRB). The application of the TR method on fault-slip data of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan, allowed the meaningful separation of complex heterogeneous contractional fault-slip data into homogeneous groups. In turn, this allowed the identification of different compressional stress regimes and the determination of local stress perturbations of the regional or far-stress field generated by the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. This includes clear examples of “stress permutation” and “stress partitioning” caused by pre-existing fault structures, such as the N-S trending Chelungpu thrust and the NE

  6. Plasma separation: physical separation at the molecular level (United States)

    Gueroult, Renaud; Rax, Jean-Marcel; Fisch, Nathaniel J.


    Separation techniques are usually divided in two categories depending on the nature of the discriminating property: chemical or physical. Further to this difference, physical and chemical techniques differ in that chemical separation typically occurs at the molecular level, while physical separation techniques commonly operate at the macroscopic scale. Separation based on physical properties can in principle be realized at the molecular or even atomic scale by ionizing the mixture. This is in essence plasma based separation. Due to this fundamental difference, plasma based separation stands out from other separation techniques, and features unique properties. In particular, plasma separation allows separating different elements or chemical compounds based on physical properties. This could prove extremely valuable to separate macroscopically homogeneous mixtures made of substances of similar chemical formulation. Yet, the realization of plasma separation techniques' full potential requires identifying and controlling basic mechanisms in complex plasmas which exhibit suitable separation properties. In this paper, we uncover the potential of plasma separation for various applications, and identify the key physics mechanisms upon which hinges the development of these techniques.

  7. A rapid, partial leach and organic separation for the sensitive determination of Ag, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, and Zn in surface geologic materials by flame atomic absorption (United States)

    Viets, J.G.; Clark, J.R.; Campbell, W.L.


    A solution of dilute hydrochloric acid, ascorbic acid, and potassium iodide has been found to dissolve weakly bound metals in soils, stream sediments, and oxidized rocks. Silver, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, and Zn are selectively extracted from this solution by a mixture of Aliquat 336 (tricaprylyl methyl ammonium chloride) and MIBK (methyl isobutyl ketone). Because potentially interfering major and minor elements do not extract, the organic separation allows interference-free determinations of Ag and Cd to the 0.05 ppm level, Mo, Cu, and Zn to 0.5 ppm, and Bi, Pb, and Sb to 1 ppm in the sample using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The analytical absorbance values of the organic solution used in the proposed method are generally enhanced more than threefold as compared to aqueous solutions, due to more efficient atomization and burning characteristics. The leaching and extraction procedures are extremely rapid; as many as 100 samples may be analyzed per day, yielding 800 determinations, and the technique is adaptable to field use. The proposed method was compared to total digestion methods for geochemical reference samples as well as soils and stream sediments from mineralized and unmineralized areas. The partial leach showed better anomaly contrasts than did total digestions. Because the proposed method is very rapid and is sensitive to pathfinder elements for several types of ore deposits, it should be useful for reconnaissance surveys for concealed deposits. ?? 1984.

  8. Particle separator scroll vanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lastrina, F. A.; Mayer, J. C.; Pommer, L. M.


    An inlet particle separator for a gas turbine engine is provided with unique vanes distributed around an entrance to a particle collection chamber. The vanes are uniquely constructed to direct extraneous particles that enter the engine into the collection chamber and prevent the particles from rebounding back into the engine's air flow stream. The vanes are provided with several features to accomplish this function, including upstream faces that are sharply angled towards air flow stream direction to cause particles to bounce towards the collection chamber. In addition, throat regions between the vanes cause a localized air flow acceleration and a focusing of the particles that aid in directing the particles in a proper direction.

  9. Nebulized therapy. SEPAR year. (United States)

    Olveira, Casilda; Muñoz, Ana; Domenech, Adolfo


    Inhaled drugs are deposited directly in the respiratory tract. They therefore achieve higher concentrations with faster onset of action and fewer side effects than when used systemically. Nebulized drugs are mainly recommended for patients that require high doses of bronchodilators, when they need to inhale drugs that only exist in this form (antibiotics or dornase alfa) or when they are unable to use other inhalation devices. Technological development in recent years has led to new devices that optimize pulmonary deposits and reduce the time needed for treatment. In this review we focus solely on drugs currently used, or under investigation, for nebulization in adult patients; basically bronchodilators, inhaled steroids, antibiotics, antifungals, mucolytics and others such as anticoagulants, prostanoids and lidocaine. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Block copolymer battery separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez


    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  11. Block copolymer battery separator (United States)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez


    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  12. Gravity separation for oil wastewater treatment


    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Aleksandar


    In this paper, the applications of gravity separation for oil wastewater treatment are presented. Described is operation on conventional gravity separation and parallel plate separation. Key words: gravity separation, oil, conventional gravity separation, parallel plate separation.

  13. Gravity separation for oil wastewater treatment


    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Aleksandar


    In this paper, the applications of gravity separation for oil wastewater treatment are presented. Described is operation on conventional gravity separation and parallel plate separation. Key words: gravity separation, oil, conventional gravity separation, parallel plate separation.

  14. Oily Bilgewater Separators (United States)


    central core (permeate tube). Each sheet consists of oleophobic (oil repelling) outer layers and a hydrophilic (water attracting) central layer to...without clogging. Each membrane sheet has two oleophobic (oil repelling) outer surfaces and a hydrophilic (water attracting) inner layer. This...fewer alarms for the crew and minimizes potential for accidental discharge. • Cleans in place without clogging The SPIR-O-LA TOR Membranes’ oleophobic

  15. Improving Ionic Conductivity and Lithium-Ion Transference Number in Lithium-Ion Battery Separators. (United States)

    Zahn, Raphael; Lagadec, Marie Francine; Hess, Michael; Wood, Vanessa


    The microstructure of lithium-ion battery separators plays an important role in separator performance; however, here we show that a geometrical analysis falls short in predicting the lithium-ion transport in the electrolyte-filled pore space. By systematically modifying the surface chemistry of a commercial polyethylene separator while keeping its microstructure unchanged, we demonstrate that surface chemistry, which alters separator-electrolyte interactions, influences ionic conductivity and lithium-ion transference number. Changes in separator surface chemistry, particularly those that increase lithium-ion transference numbers can reduce voltage drops across the separator and improve C-rate capability.

  16. Selectivity in capillary electrokinetic separations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, R.A; de Jong, G.J.; Ensing, K


    This review gives a survey of selectivity modes in capillary electrophoresis separations in pharmaceutical analysis and bioanalysis. Despite the high efficiencies of these separation techniques, good selectivity is required to allow quantitation or identification of a Chemistry and Toxicology, parti

  17. Physical Separation in the Workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stea, Diego; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Holdt Christensen, Peter


    Physical separation is pervasive in organizations, and has powerful effects on employee motivation and organizational behaviors. However, research shows that workplace separation is characterized by a variety of tradeoffs, tensions, and challenges that lead to both positive and negative outcomes...

  18. Particle separation options for emergency water treatment. (United States)

    Dorea, C C; Bertrand, S; Clarke, B A


    Emergencies can result from the effects of unpredictable natural forces or from the cruelty of conflicts. The affected population is often left vulnerable to increased health risks. The victims' exposure to these risks can be reduced by timely public health interventions. Often, one of the first basic mitigations is the provision of water for essential needs. The quickest option, and generally more polluted, is of surface waters. We have reviewed particle separation options for emergency water treatment of surface waters. These vary from granular filtration package treatment facilities to ceramic candle filters and have therefore been broadly classified in three categories: modular, mobile and point-of-use (or household). The operational requirements and process limitations that can influence the choice of each option are discussed alongside with their underlying particle separation mechanisms and performance data.

  19. No effect of anti-inflammatory medication on postprandial and postexercise muscle protein synthesis in elderly men with slightly elevated systemic inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, Kasper Juel; Reitelseder, Søren; Malmgaard-Clausen, Nikolai Mølkjær


    BACKGROUND: Based on circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, some individuals develop slightly increased inflammation as they age. In elderly inflamed rats, the muscle response to protein feeding is impaired, whereas it can be maintained by treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug...

  20. Separation of Variables and the Geometry of Jacobians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Hurtubise


    Full Text Available This survey examines separation of variables for algebraically integrable Hamiltonian systems whose tori are Jacobians of Riemann surfaces. For these cases there is a natural class of systems which admit separations in a nice geometric sense. This class includes many of the well-known cases.

  1. Determine separations process strategy decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaathaug, E.J.


    This study provides a summary level comparative analysis of selected, top-level, waste treatment strategies. These strategies include No Separations, Separations (high-level/low-level separations), and Deferred Separations of the tank waste. These three strategies encompass the full range of viable processing alternatives based upon full retrieval of the tank wastes. The assumption of full retrieval of the tank wastes is a predecessor decision and will not be revisited in this study.

  2. Composite separators and redox flow batteries based on porous separators (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Luo, Qingtao; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Sprenkle, Vincent L.


    Composite separators having a porous structure and including acid-stable, hydrophilic, inorganic particles enmeshed in a substantially fully fluorinated polyolefin matrix can be utilized in a number of applications. The inorganic particles can provide hydrophilic characteristics. The pores of the separator result in good selectivity and electrical conductivity. The fluorinated polymeric backbone can result in high chemical stability. Accordingly, one application of the composite separators is in redox flow batteries as low cost membranes. In such applications, the composite separator can also enable additional property-enhancing features compared to ion-exchange membranes. For example, simple capacity control can be achieved through hydraulic pressure by balancing the volumes of electrolyte on each side of the separator. While a porous separator can also allow for volume and pressure regulation, in RFBs that utilize corrosive and/or oxidizing compounds, the composite separators described herein are preferable for their robustness in the presence of such compounds.

  3. Separating Underdetermined Convolutive Speech Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Wang, DeLiang; Larsen, Jan


    a method for underdetermined blind source separation of convolutive mixtures. The proposed framework is applicable for separation of instantaneous as well as convolutive speech mixtures. It is possible to iteratively extract each speech signal from the mixture by combining blind source separation...

  4. General Motors sidestream separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessier, R.J.


    On February 15, 1980, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, acting pursuant to Paragraph 113(D) (4) of the Clean Air Act, issued to General Motors an innovative technology order covering fifteen coal-fired spreader-stoker boilers located at six General Motors plants in Ohio. The purpose and effect of this order was to permit General Motors time to develop a new, innovative technique for controlling particulate emissions from the specified boilers before compliance with the federally approved Ohio particulate control regulation was required. This new technology was christened, The Sidestream Separator, by General Motors. It provides a highly cost effective means of reducing particulate emissions below levels currently obtainable with conventionally used high efficiency mechanical collectors. These improvements could prove to be of substantial benefit to many industrial facilities with spreader-stoker coal-fired boilers that cannot be brought into compliance with applicble air pollution regulations except by application of far more expensive and unwieldly electrostatic precipitators (ESP's) or fabric filters (baghouses).

  5. Nanotechnology: a slightly different history

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, Peter


    Many introductory articles and books about nanotechnology have been written to disseminate this apparently new technology, which investigate and manipulates matter at dimension of a billionth of a meter. However, these texts show in general a common feature: there is very little about the origins of this multidisciplinary field. If anything is mentioned at all, a few dates, facts and characters are reinforced, which under the scrutiny of a careful historical digging do not sustain as really founding landmarks of the field. Nevertheless, in spite of these flaws, such historical narratives bring up important elements to understand and contextualize this human endeavor, as well as the corresponding dissemination among the public: would nanotechnology be a cultural imperative?

  6. Temperature-responsive chromatography for the separation of biomolecules. (United States)

    Kanazawa, Hideko; Okano, Teruo


    Temperature-responsive chromatography for the separation of biomolecules utilizing poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and its copolymer-modified stationary phase is performed with an aqueous mobile phase without using organic solvent. The surface properties and function of the stationary phase are controlled by external temperature changes without changing the mobile-phase composition. This analytical system is based on nonspecific adsorption by the reversible transition of a hydrophilic-hydrophobic PNIPAAm-grafted surface. The driving force for retention is hydrophobic interaction between the solute molecules and the hydrophobized polymer chains on the stationary phase surface. The separation of the biomolecules, such as nucleotides and proteins was achieved by a dual temperature- and pH-responsive chromatography system. The electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions could be modulated simultaneously with the temperature in an aqueous mobile phase, thus the separation system would have potential applications in the separation of biomolecules. Additionally, chromatographic matrices prepared by a surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) exhibit a strong interaction with analytes, because the polymerization procedure forms a densely packed polymer, called a polymer brush, on the surfaces. The copolymer brush grafted surfaces prepared by ATRP was an effective tool for separating basic biomolecules by modulating the electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Applications of thermally responsive columns for the separations of biomolecules are reviewed here.

  7. Roughness induced flow separation in adverse pressure gradient (United States)

    Joo, Jongwook; Emory, Mike; Bose, Sanjeeb; Medic, Gorazd; Sharma, Om


    Surface roughness does not only increase turbulent mixing, but also thickens boundary-layers, making flows more susceptible to separation. Detailed flow physics related to the separation is not understood well. Bammert and Milsch (1972) demonstrates a clear example of surface roughness induced separation under adverse pressure gradient. In the study, compressor cascades with NACA 65 airfoils are systematically roughened and the flow over suction surface gradually separates early as roughness increases. A set of Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) over the Bammert's case is investigated, since RANS simulations using roughness models suffer from capturing the separation. In the current study, surface roughness is represented in two different approaches; 1) Realistic rough surface represented by stochastically distributed hills and valleys are gridded and solved with unstructured finite volume method, 2) Using block-structured grid, surface roughness is gridded as a staggered array of 3D rectangles, in a similar way of the previous study for roughened low pressure turbine (GT2016-57912). The current LES's capture rich features of the flow phenomena, which will bring comprehensive understanding of the roughness induced separation. This collaboration is made through 2016 CTR Summer Program.

  8. Optimization on Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Separating TNT and RDX Explosive with Response Surface Methodology%超临界CO2流体分离梯黑炸药的响应曲面法优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬文苏; 丁玉奎; 李金明; 陶青青


    Using response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken design (BBD), pressure, temperature and time as experimental variables were investigated to test the effects on the extraction rate of TNT. The results showed the relation between variables to the extraction rate of TNT accorded with the quadratic model. According to analysis of the significance and the interaction, the effect of influent factors from high to low was extraction temperature, extraction pressure and time. Optimum conditions were also found, which were extraction pressure of 31 Mpa, extraction temperature of 329K and time of 1 SmiaUnder the optimum condition, the extraction rate of TNT was 98.78%, it was basically agreement with the predicted values.%以TNT萃取率为评价指标,采用基于Box-Behnken中心组合设计的响应曲面法,考察了压力、温度和静态保压时间的交互作用对超临界CO2流体分离梯黑炸药效果的影响.结果表明:试验因子与TNT萃取率的关系符合二次方程模型;在分析了各个因子的显著性和交互作用后,得到对TNT萃取率的影响大小依次为:萃取温度、萃取压力、保压时间;超临界CO2流体分离梯黑炸药的最优工艺条件是:萃取温度329K、萃取压力31MPa、保压时间15min,在此工艺条件下,TNT萃取率为98.78%,与模型预测值基本吻合.

  9. Pooling Time Series Based on Slightly Different Questions About the Same Topic Forty Years of Survey Research on Happiness and Life Satisfaction in The Netherlands. (United States)

    DeJonge, Tineke; Veenhoven, Ruut; Kalmijn, Wim; Arends, Lidia

    Survey research on subjective wellbeing in The Netherlands started in the early 1970s. The time series happiness and life satisfaction that have emerged since then are unfortunately based on slightly different survey items of which one part uses verbal response scales and another part uses numerical response scales. The diversity of the survey items and a number of other measurement issues, such as the effects of changes in survey mode, hamper comparison over time and make it difficult to establish whether life became any better over the last forty years. These problems can be tackled using the recently developed Reference Distribution Method with which responses to equivalent but not identical survey questions can be pooled to obtain long, consistent time series. We applied the Reference Distribution method to pool time series of happiness and life satisfaction. We conclude that in the past 40 years the Dutch have become slightly happier and satisfied with their lives.

  10. [Description of a patient with schizophrenia and coexisting megadose lorazepam dependence with slightly expressed withdrawl symptoms during drug reduction. A case report]. (United States)

    Schylla, Aleksandra; Scisło, Piotr; Badura-Brzoza, Karina; Pasierb, Natalia


    The aim of this article is to present a patient with a megadose lorazepam dependence and slightly marked withdrawal symptoms during detoxication. The authors describe the case of 42 year old man who has been addicted to lorazepam (125 mg/d) for 2 years. On the ground of medical examination, anamnesis and hospital observation paranoid schizophrenia and lorazepam dependence syndrome was recognized. Despite relatively rapid reduction of lorazepam the withdrawal symptoms were slightly expressed. At the beginning of detoxication sleep disorders, feeling of "less looseness" and anxiety was observed. Review of medical database revealed other cases of megadose lorazepam dependence (95-300 mg/d). However in those cases withdrawal symptoms were distinct and the medical intervention was needed.

  11. Predicting helium and neon adsorption and separation on carbon nanotubes by Monte Carlo simulation. (United States)

    Bolboli Nojini, Zabiollah; Abbas Rafati, Amir; Majid Hashemianzadeh, Seyed; Samiee, Sepideh


    The adsorption of helium and neon mixtures on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) was investigated at various temperatures (subcritical and supercritical) and pressures using canonical Monte Carlo (CMC) simulation. Adsorption isotherms were obtained at different temperatures (4, 40, 77 and 130 K) and pressures ranging from 1 to 16 MPa. Separation factors and isosteric enthalpies of adsorption were also calculated. Moreover, the adsorption isotherms were obtained at constant specific temperatures (4 and 40 K) and pressures (0.2 and 1.0 MPa) as a function of the amount adsorbed. All of the adsorption isotherms for an equimolar mixture of helium and neon have a Langmuir shape, indicating that no capillary condensation occurs. Both the helium and the neon adsorption isotherms exhibit similar behavior, and slightly more of the helium and neon mixture is adsorbed on the inner surfaces of the SWCNTs than on their outer surfaces. More neon is adsorbed than helium within the specified pressure range. The data obtained show that the isosteric enthalpies for the adsorption of neon are higher than those for helium under the same conditions, which means that adsorption of neon preferentially occurs by (15, 15) SWCNTs. Furthermore, the isosteric enthalpies of adsorption of both gases decrease with increasing temperature.

  12. Technique to separate lidar signal and sunlight. (United States)

    Sun, Wenbo; Hu, Yongxiang; MacDonnell, David G; Weimer, Carl; Baize, Rosemary R


    Sunlight contamination dominates the backscatter noise in space-based lidar measurements during daytime. The background scattered sunlight is highly variable and dependent upon the surface and atmospheric albedo. The scattered sunlight contribution to noise increases over land and snow surfaces where surface albedos are high and thus overwhelm lidar backscatter from optically thin atmospheric constituents like aerosols and thin clouds. In this work, we developed a novel lidar remote sensing concept that potentially can eliminate sunlight induced noise. The new lidar concept requires: (1) a transmitted laser light that carries orbital angular momentum (OAM); and (2) a photon sieve (PS) diffractive filter that separates scattered sunlight from laser light backscattered from the atmosphere, ocean and solid surfaces. The method is based on numerical modeling of the focusing of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) laser beam and plane-wave light by a PS. The model results show that after passing through a PS, laser light that carries the OAM is focused on a ring (called "focal ring" here) on the focal plane of the PS filter, very little energy arrives at the center of the focal plane. However, scattered sunlight, as a plane wave without the OAM, focuses at the center of the focal plane and thus can be effectively blocked or ducted out. We also find that the radius of the "focal ring" increases with the increase of azimuthal mode (L) of LG laser light, thus increasing L can more effectively separate the lidar signal away from the sunlight noise.

  13. Flow separation on wind turbines blades (United States)

    Corten, G. P.


    In the year 2000, 15GW of wind power was installed throughout the world, producing 100PJ of energy annually. This contributes to the total electricity demand by only 0.2%. Both the installed power and the generated energy are increasing by 30% per year world-wide. If the airflow over wind turbine blades could be controlled fully, the generation efficiency and thus the energy production would increase by 9%. Power Control To avoid damage to wind turbines, they are cut out above 10 Beaufort (25 m/s) on the wind speed scale. A turbine could be designed in such a way that it converts as much power as possible in all wind speeds, but then it would have to be to heavy. The high costs of such a design would not be compensated by the extra production in high winds, since such winds are rare. Therefore turbines usually reach maximum power at a much lower wind speed: the rated wind speed, which occurs at about 6 Beaufort (12.5 m/s). Above this rated speed, the power intake is kept constant by a control mechanism. Two different mechanisms are commonly used. Active pitch control, where the blades pitch to vane if the turbine maximum is exceeded or, passive stall control, where the power control is an implicit property of the rotor. Stall Control The flow over airfoils is called "attached" when it flows over the surface from the leading edge to the trailing edge. However, when the angle of attack of the flow exceeds a certain critical angle, the flow does not reach the trailing edge, but leaves the surface at the separation line. Beyond this line the flow direction is reversed, i.e. it flows from the trailing edge backward to the separation line. A blade section extracts much less energy from the flow when it separates. This property is used for stall control. Stall controlled rotors always operate at a constant rotation speed. The angle of attack of the flow incident to the blades is determined by the blade speed and the wind speed. Since the latter is variable, it determines

  14. Is {sup 131}I ablation necessary for patients with low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma and slightly elevated stimulated thyroglobulin after thyroidectomy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley; Mourao, Gabriela Franco, E-mail: [Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa


    Objective: This prospective study evaluated the recurrence rate in low-risk patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) who presented slightly elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) after thyroidectomy and who did not undergo ablation with {sup 131}I. Subjects and methods: The study included 53 low-risk patients (non aggressive histology; pT1b-3, cN0pNx, M0) with slightly elevated Tg after thyroidectomy (> 1 ng/mL, but ≤ 5 ng/mL after levothyroxine withdrawal or ≤ 2 ng/mL after recombinant human TSH). Results: The time of follow-up ranged from 36 to 96 months. Lymph node metastases were detected in only one patient (1.9%). Fifty-two patients continued to present negative neck ultrasound. None of these patients without apparent disease presented an increase in Tg. Conclusions: Low-risk patients with PTC who present slightly elevated Tg after thyroidectomy do not require ablation with {sup 131}I. (author)

  15. Separators - Technology review: Ceramic based separators for secondary batteries (United States)

    Nestler, Tina; Schmid, Robert; Münchgesang, Wolfram; Bazhenov, Vasilii; Schilm, Jochen; Leisegang, Tilmann; Meyer, Dirk C.


    Besides a continuous increase of the worldwide use of electricity, the electric energy storage technology market is a growing sector. At the latest since the German energy transition ("Energiewende") was announced, technological solutions for the storage of renewable energy have been intensively studied. Storage technologies in various forms are commercially available. A widespread technology is the electrochemical cell. Here the cost per kWh, e. g. determined by energy density, production process and cycle life, is of main interest. Commonly, an electrochemical cell consists of an anode and a cathode that are separated by an ion permeable or ion conductive membrane - the separator - as one of the main components. Many applications use polymeric separators whose pores are filled with liquid electrolyte, providing high power densities. However, problems arise from different failure mechanisms during cell operation, which can affect the integrity and functionality of these separators. In the case of excessive heating or mechanical damage, the polymeric separators become an incalculable security risk. Furthermore, the growth of metallic dendrites between the electrodes leads to unwanted short circuits. In order to minimize these risks, temperature stable and non-flammable ceramic particles can be added, forming so-called composite separators. Full ceramic separators, in turn, are currently commercially used only for high-temperature operation systems, due to their comparably low ion conductivity at room temperature. However, as security and lifetime demands increase, these materials turn into focus also for future room temperature applications. Hence, growing research effort is being spent on the improvement of the ion conductivity of these ceramic solid electrolyte materials, acting as separator and electrolyte at the same time. Starting with a short overview of available separator technologies and the separator market, this review focuses on ceramic-based separators

  16. Mathematical modelling of membrane separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Frank

    This thesis concerns mathematical modelling of membrane separation. The thesis consists of introductory theory on membrane separation, equations of motion, and properties of dextran, which will be the solute species throughout the thesis. Furthermore, the thesis consist of three separate mathemat......This thesis concerns mathematical modelling of membrane separation. The thesis consists of introductory theory on membrane separation, equations of motion, and properties of dextran, which will be the solute species throughout the thesis. Furthermore, the thesis consist of three separate....... It is found that the probability of entering the pore is highest when the largest of the radii in the ellipse is equal to half the radius of the pore, in case of molecules with circular radius less than the pore radius. The results are directly related to the macroscopic distribution coefficient...

  17. Capillary Separation: Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography (United States)

    Terabe, Shigeru


    Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC), a separation mode of capillary electrophoresis (CE), has enabled the separation of electrically neutral analytes. MEKC can be performed by adding an ionic micelle to the running solution of CE without modifying the instrument. Its separation principle is based on the differential migration of the ionic micelles and the bulk running buffer under electrophoresis conditions and on the interaction between the analyte and the micelle. Hence, MEKC's separation principle is similar to that of chromatography. MEKC is a useful technique particularly for the separation of small molecules, both neutral and charged, and yields high-efficiency separation in a short time with minimum amounts of sample and reagents. To improve the concentration sensitivity of detection, several on-line sample preconcentration techniques such as sweeping have been developed.

  18. Separable programming theory and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanov, Stefan M


    In this book, the author considers separable programming and, in particular, one of its important cases - convex separable programming Some general results are presented, techniques of approximating the separable problem by linear programming and dynamic programming are considered Convex separable programs subject to inequality equality constraint(s) and bounds on variables are also studied and iterative algorithms of polynomial complexity are proposed As an application, these algorithms are used in the implementation of stochastic quasigradient methods to some separable stochastic programs Numerical approximation with respect to I1 and I4 norms, as a convex separable nonsmooth unconstrained minimization problem, is considered as well Audience Advanced undergraduate and graduate students, mathematical programming operations research specialists

  19. Separation process using microchannel technology (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Perry, Steven T.; Arora, Ravi; Qiu, Dongming; Lamont, Michael Jay; Burwell, Deanna; Dritz, Terence Andrew; McDaniel, Jeffrey S.; Rogers, Jr.; William A.; Silva, Laura J.; Weidert, Daniel J.; Simmons, Wayne W.; Chadwell, G. Bradley


    The disclosed invention relates to a process and apparatus for separating a first fluid from a fluid mixture comprising the first fluid. The process comprises: (A) flowing the fluid mixture into a microchannel separator in contact with a sorption medium, the fluid mixture being maintained in the microchannel separator until at least part of the first fluid is sorbed by the sorption medium, removing non-sorbed parts of the fluid mixture from the microchannel separator; and (B) desorbing first fluid from the sorption medium and removing desorbed first fluid from the microchannel separator. The process and apparatus are suitable for separating nitrogen or methane from a fluid mixture comprising nitrogen and methane. The process and apparatus may be used for rejecting nitrogen in the upgrading of sub-quality methane.

  20. Wastewater treatment with acoustic separator (United States)

    Kambayashi, Takuya; Saeki, Tomonori; Buchanan, Ian


    Acoustic separation is a filter-free wastewater treatment method based on the forces generated in ultrasonic standing waves. In this report, a batch-system separator based on acoustic separation was demonstrated using a small-scale prototype acoustic separator to remove suspended solids from oil sand process-affected water (OSPW). By applying an acoustic separator to the batch use OSPW treatment, the required settling time, which was the time that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased to the environmental criterion (<200 mg/L), could be shortened from 10 to 1 min. Moreover, for a 10 min settling time, the acoustic separator could reduce the FeCl3 dose as coagulant in OSPW treatment from 500 to 160 mg/L.

  1. The anticyclone: A device for nonimpact particle separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torczynski, J.R.; Rader, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center


    It is often desirable to separate particles from a particle-laden fluid stream. This is typically accomplished by passing the stream through a filter, an impactor, or a cyclone. In each of these devices, particles encounter obstacles in the flow path (i.e. filter material, the impaction surface, the cyclone side wall). However, in some applications, it is desirable to prevent particles from impinging on solid surfaces. For example, particle interaction with a solid surface may contaminate the surface, modify the particles via mechanical or chemical processes, or adversely affect the surface via material modification or heat transfer. In such situations, it is still possible to separate particles from the particle-laden flow stream by transferring them to another adjacent flow stream. This transfer of particles from one flow stream to another is termed nonimpact particle separation. One type of device that separates particles from a flow stream by nonimpact particle separation is the anticyclone. In contradistinction to a cyclone, the particle-laden flow is deflected from its original direction by a wall that curves away from the original flow direction, rather than into it. The computational fluid dynamics code FIDAP (Fluid Dynamics International) is used to perform two-dimensional fluid-flow and particle-motion calculations for a representative device geometry. These calculations indicate that the anticyclone geometry examined accomplishes nonimpact particle separation, as expected. Flow patterns and overall particle-separation characteristics are found to be fairly insensitive to Reynolds number for values above 100 regardless of whether the flow is laminar or turbulent. An approximate analytical relation describing anticyclone nonimpact particle separation is developed and validated by comparison to the numerical simulations. The additional information required to design useful devices employing nonimpact particle separation is outlined.

  2. Hereditary separability in Hausdorff continua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Daniel


    Full Text Available We consider those Hausdorff continua S such that each separable subspace of S is hereditarily separable. Due to results of Ostaszewski and Rudin, respectively, all monotonically normal spaces and therefore all continuous Hausdorff images of ordered compacta also have this property. Our study focuses on the structure of such spaces that also possess one of various rim properties, with emphasis given to rim-separability. In so doing we obtain analogues of results of M. Tuncali and I. Loncar, respectively.

  3. Ligand-modified metal clusters for gas separation and purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrut, Alexander; Ouyang, Xiaoying; Runnebaum, Ron; Gates, Bruce C.; Katz, Alexander


    Provided is an organic ligand-bound metal surface that selects one gaseous species over another. The species can be closely sized molecular species having less than 1 Angstrom difference in kinetic diameter. In one embodiment, the species comprise carbon monoxide and ethylene. Such organic ligand-bound metal surfaces can be successfully used in gas phase separations or purifications, sensing, and in catalysis.

  4. Biofunctionalization of silica microspheres for protein separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Binjie [Institute of Immunology, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Zou, Xueyan [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Zhao, Yanbao, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Sun, Lei [Institute of Immunology, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Li, Shulian [Institute of Immunology, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)


    Mercapto-silica (SiO{sub 2}–SH) microspheres were prepared via direct hydrolysis of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) in a basic aqueous solution. The content of surface thiol group (-SH) of SiO{sub 2}–SH microspheres was measured by Ellman's reagent method and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the content of surface thiol group of SiO{sub 2}–SH microspheres is strongly dependent on the reaction conditions. The thermal stability of SiO{sub 2}–SH microspheres was evaluated by thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, which tended to reduce with the increase of content of surface thiol groups. SiO{sub 2}–SH microspheres can be easily modified with reduced glutathione (GSH) to generate SiO{sub 2}–GSH microspheres for the affinity separation of Glutathione S-transferase (GST). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed to examine the validity of the separation procedure. The results showed that SiO{sub 2}–GSH microspheres were efficient in GST affinity separation from mixed proteins. - Graphical abstract: The prepared SiO{sub 2}–SH microsphere binding reduced glutathione (SiO{sub 2}–GSH) as affinity precipitation support can capture selectively Glutathione S-transferase (GST) from mixed protein solution. Highlights: ► SiO{sub 2}–SH microspheres were prepared in water using one-pot synthesis. ► The content of surface -SH was investigated by Ellman method and XPS spectra. ► The ratio of -SH to mass strongly depends on the reaction conditions. ► SiO{sub 2}–SH microspheres were biofunctionalized by glutathione. ► SiO{sub 2}–GSH can be used to capture selectively Glutathione S-transferase.

  5. Characterization of microglass wet laid nonwovens used as battery separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zientek, M.J.; Bender, R.J. [Schuller International, Inc., Toledo, OH (United States)


    Significant advancements have been made during the past few years in the battery industry with the development of Valve Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) cells for a variety of applications. Today, most sealed or gas recombining, lead-acid batteries utilize absorptive microglass separators in their design. The 100% microglass battery separator mat used in rechargeable lead-acid batteries has been identified as being a critical component necessary for the operation of these cells. With the growing importance of the microglass separator in modern battery technology, an understanding of the various properties of the separator is essential to better understand the impact separators have on battery performance. A method for characterizing microglass separators is described by surface area, mechanical, chemical, and microscopy techniques.

  6. A Novel Video Compression Approach Based on Underdetermined Blind Source Separation

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jing; Wei, Qi; Yang, Huazhong


    This paper develops a new video compression approach based on underdetermined blind source separation. Underdetermined blind source separation, which can be used to efficiently enhance the video compression ratio, is combined with various off-the-shelf codecs in this paper. Combining with MPEG-2, video compression ratio could be improved slightly more than 33%. As for combing with H.264, 4X~12X more compression ratio could be achieved with acceptable PSNR, according to different kinds of video sequences.

  7. Phase Separation of Binary Charged Particle Systems with Small Size Disparities using a Dusty Plasma. (United States)

    Killer, Carsten; Bockwoldt, Tim; Schütt, Stefan; Himpel, Michael; Melzer, André; Piel, Alexander


    The phase separation in binary mixtures of charged particles has been investigated in a dusty plasma under microgravity on parabolic flights. A method based on the use of fluorescent dust particles was developed that allows us to distinguish between particles of slightly different size. A clear trend towards phase separation even for smallest size (charge) disparities is observed. The diffusion flux is directly measured from the experiment and uphill diffusion coefficients have been determined.

  8. Hypocentral trend surface analysis: Probing the geometry of Benioff Zones (United States)

    Bevis, Michael; Isacks, Bryan L.


    A hypocentral trend surface is a continuous function of latitude and longtitude fitted by least squares to a set of hypocenters so that it predicts depth to the "middle" of a Benioff Zone. In this paper we take a relatively simple approach to hypocentral trend surface analysis. The hypocentral trend surface is constructed from a spherical surface harmonic expansion whose coefficients are selected so as to minimize the standard vertical deviation between hypocenters and trend surface. The vertical deviation of a hypocenter from the hypocentral trend surface is called its residual. Consideration of a hypocentral trend surface cannot be divorced from consideration of the associated residuals and their spatial distribution. Any analysis of Benioff Zone geometry trades-off presumed thickness of the zone with its presumed shape. This trade-off can be investigated by examining suites of candidate hypocentral trend surfaces (together with their associated residual distributions) generated by varying the number of degrees of freedom available to the trend surface. Hypocentral trend surfaces are generated for three high quality sets of hypocenters obtained by local seismic networks in Honshu (Japan), Cook Inlet (Alaska) and South Peru. Hypocenters beneath Honshu generate a bimodal distribution of residuals about their trend surface. The vertical separation of the upper and lower sheets of this Double Benioff Zone averages about 33 km. No Double Benioff Zone configuration is discovered below Cook Inlet or South Peru. Regional trend surfaces are established for intermediate-depth teleseismic data from South and Middle America. In South America (0°-40°S) teleseismic data suggest that along-strike transitions between "flat" and moderately steeply dipping sections of the Benioff Zone are achieved by flexure of a coherent slab rather than by fragmentation of the slab into tear-bound flaps or separate tongues of lithosphere. Hypocentral trend surface analysis of teleseismic data


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    During this year we performed two major projects: I. We developed a detailed theoretical model which complements our experiments on surface DNA electrophoresis. We found that it was possible to enhance the separation of DNA chains by imposing a chemical nanoscale pattern on the surface. This approach utilized the surface interaction effect of the DNA chains with the substrate and is a refinement to our previous method in which DNA chains were separated on homogeneous flat surfaces. By introducing the nano-patterns on the surface, the conformational changes of DNA chains of different lengths can be amplified, which results in the different friction strengths with the substrate surface. Our results also show that, when compared to the DNA electrophoresis performed on homogeneous flat surfaces, nanopatterned surfaces offer a larger window in choosing different surface interactions to achieve separation. II. In collaboration with a large international manufacturer of skin care products we also embarked on a project involving photo toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, which are a key ingredient in sunscreen and cosmetic lotions. The results clearly implicated the nanoparticles in catalyzing damage to chromosomal DNA. We then used this knowledge to develop a polymer/anti-oxidant coating which prevented the photocatalytic reaction on DNA while still retaining the UV absorptive properties of the nanoparticles. The standard gel electrophoresis was not sufficient in determining the extent of the DNA damage. The conclusions of this study were based predominantly on analysis obtained with the surface electrophoresis method.

  10. Conformational mechanics, adsorption, and normal force interactions of lubricin and hyaluronic acid on model surfaces. (United States)

    Chang, Debby P; Abu-Lail, Nehal I; Guilak, Farshid; Jay, Gregory D; Zauscher, Stefan


    Glycoproteins, such as lubricin, and hyaluronic acid (HA) play a prominent role in the boundary lubrication mechanism in diarthrodial joints. Although many studies have tried to elucidate the lubrication mechanisms of articular cartilage, the molecular details of how lubricin and HA interact with cartilage surfaces and mediate their interaction still remain poorly understood. Here we used model substrates, functionalized with self-assembled monolayers terminating in hydroxyl or methyl groups, (1) to determine the effect of surface chemistry on lubricin and HA adsorption using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and (2) to study normal force interactions between these surfaces as a function of lubricin and HA concentration using colloidal probe microscopy. We found that lubricin is amphiphilic and adsorbed strongly onto both methyl- and hydroxyl-terminated surfaces. On hydrophobic surfaces, lubricin likely adopts a compact, looplike conformation in which its hydrophobic domains at the N and C termini serve as surface anchors. On hydrophilic surfaces, lubricin likely adsorbs anywhere along its hydrophilic central domain and adopts, with increasing solution concentration, an extended tail-like conformation. Overall, lubricin develops strong repulsive interactions when compressing two surfaces into contact. Furthermore, upon surface separation, adhesion occurs between the surfaces as a result of molecular bridging and chain disentanglement. This behavior is in contrast to that of HA, which does not adsorb appreciably on either of the model surfaces and does not develop significant repulsive interactions. Adhesive forces, particularly between the hydrophobic surfaces, are large and not appreciably affected by HA. For a mixture of lubricin and HA, we observed slightly larger adsorptions and repulsions than those found for lubricin alone. Our experiments suggest that this interaction depends on unspecific physical rather than chemical interactions between lubricin and HA. We

  11. Parental separation and pediatric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Sally; Carlsen, Kathrine; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold Hansen


    The purpose of this study was to determine the risk for separation (ending cohabitation) of the parents of a child with a diagnosis of cancer.......The purpose of this study was to determine the risk for separation (ending cohabitation) of the parents of a child with a diagnosis of cancer....

  12. Fast Monaural Separation of Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Dyrholm, Mads


    a Factorial Hidden Markov Model, with non-stationary assumptions on the source autocorrelations modelled through the Factorial Hidden Markov Model, leads to separation in the monaural case. By extending Hansens work we find that Roweis' assumptions are necessary for monaural speech separation. Furthermore we...

  13. Metals Separation by Liquid Extraction. (United States)

    Malmary, G.; And Others


    As part of a project focusing on techniques in industrial chemistry, students carry out experiments on separating copper from cobalt in chloride-containing aqueous solution by liquid extraction with triisoctylamine solvent and search the literature on the separation process of these metals. These experiments and the literature research are…

  14. Vision 2020: 2000 Separations Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, Stephen [Center for Waster Reduction Technologies; Beaver, Earl [Practical Sustainability; Bryan, Paul [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Robinson, Sharon [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watson, Jack [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    This report documents the results of four workshops on the technology barriers, research needs, and priorities of the chemical, agricultural, petroleum, and pharmaceutical industries as they relate to separation technologies utilizing adsorbents, crystallization, distillation, extraction, membranes, separative reactors, ion exchange, bioseparations, and dilute solutions.

  15. Electrostatically enhanced core separator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easom, B.H.; Smolensky, L.A.; Altman, R.F. [LSR Technologies, Inc., Acton, MA (United States)


    The Electrostatically Enhanced Core Separator (EECS) system employs the same design principles as the mechanical Core Separator system plus an electrostatic separation enhancing technique. The EECS system contains a special type of separator, the EECS element, a conventional solids collector and means for flow recirculation. In the EECS system solids separation and collection are accomplished in two different components. The EECS element acts as a separator, not as a collector so particles are not collected on its walls. This eliminates or at least mitigates the problems associated with reentrainment (due to high or low dust resistivity), seepage (due to gas flow below the precipitator plates and over the hoppers), sneakage (due to gas flow both above and below the precipitator plates), and rapping reentrainment. If the EECS separation efficiency is high enough, particles cannot leave the system with the process stream. They recirculate until they are extracted by the collector. As a result, the separation efficiency of the EECS element determines the efficiency of the system, even if the collector efficiency is relatively low. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Relational Parametricity and Separation Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Yang, Hongseok


    Separation logic is a recent extension of Hoare logic for reasoning about programs with references to shared mutable data structures. In this paper, we provide a new interpretation of the logic for a programming language with higher types. Our interpretation is based on Reynolds's relational...... parametricity, and it provides a formal connection between separation logic and data abstraction. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  17. Testing Orions Fairing Separation System (United States)

    Martinez, Henry; Cloutier, Chris; Lemmon, Heber; Rakes, Daniel; Oldham, Joe; Schlagel, Keith


    Traditional fairing systems are designed to fully encapsulate and protect their payload from the harsh ascent environment including acoustic vibrations, aerodynamic forces and heating. The Orion fairing separation system performs this function and more by also sharing approximately half of the vehicle structural load during ascent. This load-share condition through launch and during jettison allows for a substantial increase in mass to orbit. A series of component-level development tests were completed to evaluate and characterize each component within Orion's unique fairing separation system. Two full-scale separation tests were performed to verify system-level functionality and provide verification data. This paper summarizes the fairing spring, Pyramidal Separation Mechanism and forward seal system component-level development tests, system-level separation tests, and lessons learned.

  18. Slight resistance to the residual effect of closantel in a field strain of Haemonchus contortus which showed an increased resistance after one selection in the laboratory. (United States)

    Van Wyk, J A; Gerber, H M; Alves, R M


    On the strength of a complaint of suspected resistance to closantel, a field strain of Haemonchus contortus was isolated from sheep on a farm near Pretoria and tested for resistance to the remedy, both without exposure to closantel in the laboratory (designated the "unselected" substrain of the parasite) and after a single selection with closantel (called the "selected" substrain). For comparative purpose a few sheep were treated with rafoxanide to ascertain whether the efficacy of this drug was unchanged. While the unselected substrain appeared to show only slight increased resistance to the residual effect of closantel drenched at a dosage rate of 5 mg/kg, there was a dramatic increase in resistance after one selection. The residual efficacy (determined by the modified NPM test of Groeneveld & Reinecke, 1969, as outlined by Reinecke, 1973), 13-14 days after treatment with closantel was reduced from the registered claim of the remedy in South Africa of greater than 80% effective in greater than 80% of the treated flock to "ineffective", or less than 50% effective in less than 50% of the treated flock. Furthermore, there also appeared to be a slight increase in the resistance of this substrain to rafoxanide, as its efficacy was reduced from 99-100% to about 92%. This sharp reduction in efficacy after a single selection with closantel seemed to indicate that the slight increase in resistance of the unselected substrain was probably due not to possible variation in the repeatability of the trail method but to repeated treatment with closantel on the farm.

  19. Invertebrates control metal/metalloid sequestration and the quality of DOC/DON released during litter decay in slightly acidic environments. (United States)

    Schaller, Jörg; Machill, Susanne


    Plant litter and organic sediments are a main sink for metals and metalloids in aquatic ecosystems. The effect of invertebrate shredder (a key species in litter decay) on metal/metalloid fixation by organic matter is described only under alkaline water conditions whereas for slightly acidic waters nothing can be found. Furthermore, less is known about the effect of invertebrate shredders on the quality of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) released during litter decay. We conducted an experiment to investigate the impact of invertebrate shredder (Gammarus pulex) on metal/metalloid fixation/remobilization and on the quality of DOC/DON released under slightly acidic water conditions. During decomposition of leaf litter, invertebrate shredder facilitated significantly the emergence of smaller particle sizes of organic matter. The capacity of metal fixation was significantly higher in smaller particles (POM 2,000-63 μm) compared to original leaf litter and litter residues. Thus, G. pulex enhanced metal fixation by organic partition of sediments by increasing the amount of smaller particle of organic matter in aquatic ecosystems. In contrast, the capacity of metal/metalloid fixation in the smallest fraction of POM (treatment without invertebrates. Remobilization of metals and metalloids was very low for all measured elements. A significant effect of invertebrates on quantitative formation of DOC/DON was confirmed. The quality of released DOC/DON, which may affect metal/metalloid remobilization, was also significantly affected by invertebrate shredders (e.g., more carboxylates). Hence, invertebrate shredder enhanced significantly the fixation of metals/metalloids into POM in slightly acidic environments.

  20. Correlation between Electroresistance and Magnetoresistance in Slight Oxygen-Deficient Nd0.67Sr0.33MnO3-δ Polycrystalline Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chang-Ping; DENG Heng; CHEN Shun-Sheng; WANG Hao; WEN Zhen-Chao; HAN Xiu-Feng; K. B(a)rnera


    A colossal electroresistance effect is found in Nd0.67Sr0.33MnO3-δ polycrystalline ceramics with a very slight oxygen deficiency δ = 0.05. The electroresistance behaviour of Nd0.67Sr0.33MnO3-δ(δ = 0.05) displays the striking similarity to its counterpart magnetoresistance. It reveals that the boundary effect plays an important role in electroresistance and the same physical origin is likely responsible for both magnetoresistance and electroresistance effects in Nd0.67Sr0.33MnO3-δ polycrystals.

  1. Broadband transverse electric surface wave in silicene (United States)

    Ukhtary, M. Shoufie; Nugraha, Ahmad R. T.; Hasdeo, Eddwi H.; Saito, Riichiro


    Transverse electric (TE) surface wave in silicine is theoretically investigated. The TE surface wave in silicene is found to exhibit better characteristics compared with that in graphene, in terms of a broader frequency range and more confinement to the surface which originate from the buckled structure of silicene. We found that even undoped silicene can support the TE surface wave. We expect the similar characteristics of the TE surface wave in other two-dimensional materials that have a slightly buckled honeycomb lattice.

  2. Eddy Current Separation of Fine Non-Ferrous Particles from Bulk Streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Settimo, F.; Bevilacqua, P.; Rem, P.


    Recovery of fine non-ferrous metals from waste streams is a notoriously difficult problem in eddy current separation technology. Existing processes either have a low capacity or an incomplete recovery for particle sizes below 5 mm. In a new process, the particles are fed slightly wet to make them st

  3. Eddy Current Separation of Fine Non-Ferrous Particles from Bulk Streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Settimo, F.; Bevilacqua, P.; Rem, P.


    Recovery of fine non-ferrous metals from waste streams is a notoriously difficult problem in eddy current separation technology. Existing processes either have a low capacity or an incomplete recovery for particle sizes below 5 mm. In a new process, the particles are fed slightly wet to make them

  4. Pseudo-stationary separation materials for highly parallel separations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Anup K.; Palmer, Christopher (University of Montana, Missoula, MT)


    Goal of this study was to develop and characterize novel polymeric materials as pseudostationary phases in electrokinetic chromatography. Fundamental studies have characterized the chromatographic selectivity of the materials as a function of chemical structure and molecular conformation. The selectivities of the polymers has been studied extensively, resulting in a large body of fundamental knowledge regarding the performance and selectivity of polymeric pseudostationary phases. Two polymers have also been used for amino acid and peptide separations, and with laser induced fluorescence detection. The polymers performed well for the separation of derivatized amino acids, and provided some significant differences in selectivity relative to a commonly used micellar pseudostationary phase. The polymers did not perform well for peptide separations. The polymers were compatible with laser induced fluorescence detection, indicating that they should also be compatible with chip-based separations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Fuk


    Full Text Available Printed circuit boards from electronic waste are very important source of precious metals by recycling. The biggest challenge is liberation and separation of useful components; thin film which contains copper, zinc, tin, lead and precious metals like silver, gold and palladium from non useful components; polymers, ceramics and glass fibbers. The paper presents results for separation of shredded printed circuit boards from TV sets in electrostatic separator. Testing where conducted with material class 2/1 and 1/0.5 mm in laboratory on equipment for mineral processing. Results showed influence from independent variable; separation knife gradient, drum rotation speed and voltage on concentrate quality and recovery (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. Hydrogen isotope separation; Separation isotopique de l'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leterq, D.; Guidon, H. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France)


    CEA-DAM has been operating for more than 20 years hydrogen isotopes separation by batch chromatography with palladium coated on alumina as absorbing material. The efforts have been focused on the development of two new separation processes: TCAP (Thermal Cycling Absorption Process) and chromatography an molecular sieve at 77 K. H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} first tests results are promising. (authors)

  7. Particle separations by electrophoretic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballou, N.E.; Petersen, S.L.; Ducatte, G.R.; Remcho, V.T.


    A new method for particle separations based on capillary electrophoresis has been developed and characterized. It uniquely separates particles according to their chemical nature. Separations have been demonstrated with chemically modified latex particles and with inorganic oxide and silicate particles. Separations have been shown both experimentally and theoretically to be essentially independent of particle size in the range of about 0.2 {mu}m to 10 {mu}m. The method has been applied to separations of U0{sub 2} particles from environmental particulate material. For this, an integrated method was developed for capillary electrophoretic separation, collection of separated fractions, and determinations of U0{sub 2} and environmental particles in each fraction. Experimental runs with the integrated method on mixtures of UO{sub 2} particles and environmental particulate material demonstrated enrichment factors of 20 for UO{sub 2} particles in respect to environmental particles in the U0{sub 2}containing fractions. This enrichment factor reduces the costs and time for processing particulate samples by the lexan process by a factor of about 20.

  8. Methanohalophilus levihalophilus sp. nov., a slightly halophilic, methylotrophic methanogen isolated from natural gas-bearing deep aquifers, and emended description of the genus Methanohalophilus. (United States)

    Katayama, Taiki; Yoshioka, Hideyoshi; Mochimaru, Hanako; Meng, Xian-Ying; Muramoto, Yoshiyuki; Usami, Jun; Ikeda, Hidefumi; Kamagata, Yoichi; Sakata, Susumu


    A mesophilic, slightly halophilic, obligately methylotrophic, methanogenic archaeon, designated strain GTA13(T), was isolated from natural gas-bearing confined aquifers in the Minami-Kanto gas field, Japan. The cells were non-motile, slightly irregular cocci, 0.7-1.0 µm in diameter and occurred singly, in pairs or as small aggregates. The cells grew with tri- or dimethylamine but not with H2/CO2, formate, acetate, methanol or dimethyl sulphide. Vitamins, sodium and magnesium were required for growth. Optimal growth occurred at pH 7.0-7.5, 35 °C, 0.35-0.40 M NaCl and 15-50 mM MgCl2. The NaCl range for growth was 0.2-1.3 M. The DNA G+C content was 43.7 mol%. Strain GTA13(T) showed highest levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Methanohalophilus portucalensis FDF-1(T) (96.4% sequence similarity) and Methanohalophilus halophilus DSM 3094(T) (96.0%). On the basis of physiological and phylogenetic features, strain GTA13(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Methanohalophilus, for which the name Methanohalophilus levihalophilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GTA13(T) ( = NBRC 110099(T) = DSM 28452(T)). An emended description of the genus Methanohalophilus is also proposed.

  9. Relative Abundance of Nitrotoga spp. in a Biofilter of a Cold-Freshwater Aquaculture Plant Appears To Be Stimulated by Slightly Acidic pH (United States)

    Hüpeden, Jennifer; Wegen, Simone; Off, Sandra; Lücker, Sebastian; Bedarf, Yvonne; Daims, Holger; Kühn, Carsten


    The functioning of recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) is essential to maintain water quality for fish health, and one crucial process here is nitrification. The investigated RAS was connected to a rainbow trout production system and operated at an average temperature of 13°C and pH 6.8. Community analyses of the nitrifying biofilm revealed a coexistence of Nitrospira and Nitrotoga, and it is hypothesized that a slightly acidic pH in combination with lower temperatures favors the growth of the latter. Modification of the standard cultivation approach toward lower pH values of 5.7 to 6.0 resulted in the successful enrichment (99% purity) of Nitrotoga sp. strain HW29, which had a 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 99.0% to Nitrotoga arctica. Reference cultures of Nitrospira defluvii and the novel Nitrotoga sp. HW29 were used to confirm differentiation of these nitrite oxidizers in distinct ecological niches. Nitrotoga sp. HW29 revealed pH and temperature optima of 6.8 and 22°C, respectively, whereas Nitrospira defluvii displayed the highest nitrite oxidation rate at pH 7.3 and 32°C. We report here the occurrence of Nitrotoga as one of the main nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in freshwater aquaculture systems and indicate that a slightly acidic pH, in addition to temperatures below 20°C, can be applied as a selective isolation criterion for this microorganism. PMID:26746710

  10. Reducing the Hook Defect of Friction Stir Lap Welded Ti-6Al-4V Alloy by Slightly Penetrating into the Lower Sheet (United States)

    Ji, Shude; Li, Zhengwei


    For the purpose of reducing the hook defect in friction stir lap welding joint, Ti-6Al-4V alloy was lap welded by slightly penetrating into the lower sheet. Hook feature, microstructure and mechanical properties of the lap joints were mainly discussed. Results show that using slight penetration, plastic material mainly concentrates above the lap interface, which is beneficial to suppress the primary hook and broaden the stir zone (SZ) width. Simultaneously, a very small secondary hook is formed. The void-like defect, which is formed due to high peak temperature and big temperature gradient along thickness, can be eliminated by decreasing the rotating speed. Microstructures along thickness show much difference due to big temperature gradient. SZ hardness of both the upper and lower sheets is higher than the base material due to finer grains. Bigger lap shear failure load can be obtained using 150 rpm, which is 17.1 KN. Lap joints fracture along the secondary hook and present ductile fracture mode.

  11. Column-coupling strategies for multidimensional electrophoretic separation techniques. (United States)

    Kler, Pablo A; Sydes, Daniel; Huhn, Carolin


    Multidimensional electrophoretic separations represent one of the most common strategies for dealing with the analysis of complex samples. In recent years we have been witnessing the explosive growth of separation techniques for the analysis of complex samples in applications ranging from life sciences to industry. In this sense, electrophoretic separations offer several strategic advantages such as excellent separation efficiency, different methods with a broad range of separation mechanisms, and low liquid consumption generating less waste effluents and lower costs per analysis, among others. Despite their impressive separation efficiency, multidimensional electrophoretic separations present some drawbacks that have delayed their extensive use: the volumes of the columns, and consequently of the injected sample, are significantly smaller compared to other analytical techniques, thus the coupling interfaces between two separations components must be very efficient in terms of providing geometrical precision with low dead volume. Likewise, very sensitive detection systems are required. Additionally, in electrophoretic separation techniques, the surface properties of the columns play a fundamental role for electroosmosis as well as the unwanted adsorption of proteins or other complex biomolecules. In this sense the requirements for an efficient coupling for electrophoretic separation techniques involve several aspects related to microfluidics and physicochemical interactions of the electrolyte solutions and the solid capillary walls. It is interesting to see how these multidimensional electrophoretic separation techniques have been used jointly with different detection techniques, for intermediate detection as well as for final identification and quantification, particularly important in the case of mass spectrometry. In this work we present a critical review about the different strategies for coupling two or more electrophoretic separation techniques and the

  12. Efficient separations & processing crosscutting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP) was created in 1991 to identify, develop, and perfect chemical and physical separations technologies and chemical processes which treat wastes and address environmental problems throughout the DOE complex. The ESP funds several multiyear tasks that address high-priority waste remediation problems involving high-level, low-level, transuranic, hazardous, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The ESP supports applied research and development (R & D) leading to the demonstration or use of these separations technologies by other organizations within the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management.

  13. Study of the Effect of Sodium Sulfide as a Selective Depressor in the Separation of Chalcopyrite and Molybdenite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqing Peng


    Full Text Available Two kinds of collectors, sodium butyl xanthate and kerosene, and a depressor, sodium sulfide, were used in this research. The study applied flotation tests, pulp potential measurements, contact angle measurements, adsorption calculations, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR analyses to demonstrate the correlation between reagents and minerals. For xanthate collectors, the best flotation responses of chalcopyrite and molybdenite were obtained at pH = 8, and, for kerosene, these were obtained at pH = 4. The flotation of molybdenite seemed to be less influenced by xanthate than by kerosene, while that of chalcopyrite showed the opposite. The optimum concentration of sodium sulfide for separation was 0.03 mol/L, which rejected 83% chalcopyrite and recovered 82% molybdenite in the single mineral flotation. Pulp potential measurements revealed that the dixanthogen and xanthate were decomposed and desorbed, respectively, from the mineral surface in a reducing environment. The contact angle measurement and adsorption calculation conformed to the flotation response, indicating that few functions of the xanthate and sodium sulfide on the molybdenite flotation were due to their low adsorption densities. The FTIR results further clarified that the xanthate ion was adsorbed on chalcopyrite by forming cuprous xanthate and dixanthogen; however, on molybdenite the adsorption product was only dixanthogen. After conditioning with sodium sulfide, the chalcopyrite surface became clean, but the molybdenite surface still retained slight peaks of dixanthogen. Meanwhile, the possible mechanism was expounded in this research.

  14. Surface Water & Surface Drainage (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  15. Low-Pressure Turbine Separation Control: Comparison With Experimental Data (United States)

    Garg, Vijay K.


    The present work details a computational study, using the Glenn HT code, that analyzes the use of vortex generator jets (VGJs) to control separation on a low-pressure turbine (LPT) blade at low Reynolds numbers. The computational results are also compared with the experimental data for steady VGJs. It is found that the code determines the proper location of the separation point on the suction surface of the baseline blade (without any VGJ) for Reynolds numbers of 50,000 or less. Also, the code finds that the separated region on the suction surface of the blade vanishes with the use of VGJs. However, the separated region and the wake characteristics are not well predicted. The wake width is generally over-predicted while the wake depth is under-predicted.

  16. Laser-induced phase separation of silicon carbide (United States)

    Choi, Insung; Jeong, Hu Young; Shin, Hyeyoung; Kang, Gyeongwon; Byun, Myunghwan; Kim, Hyungjun; Chitu, Adrian M.; Im, James S.; Ruoff, Rodney S.; Choi, Sung-Yool; Lee, Keon Jae


    Understanding the phase separation mechanism of solid-state binary compounds induced by laser-material interaction is a challenge because of the complexity of the compound materials and short processing times. Here we present xenon chloride excimer laser-induced melt-mediated phase separation and surface reconstruction of single-crystal silicon carbide and study this process by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and a time-resolved reflectance method. A single-pulse laser irradiation triggers melting of the silicon carbide surface, resulting in a phase separation into a disordered carbon layer with partially graphitic domains (~2.5 nm) and polycrystalline silicon (~5 nm). Additional pulse irradiations cause sublimation of only the separated silicon element and subsequent transformation of the disordered carbon layer into multilayer graphene. The results demonstrate viability of synthesizing ultra-thin nanomaterials by the decomposition of a binary system.

  17. Lunar Soil Particle Separator Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) is an innovative method to beneficiate soil prior to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSPS improves ISRU oxygen...

  18. Selective Photoinitiated Electrophoretic Separator Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA Johnson Space Center needs for gas separation and collection technology for lunar in-situ resource utilization, Physical Optics Corporation (POC)...

  19. Magnetic separation in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smistrup, Kristian


    This Ph.D. thesis presents theory, modeling, design, fabrication, experiments and results for microfluidic magnetic separators. A model for magnetic bead movement in a microfluidic channel is presented, and the limits of the model are discussed. The effective magnetic field gradient is defined...... for fabrication of silicon based systems. This fabrication scheme is explained, and it is shown how, it is applied with variations for several designs of magnetic separators. An experimental setup for magnetic separation experiments has been developed. It has been coupled with an image analysis program....... It is shown conceptually how such a system can be applied for parallel biochemical processing in a microfluidic system. ’Passive’ magnetic separators are presented, where on-chip soft magnetic elements are magnetized by an external magnetic field and create strong magnetic fields and gradients inside...

  20. Chiral separation of agricultural fungicides. (United States)

    Pérez-Fernández, Virginia; García, Maria Ángeles; Marina, Maria Luisa


    Fungicides are very important and diverse environmental and agricultural concern species. Their determination in commercial formulations or environmental matrices, requires highly efficient, selective and sensitive methods. A significant number of these chemicals are chiral with the activity residing usually in one of the enantiomers. The different toxicological and degradation behavior observed in many cases for fungicide enantiomers, results in the need to investigate them separately. For this purpose, separation techniques such as GC, HPLC, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and CE have widely been employed although, at present, HPLC still dominates chromatographic chiral analysis of fungicides. This review covers the literature concerning the enantiomeric separation of fungicides usually employed in agriculture grouping the chiral separation methodologies developed for their analysis in environmental, biological, and food samples.