WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface shear viscosity

  1. Measurement of viscosity of slush at high shear rates

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 俊一; 川村, 公之; 津川, 圭一; 和泉, 薫; Kobayashi, Shun'ichi; Kawamura, Kimiyuki; Tugawa, Keiichi; Izumi, Kaoru

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of viscosity of slush were carried out using a method of flow along an inclined smooth surface in a 0℃cold room. The method was used to get the values of viscosity under high shear rates (25 and 75s^). From our experiments two important results were obtained: 1) the viscosity of slush decreases with increasing shear rates; 2) The fluid behavior is pseudoplastic that the values of non-Newtonian index of viscosity were less than unity.

  2. Capillary waves with surface viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Denner, Fabian; Morgan, Neal; van Wachem, Berend; Dini, Daniele

    2017-11-01

    Experiments over the last 50 years have suggested a correlation between the surface (shear) viscosity and the stability of a foam or emulsion. With recent techniques allowing more accurate measurements of the elusive surface viscosity, we examine this link theoretically using small-amplitude capillary waves in the presence of the Marangoni effect and surface viscosity modelled via the Boussinesq-Scriven model. The surface viscosity effect is found to contribute a damping effect on the amplitude of the capillary wave with subtle differences to the effect of the convective-diffusive Marangoni transport. The general wave dispersion is augmented to take into account the Marangoni and surface viscosity effects, and a first-order correction to the critical damping wavelength is derived. The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Shell University Technology Centre for fuels and lubricants.

  3. Shear viscosity of liquid mixtures: Mass dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushal, Rohan; Tankeshwar, K.

    2002-06-01

    Expressions for zeroth, second, and fourth sum rules of transverse stress autocorrelation function of two component fluid have been derived. These sum rules and Mori's memory function formalism have been used to study shear viscosity of Ar-Kr and isotopic mixtures. It has been found that theoretical result is in good agreement with the computer simulation result for the Ar-Kr mixture. The mass dependence of shear viscosity for different mole fraction shows that deviation from ideal linear model comes even from mass difference in two species of fluid mixture. At higher mass ratio shear viscosity of mixture is not explained by any of the emperical model. (author)

  4. Shear viscosity of liquid mixtures Mass dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushal, R

    2002-01-01

    Expressions for zeroth, second, and fourth sum rules of transverse stress autocorrelation function of two component fluid have been derived. These sum rules and Mori's memory function formalism have been used to study shear viscosity of Ar-Kr and isotopic mixtures. It has been found that theoretical result is in good agreement with the computer simulation result for the Ar-Kr mixture. The mass dependence of shear viscosity for different mole fraction shows that deviation from ideal linear model comes even from mass difference in two species of fluid mixture. At higher mass ratio shear viscosity of mixture is not explained by any of the emperical model.

  5. Shear Elasticity and Shear Viscosity Imaging in Soft Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiqun

    In this thesis, a new approach is introduced that provides estimates of shear elasticity and shear viscosity using time-domain measurements of shear waves in viscoelastic media. Simulations of shear wave particle displacements induced by an acoustic radiation force are accelerated significantly by a GPU. The acoustic radiation force is first calculated using the fast near field method (FNM) and the angular spectrum approach (ASA). The shear waves induced by the acoustic radiation force are then simulated in elastic and viscoelastic media using Green's functions. A parallel algorithm is developed to perform these calculations on a GPU, where the shear wave particle displacements at different observation points are calculated in parallel. The resulting speed increase enables rapid evaluation of shear waves at discrete points, in 2D planes, and for push beams with different spatial samplings and for different values of the f-number (f/#). The results of these simulations show that push beams with smaller f/# require a higher spatial sampling rate. The significant amount of acceleration achieved by this approach suggests that shear wave simulations with the Green's function approach are ideally suited for high-performance GPUs. Shear wave elasticity imaging determines the mechanical parameters of soft tissue by analyzing measured shear waves induced by an acoustic radiation force. To estimate the shear elasticity value, the widely used time-of-flight method calculates the correlation between shear wave particle velocities at adjacent lateral observation points. Although this method provides accurate estimates of the shear elasticity in purely elastic media, our experience suggests that the time-of-flight (TOF) method consistently overestimates the shear elasticity values in viscoelastic media because the combined effects of diffraction, attenuation, and dispersion are not considered. To address this problem, we have developed an approach that directly accounts for all

  6. Shear viscosity enhancement in water–nanoparticle suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, Ganesh; Sen, Swarnendu; Puri, Ishwar K.

    2012-01-01

    Equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations characterize the increase in the shear viscosity of water around a suspended silicon dioxide nanoparticle. Water layering on the solid surface decreases the fraction of adjacent fluid molecules that are more mobile and hence less viscous, thereby increasing the shear viscosity. The contribution of the nanoparticle surface area to this rheological behavior is identified and an empirical model that accounts for it is provided. The model successfully reproduces the shear viscosity predictions from previous experimental measurements as well as our simulations. -- Highlights: ► Layering of water on the solid surfaces increases the fraction of less mobile molecules adjacent to them. ► A nondimensional parameter predicts of viscosity enhancement due to particle shape, volume fraction. ► Model predictions agree with the results of atomistic simulations and experimental measurements.

  7. Viscosity of dilute suspensions of rigid bead arrays at low shear: accounting for the variation in hydrodynamic stress over the bead surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Stuart A; Pei, Hongxia

    2009-06-11

    In this work, we examine the viscosity of a dilute suspension of irregularly shaped particles at low shear. A particle is modeled as a rigid array of nonoverlapping beads of variable size and geometry. Starting from a boundary element formalism, approximate account is taken of the variation in hydrodynamic stress over the surface of the individual beads. For a touching dimer of two identical beads, the predicted viscosity is lower than the exact value by 5.2%. The methodology is then applied to several other model systems including tetramers of variable conformation and linear strings of touching beads. An analysis is also carried out of the viscosity and translational diffusion of several dilute amino acids and diglycine in water. It is concluded that continuum hydrodynamic modeling with stick boundary conditions is unable to account for the experimental viscosity and diffusion data simultaneously. A model intermediate between "stick" and "slip" could possibly reconcile theory and experiment.

  8. Low Rm magnetohydrodynamics as a means of measuring the surface shear viscosity of a liquid metal: A first attempt on Galinstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacroix, Jules; Davoust, Laurent; Patouillet, Kévin

    2018-01-01

    This paper introduces an experimental apparatus which generates the end-driven annular flow of a liquid metal pervaded by a uniform magnetic field. Unlike past viscometers involving an annular channel with particular values of the depth-to-width ratio, the present experiment enables us to drive the viscous shear at the surface of an annular liquid metal bath put in rotation. The magnetic interaction parameter N and the Boussinesq number related to the surface shear viscosity can be monitored from the magnitude of the applied magnetic field; the latter being set large enough for avoiding artefacts related to centrifugation and surface dilatation. This essential feature is obtained due to the ability of the magnetic field to set dimensionality of the annular flow in the channel between 2D-1/2 (swirling flow) and 2D axisymmetric (extinction of the overturning flow if N is large enough). By tracking the azimuthal velocity of tracers seeded along the oxidised surface of liquid Galinstan, an estimate for the surface shear viscosity of a liquid metal can be given.

  9. Shear viscosity, cavitation and hydrodynamics at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Mishra, Hiranmaya; Sreekanth, V.

    2011-01-01

    We study evolution of quark-gluon matter in the ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions within the frame work of relativistic second-order viscous hydrodynamics. In particular, by using the various prescriptions of a temperature-dependent shear viscosity to the entropy ratio, we show that the hydrodynamic description of the relativistic fluid becomes invalid due to the phenomenon of cavitation. For most of the initial conditions relevant for LHC, the cavitation sets in very early stage. The cavitation in this case is entirely driven by the large values of shear viscosity. Moreover we also demonstrate that the conformal terms used in equations of the relativistic dissipative hydrodynamic can influence the cavitation time.

  10. Shear viscosity and out of equilibrium dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    El, Andrej; Xu, Zhe; Greiner, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Using Grad’s method, we calculate the entropy production and derive a formula for the second-order shear viscosity coefficient in a one-dimensionally expanding particle system, which can also be considered out of chemical equilibrium. For a one-dimensional expansion of gluon matter with Bjorken boost invariance, the shear tensor and the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η/s are numerically calculated by an iterative and self-consistent prescription within the second-order Israel-Stewart hydrodynamics and by a microscopic parton cascade transport theory. Compared with η/s obtained using the Navier-Stokes approximation, the present result is about 20% larger at a QCD coupling αs ∼ 0.3 (with η/s ≈ 0.18) and is a factor of 2–3 larger at a small coupling αs ∼ 0.01. We demonstrate an agreement between the viscous hydrodynamic calculations and the microscopic transport results on η/s, except when employing a small αs . On the other hand, we demonstrate that for such small αs , the gluon syst...

  11. Shear viscosity and out of equilibrium dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    El, Andrej; Xu, Zhe; Greiner, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Using the Grad's method we calculate the entropy production and derive a formula for the second order shear viscosity coefficient in a one-dimensionally expanding particle system, which can also be considered out of chemical equilibrium. For a one-dimensional expansion of gluon matter with Bjorken boost invariance the shear tensor and the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio $\\eta/s$ are numerically calculated by an iterative and self-consistent prescription within the second order Israel-Stewart hydrodynamics and by a microscopic parton cascade transport theory. Compared with $\\eta/s$ obtained using the Navier-Stokes approximation, the present result is about 20% larger at a QCD coupling $\\alpha_s \\sim 0.3$(with $\\eta/s\\approx 0.18$) and is a factor of 2-3 larger at a small coupling $\\alpha_s \\sim 0.01$. We demonstrate an agreement between the viscous hydrodynamic calculations and the microscopic transport results on $\\eta/s$, except when employing a small $\\alpha_s$. On the other hand, we demonstrate th...

  12. Shear viscosity and out of equilibrium dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El, Andrej; Xu Zhe; Greiner, Carsten; Muronga, Azwinndini

    2009-01-01

    Using Grad's method, we calculate the entropy production and derive a formula for the second-order shear viscosity coefficient in a one-dimensionally expanding particle system, which can also be considered out of chemical equilibrium. For a one-dimensional expansion of gluon matter with Bjorken boost invariance, the shear tensor and the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η/s are numerically calculated by an iterative and self-consistent prescription within the second-order Israel-Stewart hydrodynamics and by a microscopic parton cascade transport theory. Compared with η/s obtained using the Navier-Stokes approximation, the present result is about 20% larger at a QCD coupling α s ∼0.3 (with η/s≅0.18) and is a factor of 2-3 larger at a small coupling α s ∼0.01. We demonstrate an agreement between the viscous hydrodynamic calculations and the microscopic transport results on η/s, except when employing a small α s . On the other hand, we demonstrate that for such small α s , the gluon system is far from kinetic and chemical equilibrium, which indicates the break down of second-order hydrodynamics because of the strong nonequilibrium evolution. In addition, for large α s (0.3-0.6), the Israel-Stewart hydrodynamics formally breaks down at large momentum p T > or approx. 3 GeV but is still a reasonably good approximation.

  13. Shear viscosity coefficient from microscopic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muronga, Azwinndini

    2004-01-01

    The transport coefficient of shear viscosity is studied for a hadron matter through microscopic transport model, the ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD), using the Green-Kubo formulas. Molecular-dynamical simulations are performed for a system of light mesons in a box with periodic boundary conditions. Starting from an initial state composed of π,η,ω,ρ,φ with a uniform phase-space distribution, the evolution takes place through elastic collisions, production, and annihilation. The system approaches a stationary state of mesons and their resonances, which is characterized by common temperature. After equilibration, thermodynamic quantities such as the energy density, particle density, and pressure are calculated. From such an equilibrated state the shear viscosity coefficient is calculated from the fluctuations of stress tensor around equilibrium using Green-Kubo relations. We do our simulations here at zero net baryon density so that the equilibration times depend on the energy density. We do not include hadron strings as degrees of freedom so as to maintain detailed balance. Hence we do not get the saturation of temperature but this leads to longer equilibration times

  14. Wave anisotropy of shear viscosity and elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, O. V.; Sarvazyan, A. P.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents the theory of shear wave propagation in a "soft solid" material possessing anisotropy of elastic and dissipative properties. The theory is developed mainly for understanding the nature of the low-frequency acoustic characteristics of skeletal muscles, which carry important diagnostic information on the functional state of muscles and their pathologies. It is shown that the shear elasticity of muscles is determined by two independent moduli. The dissipative properties are determined by the fourth-rank viscosity tensor, which also has two independent components. The propagation velocity and attenuation of shear waves in muscle depend on the relative orientation of three vectors: the wave vector, the polarization vector, and the direction of muscle fiber. For one of the many experiments where attention was distinctly focused on the vector character of the wave process, it was possible to make a comparison with the theory, estimate the elasticity moduli, and obtain agreement with the angular dependence of the wave propagation velocity predicted by the theory.

  15. Relative viscosity of emulsions in simple shear flow: Temperature, shear rate, and interfacial tension dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Se Bin; Lee, Joon Sang [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei Unversity, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    We simulate an emulsion system under simple shear rates to analyze its rheological characteristics using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). We calculate the relative viscosity of an emulsion under a simple shear flow along with changes in temperature, shear rate, and surfactant concentration. The relative viscosity of emulsions decreased with an increase in temperature. We observed the shear-thinning phenomena, which is responsible for the inverse proportion between the shear rate and viscosity. An increase in the interfacial tension caused a decrease in the relative viscosity of the decane-in-water emulsion because the increased deformation caused by the decreased interfacial tension significantly influenced the wall shear stress.

  16. Shear viscosities of photons in strongly coupled plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di-Lun Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the shear viscosity of thermalized photons in the quark gluon plasma (QGP at weak coupling and N=4 super Yang–Mills plasma (SYMP at both strong and weak couplings. We find that the shear viscosity due to the photon–parton scattering up to the leading order of electromagnetic coupling is suppressed when the coupling of the QGP/SYMP is increased, which stems from the blue-shift of the thermal-photon spectrum at strong coupling. In addition, the shear viscosity rapidly increases near the deconfinement transition in a phenomenological model analogous to the QGP.

  17. Shear viscosity of liquid argon and liquid rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiakwelu, O.

    1978-01-01

    A direct evaluation of the shear viscosity coefficient for models of liquid rubidium and liquid argon is presented by neglecting the cross-terms in the autocorrelation function of the transverse component of the momentum stress tensor. The time dependence of the shear viscosity for liquid argon is found to display a long decaying tail in qualitative agreement with a computer calculation of Levesque et al. However, the numerical values of the shear viscosity coefficients are smaller than the experimentally determined values of about 45% for liquid rubidium and 35% for liquid argon

  18. Effect of soft mode on shear viscosity of quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutome, Takahiko; Iwasaki, Masaharu

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the shear viscosity of quark matter at finite temperature and density. If we assume that the quark interacts with the soft mode, which is a collective mode of a quark-antiquark pair, the self-energy of the quark is calculated by quasi-particle random phase approximation. It is shown that its imaginary part is large and its mean free path is short. With the use of the Kubo formula, the shear viscosity of quark matter decreases. The Reynolds number of quark matter is estimated to be about 10. As temperature increases, shear viscosity increases gradually for T>200 MeV. Moreover it is shown that the shear viscosity also increases with the chemical potential for μ>200 MeV. (author)

  19. Vanishing Shear Viscosity Limit in the Magnetohydrodynamic Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jishan; Jiang, Song; Nakamura, Gen

    2007-03-01

    We study an initial boundary value problem for the equations of plane magnetohydrodynamic compressible flows, and prove that as the shear viscosity goes to zero, global weak solutions converge to a solution of the original equations with zero shear viscosity. As a by-product, this paper improves the related results obtained by Frid and Shelukhin for the case when the magnetic effect is neglected.

  20. Steady shear viscosity of stirred yoghurts with varying ropiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marle, M.E.; van Marle, M.E.; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; de Kruif, C.G.; de Kruif, C.G.; Mellema, J.

    1999-01-01

    Stirred yogurt was viewed as a concentrated dispersion of aggregates consisting of protein particles. The steady-shear behavior of three types of stirred yogurt with varying ropiness was investigated experimentally. To describe the shear-dependent viscosity, a microrheological model was used which

  1. Molecular dynamics calculation of shear viscosity for molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Yokokawa, Mitsuo; Ogawa, Toru

    1993-12-01

    A computer program of molecular dynamics simulation has been made to calculate shear viscosity of molten salt. Correlation function for an off-diagonal component of stress tensor can be obtained as the results of calculation. Shear viscosity is calculated by integration of the correlation function based on the Kubo-type formula. Shear viscosities for a molten KCl ranging in temperature from 1047K to 1273K were calculated using the program. Calculation of 10 5 steps (1 step corresponds to 5 x 10 -15 s) was performed for each temperature in the 216 ions system. The obtained results were in good agreement with the reported experimental values. The program has been vectorized to achieve a faster computation in supercomputer. It makes possible to calculate the viscosity using a large number of statistics amounting to several million MD steps. (author)

  2. Bulk and shear viscosities of hot and dense hadron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadam, Guru Prakash; Mishra, Hiranmaya

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the bulk and the shear viscosity at finite temperature and baryon densities of hadronic matter within a hadron resonance gas model which includes a Hagedorn spectrum. The parameters of the Hagedorn spectrum are adjusted to fit recent lattice QCD simulations at finite chemical potential. For the estimation of the bulk viscosity we use low energy theorems of QCD for the energy momentum tensor correlators. For the shear viscosity coefficient, we estimate the same using molecular kinetic theory to relate the shear viscosity coefficient to average momentum of the hadrons in the hot and dense hadron gas. The bulk viscosity to entropy ratio increases with chemical potential and is related to the reduction of velocity of sound at nonzero chemical potential. The shear viscosity to entropy ratio on the other hand, shows a nontrivial behavior with the ratio decreasing with chemical potential for small temperatures but increasing with chemical potential at high temperatures and is related to decrease of entropy density with chemical potential at high temperature due to finite volume of the hadrons

  3. Sensor for Viscosity and Shear Strength Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, J.; Moore, J.E. Jr.; Ebadian, M.A.; Jones, W.K.

    1998-01-01

    Measurement of the physical properties (viscosity and density) of waste slurries is critical in evaluating transport parameters to ensure turbulent flow through transport pipes. The environment for measurement and sensor exposure is extremely harsh; therefore, reliability and ruggedness are critical in the sensor design. The work for this project will be performed in three phases. The first phase, carried out in FY96, involved (1) an evaluation of acoustic and other methods for viscosity measurement; (2) measurement of the parameters of slurries over the range of percent solids found in tanks and transport systems; (3) a comparison of physical properties (e.g., viscosity and density) to percent solids found composition; and (4) the design of a prototype sensor. The second phase (FY97) will involve the fabrication of a prototype hybrid sensor to measure the viscosity and mechanical properties of slurries in remote, high-radiation environments. Two different viscometer designs are being investigated in this study: a magnetostrictive pulse wave guide viscometer; an oscillating cylinder viscometer. In FY97, the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU), which has printed circuit, thick film, thin film, and co-fired ceramic fabrication capability, will fabricate five probes for demonstration after technology selection and evaluation

  4. Shear viscosity to entropy density ratio in nuclear multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Subrata

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear multifragmentation in intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions has long been associated with liquid-gas phase transition. We calculate the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η/s for an equilibrated system of nucleons and fragments produced in multifragmentation within an extended statistical multifragmentation model. The temperature dependence of η/s exhibits behavior surprisingly similar to that of H 2 O. In the coexistence phase of fragments and light particles, the ratio η/s reaches a minimum of depth comparable to that for water in the vicinity of the critical temperature for liquid-gas phase transition. The effects of freeze-out volume and surface symmetry energy on η/s in multifragmentation are studied.

  5. Estimation of shear viscosity based on transverse momentum correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Event anisotropy measurements at RHIC suggest the strongly interacting matter created in heavy ion collisions flows with very little shear viscosity. Precise determination of 'shear viscosity-to-entropy' ratio is currently a subject of extensive study [S. Gavin and M. Abdel-Aziz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 (2006) 162302]. We present preliminary results of measurements of the evolution of transverse momentum correlation function with collision centrality of Au+Au interactions at √(s NN )=200 GeV. We compare two differential correlation functions, namely inclusive [J. Adams et al. (STAR Collaboration), Phys. Rev. C 72 (2005) 044902] and a differential version of the correlation measure C introduced by Gavin et al. [S. Gavin and M. Abdel-Aziz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 (2006) 162302; M. Sharma and C. A. Pruneau, Phys. Rev. C 79 (2009) 024905.]. These observables can be used for the experimental study of the shear viscosity per unit entropy.

  6. Estimation of shear viscosity based on transverse momentum correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    STAR Collaboration; Sharma, Monika; STAR Collaboration

    2009-11-01

    Event anisotropy measurements at RHIC suggest the strongly interacting matter created in heavy ion collisions flows with very little shear viscosity. Precise determination of “shear viscosity-to-entropy” ratio is currently a subject of extensive study [S. Gavin and M. Abdel-Aziz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 (2006) 162302]. We present preliminary results of measurements of the evolution of transverse momentum correlation function with collision centrality of Au+Au interactions at s=200 GeV. We compare two differential correlation functions, namely inclusive [J. Adams et al. (STAR Collaboration), Phys. Rev. C 72 (2005) 044902] and a differential version of the correlation measure C˜ introduced by Gavin et al. [S. Gavin and M. Abdel-Aziz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 (2006) 162302; M. Sharma and C. A. Pruneau, Phys. Rev. C 79 (2009) 024905.]. These observables can be used for the experimental study of the shear viscosity per unit entropy.

  7. Viscosity, granular-temperature, and stress calculations for shearing assemblies of inelastic, frictional disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, O.R.; Braun, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Employing nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics methods the effects of two energy loss mechanisms on viscosity, stress, and granular-temperature in assemblies of nearly rigid, inelastic frictional disks undergoing steady-state shearing are calculated. Energy introduced into the system through forced shearing is dissipated by inelastic normal forces or through frictional sliding during collisions resulting in a natural steady-state kinetic energy density (granular-temperature) that depends on the density and shear rate of the assembly and on the friction and inelasticity properties of the disks. The calculations show that both the mean deviatoric particle velocity and the effective viscosity of a system of particles with fixed friction and restitution coefficients increase almost linearly with strain rate. Particles with a velocity-dependent coefficient of restitution show a less rapid increase in both deviatoric velocity and viscosity as strain rate increases. Particles with highly dissipative interactions result in anisotropic pressure and velocity distributions in the assembly, particularly at low densities. At very high densities the pressure also becomes anisotropic due to high contact forces perpendicular to the shearing direction. The mean rotational velocity of the frictional disks is nearly equal to one-half the shear rate. The calculated ratio of shear stress to normal stress varies significantly with density while the ratio of shear stress to total pressure shows much less variation. The inclusion of surface friction (and thus particle rotation) decreases shear stress at low density but increases shear stress under steady shearing at higher densities

  8. Sensor for viscosity and shear strength measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.; Dillion, J.; Moore, J.; Jones, K.

    1998-01-01

    Measurement of the physical properties (viscosity and density) of waste slurries is critical in evaluating transport parameters to ensure turbulent flow through transport pipes. The environment for measurement and sensor exposure is extremely harsh; therefore, reliability and ruggedness are critical in the sensor design. Two different viscometer techniques are being investigated in this study, based on: magnetostrictive pulse generated acoustic waves; and an oscillating cylinder. Prototype sensors have been built and tested which are based on both techniques. A base capability instrumentation system has been designed, constructed, and tested which incorporates both of these sensors. It requires manual data acquisition and off-line calculation. A broad range of viscous media has been tested using this system. Extensive test results appear in this report. The concept for each technique has been validated by these test results. This base capability system will need to be refined further before it is appropriate for field tests. The mass of the oscillating system structure will need to be reduced. A robust acoustic probe assembly will need to be developed. In addition, in March 1997 it was made known for the first time that the requirement was for a deliverable automated viscosity instrumentation system. Since then such a system has been designed, and the hardware has been constructed so that the automated concept can be proved. The rest of the hardware, which interfaced to a computer, has also been constructed and tested as far as possible. However, for both techniques the computer software for automated data acquisition, calculation, and logging had not been completed before funding and time ran out.

  9. Empirical Modelling of Nonmonotonous Behaviour of Shear Viscosity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    David, Jiří; Filip, Petr; Kharlamov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2013, August (2013) ISSN 1687-6822 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/2066 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : shear viscosity * Galindo-rosales * Carreau-yasuda Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2012 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2013/658187/

  10. Shear viscosity and thermal conductivity of nuclear 'pasta'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, C. J.; Berry, D. K.

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the shear viscosity η and thermal conductivity κ of a nuclear pasta phase in neutron star crusts. This involves complex nonspherical shapes. We use semiclassical molecular dynamics simulations involving 40, 000 to 100, 000 nucleons. The viscosity η can be simply expressed in terms of the height Z* and width Δq of the peak in the static structure factor S p (q). We find that η increases somewhat, compared to a lower density phase involving spherical nuclei, because Z* decreases from form factor and ion screening effects. However, we do not find a dramatic increase in η from nonspherical shapes, as may occur in conventional complex fluids

  11. Composition and Temperature Dependence of Shear Viscosity of Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    HNN- XTHDCPD Binary System IX. VTF Eq. Parameters for Shear Viscosities Using Constant B Parameter X. Results of Fits to Master Viscosity Eqs. (43...T(K) for 5 C10 Hydrocarbons I Fig. 2a. log n versus 103/T(K) for HNNi I Fig. 2b. log n versus 103/T(K) for XTHDCPD Fig. 3. Isothem of log n versus X...CD for CO-MO Binary System Fig. 4. Isotherm of log n versus XNBC for NBC-DMO Binary System ( ~Fig. 5. Isotherm of log n versus XfINN for HNN- XTHDCPD

  12. Effective Shear Viscosity of Iron under Shock-Loading Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiao-Juan; Liu Fu-Sheng; Sun Yan-Yun; Zhang Ming-Jian; Peng Xiao-Juan; Li Yong-Hong

    2011-01-01

    We combine the flyer-impact experiment and improve the finite difference method to solve whether the shear viscosity coefficient of shock iron is more reliable. We find that the numerical simulated profile agrees well with the measured one, from which the determined effective shear viscosity coefficients of shocked iron are 3000 ± 100 Pa·s and 4000 ± 100 Pa·s, respectively, at 103 GPa and 159 GPa. These values are more than 2000 ± 300 Pa·s of Li Y L et al.[Chin. Phys. Lett. 26 (2009) 038301] Our values are more reasonable because they are obtained from a comprehensive simulation for the full-shocked perturbation evolving process. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  13. Shear viscosity and entropy of a pion gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Jean-Bernard; Oliinychenko, Dmytro; Schaefer, Anna; Petersen, Hannah [FIAS, Goethe University, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    A model of microscopic non-equilibrium dynamics for classical point particles is used to calculate the transport coefficients of dense hadronic matter. Specifically, the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio is investigated, and the temperature dependence between 100 MeV and 300 MeV is explored. Calculations are made at corresponding particle densities going from 0.01 to 0.34 in a pion box simulating infinite matter. The results for the entropy and shear viscosity are then compared to analytic estimates. In addition, massless particles as well as ρ-meson resonance excitations are included. This will be the starting point for the calculation of more transport coefficients as functions of T and μ{sub B}; expanding systems could also be considered.

  14. The shear viscosity of a trapped Bose-condensed gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzamanian, M.A.; Yavary, H.

    2006-01-01

    By obtaining Kubo formula type and using nonequilibrium Green's functions, we calculate the shear viscosity of a trapped Bose-condensed gas below and above the Bose-Einstein condensation temperature (T BEC ). The contributions of the interactions between condensate and noncondensate atoms and between noncondensate atoms take into account to the viscous relaxation time, by evaluating second order self-energies in Beliaev approximation

  15. Blood viscosity during coagulation at different shear rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranucci, Marco; Laddomada, Tommaso; Ranucci, Matteo; Baryshnikova, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract During the coagulation process, blood changes from a liquid to a solid gel phase. These changes are reflected by changes in blood viscosity; however, blood viscosity at different shear rates (SR) has not been previously explored during the coagulation process. In this study, we investigated the viscosity changes of whole blood in 10 subjects with a normal coagulation profile, using a cone‐on‐plate viscosimeter. For each subject, three consecutive measurements were performed, at a SR of 20, 40, 80 sec−1. On the basis of the time‐dependent changes in blood viscosity, we identified the gel point (GP), the time‐to‐gel point (TGP), the maximum clot viscosity (MCV), and the clot lysis half‐time (CLH). The TGP significantly (P = 0.0023) shortened for increasing SR, and was significantly associated with the activated partial thromboplastin time at a SR of 20 sec−1 (P = 0.038) and 80 sec−1 (P = 0.019). The MCV was significantly lower at a SR of 80 sec−1 versus 40 sec−1 (P = 0.027) and the CLH significantly (P = 0.048) increased for increasing SR. These results demonstrate that measurement of blood viscosity during the coagulation process offers a number of potentially useful parameters. In particular, the association between the TGP and the activated partial thromboplastin time is an expression of the clotting time (intrinsic and common pathway), and its shortening for increasing SR may be interpreted the well‐known activating effects of SR on platelet activation and thrombin generation. Further studies focused on the TGP under conditions of hypo‐ or hypercoagulability are required to confirm its role in the clinical practice. PMID:24994896

  16. Shear and bulk viscosity of high-temperature gluon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Hou, De-Fu

    2018-05-01

    We calculate the shear viscosity (η) and bulk viscosity (ζ) to entropy density (s) ratios η/s and ζ/s of a gluon plasma system in kinetic theory, including both the elastic {gg}≤ftrightarrow {gg} forward scattering and the inelastic soft gluon bremsstrahlung {gg}≤ftrightarrow {ggg} processes. Due to the suppressed contribution to η and ζ in the {gg}≤ftrightarrow {gg} forward scattering and the effective g≤ftrightarrow {gg} gluon splitting, Arnold, Moore and Yaffe (AMY) and Arnold, Dogan and Moore (ADM) have got the leading order computations for η and ζ in high-temperature QCD matter. In this paper, we calculate the correction to η and ζ in the soft gluon bremsstrahlung {gg}≤ftrightarrow {ggg} process with an analytic method. We find that the contribution of the collision term from the {gg}≤ftrightarrow {ggg} soft gluon bremsstrahlung process is just a small perturbation to the {gg}≤ftrightarrow {gg} scattering process and that the correction is at ∼5% level. Then, we obtain the bulk viscosity of the gluon plasma for the number-changing process. Furthermore, our leading-order result for bulk viscosity is the formula \\zeta \\propto \\tfrac{{α }s2{T}3}{ln}{α }s-1} in high-temperature gluon plasma. Supported by Ministry of Science and Technology of China (MSTC) under the “973” Project (2015CB856904(4)) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11735007, 11521064)

  17. Shear viscosity from Kubo formalism: NJL model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Robert; Weise, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    A large-N c expansion is combined with the Kubo formalism to study the shear viscosity η of strongly interacting matter in the two-flavor NJL model. We discuss analytical and numerical approaches to η and investigate systematically its strong dependence on the spectral width and the momentum-space cutoff. Thermal effects on the constituent quark mass from spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking are included. The ratio η/s and its thermal dependence are derived for different parameterizations of the spectral width and for an explicit one-loop calculation including mesonic modes within the NJL model. (orig.)

  18. The shear viscosity of the non-commutative plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsteiner, Karl; Mas, Javier

    2007-01-01

    We compute the shear viscosity of the non-commutative N = 4 super Yang-Mills quantum field theory at strong coupling using the dual supergravity background. Special interest derives from the fact that the background presents an intrinsic anisotropy in space through the distinction of commutative and non-commutative directions. Despite this anisotropy the analysis exhibits the ubiquitous result η/s = 1/4π for two different shear channels. In order to derive this result, we show that the boundary energy momentum tensor must couple to the open string metric. As a byproduct we compute the renormalised holographic energy momentum tensor and show that it coincides with one in the commutative theory

  19. Shear viscosity and imperfect fluidity in bosonic and fermionic superfluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyack, Rufus; Guo, Hao; Levin, K.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we address the ratio of the shear viscosity to entropy density η /s in bosonic and fermionic superfluids. A small η /s is associated with nearly perfect fluidity, and more general measures of the fluidity perfection/imperfection are of wide interest to a number of communities. We use a Kubo approach to concretely address this ratio via low-temperature transport associated with the quasiparticles. Our analysis for bosonic superfluids utilizes the framework of the one-loop Bogoliubov approximation, whereas for fermionic superfluids we apply BCS theory and its BCS-BEC extension. Interestingly, we find that the transport properties of strict BCS and Bogoliubov superfluids have very similar structures, albeit with different quasiparticle dispersion relations. While there is a dramatic contrast between the power law and exponential temperature dependence for η alone, the ratio η /s for both systems is more similar. Specifically, we find the same linear dependence (on the ratio of temperature T to inverse lifetime γ (T ) ) with η /s ∝T /γ (T ) , corresponding to imperfect fluidity. By contrast, near the unitary limit of BCS-BEC superfluids a very different behavior results, which is more consistent with near-perfect fluidity.

  20. Steady flow on to a conveyor belt - Causal viscosity and shear shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syer, D.; Narayan, Ramesh

    1993-01-01

    Some hydrodynamical consequences of the adoption of a causal theory of viscosity are explored. Causality is introduced into the theory by letting the coefficient of viscosity go to zero as the flow velocity approaches a designated propagation speed for viscous signals. Consideration is given to a model of viscosity which has a finite propagation speed of shear information, and it is shown that it produces two kinds of shear shock. A 'pure shear shock' corresponds to a transition from a superviscous to a subviscous state with no discontinuity in the velocity. A 'mixed shear shock' has a shear transition occurring at the same location as a normal adiabatic or radiative shock. A generalized version of the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions for mixed shear shocks is derived, and self-consistent numerical solutions to a model 2D problem in which an axisymmetric radially infalling stream encounters a spinning star are presented.

  1. Shear viscosity of phase-separating polymer blends with viscous asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, H. S.; Hobbie, E. K.

    2001-01-01

    Rheo-optical measurements of phase separating polymer mixtures under simple shear flow have been used to investigate the influence of domain morphology on the viscosity of emulsionlike polymer blends, in which the morphology under weak shear is droplets of one coexisting phase dispersed in a matrix of the second. The structure and viscosity of low-molecular-weight polybutadiene and polyisoprene mixtures, phase separated by quenching to a temperature inside the coexistence region of the phase diagram, were measured as a function of shear rate and composition. In the weak shear regime, the data are in qualitative agreement with an effective medium model for non-dilute suspensions of slightly deformed interacting droplets. In the strong shear regime, where a stringlike pattern appears en route to a shear-homogenized state, the data are in qualitative agreement with a simple model that accounts for viscous asymmetry in the components

  2. Bulk and shear viscosities of the gluon plasma in a quasiparticle description

    CERN Document Server

    Bluhm, M; Redlich, K

    2011-01-01

    Bulk and shear viscosities of deconfined gluonic matter are investigated within an effective kinetic theory by describing the strongly interacting medium phenomenologically in terms of quasiparticle excitations with medium-dependent self-energies. In this approach, local conservation of energy and momentum follows from a Boltzmann-Vlasov type kinetic equation and guarantees thermodynamic self-consistency. We show that the resulting transport coefficients reproduce the parametric dependencies on temperature and coupling obtained in perturbative QCD at large temperatures and small running coupling. The extrapolation into the non-perturbative regime results in a decreasing specific shear viscosity with decreasing temperature, exhibiting a minimum in the vicinity of the deconfinement transition temperature, while the specific bulk viscosity is sizeable in this region falling off rapidly with increasing temperature. The temperature dependence of specific bulk and shear viscosities found within this quasiparticle d...

  3. The effect of viscosity on the resistive tearing mode with the presence of shear flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.L.; Morrison, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of small isotropic viscosity on the ''constant ψ'' tearing mode in the presence of shear flow, is analyzed by the boundary layer approach. It is found that the influence of viscosity depends upon the parameter (G'(0)/F'(0)), where G'(0) and F'(0) denote that shear and magnetic field shear at the magnetic null plane, respectively. When |(G'(0)/F'(0))| much-lt 1, the tearing mode growth rate is suppressed by the viscosity, but not completely stabilized. When |(G'(0)/F'(0))| ∼ in the order of (1) and the viscosity is comparable with the resistivity, the growth rate vanishes as ((1 - G'(0) 2 /F'(0) 2 ) 1/3 ), when G'(0) 2 → F'(0) 2 from below. In the case where (1 - G'(0) 2 /F'(0) 2 ) < 0 matching cannot be achieved. 8 refs

  4. Measuring Shear Viscosity Using Transverse Momentum Correlations in Relativistic Nuclear Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, Sean; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    Elliptic flow measurements at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider suggest that quark-gluon fluid flows with very little viscosity compared to weak-coupling expectations, challenging theorists to explain why this fluid is so nearly ''perfect.'' It is therefore vital to find quantitative experimental information on the viscosity of the fluid. We propose that measurements of transverse momentum fluctuations can be used to determine the shear viscosity. We use current data to estimate the viscosity-to-entropy ratio in the range from 0.08 to 0.3 and discuss how future measurements can reduce this uncertainty

  5. Study on viscosity of conventional and polymer modified asphalt binders in steady and dynamic shear domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboo, Nikhil; Singh, Bhupendra; Kumar, Praveen; Vikram, Durgesh

    2018-02-01

    This study focuses on evaluating the flow behavior of conventional and polymer modified asphalt binders in steady- and dynamic-shear domain, for a temperature range of 20-70 °C, using a Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR). Steady-shear viscosity and frequency sweep tests were carried out on two conventional (VG 10 and VG 30) and two polymer (SBS and EVA) modified asphalt binders. Applicability of the Cox-Merz principle was evaluated and complex viscosity master curves were analyzed at five different reference temperatures. Cross model was used to simulate the complex viscosity master curves at different temperatures. It was found that asphalt binders exhibited shear-thinning behavior at all the test temperatures. The critical shear rate increased with increase in temperature and was found to be lowest for plastomeric modified asphalt binder. The Cox-Merz principle was found to be valid in the zero-shear viscosity (ZSV) domain and deviated at higher frequency/shear rate for all the binders. Results from the study indicated that the ratio of ZSV can be successfully used as shift factors for construction of master curves at different reference temperatures. Cross model was found to be suitable in simulating the complex viscosity master curves at all the test temperatures. Analysis of model parameters indicated that a strong relationship exists between ZSV and the critical shear rate. ZSV and critical shear rate varied exponentially with temperature. This relationship was used to propose a simple equation for assessing the shift factors for construction of master curves.

  6. Effects of interactions between powder particle size and binder viscosity on agglomerate growth mechanisms in a high shear mixer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, A; Schaefer, T

    2001-01-01

    A study was performed in order to elucidate the effects of the interactions between powder particle size and binder viscosity on the mechanisms involved in agglomerate formation and growth. Calcium carbonates having mean particle sizes in the range of 5-214 microm and polyethylene glycols having viscosities in the range of approximately 50-100000 mPas were melt agglomerated in a high shear mixer. Agglomerate growth by nucleation and coalescence was found to dominate when agglomerating small powder particles and binders with a low viscosity. Increasing the binder viscosity increased the formation of agglomerates by immersion of powder particles in the surface of the binder droplets. With a larger powder particle size, an increasing binder viscosity was necessary in order to obtain an agglomerate strength being sufficient to avoid breakage. Due to a low agglomerate strength, a satisfying agglomeration of very large particles (214 microm) could not be obtained, even with very viscous binders. The study demonstrated that the optimum agglomerate growth occurred when the agglomerates were of an intermediate strength causing an intermediate deformability of the agglomerates. In order to produce spherical agglomerates (pellets), a low viscosity binder has to be chosen when agglomerating a powder with a small particle size, and a high viscosity binder must be applied in agglomeration of powders with large particles.

  7. Online shear viscosity measurement of starchy melts enriched in wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Frédéric; Bovet, Nicolas; Pineau, Nicolas; Schuchmann, Heike P; Palzer, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Addition of wheat bran to flours modifies their expansion properties after cooking extrusion. This can be attributed to changes in the melt shear viscosity at the die. The effect of wheat bran concentration added to achieve 2 levels of dietary fibers of 12. 6% and 24.4%, and process conditions on the shear viscosity of wheat flour was therefore assessed using an online twin-slit rheometer. The shear viscosity measured at 30 s⁻¹ ranged from 9.5 × 10³ to 53.4 × 10³ Pa s. Regardless of the process conditions and bran concentration, the extruded melts showed a pseudoplastic behavior with a power law index n ranging from 0.05 to 0.27. Increasing the barrel temperature of the extruder from 120 to 180 °C, the water content from 18% to 22% or the screw speed from 400 to 800 rpm significantly decreased the melt shear viscosity at the extruder exit. The addition of bran significantly increased the melt shear viscosity only at the highest bran concentration. The effect was process condition dependant. Mathematical interpretations, based upon observations, of the experimental data were carried out. They can be used to predict the effect of the process conditions on the melt shear viscosity at the die of extruded wheat flour with increasing bran concentration. The viscosity data will be applied in future works to study the expansion properties of extruded wheat flour supplemented with bran. Incorporation of wheat bran, a readily available and low cost by-product, in extruded puffed foods is constrained due to its negative effect on the product texture. Understanding the effect of wheat bran on rheological properties of extruded melts, driving the final product properties, is essential to provide solutions to the food industry and enhance its use. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Ratio of bulk to shear viscosity in a quasigluon plasma: from weak to strong coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Bluhm, M; Redlich, K

    2012-01-01

    The ratio of bulk to shear viscosity is expected to exhibit a different behaviour in weakly and in strongly coupled systems. This can be expressed by the dependence of the ratio on the squared sound velocity. In the high temperature QCD plasma at small running coupling, the viscosity ratio is uniquely determined by a quadratic dependence on the conformality measure, whereas in certain strongly coupled and nearly conformal theories this dependence is linear. Employing an effective kinetic theory of quasiparticle excitations with medium-modified dispersion relation, we analyze the ratio of bulk to shear viscosity of the gluon plasma. We show that in this approach the viscosity ratio comprises both dependencies found by means of weak coupling perturbative and strong coupling holographic techniques.

  9. Shear viscosity of the quark-gluon plasma in a kinetic theory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, A.; Plumari, S.; Scardina, F.; Greco, V.

    2014-01-01

    One of the main results of heavy ions collision (HIC) at relativistic energy experiments is the very small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio of the Quark-Gluon Plasma, close to the conjectured lower bound η/s=1/4π for systems in the infinite coupling limit. Transport coefficients like shear viscosity are responsible of non-equilibrium properties of a system: Green-Kubo relations give us an exact expression to compute these coefficients. We compute shear viscosity numerically using Green-Kubo relation in the framework of Kinetic Theory solving the relativistic transport Boltzmann equation in a finite box with periodic boundary conditions. We investigate a system of particles interacting via anisotropic and energy dependent cross-section in the range of temperature of interest for HIC. Green-Kubo results are in agreement with Chapman-Enskog approximation while Relaxation Time approximation can underestimates the viscosity of a factor 2. The correct analytic formula for shear viscosity can be used to develop a transport theory with a fixed η/s and have a comparison with physical observables like elliptic flow

  10. Shear Viscosity of Hot QED at Finite Chemical Potential from Kubo Formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hui; Hou Defu; Li Jiarong

    2008-01-01

    Within the framework of finite temperature feld theory this paper discusses the shear viscosity of hot QED plasma through Kubo formula at one-loop skeleton diagram level with a finite chemical potential. The effective widths (damping rates) are introduced to regulate the pinch singularities and then gives a reliable estimation of the shear viscous coefficient. The finite chemical potential contributes positively compared to the pure temperature case. The result agrees with that from the kinetics theory qualitatively

  11. Kubo formulas for the shear and bulk viscosity relaxation times and the scalar field theory shear τπ calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajka, Alina; Jeon, Sangyong

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we provide a quantum field theoretical study on the shear and bulk relaxation times. First, we find Kubo formulas for the shear and the bulk relaxation times, respectively. They are found by examining response functions of the stress-energy tensor. We use general properties of correlation functions and the gravitational Ward identity to parametrize analytical structures of the Green functions describing both sound and diffusion mode. We find that the hydrodynamic limits of the real parts of the respective energy-momentum tensor correlation functions provide us with the method of computing both the shear and bulk viscosity relaxation times. Next, we calculate the shear viscosity relaxation time using the diagrammatic approach in the Keldysh basis for the massless λ ϕ4 theory. We derive a respective integral equation which enables us to compute η τπ and then we extract the shear relaxation time. The relaxation time is shown to be inversely related to the thermal width as it should be.

  12. Temperature dependence of shear viscosity of SU(3)-gluodynamics within lattice simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astrakhantsev, N.Yu. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,25 B. Cheremushkinskaya St., 117218, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,9 Institutskii per., 141700, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Braguta, V.V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,25 B. Cheremushkinskaya St., 117218, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for High Energy Physics NRC “Kurchatov Institute”,1 Pobedy St., Protvino, 142281 (Russian Federation); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University,8 Sukhanova St., 690950, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Kotov, A.Yu. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,25 B. Cheremushkinskaya St., 117218, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-18

    In this paper we study the SU(3)-gluodynamics shear viscosity temperature dependence on the lattice. To do so, we measure the correlation functions of the energy-momentum tensor in the range of temperatures T/T{sub c}∈[0.9,1.5]. To extract the shear viscosity we used two approaches. The first one is to fit the lattice data with a physically motivated ansatz for the spectral function with unknown parameters and then determine the shear viscosity. The second approach is to apply the Backus-Gilbert method allowing to extract the shear viscosity from the lattice data nonparametrically. The results obtained within both approaches agree with each other. Our results allow us to conclude that within the range T/T{sub c}∈[0.9,1.5] the SU(3)-gluodynamics reveals the properties of a strongly interacting system, which cannot be described perturbatively, and has the ratio η/s close to the value 1/4π of the N=4 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory.

  13. Shear viscosity and spin-diffusion coefficient of a two-dimensional Fermi gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Using kinetic theory, we calculate the shear viscosity and the spin-diffusion coefficient as well as the associated relaxation times for a two-component Fermi gas in two dimensions, as a function of temperature, coupling strength, polarization, and mass ratio of the two components. It is demonstr......Using kinetic theory, we calculate the shear viscosity and the spin-diffusion coefficient as well as the associated relaxation times for a two-component Fermi gas in two dimensions, as a function of temperature, coupling strength, polarization, and mass ratio of the two components....... It is demonstrated that the minimum value of the viscosity decreases with the mass ratio, since Fermi blocking becomes less efficient. We furthermore analyze recent experimental results for the quadrupole mode of a two-dimensional gas in terms of viscous damping, obtaining a qualitative agreement using no fitting...

  14. A microscopic calculation of the fourth-rank shear viscosity tensors of superfluid phases of 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzamanian, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The fourth-rank shear viscosity tensor of the superfluid phases of 3 He is obtained by using the Kubo formula approach. The viscosity coefficients of 3 He-A, and shear viscosity of 3 He-B are calculated with two different relaxation time approximations. The results for the temperature- and energy-independent relaxation times are in agreement with existing experimental data. (author)

  15. Shear viscosity for dense plasmas by equilibrium molecular dynamics in asymmetric Yukawa ionic mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxhimali, Tomorr; Rudd, Robert E.; Cabot, William H.; Graziani, Frank R.

    2015-11-01

    We present molecular dynamics (MD) calculations of shear viscosity for asymmetric mixed plasma for thermodynamic conditions relevant to astrophysical and inertial confinement fusion plasmas. Specifically, we consider mixtures of deuterium and argon at temperatures of 100-500 eV and a number density of 1025 ions/cc. The motion of 30 000-120 000 ions is simulated in which the ions interact via the Yukawa (screened Coulomb) potential. The electric field of the electrons is included in this effective interaction; the electrons are not simulated explicitly. Shear viscosity is calculated using the Green-Kubo approach with an integral of the shear stress autocorrelation function, a quantity calculated in the equilibrium MD simulations. We systematically study different mixtures through a series of simulations with increasing fraction of the minority high-Z element (Ar) in the D-Ar plasma mixture. In the more weakly coupled plasmas, at 500 eV and low Ar fractions, results from MD compare very well with Chapman-Enskog kinetic results. In the more strongly coupled plasmas, the kinetic theory does not agree well with the MD results. We develop a simple model that interpolates between classical kinetic theories at weak coupling and the Murillo Yukawa viscosity model at higher coupling. This hybrid kinetics-MD viscosity model agrees well with the MD results over the conditions simulated, ranging from moderately weakly coupled to moderately strongly coupled asymmetric plasma mixtures.

  16. Study of shear viscosity for dense plasmas by equilibrium molecular dynamics in asymmetric Yukawa ionic mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxhimali, Tomorr; Rudd, Robert; Cabot, William; Graziani, Frank

    2015-11-01

    We present molecular dynamics (MD) calculations of shear viscosity for asymmetric mixed plasma for thermodynamic conditions relevant to astrophysical and Inertial Confinement Fusion plasmas. Specifically, we consider mixtures of deuterium and argon at temperatures of 100-500 eV and a number density of 1025 ions/cc. The motion of 30000-120000 ions is simulated in which the ions interact via the Yukawa (screened Coulomb) potential. The electric field of the electrons is included in this effective interaction. Shear viscosity is calculated using the Green-Kubo approach with an integral of the shear stress autocorrelation function, a quantity calculated in the equilibrium MD simulations. We study different mixtures with increasing fraction of the minority high-Z element (Ar) in the D-Ar plasma mixture. In the more weakly coupled plasmas, at 500 eV and low Ar fractions, results from MD compare very well with Chapman-Enskog kinetic results. We introduce a model that interpolates between a screened-plasma kinetic theory at weak coupling and the Murillo Yukawa viscosity model at higher coupling. This hybrid kinetics-MD viscosity model agrees well with the MD results over the conditions simulated. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Dept. of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Shear viscosities from Kubo formalism in a large-Nc Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Robert Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    The quark-gluon plasma produced in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC is a hot and dense state of strongly correlated matter. It behaves like an almost-perfect fluid featuring a small ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density. In this thesis we calculate within a two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model the shear viscosity as function of temperature and chemical potential. A new Kubo formula is developed, incorporating the full Dirac structure of the quark spectral function and avoiding commonly used on-shell approximations. Mesonic fluctuations occurring at Fock level provide the dominant dissipative process. The resulting parameter-free ratio is an overall decreasing function of temperature and chemical potential. In combination with hard-thermal-loop results we nd this ratio to feature a minimum slightly above the AdS/CFT benchmark.

  18. Systematic errors in transport calculations of shear viscosity using the Green-Kubo formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, J. B.; Torres-Rincon, J. M.; Oliinychenko, D.; Schäfer, A.; Petersen, H.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a reproducible framework in the use of the Green-Kubo formalism to extract transport coefficients. More specifically, in the case of shear viscosity, we investigate the limitations and technical details of fitting the auto-correlation function to a decaying exponential. This fitting procedure is found to be applicable for systems interacting both through constant and energy-dependent cross-sections, although this is only true for sufficiently dilute systems in the latter case. We find that the optimal fit technique consists in simultaneously fixing the intercept of the correlation function and use a fitting interval constrained by the relative error on the correlation function. The formalism is then applied to the full hadron gas, for which we obtain the shear viscosity to entropy ratio.

  19. Shear viscosities from Kubo formalism in a large-Nc Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Robert; Kaiser, Norbert; Weise, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    In this work the shear viscosity of strongly interacting matter is calculated within a two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model as a function of temperature and chemical potential. The general Kubo formula is applied, incorporating the full Dirac structure of the thermal quark spectral function and avoiding commonly used on-shell approximations. Mesonic fluctuations contributing via Fock diagrams provide the dominant dissipative processes. The resulting ratio η/s (shear viscosity over entropy density) decreases with temperature and chemical potential. Interpolating between our NJL results at low temperatures and hard thermal loop results at high temperatures a minimum slightly above the AdS/CFT benchmark η/s = 1/4τ is obtained. (orig.)

  20. Correlation of shear and dielectric ion viscosity of dental resins - Influence of composition, temperature and filler content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Johannes; Hausnerova, Berenika; Haenel, Thomas; Selig, Daniela; Duvenbeck, Fabian; Moeginger, Bernhard

    2016-07-01

    Shear viscosity and ion viscosity of uncured visible light-curing (VLC) resins and resin based composites (RBC) are correlated with respect to the resin composition, temperature and filler content to check where Dielectric Analysis (DEA) investigations of VLC RBC generate similar results as viscosity measurements. Mixtures of bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) as well as the pure resins were investigated and compared with two commercial VLC dental resins and RBCs (VOCO, Arabesk Top and Grandio). Shear viscosity data was obtained using a Haake Mars III, Thermo Scientific. Ion viscosity measurements performed by a dielectric cure analyzer (DEA 231/1 Epsilon with Mini IDEX-Sensor, Netzsch-Gerätebau). Shear viscosity depends reciprocally on the mobility of molecules, whereas the ion viscosity also depends on the ion concentration as it is affected by both ion concentration and mixture viscosity. Except of pure TEGDMA, shear and ion viscosities depend on the resin composition qualitatively in a similar manner. Furthermore, shear and ion viscosities of the commercial VLC dental resins and composites exhibited the same temperature dependency regardless of filler content. Application of typical rheological models (Kitano and Quemada) revealed that ion viscosity measurements can be described with respect to filler contents of up to 30vol.%. Rheological behavior of a VLC RBC can be characterized by DEA under the condition that the ion concentration is kept constant. Both methods address the same physical phenomenon - motion of molecules. The proposed relations allows for calculating the viscosity of any Bis-GMA-TEGDMA mixture on the base of the viscosities of the pure components. This study demonstrated the applicability of DEA investigations of VLC RBCs with respect to quality assurance purposes. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Computing bulk and shear viscosities from simulations of fluids with dissipative and stochastic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Gerhard, E-mail: jungge@uni-mainz.de; Schmid, Friederike, E-mail: friederike.schmid@uni-mainz.de [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudingerweg 9, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2016-05-28

    Exact values for bulk and shear viscosity are important to characterize a fluid, and they are a necessary input for a continuum description. Here we present two novel methods to compute bulk viscosities by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of steady-state systems with periodic boundary conditions — one based on frequent particle displacements and one based on the application of external bulk forces with an inhomogeneous force profile. In equilibrium simulations, viscosities can be determined from the stress tensor fluctuations via Green-Kubo relations; however, the correct incorporation of random and dissipative forces is not obvious. We discuss different expressions proposed in the literature and test them at the example of a dissipative particle dynamics fluid.

  2. Relationship between the shear viscosity and heating rate in metallic glasses below the glass transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khonik, Vitaly A.; Kobelev, N. P.

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that first-order irreversible structural relaxation with distributed activation energies must lead to a linear decrease of the logarithm of Newtonian shear viscosity with the logarithm of heating rate upon linear heating of glass. Such a behavior is indeed observed in the experiments on metallic glasses. Structural relaxation-induced viscous flow leads to infra-low-frequency Maxwell viscoelastic internal friction, which is predicted to increase with the heating rate

  3. Electrical conductivity and shear viscosity of quark gluon plasma in a quasiparticle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.K.; Mohanty, B.

    2014-01-01

    Relativistic heavy-ion collisions (HIC) have reported the formation of a strongly coupled quark gluon plasma (sQGP). To study the properties of this sQGP is the main focus nowadays. Among these the shear viscosity (η) and electrical conductivity (σ el ) could reflect the transport properties of the medium. By studying the shear viscosity or more specifically shear viscosity to entropy density ratio (η/s), one can understand the nature of interactions among the constituents of the produced medium, it gives a measure of the fluidity. Electrical conductivity represents the linear response of the system to an applied external electric field. The basic question one could ask is that whether the matter created at heavy ion collision experiment is an electrical conductor or an insulator. Recent lattice QCD as well as phenomenological studies have shown that these transport quantities show some kind of minimum in its variation with respect to temperature near the temperature corresponding to the transition from hadronic phase to quark-gluon phase

  4. Lennard-Jones triple-point bulk and shear viscosities. Green-Kubo theory, Hamiltonian mechanics, and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, W.G.; Evans, D.J.; Hickman, R.B.; Ladd, A.J.C.; Ashurst, W.T.; Moran, B.

    1980-01-01

    A new Hamiltonian method for deformation simulations is related to the Green-Kubo fluctuation theory through perturbation theory and linear-response theory. Numerical results for the bulk and shear viscosity coefficients are compared to corresponding Green-Kubo calculations. Both viscosity coefficients depend similarly on frequency, in a way consistent with enhanced ''long-time tails.''

  5. Inverse shear viscosity (fluidity) scaled with melting point properties: Almost 'universal' behaviour of heavier alkalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tankeshwar, K.; March, N.H.

    1997-07-01

    Some numerical considerations relating to the potential of mean force at the melting point of Rb metal are first presented, which argue against the existence of a well defined activation energy for the shear viscosity of this liquid. Therefore, a scaling approach is developed, based on a well established formula for the viscosity η m of sp liquid metals at their melting points T m . This approach is shown to lead to an 'almost' universal plot of scaled fluidity η -1 η m against (T/T m ) 1/2 for the liquid alkali metals, excluding Li. This metal is anomalous because it is a strong scattering liquid, in marked contrast to the other alkali metals. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  6. Finite element approximation of flow of fluids with shear-rate- and pressure-dependent viscosity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hirn, A.; Lanzendörfer, Martin; Stebel, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2012), s. 1604-1634 ISSN 0272-4979 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0917; GA AV ČR IAA100300802; GA MŠk LC06052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504; CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : non-Newtonian fluid * shear-rate- and pressure-dependent viscosity * finite element method * error analysis Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.326, year: 2012

  7. Elliptic Flow at Finite Shear Viscosity in a Kinetic Approach at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greco, V.; Colonna, M.; Di Toro, M.; Ferini, G.

    2010-01-01

    Within a covariant parton cascade, we discuss the impact of both finite shear viscosity η and freeze-out dynamics on the elliptic flow generated at RHIC. We find that the enhancement of η/s in the cross-over region of the QGP phase transition cannot be neglected in order to extract the information from the QGP phase. We also point out that the elliptic flow v 2 (p T ) for a fluid at η/s∼0.1-0.2 is consistent with the one needed by quark number scaling drawing a nice consistency between the nearly perfect fluid property of QGP and the coalescence process.

  8. Nonperturbative calculation of the shear viscosity in hot $\\phi^{4}$ theory in real time

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, E; Wang, Enke; Heinz, Ulrich

    1999-01-01

    Starting from the Kubo formula we calculate the shear viscosity in hot phi**4 theory nonperturbatively by resumming ladders with a real-time version of the Bethe-Salpeter equation at finite temperature. In the weak coupling limit, the generalized Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem is shown to decouple the Bethe-Salpeter equations for the different real-time components of the 4-point function. The resulting scalar integral equation is identical with the one obtained by Jeon using diagrammatic ``cutting rules'' in the Imaginary Time Formalism.

  9. Shear viscosity of the Lennard-Jones fluid near the triple point: Green-Kubo results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erpenbeck, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    The long-standing disagreement over the shear viscosity coefficient of the Lennard-Jones fluid near the triple point is reexamined through a series of very extensive Monte Carlo molecular-dynamics calculations of this transport coefficient based on the Green-Kubo theory. The stress autocorrelation function is shown to exhibit a slow decay, principally in the kinetic-potential and the potential-potential terms, which is large compared with the kinetic-kinetic long-time tail predicted by simple mode-coupling theory. Nonetheless, the viscosity coefficient, exclusive of any correction for this tail for times greater than are accessible numerically, is found to agree with that of Schoen and Hoheisel (who discounted the existence of such a tail) as well as nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics calculations. The large value of the viscosity coefficient found by Levesque and co-workers for 864 particles is brought into statistical agreement with the present results by a modest, but not unrealistic, increase in its statistical uncertainty. The pressure is found to exhibit an anomalous dependence on the size of the system, but the viscosity as well as the self-diffusion constant appear to be linear in the inverse of the number of particles, within the precision of our calculations. The viscosity coefficient, including a long-time-tail contribution based on the extended mode-coupling theory is (3.796 +- 0.068)σepsilon-c/m)/sup 1/2/ for the Lennard-Jones potential, fitted to a cubic spline, and (3.345 +- 0.068)σepsilon-c/m)/sup 1/2/ for the potential truncated at 2.5σ

  10. Irreversible particle motion in surfactant-laden interfaces due to pressure-dependent surface viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikantan, Harishankar; Squires, Todd M.

    2017-09-01

    The surface shear viscosity of an insoluble surfactant monolayer often depends strongly on its surface pressure. Here, we show that a particle moving within a bounded monolayer breaks the kinematic reversibility of low-Reynolds-number flows. The Lorentz reciprocal theorem allows such irreversibilities to be computed without solving the full nonlinear equations, giving the leading-order contribution of surface pressure-dependent surface viscosity. In particular, we show that a disc translating or rotating near an interfacial boundary experiences a force in the direction perpendicular to that boundary. In unbounded monolayers, coupled modes of motion can also lead to non-intuitive trajectories, which we illustrate using an interfacial analogue of the Magnus effect. This perturbative approach can be extended to more complex geometries, and to two-dimensional suspensions more generally.

  11. Drop splashing: the role of surface wettability and liquid viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almohammadi, Hamed; Amirfazli, Alidad; -Team

    2017-11-01

    There are seemingly contradictory results in the literature about the role of surface wettability and drop viscosity for the splashing behavior of a drop impacting onto a surface. Motivated by such issues, we conducted a systematic experimental study where splashing behavior for a wide range of the liquid viscosity (1-100 cSt) and surface wettability (hydrophilic to hydrophobic) are examined. The experiments were performed for the liquids with both low and high surface tensions ( 20 and 72 mN/m). We found that the wettability affects the splashing threshold at high or low contact angle values. At the same drop velocity, an increase of the viscosity (up to 4 cSt) promotes the splashing; while, beyond such value, any increase in viscosity shows the opposite effect. It is also found that at a particular combination of liquid surface tension and viscosity (e.g. silicone oil, 10 cSt), an increase in the drop velocity changes the splashing to spreading. We relate such behaviors to the thickness, shape, and the velocity of the drop's lamella. Finally, to predict the splashing, we developed an empirical correlation which covers all of the previous reported data, hence clarifying the ostensible existing contradictions.

  12. Shear viscosity of neutron-rich nucleonic matter near its liquid–gas phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jun; Chen, Lie-Wen; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Bao-An; Ma, Yu Gang

    2013-01-01

    Within a relaxation time approach using free nucleon–nucleon cross sections modified by the in-medium nucleon masses that are determined from an isospin- and momentum-dependent effective nucleon–nucleon interaction, we investigate the specific shear viscosity (η/s) of neutron-rich nucleonic matter near its liquid–gas phase transition. It is found that as the nucleonic matter is heated at fixed pressure or compressed at fixed temperature, its specific shear viscosity shows a valley shape in the temperature or density dependence, with the minimum located at the boundary of the phase transition. Moreover, the value of η/s drops suddenly at the first-order liquid–gas phase transition temperature, reaching as low as 4–5 times the KSS bound of ℏ/4π. However, it varies smoothly for the second-order liquid–gas phase transition. Effects of the isospin degree of freedom and the nuclear symmetry energy on the value of η/s are also discussed

  13. Including fluid shear viscosity in a structural acoustic finite element model using a scalar fluid representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lei; Li, Yizeng; Grosh, Karl

    2013-08-15

    An approximate boundary condition is developed in this paper to model fluid shear viscosity at boundaries of coupled fluid-structure system. The effect of shear viscosity is approximated by a correction term to the inviscid boundary condition, written in terms of second order in-plane derivatives of pressure. Both thin and thick viscous boundary layer approximations are formulated; the latter subsumes the former. These approximations are used to develop a variational formation, upon which a viscous finite element method (FEM) model is based, requiring only minor modifications to the boundary integral contributions of an existing inviscid FEM model. Since this FEM formulation has only one degree of freedom for pressure, it holds a great computational advantage over the conventional viscous FEM formulation which requires discretization of the full set of linearized Navier-Stokes equations. The results from thick viscous boundary layer approximation are found to be in good agreement with the prediction from a Navier-Stokes model. When applicable, thin viscous boundary layer approximation also gives accurate results with computational simplicity compared to the thick boundary layer formulation. Direct comparison of simulation results using the boundary layer approximations and a full, linearized Navier-Stokes model are made and used to evaluate the accuracy of the approximate technique. Guidelines are given for the parameter ranges over which the accurate application of the thick and thin boundary approximations can be used for a fluid-structure interaction problem.

  14. Multiscale approach to link red blood cell dynamics, shear viscosity, and ATP release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Alison M; Wan, Jiandi; Owrutsky, Philip D; Abkarian, Manouk; Stone, Howard A

    2011-07-05

    RBCs are known to release ATP, which acts as a signaling molecule to cause dilation of blood vessels. A reduction in the release of ATP from RBCs has been linked to diseases such as type II diabetes and cystic fibrosis. Furthermore, reduced deformation of RBCs has been correlated with myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease. Because ATP release has been linked to cell deformation, we undertook a multiscale approach to understand the links between single RBC dynamics, ATP release, and macroscopic viscosity all at physiological shear rates. Our experimental approach included microfluidics, ATP measurements using a bioluminescent reaction, and rheology. Using microfluidics technology with high-speed imaging, we visualize the deformation and dynamics of single cells, which are known to undergo motions such as tumbling, swinging, tanktreading, and deformation. We report that shear thinning is not due to cellular deformation as previously believed, but rather it is due to the tumbling-to-tanktreading transition. In addition, our results indicate that ATP release is constant at shear stresses below a threshold (3 Pa), whereas above the threshold ATP release is increased and accompanied by large cellular deformations. Finally, performing experiments with well-known inhibitors, we show that the Pannexin 1 hemichannel is the main avenue for ATP release both above and below the threshold, whereas, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator only contributes to deformation-dependent ATP release above the stress threshold.

  15. Study of shear viscosity of SU(2)-gluodynamics within lattice simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astrakhantsev, N.Yu. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,Dolgoprudny, 141700 (Russian Federation); Braguta, V.V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); Institute for High Energy Physics NRC “Kurchatov Institute”,Protvino, 142281 Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine,Vladivostok, 690950 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute),Kashirskoe highway, 31, Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation); Kotov, A.Yu. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute),Kashirskoe highway, 31, Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-14

    This paper is devoted to the study of two-point correlation function of the energy-momentum tensor 〈T{sub 12}T{sub 12}〉 for SU(2)-gluodynamics within lattice simulation of QCD. Using multilevel algorithm we carried out the measurement of the correlation function at the temperature T/T{sub c}≃1.2. It is shown that lattice data can be described by spectral functions which interpolate between hydrodynamics at low frequencies and asymptotic freedom at high frequencies. The results of the study of spectral functions allowed us to estimate the ratio of shear viscosity to the entropy density η/s=0.134±0.057.

  16. Measurement of the Surface Dilatational Viscosity of an Insoluble Surfactant Monolayer at the Air/Water Interface Using a Pendant Drop Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Jose; Couzis, Alex; Maldarelli, Charles; Singh, Bhim S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    When a fluid interface with surfactants is at rest, the interfacial stress is isotropic (as given by the equilibrium interfacial tension), and is described by the equation of state which relates the surface tension to the surfactant surface concentration. When surfactants are subjected to shear and dilatational flows, flow induced interaction of the surfactants; can create interfacial stresses apart from the equilibrium surface tension. The simplest relationship between surface strain rate and surface stress is the Boussinesq-Scriven constitutive equation completely characterized by three coefficients: equilibrium interfacial tension, surface shear viscosity, and surface dilatational viscosity Equilibrium interfacial tension and surface shear viscosity measurements are very well established. On the other hand, surface dilatational viscosity measurements are difficult because a flow which change the surface area also changes the surfactant surface concentration creating changes in the equilibrium interfacial tension that must be also taken into account. Surface dilatational viscosity measurements of existing techniques differ by five orders of magnitude and use spatially damped surface waves and rapidly expanding bubbles. In this presentation we introduce a new technique for measuring the surface dilatational viscosity by contracting an aqueous pendant drop attached to a needle tip and having and insoluble surfactant monolayer at the air-water interface. The isotropic total tension on the surface consists of the equilibrium surface tension and the tension due to the dilation. Compression rates are undertaken slow enough so that bulk hydrodynamic stresses are small compared to the surface tension force. Under these conditions we show that the total tension is uniform along the surface and that the Young-Laplace equation governs the drop shape with the equilibrium surface tension replaced by the constant surface isotropic stress. We illustrate this technique using

  17. The effects of geometrical confinement and viscosity ratio on the coalescence of droplet pairs in shear flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, De P.; Chen, Dongju; Moldenaers, P.; Cardinaels, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of geometrical confinement and viscosity ratio on droplet coalescence in shear flow are experimentally investigated by means of a counter rotating parallel plate device, equipped with a microscope. The ratio of droplet diameter to gap spacing is varied between 0.03 and 0.33 to study both

  18. Modified free volume theory of self-diffusion and molecular theory of shear viscosity of liquid carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrabad, Afshin Eskandari; Laghaei, Rozita; Eu, Byung Chan

    2005-04-28

    In previous work on the density fluctuation theory of transport coefficients of liquids, it was necessary to use empirical self-diffusion coefficients to calculate the transport coefficients (e.g., shear viscosity of carbon dioxide). In this work, the necessity of empirical input of the self-diffusion coefficients in the calculation of shear viscosity is removed, and the theory is thus made a self-contained molecular theory of transport coefficients of liquids, albeit it contains an empirical parameter in the subcritical regime. The required self-diffusion coefficients of liquid carbon dioxide are calculated by using the modified free volume theory for which the generic van der Waals equation of state and Monte Carlo simulations are combined to accurately compute the mean free volume by means of statistical mechanics. They have been computed as a function of density along four different isotherms and isobars. A Lennard-Jones site-site interaction potential was used to model the molecular carbon dioxide interaction. The density and temperature dependence of the theoretical self-diffusion coefficients are shown to be in excellent agreement with experimental data when the minimum critical free volume is identified with the molecular volume. The self-diffusion coefficients thus computed are then used to compute the density and temperature dependence of the shear viscosity of liquid carbon dioxide by employing the density fluctuation theory formula for shear viscosity as reported in an earlier paper (J. Chem. Phys. 2000, 112, 7118). The theoretical shear viscosity is shown to be robust and yields excellent density and temperature dependence for carbon dioxide. The pair correlation function appearing in the theory has been computed by Monte Carlo simulations.

  19. Open quantum system model of the one-dimensional Burgers equation with tunable shear viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yepez, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    Presented is an analysis of an open quantum model of the time-dependent evolution of a flow field governed by the nonlinear Burgers equation in one spatial dimension. The quantum model is a system of qubits where there exists a minimum time interval in the time-dependent dynamics. Each temporally discrete unitary quantum-mechanical evolution is followed by state reduction of the quantum state. The mesoscopic behavior of this quantum model is described by a quantum Boltzmann equation with a naturally emergent entropy function and H theorem and the model obeys the detailed balance principle. The macroscopic-scale effective field theory for the quantum model is derived using a perturbative Chapman-Enskog expansion applied to the linearized quantum Boltzmann equation. The entropy function is consistent with the quantum-mechanical collision process and a Fermi-Dirac single-particle distribution function for the occupation probabilities of the qubit's energy eigenstates. Comparisons are presented between analytical predictions and numerical predictions and the agreement is excellent, indicating that the nonlinear Burgers equation with a tunable shear viscosity is the operative macroscopic scale effective field theory

  20. Ab initio calculation of the shear viscosity of neon in the liquid and hypercritical state over a wide pressure and temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenberger, Rolf; Gerber, Stefan; Huber, Hanspeter; Searles, Debra; Welker, Marc

    1992-08-01

    The shear viscosity is calculated ab initio for the liquid and hypercritical state, i.e. a previously published potential for Ne 2, obtained from ab initio calculations including electron correlation, is used in classical equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to obtain the shear viscosity from a Green-Kubo integral. The quality of the results is quite uniform over a large pressure range up to 1000 MPa and a wide temperature range from 26 to 600 K. In most cases the calculated shear viscosity deviates by less than 10% from the experimental value, in general the error being only a few percent.

  1. Shear viscosity of the quark-gluon plasma in a weak magnetic field in perturbative QCD: Leading log

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiyong; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2018-03-01

    We compute the shear viscosity of two-flavor QCD plasma in an external magnetic field in perturbative QCD at leading log order, assuming that the magnetic field is weak or soft: e B ˜g4log (1 /g )T2. We work in the assumption that the magnetic field is homogeneous and static, and the electrodynamics is nondynamical in a formal limit e →0 while e B is kept fixed. We show that the shear viscosity takes a form η =η ¯(B ¯)T3/(g4log (1 /g )) with a dimensionless function η ¯(B ¯) in terms of a dimensionless variable B ¯=(e B )/(g4log (1 /g )T2). The variable B ¯ corresponds to the relative strength of the effect of cyclotron motions compared to the QCD collisions: B ¯˜lmfp/lcyclo. We provide a full numerical result for the scaled shear viscosity η ¯(B ¯).

  2. Use of the McQuarrie equation for the computation of shear viscosity via equilibrium molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chialvo, A.A.; Debenedetti, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    To date, the calculation of shear viscosity for soft-core fluids via equilibrium molecular dynamics has been done almost exclusively using the Green-Kubo formalism. The alternative mean-squared displacement approach has not been used, except for hard-sphere fluids, in which case the expression proposed by Helfand [Phys. Rev. 119, 1 (1960)] has invariably been selected. When written in the form given by McQuarrie [Statistical Mechanics (Harper ampersand Row, New York, 1976), Chap. 21], however, the mean-squared displacement approach offers significant computational advantages over both its Green-Kubo and Helfand counterparts. In order to achieve comparable statistical significance, the number of experiments needed when using the Green-Kubo or Helfand formalisms is more than an order of magnitude higher than for the McQuarrie expression. For pairwise-additive systems with zero linear momentum, the McQuarrie method yields frame-independent shear viscosities. The hitherto unexplored McQuarrie implementation of the mean-squared displacement approach to shear-viscosity calculation thus appears superior to alternative methods currently in use

  3. Numerical investigation on lateral migration and lift force of single bubble in simple shear flow in low viscosity fluid using volume of fluid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhongchun, Li; Xiaoming, Song; Shengyao, Jiang; Jiyang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A VOF simulation of bubble in low viscosity fluid was conducted. • Lift force in different viscosity fluid had different lateral migration characteristics. • Bubble with different size migrated to different direction. • Shear stress triggered the bubble deformation process and the bubble deformation came along with the oscillation behaviors. - Abstract: Two phase flow systems have been widely used in industrial engineering. Phase distribution characteristics are vital to the safety operation and optimization design of two phase flow systems. Lift force has been known as perpendicular to the bubbles’ moving direction, which is one of the mechanisms of interfacial momentum transfer. While most widely used lift force correlations, such as the correlation of Tomiyama et al. (2002), were obtained by experimentally tracking single bubble trajectories in high viscosity glycerol–water mixture, the applicability of these models into low viscosity fluid, such as water in nuclear engineering system, needs to be further evaluated. In the present paper, bubble in low viscosity fluid in shear flow was investigated in a full 3D numerical simulation and the volume of fluid (VOF) method was applied to capture the interface. The fluid parameter: fluid viscosity, bubble parameter: diameter and external flow parameters: shear stress magnitude and liquid velocity were examined. Comparing with bubble in high viscosity shear flow and bubble in low viscosity still flow, relative large bubble in low viscosity shear flow keep an oscillation way towards the moving wall and experienced a shape deformation process. The oscillation amplitude increased as the viscosity of fluid decreased. Small bubble migrated to the static wall in a line with larger migration velocity than that in high viscosity fluid and no deformation occurred. The shear stress triggered the oscillation behaviors while it had no direct influence with the behavior. The liquid velocity had no effect on

  4. Kubo formulae for the shear and bulk viscosity relaxation times and the scalar field theory shear $\\tau_\\pi$ calculation

    OpenAIRE

    Czajka, Alina; Jeon, Sangyong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we provide a quantum field theoretical study on the shear and bulk relaxation times. First, we find Kubo formulas for the shear and the bulk relaxation times, respectively. They are found by examining response functions of the stress-energy tensor. We use general properties of correlation functions and the gravitational Ward identity to parametrize analytical structures of the Green functions describing both sound and diffusion mode. We find that the hydrodynamic limits of the r...

  5. The effect of shear and extensional viscosities on atomization of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids in ultrasonic inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniarz-Press, L; Sosnowski, T R; Matuszak, M; Ochowiak, M; Jabłczyńska, K

    2015-05-15

    The paper contains results of the experimental study on atomization process of aqueous solutions of glycerol and aqueous solutions of glycerol-polyacrylamide (Rokrysol WF1) in an ultrasonic inhaler. In experiments the different concentration aqueous solutions of glycerol and glycerol-polyacrylamide have been tested. The results have been obtained by the use of laser diffraction technique. The differences between characteristics of ultrasonic atomization for test liquids have been observed. The analysis of drop size histograms shows that the different sizes of drops have been formed during atomization process. The present study confirmed the previous reports which suggested that the drops size changes with the increase in viscosity of solution changes in spray characteristics were also observed. It has been shown that the shear and extensional viscosities affect the process of atomization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. About a mechanism of the influence of shear stress for viscosity of the blood in vessels of small diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Лев Николаевич Катюхин

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed a physiological and experimentally confirmed explanation of Fåhraeus-Lindqvist-effect in capillaries using the profile analyses of osmotic deformability of red blood cells. It was shown the dose-dependent change of the erythrocytes deformability in the stage of isotropic spheres after forming artificial water pores (nystatin and occlusion (PbCl2 of available pores. The Sigma-effect reducing of hematocrit and viscosity in a shear flow of blood through the vessels of a small diameter was conditioned by the interchange of liquid phase between the erythrocyte and the plasma.

  7. Nucleon matter equation of state, particle number fluctuations, and shear viscosity within UrQMD box calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motornenko, A.; Bravina, L.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Magner, A. G.; Zabrodin, E.

    2018-03-01

    Properties of equilibrated nucleon system are studied within the ultra-relativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) transport model. The UrQMD calculations are done within a finite box with periodic boundary conditions. The system achieves thermal equilibrium due to nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering. For the UrQMD-equilibrium state, nucleon energy spectra, equation of state, particle number fluctuations, and shear viscosity η are calculated. The UrQMD results are compared with both, statistical mechanics and Chapman-Enskog kinetic theory, for a classical system of nucleons with hard-core repulsion.

  8. Design of a High Viscosity Couette Flow Facility for Patterned Surface Drag Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler; Lang, Amy

    2009-11-01

    Direct drag measurements can be difficult to obtain with low viscosity fluids such as air or water. In this facility, mineral oil is used as the working fluid to increase the shear stress across the surface of experimental models. A mounted conveyor creates a flow within a plexiglass tank. The experimental model of a flat or patterned surface is suspended above a moving belt. Within the gap between the model and moving belt a Couette flow with a linear velocity profile is created. PIV measurements are used to determine the exact velocities and the Reynolds numbers for each experiment. The model is suspended by bars that connect to the pillow block housing of each bearing. Drag is measured by a force gauge connected to linear roller bearings that slide along steel rods. The patterned surfaces, initially consisting of 2-D cavities, are embedded in a plexiglass plate so as to keep the total surface area constant for each experiment. First, the drag across a flat plate is measured and compared to theoretical values for laminar Couette flow. The drag for patterned surfaces is then measured and compared to a flat plate.

  9. Prediction of viscosities and surface tensions of fuels using a new corresponding states model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queimada, A.J.; Rolo, L.I.; Caco, A.I.

    2006-01-01

    While some properties of diesels are cheap, easy and fast to measure, such as densities, others such as surface tensions and viscosities are expensive and time consuming. A new approach that uses some basic information such as densities to predict viscosities and surface tensions is here proposed......) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Gas bubble retention and its effect on waste properties: Retention mechanisms, viscosity, and tensile and shear strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Rassat, S.D.; Powell, M.R.

    1995-08-01

    Several of the underground nuclear storage tanks at Hanford have been placed on a flammable gas watch list, because the waste is either known or suspected to generate, store, and episodically release flammable gases. Because retention and episodic release of flammable gases from these tanks containing radioactive waste slurries are critical safety concerns, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is studying physical mechanisms and waste properties that contribute to the episodic gas release from these storage tanks. This study is being conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company as part of the PNL Flammable Gas project. Previous investigations have concluded that gas bubbles are retained by the slurry or sludge that has settled at the bottom of the tanks; however, the mechanisms responsible for the retention of these bubbles are not well understood. Understanding the rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles and the dynamics of how these bubbles are released from the waste. The presence of gas bubbles is expected to affect the rheology of the sludge, specifically its viscosity and tensile and shear strengths, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of bubbles. The objectives of this study were to conduct experiments and develop theories to understand better how bubbles are retained by slurries and sludges, to measure the effect of gas bubbles on the viscosity of simulated slurries, and to measure the effect of gas bubbles on the tensile and shear strengths of simulated slurries and sludges. In addition to accomplishing these objectives, this study developed correlations, based on the new experimental data, that can be used in large-scale computations of waste tank physical phenomena

  11. Gas bubble retention and its effect on waste properties: Retention mechanisms, viscosity, and tensile and shear strengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Rassat, S.D.; Powell, M.R. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Several of the underground nuclear storage tanks at Hanford have been placed on a flammable gas watch list, because the waste is either known or suspected to generate, store, and episodically release flammable gases. Because retention and episodic release of flammable gases from these tanks containing radioactive waste slurries are critical safety concerns, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is studying physical mechanisms and waste properties that contribute to the episodic gas release from these storage tanks. This study is being conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company as part of the PNL Flammable Gas project. Previous investigations have concluded that gas bubbles are retained by the slurry or sludge that has settled at the bottom of the tanks; however, the mechanisms responsible for the retention of these bubbles are not well understood. Understanding the rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles and the dynamics of how these bubbles are released from the waste. The presence of gas bubbles is expected to affect the rheology of the sludge, specifically its viscosity and tensile and shear strengths, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of bubbles. The objectives of this study were to conduct experiments and develop theories to understand better how bubbles are retained by slurries and sludges, to measure the effect of gas bubbles on the viscosity of simulated slurries, and to measure the effect of gas bubbles on the tensile and shear strengths of simulated slurries and sludges. In addition to accomplishing these objectives, this study developed correlations, based on the new experimental data, that can be used in large-scale computations of waste tank physical phenomena.

  12. The Flow of a Variable Viscosity Fluid down an Inclined Plane with a Free Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Tshehla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a temperature dependent variable viscosity fluid flow down an inclined plane with a free surface is investigated. The fluid film is thin, so that lubrication approximation may be applied. Convective heating effects are included, and the fluid viscosity decreases exponentially with temperature. In general, the flow equations resulting from the variable viscosity model must be solved numerically. However, when the viscosity variation is small, then an asymptotic approximation is possible. The full solutions for the temperature and velocity profiles are derived using the Runge-Kutta numerical method. The flow controlling parameters such as the nondimensional viscosity variation parameter, the Biot and the Brinkman numbers, are found to have a profound effect on the resulting flow profiles.

  13. Magnetic viscosity by localized shear flow instability in magnetized accretion disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, R.; Tajima, T.

    1995-01-01

    Differentially rotating disks are subject to the axisymmetric instability for perfectly conducting plasma in the presence of poloidal magnetic fields. For nonaxisymmetric perturbations, the authors find localized unstable eigenmodes whose eigenfunction is confined between two Alfven singularities at ω d = ± ω A , where ω d is the Doppler-shifted wave frequency, and ω A = k parallel v A is the Alfven frequency. The radial width of the unstable eigenfunction is Δx ∼ ω A /(Ak y ), where A is the Oort's constant, and k y is the azimuthal wave number. The growth rate of the fundamental mode is larger for smaller value of k y /k z . The maximum growth rate when k y /k z ∼ 0.1 is ∼ 0.2Ω for the Keplerian disk with local angular velocity Ω. It is found that the purely growing mode disappears when k y /k z > 0.12. In a perfectly conducting disk, the instability grows even when the seed magnetic field is infinitesimal. Inclusion of the resistivity, however, leads to the appearance of an instability threshold. When the resistivity η depends on the instability-induced turbulent magnetic fields δB as η([δB 2 ]), the marginal stability condition self-consistently determines the α parameter of the angular momentum transport due to the magnetic stress. For fully ionized disks, the magnetic viscosity parameter α B is between 0.001 and 1. The authors' three-dimensional MHD simulation confirms these unstable eigenmodes. It also shows that the α parameter observed in simulation is between 0.01 and 1, in agreement with theory. The observationally required smaller α in the quiescent phase of accretion disks in dwarf novae may be explained by the decreased ionization due to the temperature drop

  14. Self-diffusion coefficients and shear viscosity of inverse power fluids: from hard- to soft-spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, D M; Brańka, A C

    2008-07-21

    Molecular dynamics computer simulation has been used to compute the self-diffusion coefficient, D, and shear viscosity, eta(s), of soft-sphere fluids, in which the particles interact through the soft-sphere or inverse power pair potential, phi(r) = epsilon(sigma/r)(n), where n measures the steepness or stiffness of the potential, and epsilon and sigma are a characteristic energy and distance, respectively. The simulations were carried out on monodisperse systems for a range of n values from the hard-sphere (n --> infinity) limit down to n = 4, and up to densities in excess of the fluid-solid co-existence value. A new analytical procedure is proposed which reproduces the transport coefficients at high densities, and can be used to extrapolate the data to densities higher than accurately accessible by simulation or experiment, and tending to the glass transition. This formula, DX(c-1) proportional, variant A/X + B, where c is an adjustable parameter, and X is either the packing fraction or the pressure, is a development of one proposed by Dymond. In the expression, -A/B is the value of X at the ideal glass transition (i.e., where D and eta(s)(-1) --> 0). Estimated values are presented for the packing fraction and the pressure at the glass transition for n values between the hard and soft particle limits. The above expression is also shown to reproduce the high density viscosity data of supercritical argon, krypton and nitrogen. Fits to the soft-sphere simulation transport coefficients close to solid-fluid co-existence are also made using the analytic form, ln(D) = alpha(X)X, and n-dependence of the alpha(X) is presented (X is either the packing fraction or the pressure).

  15. MHD natural convection from a heated vertical wavy surface with variable viscosity and thermal conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, M.; Hazarika, G.C.; Sibanda, P.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of temperature dependent viscosity and thermal conductivity on natural convection flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid along a vertical wavy surface. The flow is permeated by uniform transverse magnetic field. The fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary as inverse linear functions of temperature. The coupled non-linear systems of partial differential equations are solved using the finite difference method. The effects of variable viscosity parameter, variable thermal conductivity parameter and magnetic parameter on the flow field and the heat transfer characteristics are discussed and shown graphically. (author)

  16. Kinetic transport is needed to reliably extract shear viscosity from pA and AA data arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Kurkela, Aleksi; Wu, Bin

    The azimuthal anisotropies $v_n$ of particle spectra measured in proton-nucleus (pA) and nucleus-nucleus (AA) collisions play a key role in constraining QCD matter properties like the shear viscosity over entropy density ratio $\\eta/s$. Here, we compare calculations of $v_n$'s from viscous fluid dynamics and from kinetic transport which start both from the same initial conditions and which implement the same matter properties. We observe that both approaches lead to parametrically different $\\eta/s$-dependencies of the elliptic anisotropy $v_2$ and they may thus lead to quantitatively different results for the phenomenologically inferred value of $\\eta/s$. The parametric differences can be traced to the boost-invariant longitudinal expansion of pA and AA collisions which induces in fluid dynamic results of the $\\eta/s$-dependence of $v_2$ a dominant sensitivity on the initial conditions. Transport theory is free of this problem and it accounts for the order of magnitude of experimentally observed signal stren...

  17. Interfacial Shear Strength and Adhesive Behavior of Silk Ionomer Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghan; Geryak, Ren D; Zhang, Shuaidi; Ma, Ruilong; Calabrese, Rossella; Kaplan, David L; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2017-09-11

    The interfacial shear strength between different layers in multilayered structures of layer-by-layer (LbL) microcapsules is a crucial mechanical property to ensure their robustness. In this work, we investigated the interfacial shear strength of modified silk fibroin ionomers utilized in LbL shells, an ionic-cationic pair with complementary ionic pairing, (SF)-poly-l-glutamic acid (Glu) and SF-poly-l-lysine (Lys), and a complementary pair with partially screened Coulombic interactions due to the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) segments and SF-Glu/SF-Lys[PEG] pair. Shearing and adhesive behavior between these silk ionomer surfaces in the swollen state were probed at different spatial scales and pressure ranges by using functionalized atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips as well as functionalized colloidal probes. The results show that both approaches were consistent in analyzing the interfacial shear strength of LbL silk ionomers at different spatial scales from a nanoscale to a fraction of a micron. Surprisingly, the interfacial shear strength between SF-Glu and SF-Lys[PEG] pair with partially screened ionic pairing was greater than the interfacial shear strength of the SF-Glu and SF-Lys pair with a high density of complementary ionic groups. The difference in interfacial shear strength and adhesive strength is suggested to be predominantly facilitated by the interlayer hydrogen bonding of complementary amino acids and overlap of highly swollen PEG segments.

  18. Simultaneous measurement of surface tension and viscosity using freely decaying oscillations of acoustically levitated droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, J.; Kilzer, A.; Petermann, M.

    2018-01-01

    Oscillations of small liquid drops around a spherical shape have been of great interest to scientists measuring physical properties such as interfacial tension and viscosity, over the last few decades. A powerful tool for contactless positioning is acoustic levitation, which has been used to simultaneously determine the surface tension and viscosity of liquids at ambient pressure. In order to extend this acoustic levitation measurement method to high pressure systems, the method is first evaluated under ambient pressure. To measure surface tension and viscosity using acoustically levitated oscillating drops, an image analysis method has to be developed and factors which may affect measurement, such as sound field or oscillation amplitude, have to be analyzed. In this paper, we describe the simultaneous measurement of surface tension and viscosity using freely decaying shape oscillations of acoustically levitated droplets of different liquids (silicone oils AK 5 and AK 10, squalane, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol, and 1-octanol) in air. These liquids vary in viscosity from 2 to about 30 mPa s. An acoustic levitation system, including an optimized standing wave acoustic levitator and a high-speed camera, was used for this study. An image analysis was performed with a self-written Matlab® code. The frequency of oscillation and the damping constant, required for the determination of surface tension and viscosity, respectively, were calculated from the evolution of the equatorial and polar radii. The results and observations are compared to data from the literature in order to analyze the accuracy of surface tension and viscosity determination, as well as the effect of non-spherical drop shape or amplitude of oscillation on measurement.

  19. Surface shear stress dependence of gas transfer velocity parameterizations using DNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, S. T.; Arneborg, L.; Nilsson, H.; Handler, R. A.

    2016-10-01

    Air-water gas-exchange is studied in direct numerical simulations (DNS) of free-surface flows driven by natural convection and weak winds. The wind is modeled as a constant surface-shear-stress and the gas-transfer is modeled via a passive scalar. The simulations are characterized via a Richardson number Ri=Bν/u*4 where B, ν, and u* are the buoyancy flux, kinematic viscosity, and friction velocity respectively. The simulations comprise 0Ric or kg=AShearu*Sc-n, Risurface-characteristics.

  20. Noncontact surface tension and viscosity measurements of rhenium in the liquid and undercooled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Takehiko; Paradis, Paul-Francois; Yoda, Shinichi

    2004-01-01

    Surface tension and viscosity of liquid rhenium, which have hardly been measured due to the extremely high melting temperature of rhenium, were measured using an electrostatic levitation method combined with the oscillation drop technique. Sample position instability problems caused by the photon pressure of the heating lasers and by sample evaporation were solved by modifying the electrodes design. Good sample stability allowed the measurements of the surface tension and the viscosity over wide temperature ranges including the undercooled states. Over the 2800-3600 K interval, the surface tension of rhenium was measured as σ(T)=2.71x10 3 -0.23(T-T m ), where T m is the melting temperature, 3453 K. At T m , the datum agrees well with the literature values. Similarly, on the same temperature range, the viscosity was determined as η(T)=0.08 exp[1.33x10 5 /(RT)] (mPa s)

  1. Clustering of color sources and the shear viscosity of the QGP in heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias de Deus, J. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, CENTRA, Lisbon (Portugal); Hirsch, A.S.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Srivastava, B.K. [Purdue University, Department of Physics, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Pajares, C. [Universidale de Santiago de Compostela and Instituto Galego de Fisica de Atlas Enerxias (IGFAE), Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Santiago, de Compostela (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    We present our results on the shear viscosity to entropy ratio ({eta}/s) in the framework of the clustering of the color sources of the matter produced at RHIC and LHC energies. The onset of de-confinement transition is identified by the spanning percolating cluster in 2D percolation. The relativistic kinetic theory relation for {eta}/s is evaluated using the initial temperature (T) and the mean free path ({lambda}{sub mfp}). The analytic expression for {eta}/s covers a wide temperature range. At T{proportional_to}150 MeV below the hadron to QGP transition temperature of {proportional_to}168 MeV, with increasing temperatures the {eta}/s value drop sharply and reaches a broad minimum {eta}/s{proportional_to}0.20 at T{proportional_to}175-185 MeV. Above this temperature {eta}/s grows slowly. The measured values of {eta}/s are 0.204{+-}0.020 and 0.262{+-}0.026 at the initial temperature of 193.6{+-}3 MeV from central Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200{proportional_to}GeV (RHIC) and 262.2{+-}13 MeV in central Pb+Pb collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})= 2.76{proportional_to}TeV (LHC). These {eta}/s values are 2.5 and 3.3 times the AdS/CFT conjectured lower bound 1/4{pi} but are consistent with theoretical {eta}/s estimates for a strongly coupled QGP. (orig.)

  2. Acoustic characteristics of bubble bursting at the surface of a high-viscosity liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiao-Bo; Zhang Jian-Run; Li Pu

    2012-01-01

    An acoustic pressure model of bubble bursting is proposed. An experiment studying the acoustic characteristics of the bursting bubble at the surface of a high-viscosity liquid is reported. It is found that the sudden bursting of a bubble at the high-viscosity liquid surface generates N-shape wave at first, then it transforms into a jet wave. The fundamental frequency of the acoustic signal caused by the bursting bubble decreases linearly as the bubble size increases. The results of the investigation can be used to understand the acoustic characteristics of bubble bursting. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  3. Importance of physical vs. chemical interactions in surface shear rheology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, P.A.; Kosters, H.A.; Egmond, M.R.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    The stability of adsorbed protein layers against deformation has in literature been attributed to the formation of a continuous gel-like network. This hypothesis is mostly based on measurements of the increase of the surface shear elasticity with time. For several proteins this increase has been

  4. The effects of viscosity on sound radiation near solid surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morfey, C.L.; Sorokin, Sergey; Gabard, G.

    2012-01-01

    Although the acoustic analogy developed by Lighthill, Curle, and Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings for sound generation by unsteady flow past solid surfaces is formally exact, it has become accepted practice in aeroacoustics to use an approximate version in which viscous quadrupoles are neglected. Her...

  5. Application of SH surface acoustic waves for measuring the viscosity of liquids in function of pressure and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiełczyński, P; Szalewski, M; Balcerzak, A; Rostocki, A J; Tefelski, D B

    2011-12-01

    Viscosity measurements were carried out on triolein at pressures from atmospheric up to 650 MPa and in the temperature range from 10°C to 40°C using ultrasonic measuring setup. Bleustein-Gulyaev SH surface acoustic waves waveguides were used as viscosity sensors. Additionally, pressure changes occurring during phase transition have been measured over the same temperature range. Application of ultrasonic SH surface acoustic waves in the liquid viscosity measurements at high pressure has many advantages. It enables viscosity measurement during phase transitions and in the high-pressure range where the classical viscosity measurement methods cannot operate. Measurements of phase transition kinetics and viscosity of liquids at high pressures and various temperatures (isotherms) is a novelty. The knowledge of changes in viscosity in function of pressure and temperature can help to obtain a deeper insight into thermodynamic properties of liquids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Density, viscosity and surface tension of liquid phase Beckmann rearrangement mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidhof, K.T.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Schouten, J.C.; Tinge, J.T.

    2015-01-01

    We have determined the density, dynamic viscosity, and surface tension of liquid phase Beckmann rearrangement mixtures, consisting of e-caprolactam and fuming oleum. These important properties have been measured in wide ranges of both temperature and molar ratios of acid and e-caprolactam, covering

  7. Surface viscosity effects on the motion of self-propelling boat in a channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliperio, M. G.; Nolan Confesor, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Self-propelled droplets have been conceived as simple chemical toy models to mimic motile biological samples such as bacteria. The motion of these droplets is believe to be due to the surface tension gradient in the boundary of the droplet. We performed experiments to look at the effect of varying the medium viscosity to the speed of a circular boat that was soaked in Pentanol. We found that the boats undergo oscillatory type of motion inside a channel. Moreover we found the maximum speed of the boat is independent on the viscosity of the medium. On the other a time scale describing the width of the velocity profile of the boat was found to increase with increasing viscosity.

  8. Viscosity of particle laden films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timounay, Yousra; Rouyer, Florence

    2017-06-01

    We perform retraction experiments on soap films where large particles bridge the two interfaces. Local velocities are measured by PIV during the unstationnary regime. The velocity variation in time and space can be described by a continuous fluid model from which effective viscosity (shear and dilatational) of particulate films is measured. The 2D effective viscosity of particulate films η2D increases with particle surface fraction ϕ: at low ϕ, it tends to the interfacial dilatational viscosity of the liquid/air interfaces and it diverges at the critical particle surface fraction ϕc ≃ 0.84. Experimental data agree with classical viscosity laws of hard spheres suspensions adapted to the 2D geometry, assuming viscous dissipation resulting from the squeeze of the liquid/air interfaces between the particles. Finally, we show that the observed viscous dissipation in particulate films has to be considered to describe the edge velocity during a retraction experiment at large particle coverage.

  9. Scaling of turbulence spectra measured in strong shear flow near the Earth’s surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Larsen, S. E.; Jørgensen, H. E.; Astrup, P.; Larsén, X. G.

    2017-12-01

    Within the lowest kilometer of the Earth’s atmosphere, in the so-called atmospheric boundary layer, winds are often gusty and turbulent. Nearest to the ground, the turbulence is predominately generated by mechanical wall-bounded wind shear, whereas at higher altitudes turbulent mixing of heat and moisture also play a role. The variance (square of the standard deviation) of the fluctuation around the mean wind speed is a measure of the kinetic energy content of the turbulence. This kinetic energy can be resolved into the spectral distributions, or spectra, as functions of eddy size, wavenumber, or frequency. Spectra are derived from Fourier transforms of wind records as functions of space or time corresponding to wavenumber and frequency spectra, respectively. Atmospheric spectra often exhibit different subranges that can be distinguished and scaled by the physical parameters responsible for: (1) their generation; (2) the cascade of energy across the spectrum from large- to small-scale; and (3) the eventual decay of turbulence into heat owing to viscosity effects on the Kolmogorov microscale, in which the eddy size is only a fraction of a millimeter. This paper addresses atmospheric turbulence spectra in the lowest part of the atmospheric boundary layer—the so-called surface layer—where the wind shear is strong owing to the nonslip condition at the ground. Theoretical results dating back to Tchen’s early work in 1953 ‘on the spectrum of energy in turbulent shear flow’ led Tchen to predict a shear production subrange with a distinct inverse-linear power law for turbulence in a strongly sheared high-Reynolds number wall-bounded flow, as is encountered in the lowest sheared part of the atmospheric boundary layer, also known as the eddy surface layer. This paper presents observations of spectra measured in a meteorological mast at Høvsøre, Denmark, that support Tchen’s prediction of a shear production subrange following a distinct power law of degree -1

  10. Rôle of contrast media viscosity in altering vessel wall shear stress and relation to the risk of contrast extravasations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, Sophia; Li, Wenguang; Paul, Manosh C; Roditi, Giles

    2016-12-01

    Iodinated contrast media (CM) are the most commonly used injectables in radiology today. A range of different media are commercially available, combining various physical and chemical characteristics (ionic state, osmolality, viscosity) and thus exhibiting distinct in vivo behaviour and safety profiles. In this paper, numerical simulations of blood flow with contrast media were conducted to investigate the effects of contrast viscosity on generated vessel wall shear stress and vessel wall pressure to elucidate any possible relation to extravasations. Five different types of contrast for Iodine fluxes ranging at 1.5-2.2gI/s were modelled through 18G and 20G cannulae placed in an ideal vein at two different orientation angles. Results demonstrate that the least viscous contrast media generate the least maximum wall shear stress as well as the lowest total pressure for the same flow rate. This supports the empirical clinical observations and hypothesis that more viscous contrast media are responsible for a higher percentage of contrast extravasations. In addition, results support the clinical hypothesis that a catheter tip directed obliquely to the vein wall always produces the highest maximum wall shear stress and total pressure due to impingement of the contrast jet on the vessel wall. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimation of the shear viscosity from 3FD simulations of Au + Au collisions at √(sNN) = 3.3-39 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Yu.B.; Soldatov, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    An effective shear viscosity in central Au+Au collisions is estimated in the range of incident energies 3.3 GeV≤√(s NN )≤39 GeV. The simulations are performed within a three-fluid model employing three different equations of state with and without the deconfinement transition. In order to estimate this effective viscosity, we consider the entropy produced in the 3FD simulations as if it is generated within the conventional one-fluid viscous hydrodynamics. It is found that the effective viscosity within the different considered scenarios is very similar at the expansion stage of the collision: as a function of temperature (T) the viscosity-to-entropy ratio behaves as η/s∝1/T 4 ; as a function of the net-baryon density (n B ), η/s∝1/s, i.e. it is mainly determined by the density dependence of the entropy density. The above dependences take place along the dynamical trajectories of Au+Au collisions. At the final stages of the expansion the η/s values are ranged from ∝0.05 at the highest considered energies to ∝.5 at the lowest ones. (orig.)

  12. Ionic liquid nanotribology: stiction suppression and surface induced shear thinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asencio, Rubén Álvarez; Cranston, Emily D; Atkin, Rob; Rutland, Mark W

    2012-07-03

    The friction and adhesion between pairs of materials (silica, alumina, and polytetrafluoroethylene) have been studied and interpreted in terms of the long-ranged interactions present. In ambient laboratory air, the interactions are dominated by van der Waals attraction and strong adhesion leading to significant frictional forces. In the presence of the ionic liquid (IL) ethylammonium nitrate (EAN) the van der Waals interaction is suppressed and the attractive/adhesive interactions which lead to "stiction" are removed, resulting in an at least a 10-fold reduction in the friction force at large applied loads. The friction coefficient for each system was determined; coefficients obtained in air were significantly larger than those obtained in the presence of EAN (which ranged between 0.1 and 0.25), and variation in the friction coefficients between systems was correlated with changes in surface roughness. As the viscosity of ILs can be relatively high, which has implications for the lubricating properties, the hydrodynamic forces between the surfaces have therefore also been studied. The linear increase in repulsive force with speed, expected from hydrodynamic interactions, is clearly observed, and these forces further inhibit the potential for stiction. Remarkably, the viscosity extracted from the data is dramatically reduced compared to the bulk value, indicative of a surface ordering effect which significantly reduces viscous losses.

  13. Near-surface viscosity measurements with a love acoustic wave device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, A.F.; Cooper, B.J.; Lappas, S.; Sor, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: In the last decade, considerable research effort has been directed towards interfacing piezoelectric transducers with biological detection systems to produce efficient and highly selective biosensors. Several types of piezoelectric or, more specifically, acoustic wave transducers have been investigated. Our group has developed Love wave (guided surface skimming wave) devices which are made by attaching a thin overlayer with the appropriate acoustic properties to the surface of a conventional surface horizontal mode device. An optimised layer concentrates most of the propagating wave energy in the guiding layer and can improve the device sensitivity in detecting gas-phase mass loading on the surface some 20- to 40-fold. Love wave devices used in liquid phase sensing will also respond to viscous, as well as mass, loading on the device surface. We have studied the propagation of viscous waves into liquid sitting on a Love wave device both theoretically and experimentally. Modelling of the effect of a viscous liquid layer on a Love wave propagating in a layered medium predicts the velocity profile in the solid substrate and in the adjoining liquid. This is a function of the thickness of the guiding layer, the elastic properties of the guiding layer and the piezoelectric substrate, and of the viscosity and density of the liquid layer. We report here on measurements of the viscosity of aqueous glycerine solutions made with a quartz Love wave device with a 5.5 μm SiO 2 guiding layer. The linear relationship between the decrease in the device frequency and the square root of the viscosity density product is accurately observed at Newtonian viscosities. At higher viscosities, there is an increase in damping, the insertion loss of the device saturates, Δf is no longer proportional to (ηp) l/2 and reaches a maximum. We also show results for the determination of the gelation time in protein and inorganic aqueous gels and for the rate of change of viscosity with

  14. Rivulet flow round a horizontal cylinder subject to a uniform surface shear stress

    KAUST Repository

    Paterson, C.; Wilson, S. K.; Duffy, B. R.

    2014-01-01

    large stationary horizontal cylinder subject to a prescribed uniform azimuthal surface shear stress is investigated. In particular, we focus on the case where the volume flux is downwards but the shear stress is upwards, for which there is always a

  15. Viscosity and surface tension of binary systems of N,N-dimethylformamide with alkan-1-ols at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, Abubaker A.; Alkhaldi, Khaled H.A.E.; AlTuwaim, Mohammad S.; Al-Jimaz, Adel S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Physical properties of binary mixtures of DMF+1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, or 1-heptanol. ► Viscosity and surface tension were measured. ►Δη, Δσ σ and G ∗E were calculated using the experimental data. ► H σ and S σ were determined using the surface tension data. ► Semi-empirical relations were used to estimate the viscosity of liquid mixtures. - Abstract: Viscosity η and surface tension σ were measured for binary mixtures of N,N-dimethylformamide DMF with pentan-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, and heptan-1-ol at T = (298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K and atmospheric pressure over the entire mole fraction range. Deviations in viscosity Δη and surface tension Δσ were calculated using experimental results. Moreover, the values of the excess Gibbs free energy of activation G ∗E , surface enthalpy H σ and surface entropy S σ of these mixtures were determined. Viscosity measurements of the binary systems were correlated with Grunberg and Nissan, the three-body and four-body McAllister expressions. Viscosity deviation, surface tension deviation and excess Gibbs energy of activation functions were fitted to the method of Redlich–Kister (R–K) polynomial to estimate the coefficients and standard deviations. The effects of chain length of alkan-1-ols and temperature on the thermodynamic properties of binary systems were studied.

  16. High-frequency shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Darren W

    2013-05-07

    A Love wave sensor uses a single-phase unidirectional interdigital transducer (IDT) on a piezoelectric substrate for leaky surface acoustic wave generation. The IDT design minimizes propagation losses, bulk wave interferences, provides a highly linear phase response, and eliminates the need for impedance matching. As an example, a high frequency (.about.300-400 MHz) surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer enables efficient excitation of shear-horizontal waves on 36.degree. Y-cut lithium tantalate (LTO) giving a highly linear phase response (2.8.degree. P-P). The sensor has the ability to detect at the pg/mm.sup.2 level and can perform multi-analyte detection in real-time. The sensor can be used for rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms.

  17. Exponentially varying viscosity of magnetohydrodynamic mixed convection Eyring-Powell nanofluid flow over an inclined surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imad; Fatima, Sumreen; Malik, M. Y.; Salahuddin, T.

    2018-03-01

    This paper explores the theoretical study of the steady incompressible two dimensional MHD boundary layer flow of Eyring-Powell nanofluid over an inclined surface. The fluid is considered to be electrically conducting and the viscosity of the fluid is assumed to be varying exponentially. The governing partial differential equations (PDE's) are reduced into ordinary differential equations (ODE's) by applying similarity approach. The resulting ordinary differential equations are solved successfully by using Homotopy analysis method. The impact of pertinent parameters on velocity, concentration and temperature profiles are examined through graphs and tables. Also coefficient of skin friction, Sherwood and Nusselt numbers are illustrated in tabular and graphical form.

  18. Theoretical study of the flow in a fluid damper containing high viscosity silicone oil: Effects of shear-thinning and viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrakos, Alexandros; Dimakopoulos, Yannis; Tsamopoulos, John

    2018-03-01

    The flow inside a fluid damper where a piston reciprocates sinusoidally inside an outer casing containing high-viscosity silicone oil is simulated using a finite volume method, at various excitation frequencies. The oil is modeled by the Carreau-Yasuda (CY) and Phan-Thien and Tanner (PTT) constitutive equations. Both models account for shear-thinning, but only the PTT model accounts for elasticity. The CY and other generalised Newtonian models have been previously used in theoretical studies of fluid dampers, but the present study is the first to perform full two-dimensional (axisymmetric) simulations employing a viscoelastic constitutive equation. It is found that the CY and PTT predictions are similar when the excitation frequency is low, but at medium and higher frequencies, the CY model fails to describe important phenomena that are predicted by the PTT model and observed in experimental studies found in the literature, such as the hysteresis of the force-displacement and force-velocity loops. Elastic effects are quantified by applying a decomposition of the damper force into elastic and viscous components, inspired from large amplitude oscillatory shear theory. The CY model also overestimates the damper force relative to the PTT model because it underpredicts the flow development length inside the piston-cylinder gap. It is thus concluded that (a) fluid elasticity must be accounted for and (b) theoretical approaches that rely on the assumption of one-dimensional flow in the piston-cylinder gap are of limited accuracy, even if they account for fluid viscoelasticity. The consequences of using lower-viscosity silicone oil are also briefly examined.

  19. Stability of Marangoni Convection in a Fluid Layer with Variable Viscosity and deformable Free Surface under Free-Slip condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hafizah Zainal Abidin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The steady marangoni convection is investigated in ahorizontal layer of fluid with a free-slip bottom heated frombelow and cooled from above. Since the viscosity is temperaturedependentthe consequences of relaxing oberbeck-boussinesqapproximation and free surface deformability are theoreticallyexamined by means of small disturbance analysis. Prediction forthe onset of convection are obtained from the analysis bynumerical technique. The effect of variable viscosity and surfacedeformation on the onset of fluid motion is investigated in detail.It is shown that the critical values of marangoni and wavenumber depend strongly on the viscosity variation and surfacedeformation.

  20. Effects of surface tension and viscosity on the forming and transferring process of microscale droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shulei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Cunbin; Wang, Dongyang; Ba, Dechun; Xie, Yuanhua; Du, Guangyu; Ba, Yaoshuai; Lin, Qiao

    2016-12-01

    Surface tension and viscosity act as important roles on the fluid flow in microchannel channels. In order to understand the influencing mechanism, three dimensional numerical simulations as well as experimental investigations were carried out on the slug formation and transfer in a rectangle T-junction microchannel. The simulation showed that the increasing Capillary number (Ca) resulted in the decreasing slug volume. Due to the existence of film thickness and corner flow, the characteristic length of slug was not the same trend completely. The results also showed that the pressure of junction point fluctuated periodically in the process of slug formation, which can reflect the slug formation period and the effect of the various conditions on pressure change. Two other pressure monitoring points were located in vertical channel and main channel and they monitored the pressure of two phase flow respectively. The increasing surface tension resulted in an increasing of total pressure, the interface pressure drop of two phases and the period of slug formation. The frequency of slug formation and two phases total pressure increased with the viscosity of continuous phase.

  1. Influence of additives on melt viscosity, surface tension, and film formation of dry powder coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Dorothea; McGinity, James W

    2009-06-01

    Limited information on thermally cured dry-powder coatings used for solid dosage forms has been available in the literature. The aim of this study was to characterize the film formation process of Eudragit L 100-55 dry-powder coatings and to investigate the influence of film additives on melt viscosity and surface tension. The coating process employed no liquids and the plasticizer was combined with the polymer using hot melt extrusion. Thermoanalytical methods including differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to investigate the thermal properties of the dry-coating formulations. The rheological behavior of the coating formulations were characterized with the extrusion torque, and the surface energy parameters were determined from contact angle measurements. The influence of the level of triethyl citrate (TEC) as plasticizer and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 in the polymer film on film formation was investigated using a digital force tester. TGA confirmed thermal stability of all coating excipients at the investigated curing conditions. Increasing TEC levels and the addition of PEG 3350 as a low melting excipient in the coating reduced the viscosity of the polymer. Plasticization of the polymer with TEC increased the surface free energy, whereas the admixture of 10% PEG 3350 did not affect the surface free energy of Eudragit L 100-55. The spreading coefficient of the polymers over two sample tablet formulations was reduced with increasing surface free energy. During the curing process, puncture strength, and elongation of powder-cast films increased. The effect of curing time on the mechanical properties was dependent on the plasticizer content. The incorporation of TEC and PEG 3350 into the Eudragit L 100-55 powder coating formulation improved film formation. Mechanical testing of powder-cast films showed an increase of both elongation and puncture strength over the curing process as criterion for polymer particle fusion

  2. In situ droplet surface tension and viscosity measurements in gas metal arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, B; Siewert, E; Schein, J

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an adaptation of a drop oscillation technique that enables in situ measurements of thermophysical properties of an industrial pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process. Surface tension, viscosity, density and temperature were derived expanding the portfolio of existing methods and previously published measurements of surface tension in pulsed GMAW. Natural oscillations of pure liquid iron droplets are recorded during the material transfer with a high-speed camera. Frame rates up to 30000 fps were utilized to visualize iron droplet oscillations which were in the low kHz range. Image processing algorithms were employed for edge contour extraction of the droplets and to derive parameters such as oscillation frequencies and damping rates along different dimensions of the droplet. Accurate surface tension measurements were achieved incorporating the effect of temperature on density. These are compared with a second method that has been developed to accurately determine the mass of droplets produced during the GMAW process which enables precise surface tension measurements with accuracies up to 1% and permits the study of thermophysical properties also for metals whose density highly depends on temperature. Thermophysical properties of pure liquid iron droplets formed by a wire with 1.2 mm diameter were investigated in a pulsed GMAW process with a base current of 100 A and a pulse current of 600 A. Surface tension and viscosity of a sample droplet were 1.83 ± 0.02 N m -1 and 2.9 ± 0.3 mPa s, respectively. The corresponding droplet temperature and density are 2040 ± 50 K and 6830 ± 50 kg m -3 , respectively. (paper)

  3. Gas Near a Wall: Shortened Mean Free Path, Reduced Viscosity, and the Manifestation of the Knudsen Layer in the Navier-Stokes Solution of a Shear Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Rafail V.

    2018-06-01

    For the gas near a solid planar wall, we propose a scaling formula for the mean free path of a molecule as a function of the distance from the wall, under the assumption of a uniform distribution of the incident directions of the molecular free flight. We subsequently impose the same scaling onto the viscosity of the gas near the wall and compute the Navier-Stokes solution of the velocity of a shear flow parallel to the wall. Under the simplifying assumption of constant temperature of the gas, the velocity profile becomes an explicit nonlinear function of the distance from the wall and exhibits a Knudsen boundary layer near the wall. To verify the validity of the obtained formula, we perform the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo computations for the shear flow of argon and nitrogen at normal density and temperature. We find excellent agreement between our velocity approximation and the computed DSMC velocity profiles both within the Knudsen boundary layer and away from it.

  4. On the propagation of linear longitudinal acoustic waves in isotropic media with shear and volume viscosity and a tensorial internal variable. II. Some cases of special interest (Poynting-Thomson, Jeffreys, Maxwell, Kelvin-Voigt, Hooke and Newton media)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciancio, V.; Turrisi, E.; Kluitenberg, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    In a previous paper the propagation of linear longitudinal acoustic waves in isotropic media with shear and volume viscosity and a tensorial internal variable was considered and the expressions for the velocity and attenuation of the waves were obtained. In the present paper we investigate the

  5. Multiscale modeling of electroosmotic flow: Effects of discrete ion, enhanced viscosity, and surface friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadauria, Ravi; Aluru, N. R.

    2017-05-01

    We propose an isothermal, one-dimensional, electroosmotic flow model for slit-shaped nanochannels. Nanoscale confinement effects are embedded into the transport model by incorporating the spatially varying solvent and ion concentration profiles that correspond to the electrochemical potential of mean force. The local viscosity is dependent on the solvent local density and is modeled using the local average density method. Excess contributions to the local viscosity are included using the Onsager-Fuoss expression that is dependent on the local ionic strength. A Dirichlet-type boundary condition is provided in the form of the slip velocity that is dependent on the macroscopic interfacial friction. This solvent-surface specific interfacial friction is estimated using a dynamical generalized Langevin equation based framework. The electroosmotic flow of Na+ and Cl- as single counterions and NaCl salt solvated in Extended Simple Point Charge (SPC/E) water confined between graphene and silicon slit-shaped nanochannels are considered as examples. The proposed model yields a good quantitative agreement with the solvent velocity profiles obtained from the non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations.

  6. Surface waves on currents with arbitrary vertical shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Benjamin K.; Ellingsen, Simen Å.

    2017-04-01

    We study dispersion properties of linear surface gravity waves propagating in an arbitrary direction atop a current profile of depth-varying magnitude using a piecewise linear approximation and develop a robust numerical framework for practical calculation. The method has been much used in the past for the case of waves propagating along the same axis as the background current, and we herein extend and apply it to problems with an arbitrary angle between the wave propagation and current directions. Being valid for all wavelengths without loss of accuracy, the scheme is particularly well suited to solve problems involving a broad range of wave vectors, such as ship waves and Cauchy-Poisson initial value problems. We examine the group and phase velocities over different wavelength regimes and current profiles, highlighting characteristics due to the depth-variable vorticity. We show an example application to ship waves on an arbitrary current profile and demonstrate qualitative differences in the wake patterns between concave down and concave up profiles when compared to a constant shear profile with equal depth-averaged vorticity. We also discuss the nature of additional solutions to the dispersion relation when using the piecewise-linear model. These are vorticity waves, drifting vortical structures which are artifacts of the piecewise model. They are absent for a smooth profile and are spurious in the present context.

  7. Density, viscosity, surface tension, and spectroscopic properties for binary system of 1,2-ethanediamine + diethylene glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lihua; Zhang, Jianbin; Li, Qiang; Guo, Bo; Zhao, Tianxiang; Sha, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Excess property of the binary system 1,2-ethanediamine (EDA) + diethylene glycol (DEG). - Highlights: • Densities and viscosities of EDA + DEG at 298.15–318.150 K were listed. • Thermodynamics data of EDA + DEG at 298.15–318.15 K were calculated. • Surface tension of EDA + DEG at 298.15 K was measured. • Intermolecular interaction of EDA with DEG was discussed. - Abstract: This paper reports density and viscosity data at T = 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, and 318.15 K and surface tension data at 298.15 K for the binary system 1,2-ethanediamine (EDA) + diethylene glycol (DEG) as a function of composition under atmospheric pressure. From the experimental density and viscosity data, the excess molar volume and viscosity deviation were calculated, and the results were fitted to a Redlich–Kister equation to obtain the coefficients and to estimate the standard deviations between the experimental and calculated quantities. Based on the kinematic viscosity data, enthalpy of activation for viscous flow, entropy of activation for the viscous flow, and Gibbs energies of activation of viscous flow were calculated. In addition, based on Fourier transform infrared spectra, UV–vis spectra, and electrical conductivity for the system EDA + DEG with various concentrations, intermolecular interaction of EDA with DEG was discussed

  8. Non-perturbative unitarity constraints on the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density in UV complete theories with a gravity dual

    CERN Document Server

    Brustein, Ram

    2011-01-01

    We reconsider, from a novel perspective, how unitarity constrains the corrections to the ratio of shear viscosity \\eta\\ to entropy density s. We start with higher-derivative extensions of Einstein gravity in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes. It is assumed that these theories are derived from string theory and thus have a unitary UV completion that is dual to a unitary, UV-complete boundary gauge theory. We then propose that the gravitational perturbations about a solution of the UV complete theory are described by an effective theory whose linearized equations of motion have at most two time derivatives. Our proposal leads to a concrete prescription for the calculation of \\eta/s for theories of gravity with arbitrary higher-derivative corrections. The resulting ratio can take on values above or below 1/4\\pi\\ and is consistent with all the previous calculations, even though our reasoning is substantially different. For the purpose of calculating \\eta/s, our proposal also leads to only two possible cand...

  9. Surface Effect on Vibration of Y-SWCNTs Embedded on Pasternak Foundation Conveying Viscose Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghorbanpour-Arani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface and small scale effects on free transverse vibration of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT fitted with Y-junction at downstream end conveying viscose fluid is investigated in this article based on Euler-Bernoulli beam (EBB model. Nonlocal elasticity theory is employed to consider small scale effects due to its simplicity and efficiency. The energy method and Hamilton’s principle are used to establish the corresponding motion equation. To discretize and solve the governing equation of motion the Galerkin method is applied. Moreover, the small-size effect, angle of Y-junction, surface layer and Pasternak elastic foundation are studied in detail. Regarding fluid flow effects, it has been concluded that the fluid flow is an effective factor on increasing the instability of Y-SWCNT. Results show that increasing the angle of Y-junction enhances the flutter fluid velocity where the first and second modes are merged. This work could be used in medical application and design of nano-electromechanical devices such as measuring the density of blood flowing through such nanotubes.

  10. Density, viscosity, and surface tension of synthesis grade imidazolium,pyridinium, and pyrrolidinium based room temperature ionic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galan Sanchez, L.M.; Espel, J.R.; Onink, S.A.F.; Meindersma, G.W.; Haan, de A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Density, viscosity, and surface tension data sets of 13 ionic liquids formed by imidazolium, pyridinium, or pyrrolidinium cations paired with dicyanamide (DCA), tetrafluoroborate (BF4¯), thiocyanate (SCN¯),methylsulfate (MeSO4¯), and trifluoroacetate (TFA) anions are reported. The properties were

  11. pH-Induced Changes in the Surface Viscosity of Unsaturated Phospholipids Monitored Using Active Interfacial Microrheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazvini, Saba; Alonso, Ryan; Alhakamy, Nabil; Dhar, Prajnaparamita

    2018-01-23

    Lipid membranes, a major component of cells, are subjected to significant changes in pH depending on their location in the cell: the outer leaflet of the cell membrane is exposed to a pH of 7.4 whereas lipid membranes that make up late endosomes and lysosomes are exposed to a pH of as low as 4.4. The purpose of this study is to evaluate how changes in the environmental pH within cells alter the fluidity of phospholipid membranes. Specifically, we studied pH-induced alterations in the surface arrangement of monounsaturated lipids with zwitterionic headgroups (phosphoethanolamine (PE) and phosphocholine (PC)) that are abundant in plasma membranes as well as anionic lipids (phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG)) that are abundant in inner membranes using a combination of techniques including surface tension vs area measurements, interfacial microrheology, and fluorescence/atomic force microscopy. Using an active interfacial microrheology technique, we find that phospholipids with zwitterionic headgroups show a significant increase in their surface viscosity at acidic pH. This increase in surface viscosity is also found to depend on the size of the lipid headgroup, with a smaller headgroup showing a greater increase in viscosity. The observed pH-induced increase in viscosity is also accompanied by an increase in the cohesion pressure between zwitterionic molecules at acidic pH and a decrease in the average molecular area of the lipids, as measured by fitting the surface pressure isotherms to well-established equations of state. Because fluorescent images show no change in the phase of the lipids, we attribute this change in surface viscosity to the pH-induced reorientation of the P - -N + dipoles that form part of the polar lipid headgroup, resulting in increased lipid-lipid interactions. Anionic PG headgroups do not demonstrate this pH-induced change in viscosity, suggesting that the presence of a net negative charge on the headgroup causes

  12. Extensional flow of low-viscosity fluids in capillary bridges formed by pulsed surface acoustic wave jetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, P K; McDonnell, A G; Prabhakar, R; Yeo, L Y; Friend, J, E-mail: james.friend@monash.edu.au [MicroNanophysics Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800 (Australia); Melbourne Centre for Nanofabrication, Melbourne, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2011-02-15

    Forming capillary bridges of low-viscosity ({approx}<10 mPa s) fluids is difficult, making the study of their capillary-thinning behavior and the measurement of the fluid's extensional viscosity difficult as well. Current techniques require some time to form a liquid bridge from the stretching of a droplet. Rapidly stretching a liquid bridge using these methods can cause its breakup if the viscosity is too low. Stretching more slowly allows the bridge to thin and break up before a suitable bridge geometry can be established to provide reliable and accurate rheological data. Using a pulsed surface acoustic wave to eject a jet from a sessile droplet, a capillary bridge may be formed in about 7.5 ms, about seven times quicker than current methods. With this approach, capillary bridges may be formed from Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids having much lower viscosities-water, 0.04% by weight solution of high-molecular-weight (7 MDa) polystyrene in dioctyl phthalate and 0.25% fibrinogen solution in demineralized water, for example. Details of the relatively simple system used to achieve these results are provided, as are experimental results indicating deviations from a Newtonian response by the low-viscosity non-Newtonian fluids used in our study.

  13. Extensional flow of low-viscosity fluids in capillary bridges formed by pulsed surface acoustic wave jetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, P K; McDonnell, A G; Prabhakar, R; Yeo, L Y; Friend, J

    2011-01-01

    Forming capillary bridges of low-viscosity (∼<10 mPa s) fluids is difficult, making the study of their capillary-thinning behavior and the measurement of the fluid's extensional viscosity difficult as well. Current techniques require some time to form a liquid bridge from the stretching of a droplet. Rapidly stretching a liquid bridge using these methods can cause its breakup if the viscosity is too low. Stretching more slowly allows the bridge to thin and break up before a suitable bridge geometry can be established to provide reliable and accurate rheological data. Using a pulsed surface acoustic wave to eject a jet from a sessile droplet, a capillary bridge may be formed in about 7.5 ms, about seven times quicker than current methods. With this approach, capillary bridges may be formed from Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids having much lower viscosities-water, 0.04% by weight solution of high-molecular-weight (7 MDa) polystyrene in dioctyl phthalate and 0.25% fibrinogen solution in demineralized water, for example. Details of the relatively simple system used to achieve these results are provided, as are experimental results indicating deviations from a Newtonian response by the low-viscosity non-Newtonian fluids used in our study.

  14. Viscosity of particle laden films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timounay Yousra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We perform retraction experiments on soap films where large particles bridge the two interfaces. Local velocities are measured by PIV during the unstationnary regime. The velocity variation in time and space can be described by a continuous fluid model from which effective viscosity (shear and dilatational of particulate films is measured. The 2D effective viscosity of particulate films η2D increases with particle surface fraction ϕ: at low ϕ, it tends to the interfacial dilatational viscosity of the liquid/air interfaces and it diverges at the critical particle surface fraction ϕc ≃ 0.84. Experimental data agree with classical viscosity laws of hard spheres suspensions adapted to the 2D geometry, assuming viscous dissipation resulting from the squeeze of the liquid/air interfaces between the particles. Finally, we show that the observed viscous dissipation in particulate films has to be considered to describe the edge velocity during a retraction experiment at large particle coverage.

  15. Separation of density and viscosity influence on liquid-loaded surface acoustic wave devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, F.; Hahn, D.; Büttgenbach, S.

    1999-05-01

    Love-mode sensors are reported for separate measurement of liquid density and viscosity. They combine the general merits of Love-mode devices, e.g., ease of sensitivity adjustment and robustness, with a highly effective procedure of separate determination of liquid density and viscosity. A model is proposed to describe the frequency response of the devices to liquid loading. Moreover, design rules are given for further optimization and sensitivity enhancement.

  16. Shear induced hexagonal ordering observed in an ionic viscoelastic fluid in flow past a surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, W.A.; Butler, P.D.; Baker, S.M.; Smith, G.S.; Hayter, J.B.; Magid, L.J.; Pynn, R.

    1994-01-01

    We present the first clear evidence of a shear induced hexagonal phase in a polyionic fluid in flow past a plane quartz surface. The dilute surfactant solution studied is viscoelastic due to the formation and entanglement of highly extended charged threadlike micelles many thousands of A long, which are known to align along the flow direction under shear. Small-angle neutron diffraction data show that in the high shear region within a few tens of microns of the surface these micelles not only align, but form a remarkably well ordered hexagonal array separated by 370 A, 8 times their 46 A diameter

  17. In Situ Evaluation of Density, Viscosity and Thickness of Adsorbed Soft Layers by Combined Surface Acoustic Wave and Surface Plasmon Resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, L.; Friedt, J. -M.; Zhou, C.; Bertrand, P.

    2003-01-01

    We show the theoretical and experimental combination of acoustic and optical methods for the in situ quantitative evaluation of the density, the viscosity and the thickness of soft layers adsorbed on chemically tailored metal surfaces. For the highest sensitivity and an operation in liquids, a Love mode surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor with a hydrophobized gold coated sensing area is the acoustic method, while surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on the same gold surface as the optical method is...

  18. A study on the impact of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose on the viscosity of PEG melt suspensions using surface plots and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ching Mien; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Chan, Lai Wah

    2015-04-01

    An understanding of the rheological behaviour of polymer melt suspensions is crucial in pharmaceutical manufacturing, especially when processed by spray congealing or melt extruding. However, a detailed comparison of the viscosities at each and every temperature and concentration between the various grades of adjuvants in the formulation will be tedious and time-consuming. Therefore, the statistical method, principal component analysis (PCA), was explored in this study. The composite formulations comprising polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) of ten different grades (K100 LV, K4M, K15M, K100M, E15 LV, E50 LV, E4M, F50 LV, F4M and Methocel VLV) at various concentrations were prepared and their viscosities at different temperatures determined. Surface plots showed that concentration of HPMC had a greater effect on the viscosity compared to temperature. Particle size and size distribution of HPMC played an important role in the viscosity of melt suspensions. Smaller particles led to a greater viscosity than larger particles. PCA was used to evaluate formulations of different viscosities. The complex viscosity profiles of the various formulations containing HPMC were successfully classified into three clusters of low, moderate and high viscosity. Formulations within each group showed similar viscosities despite differences in grade or concentration of HPMC. Formulations in the low viscosity cluster were found to be sprayable. PCA was able to differentiate the complex viscosity profiles of different formulations containing HPMC in an efficient and time-saving manner and provided an excellent visualisation of the data.

  19. Improved High Resolution Models of Subduction Dynamics: Use of transversely isotropic viscosity with a free-surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Gurnis, M.; Stadler, G.; Rudi, J.; Ratnaswamy, V.; Ghattas, O.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic topography, or uncompensated topography, is controlled by internal dynamics, and provide constraints on the buoyancy structure and rheological parameters in the mantle. Compared with other surface manifestations such as the geoid, dynamic topography is very sensitive to shallower and more regional mantle structure. For example, the significant dynamic topography above the subduction zone potentially provides a rich mine for inferring the rheological and mechanical properties such as plate coupling, flow, and lateral viscosity variations, all critical in plate tectonics. However, employing subduction zone topography in the inversion study requires that we have a better understanding of the topography from forward models, especially the influence of the viscosity formulation, numerical resolution, and other factors. One common approach to formulating a fault between the subducted slab and the overriding plates in viscous flow models assumes a thin weak zone. However, due to the large lateral variation in viscosity, topography from free-slip numerical models typically has artificially large magnitude as well as high-frequency undulations over subduction zone, which adds to the difficulty in making comparisons between model results and observations. In this study, we formulate a weak zone with the transversely isotropic viscosity (TI) where the tangential viscosity is much smaller than the viscosity in the normal direction. Similar with isotropic weak zone models, TI models effectively decouple subducted slabs from the overriding plates. However, we find that the topography in TI models is largely reduced compared with that in weak zone models assuming an isotropic viscosity. Moreover, the artificial `tooth paste' squeezing effect observed in isotropic weak zone models vanishes in TI models, although the difference becomes less significant when the dip angle is small. We also implement a free-surface condition in our numerical models, which has a smoothing

  20. Application and Analysis of Measurement Model for Calibrating Spatial Shear Surface in Triaxial Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihua; Qiu, Hongsheng; Zhang, Xiedong; Zhang, Hang

    2017-12-01

    Discrete element method has great advantages in simulating the contacts, fractures, large displacement and deformation between particles. In order to analyze the spatial distribution of the shear surface in the three-dimensional triaxial test, a measurement model is inserted in the numerical triaxial model which is generated by weighted average assembling method. Due to the non-visibility of internal shear surface in laboratory, it is largely insufficient to judge the trend of internal shear surface only based on the superficial cracks of sheared sample, therefore, the measurement model is introduced. The trend of the internal shear zone is analyzed according to the variations of porosity, coordination number and volumetric strain in each layer. It shows that as a case study on confining stress of 0.8 MPa, the spatial shear surface is calibrated with the results of the rotated particle distribution and the theoretical value with the specific characteristics of the increase of porosity, the decrease of coordination number, and the increase of volumetric strain, which represents the measurement model used in three-dimensional model is applicable.

  1. Lattice Boltzmann Study of Bubbles on a Patterned Superhydrophobic Surface under Shear Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Kai; Hou, Guoxiang; Leng, Wenjun

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies shear flow over a 2D patterned superhydrophobic surface using lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Single component Shan-Chen multiphase model and Carnahan-Starling EOS are adopted to handle the liquid-gas flow on superhydrophobic surface with entrapped micro-bubbles. The shape of bubble interface and its influence on slip length under different shear rates are investigated. With increasing shear rate, the bubble interface deforms. Then the contact lines are depinned from the slot edges and move downstream. When the shear rate is high enough, a continuous gas layer forms. If the protrusion angle is small, the gas layer forms and collapse periodically, and accordingly the slip length changes periodically. While if the protrusion angle is large, the gas layer is steady and separates the solid wall from liquid, resulting in a very large slip length.

  2. Wind direction dependent vertical wind shear and surface roughness parameter in two different coastal environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagavathsingh, A.; Srinivas, C.V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.; Sardar Maran, P.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric boundary layer parameters and surface layer parameterizations are important prerequisites for air pollution dispersion analysis. The turbulent flow characteristics vary at coastal and inland sites where the nuclear facilities are situated. Many pollution sources and their dispersion occur within the roughness sub layer in the lower atmosphere. In this study analysis of wind direction dependence vertical wind shear, surface roughness lengths and surface layer wind condition has been carried out at a coastal and the urban coastal site for the different wind flow regime. The differential response of the near coastal and inland urban site SBL parameters (wind shear, roughness length, etc) was examined as a function of wind direction

  3. Quality factor due to roughness scattering of shear horizontal surface acoustic waves in nanoresonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we study the quality factor associated with dissipation due to scattering of shear horizontal surface acoustic waves by random self-affine roughness. It is shown that the quality factor is strongly influenced by both the surface roughness exponent H and the roughness amplitude w to

  4. Pressure Effect on Extensional Viscosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens Horslund; Kjær, Erik Michael

    1999-01-01

    The primary object of these experiments was to investigate the influence of hydrostatic pressure on entrance flow. The effect of pressure on shear and extensional viscosity was evaluated using an axis symmetric capillary and a slit die where the hydrostatic pressure was raised with valves....... The experiments show a significant increase in extensional viscosity with increasing pressure....

  5. [Effects of surface treatment and adhesive application on shear bond strength between zirconia and enamel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinghui; Wu, Buling; Sun, Fengyang

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of sandblasting and different orthodontic adhesives on shear bond strength between zirconia and enamel. Zirconia ceramic samples were designed and manufactured for 40 extracted human maxillary first premolars with CAD/CAM system. The samples were randomized into 4 groups for surface treatment with sandblasting and non-treated with adhesives of 3M Transbond XT or Jingjin dental enamel bonding resin. After 24 h of bonded fixation, the shear bond strengths were measured by universal mechanical testing machine and analyzed with factorial variance analysis. The shear bond strength was significantly higher in sandblasting group than in untreated group (Padhesives of Transbond XT and dental enamel bonding resin (P>0.05). The shear bond strength between zirconia and enamel is sufficient after sandblasting regardless of the application of either adhesive.

  6. Wind speed and direction shears with associated vertical motion during strong surface winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M. B.; Camp, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Strong surface winds recorded at the NASA 150-Meter Ground Winds Tower facility at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, are analyzed to present occurrences representative of wind shear and vertical motion known to be hazardous to the ascent and descent of conventional aircraft and the Space Shuttle. Graphical (percentage frequency distributions) and mathematical (maximum, mean, standard deviation) descriptions of wind speed and direction shears and associated updrafts and downdrafts are included as functions of six vertical layers and one horizontal distance for twenty 5-second intervals of parameters sampled simultaneously at the rate of ten per second during a period of high surface winds.

  7. On the link between ExB sheared flows and rational surfaces in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, C.; Erents, K.; Matthews, G.

    2000-11-01

    Experimental evidence of flattening in plasma profiles has been observed in the edge region of the JET tokamak. This observation has been interpreted in terms of the influence of rational surfaces on plasma profiles. In the framework of this interpretation, significant ExB sheared flows linked to rational surfaces have been identified. These ExB sheared flows are close to the critical value to trigger the transition to improved confinement regimes. These results can explain the link between the magnetic topology and the generation of transport barriers reported in fusion devices. (author)

  8. Shear flow generation and transport barrier formation on rational surface current sheets in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaogang; Xiao Chijie; Wang Jiaqi

    2009-01-01

    Full text: A thin current sheet with a magnetic field component in the same direction can form the electrical field perpendicularly pointing to the sheet, therefore an ExB flow with a strong shear across the current sheet. An electrical potential well is also found on the rational surface of RFP as well as the neutral sheet of the magnetotail with the E-field pointing to the rational (neutral) surface. Theoretically, a current singularity is found to be formed on the rational surface in ideal MHD. It is then very likely that the sheet current on the rational surfaces will generate the electrical potential well in its vicinity so the electrical field pointing to the sheet. It results in an ExB flow with a strong shear in the immediate neighborhood of the rational surface. It may be the cause of the transport barrier often seen near the low (m, n) rational surfaces with MHD signals. (author)

  9. The effects of viscosity, surface tension, and flow rate on gasoil-water flow pattern in microchannels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boogar, Rahman Sadeghi; Gheshlaghi, Reza; Mahdavi, Mahmood Akhavan [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    A microchannel was fabricated with glass tubes to investigate the effect of viscosity, surface tension, and flow rate on the liquid-liquid two-phase flow regime. Water and gasoil were selected as aqueous and organic working fluids, respectively. The two fluids were injected into the microchannel and created either slug or parallel profile depending on the applied conditions. The range of Reynolds and capillary numbers was chosen in such a way that neither inertia nor interfacial tension forces were negligible. Xanthan gum was used to increase viscosity and Triton X-100 (TX-100) and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) were used to reduce the interfacial tension. The results demonstrated that higher value of viscosity and flow rate increased interfacial area, but slug flow regime remained unchanged. The two surfactants showed different effects on the flow regime and interfacial area. Addition of TX-100 did not change the slug flow but decreased the interfacial area. In contrast, addition of SDS increased interfacial area by decreasing the slug’s length in the low concentrations and by switching from slug to parallel regime at high concentrations.

  10. Comparative simulations of microjetting using atomistic and continuous approaches in the presence of viscosity and surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, O.; Jaouen, S.; Soulard, L.; Heuzé, O.; Colombet, L.

    2017-10-01

    We compare, at similar scales, the processes of microjetting and ejecta production from shocked roughened metal surfaces by using atomistic and continuous approaches. The atomistic approach is based on very large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with systems containing up to 700 × 106 atoms. The continuous approach is based on Eulerian hydrodynamics simulations with adaptive mesh refinement; the simulations take into account the effects of viscosity and surface tension, and the equation of state is calculated from the MD simulations. The microjetting is generated by shock-loading above its fusion point a three-dimensional tin crystal with an initial sinusoidal free surface perturbation, the crystal being set in contact with a vacuum. Several samples with homothetic wavelengths and amplitudes of defect are simulated in order to investigate the influence of viscosity and surface tension of the metal. The simulations show that the hydrodynamic code reproduces with very good agreement the profiles, calculated from the MD simulations, of the ejected mass and velocity along the jet. Both codes also exhibit a similar fragmentation phenomenology of the metallic liquid sheets ejected, although the fragmentation seed is different. We show in particular, that it depends on the mesh size in the continuous approach.

  11. Modeling, design, packing and experimental analysis of liquid-phase shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Thomas B

    using uniform-electrode and shear-horizontal mode configurations on potassium-niobate, langasite, and quartz substrates. Optimum configurations are determined yielding maximum sensitivity. Results show mode propagation-loss and sensitivity to viscosity are correlated by a factor independent of substrate material. The analysis is useful for designing devices meeting sensitivity and signal level requirements. A novel, rapid and precise microfluidic chamber alignment/bonding method was developed for SAW platforms. The package is shown to have little effect on device performance and permits simple macrofluidic interfacing. Lastly, prototypes were designed, fabricated, and tested for viscosity and biosensor applications; results show ability to detect as low as 1% glycerol in water and surface-bound DNA crosslinking.

  12. Experimental Investigation of the Peak Shear Strength Criterion Based on Three-Dimensional Surface Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quansheng; Tian, Yongchao; Ji, Peiqi; Ma, Hao

    2018-04-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) morphology of joints is enormously important for the shear mechanical properties of rock. In this study, three-dimensional morphology scanning tests and direct shear tests are conducted to establish a new peak shear strength criterion. The test results show that (1) surface morphology and normal stress exert significant effects on peak shear strength and distribution of the damage area. (2) The damage area is located at the steepest zone facing the shear direction; as the normal stress increases, it extends from the steepest zone toward a less steep zone. Via mechanical analysis, a new formula for the apparent dip angle is developed. The influence of the apparent dip angle and the average joint height on the potential contact area is discussed, respectively. A new peak shear strength criterion, mainly applicable to specimens under compression, is established by using new roughness parameters and taking the effects of normal stress and the rock mechanical properties into account. A comparison of this newly established model with the JRC-JCS model and the Grasselli's model shows that the new one could apparently improve the fitting effect. Compared with earlier models, the new model is simpler and more precise. All the parameters in the new model have clear physical meanings and can be directly determined from the scanned data. In addition, the indexes used in the new model are more rational.

  13. Shear Evaluation by Quantitative Flow Visualization Near the Casing Surface of a Centrifugal Blood Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Masahiro; Yamane, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Yuki; Ito, Kazuyuki; Konishi, Yoshiaki; Masuzawa, Toru; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Endo, Seiko; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki

    To clarify the correlation between high-shear flow and hemolysis in blood pumps, detail shear velocity distribution was quantified by an experimental method with a model centrifugal blood pump that has a series data of hemolysis tests and computational fluid dynamic analyses. Particular attention was paid to the shear velocity near the casing surface in the volute where the high shear causes in circumferentially wide region that is considerable to cause high hemolysis. Three pump models were compared concern with the radial gap width between the impeller and casing (the radial volute width) also with the outlet position whereas the impeller geometry was identical. These casing geometries were as follows: model 1-the gap width is standard 3mm and the outlet locates to make a smooth geometrical connection with the volute, model 2-the gap width is small 0.5mm and the outlet locates to make the smooth geometrical connection with the volute, and model 3-the gap width is small 0.5mm and the outlet locates to hardly make the smooth geometrical connection with the volute but be similar radial position with that of model 1. Velocity was quantified with a particle tracking velocimetry that is one of the quantitative flow visualization techniques, and the shear velocity was calculated. Results showed that all large shear velocity existed within the layers of about 0.1mm from the casing surface and that those layers were hardly affected by a vane passage even if the gap width is 0.5mm. They also showed that the maximum shear velocity appeared on the casing surface, and the shear velocities of models 2 and 3 were almost twice as large as that of model 1. This finding is in full corresponding with the results of hemolysis tests which showed that the hemolysis levels of both models 2 and 3 were 1.5 times higher than that of model 1. These results suggest that detailed high-shear evaluation near the casing surface in the volute is one of the most important keys in estimating the

  14. Influence of surface treatment on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ione Helena Vieira Portella Brunharo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to micro-hybrid and micro-particulate resins under different surface treatment methods was assessed. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty test samples were divided into 28 groups (n = 10, where 140 specimens were filled with Durafill micro-particulate resin and 140 with Charisma composite. In 140 samples, a coupling agent (silane was applied. The surface treatment methods were: Phosphoric and hydrofluoric acid etching, sodium bicarbonate and aluminum oxide blasting, stone and burs. A Universal Instron Machine was used to apply an occlusal shear force directly to the resin composite bracket surface at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. The means were compared using analysis of variance and multivariate regression to assess the interaction between composites and surface treatment methods. RESULTS: Means and standard deviations for the groups were: Sodium bicarbonate jet 11.27±2.78; burs 9.26±3.01; stone 7.95±3.67; aluminum oxide blasting 7.04±3.21; phosphoric acid 5.82±1.90; hydrofluoric acid 4.54±2.87, and without treatment 2.75±1.49. An increase of 1.94 MPa in shear bond strength was seen in Charisma groups. Silane agent application reduced the Charisma shear bond strength by 0.68 Mpa, but increased Durafill means for bicarbonate blasting (0.83, burs (0.98 and stone drilling (0.46. CONCLUSION: The sodium bicarbonate blasting, burs and stone drilling methods produced adequate shear bond strength and may be suitable for clinical use. The Charisma micro hybrid resin composite showed higher shear bond means than Durafill micro particle composite.

  15. Influence of surface treatment on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunharo, Ione Helena Vieira Portella; Fernandes, Daniel Jogaib; de Miranda, Mauro Sayão; Artese, Flavia

    2013-01-01

    The shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to micro-hybrid and micro-particulate resins under different surface treatment methods was assessed. Two hundred and eighty test samples were divided into 28 groups (n = 10), where 140 specimens were filled with Durafill micro-particulate resin and 140 with Charisma composite. In 140 samples, a coupling agent (silane) was applied. The surface treatment methods were: Phosphoric and hydrofluoric acid etching, sodium bicarbonate and aluminum oxide blasting, stone and burs. A Universal Instron Machine was used to apply an occlusal shear force directly to the resin composite bracket surface at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. The means were compared using analysis of variance and multivariate regression to assess the interaction between composites and surface treatment methods. Means and standard deviations for the groups were: Sodium bicarbonate jet 11.27 ± 2.78; burs 9.26 ± 3.01; stone 7.95 ± 3.67; aluminum oxide blasting 7.04 ± 3.21; phosphoric acid 5.82 ± 1.90; hydrofluoric acid 4.54 ± 2.87, and without treatment 2.75 ± 1.49. An increase of 1.94 MPa in shear bond strength was seen in Charisma groups. Silane agent application reduced the Charisma shear bond strength by 0.68 Mpa, but increased Durafill means for bicarbonate blasting (0.83), burs (0.98) and stone drilling (0.46). The sodium bicarbonate blasting, burs and stone drilling methods produced adequate shear bond strength and may be suitable for clinical use. The Charisma micro hybrid resin composite showed higher shear bond means than Durafill micro particle composite.

  16. Gecko toe and lamellar shear adhesion on macroscopic, engineered rough surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Andrew G; Henry, Amy; Lin, Hauwen; Ren, Angela; Shiuan, Kevin; Fearing, Ronald S; Full, Robert J

    2014-01-15

    The role in adhesion of the toes and lamellae - intermediate-sized structures - found on the gecko foot remains unclear. Insight into the function of these structures can lead to a more general understanding of the hierarchical nature of the gecko adhesive system, but in particular how environmental topology may relate to gecko foot morphology. We sought to discern the mechanics of the toes and lamellae by examining gecko adhesion on controlled, macroscopically rough surfaces. We used live Tokay geckos, Gekko gecko, to observe the maximum shear force a gecko foot can attain on an engineered substrate constructed with sinusoidal patterns of varying amplitudes and wavelengths in sizes similar to the dimensions of the toes and lamellae structures (0.5 to 6 mm). We found shear adhesion was significantly decreased on surfaces that had amplitudes and wavelengths approaching the lamella length and inter-lamella spacing, losing 95% of shear adhesion over the range tested. We discovered that the toes are capable of adhering to surfaces with amplitudes much larger than their dimensions even without engaging claws, maintaining 60% of shear adhesion on surfaces with amplitudes of 3 mm. Gecko adhesion can be predicted by the ratio of the lamella dimensions to surface feature dimensions. In addition to setae, remarkable macroscopic-scale features of gecko toes and lamellae that include compliance and passive conformation are necessary to maintain contact, and consequently, generate shear adhesion on macroscopically rough surfaces. Findings on the larger scale structures in the hierarchy of gecko foot function could provide the biological inspiration to drive the design of more effective and versatile synthetic fibrillar adhesives.

  17. Influence of surface treatments on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to porcelain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Zeng, Jishan; Wang, Shaoan; Yang, Zheng; Huang, Qian; Chen, Pixiu; Zhou, Shujuan; Liu, Xiaoqing

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of various surface treatments after different storage time and thermocycling on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to the feldspathic porcelain surfaces. 128 disc-shaped porcelain specimens were randomly assigned to the following surface treatments: 9.6% HFA, 9.6% HFA combined with silane, 50 μ aluminum trioxide sandblasting followed by silane and application of silane after 37% phosphoric acid. Metal or ceramic brackets were bonded onto each treated porcelain facet with light cured resin. The samples were stored in 37 °C water 1 day or 7 days, thermocycled 500 times from 5 to 55 °C. The shear bond strengths were measured (1 mm/min), and statistically analyzed. The bond failure sites were classified according to ARI system. The surface of the glazed, sandblasted, hydrofluoric and phosphoric acid etched porcelain were examined with SEM. All groups achieved reasonable bond strengths to withstand the application of orthodontic forces. Water storage for 7 days caused lower shear bond strength than that of 1 day. But there is no statistically significant difference between the two groups. The mean shear bond strength provided by ceramic bracket with mechanical retention had no statistical difference with that of metal bracket. Therefore, the optimal treatment for orthodontic brackets bonding to feldspathic porcelain was to apply phosphoric acid combined with silane.

  18. In situ evaluation of density, viscosity, and thickness of adsorbed soft layers by combined surface acoustic wave and surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Laurent A; Friedt, Jean-Michel; Zhou, Cheng; Bertrand, Patrick

    2006-06-15

    We show the theoretical and experimental combination of acoustic and optical methods for the in situ quantitative evaluation of the density, the viscosity, and the thickness of soft layers adsorbed on chemically tailored metal surfaces. For the highest sensitivity and an operation in liquids, a Love mode surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor with a hydrophobized gold-coated sensing area is the acoustic method, while surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on the same gold surface as the optical method is monitored simultaneously in a single setup for the real-time and label-free measurement of the parameters of adsorbed soft layers, which means for layers with a predominant viscous behavior. A general mathematical modeling in equivalent viscoelastic transmission lines is presented to determine the correlation between experimental SAW signal shifts and the waveguide structure including the presence of the adsorbed layer and the supporting liquid from which it segregates. A methodology is presented to identify from SAW and SPR simulations the parameters representatives of the soft layer. During the absorption of a soft layer, thickness or viscosity changes are observed in the experimental ratio of the SAW signal attenuation to the SAW signal phase and are correlated with the theoretical model. As application example, the simulation method is applied to study the thermal behavior of physisorbed PNIPAAm, a polymer whose conformation is sensitive to temperature, under a cycling variation of temperature between 20 and 40 degrees C. Under the assumption of the bulk density and the bulk refractive index of PNIPAAm, thickness and viscosity of the film are obtained from simulations; the viscosity is correlated to the solvent content of the physisorbed layer.

  19. Longitudinal and bulk viscosities of expanded rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaheri, Ali Hossein Mohammad; Srivastava, Sunita; Tankeshwar, K

    2003-01-01

    First three non-vanishing sum rules for the bulk and longitudinal stress auto-correlation functions have been evaluated for liquid Rb at six thermodynamic states along the liquid-vapour coexistence curve. The Mori memory function formalism and the frequency sum rules have been used to calculate bulk and longitudinal viscosities. The results thus obtained for the ratio of bulk viscosity to shear viscosity have been compared with experimental and other theoretical predictions wherever available. The values of the bulk viscosity have been found to be more than the corresponding values of the shear viscosity for all six thermodynamic states investigated here

  20. Rational surfaces, ExB sheared flows and transport interplay in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, C.; Pedrosa, M.A.; Erents, K.

    2002-01-01

    Experimental evidence of a strong interplay between magnetic topology (rational surfaces) and the generation of ExB sheared flows has been observed in the plasma edge region of stellarator (TJ-II) and tokamak (JET) devices. Both constant and varying in time ExB sheared flows are close to the critical value to trigger the transition to improved confinement regimes, but below the power threshold to trigger the formation of transport barriers. Flows driven by fluctuations are candidates to explain these experimental results. (author)

  1. Rational surfaces, ExB sheared flows and transport interplay in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, Carlos; Pedrosa, Maria A.; Erents, Kevin

    2001-01-01

    Experimental evidence of a strong interplay between magnetic topology (rational surfaces) and the generation of ExB sheared flows has been observed in the plasma edge region of stellarator (TJ-II) and tokamak (JET) devices. Constant and varying in time ExB sheared flows are close to the critical value to trigger the transition to improved confinement regimes. The plasma conditions where this has been observed are clearly below the power threshold to trigger the formation of transport barriers. Flows driven by fluctuations are candidates to explain these experimental results. (author)

  2. Effect of Variable Viscosity on Vortex Instability of Non-Darcy Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow Adjacent to a Nonisothermal Horizontal Surface in a Porous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Elaiw

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the effect of variable viscosity on the flow and vortex instability for non-Darcy mixed convection boundary layer flow on a nonisothermal horizontal plat surface in a saturated porous medium. The variation of viscosity is expressed as an exponential function of temperature. The analysis of the disturbance flow is based on linear stability theory. The base flow equations and the resulting eigenvalue problem are solved using finite difference schemes. It is found that the variable viscosity effect enhances the heat transfer rate and destabilizes the flow for liquid heating, while the opposite trend is true for gas heating.

  3. Scaling of turbulence spectra measured in strong shear flow near the Earth’s surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Within the lowest kilometer of the Earth's atmosphere, in the so-called atmospheric boundary layer, winds are often gusty and turbulent. Nearest to the ground, the turbulence is predominately generated by mechanical wall-bounded wind shear, whereas at higher altitudes turbulent mixing of heat...... subrange with a distinct inverse-linear power law for turbulence in a strongly sheared high-Reynolds number wall-bounded flow, as is encountered in the lowest sheared part of the atmospheric boundary layer, also known as the eddy surface layer. This paper presents observations of spectra measured...... and moisture also play a role. The variance (square of the standard deviation) of the fluctuation around the mean wind speed is a measure of the kinetic energy content of the turbulence. This kinetic energy can be resolved into the spectral distributions, or spectra, as functions of eddy size, wavenumber...

  4. Measurement and study of density, surface tension, and viscosity of quaternary ammonium-based ionic liquids ([N222(n)]Tf2N)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghatee, Mohammad Hadi; Bahrami, Maryam; Khanjari, Neda

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterization of high purity synthesized alkyl quaternary ammonium ionic liquids. • Measurement of temperature dependent surface tension, density, viscosity and critical point. • Systematic increase of surface energy and surface entropy having plateau at high chain length. • Accurate application of VFT and fluidity equations to temperature dependent viscosities. • Particular variation of fluidity exponent with a plateau at high alkyl chain length. -- Abstract: In this work five quaternary ammonium-based ionic liquids with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion were synthesized and their density, viscosity and surface tensions were measured in the temperature range (298 to 373) K. Surface tensions were measured by capillary rise method using a homemade capillary apparatus, in which the liquid/vapor can be brought into equilibrium practically. Measurements of viscosities and surface tensions were performed under water–vapor free atmosphere. The surface tension of quaternary ammonium-based ILs decreases as the alkyl chain length increases. Also surface energy and surface entropy are found as increasing functions of alkyl chain length with a plateau at high lengths in the surface. The viscosities measured by capillary viscometer fit in VFT equation, indication of non-Arrhenius ionic liquids. Viscosities are also fitted quite accurately in the relation we have developed recently as the fluidity equation with the characteristics exponent ϕ. Values of ϕ for ionic liquids are close to one another and tend to the limiting value, almost 0.328, asymptotically as the alkyl chain length increases. The critical temperatures predicted via the temperature dependent surface tensions decrease with increasing alkyl chain length of the cation. The trend of predicted critical temperature of these ionic liquids conforms to those of imidazolium-based ILs

  5. Effect of temperature and chain length on the viscosity and surface tension of binary systems of N,N-dimethylformamide with 1-octanol, 1-nonanol and 1-decanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, Abubaker A.; Alkhaldi, Khaled H.A.E.; AlTuwaim, Mohammad S.; Al-Jimaz, Adel S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of temperature and chain length on η and σ of DMF + 1-alkanol binary systems. • Viscosity and surface tension were obtained. • Δη, Δσ and G ∗E were calculated using the experimental data. • H σ and S σ were determined using the surface tension data. • Semi-empirical relations were used to estimate the viscosity of liquid mixtures. - Abstract: Viscosity and surface tension of binary systems of N,N-dimethylformamide DMF with higher 1-alkanols (C 8 –C 10 ) were measured at atmospheric pressure and four different temperatures over the entire range of mole fraction. The experimental measurements were used to calculate the deviations in viscosity and surface tension. Furthermore, the excess Gibbs free energy of activation, surface enthalpy and surface entropy of the (DMF + 1-alkanols) binary mixtures were determined. In addition, the deviation and excess properties were fitted to the method of Redlich–Kister (R–K) polynomial. Viscosity data of the binary systems were correlated with three different expressions (Grunberg and Nissan, the three-body, and four-body McAllister). The effects of the chain length of the higher 1-alkanols and temperature were investigated

  6. Shear thinning behaviors in magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetere, F. P.; Cassetta, M.; Perugini, D.

    2017-12-01

    Studies on magma rheology are of fundamental importance to understanding magmatic processes from depth to surface. Since viscosity is one of the most important parameter controlling eruption mechanisms, as well as lava flow emplacement, a comprehensive knowledge on the evolution of magma viscosities during crystallization is required. We present new viscosity data on partly crystalized basalt, andesite and analogue lavas comparable to those erupted on Mercury's northern volcanic plains. High-temperature viscosity measurements were performed using a rotational Anton Paar RheolabQC viscometer head at the PVRG labs, in Perugia (Italy) (http://pvrg.unipg.it). The relative proportion of phases in each experimental run were determined by image analysis on BS-SEM images at different magnifications; phases are glasses, clinopyroxene, spinel, plagioclase for the basalt, plagioclase and spinel for the andesite and pure enstatite and clinopyroxenes, for the analogue Mercury's composition. Glass and crystalline fractions determined by image analysis well correlate with compositions of residual melts. In order to constrain the viscosity (η) variations as a function of crystallinity, shear rate (γ) was varied from 0.1 to 5 s-1. Viscosity vs. time at constant temperature shows a typical S-shape curve. In particular, for basaltic composition η vary from 3.1-3.8 Pa s [log η] at 1493 K and crystallinity of 19 area % as γ vary from 1.0 to 0.1 s-1; the andesite viscosity evolution is 3.2 and 3.7 Pa s [log η] as γ varies from 1 to 0.1 at 1493 K and crystal content of 17 area %; finally, Mercury's analogue composition was investigated at different temperature ranging from 1533 to 1502 K (Vetere et al., 2017). Results, for γ = 0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 s-1, show viscosity variation between 2.7-4.0, 2.5-3.4 and 2.0-3.0 [log η inPa s] respectively while crystallinity vary from 9 to 27 (area %). As viscosity decreases as shear rate increases, these data points to a shear thinning behaviour

  7. Laminar shear stress modulates endothelial luminal surface stiffness in a tissue-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merna, Nick; Wong, Andrew K; Barahona, Victor; Llanos, Pierre; Kunar, Balvir; Palikuqi, Brisa; Ginsberg, Michael; Rafii, Shahin; Rabbany, Sina Y

    2018-04-17

    Endothelial cells form vascular beds in all organs and are exposed to a range of mechanical forces that regulate cellular phenotype. We sought to determine the role of endothelial luminal surface stiffness in tissue-specific mechanotransduction of laminar shear stress in microvascular mouse cells and the role of arachidonic acid in mediating this response. Microvascular mouse endothelial cells were subjected to laminar shear stress at 4 dynes/cm 2 for 12 hours in parallel plate flow chambers that enabled real-time optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements of cell stiffness. Lung endothelial cells aligned parallel to flow, while cardiac endothelial cells did not. This rapid alignment was accompanied by increased cell stiffness. The addition of arachidonic acid to cardiac endothelial cells increased alignment and stiffness in response to shear stress. Inhibition of arachidonic acid in lung endothelial cells and embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells prevented cellular alignment and decreased cell stiffness. Our findings suggest that increased endothelial luminal surface stiffness in microvascular cells may facilitate mechanotransduction and alignment in response to laminar shear stress. Furthermore, the arachidonic acid pathway may mediate this tissue-specific process. An improved understanding of this response will aid in the treatment of organ-specific vascular disease. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effects of silane application on the shear bond strength of ceramic orthodontic brackets to enamel surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinandi Sri Pudyani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fixed orthodontic appliances with ceramic brackets are used frequently to fulfill the aesthetic demand of patient through orthodontic treatment. Ceramic brackets have some weaknesses such as bond strength and enamel surface damage. In high bond strength the risk of damage in enamel surfaces increases after debonding. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effect of silane on base of bracket and adhesive to shear bond strength and enamel structure of ceramic bracket. Method: Sixteen extracted upper premolars were randomly divided into four groups based on silane or no silane on the bracket base and on the adhesive surface. Design of the base on ceramic bracket in this research was microcrystalline to manage the influence of mechanical interlocking. Samples were tested in shear mode on a universal testing machine after attachment. Following it, adhesive remnant index (ARI scores were used to assess bond failure site. Statistical analysis was performed using a two-way Anova and the Mann-Whitney test. A scanning electron microscope (SEM with a magnification of 2000x was used to observe enamel structure after debonding. Result: Shear bond strength was increased between group without silane and group with silane on the base of bracket (p<0,05. There was no significance different between group without silane and group with silane on adhesive (p<0,05. Conclusion: Application of silane on base of bracket increases shear bond strength, however, application of silane on adhesive site does not increase shear bond strength of ceramic bracket. Most bonding failure occurred at the enamel adhesive interface and damage occurred on enamel structure in group contains silane of ceramic bracket.

  9. Turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces with shear-dependent slip length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosh Aghdam, Sohrab; Seddighi, Mehdi; Ricco, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    Motivated by recent experimental evidence, shear-dependent slip length superhydrophobic surfaces are studied. Lyapunov stability analysis is applied in a 3D turbulent channel flow and extended to the shear-dependent slip-length case. The feedback law extracted is recognized for the first time to coincide with the constant-slip-length model widely used in simulations of hydrophobic surfaces. The condition for the slip parameters is found to be consistent with the experimental data and with values from DNS. The theoretical approach by Fukagata (PoF 18.5: 051703) is employed to model the drag-reduction effect engendered by the shear-dependent slip-length surfaces. The estimated drag-reduction values are in very good agreement with our DNS data. For slip parameters and flow conditions which are potentially realizable in the lab, the maximum computed drag reduction reaches 50%. The power spent by the turbulent flow on the walls is computed, thereby recognizing the hydrophobic surfaces as a passive-absorbing drag-reduction method, as opposed to geometrically-modifying techniques that do not consume energy, e.g. riblets, hence named passive-neutral. The flow is investigated by visualizations, statistical analysis of vorticity and strain rates, and quadrants of the Reynolds stresses. Part of this work was funded by Airbus Group. Simulations were performed on the ARCHER Supercomputer (UKTC Grant).

  10. Surface effects on anti-plane shear waves propagating in magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Bin; Zhang, Chunli; Chen, Weiqiu; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2015-01-01

    Material surfaces may have a remarkable effect on the mechanical behavior of magneto-electro-elastic (or multiferroic) structures at nanoscale. In this paper, a surface magneto-electro-elasticity theory (or effective boundary condition formulation), which governs the motion of the material surface of magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates, is established by employing the state-space formalism. The properties of anti-plane shear (SH) waves propagating in a transversely isotropic magneto-electro-elastic plate with nanothickness are investigated by taking surface effects into account. The size-dependent dispersion relations of both antisymmetric and symmetric SH waves are presented. The thickness-shear frequencies and the asymptotic characteristics of the dispersion relations considering surface effects are determined analytically as well. Numerical results show that surface effects play a very pronounced role in elastic wave propagation in magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates, and the dispersion properties depend strongly on the chosen surface material parameters of magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates. As a consequence, it is possible to modulate the waves in magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates through surface engineering. (paper)

  11. Spectral analysis of surface waves method to assess shear wave velocity within centrifuge models

    OpenAIRE

    MURILLO, Carol Andrea; THOREL, Luc; CAICEDO, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    The method of the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) is tested out on reduced scale centrifuge models, with a specific device, called the mini Falling Weight, developed for this purpose. Tests are performed on layered materials made of a mixture of sand and clay. The shear wave velocity VS determined within the models using the SASW is compared with the laboratory measurements carried out using the bender element test. The results show that the SASW technique applied to centrifuge test...

  12. Effects of the kinematic viscosity and surface tension on the bubble take-off period in a catalase-hydrogen peroxide system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Satoshi; Iida, Yoshinori

    2009-06-01

    The effect of kinematic viscosity and surface tension of the solution was investigated by adding catalase, glucose oxidase, or glucose on the bubble movement in a catalase-hydrogen peroxide system. The kinematic viscosity was measured using a Cannon-Fenske kinematic viscometer. The surface tension of the solution was measured by the Wilhelmy method using a self-made apparatus. The effects of the hole diameter/cell wall thickness, catalase concentration, glucose concentration, and glucose oxidase concentration on the kinematic viscosity, surface tension, and bubble take-off period were investigated. With our system, the effects of the changes in the solution materiality on the bubble take-off period were proven to be very small in comparison to the change in the oxygen-producing rate.

  13. Effect of LASER Irradiation on the Shear Bond Strength of Zirconia Ceramic Surface to Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Shahabi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Reliable bonding between tooth substrate and zirconia-based ceramic restorations is always of great importance. The laser might be useful for treatment of ceramic surfaces. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of laser irradiation on the shear bond strength of zirconia ceramic surface to dentin. Materials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, 40 Cercon zirconia ceramic blocks were fabricated. The surface treatment was performed using sandblasting with 50-micrometer Al2O3, CO2 laser, or Nd:YAG laser in each test groups. After that, the specimens were cemented to human dentin with resin cement. The shear bond strength of ceramics to dentin was determined and failure mode of each specimen was analyzed by stereo-microscope and SEM investigations. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparisons. The surface morphology of one specimen from each group was investigated under SEM. Results: The mean shear bond strength of zirconia ceramic to dentin was 7.79±3.03, 9.85±4.69, 14.92±4.48 MPa for CO2 irradiated, Nd:YAG irradiated, and sandblasted specimens, respectively. Significant differences were noted between CO2 (P=0.001 and Nd:YAG laser (P=0.017 irradiated specimens with sandblasted specimens. No significant differences were observed between two laser methods (P=0.47. The mode of bond failure was predominantly adhesive in test groups (CO2 irradiated specimens: 75%, Nd:YAG irradiated: 66.7%, and sandblasting: 41.7%. Conclusion: Under the limitations of the present study, surface treatment of zirconia ceramics using CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers was not able to produce adequate bond strength with dentin surfaces in comparison to sandblasting technique. Therefore, the use of lasers with the mentioned parameters may not be recommended for the surface treatment of Cercon ceramics.

  14. ''Over the horizon'' SANS: Measurements on near-surface Poiseuille shear-induced ordering of dilute solutions of threadlike micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, W.A.; Butler, P.D.; Hayter, J.B.; Magid, L.J.; Kreke, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Although the behavior of a fluid under shear near a surface can be expected to be critically important to its drag and lubrication properties, most shear measurements to date have been of the bulk. This paper outlines the use of a specially developed Poiseuille shear cell at grazing incidence to measure the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) signal from the first few tens of microns in the interfacial region. The authors illustrate the technique with measurements made on the near-surface ordering in flow past a quartz surface of dilute surfactant solutions comprising highly extended self-assembling ''threadlike'' micelles

  15. Influence of Pre-Sintered Zirconia Surface Conditioning on Shear Bond Strength to Resin Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomofumi Sawada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the shear bond strength (SBS of resin composite on zirconia surface to which a specific conditioner was applied before sintering. After sintering of either conditioner-coated or uncoated specimens, both groups were divided into three subgroups by their respective surface modifications (n = 10 per group: no further treatment; etched with hydrofluoric acid; and sandblasted with 50 µm Al2O3 particles. Surfaces were characterized by measuring different surface roughness parameters (e.g., Ra and Rmax and water contact angles. Half of the specimens underwent thermocycling (10,000 cycles, 5–55 °C after self-adhesive resin cement build-up. The SBSs were measured using a universal testing machine, and the failure modes were analyzed by microscopy. Data were analyzed by nonparametric and parametric tests followed by post-hoc comparisons (α = 0.05. Conditioner-coated specimens increased both surface roughness and hydrophilicity (p < 0.01. In the non-thermocycled condition, sandblasted surfaces showed higher SBSs than other modifications, irrespective of conditioner application (p < 0.05. Adhesive fractures were commonly observed in the specimens. Thermocycling favored debonding and decreased SBSs. However, conditioner-coated specimens upon sandblasting showed the highest SBS (p < 0.05 and mixed fractures were partially observed. The combination of conditioner application before sintering and sandblasting after sintering showed the highest shear bond strength and indicated improvements concerning the failure mode.

  16. Effect of different surface treatments on the shear bond strength of nanofilled composite repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazaleh Ahmadizenouz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Repairing aged composite resin is a challenging process. Many surface treatment options have been proposed to this end. This study evaluated the effect of different surface treatments on the shear bond strength (SBS of nano-filled composite resin repairs. Methods. Seventy-five cylindrical specimens of a Filtek Z350XT composite resin were fabricated and stored in 37°C distilled water for 24 hours. After thermocycling, the specimens were divided into 5 groups according to the following surface treatments: no treatment (group 1; air abrasion with 50-μm aluminum oxide particles (group 2; irradiation with Er:YAG laser beams (group 3; roughening with coarse-grit diamond bur + 35% phosphoric acid (group 4; and etching with 9% hydrofluoric acid for 120 s (group 5. Another group of Filtek Z350XT composite resin samples (4×6 mm was fabricated for the measurement of cohesive strength (group 6. A silane coupling agent and an adhesive system were applied after each surface treatment. The specimens were restored with the same composite resin and thermocycled again. A shearing force was applied to the interface in a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests (P < 0.05. Results. One-way ANOVA indicated significant differences between the groups (P < 0.05. SBS of controls was significantly lower than the other groups; differences between groups 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were not significant. Surface treatment with diamond bur + 35% phosphoric acid resulted in the highest bond strength. Conclusion. All the surface treatments used in this study improved the shear bond strength of nanofilled composite resin used.

  17. Effect of surface treatment of prefabricated teeth on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets

    OpenAIRE

    Cumerlato, Marina; Lima, Eduardo Martinelli de; Osorio, Leandro Berni; Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; Menezes, Luciane Macedo de; Rizzatto, Susana Maria Deon

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the effects of grinding, drilling, sandblasting, and ageing prefabricated teeth (PfT) on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets, as well as the effects of surface treatments on the adhesive remnant index (ARI). Methods: One-hundred-ninety-two PfT were divided into four groups (n = 48): Group 1, no surface treatment was done; Group 2, grinding was performed with a cylindrical diamond bur; Group 3,...

  18. Spectral analysis of surface waves method to assess shear wave velocity within centrifuge models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Carol Andrea; Thorel, Luc; Caicedo, Bernardo

    2009-06-01

    The method of the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) is tested out on reduced scale centrifuge models, with a specific device, called the mini Falling Weight, developed for this purpose. Tests are performed on layered materials made of a mixture of sand and clay. The shear wave velocity VS determined within the models using the SASW is compared with the laboratory measurements carried out using the bender element test. The results show that the SASW technique applied to centrifuge testing is a relevant method to characterize VS near the surface.

  19. Dynamics of bubble-bubble interaction in sheared low-viscosity magma imaged by X-ray computed micro-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helo, C.; Flaws, A.; Hess, K.-U.; Franz, A.; Clague, D. A.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2012-04-01

    X-ray computed tomography of vesicles in basaltic pyroclastic glass fragments has been used to investigate the syn-eruptive shear environment and resulting bubble-bubble interaction during mild pyroclastic eruptions in a mid-ocean ridge environment. We have imaged vesicles present in two different types of pyroclastic fragments produced by mildly explosive activity on Axial Seamount, limu o Pele, that is, thin glass films often described as bubble walls, and tube scoria fragments. Rapid quenching of the glass has prevented extensive bubble relaxation preserving the syn-eruptive geometry of the bubbles in these fragments. Isolated, ellipsoid-shaped vesicles in low-vesicular limu o Pele indicate deformation in a simple shear environment. Under these shear conditions higher vesiculated parts of the erupting magma show strong bubble-bubble interactions partially leading to coalscence and formation of tubular vesicles. These tubular vesicles can reach significant lengths, exceeding the dimensions of the small glass fragments (2 mm). Their unreformed radius can be more then one order of magnitude larger than that of the isolated vesicles in the limu o Pele fragments. We can distinguish two principle modes of interaction based on the relative orientation of the bubbles. Interaction along the sidewalls of two bubbles, and tip-to-tip interaction. At interdistances of less than a few tens of micrometre, interaction of the sidewalls results in deformation of the bubbles to more irregular shapes, with depressions caused by close, small bubbles or in some cases bubbles being partially mantled around tubular bubbles. This often leads to a more close packing of bubbles. At distances of less than a few microns, the melt films between the bubbles destabilize leading to coalescence. This mechanism appears to involve a bulging of the larger bubble into the smaller, followed by melt film rapture and coalescence. The complete digestion of one bubble by the other is the slow rate

  20. Sedimentation of bidisperse, uncharged colloidal sphere suspensions: Influence of viscosity and irregular surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thies-Weesie, Dominique M. E.; Philipse, Albert P.; Lekkerkerker, Henk N. W.

    1996-01-01

    The sedimentation velocity of uncharged, nonaggregated silica spheres under gravity is strongly reduced after addition of small amounts of nonsedimenting small spheres. This reduction is largely due to surface irregularities on a nanoscale of the large spheres at which a limited number of small

  1. Effect of surface treatment of prefabricated teeth on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumerlato, Marina; Lima, Eduardo Martinelli de; Osorio, Leandro Berni; Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; Menezes, Luciane Macedo de; Rizzatto, Susana Maria Deon

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the effects of grinding, drilling, sandblasting, and ageing prefabricated teeth (PfT) on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets, as well as the effects of surface treatments on the adhesive remnant index (ARI). One-hundred-ninety-two PfT were divided into four groups (n = 48): Group 1, no surface treatment was done; Group 2, grinding was performed with a cylindrical diamond bur; Group 3, two drillings were done with a spherical diamond bur; Group 4, sandblasting was performed with 50-µm aluminum oxide. Before the experiment, half of the samples stayed immersed in distilled water at 37oC for 90 days. Brackets were bonded with Transbond XT and shear strength tests were carried out using a universal testing machine. SBS were compared by surface treatment and by ageing with two-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's test. ARI scores were compared between surface treatments with Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's test. Surface treatments on PfT enhanced SBS of brackets (pgrinding) (pgrinding. There was a positive correlation between SBS and ARI.

  2. Effect of viscosity on tear drainage and ocular residence time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Heng; Chauhan, Anuj

    2008-08-01

    An increase in residence time of dry eye medications including artificial tears will likely enhance therapeutic benefits. The drainage rates and the residence time of eye drops depend on the viscosity of the instilled fluids. However, a quantitative understanding of the dependence of drainage rates and the residence time on viscosity is lacking. The current study aims to develop a mathematical model for the drainage of Newtonian fluids and also for power-law non-Newtonian fluids of different viscosities. This study is an extension of our previous study on the mathematical model of tear drainage. The tear drainage model is modified to describe the drainage of Newtonian fluids with viscosities higher than the tear viscosity and power-law non-Newtonian fluids with rheological parameters obtained from fitting experimental data in literature. The drainage rate through canaliculi was derived from the modified drainage model and was incorporated into a tear mass balance to calculate the transients of total solute quantity in ocular fluids and the bioavailability of instilled drugs. For Newtonian fluids, increasing the viscosity does not affect the drainage rate unless the viscosity exceeds a critical value of about 4.4 cp. The viscosity has a maximum impact on drainage rate around a value of about 100 cp. The trends are similar for shear thinning power law fluids. The transients of total solute quantity, and the residence time agrees at least qualitatively with experimental studies. A mathematical model has been developed for the drainage of Newtonian fluids and power-law fluids through canaliculi. The model can quantitatively explain different experimental observations on the effect of viscosity on the residence of instilled fluids on the ocular surface. The current study is helpful for understanding the mechanism of fluid drainage from the ocular surface and for improving the design of dry eye treatments.

  3. Anomalous shear wave delays and surface wave velocities at Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, R.G.; Boore, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a geothermal area on the propagation of intermediate-period (1--30 s) teleseismic body waves and surface waves, a specially designed portable seismograph system was operated in Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming. Travel time residuals, relative to a station outside the caldera, of up to 2 s for compressional phases are in agreement with short-period residuals for P phases measured by other investigators. Travel time delays for shear arrivals in the intermediate-period band range from 2 to 9 s and decrease with increasing dT/dΔ. Measured Rayleigh wave phase velocities are extremely low, ranging from 3.2 km/s at 27-s period to 2.0 km/s at 7-s period; the estimated uncertainty associated with these values is 15%. We propose a model for compressional and shear velocities and Poisson's ratio beneath the Yellowstone caldera which fits the teleseismic body and surface wave data: it consists of a highly anomalous crust with an average shear velocity of 3.0 km/s overlying an upper mantle with average velocity of 4.1 km/s. The high average value of Poisson's ratio in the crust (0.34) suggests the presence of fluids there; Poisson's ratio in the mantle between 40 and approximately 200 km is more nearly normal (0.29) than in the crust. A discrepancy between normal values of Poisson's ratio in the crust calculated from short-period data and high values calculated from teleseismic data can be resolved by postulating a viscoelastic crustal model with frequency-dependent shear velocity and attenuation

  4. Shear wave profiles from surface wave inversion: the impact of uncertainty on seismic site response analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaga, J; Vignoli, G; Cassiani, G

    2011-01-01

    Inversion is a critical step in all geophysical techniques, and is generally fraught with ill-posedness. In the case of seismic surface wave studies, the inverse problem can lead to different equivalent subsoil models and consequently to different local seismic response analyses. This can have a large impact on an earthquake engineering design. In this paper, we discuss the consequences of non-uniqueness of surface wave inversion on seismic responses, with both numerical and experimental data. Our goal is to evaluate the consequences on common seismic response analysis in the case of different impedance contrast conditions. We verify the implications of inversion uncertainty, and consequently of data information content, on realistic local site responses. A stochastic process is used to generate a set of 1D shear wave velocity profiles from several specific subsurface models. All these profiles are characterized as being equivalent, i.e. their responses, in terms of a dispersion curve, are compatible with the uncertainty in the same surface wave data. The generated 1D shear velocity models are then subjected to a conventional one-dimensional seismic ground response analysis using a realistic input motion. While recent analyses claim that the consequences of surface wave inversion uncertainties are very limited, our test points out that a relationship exists between inversion confidence and seismic responses in different subsoils. In the case of regular and relatively smooth increase of shear wave velocities with depth, as is usual in sedimentary plains, our results show that the choice of a specific model among equivalent solutions strongly influences the seismic response. On the other hand, when the shallow subsoil is characterized by a strong impedance contrast (thus revealing a characteristic soil resonance period), as is common in the presence of a shallow bedrock, equivalent solutions provide practically the same seismic amplification, especially in the

  5. Viscosity measurement techniques in Dissipative Particle Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boromand, Arman; Jamali, Safa; Maia, Joao M.

    2015-11-01

    In this study two main groups of viscosity measurement techniques are used to measure the viscosity of a simple fluid using Dissipative Particle Dynamics, DPD. In the first method, a microscopic definition of the pressure tensor is used in equilibrium and out of equilibrium to measure the zero-shear viscosity and shear viscosity, respectively. In the second method, a periodic Poiseuille flow and start-up transient shear flow is used and the shear viscosity is obtained from the velocity profiles by a numerical fitting procedure. Using the standard Lees-Edward boundary condition for DPD will result in incorrect velocity profiles at high values of the dissipative parameter. Although this issue was partially addressed in Chatterjee (2007), in this work we present further modifications (Lagrangian approach) to the original LE boundary condition (Eulerian approach) that will fix the deviation from the desired shear rate at high values of the dissipative parameter and decrease the noise to signal ratios in stress measurement while increases the accessible low shear rate window. Also, the thermostat effect of the dissipative and random forces is coupled to the dynamic response of the system and affects the transport properties like the viscosity and diffusion coefficient. We investigated thoroughly the dependency of viscosity measured by both Eulerian and Lagrangian methodologies, as well as numerical fitting procedures and found that all the methods are in quantitative agreement.

  6. Shear-bond-strength of orthodontic brackets to aged nano-hybrid composite-resin surfaces using different surface preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirtas, Hatice Kubra; Akin, Mehmet; Ileri, Zehra; Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different surface preparation methods on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic metal brackets to aged nano-hybrid resin composite surfaces in vitro. A total of 100 restorative composite resin discs, 6 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick, were obtained and treated with an ageing procedure. After ageing, the samples were randomly divided as follows according to surface preparation methods: (1)Control, (2)37% phosphoric acid gel, (3)Sandblasting, (4)Diamond bur, (5)Air-flow and 20 central incisor teeth were used for the control etched group. SBS test were applied on bonded metal brackets to all samples. SBS values and residual adhesives were evaluated. Analysis of variance showed a significant difference (porthodontic metal brackets to nano-hybrid composite resin surfaces.

  7. Viscosity and surface tension effects during multiphase flow in propped fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzikowski, Michał; Dąbrowski, Marcin

    2017-04-01

    Geological sequestration of CO2 was proposed as an important mechanism to reduce its emission into atmosphere. CO2 exhibits a higher affinity to organic matter than methane molecules and, potentially, it could be pumped and stored in shale reservoirs while enhancing late stage shale gas production. A successful analysis of CO2 sequestration in low matrix permeability rocks such as shales requires a thorough understanding of multiphase flow in stimulated rock fractures, which provide most significant pathways for fluids in such systems. Multiphase fracture flows are also of great relevance to brine, oil and gas migration in petroleum systems, water and stream circulation in geothermal reservoirs, and chemical transport of non-aqueous phase liquids in shallow hydrogeological systems, particularly in partially saturated zones. There are various physical models that describe phenomena taking place during multiphase flow through porous media. One of key aspects that need to be considered are pore-scale effects related to capillarity. Unfortunately, detailed models that describe motion and evolution of phase or component boundary require direct numerical simulations and spatial resolutions that are hard to reach when considering industrial relevant systems. Main aim of the presented work was the development of reduced 2.5D models based on Brinkman approximation of thin domain flow that would be able to capture local scale phenomena without expensive 3D simulations. Presented approach was designed specifically to tackle incompressible and immiscible systems and is based on Continuous Surface Force approach presented by Brackbill et al., implemented using Lattice Boltzmann Method. Presented approach where firstly validated against standard test cases with known classical solution and known experimental data. In the second part, we present and discuss two component, immiscible permeability data for rough and propped fracture obtained with our code for a rage of proppants

  8. Synergy of plasma resistivity and electron viscosity in mediating double tearing modes in cylindrical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhixiong; He, H D; Long, Y X; Mou, Z Z; Dong, J Q; Gao Zhe

    2010-01-01

    The linear behaviors of the double tearing mode (DTM) mediated by parallel electron viscosity and plasma resistivity in cylindrical plasmas with reversed magnetic shear and thus two resonant rational flux surfaces are numerically investigated in this paper. It is shown that DTMs mediated by electron viscosity alone behave similarly to the DTMs mediated by resistivity alone. DTMs mediated by electron viscosity are found to be enhanced by plasma resistivity, which is in such a range that the growth rate of the modes induced by the latter alone is comparable with that of the modes mediated by the former alone, and vice versa. Otherwise the growth rate of the modes is equal to the higher of the modes mediated by resistivity or electron viscosity alone when both resistivity and electron viscosity are taken into account. The enhancement is found to be closely related to the profiles of the stream function.

  9. Effect of surface treatment of prefabricated teeth on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Cumerlato

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the effects of grinding, drilling, sandblasting, and ageing prefabricated teeth (PfT on the shear bond strength (SBS of orthodontic brackets, as well as the effects of surface treatments on the adhesive remnant index (ARI. Methods: One-hundred-ninety-two PfT were divided into four groups (n = 48: Group 1, no surface treatment was done; Group 2, grinding was performed with a cylindrical diamond bur; Group 3, two drillings were done with a spherical diamond bur; Group 4, sandblasting was performed with 50-µm aluminum oxide. Before the experiment, half of the samples stayed immersed in distilled water at 37oC for 90 days. Brackets were bonded with Transbond XT and shear strength tests were carried out using a universal testing machine. SBS were compared by surface treatment and by ageing with two-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s test. ARI scores were compared between surface treatments with Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn’s test. Results: Surface treatments on PfT enhanced SBS of brackets (p< 0.01, result not observed with ageing (p= 0.45. Groups II, III, and IV showed higher SBS and greater ARI than the Group 1 (p< 0.05. SBS was greater in the groups 3 and 4 (drilling, sandblasting than in the Group 2 (grinding (p< 0.05. SBS and ARI showed a positive correlation (Spearman’s R2= 0.57; p< 0.05. Conclusion: Surface treatment on PfT enhanced SBS of brackets, however ageing did not show any relevance. Sandblasting and drilling showed greater SBS than grinding. There was a positive correlation between SBS and ARI.

  10. Effect of surface treatment of prefabricated teeth on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumerlato, Marina; de Lima, Eduardo Martinelli; Osorio, Leandro Berni; Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; de Menezes, Luciane Macedo; Rizzatto, Susana Maria Deon

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the effects of grinding, drilling, sandblasting, and ageing prefabricated teeth (PfT) on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets, as well as the effects of surface treatments on the adhesive remnant index (ARI). Methods: One-hundred-ninety-two PfT were divided into four groups (n = 48): Group 1, no surface treatment was done; Group 2, grinding was performed with a cylindrical diamond bur; Group 3, two drillings were done with a spherical diamond bur; Group 4, sandblasting was performed with 50-µm aluminum oxide. Before the experiment, half of the samples stayed immersed in distilled water at 37oC for 90 days. Brackets were bonded with Transbond XT and shear strength tests were carried out using a universal testing machine. SBS were compared by surface treatment and by ageing with two-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s test. ARI scores were compared between surface treatments with Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn’s test. Results: Surface treatments on PfT enhanced SBS of brackets (p< 0.01), result not observed with ageing (p= 0.45). Groups II, III, and IV showed higher SBS and greater ARI than the Group 1 (p< 0.05). SBS was greater in the groups 3 and 4 (drilling, sandblasting) than in the Group 2 (grinding) (p< 0.05). SBS and ARI showed a positive correlation (Spearman’s R2= 0.57; p< 0.05). Conclusion: Surface treatment on PfT enhanced SBS of brackets, however ageing did not show any relevance. Sandblasting and drilling showed greater SBS than grinding. There was a positive correlation between SBS and ARI. PMID:28902249

  11. Surface chemistry of a viscose-based activated carbon cloth modified by treatment with ammonia and steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudou, J.P. [University of Paris, Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    The influence of ammonia treatment at 800{sup o}C on the catalytic activity of a viscose-based activated carbon cloth (ACC) was evaluated for the oxidative retention of H{sub 2}S or SO{sub 2} at room temperature. Change in the surface chemistry was observed by X-ray spectroscopy of nitrogen (N1s) and by temperature programmed desorption (TPD). Dynamic adsorption of H{sub 2}S or SO{sub 2} in moist air onto a packed bed of activated carbon cloth was monitored by measurement of the breakthrough curves at room temperature. ACC modified by ammonia showed noteworthy enhanced SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S loading relative to the untreated ACC. Improved SO{sub 2} retention rate could be replicated several times after regeneration by washing at room temperature, in contrast to the case with H{sub 2}S. The likely reasons for the behavior of H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} on the ammonia-treated ACC are discussed with reference to the recent literature.

  12. Effect of surface shear on cube texture formation in heavy cold-rolled Cu-45 at%Ni alloy substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Hui; Suo, Hongli; Liang, Yaru

    2015-01-01

    Two types of Cu-45 at%Ni alloy thin tapes with and without surface shear were obtained by different heavy cold rolling processes. The deformation and recrystallization textures of the two tapes were thoroughly investigated by electron back scattering diffraction technique. The results showed...... that a shear texture mainly covered the surface of the heavy deformed tapes because of the fraction between the surface of rolling mills and the thin tapes when the rolling force strongly reduced at high strain, which significantly reduced the fraction of rolling texture on the surface of the Cu-45at %Ni alloy...

  13. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  14. Viscosity evolution of anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pevere, A.; Guibaud, G.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.; Baudu, M.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the apparent viscosity at steady shear rate of sieved anaerobic granular sludge (20¿315 ¿m diameter) sampled from different full-scale anaerobic reactors was recorded using rotation tests. The ¿limit viscosity¿ of sieved anaerobic granular sludge was determined from the apparent

  15. Uniaxial Elongational viscosity of bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    2006-01-01

    The startup and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for three bidisperse polystyrene (PS) melts, consisting of blends of monodisperse PS with molecular weights of 52 kg/mole or 103 kg/mole and 390 kg/mole. The bidisperse melts have a maximum in the steady elongational...... viscosity, of up to a factor of 7 times the Trouton limit of 3 times the zero-shear viscosity....

  16. Enhancing the formation and shear resistance of nitrifying biofilms on membranes by surface modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lackner, Susanne; Holmberg, Maria; Terada, Akihiko

    2009-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) membranes and polyethylene (PE) surfaces were modified to enhance formation and shear resistance of nitrifying biofilms for wastewater treatment applications. A combination of plasma polymerization and wet chemistry was employed to ultimately introduce poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG......) chains with two different functional groups (-PEG-NH2 and -PEG-CH3). Biofilm growth experiments using a mixed nitrifying bacterial culture revealed that the specific combination of PEG chains with amino groups resulted in most biofilm formation on both PP and PE samples. Detachment experiments showed...... structure might be possible explanations of the superiority of the -PEG-NH2 modification. The success of the-PEG-NH2 modification was independent of the original surface and might, therefore, be used in wastewater treatment bioreactors to improve reactor performance by making biofilm formation more stable...

  17. Vesicle dynamics in shear and capillary flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Gompper, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    The deformation of vesicles in flow is studied by a mesoscopic simulation technique, which combines multi-particle collision dynamics for the solvent with a dynamically triangulated surface model for the membrane. Shape transitions are investigated both in simple shear flows and in cylindrical capillary flows. We focus on reduced volumes, where the discocyte shape of fluid vesicles is stable, and the prolate shape is metastable. In simple shear flow at low membrane viscosity, the shear induces a transformation from discocyte to prolate with increasing shear rate, while at high membrane viscosity, the shear induces a transformation from prolate to discocyte, or tumbling motion accompanied by oscillations between these two morphologies. In capillary flow, at small flow velocities the symmetry axis of the discocyte is found not to be oriented perpendicular to the cylinder axis. With increasing flow velocity, a transition to a prolate shape occurs for fluid vesicles, while vesicles with shear-elastic membranes (like red blood cells) transform into a coaxial parachute-like shape

  18. Analysis shear wave velocity structure obtained from surface wave methods in Bornova, Izmir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamuk, Eren, E-mail: eren.pamuk@deu.edu.tr; Akgün, Mustafa, E-mail: mustafa.akgun@deu.edu.tr [Department of Geophysical Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey); Özdağ, Özkan Cevdet, E-mail: cevdet.ozdag@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University Rectorate, Izmir (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Properties of the soil from the bedrock is necessary to describe accurately and reliably for the reduction of earthquake damage. Because seismic waves change their amplitude and frequency content owing to acoustic impedance difference between soil and bedrock. Firstly, shear wave velocity and depth information of layers on bedrock is needed to detect this changing. Shear wave velocity can be obtained using inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods (MASW- the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves, ReMi-Refraction Microtremor, SPAC-Spatial Autocorrelation). While research depth is limeted in active source study, a passive source methods are utilized for deep depth which is not reached using active source methods. ReMi method is used to determine layer thickness and velocity up to 100 m using seismic refraction measurement systems.The research carried out up to desired depth depending on radius using SPAC which is utilized easily in conditions that district using of seismic studies in the city. Vs profiles which are required to calculate deformations in under static and dynamic loads can be obtained with high resolution using combining rayleigh wave dispersion curve obtained from active and passive source methods. In the this study, Surface waves data were collected using the measurements of MASW, ReMi and SPAC at the İzmir Bornova region. Dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods were combined in wide frequency band and Vs-depth profiles were obtained using inversion. Reliability of the resulting soil profiles were provided by comparison with theoretical transfer function obtained from soil paremeters and observed soil transfer function from Nakamura technique and by examination of fitting between these functions. Vs values are changed between 200-830 m/s and engineering bedrock (Vs>760 m/s) depth is approximately 150 m.

  19. Technical Note: New methodology for measuring viscosities in small volumes characteristic of environmental chamber particle samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Renbaum-Wolff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, a method for the determination of viscosities of small sample volumes is introduced, with important implications for the viscosity determination of particle samples from environmental chambers (used to simulate atmospheric conditions. The amount of sample needed is < 1 μl, and the technique is capable of determining viscosities (η ranging between 10−3 and 103 Pascal seconds (Pa s in samples that cover a range of chemical properties and with real-time relative humidity and temperature control; hence, the technique should be well-suited for determining the viscosities, under atmospherically relevant conditions, of particles collected from environmental chambers. In this technique, supermicron particles are first deposited on an inert hydrophobic substrate. Then, insoluble beads (~1 μm in diameter are embedded in the particles. Next, a flow of gas is introduced over the particles, which generates a shear stress on the particle surfaces. The sample responds to this shear stress by generating internal circulations, which are quantified with an optical microscope by monitoring the movement of the beads. The rate of internal circulation is shown to be a function of particle viscosity but independent of the particle material for a wide range of organic and organic-water samples. A calibration curve is constructed from the experimental data that relates the rate of internal circulation to particle viscosity, and this calibration curve is successfully used to predict viscosities in multicomponent organic mixtures.

  20. Rivulet flow round a horizontal cylinder subject to a uniform surface shear stress

    KAUST Repository

    Paterson, C.

    2014-09-14

    © 2014 © The Author, 2014. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com. The steady flow of a slowly varying rivulet with prescribed flux in the azimuthal direction round a large stationary horizontal cylinder subject to a prescribed uniform azimuthal surface shear stress is investigated. In particular, we focus on the case where the volume flux is downwards but the shear stress is upwards, for which there is always a solution corresponding to a rivulet flowing down at least part of one side of the cylinder. We consider both a rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle but slowly varying width (that is, de-pinned contact lines) and a rivulet with constant width but slowly varying contact angle (that is, pinned contact lines), and show that they have qualitatively different behaviour. When shear is present, a rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle can never run all the way from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, and so we consider the scenario in which an infinitely wide two-dimensional film of uniform thickness covers part of the upper half of the cylinder and \\'breaks\\' into a single rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle. In contrast, a sufficiently narrow rivulet with constant width can run all the way from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, whereas a wide rivulet can do so only if its contact lines de-pin, and so we consider the scenario in which the contact lines of a wide rivulet de-pin on the lower half of the cylinder.

  1. Viscosity of aqueous and cyanate ester suspensions containing alumina nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawler, Katherine [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The viscosities of both aqueous and cyanate ester monomer (BECy) based suspensions of alumina nanoparticle were studied. The applications for these suspensions are different: aqueous suspensions of alumina nanoparticles are used in the production of technical ceramics made by slip casting or tape casting, and the BECy based suspensions are being developed for use in an injection-type composite repair resin. In the case of aqueous suspensions, it is advantageous to achieve a high solids content with low viscosity in order to produce a high quality product. The addition of a dispersant is useful so that higher solids content suspensions can be used with lower viscosities. For BECy suspensions, the addition of nanoparticles to the BECy resin is expected to enhance the mechanical properties of the cured composite. The addition of saccharides to aqueous suspensions leads to viscosity reduction. Through DSC measurements it was found that the saccharide molecules formed a solution with water and this resulted in lowering the melting temperature of the free water according to classic freezing point depression. Saccharides also lowered the melting temperature of the bound water, but this followed a different rule. The shear thinning and melting behaviors of the suspensions were used to develop a model based on fractal-type agglomeration. It is believed that the structure of the particle flocs in these suspensions changes with the addition of saccharides which leads to the resultant viscosity decrease. The viscosity of the BECy suspensions increased with solids content, and the viscosity increase was greater than predicted by the classical Einstein equation for dilute suspensions. Instead, the Mooney equation fits the viscosity behavior well from 0-20 vol% solids. The viscosity reduction achieved at high particle loadings by the addition of benzoic acid was also investigated by NMR. It appears that the benzoic acid interacts with the surface of the alumina particle which may

  2. Motion of cells sedimenting on a solid surface in a laminar shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, O; Pierres, A; Foa, C; Delaage, M; Bongrand, P

    1992-01-01

    Cell adhesion often occurs under dynamic conditions, as in flowing blood. A quantitative understanding of this process requires accurate knowledge of the topographical relationships between the cell membrane and potentially adhesive surfaces. This report describes an experimental study made on both the translational and rotational velocities of leukocytes sedimenting of a flat surface under laminar shear flow. The main conclusions are as follows: (a) Cells move close to the wall with constant velocity for several tens of seconds. (b) The numerical values of translational and rotational velocities are inconsistent with Goldman's model of a neutrally buoyant sphere in a laminar shear flow, unless a drag force corresponding to contact friction between cells and the chamber floor is added. The phenomenological friction coefficient was 7.4 millinewton.s/m. (c) Using a modified Goldman's theory, the width of the gap separating cells (6 microns radius) from the chamber floor was estimated at 1.4 micron. (d) It is shown that a high value of the cell-to-substrate gap may be accounted for by the presence of cell surface protrusions of a few micrometer length, in accordance with electron microscope observations performed on the same cell population. (e) In association with previously reported data (Tissot, O., C. Foa, C. Capo, H. Brailly, M. Delaage, and P. Bongrand. 1991. Biocolloids and Biosurfaces. In press), these results are consistent with the possibility that cell-substrate attachment be initiated by the formation of a single molecular bond, which might be considered as the rate limiting step.

  3. Surface acoustic load sensing using a face-shear PIN-PMN-PT single-crystal resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungrim; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2012-11-01

    Pb(In(0.5)Nb(0.5))O(3)-Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT) resonators for surface acoustic load sensing are presented in this paper. Different acoustic loads are applied to thickness mode, thickness-shear mode, and face-shear mode resonators, and the electrical impedances at resonance and anti-resonance frequencies are recorded. More than one order of magnitude higher sensitivity (ratio of electrical impedance change to surface acoustic impedance change) at the resonance is achieved for the face-shear-mode resonator compared with other resonators with the same dimensions. The Krimholtz, Leedom, and Matthaei (KLM) model is used to verify the surface acoustic loading effect on the electrical impedance spectrum of face-shear PIN-PMN-PT single-crystal resonators. The demonstrated high sensitivity of face-shear mode resonators to surface loads is promising for a broad range of applications, including artificial skin, biological and chemical sensors, touch screens, and other touch-based sensors.

  4. Raman study of lysozyme amyloid fibrils suspended on super-hydrophobic surfaces by shear flow

    KAUST Repository

    Moretti, Manola; Allione, Marco; Marini, Monica; Torre, Bruno; Giugni, Andrea; Limongi, Tania; Das, Gobind; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2017-01-01

    The shear flow generated at the rim of a drop evaporating on a micro-fabricated super-hydrophobic surface has been used to suspend and orient single/few lysozyme amyloid fibrils between two pillars for substrate-free characterization. Micro Raman spectroscopy performed on extended fibers evidenced a shift of the Amide I band main peak to the value attributed to β-sheet secondary structure, characteristic of the amyloid fibers. In addition, given the orientation sensitivity of the anisotropic molecule, the Raman signal of the main secondary structure was nicely enhanced for a fiber alignment parallel to the polarization direction of the laser. The substrate-free sample generated by this suspending technique is suitable for other structural analysis methods, where fiber crystals are investigated. It could be further employed for generation of arrays and patterns in a controllable fashion, where bio-compatible material is needed.

  5. Raman study of lysozyme amyloid fibrils suspended on super-hydrophobic surfaces by shear flow

    KAUST Repository

    Moretti, Manola

    2017-05-19

    The shear flow generated at the rim of a drop evaporating on a micro-fabricated super-hydrophobic surface has been used to suspend and orient single/few lysozyme amyloid fibrils between two pillars for substrate-free characterization. Micro Raman spectroscopy performed on extended fibers evidenced a shift of the Amide I band main peak to the value attributed to β-sheet secondary structure, characteristic of the amyloid fibers. In addition, given the orientation sensitivity of the anisotropic molecule, the Raman signal of the main secondary structure was nicely enhanced for a fiber alignment parallel to the polarization direction of the laser. The substrate-free sample generated by this suspending technique is suitable for other structural analysis methods, where fiber crystals are investigated. It could be further employed for generation of arrays and patterns in a controllable fashion, where bio-compatible material is needed.

  6. Near-surface compressional and shear wave speeds constrained by body-wave polarization analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunyoung; Ishii, Miaki

    2018-06-01

    A new technique to constrain near-surface seismic structure that relates body-wave polarization direction to the wave speed immediately beneath a seismic station is presented. The P-wave polarization direction is only sensitive to shear wave speed but not to compressional wave speed, while the S-wave polarization direction is sensitive to both wave speeds. The technique is applied to data from the High-Sensitivity Seismograph Network in Japan, and the results show that the wave speed estimates obtained from polarization analysis are compatible with those from borehole measurements. The lateral variations in wave speeds correlate with geological and physical features such as topography and volcanoes. The technique requires minimal computation resources, and can be used on any number of three-component teleseismic recordings, opening opportunities for non-invasive and inexpensive study of the shallowest (˜100 m) crustal structures.

  7. Observations of Near-Surface Current Shear Help Describe Oceanic Oil and Plastic Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxague, Nathan J. M.; Ö-zgökmen, Tamay M.; Haus, Brian K.; Novelli, Guillaume; Shcherbina, Andrey; Sutherland, Peter; Guigand, Cédric M.; Lund, Björn; Mehta, Sanchit; Alday, Matias; Molemaker, Jeroen

    2018-01-01

    Plastics and spilled oil pose a critical threat to marine life and human health. As a result of wind forcing and wave motions, theoretical and laboratory studies predict very strong velocity variation with depth over the upper few centimeters of the water column, an observational blind spot in the real ocean. Here we present the first-ever ocean measurements of the current vector profile defined to within 1 cm of the free surface. In our illustrative example, the current magnitude averaged over the upper 1 cm of the ocean is shown to be nearly four times the average over the upper 10 m, even for mild forcing. Our findings indicate that this shear will rapidly separate pieces of marine debris which vary in size or buoyancy, making consideration of these dynamics essential to an improved understanding of the pathways along which marine plastics and oil are transported.

  8. Viscosidade extensional e em cisalhamento de suspensões acidificadas de amido de amaranto e caseinato de sódio Extensional and shear viscosity of acidified amaranth starch-sodium caseinate suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Gozzo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as viscosidades extensional e em cisalhamento de suspensões acidificadas de amido de amaranto-caseinato de sódio. Sistemas mistos de amido de amaranto-caseinato de sódio acidificados com glucona-delta-lactona (GDL foram estudados por ensaios reológicos em compressão biaxial e cisalhamento. Os efeitos da velocidade de acidificação (lenta e rápida e pH final (neutro e no ponto isoelétrico da caseína foram avaliados considerando as interações entre os biopolímeros e sua consequente influência nos parâmetros reológicos. Todas as amostras apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico, no entanto, a adição de caseinato de sódio nas suspensões de amido, em pH neutro, promoveu um efeito negativo sobre a viscosidade aparente. Amostras acidificadas apresentaram um aumento na complexidade do sistema devido à formação da rede de amido e caseína, observando que a força necessária para o escoamento foi sempre maior para as amostras contendo concentrações maiores de caseinato. Isso mostra que a agregação e gelificação da proteína promovidas pela acidificação, impediram a microsseparação de fases. Esta rede foi mais forte em sistemas gelificados lentamente, devido à formação de uma rede de proteína mais organizada. Apesar da técnica de compressão biaxial imperfeita ser limitada para avaliação de determinados sistemas, neste estudo, mostrou ser um modo prático e eficiente de se mensurar o comportamento reológico.Extensional and shear viscosity of acidified amaranth starch-sodium caseinate suspensions were evaluated. Mixed systems of amaranth starch-sodium caseinate acidified with glucone-delta-lactone (GDL were studied using rheological measurements under biaxial compression and shear. The effects of the acidification rate (slow and fast and final pH (neutral and isoelectric point of casein were evaluated considering the interactions between biopolymers and their influence on the rheological parameters

  9. [Relations between plasma-erythrocyte viscosity factors and ESR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortinovis, A; Crippa, A; Crippa, M; Bosoni, T; Moratti, R

    1992-09-01

    The ESR is usually put in relationship: to the real density of the RBCs (erythrocytes) (difference between the RBC specific gravity and the plasma one), and to the resistance that the RBCs meet moving in a medium, which is due to the plasma viscosity and to the total external RBC surface. When the RBCs take shape of aggregates, their external surface is decreased and ESR increases. The most important plasma factor causing changes in ESR is the fibrinogen level followed by the plasma globulins and by the products arising from the tissue damage. The resistance that the RBCs meet moving in the plasma is well expressed by the measurement of the plasma-RBC viscosity considering that is inclusive of both factors that are the plasma viscosity and the external RBC surface. The plasma-RBC viscosity is the resultant of several factors: Fa = Fb - Fe - Fs - Fm, were: Fa is the resultant, Fb the attracting forces due to the proteic macromolecules, Fe the repulsing forces due the negative charges. Fs the repulsing forces due to the shear-stress, Fm the force which opposes itself against the surface tension of the aggregation; it depends on the RBC morphology and on the RBC rigidity. The ESR has been recently used like an index of the RBC aggregation. The Authors study the relationship between several hemorheological parameters and the ESR in infective and inflammatory processes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. The effect of different surface treatments on the shear bond strength of luting cements to titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi-Rached, Filipe de Oliveira; Fonseca, Renata Garcia; Haneda, Isabella Gagliardi; de Almeida-Júnior, Antonio Alves; Adabo, Gelson Luis

    2012-12-01

    Although titanium presents attractive physical and mechanical properties, there is a need for improving the bond at the titanium/luting cement interface for the longevity of metal ceramic restorations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on the shear bond strength (SBS) of resin-modified glass ionomer and resin cements to commercially pure titanium (CP Ti). Two hundred and forty CP Ti cast disks (9.0 × 3.0 mm) were divided into 8 surface treatment groups (n=30): 1) 50 µm Al(2)O(3) particles; 2) 120 µm Al(2)O(3) particles; 3) 250 µm Al(2)O(3) particles; 4) 50 µm Al(2)O(3) particles + silane (RelyX Ceramic Primer); 5) 120 µm Al(2)O(3) particles + silane; 6) 250 µm Al(2)O(3) particles + silane; 7) 30 µm silica-modified Al(2)O(3) particles (Cojet Sand) + silane; and 8) 120 µm Al(2)O(3) particles, followed by 110 µm silica-modified Al(2)O(3) particles (Rocatec). The luting cements 1) RelyX Luting 2; 2) RelyX ARC; or 3) RelyX U100 were applied to the treated CP Ti surfaces (n=10). Shear bond strength (SBS) was tested after thermal cycling (5000 cycles, 5°C to 55°C). Data were analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey HSD post hoc test (α=.05). Failure mode was determined with a stereomicroscope (×20). The surface treatments, cements, and their interaction significantly affected the SBS (Pbehavior for all surface treatments. For both cements, only the group abraded with 50 μm Al(2)O(3) particles had lower SBS than the other groups (P<.05). For RelyX ARC, regardless of silane application, abrasion with 50 μm Al(2)O(3) particles resulted in significantly lower SBS than abrasion with 120 μm and 250 μm particles, which exhibited statistically similar SBS values to each other. Rocatec + silane promoted the highest SBS for RelyX ARC. RelyX U100 presented the highest SBS mean values (P<.001). All groups showed a predominance of adhesive failure mode. The adhesive capability of RelyX Luting 2 and RelyX U

  11. Aspiration of human neutrophils: effects of shear thinning and cortical dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, J L; Dembo, M

    2001-12-01

    It is generally accepted that the human neutrophil can be mechanically represented as a droplet of polymeric fluid enclosed by some sort of thin slippery viscoelastic cortex. Many questions remain however about the detailed rheology and chemistry of the interior fluid and the cortex. To address these quantitative issues, we have used a finite element method to simulate the dynamics of neutrophils during micropipet aspiration using various plausible assumptions. The results were then systematically compared with aspiration experiments conducted at eight different combinations of pipet size and pressure. Models in which the cytoplasm was represented by a simple Newtonian fluid (i.e., models without shear thinning) were grossly incapable of accounting for the effects of pressure on the general time scale of neutrophil aspiration. Likewise, models in which the cortex was purely elastic (i.e., models without surface viscosity) were unable to explain the effects of pipet size on the general aspiration rate. Such models also failed to explain the rapid acceleration of the aspiration rate during the final phase of aspiration nor could they account for the geometry of the neutrophil during various phases of aspiration. Thus, our results indicate that a minimal mechanical model of the neutrophil needs to incorporate both shear thinning and surface viscosity to remain valid over a reasonable range of conditions. At low shear rates, the surface dilatation viscosity of the neutrophil was found to be on the order of 100 poise-cm, whereas the viscosity of the interior cytoplasm was on the order of 1000 poise. Both the surface viscosity and the interior viscosity seem to decrease in a similar fashion when the shear rate exceeds approximately 0.05 s(-1). Unfortunately, even models with both surface viscosity and shear thinning studied are still not sufficient to fully explain all the features of neutrophil aspiration. In particular, the very high rate of aspiration during the

  12. Macroscopic assessment of cartilage shear: effects of counter-surface roughness, synovial fluid lubricant, and compression offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynhhoa T; Wong, Benjamin L; Chun, June; Yoon, Yeoung C; Talke, Frank E; Sah, Robert L

    2010-06-18

    During joint articulation, cartilage is subjected to compression, shear, and sliding, mechanical factors that regulate and affect cartilage metabolism. The objective of this study was to use an in vitro material-on-cartilage shear test to elucidate the effects of counter-surface roughness (Polished, Mildly rough, and Rough), lubricants (phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and bovine synovial fluid (bSF)), and compression offset on the shearing and sliding of normal human talar cartilage under dynamic lateral displacement. Peak shear stress (sigma(xz,m)) and strain (E(xz,m)) increased with increasing platen roughness and compression offset, and were 30% higher with PBS than with bSF. Compared to PBS, bSF was more effective as a lubricant for P than for M and R platens as indicated by the higher reduction in kinetic friction coefficient (-60% vs. -20% and -19%, respectively), sigma(xz,m) (-50% vs. -14% and -17%) and E(xz,m) (-54% vs. -19% and -17%). Cartilage shear and sliding were evident for all counter-surfaces either at low compression offset (10%) or with high lateral displacement (70%), regardless of lubricant. An increase in tissue shear occurred with either increased compression offset or increased surface roughness. This material and biomechanical test system allow control of cartilage sigma(xz,m) and E(xz,m), and hence, sliding magnitude, for an imposed lateral displacement. It therefore can facilitate study of cartilage mechanobiological responses to distinct regimes of cartilage loading and articulation, such as shear with variable amounts of sliding. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Various Treatment Modalities on Surface Characteristics and Shear Bond Strengths of Polyetheretherketone-Based Core Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çulhaoğlu, Ahmet Kürşat; Özkır, Serhat Emre; Şahin, Volkan; Yılmaz, Burak; Kılıçarslan, Mehmet Ali

    2017-11-13

    To investigate the effect of different surface treatments on the surface roughness (Ra), wettability, and shear bond strength of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) to composite resin. One hundred ninety eight PEEK specimens were divided into six groups (n = 33). Specimen surfaces were treated with the following surface treatment modalities: silicoating (CoJet), acetone treatment, acid etching (H 2 SO 4 ), airborne particle abrasion (Al 2 O 3 ), laser irradiation (Yb:PL laser), and the nontreated surface serving as the control. Surface roughness was measured with an profilometer (n = 11) and a goniometer was used to measure the surface wettability through contact angle (θ)(n = 11). PEEK surfaces were veneered with a composite resin (n = 11). The specimens were then thermocycled for 10,000 cycles at 5 to 55°C. Shear bond strengths between the PEEK and composite resin were measured with an universal test machine. One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the data. Tukey's post-hoc test was used to determine significant differences between groups (α = 0.05). Surface roughness and wettability of PEEK surfaces along with shear bond strength of PEEK to composite resin were influenced by the surface treatments. (p PEEK surfaces treated by laser irradiation (2.85 ± 0.2 µm) followed by airborne particle abrasion (2.26 ± 0.33 µm), whereas other surface treatment modalities provided similar Ra values, with the acid-etched PEEK surfaces having the lowest mean Ra values (0.35 ± 0.14 µm). Silicoating provided the most wettable PEEK surfaces (48.04 ± 6.28º), followed by either acetone treatment (70.19 ± 4.49º) or acid treatment (76.07 ± 6.61º). Decreased wettability was observed for airborne particle abraded (84.83 ± 4.56º) and laser-treated PEEK surfaces (103.06 ± 4.88º). The highest mean shear bond strength values were observed for acid-etched PEEK surfaces (15.82 ± 4.23 MPa) followed by laser irradiated (11.46 ± 1.97 MPa), airborne particle abraded (10.81 ± 3.06 MPa

  14. An in vitro comparison of shear bond strength of zirconia to enamel using different surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandparsa, Roya; Talua, Nayrouz A; Finkelman, Matthew D; Schaus, Scott E

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the shear bond strength of an airborne-particle abraded zirconia, an acid-etched zirconia (Piranha solution), an Alloy Primer treated zirconia, and a silaned zirconia to enamel, all bonded with a phosphate-methacrylate resin luting agent. Seventy extracted intact human molars were collected, cleaned, and mounted in autopolymerizing acrylic resin, with the experimental surface of the teeth exposed. The specimens were randomly divided into seven groups of zirconia specimens (4 mm diameter, 2 mm thick). Group 1: Airborne-particle abrasion; group 2: Airborne-particle abrasion and Z-PRIME Plus; group 3: Airborne-particle abrasion and alloy primer; group 4: Piranha solution 7:1; group 5: Piranha solution 7:1 and Z-PRIME Plus; group 6: Piranha solution 7:1 and Alloy primer; group 7: CoJet and silane. All specimens were luted with a phosphate-methacrylate resin luting agent (Panavia F2.0) and stored in distilled water for 1 day, then thermocycled (5°C and 55°C) for 500 cycles and tested for shear bond strength (SBS), measured in MPa, with a universal testing machine at a 0.55 mm/min crosshead speed. All specimens were inspected under a scanning electron microscope to determine mode of failure. The mean values and standard deviations of all specimens were calculated for each group. A one-way ANOVA was performed, and multiple pairwise comparisons were then completed with post hoc Tukey test (alpha = 0.05). The airborne-particle abrasion and Z-PRIME Plus group resulted in a significantly higher SBS than the other groups (21.11 ± 6.32 MPa) (p enamel surfaces; however, groups 4, 5, and 6 showed mostly adhesive failures, which left the zirconia surface free of the adhesive materials. No cohesive failures of the substrates (ceramic, resin, or enamel) were observed. Airborne-particle abrasion followed by the application of a zirconia primer produced the highest bond strength to enamel. Therefore, it can be recommended as a

  15. Studies on Impingement Effects of Low Density Jets on Surfaces — Determination of Shear Stress and Normal Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathian, Sarith. P.; Kurian, Job

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the results of the Laser Reflection Method (LRM) for the determination of shear stress due to impingement of low-density free jets on flat plate. For thin oil film moving under the action of aerodynamic boundary layer the shear stress at the air-oil interface is equal to the shear stress between the surface and air. A direct and dynamic measurement of the oil film slope is measured using a position sensing detector (PSD). The thinning rate of oil film is directly measured which is the major advantage of the LRM over LISF method. From the oil film slope history, direct calculation of the shear stress is done using a three-point formula. For the full range of experiment conditions Knudsen numbers varied till the continuum limit of the transition regime. The shear stress values for low-density flows in the transition regime are thus obtained using LRM and the measured values of shear show fair agreement with those obtained by other methods. Results of the normal pressure measurements on a flat plate in low-density jets by using thermistors as pressure sensors are also presented in the paper. The normal pressure profiles obtained show the characteristic features of Newtonian impact theory for hypersonic flows.

  16. Upper Mantle Shear Wave Structure Beneath North America From Multi-mode Surface Wave Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, K.; Ekström, G.

    2008-12-01

    The upper mantle structure beneath the North American continent has been investigated from measurements of multi-mode phase speeds of Love and Rayleigh waves. To estimate fundamental-mode and higher-mode phase speeds of surface waves from a single seismogram at regional distances, we have employed a method of nonlinear waveform fitting based on a direct model-parameter search using the neighbourhood algorithm (Yoshizawa & Kennett, 2002). The method of the waveform analysis has been fully automated by employing empirical quantitative measures for evaluating the accuracy/reliability of estimated multi-mode phase dispersion curves, and thus it is helpful in processing the dramatically increasing numbers of seismic data from the latest regional networks such as USArray. As a first step toward modeling the regional anisotropic shear-wave velocity structure of the North American upper mantle with extended vertical resolution, we have applied the method to long-period three-component records of seismic stations in North America, which mostly comprise the GSN and US regional networks as well as the permanent and transportable USArray stations distributed by the IRIS DMC. Preliminary multi-mode phase-speed models show large-scale patterns of isotropic heterogeneity, such as a strong velocity contrast between the western and central/eastern United States, which are consistent with the recent global and regional models (e.g., Marone, et al. 2007; Nettles & Dziewonski, 2008). We will also discuss radial anisotropy of shear wave speed beneath North America from multi-mode dispersion measurements of Love and Rayleigh waves.

  17. Effect of Four Methods of Surface Treatment on Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets to Zirconium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghra Yassaei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Providing reliable attachment between bracket base and zirconia surface is a prerequisite for exertion of orthodontic force. The purpose of the present study was to eval- uate the effect of four zirconium surface treatment methods on shear bond strength (SBS of orthodontic brackets.Materials and Methods: One block of zirconium was trimmed into four zirconium sur- faces, which served as our four study groups and each had 18 metal brackets bonded to them. Once the glazed layer was removed, the first group was etched with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid (HF, and the other three groups were prepared by means of sandblasting and 1 W, and 2 W Er: YAG laser, respectively. After application of silane, central incisor brackets were bonded to the zirconium surfaces. The SBS values were measured by a Dartec testing ma- chine with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min.Results: The highest SBS was achieved in the sandblasted group (7.81±1.02 MPa followed in a descending order by 2 W laser group (6.95±0.87 MPa, 1 W laser group (6.87±0.92MPa and HF acid etched group (5.84±0.78 MPa. The differences between the study groups, were statistically significant except between the laser groups (P < 0.05. Conclusion: In terms of higher bond strength and safety, sandblasting and Er: YAG laser irradiation with power output of 1 W and 2 W can be considered more appropriate alterna- tives to HF acid etching for zirconium surface treatment prior to bracket bonding.

  18. Electric Double Layer at the Rutile (110) Surface. 3. Inhomogeneous Viscosity and Diffusivity Measurement by Computer Simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Předota, Milan; Cummings, P.T.; Wesolowski, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 7 (2007), s. 3071-3079 ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP203/03/P083; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET400720507 Grant - others:OBES(US) DE/AC05/00OR22 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : viscosity * rutile * interface Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  19. Shear bond strength of two bonding systems on dentin surfaces prepared with Er:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Magro, Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the shear bond strength of two bonding dentin systems, one 'one step' (Single Bond - 3M) and one 'self-etching' (Prompt-L-ESPE), when applied on dentin surfaces prepared with Er:YAG laser (2,94μm) that underwent ar not, acid etched. Forty one human molars just extracted were selected and after the cut with diamond disc and included in acrylic resin, resulting in 81 specimens (hemi crowns). After, the specimens were divided in one group treated with sand paper and another two groups treated with Er:YAG laser with 200 mJ and 250 mJ of energy and 2 Hz of frequency. Next, the prepared surfaces received three treatments with following application: 1) acid + Single Bond + Z 250 resin, 2) prompt-L-Pop + Z 250 resin, and 3) acid without, Single Bond + Z 250 resin. The Z 250 resin was applied and photopolymerized in increments on a Teflon matrix that belonged to an apparatus called 'Assembly Apparatus' machine producing cylinders of 3,5 mm of diameter and 5 mm of height. After these specimens were submitted to thermo cycling during 1 minute the 55 deg C and during 1 minute with 5 deg C with a total of 500 cycles for specimen, and the measures of shear bond strength were abstained using EMIC model DL 2000 rehearsed machine, with speed of 0,5 mm/min, measuring the final rupture tension (Mpa). The results showed an statistic superiority of 5% of probability level in dentin flattened with sandpaper and with laser using 200 mJ of energy with aspect to the ones flattened with laser using 250 mJ of energy. It was observed that using 'Single Bond' bonding dentin system the marks were statistically superior at 5% of probability with reference to the use of the Prompt-L-Pop adhesive system. So, it was concluded that Er:YAG Laser with 200 mJ of energy produced similar dentin cavity prepare than sandpaper and Single Bond seemed the best bonding agent system between restorative material and dentin. (author)

  20. Effect of viscosity and surface tension on the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor instability and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability under nonlinear domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahul Banerjee; Khan, M.; Mandal, L.K.; Roy, S.; Gupta, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability and Richtmyer-Meshkov (R-M) instability are well known problems in the formation of some astrophysical structures such as the supernova remnants in the Eagle and Crab nebula. A core collapse supernova is driven by an externally powerful shock, and strong shocks are the breeding ground of hydrodynamic instability such as Rayleigh-Taylor instability or Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. These instabilities are also important issues in the design of targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). In an ICF target, a high density fluid is frequently accelerated by the pressure of a low density fluid and after ablation the density quickly decays. So, small ripples at such an interface will grow. Under potential flow model, the perturbed interface between heavier fluid and lighter fluid form bubble and spike like structures. The bubbles are in the form of columns of lighter fluid interleaved by falling spike of heavy fluid. In this paper, we like to presented the effect of viscosity and surface tension on Rayleigh-Taylor instability and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability under the non-linear Layzer's approach and described the displacement curvature, growth and velocity of the tip of the bubble as well as spike. It is seen that, in absence of surface tension the lowering of the asymptotic velocity of the tip of the bubble which is formed when the lighter fluid penetrates into the denser fluid and thus encounters the viscous drag due to the denser fluid, which depends only on the denser fluid's viscosity coefficient. On the other hand the asymptotic velocity of the tip of the spike formed as the denser fluid penetrates into the lighter fluid is reduced by an amount which depends only on the viscosity coefficient of the lighter fluid and the spike is resisted by the viscous drag due to the lighter fluid. However, in presence of surface tension the asymptotic velocity of the tip of the bubble (spike) and

  1. Bifurcation Phenomena of a Magnetic Island at a Rational Surface in a Magnetic-Shear Control Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Inagaki, S.; Yoshinuma, M.; Narushima, Y.; Itoh, K.; Kobuchi, T.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Funaba, H.; Sakakibara, S.; Morisaki, T.; LHD Experimental Group

    2008-01-01

    Three states of a magnetic island are observed when the magnetic shear at the rational surface is modified using inductive current associated with the neutral beam current drive in the Large Helical Device. One state is the healed magnetic island with a zero island width. The second state is the saturated magnetic island with partial flattening of the T e profile. The third state is characterized by the global flattening of the T e profile in the core region. As the plasma assumes each of the three states consecutively through a bifurcation process a clear hysteresis in the relation between the size of the magnetic island and the magnetic shear is observed

  2. Viscosity of nanoconfined polyamide-6,6 oligomers: atomistic reverse nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Hossein; Müller-Plathe, Florian

    2010-01-14

    Our new simulation scheme in isosurface-isothermal-isobaric ensemble [Eslami, H.; Mozaffari, F.; Moghadasi, J.; Müller-Plathe, F. J. Chem. Phys. 2008, 129, 194702], developed to simulate confined fluids in equilibrium with bulk, is applied to simulate polyamide-6,6 oligomers confined between graphite surfaces. The reverse nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation technique is employed to shear the graphite surfaces. In this work, six confined systems, with different surface separations, as well as the bulk fluid are simulated. Our results show a viscosity increase with respect to the bulk fluid, with decreasing distance between surfaces. Also, the calculated viscosities of the confined systems show an oscillatory behavior with maxima corresponding to well-formed layers between the surfaces. We observe a substantial slip at the surfaces, with the slip length depending on the shear rate and on the slit width. The slip length and the slip velocity show oscillatory behavior with out-of-phase oscillations with respect to the solvation force oscillations. Moreover, the temperature difference between coldest and hottest parts of the simulation box depends on the shear rate and on the layering effect (solvation force oscillations). An analysis of oligomer deformation under flow shows preferential alignment of oligomers parallel to the surfaces with increasing shear rate.

  3. Conditions of viscosity measurement for detecting irradiated peppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Todoriki, Setsuko; Okadome, Hiroshi; Kohyama, Kaoru

    1995-01-01

    Viscosity of gelatinized suspensions of black and white peppers decreased depending upon dose. The viscosity was influenced by gelatinization and viscosity measurement conditions. The difference between unirradiated pepper and an irradiated one was larger at a higher pH and temperature for gelatinization. A viscosity parameter normalized with the starch content of pepper sample and the viscosity of a 5% suspension of corn starch could get rid of the influence of the conditions for viscosity measurement such as type of viscometer, shear rate and temperature. (author)

  4. Lunar near-surface shear wave velocities at the Apollo landing sites as inferred from spectral amplitude ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, P.; Latham, G. V.; Nakamura, Y.; Dorman, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    The horizontal-to-vertical amplitude ratios of the long-period seismograms are reexamined to determine the shear wave velocity distributions at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16 lunar landing sites. Average spectral ratios, computed from a number of impact signals, were compared with spectral ratios calculated for the fundamental mode Rayleigh waves in media consisting of homogeneous, isotropic, horizontal layers. The shear velocities of the best fitting models at the different sites resemble each other and differ from the average for all sites by not more than 20% except for the bottom layer at station 14. The shear velocities increase from 40 m/s at the surface to about 400 m/s at depths between 95 and 160 m at the various sites. Within this depth range the velocity-depth functions are well represented by two piecewise linear segments, although the presence of first-order discontinuities cannot be ruled out.

  5. Temperature dependence of immunoreactions using shear horizontal surface acoustic wave immunosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogai, Takashi; Yatsuda, Hiromi; Kondoh, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the temperature dependence of immunoreactions, which are antibody-antigen reactions, on a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) immunosensor is described. The immunosensor is based on a reflection-type delay line on a 36° Y-cut 90° X-propagation quartz substrate, where the delay line is composed of a floating electrode unidirectional transducer (FEUDT), a grating reflector, and a sensing area between them. In order to evaluate the temperature dependence of immunoreactions, human serum albumin (HSA) antigen-antibody reactions are investigated. The SH-SAW immunosensor chip is placed in a thermostatic chamber and the changes in the SH-SAW velocity resulting from the immunoreactions are measured at different temperatures. As a result, it is observed that the HSA immunoreactions are influenced by the ambient temperature and that higher temperatures provide more active reactions. In order to analyze the immunoreactions, an analytical approach using an exponential fitting method for changes in SH-SAW velocity is employed.

  6. Effect of Ti:sapphire laser on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to ceramic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdur, Emire Aybuke; Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan

    2015-08-01

    With increasing demand for orthodontic treatments in adults, orthodontists continue to debate the optimal way to prepare ceramic surfaces for bonding. This study evaluated the effects of a Ti:sapphire laser on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets bonded to two ceramic surfaces (feldspathic and IPS Empress e-Max) and the results were compared with those using two other lasers (Er:YAG and Nd:YAG) and 'conventional' techniques, i.e., sandblasting (50 µm) and hydrofluoric (HF) acid. In total, 150 ceramic discs were prepared and divided into two groups. In each group, the following five subgroups were prepared: Ti:sapphire laser, Nd:YAG laser, Er:YAG laser, sandblasting, and HF acid. Mandibular incisor brackets were bonded using a light-cured adhesive. The samples were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37°C and then thermocycled. Extra samples were prepared and examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SBS testing was performed and failure modes were classified. ANOVA and Tukey's HSD tests were used to compare SBS among the five subgroups (P < 0.05). Feldspathic and IPS Empress e-Max ceramics had similar SBS values. The Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser (16.76 ± 1.37 MPa) produced the highest mean bond strength, followed by sandblasting (12.79 ± 1.42 MPa) and HF acid (11.28 ± 1.26 MPa). The Er:YAG (5.43 ± 1.21 MPa) and Nd:YAG laser (5.36 ± 1.04 MPa) groups were similar and had the lowest SBS values. More homogeneous and regular surfaces were observed in the ablation pattern with the Ti:sapphire laser than with the other treatments by SEM analysis. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, Ti:sapphire laser- treated surfaces had the highest SBS values. Therefore, this technique may be useful for the pretreatment of ceramic surfaces as an alternative to 'conventional' techniques. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Prediction Of Tensile And Shear Strength Of Friction Surfaced Tool Steel Deposit By Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Hussain, M.; Pitchi Raju, V.; Kandasamy, J.; Govardhan, D.

    2018-04-01

    Friction surface treatment is well-established solid technology and is used for deposition, abrasion and corrosion protection coatings on rigid materials. This novel process has wide range of industrial applications, particularly in the field of reclamation and repair of damaged and worn engineering components. In this paper, we present the prediction of tensile and shear strength of friction surface treated tool steel using ANN for simulated results of friction surface treatment. This experiment was carried out to obtain tool steel coatings of low carbon steel parts by changing contribution process parameters essentially friction pressure, rotational speed and welding speed. The simulation is performed by a 33-factor design that takes into account the maximum and least limits of the experimental work performed with the 23-factor design. Neural network structures, such as the Feed Forward Neural Network (FFNN), were used to predict tensile and shear strength of tool steel sediments caused by friction.

  8. Factors affecting the shear bond strength of metal and ceramic brackets bonded to different ceramic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Alhaija, Elham S J; Abu AlReesh, Issam A; AlWahadni, Ahed M S

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of metal and ceramic brackets bonded to two different all-ceramic crowns, IPS Empress 2 and In-Ceram Alumina, to compare the SBS between hydrofluoric acid (HFA), phosphoric acid etched, and sandblasted, non-etched all-ceramic surfaces. Ninety-six all-ceramic crowns were fabricated resembling a maxillary left first premolar. The crowns were divided into eight groups: (1) metal brackets bonded to sandblasted 9.6 per cent HFA-etched IPS Empress 2 crowns; (2) metal brackets bonded to sandblasted 9.6 per cent HFA-etched In-Ceram crowns; (3) ceramic brackets bonded to sandblasted 9.6 per cent HFA-etched IPS Empress 2 crowns; (4) ceramic brackets bonded to sandblasted 9.6 per cent HFA-etched In-Ceram crowns; (5) metal brackets bonded to sandblasted 37 per cent phosphoric acid-etched IPS Empress 2 crowns; (6) metal brackets bonded to sandblasted 37 per cent phosphoric acid-etched In-Ceram crowns; (7) metal brackets bonded to sandblasted, non-etched IPS Empress 2 crowns; and (8) metal brackets bonded to sandblasted, non-etched In-Ceram crowns. Metal and ceramic orthodontic brackets were bonded using a conventional light polymerizing adhesive resin. An Instron universal testing machine was used to determine the SBS at a crosshead speed of 0.1 mm/minute. Comparison between groups was performed using a univariate general linear model and chi-squared tests. The highest mean SBS was found in group 3 (120.15 +/- 45.05 N) and the lowest in group 8 (57.86 +/- 26.20 N). Of all the variables studied, surface treatment was the only factor that significantly affected SBS (P Empress 2 and In-Ceram groups.

  9. Exploring inclusion complexes of ionic liquids with α- and β- cyclodextrin by NMR, IR, mass, density, viscosity, surface tension and conductance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Biraj Kumar; Rajbanshi, Biplab; Yasmin, Ananya; Roy, Mahendra Nath

    2018-05-01

    The formation of the host-guest inclusion complexes of ionic liquids namely [BMIm]Cl and [HMIm]Cl with α-CD and β-CD were studied by means of physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. Conductivity and surface tension study were in good agreement with the 1H NMR and FT-IR studies which confirm the formation of the inclusion complexes. The Density and viscosity study also supported the formation of the ICs. Further the stoichiometry was determined 1:1 for each case and the association constants and thermodynamic parameters derived supported the most feasible formation of the [BMIm]Cl- β-CD inclusion complex.

  10. Shearing creep properties of cements with different irregularities on two surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qingzhao; Shen, Mingrong; Ding, Wenqi; Clark, Carl

    2012-01-01

    The study of creep properties of the rock mass structural plane is of great importance in solving practical problems in rock mass mechanics. The time-dependent deformation and long-term strength of the rock mass are controlled significantly by the creep mechanical behaviour of the structural plane, and the study of creep properties of the rock mass structural plane is an important area in rock mass deformation. This paper presents fundamental research on the mechanical properties of regular jugged discontinuities under various normal stresses, and focuses on the creep property of the structural plane with various slope angles under different normal stress through shear creep tests of the structural plane under shear stress. According to test results, the shear creep property of the structural plane is described and the creep velocity and long-term strength of the structural plane during shear creep is also investigated. Finally, an empirical formula is established to evaluate the shear strength of the discontinuity and a modified Burger model proposed to represent the shear deformation property during creep. (paper)

  11. Effect of Al_2O_3 Nanoparticles Additives on the Density, Saturated Vapor Pressure, Surface Tension and Viscosity of Isopropyl Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhelezny, Vitaly; Geller, Vladimir; Semenyuk, Yury; Nikulin, Artem; Lukianov, Nikolai; Lozovsky, Taras; Shymchuk, Mykola

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents results of an experimental study of the density, saturated vapor pressure, surface tension and viscosity of Al_2O_3 nanoparticle colloidal solutions in isopropyl alcohol. Studies of the thermophysical properties of nanofluids were performed at various temperatures and concentrations of Al_2O_3 nanoparticles. The paper gives considerable attention to a turbidimetric analysis of the stability of nanofluid samples. Samples of nanofluids remained stable over the range of parameters of the experiments, ensuring the reliability of the thermophysical property data for the Al_2O_3 nanoparticle colloidal solutions in isopropyl alcohol. The studies show that the addition of Al_2O_3 nanoparticles leads to an increase of the density, saturated vapor pressure and viscosity, as well as a decrease for the surface tension of isopropyl alcohol. The information reported in this paper on the various thermophysical properties for the isopropyl alcohol/Al_2O_3 nanoparticle model system is useful for the development of thermodynamically consistent models for predicting properties of nanofluids and correct modeling of the heat exchange processes.

  12. Critical shear stress on the surface of a cuttings bed; Tensao critica de cisalhamento na superficie de um leito de cascalhos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Luciana Mancor [Universidade Estadual Norte Fluminense (UENF), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia de Petroleo]. E-mail: luciana@lenep.uenf.br; Campos, Wellington [PETROBRAS, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas]. E-mail: campos@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Braga, Luiz Carvalho [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica (CEFET), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Ensino Descentralizada]. E-mail: luiz@lenep.uenf.br

    2000-07-01

    The cuttings transport during the drilling of highly inclined and horizontal wells is hindered by the creation of a cuttings bed in the annulus. In this work, it is shown that the equilibrium height of this bed can be determined from the shear stress on its surface. This fact enables the formulation of a methodology for evaluating the equilibrium height of the cuttings bed through the introduction of a new concept, that of critical shear stress. This is the shear stress that acts on the bed surface at the imminence of movement of the particles on the bed surface. The use of the methodology requires the determination of the acting shear stress and of the required critical shear stress. The acting shear stress is calculated by means of a computer program that solve the motion differential equations in the annular space; covering the cases of the laminar and turbulent flow regimes. The actuating shear stress is a function of flow rate and of the annular geometry in the presence of a cuttings bed; it is also a function of the physical properties of the fluid. On the other hand, the required critical shear stress is a function of the particles diameters and physical properties of the fluid and particles. A mechanistic model for the critical shear stress is also presented. (author)

  13. Laboratory Tests for Dispersive Soil Viscosity Determining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter-Martirosyan, Z. G.; Ter-Martirosyan, A. Z.; Sobolev, E. S.

    2017-11-01

    There are several widespread methods for soil viscosity determining now. The standard shear test device and torsion test apparatus are the most commonly used installations to do that. However, the application of them has a number of disadvantages. Therefore, the specialists of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering proposed a new device to determine the disperse soil viscosity on the basis of a stabilometer with the B-type camera (viscosimeter). The paper considers the construction of a viscosimeter and the technique for determining soil viscosity inside this tool as well as some experimental verification results of its work.

  14. Effect of Surface Treatment on Shear Bond Strength between Resin Cement and Ce-TZP/Al2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Eun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Although several studies evaluating the mechanical properties of Ce-TZP/Al2O3 have been published, to date, no study has been published investigating the bonding protocol between Ce-TZP/Al2O3 and resin cement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength to air-abraded Ce-TZP/Al2O3 when primers and two different cement types were used. Materials and Methods. Two types of zirconia (Y-TZP and Ce-TZP/Al2O3 specimens were further divided into four subgroups according to primer application and the cement used. Shear bond strength was measured after water storage for 3 days or 5,000 times thermocycling for artificial aging. Results. The Y-TZP block showed significantly higher shear bond strength than the Ce-TZP/Al2O3 block generally. Primer application promoted high bond strength and less effect on bond strength reduction after thermocycling, regardless of the type of cement, zirconia block, or aging time. Conclusions. Depending on the type of the primer or resin cement used after air-abrasion, different wettability of the zirconia surface can be observed. Application of primer affected the values of shear bond strength after the thermocycling procedure. In the case of using the same bonding protocol, Y-TZP could obtain significantly higher bond strength compared with Ce-TZP/Al2O3.

  15. Effects of fracture surface roughness and shear displacement on geometrical and hydraulic properties of three-dimensional crossed rock fracture models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Na; Liu, Richeng; Jiang, Yujing; Li, Bo; Yu, Liyuan

    2018-03-01

    While shear-flow behavior through fractured media has been so far studied at single fracture scale, a numerical analysis of the shear effect on the hydraulic response of 3D crossed fracture model is presented. The analysis was based on a series of crossed fracture models, in which the effects of fracture surface roughness and shear displacement were considered. The rough fracture surfaces were generated using the modified successive random additions (SRA) algorithm. The shear displacement was applied on one fracture, and at the same time another fracture shifted along with the upper and lower surfaces of the sheared fracture. The simulation results reveal the development and variation of preferential flow paths through the model during the shear, accompanied by the change of the flow rate ratios between two flow planes at the outlet boundary. The average contact area accounts for approximately 5-27% of the fracture planes during shear, but the actual calculated flow area is about 38-55% of the fracture planes, which is much smaller than the noncontact area. The equivalent permeability will either increase or decrease as shear displacement increases from 0 to 4 mm, depending on the aperture distribution of intersection part between two fractures. When the shear displacement continuously increases by up to 20 mm, the equivalent permeability increases sharply first, and then keeps increasing with a lower gradient. The equivalent permeability of rough fractured model is about 26-80% of that calculated from the parallel plate model, and the equivalent permeability in the direction perpendicular to shear direction is approximately 1.31-3.67 times larger than that in the direction parallel to shear direction. These results can provide a fundamental understanding of fluid flow through crossed fracture model under shear.

  16. Comparative evaluation of aqueous humor viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyshia; Carter, Renee; Tully, Thomas; Negulescu, Ioan; Storey, Eric

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate aqueous humor viscosity in the raptor, dog, cat, and horse, with a primary focus on the barred owl (Strix varia). Twenty-six raptors, ten dogs, three cats, and one horse. Animals were euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study. Immediately, after horizontal and vertical corneal dimensions were measured, and anterior chamber paracentesis was performed to quantify anterior chamber volume and obtain aqueous humor samples for viscosity analysis. Dynamic aqueous humor viscosity was measured using a dynamic shear rheometer (AR 1000 TA Instruments, New Castle, DE, USA) at 20 °C. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, unpaired t-tests, and Tukey's test to evaluate the mean ± standard deviation for corneal diameter, anterior chamber volume, and aqueous humor viscosity amongst groups and calculation of Spearman's coefficient for correlation analyses. The mean aqueous humor viscosity in the barred owl was 14.1 centipoise (cP) ± 9, cat 4.4 cP ± 0.2, and dog 2.9 cP ± 1.3. The aqueous humor viscosity for the horse was 1 cP. Of the animals evaluated in this study, the raptor aqueous humor was the most viscous. The aqueous humor of the barred owl is significantly more viscous than the dog (P humor viscosity of the raptor, dog, cat, and horse can be successfully determined using a dynamic shear rheometer. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  17. Hydrodynamic Study of a Hollow Fiber Membrane System Using Experimental and Numerical Derived Surface Shear Stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Hunze, M.; Nopens, I.

    2012-01-01

    .39 – 0.69 Pa) were in good agreement, with an error less that 15 %. Based on comparison of the cumulative frequency distribution of shear stresses from experiments and simulation: (i) moderate shear stresses (i.e. 50th percentile) were found to be accurately predicted (model: 0.24 – 0.45 Pa; experimental......Computational Fluids Dynamics (CFD) models can be used to gain insight into the shear stresses induced by air sparging on submerged hollow fiber Membrane BioReactor (MBR) systems. It was found that the average range of shear stresses obtained by the CFD model (0.30 – 0.60 Pa) and experimentally (0......: 0.25 – 0.49 Pa) with an error of less than 5 %; (ii) high shear stresses (i.e. 90th percentile) predictions were much less accurate (model: 0.60 – 1.23 Pa; experimental: 1.04 – 1.90 Pa) with an error up to 38 %. This was attributed to the fact that the CFD model only considers the two-phase flow (50...

  18. Dynamic mortar finite element method for modeling of shear rupture on frictional rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Yuval; Hager, Bradford H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a mortar-based finite element formulation for modeling the dynamics of shear rupture on rough interfaces governed by slip-weakening and rate and state (RS) friction laws, focusing on the dynamics of earthquakes. The method utilizes the dual Lagrange multipliers and the primal-dual active set strategy concepts, together with a consistent discretization and linearization of the contact forces and constraints, and the friction laws to obtain a semi-smooth Newton method. The discretization of the RS friction law involves a procedure to condense out the state variables, thus eliminating the addition of another set of unknowns into the system. Several numerical examples of shear rupture on frictional rough interfaces demonstrate the efficiency of the method and examine the effects of the different time discretization schemes on the convergence, energy conservation, and the time evolution of shear traction and slip rate.

  19. Effect of ionic and non-ionic contrast media on whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and hematocrit in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspelin, P.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of the ionic contrast media diatrizoate, iocarmate and metrizoate and the non-ionic metrizamide on whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and hematocrit was investigated. All the contrast media increased whole blood and plasma viscosity and reduced the hematocrit. The whole blood viscosity increased with increasing osmolality of the contrast medium solutions, whereas the plasma viscosity increased with increasing viscosity of the contrast medium solutions. The higher the osmolality of the contrast media, the lower the hematocrit became. The normal shear-thinning (decreasing viscosity with increasing shear rate) property of blood was reduced when contrast medium was added to the blood. At 50 per cent volume ratio (contrast medium to blood), the ionic contrast media converted the blood into a shear-thickening (increasing viscosity with increasing shear rate) suspension, indicating a marked rigidification of the single red cell, while the non-ionic contrast medium still produced shear-thinning, indicating less rigidification of the red cell (p<0.01). (Auth.)

  20. Rubber friction and force transmission during the shearing process of actively-driven vacuum grippers on rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, vacuum grippers come in many different shapes and sizes. Their stability is guaranteed through specially manufactured metal fittings. These fittings are non-positively and positively connected to the elastic part of the vacuum gripper. The design of the elastic part may vary, though. Elastomer components are used to ensure tightness for the negative pressure in the active cave chamber of the vacuum gripper, as well as for the transfer of shearing forces, which acting parallel to the surface. Some vacuum grippers feature one elastomer for both the sealing function and the transfer of shear forces; other gripper types are equipped with various elastomers for those applications. The vacuum grippers described in this work are equipped with structured rubber friction pads, their tightness being ensured by sealing lips made of a flexible foam rubber. A restraint system consisting of one or several vacuum grippers must be sized prior to its actual practical use. For the transmission of shearing forces, which acting parallel to the surface, it is necessary to take the tribological system, consisting of the suction element's elastomer and the base material, into account since these loads put shearing stress on the vacuum gripper. In practice, however, a standardized value is given for the coefficient of friction μ; i.e. the ratio of transmissible frictional force to the normal force. This does neither include a detailed description of the elastomer used nor of the roughness of the base material. The standardized friction coefficients cannot be applied to the practical design of restraint systems. The present work includes the analysis of the load transmission and the modeling of the friction coefficients μ on rough surfaces during the shearing process of actively-driven vacuum grippers. Based on current theories, the phenomenon of elastomeric friction can be attributed to the two main components of hysteresis and adhesion friction. Both components are presented

  1. Drag reduction by the introduction of shear-free surfaces in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2D simulations have been carried out for aturbulent channel flow using shear stress transport (SST) Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) model and validated with the available experimental results. The interaction between the plates and the fluid is two way,and is enforced either by the use of a rigid body solver with ...

  2. A thin rivulet or ridge subject to a uniform transverse shear stress at its free surface due to an external airflow

    KAUST Repository

    Sullivan, J. M.; Paterson, C.; Wilson, S. K.; Duffy, B. R.

    2012-01-01

    We use the lubrication approximation to analyze three closely related problems involving a thin rivulet or ridge (i.e., a two-dimensional droplet) of fluid subject to a prescribed uniform transverse shear stress at its free surface due

  3. Gluon gas viscosity in nonperturbative region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'in, S.V.; Mogilevskij, O.A.; Smolyanskij, S.A.; Zinov'ev, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    Using the Green-Kubo-type formulae and the cutoff model motivated by Monte Carlo lattice gluodynamics simulations we find the temperature behaviour of shear viscosity of gluon gas in the region of deconfinement phase transition. 22 refs.; 1 fig. (author)

  4. The Effects of Realistic Geological Heterogeneity on Seismic Modeling: Applications in Shear Wave Generation and Near-Surface Tunnel Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Christopher Scott

    Naturally occurring geologic heterogeneity is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of seismic wave propagation. This dissertation presents a strategy for modeling the effects of heterogeneity using a combination of geostatistics and Finite Difference simulation. In the first chapter, I discuss my motivations for studying geologic heterogeneity and seis- mic wave propagation. Models based upon fractal statistics are powerful tools in geophysics for modeling heterogeneity. The important features of these fractal models are illustrated using borehole log data from an oil well and geomorphological observations from a site in Death Valley, California. A large part of the computational work presented in this disserta- tion was completed using the Finite Difference Code E3D. I discuss the Python-based user interface for E3D and the computational strategies for working with heterogeneous models developed over the course of this research. The second chapter explores a phenomenon observed for wave propagation in heteroge- neous media - the generation of unexpected shear wave phases in the near-source region. In spite of their popularity amongst seismic researchers, approximate methods for modeling wave propagation in these media, such as the Born and Rytov methods or Radiative Trans- fer Theory, are incapable of explaining these shear waves. This is primarily due to these method's assumptions regarding the coupling of near-source terms with the heterogeneities and mode conversion. To determine the source of these shear waves, I generate a suite of 3D synthetic heterogeneous fractal geologic models and use E3D to simulate the wave propaga- tion for a vertical point force on the surface of the models. I also present a methodology for calculating the effective source radiation patterns from the models. The numerical results show that, due to a combination of mode conversion and coupling with near-source hetero- geneity, shear wave energy on the order of 10% of the

  5. Hydrodynamical fluctuations in smooth shear flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagelishvili, G.D.; Khujadze, G.R.; Lominadze, J.G.

    1999-11-01

    Background of hydrodynamical fluctuations in a intrinsically/stochastically forced, laminar, uniform shear flow is studied. The employment of so-called nonmodal mathematical analysis makes it possible to represent the background of fluctuations in a new light and to get more insight into the physics of its formation. The basic physical processes responsible for the formation of vortex and acoustic wave fluctuation backgrounds are analyzed. Interplay of the processes at low and moderate shear rates is described. Three-dimensional vortex fluctuations around a given macroscopic state are numerically calculated. The correlation functions of the fluctuations of physical quantities are analyzed. It is shown that there exists subspace D k in the wave-number space (k-space) that is limited externally by spherical surface with radius k ν ≡ A/ν (where A is the velocity shear parameter, ν - the kinematic viscosity) in the nonequilibrium open system under study. The spatial Fourier harmonics of vortex as well as acoustic wave fluctuations are strongly subjected by flow shear (by the open character of the system) at wave-numbers satisfying the condition k ν . Specifically it is shown that in D k : The fluctuations are non-Markovian; the spatial spectral density of energy of the vortex fluctuations by far exceeds the white-noise; the term of a new type associated to the hydrodynamical fluctuation of velocity appears in the correlation function of pressure; the fluctuation background of the acoustic waves is completely different at low and moderate shear rates (at low shear rates it is reduced in D k in comparison to the uniform (non-shear) flow; at moderate shear rates it it comparable to the background of the vortex fluctuations). The fluctuation background of both the vortex and the acoustic wave modes is anisotropic. The possible significance of the fluctuation background of vortices for the subcritical transition to turbulence and Brownian motion of small macroscopic

  6. The effect of glycerin solution density and viscosity on vibration amplitude of oblique different piezoelectric MC near the surface in 3D modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korayem, A. H.; Abdi, M.; Korayem, M. H.

    2018-06-01

    The surface topography in nanoscale is one of the most important applications of AFM. The analysis of piezoelectric microcantilevers vibration behavior is essential to improve the AFM performance. To this end, one of the appropriate methods to simulate the dynamic behavior of microcantilever (MC) is a numerical solution with FEM in the 3D modeling using COMSOL software. The present study aims to simulate different geometries of the four-layered AFM piezoelectric MCs in 2D and 3D modeling in a liquid medium using COMSOL software. The 3D simulation was done in a spherical container using FSI domain in COMSOL. In 2D modeling by applying Hamilton's Principle based on Euler-Bernoulli Beam theory, the governing motion equation was derived and discretized with FEM. In this mode, the hydrodynamic force was assumed with a string of spheres. The effect of this force along with the squeezed-film force was considered on MC equations. The effect of fluid density and viscosity on the MC vibrations that immersed in different glycerin solutions was investigated in 2D and 3D modes and the results were compared with the experimental results. The frequencies and time responses of MC close to the surface were obtained considering tip-sample forces. The surface topography of MCs different geometries were compared in the liquid medium and the comparison was done in both tapping and non-contact mode. Various types of surface roughness were considered in the topography for MC different geometries. Also, the effect of geometric dimensions on the surface topography was investigated. In liquid medium, MC is installed at an oblique position to avoid damaging the MC due to the squeezed-film force in the vicinity of MC surface. Finally, the effect of MC's angle on surface topography and time response of the system was investigated.

  7. Effect of Qingnao tablet on blood viscosity of rat model of blood stasis induced by epinephrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guoqi; Hao, Shaojun; Ma, Zhenzhen; Liu, Xiaobin; Li, Jun; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To establish a rat model of blood stasis with adrenaline (Adr) subcutaneous injection and ice bath stimulation. The effects of different doses on the blood viscosity of blood stasis model rats were observed. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: blank control group (no model), model group, positive control group, high, middle and low dose group. The whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity were detected by blood viscosity instrument. Compared with the blank group, model group, high shear, low shear whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity were significantly increased, TT PT significantly shortened, APTT was significantly prolonged, FIB increased significantly, indicating that the model was successful. Compared with the model group, can significantly reduce the Naoluotong group (cut, low cut). Qingnaopian high dose group (low cut), middle dose group (cut, low shear blood viscosity) (Pgroup, high dose group (Pgroup (Pblood rheology of blood stasis mice abnormal index, decrease the blood viscosity, blood stasis has certain hemostatic effect.

  8. Stress relaxation of shear in metals during shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazyrin, V.P.; Platova, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    Constructed determining equation, taking into account stress relaxation of shear, was used to calculate the evolution of plane shock waves of primary and secondary compression in metals. Values of shear stress and viscosity coefficient were

  9. Nonlinearity, Viscosity and Air-Compressibility Effects on the Helmholtz Resonant Wave Motion Generated by an Oscillating Twin Body in a Free Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishnan, Palaniswamy

    2012-11-01

    The problem is of practical relevance in determining the motion response of multi-hull and air-cushion vehicles in high seas and in littoral waters. The linear inviscid problem without surface pressure has been well studied in the past. In the present work, the nonlinear wave-body interaction problem is solved using finite-difference methods based on boundary-fitted coordinates. The inviscid nonlinear problem is tackled using the mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation and the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations governing the viscous problem using a fractional-step method. The pressure variation in the air cushion is modeled using the isentropic gas equation pVγ = Constant. Results show that viscosity and free-surface nonlinearity significantly affect the hydrodynamic force and the wave motion at the resonant Helmholtz frequency (at which the primary wave motion is the vertical oscillation of the mean surface in between the bodies). Air compressibility suppresses the Helmholtz oscillation and enhances the wave radiation. Work supported by the ONR under the grant N00014-98-1-0151.

  10. The influence of ceramic surface treatments on the micro-shear bond strength of composite resin to IPS Empress 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panah, Faride Gerami; Rezai, Sosan Mir Mohammad; Ahmadian, Leila

    2008-07-01

    An increasing demand for esthetic restorations has resulted in the development of new ceramic systems, but fracture of veneering ceramics still remains the primary cause of failure. Porcelain repair frequently involves replacement with composite resin, but the bond strength between composite resin and all-ceramic coping materials has not been studied extensively. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of different ceramic surface treatments on the micro-shear bond strength of composite resin to IPS Empress 2 coping material. Sixteen 7 x 7 x 1 mm(3) lithia disilicate-based core ceramic plates were fabricated using the lost wax technique. The plates were divided into eight groups, and eight different surface treatments were performed: (1) no treatment (NT); (2) airborne-particle abrasion with 50-mum alumina particles (Al); (3) acid etching with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid for 1 min (HF); (4) silane coating (S); (5) AlHF; (6) AlS; (7) HFS; and (8) AlHFS. Then, ten composite resin cylinders (0.8-mm diameter x 0.5-mm height) were light-polymerized onto the ceramic plates in each group. Each specimen was subjected to a shear load at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture occurred. The fracture sites were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the location of failure during debonding and to examine the surface treatment effects. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple comparison (Dunnet T3) tests were used for statistical analysis of data. The mean micro-shear bond strength values (SD) in MPa were--NT: 4.10 (3.06), Al: 7.56 (4.11), HF: 14.04 (2.60), S: 14.58 (2.14), AlHF: 15.56 (3.36), AlS: 23.02 (4.17), HFS: 24.7 (4.43), AlHFS: 26.0 (3.71). ANOVA indicated the influence of surface treatment was significant (p Empress 2 was significantly different depending on the surface treatment method. Among the investigated methods, silane coating after airborne-particle abrasion and etching was the most effective surface treatment

  11. Sheared flow layer formation in tokamak plasmas with reversed magnetic shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, J.Q.; Long, Y.X.; Mou, Z.Z.; Zhang, J.H.; Li, J.Q.

    2005-01-01

    Sheared flow layer (SFL) formation due to magnetic energy release through tearing-reconnections in tokamak plasmas is investigated. The characteristics of the SFLs created in the development of double tearing mode, mediated by electron viscosity in configurations with non-monotonic safety factor q profiles and, therefore, two rational flux surfaces of same q value, are analyzed in detail as an example. Quasi-linear simulations demonstrate that the sheared flows induced by the mode have desirable characteristics (lying at the boundaries of the magnetic islands), and sufficient levels required for internal transport barrier (ITB) formation. A possible correlation of the SFLs with experimental observations, that double transport barrier structures are preferentially formed in proximity of the two rational surfaces, is also proffered. (author)

  12. Experiments in a flighted conveyor comparing shear rates in compressed versus free surface flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, Nicholas; Higgins, Hannah; Krupiarz, Kamila; O'Connor, Ryan

    2017-11-01

    Uniformity of granular flow rate is critical in industry. Experiments in a flighted conveyor system aim to fill a gap in knowledge of achieving steady mass flow rate by correlating velocity profile data with mass flow rate measurements. High speed images were collected for uniformly-shaped particles in a bottom-driven flow conveyor belt system from which the velocity profiles can be generated. The correlation of mass flow rates from the velocity profiles to the time-dependent mass measurements will determine energy dissipation rates as a function of operating conditions. The velocity profiles as a function of the size of the particles, speed of the belt, and outlet size, will be compared to shear rate relationships found in past experiments that focused on gravity-driven systems. The dimension of the linear shear and type of decaying transition to the stationary bed may appear different due to the compression versus dilation space in open flows. The application of this research can serve to validate simulations in discrete element modeling and physically demonstrate a process that can be further developed and customized for industry applications, such as feeding a biomass conversion reactor. Sponsored by NIU's Office of Student Engagement and Experiential Learning.

  13. Shear Resistance Variations in Experimentally Sheared Mudstone Granules: A Possible Shear-Thinning and Thixotropic Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Gonghui; Scaringi, Gianvito; Mcsaveney, Mauri; Hicher, Pierre-Yves

    2017-11-01

    We present results of ring shear frictional resistance for mudstone granules of different size obtained from a landslide shear zone. Little rate dependency of shear resistance was observed in sand-sized granules in any wet or dry test, while saturated gravel-sized granules exhibited significant and abrupt reversible rate-weakening (from μ = 0.6 to 0.05) at about 2 mm/s. Repeating resistance variations occurred also under constant shear displacement rate. Mudstone granules generate mud as they are crushed and softened. Shear-thinning and thixotropic behavior of the mud can explain the observed behavior: with the viscosity decreasing, the mud can flow through the coarser soil pores and migrate out from the shear zone. This brings new granules into contact which produces new mud. Thus, the process can start over. Similarities between experimental shear zones and those of some landslides in mudstone suggest that the observed behavior may play a role in some landslide kinematics.

  14. Asymptotic stability of shear-flow solutions to incompressible viscous free boundary problems with and without surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Ian

    2018-04-01

    This paper concerns the dynamics of a layer of incompressible viscous fluid lying above a rigid plane and with an upper boundary given by a free surface. The fluid is subject to a constant external force with a horizontal component, which arises in modeling the motion of such a fluid down an inclined plane, after a coordinate change. We consider the problem both with and without surface tension for horizontally periodic flows. This problem gives rise to shear-flow equilibrium solutions, and the main thrust of this paper is to study the asymptotic stability of the equilibria in certain parameter regimes. We prove that there exists a parameter regime in which sufficiently small perturbations of the equilibrium at time t=0 give rise to global-in-time solutions that return to equilibrium exponentially in the case with surface tension and almost exponentially in the case without surface tension. We also establish a vanishing surface tension limit, which connects the solutions with and without surface tension.

  15. Effect of Different Surface Treatments on Repair Micro-shear Bond Strength of Silica- and Zirconia-filled Composite Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Joulaei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Effect of surface treatments on repair bond strength of aged composite resins might be different due to their dissimilar fillers. The aim was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on repair micro-shear bond strength (µSBS of silica- (Spectrum TPH and zirconia-filled (Filtek Z250 composite resins. Materials and methods. Twenty-seven composite resin blocks were made from each type of composite resin: Z250 and Spectrum TPH. After aging, blocks of each type were randomly divided into three groups according to surface treatments: alloy primer, silane, and only surface roughening. Subsequently, each group was further subdivided into 3 subgroups based on the adhesive system used: Single Bond, Clearfil SE Bond, and Margin Bond. Four composite resin columns were added on each block. After thermocycling, µSBStest were done at cross head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data was analysed using multifactor ANOVA, one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc Bonferroni tests (α = 0.05. Results. Analysis of data showed that the effect of composite resin type was not significant (p > 0.05, but the effects of the type of surface treatment (p = 0.01 and the type of adhesive system (p = 0.01 were significant on repair µSBS. In addition, the cumulative effect of the composite type-surface treatment and the composite type with the type of adhesive system were not statistically significant (p > 0.05. However, the cumulative effects of the adhesive system-surface treatment (p = 0.03 and the composite type-the adhesive system-surface treatments (p = 0.002 were significant. Conclusion. Although repair µSBS values of both silica- and zirconia-filled composite resins were similar, use of different combinations of surface treatments and adhesive systems affected their repair µSBS differently.

  16. Effect of Different Surface Treatments on Repair Micro-shear Bond Strength of Silica- and Zirconia-filled Composite Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joulaei, Mohammad; Bahari, Mahmoud; Ahmadi, Anahid; Savadi Oskoee, Siavash

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Effect of surface treatments on repair bond strength of aged composite resins might be different due to their dissimilar fillers. The aim was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on repair micro-shear bond strength (µSBS) of silica- (Spectrum TPH) and zirconia-filled (Filtek Z250) composite resins. Materials and methods Twenty-seven composite resin blocks were made from each type of composite resin: Z250 and Spectrum TPH. After aging, blocks of each type were randomly divided into three groups according to surface treatments: alloy primer, silane, and only surface roughening. Subsequently, each group was further subdivided into 3 subgroups based on the adhesive system used: Single Bond, Clearfil SE Bond, and Margin Bond. Four composite resin columns were added on each block. After thermocycling, µSBStest were done at cross head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data was analysed using multifactor ANOVA, one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc Bonferroni tests (α = 0.05). Results Analysis of data showed that the effect of composite resin type was not significant (p > 0.05), but the effects of the type of surface treatment (p = 0.01) and the type of adhesive system (p = 0.01) were significant on repair µSBS. In addition, the cumulative effect of the composite type-surface treatment and the composite type with the type of adhesive system were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). However, the cumulative effects of the adhesive system-surface treatment (p = 0.03) and the composite type-the adhesive system-surface treatments (p = 0.002) were significant. Conclusion Although repair µSBS values of both silica- and zirconia-filled composite resins were similar, use of different combinations of surface treatments and adhesive systems affected their repair µSBS differently. PMID:23277859

  17. Viscosity of Heterogeneous Silicate Melts: A Non-Newtonian Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuangzhuang; Blanpain, Bart; Guo, Muxing

    2017-12-01

    The recently published viscosity data of heterogeneous silicate melts with well-documented structure and experimental conditions are critically re-analyzed and tabulated. By using these data, a non-Newtonian viscosity model incorporating solid fraction, solid shape, and shear rate is proposed on the basis of the power-law equation. This model allows calculating the viscosity of the heterogeneous silicate melts with solid fraction up to 34 vol pct. The error between the calculated and measured data is evaluated to be 32 pct, which is acceptable considering the large error in viscosity measurement of the completely liquid silicate melt.

  18. Effect of Reduced Phosphoric Acid Pre-etching Times 
on Enamel Surface Characteristics and Shear Fatigue Strength Using Universal Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Fischer, Nicholas; Barkmeier, Wayne; Baruth, Andrew; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Latta, Mark; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    To examine the effect of reduced phosphoric acid pre-etching times on enamel fatigue bond strength of universal adhesives and surface characteristics by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Three universal adhesives were used in this study (Clearfil Universal Bond [C], G-Premio Bond [GP], Scotchbond Universal Adhesive [SU]). Four pre-etching groups were employed: enamel pre-etched with phosphoric acid and immediately rinsed with an air-water spray, and enamel pre-etched with phosphoric acid for 5, 10, or 15 s. Ground enamel was used as the control group. For the initial bond strength test, 15 specimens per etching group for each adhesive were used. For the shear fatigue test, 20 specimens per etching group for each adhesive were loaded using a sine wave at a frequency of 20 Hz for 50,000 cycles or until failure occurred. Initial shear bond strengths and fatigue shear strengths of composite adhesively bonded to ground and pre-etched enamel were determined. AFM observations of ground and pre-etched enamel were also conducted, and surface roughness as well as surface area were evaluated. The initial shear bond strengths and fatigue shear strengths of the universal adhesives in the pre-etched groups were significantly higher than those of the control group, and were not influenced by the pre-etching time. Significantly higher surface roughness and surface area of enamel surfaces in pre-etched groups were observed compared with those in the control group. While the surface area was not significantly influenced by etching time, surface roughness of the enamel surfaces in the pre-etched groups significantly increased with pre-etching time. The results of this in vitro study suggest that reduced phosphoric acid pre-etching times do not impair the fatigue bond strength of universal adhesives. Although fatigue bond strength and surface area were not influenced by phosphoric-acid etching times, surface roughness increased with increasing etching time.

  19. Shear rheological properties of fresh human faeces with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples were further tested for moisture content, total solids, volatile content, and ash content. Faecal samples were found to have a yield stress; there was a decrease in apparent viscosity with increasing shear rate. For any given shear rate, higher apparent viscosities are associated with lower moisture contents. Across a ...

  20. Shear machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astill, M.; Sunderland, A.; Waine, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    A shear machine for irradiated nuclear fuel elements has a replaceable shear assembly comprising a fuel element support block, a shear blade support and a clamp assembly which hold the fuel element to be sheared in contact with the support block. A first clamp member contacts the fuel element remote from the shear blade and a second clamp member contacts the fuel element adjacent the shear blade and is advanced towards the support block during shearing to compensate for any compression of the fuel element caused by the shear blade (U.K.)

  1. Shear-wave seismic reflection imaging and impedance inversion for a near-surface point-bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, N. W.; Morrison, M.; Lorenzo, J. M.; Odom, B.; Clift, P. D.; Olson, E.; Gostic, A.

    2017-12-01

    Imaging and inversion of SH-waves are useful to detect, map, and quantitatively characterize near-surface point-bar strata. We conduct a horizontally-polarized (SH) reflection survey across and along a near-surface (9 - 40 m) downstream point-bar. We invert for shear-impedance profiles and correlate our interpretation to electrical conductivity (EC) logs in adjacent wells to study the internal architecture and lithology of point-bars. We acquire two common-midpoint (CMP) SH-wave seismic reflection lines at False River (Point Coupee Parish, Louisiana). A 104 m long seismic line (L1) is oriented orthogonal (NW - SE) to point-bar strike. A second line (L2) is 48 m long and set parallel to point-bar strike (NE - SW). Two EC wells lie 33 m apart. Both wells are parallel with respect to the L1 survey and offset from it by 15 m. EC log measurements range from 1 - 25 m depth. Interference of Love-waves prevents seismic imaging at depths less than 9 m. The L1 and L2 data sets are inverted for shear-impedance using a model-based band-limited impedance (BLIMP) algorithm that incorporates a low-frequency velocity model. This model is also used for the depthing processing. The L1 cross-section shows coherent dipping reflection events ( 4 - 7º) from 0.15 - 0.35 s (10 - 40 m). The corresponding shear-impedance profile also reveals coherent and dipping impedance contrasts that grow in magnitude with increasing depth. The L2 cross-section shows comparatively less dip ( 1º) as well as sharper and shallower continuity of reflection events (0.1 - 0.28 s TWT or 9 - 25 m). Depth-converted (TVD) seismic amplitudes and impedance values correlate to near-surface point-bar geology via superposition of log data. The first well (W5) shows distinct EC local maxima (+50 - 70 mS/m) at 14.5 and 15.5 m depth that correlate well with the seismic amplitudes and impedance values from both L1 and L2 data sets. The second well (W7) shows comparatively lower local maxima (+40 - 60 mS/m) but at greater

  2. Double Lap Shear Testing of Coating-Modified Ice Adhesion to Specific Shuttle Component Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferrick, M. G; Mulherin, Nathan D; Coutermarsh, Barry A; Durell, Glenn D; Curtis, Leslie A; St. Clair, Terry L; Weiser, Erik S; Cano, Roberto J; Smith, Trent M; Stevenson, Charles G; Martinez, Eloy C

    2006-01-01

    The goals of this experimental program were to optimize the effectiveness of an icephobic coating for use on several Space Shuttle surfaces, to evaluate the effects of adding an ultraviolet light absorber (UVA...

  3. Shear horizontal surface acoustic wave microsensor for Class A viral and bacterial detection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branch, Darren W.; Huber, Dale L.; Brozik, Susan Marie; Edwards, Thayne L.

    2008-10-01

    The rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms is critical to human health and safety. To achieve a high level of sensitivity for fluidic detection applications, we have developed a 330 MHz Love wave acoustic biosensor on 36{sup o} YX Lithium Tantalate (LTO). Each die has four delay-line detection channels, permitting simultaneous measurement of multiple analytes or for parallel detection of single analyte containing samples. Crucial to our biosensor was the development of a transducer that excites the shear horizontal (SH) mode, through optimization of the transducer, minimizing propagation losses and reducing undesirable modes. Detection was achieved by comparing the reference phase of an input signal to the phase shift from the biosensor using an integrated electronic multi-readout system connected to a laptop computer or PDA. The Love wave acoustic arrays were centered at 330 MHz, shifting to 325-328 MHz after application of the silicon dioxide waveguides. The insertion loss was -6 dB with an out-of-band rejection of 35 dB. The amplitude and phase ripple were 2.5 dB p-p and 2-3{sup o} p-p, respectively. Time-domain gating confirmed propagation of the SH mode while showing suppression of the triple transit. Antigen capture and mass detection experiments demonstrate a sensitivity of 7.19 {+-} 0.74{sup o} mm{sup 2}/ng with a detection limit of 6.7 {+-} 0.40 pg/mm{sup 2} for each channel.

  4. Shear thinning and shear thickening of a confined suspension of vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nait Ouhra, A.; Farutin, A.; Aouane, O.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.; Misbah, C.

    2018-01-01

    Widely regarded as an interesting model system for studying flow properties of blood, vesicles are closed membranes of phospholipids that mimic the cytoplasmic membranes of red blood cells. In this study we analyze the rheology of a suspension of vesicles in a confined geometry: the suspension, bound by two planar rigid walls on each side, is subject to a shear flow. Flow properties are then analyzed as a function of shear rate γ ˙, the concentration of the suspension ϕ , and the viscosity contrast λ =ηin/ηout , where ηin and ηout are the fluid viscosities of the inner and outer fluids, respectively. We find that the apparent (or effective viscosity) of the suspension exhibits both shear thinning (decreasing viscosity with shear rate) or shear thickening (increasing viscosity with shear rate) in the same concentration range. The shear thinning or thickening behaviors appear as subtle phenomena, dependant on viscosity contrast λ . We provide physical arguments on the origins of these behaviors.

  5. A thin rivulet or ridge subject to a uniform transverse shear stress at its free surface due to an external airflow

    KAUST Repository

    Sullivan, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    We use the lubrication approximation to analyze three closely related problems involving a thin rivulet or ridge (i.e., a two-dimensional droplet) of fluid subject to a prescribed uniform transverse shear stress at its free surface due to an external airflow, namely a rivulet draining under gravity down a vertical substrate, a rivulet driven by a longitudinal shear stress at its free surface, and a ridge on a horizontal substrate, and find qualitatively similar behaviour for all three problems. We show that, in agreement with previous numerical studies, the free surface profile of an equilibrium rivulet/ridge with pinned contact lines is skewed as the shear stress is increased from zero, and that there is a maximum value of the shear stress beyond which no solution with prescribed semi-width is possible. In practice, one or both of the contact lines will de-pin before this maximum value of the shear stress is reached, and so we consider situations in which the rivulet/ridge de-pins at one or both contact lines. In the case of de-pinning only at the advancing contact line, the rivulet/ridge is flattened and widened as the shear stress is increased from its critical value, and there is a second maximum value of the shear stress beyond which no solution with a prescribed advancing contact angle is possible. In contrast, in the case of de-pinning only at the receding contact line, the rivulet/ridge is thickened and narrowed as the shear stress is increased from its critical value, and there is a solution with a prescribed receding contact angle for all values of the shear stress. In general, in the case of de-pinning at both contact lines there is a critical "yield" value of the shear stress beyond which no equilibrium solution is possible and the rivulet/ridge will evolve unsteadily. In the Appendix, we show that an equilibrium rivulet/ridge with prescribed flux/area is quasi-statically stable to two-dimensional perturbations. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  6. High resolution 3-D shear wave velocity structure in South China from surface wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, S.; Guo, Z.; Chen, Y. J.

    2017-12-01

    Using continuous data from a total of 638 seismic stations, including 484 from CEArray between 2008 and 2013 and 154 from SINOPROBE between 2014 and 2015, we perform both ambient noise and earthquake Rayleigh wave tomography across South China. Combining Rayleigh wave phase velocity between 6and 40s periods from ambient noise tomography and Rayleigh wave phase velocity between 20and 140s from teleseismic two-plane-wave tomography, we obtain phase velocity maps between 6 and140 s periods. We then invert Rayleigh wave phase velocity to construct a 3-D shear wave velocity structure of South China by Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Similar to other inversion results, our results correspond topography well. Moreover, our results also reveal that velocity structure of the eastern South China in mantle depth is similar to eastern North China, the core of the western South China, Sichuan Block (SB),still exists thick lithosphere. However, owing to much more data employed and some data quality control techniques in this research, our results reveal more detailed structures. Along Qinling-Dabie Orogenic Belt (QDOB), North-South Gravity Lineament (NSGL) and the Sichuan-Yunnan Rhombic Block (SYRB), there are obvious high speed anomalies in depths of 10-20 km, which possibly imply ancient intrusions. Moreover, it seems that Tancheng-Lujiang Fault Zone (TLFZ) has already cut through QDOB, forming a deep fracture cutting through the crust of the whole China continent. Although SB still exists thick lithosphere, there are indications for thermal erosion. At the same time, the lithosphere of the central SYRB seems to be experiencing delamination process, obviously forming a barrier to prevent the hot Tibetan Plateau (TP) mantle material from flowing further southeast. Upwelling hot mantle material possibly triggered by this delamination process might be the cause of the Emeishan Large Igneous Province. There exists an intercontinental low velocity layer in the crust of the TP

  7. Effects of surface treatment of provisional crowns on the shear bond strength of brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Xavier de Almeida

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the adhesive resistance of metallic brackets bonded to temporary crowns made of acrylic resin after different surface treatments. METHODS: 180 specimens were made of Duralay and randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 30 according to surface treatment and bonding material: G1 - surface roughening with Soflex and bonding with Duralay; G2 - roughening with aluminum oxide blasting and bonding with Duralay; G3 - application of monomer and bonding with Duralay; G4 - roughening with Soflex and bonding with Transbond XT; G5 - roughening with aluminum oxide blasting and bonding with Transbond XT and G6: application of monomer and bonding with Transbond. The results were statistically assessed by ANOVA/Games-Howell. RESULTS: The means (MPa were: G1= 18.04, G2= 22.64, G3= 22.4, G4= 9.71, G5= 11.23, G6= 9.67. The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI ranged between 2 and 3 on G1, G2 and G3 whereas in G4, G5 and G6 it ranged from 0 to 1, showing that only the material affects the pattern of adhesive flaw. CONCLUSION: The surface treatment and the material influenced adhesive resistance of brackets bonded to temporary crowns. Roughening by aluminum blasting increased bond strength when compared to Soflex, in the group bonded with Duralay. The bond strength of Duralay acrylic resin was superior to that of Transbond XT composite resin.

  8. Study of shear thickening behavior in colloidal suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Maleki Jirsaraee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the shear thickening behavior of the nano silica suspension (silica nanoparticles 12 nm in size suspended in ethylene glycol under steady shear. The critical shear rate for transition into shear thickening phase was determined at different concentrations and temperatures. The effect of temperature and concentration was studied on the shear thickening behavior. In silica suspension, it was observed that all the samples had a transition into shear thickening phase and also by increasing the temperature, critical shear rate increased and viscosity decreased. Our observations showed that movement in silica suspension was Brownian and temperature could cause a delay in transition into shear thickening phase. Yet, we observed that increasing the concentration would decrease critical shear rate and increase viscosity. Increasing temperature increased Brownian forces and increasing concentration increased hydrodynamic forces, confirming the contrast between these two forces for transition into shear thickening phase for the suspensions containing nano particles

  9. Viscosity, surface tension, density and contact angle of selected PbI2, PbCl2 and methylammonium lead halide perovskite solutions used in perovskite solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Ahmadian-Yazdi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite solar cells (PSCs are currently under vigorous research and development, owing to their compelling power conversion efficiencies. PSCs are solution-processed and, therefore, are fabricated using casting and printing methods, such as spin, spray and blade coating. The coating characteristics significantly depend on the physical and rheological properties of the solutions. Thus, due to the scarcity of such properties, in this work, we report the surface tension, viscosity, density, and contact angle of selected methylammonium lead halide perovskite solutions, in order to gain insight into the behavior of the perovskite solutions and the range of such physical properties. The contact angles were measured on PEDOT:PSS and compact TiO2 (c-TiO2 substrates, commonly used as the underneath layers of the perovskite film. In total, 12 solutions of CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbI3-xClx dissolved in common solvents, as well as solutions of PbI2, PbCl2, and CH3NH3I were tested. Among the results, it is shown that the tested perovskite solutions are Newtonian, the apparent contact angles on the mesoporous TiO2 (m-TiO2 are close to zero, on the PEDOT:PSS are around 10°, and on the c-TiO2 are around 30°. Also, contact angle hysteresis is observed in the case of the c-TiO2 substrates. Representative impact dynamics and spreading of perovskite solution droplets are also studied, to demonstrate the importance of the solution properties and process parameters on the coating process.

  10. Viscosity, surface tension, density and contact angle of selected PbI2, PbCl2 and methylammonium lead halide perovskite solutions used in perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian-Yazdi, Mohammad-Reza; Rahimzadeh, Amin; Chouqi, Zineb; Miao, Yihe; Eslamian, Morteza

    2018-02-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are currently under vigorous research and development, owing to their compelling power conversion efficiencies. PSCs are solution-processed and, therefore, are fabricated using casting and printing methods, such as spin, spray and blade coating. The coating characteristics significantly depend on the physical and rheological properties of the solutions. Thus, due to the scarcity of such properties, in this work, we report the surface tension, viscosity, density, and contact angle of selected methylammonium lead halide perovskite solutions, in order to gain insight into the behavior of the perovskite solutions and the range of such physical properties. The contact angles were measured on PEDOT:PSS and compact TiO2 (c-TiO2) substrates, commonly used as the underneath layers of the perovskite film. In total, 12 solutions of CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbI3-xClx dissolved in common solvents, as well as solutions of PbI2, PbCl2, and CH3NH3I were tested. Among the results, it is shown that the tested perovskite solutions are Newtonian, the apparent contact angles on the mesoporous TiO2 (m-TiO2) are close to zero, on the PEDOT:PSS are around 10°, and on the c-TiO2 are around 30°. Also, contact angle hysteresis is observed in the case of the c-TiO2 substrates. Representative impact dynamics and spreading of perovskite solution droplets are also studied, to demonstrate the importance of the solution properties and process parameters on the coating process.

  11. Shear waves in near surface 3D media-SH-wavefield separation, refraction time migration and tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelz, Susanne; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Mueller, Christof

    2009-05-01

    When investigating topographically irregular layers in the near surface with shear waves, it is of particular importance to consider the 3D-nature of wave propagation. Depending on the layer geometry and on the spatial arrangement of source- and receiver-points significant lateral ray bending can occur causing side-swipe traveltime effects and complicated polarisation patterns. As an example we present a study where 3D-shear wave refraction measurements were applied in order to reconstruct the geometry of a silted ancient harbour basin at the archaeological site of Miletus (West Turkey). Seismic signals were generated with a three-component vector force and recorded with three-component geophones arranged in 2D-arrays of 1 m grid spacing. Since a correct identification of refracted S-wave arrivals is a precondition to traveltime interpretation we investigated a method to decompose these wavefields with respect to their polarisation and azimuth of propagation. Taking advantage of the 2D-geophone arrangement we applied the following processing approach: In case of general lateral heterogeneity a decomposition can be performed by applying the curl and divergence operations to the vector wavefields recorded in 2D-arrays. The separated tangential and normal components to the wavefront in a plane are finally enhanced by combining the different force components in order to eliminate the radiation characteristics of the source. The decomposed wavefield was then the basis for 3D-refractor imaging through a newly formulated map migration of the refracted traveltime field. This technique was developed to map coherent basement structure on the meter-scale. Supplemental tomographic inversion using the refractor topography model as input provided a plausible velocity model, exhibiting characteristic anomalies such as a prominent low velocity zone overlain by a high velocity layer in the refractor. The seismic velocity structure suggests that the harbour basin was locally filled

  12. Molecular-scale shear response of the organic semiconductor β -DBDCS (100) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Asencio, Rubén; Moreno-Ramírez, Jorge S.; Pimentel, Carlos; Casado, Santiago; Matta, Micaela; Gierschner, Johannes; Muccioli, Luca; Yoon, Seong-Jun; Varghese, Shinto; Park, Soo Young; Gnecco, Enrico; Pina, Carlos M.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we present friction-force microscopy (FFM) lattice-resolved images acquired on the (100) facet of the semiconductor organic oligomer (2 Z ,2'Z )-3 , 3' -(1,4-phenylene)bis(2-(4-butoxyphenyl)acrylonitrile) (β -DBDCS) crystal in water at room temperature. Stick-slip contrast, lateral contact stiffness, and friction forces are found to depend strongly on the sliding direction due to the anisotropic packing of the molecular chains forming the crystal surface along the [010] and [001] directions. The anisotropy also causes the maximum value of the normal force applicable before wearing to increase by a factor of 3 when the scan is performed along the [001] direction on the (100) face. Altogether, our results contribute to achieving a better understanding of the molecular origin of friction anisotropy on soft crystalline surfaces, which has been often hypothesized but rarely investigated in the literature.

  13. Source study of local coalfield events using the modal synthesis of shear and surface waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacBeth, C.D.; Redmayne, D.W.

    1989-10-01

    Results from the BGS LOWNET array from the Midlothian coalfield in Scotland have been studied. Vertical component seismograms have been analysed using a waveform matching technique based on the modal summation method for constructing synthetic seismograms. Results of the analysis are applied to S and surface wave portions of the seismogram. Effects of different earth structures, source depths, source orientation, and type of event, rockburst or triggered earthquake 2-3 km from the mine workings, can be evaluated.

  14. Effect of nonthermal plasma treatment on surface chemistry of commercially-pure titanium and shear bond strength to autopolymerizing acrylic resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vechiato-Filho, Aljomar José, E-mail: aljomarvechiatoflo@gmail.com [Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Univ. Estadual Paulista — UNESP, Aracatuba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Silva Vieira Marques, Isabella da [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Santos, Daniela Micheline dos [Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Univ. Estadual Paulista — UNESP, Aracatuba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Oliveira Matos, Adaias [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano; Cruz, Nilson Cristino da [Laboratory of Technological Plasmas (LaPTec), Engineering College, Univ. Estadual Paulista — UNESP, Sorocaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-03-01

    The effect of nonthermal plasma on the surface characteristics of commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti), and on the shear bond strength between an autopolymerizing acrylic resin and cp-Ti was investigated. A total of 96 discs of cp-Ti were distributed into four groups (n = 24): Po (no surface treatment), SB (sandblasting), Po + NTP and SB + NTP (methane plasma). Surface characterization was performed through surface energy, surface roughness, scanning microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction tests. Shear bond strength test was conducted immediately and after thermocycling. Surface treatment affected the surface energy and roughness of cp-Ti discs (P < .001). SEM–EDS showed the presence of the carbide thin film. XRD spectra revealed no crystalline phase changes. The SB + NTP group showed the highest bond strength values (6.76 ± 0.70 MPa). Thermocycling reduced the bond strength of the acrylic resin/cp-Ti interface (P < .05), except for Po group. NTP is an effective treatment option for improving the shear bond strength between both materials. - Highlights: • We tested the bond strength between two widely used materials in dentistry (acrylic and titanium). • We performed an innovative surface treatment with nonthermal plasma. • Increasing adhesion will avoid complications of full-arch implant-retained prostheses.

  15. Swimming efficiency in a shear-thinning fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganguia, Herve; Pietrzyk, Kyle; Pak, On Shun

    2017-12-01

    Micro-organisms expend energy moving through complex media. While propulsion speed is an important property of locomotion, efficiency is another factor that may determine the swimming gait adopted by a micro-organism in order to locomote in an energetically favorable manner. The efficiency of swimming in a Newtonian fluid is well characterized for different biological and artificial swimmers. However, these swimmers often encounter biological fluids displaying shear-thinning viscosities. Little is known about how this nonlinear rheology influences the efficiency of locomotion. Does the shear-thinning rheology render swimming more efficient or less? How does the swimming efficiency depend on the propulsion mechanism of a swimmer and rheological properties of the surrounding shear-thinning fluid? In this work, we address these fundamental questions on the efficiency of locomotion in a shear-thinning fluid by considering the squirmer model as a general locomotion model to represent different types of swimmers. Our analysis reveals how the choice of surface velocity distribution on a squirmer may reduce or enhance the swimming efficiency. We determine optimal shear rates at which the swimming efficiency can be substantially enhanced compared with the Newtonian case. The nontrivial variations of swimming efficiency prompt questions on how micro-organisms may tune their swimming gaits to exploit the shear-thinning rheology. The findings also provide insights into how artificial swimmers should be designed to move through complex media efficiently.

  16. Viscosity of two-dimensional strongly coupled dusty plasma modified by a perpendicular magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Lin, Wei; Murillo, M. S.

    2017-11-01

    Transport properties of two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled dusty plasmas have been investigated in detail, but never for viscosity with a strong perpendicular magnetic field; here, we examine this scenario using Langevin dynamics simulations of 2D liquids with a binary Yukawa interparticle interaction. The shear viscosity η of 2D liquid dusty plasma is estimated from the simulation data using the Green-Kubo relation, which is the integration of the shear stress autocorrelation function. It is found that, when a perpendicular magnetic field is applied, the shear viscosity of 2D liquid dusty plasma is modified substantially. When the magnetic field is increased, its viscosity increases at low temperatures, while at high temperatures its viscosity diminishes. It is determined that these different variational trends of η arise from the different behaviors of the kinetic and potential parts of the shear stress under external magnetic fields.

  17. Viscosity of ring polymer melts

    KAUST Repository

    Pasquino, Rossana

    2013-10-15

    We have measured the linear rheology of critically purified ring polyisoprenes, polystyrenes, and polyethyleneoxides of different molar masses. The ratio of the zero-shear viscosities of linear polymer melts η0,linear to their ring counterparts η0,ring at isofrictional conditions is discussed as a function of the number of entanglements Z. In the unentangled regime η0,linear/η 0,ring is virtually constant, consistent with the earlier data, atomistic simulations, and the theoretical expectation η0,linear/ η0,ring = 2. In the entanglement regime, the Z-dependence of ring viscosity is much weaker than that of linear polymers, in qualitative agreement with predictions from scaling theory and simulations. The power-law extracted from the available experimental data in the rather limited range 1 < Z < 20, η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.2±0.3, is weaker than the scaling prediction (η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.6±0.3) and the simulations (η0,linear/ η0,ring ∼ Z2.0±0.3). Nevertheless, the present collection of state-of-the-art experimental data unambiguously demonstrates that rings exhibit a universal trend clearly departing from that of their linear counterparts, and hence it represents a major step toward resolving a 30-year-old problem. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  18. Viscosity of ring polymer melts

    KAUST Repository

    Pasquino, Rossana; Vasilakopoulos, Thodoris C.; Jeong, Youncheol; Lee, Hyojoon; Rogers, Simon A.; Sakellariou, Georgios; Allgaier, Jü rgen B.; Takano, Atsushi; Brá s, Ana Rita E; Chang, Taihyun; Gooß en, Sebastian; Pyckhout-Hintzen, Wim; Wischnewski, Andreas; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Richter, Dieter R.; Rubinstein, Michael H.; Vlassopoulos, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    We have measured the linear rheology of critically purified ring polyisoprenes, polystyrenes, and polyethyleneoxides of different molar masses. The ratio of the zero-shear viscosities of linear polymer melts η0,linear to their ring counterparts η0,ring at isofrictional conditions is discussed as a function of the number of entanglements Z. In the unentangled regime η0,linear/η 0,ring is virtually constant, consistent with the earlier data, atomistic simulations, and the theoretical expectation η0,linear/ η0,ring = 2. In the entanglement regime, the Z-dependence of ring viscosity is much weaker than that of linear polymers, in qualitative agreement with predictions from scaling theory and simulations. The power-law extracted from the available experimental data in the rather limited range 1 < Z < 20, η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.2±0.3, is weaker than the scaling prediction (η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.6±0.3) and the simulations (η0,linear/ η0,ring ∼ Z2.0±0.3). Nevertheless, the present collection of state-of-the-art experimental data unambiguously demonstrates that rings exhibit a universal trend clearly departing from that of their linear counterparts, and hence it represents a major step toward resolving a 30-year-old problem. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. Detection of bioagents using a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Richard S; Hjelle, Brian; Hall, Pam R; Brown, David C; Bisoffi, Marco; Brozik, Susan M; Branch, Darren W; Edwards, Thayne L; Wheeler, David

    2014-04-29

    A biosensor combining the sensitivity of surface acoustic waves (SAW) generated at a frequency of 325 MHz with the specificity provided by antibodies and other ligands for the detection of viral agents. In a preferred embodiment, a lithium tantalate based SAW transducer with silicon dioxide waveguide sensor platform featuring three test and one reference delay lines was used to adsorb antibodies directed against Coxsackie virus B4 or the negative-stranded category A bioagent Sin Nombre virus (SNV). Rapid detection of increasing concentrations of viral particles was linear over a range of order of magnitude for both viruses, and the sensor's selectivity for its target was not compromised by the presence of confounding Herpes Simplex virus type 1 The biosensor was able to delect SNV at doses lower than the load of virus typically found in a human patient suffering from hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS).

  20. Detection of bioagents using a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Richard S; Hjelle, Brian; Hall, Pam R; Brown, David C; Bisoffi, Marco; Brozik, Susan M; Branch, Darren W; Edwards, Thayne L; Wheeler, David

    2014-04-29

    A biosensor combining the sensitivity of surface acoustic waves (SAW) generated at a frequency of 325 MHz with the specificity provided by antibodies and other ligands for the detection of viral agents. In a preferred embodiment, a lithium tantalate based SAW transducer with silicon dioxide waveguide sensor platform featuring three test and one reference delay lines was used to adsorb antibodies directed against Coxsackie virus B4 or the negative-stranded category A bioagent Sin Nombre virus (SNV). Rapid detection of increasing concentrations of viral particles was linear over a range of order of magnitude for both viruses, and the sensor's selectivity for its target was not compromised by the presence of confounding Herpes Simplex virus type 1 The biosensor was able to delect SNV at doses lower than the load of virus typically found in a human patient suffering from hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS).

  1. Density, viscosity, surface tension, and molar volume of propylene glycol + water mixtures from 293 to 323 K and correlations by the Jouyban–Acree model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim S. Khattab

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Density, viscosity, surface tension and molar volume of propylene glycol + water mixtures at 293, 298, 303, 308, 313, 318, and 323 K are reported, compared with the available literature data and the Jouyban–Acree model was used for mathematical correlation of the data. The mean relative deviation (MRD was used as an error criterion and the MRD values for data correlation of density, viscosity, surface tension and molar volume at different investigated temperatures are 0.1 ± 0.1%, 7.6 ± 6.4%, 3.4 ± 3.7%, and 0.4 ± 0.4%, respectively. The corresponding MRDs for the predicted properties after training the model using the experimental data at 298 K are 0.1 ± 0.2%, 12.8 ± 9.3%, 4.7 ± 4.1% and 0.6 ± 0.5%, respectively for density, viscosity, surface tension, and molar volume data.

  2. Intrinsic viscosity of a suspension of cubes

    KAUST Repository

    Mallavajula, Rajesh K.

    2013-11-06

    We report on the viscosity of a dilute suspension of cube-shaped particles. Irrespective of the particle size, size distribution, and surface chemistry, we find empirically that cubes manifest an intrinsic viscosity [η]=3.1±0.2, which is substantially higher than the well-known value for spheres, [η]=2.5. The orientation-dependent intrinsic viscosity of cubic particles is determined theoretically using a finite-element solution of the Stokes equations. For isotropically oriented cubes, these calculations show [η]=3.1, in excellent agreement with our experimental observations. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  3. Heat treatment following surface silanization in rebonded tribochemical silica-coated ceramic brackets: shear bond strength analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Adriane Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of heat treatment on the tribochemical silica coating and silane surface conditioning and the bond strength of rebonded alumina monocrystalline brackets. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty alumina monocrystalline brackets were randomly divided according to adhesive base surface treatments (n=20: Gc, no treatment (control; Gt, tribochemical silica coating + silane application; Gh, as per Gt + post-heat treatment (air flux at 100ºC for 60 s. Brackets were bonded to the enamel premolars surface with a light-polymerized resin and stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 100 days. Additionally, half the specimens of each group were thermocycled (6,000 cycles between 5-55ºC (TC. The specimens were submitted to the shear bond strength (SBS test using a universal testing machine (1 mm/min. Failure mode was assessed using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, together with the surface roughness (Ra of the resin cement in the bracket using interference microscopy (IM. 2-way ANOVA and the Tukey test were used to compare the data (p>0.05. RESULTS: The strategies used to treat the bracket surface had an effect on the SBS results (p=0.0, but thermocycling did not (p=0.6974. Considering the SBS results (MPa, Gh-TC and Gc showed the highest values (27.59±6.4 and 27.18±2.9 and Gt-TC showed the lowest (8.45±6.7. For the Ra parameter, ANOVA revealed that the aging method had an effect (p=0.0157 but the surface treatments did not (p=0.458. For the thermocycled and non-thermocycled groups, Ra (µm was 0.69±0.16 and 1.12±0.52, respectively. The most frequent failure mode exhibited was mixed failure involving the enamel-resin-bracket interfaces. CONCLUSION: Regardless of the aging method, Gh promoted similar SBS results to Gc, suggesting that rebonded ceramic brackets are a more effective strategy.

  4. Effect of Fluid Dynamic Viscosity on the Strength of Chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, K.; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    The mechanical strength of high porosity and weakly cemented chalk is affected by the fluid in the pores. In this study, the effect of the dynamic viscosity of non-polar fluids has been measured on outcrop chalk from Sigerslev Quarry, Stevns, Denmark. The outcome is that the measured strength...... of the chalk decreases with increasing dynamic viscosity. The proposed qualitative explanation is that pressure difference supports and enhances the generation of microscopic shear and tensile failures....

  5. Momentum-energy transport from turbulence driven by parallel flow shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, J.Q.; Horton, W.; Bengtson, R.D.; Li, G.X.

    1994-04-01

    The low frequency E x B turbulence driven by the shear in the mass flow velocity parallel to the magnetic field is studied using the fluid theory in a slab configuration with magnetic shear. Ion temperature gradient effects are taken into account. The eigenfunctions of the linear instability are asymmetric about the mode rational surfaces. Quasilinear Reynolds stress induced by such asymmetric fluctuations produces momentum and energy transport across the magnetic field. Analytic formulas for the parallel and perpendicular Reynolds stress, viscosity and energy transport coefficients are given. Experimental observations of the parallel and poloidal plasma flows on TEXT-U are presented and compared with the theoretical models

  6. Determination of liquid viscosity at high pressure by DLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, K; Asakuma, Y; Maeda, K

    2010-01-01

    The movement of particles with a size smaller than few microns is governed by random Brownian motion. This motion causes the fluid to flow around the particles. The force acting upon Brownian particles as well as their velocities are measured by using the dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique. It provides the relationship between fluid shear stress and shear rate over the Brownian particle and determines the viscosity properties of the fluid. In this study, we propose a new rheometer which is widely applicable to fluid viscosity measurements at both normal and high pressure levels for Newtonian and non- Newtonian fluids.

  7. Improved viscosity modeling in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus by accounting for enhanced red blood cell aggregation tendency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsaerts, Henri J. M. M.; Out, Mattijs; Goedhart, Peter T.; Ince, Can; Hardeman, Max R.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Rabelink, Ton J.; Reiber, Johan H. C.; Box, Frieke M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Distorted wall shear stress (WSS) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may be partly explained by an altered red blood cell aggregation tendency (RAT) on viscosity at low shear rate (SR). The present study evaluates viscosity modeling by implementation of hematocrit and RAT in

  8. The wide-spread presence of rib-like patterns in basal shear of ice streams detected by surface data inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergienko, O. V.

    2013-12-01

    The direct observations of the basal conditions under continental-scale ice sheets are logistically impossible. A possible approach to estimate conditions at the ice - bed interface is from surface observations by means of inverse methods. The recent advances in remote and ground-based observations have allowed to acquire a wealth observations from Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Using high-resolution data sets of ice surface and bed elevations and surface velocities, inversions for basal conditions have been performed for several ice streams in Greenland and Antarctica. The inversion results reveal the wide-spread presence of rib-like spatial structures in basal shear. The analysis of the hydraulic potential distribution shows that these rib-like structures co-locate with highs of the gradient of hydraulic potential. This suggests that subglacial water plays a role in the development and evolution of the basal shear ribs.

  9. Viscosity and attenuation of sound wave in high density deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazuko; Ariyasu, Tomio

    1985-01-01

    The penetration of low frequency sound wave into the fuel deuterium is discussed as for laser fusion. The sound velocity and the attenuation constant due to viscosity are calculated for high density (n = 10 24 -- 10 27 cm -3 , T = 10 -1 -- 10 4 eV) deuterium. The shear viscosity of free electron gas and the bulk viscosity due to ion-ion interaction mainly contribute to the attenuation of sound wave. The sound wave of the frequency below 10 10 Hz can easily penetrate through the compressed fuel deuterium of diameter 1 -- 10 3 μm. (author)

  10. Temperature dependence of bulk viscosity in water using acoustic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, M J; Parker, N G; Povey, M J W

    2011-01-01

    Despite its fundamental role in the dynamics of compressible fluids, bulk viscosity has received little experimental attention and there remains a paucity of measured data. Acoustic spectroscopy provides a robust and accurate approach to measuring this parameter. Working from the Navier-Stokes model of a compressible fluid one can show that the bulk viscosity makes a significant and measurable contribution to the frequency-squared acoustic attenuation. Here we employ this methodology to determine the bulk viscosity of Millipore water over a temperature range of 7 to 50 0 C. The measured attenuation spectra are consistent with the theoretical predictions, while the bulk viscosity of water is found to be approximately three times larger than its shear counterpart, reinforcing its significance in acoustic propagation. Moreover, our results demonstrate that this technique can be readily and generally applied to fluids to accurately determine their temperature dependent bulk viscosities.

  11. Strength and durability of near-surface mounted CFRP bars for shear strengthening reinforced concrete bridge girders : final report appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    During the interstate expansion of the 1950s, many conventionally reinforced concrete deck girder bridges were built throughout the country. These aging bridges commonly exhibit diagonal cracking and rate inadequately for shear, thus they are candida...

  12. Strength and durability of near-surface mounted CFRP bars for shear strengthening reinforced concrete bridge girders : appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    During the interstate expansion of the 1950s, many conventionally reinforced concrete deck girder bridges were built throughout the country. These aging bridges commonly exhibit diagonal cracking and rate inadequately for shear, thus they are candida...

  13. Strength and durability of near-surface mounted CFRP bars for shear strengthening reinforced concrete bridge girders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    During the interstate expansion of the 1950s, many conventionally reinforced concrete deck girder bridges were built throughout the country. These aging bridges commonly exhibit diagonal cracking and rate inadequately for shear, thus they are candida...

  14. Environmental Durability of Reinforced Concrete Deck Girders Strengthened for Shear with Surface-Bonded Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    "This research investigated the durability of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites (CFRP) used for shear strengthening reinforced concrete deck girders. Large beams were used to avoid accounting for size effects in the data analysis. The effort...

  15. Strength and durability of near-surface mounted CFRP bars for shear strengthening reinforced concrete bridge girders : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    During the interstate expansion of the 1950s, many conventionally reinforced concrete deck girder bridges were built throughout the country. These aging bridges commonly exhibit diagonal cracking and rate inadequately for shear, thus they are candida...

  16. Shear bond strength of veneering porcelain to zirconia: Effect of surface treatment by CNC-milling and composite layer deposition on zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, R L P; Silva, F S; Nascimento, R M; Souza, J C M; Motta, F V; Carvalho, O; Henriques, B

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of veneering feldspathic porcelain to zirconia substrates modified by CNC-milling process or by coating zirconia with a composite interlayer. Four types of zirconia-porcelain interface configurations were tested: RZ - porcelain bonded to rough zirconia substrate (n=16); PZ - porcelain bonded to zirconia substrate with surface holes (n=16); RZI - application of a composite interlayer between the veneering porcelain and the rough zirconia substrate (n=16); PZI - application of a composite interlayer between the porcelain and the zirconia substrate treated by CNC-milling (n=16). The composite interlayer was composed of zirconia particles reinforced porcelain (30%, vol%). The mechanical properties of the ceramic composite have been determined. The shear bond strength test was performed at 0.5mm/min using a universal testing machine. The interfaces of fractured and untested specimens were examined by FEG-SEM/EDS. Data was analyzed with Shapiro-Wilk test to test the assumption of normality. The one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD multiple comparison test was used to compare shear bond strength results (α=0.05). The shear bond strength of PZ (100±15MPa) and RZI (96±11MPa) specimens were higher than that recorded for RZ (control group) specimens (89±15MPa), although not significantly (p>0.05). The highest shear bond strength values were recorded for PZI specimens (138±19MPa), yielding a significant improvement of 55% relative to RZ specimens (p<0.05). This study shows that it is possible to highly enhance the zirconia-porcelain bond strength - even by ~55% - by combining surface holes in zirconia frameworks and the application of a proper ceramic composite interlayer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dynamic viscosity study of barley malt and chicory concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to find optimal conditions for dispersing and subsequent dehydration of liquid food environments in the nozzle spray drying chamber through the study of dynamic changes in viscosity according to temperature, velocities gradients and dry residue content. The objects of study were roasted chicory and malt barley concentrates with dry residue content of 20, 40, 60 and 80%. Research of dynamic viscosity were carried out at the measuring complex based on the rotational viscometer Rheotest II, analog-to-digital converter, module Laurent and a personal computer with a unique software that allows to record in real time (not only on a tape recorder, but also in the form of graphic files the behavior of the viscosity characteristics of concentrates. Registration of changes of dynamic viscosity was carried out at a shear rate gradient from 1,0 с -1 to 27,0 с -1 and the products temperature thermostating : 35, 55, 75˚ C. The research results are presented in the form of graphic dependences of effective viscosity on shear rate and flow curves (dependencies of shear stresses on the velocity gradient, which defined flow regimes, the optimal modes of dispersion concentrates into spray dryer chambers in obtaining of powdered semi-finished products and instanting were found: dry residue content - 40 %, concentrate temperature - 75 ˚C, velocity gradient in the air channel of the nozzle at least 20 c-1

  18. Shape and shear guide sperm cells spiraling upstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsler, Vasily; Dunkel, Jorn; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2014-11-01

    A major puzzle in biology is how mammalian sperm determine and maintain the correct swimming direction during the various phases of the sexual reproduction process. Currently debated mechanisms for sperm long range travel vary from peristaltic pumping to temperature sensing (thermotaxis) and direct response to fluid flow (rheotaxis), but little is known quantitatively about their relative importance. Here, we report the first quantitative experimental study of mammalian sperm rheotaxis. Using microfluidic devices, we investigate systematically the swimming behavior of human and bull sperm over a wide range of physiologically relevant shear rates and viscosities. Our measurements show that the interplay of fluid shear, steric surface-interactions and chirality of the flagellar beat leads to a stable upstream spiraling motion of sperm cells, thus providing a generic and robust rectification mechanism to support mammalian fertilization. To rationalize these findings, we identify a minimal mathematical model that is capable of describing quantitatively the experimental observations.

  19. The Effect of the Operating Conditions on the Apparent Viscosity of Crude Palm Oil During Oil Clarification

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman Al-Zuhair, Mirghani I. Ahmed and Yousif A. Abakr

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the apparent viscosity of crude palm oil, using rotary viscometer, under different boundary conditions. It was experimentally shown that the apparent viscosity of palm oil drops with increasing of the shear rate and the temperature.  However, the effect of temperature on the viscosity tends to fade at temperatures beyond 80 oC.  A correlation between the apparent viscosity of crude palm oil and the operating conditions was developed. This correlation can be used...

  20. Nd:YAG Laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding: Effects on shear bond strength and enamel surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xianglong; Liu, Xiaolin; Bai, Ding; Meng, Yao; Huang, Lan

    2008-11-01

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of Nd:YAG laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding technique, both ceramic brackets and metallic brackets were bonded with orthodontic adhesive to 30 freshly extracted premolars. The specimens were divided into three groups, 10 in each, according to the brackets employed and the debonding techniques used: (1) metallic brackets with shear debonding force, (2) ceramic brackets with shear debonding force, and (3) ceramic brackets with Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The result showed that laser irradiation could diminish shear bond strength (SBS) significantly and produce the most desired ARI scores. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy investigation displayed that laser-aided technique induced little enamel scratch or loss. It was concluded that Nd:YAG laser could facilitate the debonding of ceramic brackets and diminish the amount of remnant adhesive without damaging enamel structure.

  1. Nd:YAG Laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding: Effects on shear bond strength and enamel surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xianglong; Liu Xiaolin; Bai Ding; Meng Yao; Huang Lan

    2008-01-01

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of Nd:YAG laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding technique, both ceramic brackets and metallic brackets were bonded with orthodontic adhesive to 30 freshly extracted premolars. The specimens were divided into three groups, 10 in each, according to the brackets employed and the debonding techniques used: (1) metallic brackets with shear debonding force, (2) ceramic brackets with shear debonding force, and (3) ceramic brackets with Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The result showed that laser irradiation could diminish shear bond strength (SBS) significantly and produce the most desired ARI scores. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy investigation displayed that laser-aided technique induced little enamel scratch or loss. It was concluded that Nd:YAG laser could facilitate the debonding of ceramic brackets and diminish the amount of remnant adhesive without damaging enamel structure

  2. Nd:YAG Laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding: Effects on shear bond strength and enamel surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Xianglong [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Orthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu Xiaolin [Department of Orthodontics, Stomatology Hospital, Dalian University, Dalian 116021 (China); Bai Ding [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Orthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)], E-mail: baiding88@hotmail.com; Meng Yao; Huang Lan [Department of Orthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2008-11-15

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of Nd:YAG laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding technique, both ceramic brackets and metallic brackets were bonded with orthodontic adhesive to 30 freshly extracted premolars. The specimens were divided into three groups, 10 in each, according to the brackets employed and the debonding techniques used: (1) metallic brackets with shear debonding force, (2) ceramic brackets with shear debonding force, and (3) ceramic brackets with Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The result showed that laser irradiation could diminish shear bond strength (SBS) significantly and produce the most desired ARI scores. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy investigation displayed that laser-aided technique induced little enamel scratch or loss. It was concluded that Nd:YAG laser could facilitate the debonding of ceramic brackets and diminish the amount of remnant adhesive without damaging enamel structure.

  3. Whole-blood viscosity and the insulin-resistance syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høieggen, A; Fossum, E; Moan, A; Enger, E; Kjeldsen, S E

    1998-02-01

    In a previous study we found that elevated blood viscosity was linked to the insulin resistance syndrome, and we proposed that high blood viscosity may increase insulin resistance. That study was based on calculated viscosity. To determine whether directly measured whole-blood viscosity was related to the insulin-resistance syndrome in the same way as calculated viscosity had been found to be. Healthy young men were examined with the hyperinsulinemic isoglycemic glucose clamp technique, and we related insulin sensitivity (glucose disposal rate) to other metabolic parameters and to blood viscosity. We established a technique for direct measurement of whole-blood viscosity. There were statistically significant negative correlations between glucose disposal rate and whole-blood viscosity at low and high shear rates (r = -0.41, P = 0.007 for both, n = 42). Whole-blood viscosity was correlated positively (n = 15) to serum triglyceride (r = 0.54, P = 0.04) and total cholesterol (r = 0.52, P = 0.05), and negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = -0.53, P = 0.04) concentrations. Insulin sensitivity index was correlated positively to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.54, P = 0.04) and negatively to serum triglyceride (r = -0.69, P = 0.005) and to total cholesterol (r = -0.81, P = 0.0003) concentrations. The present results demonstrate for the first time that there is a negative relationship between directly measured whole-blood viscosity and insulin sensitivity as a part of the insulin-resistance syndrome. Whole-blood viscosity contributes to the total peripheral resistance, and these results support the hypothesis that insulin resistance has a hemodynamic basis.

  4. Empirical Modeling of the Viscosity of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Foam Fracturing Fluid under Different Downhole Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehzad Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-quality supercritical CO2 (sCO2 foam as a fracturing fluid is considered ideal for fracturing shale gas reservoirs. The apparent viscosity of the fracturing fluid holds an important role and governs the efficiency of the fracturing process. In this study, the viscosity of sCO2 foam and its empirical correlations are presented as a function of temperature, pressure, and shear rate. A series of experiments were performed to investigate the effect of temperature, pressure, and shear rate on the apparent viscosity of sCO2 foam generated by a widely used mixed surfactant system. An advanced high pressure, high temperature (HPHT foam rheometer was used to measure the apparent viscosity of the foam over a wide range of reservoir temperatures (40–120 °C, pressures (1000–2500 psi, and shear rates (10–500 s−1. A well-known power law model was modified to accommodate the individual and combined effect of temperature, pressure, and shear rate on the apparent viscosity of the foam. Flow indices of the power law were found to be a function of temperature, pressure, and shear rate. Nonlinear regression was also performed on the foam apparent viscosity data to develop these correlations. The newly developed correlations provide an accurate prediction of the foam’s apparent viscosity under different fracturing conditions. These correlations can be helpful for evaluating foam-fracturing efficiency by incorporating them into a fracturing simulator.

  5. Blood and plasma viscosity in diabetes: possible contribution to late organ complications?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, N. H.; van Arkel, E. C.; Hardeman, M. R.; Bilo, H. J.; Michels, R. P.; Vreeken, J.

    1992-01-01

    It has been postulated that an increased whole blood and plasma viscosity contribute to diabetic organ complications. Blood viscosity was measured in 30 controls and four groups of insulin-dependent diabetic patients at three shear rates: 70 sec-1, 0.5 sec-1 and 0.05 sec-1. Results were compared

  6. Viscosity of saturated helium-3-helium-4 mixture below 200 mK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, J.C.H.; Waele, de A.T.A.M.; Gijsman, H.M.

    1991-01-01

    The shear viscosity of saturated3He-4He mixture has been measured at temperatures between 7 mK and 200 mK using a vibrating-wire viscometer and a calibrated pressure cell. The reliability of the vibrating-wire technique was tested by measuring the viscosity of pure4He. The results are internally

  7. Absolute measurement of the viscosity of classical and quantum fluids by rotating-cylinder viscometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, R.J.; LaMar, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    We discuss the use of rotating-cylinder viscometers to determine absolute shear viscosities of classical fluids and of helium II in the context of past and current knowledge of the stability and flow of these fluids between concentric cylinders. We identify a problem in measuring the absolute viscosity when the inner cylinder is rotating and the outer cylinder is at rest. We conclude by discussing the design of viscometers for absolute viscosity measurements in helium I and helium II

  8. Numerical investigation of magnetohydrodynamic slip flow of power-law nanofluid with temperature dependent viscosity and thermal conductivity over a permeable surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Sajid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical investigation is carried out to study the effect of temperature dependent viscosity and thermal conductivity on heat transfer and slip flow of electrically conducting non-Newtonian nanofluids. The power-law model is considered for water based nanofluids and a magnetic field is applied in the transverse direction to the flow. The governing partial differential equations(PDEs along with the slip boundary conditions are transformed into ordinary differential equations(ODEs using a similarity technique. The resulting ODEs are numerically solved by using fourth order Runge-Kutta and shooting methods. Numerical computations for the velocity and temperature profiles, the skin friction coefficient and the Nusselt number are presented in the form of graphs and tables. The velocity gradient at the boundary is highest for pseudoplastic fluids followed by Newtonian and then dilatant fluids. Increasing the viscosity of the nanofluid and the volume of nanoparticles reduces the rate of heat transfer and enhances the thickness of the momentum boundary layer. The increase in strength of the applied transverse magnetic field and suction velocity increases fluid motion and decreases the temperature distribution within the boundary layer. Increase in the slip velocity enhances the rate of heat transfer whereas thermal slip reduces the rate of heat transfer.

  9. Mesoscopic Simulations of the Phase Behavior of Aqueous EO 19 PO 29 EO 19 Solutions Confined and Sheared by Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Hongyi; Li, Yan; Krause, Wendy E.; Pasquinelli, Melissa A.; Rojas, Orlando J.

    2012-01-01

    The MesoDyn method is used to investigate associative structures in aqueous solution of a nonionic triblock copolymer consisting of poly(propylene oxide) capped on both ends with poly(ethylene oxide) chains. The effect of adsorbing (hydrophobic) and nonadsorbing (hydrophilic) solid surfaces in contact with aqueous solutions of the polymer is elucidated. The macromolecules form self-assembled structures in solution. Confinement under shear forces is investigated in terms of interfacial behavior and association. The formation of micelles under confinement between hydrophilic surfaces occurs faster than in bulk aqueous solution while layered structures assemble when the polymers are confined between hydrophobic surfaces. Micelles are deformed under shear rates of 1 μs -1 and eventually break to form persistent, adsorbed layered structures. As a result, surface damage under frictional forces is prevented. Overall, this study indicates that aqueous triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) (Pluronics, EO mPO nEO m) act as a boundary lubricant for hydrophobic surfaces but not for hydrophilic ones. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  10. Mesoscopic Simulations of the Phase Behavior of Aqueous EO 19 PO 29 EO 19 Solutions Confined and Sheared by Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Hongyi

    2012-01-25

    The MesoDyn method is used to investigate associative structures in aqueous solution of a nonionic triblock copolymer consisting of poly(propylene oxide) capped on both ends with poly(ethylene oxide) chains. The effect of adsorbing (hydrophobic) and nonadsorbing (hydrophilic) solid surfaces in contact with aqueous solutions of the polymer is elucidated. The macromolecules form self-assembled structures in solution. Confinement under shear forces is investigated in terms of interfacial behavior and association. The formation of micelles under confinement between hydrophilic surfaces occurs faster than in bulk aqueous solution while layered structures assemble when the polymers are confined between hydrophobic surfaces. Micelles are deformed under shear rates of 1 μs -1 and eventually break to form persistent, adsorbed layered structures. As a result, surface damage under frictional forces is prevented. Overall, this study indicates that aqueous triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) (Pluronics, EO mPO nEO m) act as a boundary lubricant for hydrophobic surfaces but not for hydrophilic ones. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  11. The effect of different surface treatments of stainless steel crown and different bonding agents on shear bond strength of direct composite resin veneer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajami B

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Stainless steel crown (SSC is the most durable and reliable restoration for primary teeth with extensive caries but its metalic appearance has always been a matter of concern. With advances in restorative materials and metal bonding processes, composite veneer has enhanced esthetics of these crowns in clinic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of SSC to composite resin using different surface treatments and adhesives. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 90 stainless steel crowns were selected. They were mounted in molds and divided into 3 groups of 30 each (S, E and F. In group S (sandblast, buccal surfaces were sandblasted for 5 seconds. In group E (etch acidic gel was applied for 5 minutes and in group F (fissure bur surface roughness was created by fissure diamond bur. Each group was divided into 3 subgroups (SB, AB, P based on different adhesives: Single Bond, All Bond2 and Panavia F. Composite was then bonded to specimens. Cases were incubated in 100% humidity at 37°C for 24 hours. Shear bond strength was measured by Zwick machine with crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test with p0.05 so the two variables were studied separately. No significant difference was observed in mean shear bond strength of composite among the three kinds of adhesives (P>0.05. Similar results were obtained regarding surface treatments (P>0.05. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, treating the SSC surface with bur and using single bond adhesive and composite can be used successfully to obtain esthetic results in pediatric restorative treatments.

  12. Viscosity, thermal diffusivity and Prandtl number of nanoparticle suspensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Buxuan; ZHOU Leping; PENG Xiaofeng

    2004-01-01

    Using our reported experimental data of effective thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and viscosity for CuO nanoparticle suspensions, the corresponding thermal diffusivity and Prandtl number are calculated. With the hard sphere model and considering effects of particle clustering and surface adsorption, the increase of viscosity for nanoparticle suspension observed is explained. It is shown that the effective thermal conductivity will be strongly affected by the formation and correlated spatial distribution of nanoparticle clusters when compared to viscosity in hosting liquid.

  13. Influence of Additive Manufactured Scaffold Architecture on the Distribution of Surface Strains and Fluid Flow Shear Stresses and Expected Osteochondral Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikson, Wim J; Deegan, Anthony J; Yang, Ying; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Verdonschot, Nico; Moroni, Lorenzo; Rouwkema, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    Scaffolds for regenerative medicine applications should instruct cells with the appropriate signals, including biophysical stimuli such as stress and strain, to form the desired tissue. Apart from that, scaffolds, especially for load-bearing applications, should be capable of providing mechanical stability. Since both scaffold strength and stress-strain distributions throughout the scaffold depend on the scaffold's internal architecture, it is important to understand how changes in architecture influence these parameters. In this study, four scaffold designs with different architectures were produced using additive manufacturing. The designs varied in fiber orientation, while fiber diameter, spacing, and layer height remained constant. Based on micro-CT (μCT) scans, finite element models (FEMs) were derived for finite element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). FEA of scaffold compression was validated using μCT scan data of compressed scaffolds. Results of the FEA and CFD showed a significant impact of scaffold architecture on fluid shear stress and mechanical strain distribution. The average fluid shear stress ranged from 3.6 mPa for a 0/90 architecture to 6.8 mPa for a 0/90 offset architecture, and the surface shear strain from 0.0096 for a 0/90 offset architecture to 0.0214 for a 0/90 architecture. This subsequently resulted in variations of the predicted cell differentiation stimulus values on the scaffold surface. Fluid shear stress was mainly influenced by pore shape and size, while mechanical strain distribution depended mainly on the presence or absence of supportive columns in the scaffold architecture. Together, these results corroborate that scaffold architecture can be exploited to design scaffolds with regions that guide specific tissue development under compression and perfusion. In conjunction with optimization of stimulation regimes during bioreactor cultures, scaffold architecture optimization can be used to improve

  14. Reference Data for the Density, Viscosity, and Surface Tension of Liquid Al-Zn, Ag-Sn, Bi-Sn, Cu-Sn, and Sn-Zn Eutectic Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobosz, Alexandra; Gancarz, Tomasz

    2018-03-01

    The data for the physicochemical properties viscosity, density, and surface tension obtained by different experimental techniques have been analyzed for liquid Al-Zn, Ag-Sn, Bi-Sn, Cu-Sn, and Sn-Zn eutectic alloys. All experimental data sets have been categorized and described by the year of publication, the technique used to obtain the data, the purity of the samples and their compositions, the quoted uncertainty, the number of data in the data set, the form of data, and the temperature range. The proposed standard deviations of liquid eutectic Al-Zn, Ag-Sn, Bi-Sn, Cu-Sn, and Sn-Zn alloys are 0.8%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 0.2%, and 0.1% for the density, 8.7%, 4.1%, 3.6%, 5.1%, and 4.0% for viscosity, and 1.0%, 0.5%, 0.3%, N/A, and 0.4% for surface tension, respectively, at a confidence level of 95%.

  15. Reliable Viscosity Calculation from Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Simulations: A Time Decomposition Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Otani, Akihito; Maginn, Edward J

    2015-08-11

    Equilibrium molecular dynamics is often used in conjunction with a Green-Kubo integral of the pressure tensor autocorrelation function to compute the shear viscosity of fluids. This approach is computationally expensive and is subject to a large amount of variability because the plateau region of the Green-Kubo integral is difficult to identify unambiguously. Here, we propose a time decomposition approach for computing the shear viscosity using the Green-Kubo formalism. Instead of one long trajectory, multiple independent trajectories are run and the Green-Kubo relation is applied to each trajectory. The averaged running integral as a function of time is fit to a double-exponential function with a weighting function derived from the standard deviation of the running integrals. Such a weighting function minimizes the uncertainty of the estimated shear viscosity and provides an objective means of estimating the viscosity. While the formal Green-Kubo integral requires an integration to infinite time, we suggest an integration cutoff time tcut, which can be determined by the relative values of the running integral and the corresponding standard deviation. This approach for computing the shear viscosity can be easily automated and used in computational screening studies where human judgment and intervention in the data analysis are impractical. The method has been applied to the calculation of the shear viscosity of a relatively low-viscosity liquid, ethanol, and relatively high-viscosity ionic liquid, 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane-sulfonyl)imide ([BMIM][Tf2N]), over a range of temperatures. These test cases show that the method is robust and yields reproducible and reliable shear viscosity values.

  16. Shear thickening in suspensions: the lubricated-to-frictional contact scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeffrey

    2017-11-01

    Suspensions of solid particles in viscous liquids can vary from low-viscosity liquids to wet granular materials or soft solids depending on the solids loading and the forces acting between particles. When the particles are very concentrated, these mixtures are ''dense suspensions.'' Dense suspensions often exhibit shear thickening, an increase in apparent viscosity as the shear rate is increased. In its most extreme form, order of magnitude increases in viscosity over such a narrow range in shear rate occur that the term discontinuous shear thickening (DST) is applied. DST is particularly striking as it occurs in the relatively simple case of nearly hard spheres in a Newtonian liquid, and is found to take place for submicron particles in colloidal dispersions to much larger particle corn starch dispersions. We focus on simulations of a recently developed ``lubricated-to-frictional'' rheology in which the interplay of viscous lubrication, repulsive surface forces, and contact friction between particle surfaces provides a scenario to explain DST. Our simulation method brings together elements of the discrete-element method from granular flow with a simplified Stokesian Dynamics, and can rationalize not only the abrupt change in properties with imposed shear rate (or shear stress), but also the magnitude of the change. The large change in properties is associated with the breakdown of lubricating films between particles, with activation of Coulomb friction between particles. The rate dependence is caused by the shearing forces driving particles to contact, overwhelming conservative repulsive forces between surfaces; the repulsive forces are representative of colloidal stabilization by surface charge or steric effects, e.g. due to adsorbed polymer. The results of simulation are compared to developments by other groups, including a number of experimental studies and a theory incorporating the same basic elements as the simulation. The comparison to experiments of the

  17. Effects of oxygenation and the stress hormones adrenaline and cortisol on the viscosity of blood from the trout oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bodil; Weber, Roy

    1995-01-01

    Although the concentrations of the stress hormones adrenaline and cortisol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) blood increase upon hypoxic exposure, the combined effects of these hormones and O2 lack upon fish blood rheology have not been investigated. Deoxygenated blood taken by caudal puncture...... exhibited lower viscosities than oxygenated samples at low shear rates, whereas the opposite was true at high shear rates. However, blood from cannulated trout had similar viscosities in its deoxygenated and oxygenated states. In the deoxygenated state, addition of adrenaline lowered viscosity at low shear...... rates and increased it at high shear rates, resembling the effects of deoxygenation observed in blood taken by venepuncture. In oxygenated blood on the contrary, no marked adrenaline effects were observed. In deoxygenated blood, addition of cortisol lowered viscosity at all measured shear rates compared...

  18. Technological characteristics of meat - viscosity

    OpenAIRE

    DIBĎÁK, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on the technological characteristics of meat, mainly viscosity of meat. At the beginning I dealt with construction of meat and various types of meat: beef, veal, pork, mutton, rabbit, poultry and venison. Then I described basic chemical composition of meat and it?s characteristic. In detail I dealt with viscosity of meat. Viscosity is the ability of meat to bind water both own and added. I mentioned influences, which effects viscosity and I presented the possib...

  19. Effects of surface treatment and artificial aging on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to four different provisional restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jabbari, Youssef S; Al Taweel, Sara M; Al Rifaiy, Mohammed; Alqahtani, Mohammed Q; Koutsoukis, Theodoros; Zinelis, Spiros

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the combined effects of material type, surface treatment, and thermocycling on the bond strength of orthodontic brackets to materials used for the fabrication of provisional crowns. Four materials were included in this study (ProTemp, Trim Plus, Trim II, and Superpont C+B). Sixty cylindrical specimens (1 × 3 cm) were prepared from each material and equally divided into three groups. The first group was ground with silica carbide paper, the second was polished with pumice, and the last group was sandblasted with 50-µm aluminum oxide particles. Stainless-steel maxillary central incisor brackets (Victory Series, 3M) were bonded to the provisional material specimens with Transbond XT light-cured composite resin, and half of the specimens from each group were thermocycled 500 times in 5°C and 55°C water baths. Then the brackets were debonded with shear testing, and the results were statistically analyzed by three-way analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple-comparison tests at α  =  0.05. Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) was also identified. Before and after thermocycling, ProTemp materials showed the highest shear bond strength with orthodontic brackets (10.3 and 13.1 MPa, respectively). The statistical analysis indicated an interaction among the three independent variables (P < .05) and statistically significant differences in bond strength among provisional materials (P < .001), surface treatments (P < .001), and thermocycling (P < .05). According to the ARI, most groups demonstrated adhesive failure. The provisional material type, surface treatment, and artificial aging have a significant effect on bond strength. Sandblasting treatment exerts a beneficial effect on shear bond strength.

  20. Structural and shear characteristics of adsorbed sodium caseinate and monoglyceride mixed monolayers at the air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Patino, Juan M; Cejudo Fernández, Marta; Carrera Sánchez, Cecilio; Rodríguez Niño, Ma Rosario

    2007-09-01

    The structural and shear characteristics of mixed monolayers formed by an adsorbed Na-caseinate film and a spread monoglyceride (monopalmitin or monoolein) on the previously adsorbed protein film have been analyzed. Measurements of the surface pressure (pi)-area (A) isotherm and surface shear viscosity (eta(s)) were obtained at 20 degrees C and at pH 7 in a modified Wilhelmy-type film balance. The structural and shear characteristics of the mixed films depend on the surface pressure and on the composition of the mixed film. At surface pressures lower than the equilibrium surface pressure of Na-caseinate (at picaseinate and monoglyceride coexist at the interface, with a structural polymorphism or a liquid expanded structure due to the presence of monopalmitin or monoolein in the mixture, respectively. At higher surface pressures, collapsed Na-caseinate residues may be displaced from the interface by monoglyceride molecules. For a Na-caseinate-monopalmitin mixed film the eta(s) value varies greatly with the surface pressure (or surface density) of the mixed monolayer at the interface. In general, the greater the surface pressure, the greater are the values of eta(s). However, the values of eta(s) for a Na-caseinate-monoolein mixed monolayer are very low and practically do not depend on the surface pressure. The collapsed Na-caseinate residues displaced from the interface by monoglyceride molecules at pi>pi(e)(CS) have important repercussions on the shear characteristics of the mixed films.

  1. On the measurement of the relative viscosity of suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acrivos, A.; Fan, X.; Mauri, R.

    1994-01-01

    The relative viscosity of a suspension of rigid, noncolloidal particles immersed in a Newtonian fluid was measured in a Couette device and was found to be shear thinning even for values of the solids fraction as low as 20%. Although such behavior was reported previously, no satisfactory explanation appears to have been given thus far. It shall be shown presently, however, that, at least for our systems, this shear-thinning effect was due to a slight mismatch in the densities of the two phases. Moreover, the apparent relative viscosities measured in our apparatus were found to be in excellent agreement with those predicted theoretically using a model, originally proposed by Leighton and Acrivos [Chem. Eng. Sci. 41, 1377--1384 (1986)], to describe viscous resuspension, according to which the measured relative viscosity should depend on the bulk particle concentration and on the dimensionless Shields number A, and should attain its correct value for a well-mixed suspension only as A→∞. The predictions of this model are also in excellent agreement with the measured transient response of the apparent relative viscosity due to a sudden change in the shear rate

  2. Effects of Nattokinase on Whole Blood Viscosity and Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Cengiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nattokinase is a serin protease having potent fibrinolytic effect derived from fermentation of boiled soy bean by the use of Basillus Subtilis Natto. The aim of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of intragastric Nattokinase (6 mg/day administration for 7 days prior to formation of sepsis on plasma fibrinogen levels, whole blood viscosity and mortality in rats. Materials and Methods: Intraabdominal sepsis were performed by cecal ligation and puncture in rats supplemented with nattokinase or olive oil for 7 days prior to sepsis formation. Plasma fibrinogen, whole blood viscosity analysis and survival analysis was performed after intraabdominal sepsis formation. Results: Mean blood viscosity of rats was lower in Nattokinase and cecal ligation group at lowest shear rate (p<0.05. However, the differences between groups were not significant at higher shear rates. No difference was found in survival rates and survival times of Nattokinase and cecal ligation and cecal ligation and puncture groups. Conclusion: Our results were unable to show the effects of intragastric nattokinase supplementation prior to sepsis on plasma fibrinogen levels or whole blood viscosity, except low shear rate. Nattokinase did not altered survival in septic rats. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9: 85-9

  3. Viscosity characteristics of selected volcanic rock melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobiger, Manuel; Sonder, Ingo; Büttner, Ralf; Zimanowski, Bernd

    2011-02-01

    A basic experimental study of the behavior of magma rheology was carried out on remelted volcanic rocks using wide gap viscometry. The complex composition of magmatic melts leads to complicated rheologic behavior which cannot be described with one simple model. Therefore, measurement procedures which are able to quantify non-Newtonian behavior have to be employed. Furthermore, the experimental apparatus must be able to deal with inhomogeneities of magmatic melts. We measured the viscosity of a set of materials representing a broad range of volcanic processes. For the lower viscous melts (low-silica compositions), non-Newtonian behavior is observed, whereas the high-silica melts show Newtonian behavior in the measured temperature and shear rate range (T = 1423 K - 1623 K, γ˙ = 10 - 2 s - 1 - 20 s - 1 ). The non-Newtonian materials show power-law behavior. The measured viscosities η and power-law indexes m lie in the intervals 8 Pa s ≤ η ≤ 210 3 Pa s, 0.71 ≤ m ≤ 1.0 (Grímsvötn basalt), 0.9 Pa s ≤ η ≤ 350 Pa s, 0.61 ≤ m ≤ 0.93 (Hohenstoffeln olivine-melilitite), and 8 Pa s ≤ η ≤ 1.510 4 Pa s, 0.55 ≤ m ≤ 1.0 (Sommata basalt). Measured viscosities of the Newtonian high-silica melts lie in the range 10 4 Pa s ≤ η ≤ 310 5 Pa s.

  4. A comparative study of shear bond strength between metal and ceramic brackets and artificially aged composite restorations using different surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, Ladan; Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali; Mousavi, Nasim; Ghasemi, Amir

    2012-10-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the shear bond strength (SBS) between ceramic brackets (CBs) and resin composite restorations (RCRs) prepared using different surface treatments. The findings were also compared with a similar study that used stainless steel brackets (SSBs). Forty-five premolars were restored with a nano-hybrid composite resin (Tetric EvoCeram) and randomly assigned to three surface treatment groups: group 1, 5 per cent hydrofluoric acid (HF); group 2, air abrasion (50 μm alumina particles); and group 3, diamond bur. Specimens were bonded with CBs (Fascination) and exposed to thermo-cycling (500 cycles). The shear force at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute was transmitted to brackets. The adhesive remnant index (ARIs) scores were recorded after bracket failure. The analysis of SBS variance (P 0.05) and bond failure occurred mainly in adhesive-bracket base and resin-adhesive interfaces. The diamond bur surface treatment is recommended as a safe and cost-effective method of bonding CBs to RCRs.

  5. Shear wave velocity model beneath CBJI station West Java, Indonesia from joint inversion of teleseismic receiver functions and surface wave dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanungkalit, R. H.; Anggono, T.; Syuhada; Amran, A.; Supriyanto

    2018-03-01

    Earthquake signal observations around the world allow seismologists to obtain the information of internal structure of the Earth especially the Earth’s crust. In this study, we used joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave group velocities to investigate crustal structure beneath CBJI station in West Java, Indonesia. Receiver function were calculated from earthquakes with magnitude more than 5 and at distance 30°-90°. Surface wave group velocities were calculated using frequency time analysis from earthquakes at distance of 30°- 40°. We inverted shear wave velocity model beneath the station by conducting joint inversion from receiver functions and surface wave dispersions. We suggest that the crustal thickness beneath CBJI station, West Java, Indonesia is about 35 km.

  6. Dynamic viscosity of polymer solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterlin, A

    1982-03-01

    The dynamic viscosity investigation of solutions of long chain polymers in very viscous solvents has definitely shown the existence of the low and high frequency plateau with the gradual transition between them. In both extreme cases the extrapolation of the measured Newtonian viscosities of the plateaus to the infinite dilution yields the limiting intrinsic viscosities. Such a behavior is expected from the dynamic intrinsic viscosity of the necklace model of the linear polymer with finite internal viscosity. The plateau at low frequency shows up in any model of polymer solution. This work shows the constant dynamic intrinsic viscosity in both extreme cases is well reproducible by the necklace model with the internal viscosity acting only between the beads on the same link. 20 references.

  7. Shear viscosity to electric conductivity ratio of the QGP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puglisi A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The transport coefficients of strongly interacting matter are currently subject of intense theoretical and phenomenological studies due to their relevance for the characterization of the quark-gluon plasma produced in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions (uRHIC. We predict that (η/s/(σel/T, independently on the running coupling αs(T, should increase up to about ~ 20 for T → Tc, while it goes down to a nearly flat behavior around ≃ 4 for T ≥ 4 Tc. Therefore we find a stronger T-dependence of σel/T with respect to η/s that in a quasiparticle approach is constrained by lQCD thermodynamics. A conformal theory, instead, predicts a similar T dependence of η/s and σel/T.

  8. Shear viscosity of binary mixtures: The Gay-Berne potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khordad, R.

    2012-05-01

    The Gay-Berne (GB) potential model is an interesting and useful model to study the real systems. Using the potential model, we intend to examine the thermodynamical properties of some anisotropic binary mixtures in two different phases, liquid and gas. For this purpose, we apply the integral equation method and solve numerically the Percus-Yevick (PY) integral equation. Then, we obtain the expansion coefficients of correlation functions to calculate the thermodynamical properties. Finally, we compare our results with the available experimental data [e.g., HFC-125 + propane, R-125/143a, methanol + toluene, benzene + methanol, cyclohexane + ethanol, benzene + ethanol, carbon tetrachloride + ethyl acetate, and methanol + ethanol]. The results show that the GB potential model is capable for predicting the thermodynamical properties of binary mixtures with acceptable accuracy.

  9. Shear viscosity of binary mixtures: The Gay–Berne potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khordad, R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Most useful potential model to study the real systems is the Gay–Berne (GB) potential. ► We use GB model to examine thermodynamical properties of some anisotropic binary mixtures in two different phases. ► The integral equation methods are applied to solve numerically the Percus–Yevick (PY) equation. ► We obtain expansion coefficients of correlation functions needed to calculate the properties of studied mixtures. ► The results are compared with the available experimental data [e.g., HFC-125 + propane, R-125/143a, methanol + toluene, etc.] - Abstract: The Gay–Berne (GB) potential model is an interesting and useful model to study the real systems. Using the potential model, we intend to examine the thermodynamical properties of some anisotropic binary mixtures in two different phases, liquid and gas. For this purpose, we apply the integral equation method and solve numerically the Percus–Yevick (PY) integral equation. Then, we obtain the expansion coefficients of correlation functions to calculate the thermodynamical properties. Finally, we compare our results with the available experimental data [e.g., HFC-125 + propane, R-125/143a, methanol + toluene, benzene + methanol, cyclohexane + ethanol, benzene + ethanol, carbon tetrachloride + ethyl acetate, and methanol + ethanol]. The results show that the GB potential model is capable for predicting the thermodynamical properties of binary mixtures with acceptable accuracy.

  10. Viscosity calculated in simulations of strongly coupled dusty plasmas with gas friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yan; Goree, J.; Liu Bin

    2011-01-01

    A two-dimensional strongly coupled dusty plasma is modeled using Langevin and frictionless molecular dynamical simulations. The static viscosity η and the wave-number-dependent viscosity η(k) are calculated from the microscopic shear in the random motion of particles. A recently developed method of calculating the wave-number-dependent viscosity η(k) is validated by comparing the results of η(k) from the two simulations. It is also verified that the Green-Kubo relation can still yield an accurate measure of the static viscosity η in the presence of a modest level of friction as in dusty plasma experiments.

  11. Skyrmions and Hall viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bom Soo

    2018-05-01

    We discuss the contribution of magnetic Skyrmions to the Hall viscosity and propose a simple way to identify it in experiments. The topological Skyrmion charge density has a distinct signature in the electric Hall conductivity that is identified in existing experimental data. In an electrically neutral system, the Skyrmion charge density is directly related to the thermal Hall conductivity. These results are direct consequences of the field theory Ward identities, which relate various physical quantities based on symmetries and have been previously applied to quantum Hall systems.

  12. Shear-induced formation of vesicles in membrane phases: Kinetics and size selection mechanisms, elasticity versus surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbin, L.; Panizza, P.

    2004-02-01

    Multilamellar vesicles can be formed upon shearing lamellar phases (Lα) and phase-separated lamellar-sponge (Lα/L3) mixtures. In the first case, the vesicle volume fraction is always 100% and the vesicle size is monitored by elasticity (“onion textures”). In the second system the vesicle volume fraction can be tuned from 0 to 100% and the mean size results from a balance between capillary and viscous forces (“Taylor droplets”). However, despite these differences, in both systems we show that the formation of vesicles is a strain-controlled process monitored by a universal primary buckling instability of the lamellae.

  13. Viscosities in the Gluon-Plasma within a Quasiparticle Model

    CERN Document Server

    Bluhm, M; Redlich, K

    2009-01-01

    A phenomenological quasiparticle model, featuring dynamically generated self-energies of excitation modes, successfully describes lattice QCD results relevant for the QCD equation of state and related quantities both at zero and non-zero net baryon density. Here, this model is extended to study bulk and shear viscosities of the gluon-plasma within an effective kinetic theory approach. In this way, the compatibility of the employed quasiparticle ansatz with the apparent low viscosities of the strongly coupled deconfined gluonic medium is shown.

  14. An eddy viscosity model for flow in a tube bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soussan, D.; Grandotto, M.

    1998-01-01

    The work described in this paper is part of the development of GENEPI a 3-dimensional finite element code, designed for the thermalhydraulic analysis of steam generators. It focuses on the implementation of two-phase flow turbulence-induced viscosity in a tube bundle. The GENEPI code, as other industrial codes, uses the eddy viscosity concept introduced by Boussinesq for single phase flow. The concept assumes that the turbulent momentum transfer is similar to the viscous shear stresses. Eddy viscosity formulation is reasonably well known for single phase flows, especially in simple geometries (i.e., in smooth tube, around a single body, or behind a row of bars/tubes), but there exists very little information on it for two-phase flows. An analogy between single and two-phases is used to set up a model for eddy viscosity. The eddy viscosity model examined in this paper is used for a tube bundle geometry and, therefore, is extended to include anisotropy to the classic model. Each of the main flow directions (cross flow inline, cross flow staggered, and parallel flows) gives rise to a specific eddy viscosity formula. The results from a parametric study indicate that the eddy viscosity in the staggered flow is roughly 1.5 times as large as that for the inline cross flow, 60 times as large as that for the parallel flow, and 105 as large as that for the molecular viscosity. Then, the different terms are combined with each other to result in a global eddy viscosity model for a steam generator tube bundle flow. (author)

  15. The effects of various surface treatments on the shear bond strengths of stainless steel brackets to artificially-aged composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, Ladan; Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali; Mousavi, Nasim; Ghasemi, Amir

    2011-05-01

    To compare the shear bond strengths (SBS) of stainless steel brackets bonded to artificially-aged composite restorations after different surface treatments. Forty-five premolar teeth were restored with a nano-hybrid composite (Tetric EvoCeram), stored in deionised water for one week and randomly divided into three equal groups: Group I, he restorations were exposed to 5 per cent hydrofluoric acid for 60 seconds; Group II, the restorations were abraded with a micro-etcher (50 Iim alumina particles); Group III, the restorations were roughened with a coarse diamond bur. Similar premolar brackets were bonded to each restoration using the same resin adhesive and the specimens were then cycled in deionised water between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C (500 cycles). The shear bond strengths were determined with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The teeth and brackets were examined under a stereomicroscope and the adhesive remnants on the teeth scored with the adhesive remnant index (ARI). Specimens treated with the diamond bur had a significantly higher SBS (Mean: 18.45 +/- 3.82 MPa) than the group treated with hydrofluoric acid (Mean: 12.85 +/- 5.20 MPa). The mean SBS difference between the air-abrasion (Mean: 15.36 +/- 4.92 MPa) and hydrofluoric acid groups was not significant. High ARI scores occurred following abrasion with a diamond bur (100 per cent) and micro-etcher (80 per cent). In approximately two thirds of the teeth no adhesive was left on the restoration after surface treatment with hydofluoric acid. Surface treatment with a diamond bur resulted in a high bond strength between stainless steel brackets and artificially-aged composite restorations and was considered to be a safe and effective method of surface treatment. Most of the adhesive remained on the tooth following surface treatment with either the micro-etcher or the diamond bur.

  16. Origin of shear thickening in semidilute wormlike micellar solutions and evidence of elastic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marín-Santibáñez, Benjamín M.; Pérez-González, José; Rodríguez-González, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The origin of shear thickening in an equimolar semidilute wormlike micellar solution of cetylpyridinium chloride and sodium salicylate was investigated in this work by using Couette rheometry, flow visualization, and capillary Rheo-particle image velocimetry. The use of the combined methods allowed the discovery of gradient shear banding flow occurring from a critical shear stress and consisting of two main bands, one isotropic (transparent) of high viscosity and one structured (turbid) of low viscosity. Mechanical rheometry indicated macroscopic shear thinning behavior in the shear banding regime. However, local velocimetry showed that the turbid band increased its viscosity along with the shear stress, even though barely reached the value of the viscosity of the isotropic phase. This shear band is the precursor of shear induced structures that subsequently give rise to the average increase in viscosity or apparent shear thickening of the solution. Further increase in the shear stress promoted the growing of the turbid band across the flow region and led to destabilization of the shear banding flow independently of the type of rheometer used, as well as to vorticity banding in Couette flow. At last, vorticity banding disappeared and the flow developed elastic turbulence with chaotic dynamics

  17. Two-dimensional interaction of a shear flow with a free surface in a stratified fluid and its solitary-wave solutions via mathematical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seadawy, Aly R.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we presented the problem formulations of models for internal solitary waves in a stratified shear flow with a free surface. The nonlinear higher order of extended KdV equations for the free surface displacement is generated. We derived the coefficients of the nonlinear higher-order extended KdV equation in terms of integrals of the modal function for the linear long-wave theory. The wave amplitude potential and the fluid pressure of the extended KdV equation in the form of solitary-wave solutions are deduced. We discussed and analyzed the stability of the obtained solutions and the movement role of the waves by making graphs of the exact solutions.

  18. Effect of particle size and distribution of the sizing agent on the carbon fibers surface and interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of its composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R.L.; Liu, Y.; Huang, Y.D.; Liu, L.

    2013-01-01

    Effect of particle size and distribution of the sizing agent on the performance of carbon fiber and carbon fiber composites has been investigated. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize carbon fiber surface topographies. At the same time, the single fiber strength and Weibull distribution were also studied in order to investigate the effect of coatings on the fibers. The interfacial shear strength and hygrothermal aging of the carbon fiber/epoxy resin composites were also measured. The results indicated that the particle size and distribution is important for improving the surface of carbon fibers and its composites performance. Different particle size and distribution of sizing agent has different contribution to the wetting performance of carbon fibers. The fibers sized with P-2 had higher value of IFSS and better hygrothermal aging resistant properties.

  19. Study of magnetorheological fluids at high shear rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaojie; Gordaninejad, Faramarz [University of Nevada, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Reno, NV (United States)

    2006-08-15

    The tunable rheological properties of magnetorheological (MR) materials at high shear rates are studied using a piston-driven flow-mode-type rheometer. The proposed method provides measurement of the apparent viscosity and yield stress of MR fluids for a shear rate range of 50 to 40,000 s{sup -1}. The rheological properties of a commercial MR fluid, as well as a newly developed MR polymeric gel, and a ferrofluid-based MR fluid are investigated. The results for apparent viscosity and dynamic and static shear stresses under different applied magnetic fields are reported. (orig.)

  20. Local viscosity distribution in bifurcating microfluidic blood flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliviotis, E.; Sherwood, J. M.; Balabani, S.

    2018-03-01

    The red blood cell (RBC) aggregation phenomenon is majorly responsible for the non-Newtonian nature of blood, influencing the blood flow characteristics in the microvasculature. Of considerable interest is the behaviour of the fluid at the bifurcating regions. In vitro experiments, using microchannels, have shown that RBC aggregation, at certain flow conditions, affects the bluntness and skewness of the velocity profile, the local RBC concentration, and the cell-depleted layer at the channel walls. In addition, the developed RBC aggregates appear unevenly distributed in the outlets of these channels depending on their spatial distribution in the feeding branch, and on the flow conditions in the outlet branches. In the present work, constitutive equations of blood viscosity, from earlier work of the authors, are applied to flows in a T-type bifurcating microchannel to examine the local viscosity characteristics. Viscosity maps are derived for various flow distributions in the outlet branches of the channel, and the location of maximum viscosity magnitude is obtained. The viscosity does not appear significantly elevated in the branches of lower flow rate as would be expected on the basis of the low shear therein, and the maximum magnitude appears in the vicinity of the junction, and towards the side of the outlet branch with the higher flow rate. The study demonstrates that in the branches of lower flow rate, the local viscosity is also low, helping us to explain why the effects of physiological red blood cell aggregation have no adverse effects in terms of in vivo vascular resistance.

  1. A viscosity and density meter with a magnetically suspended rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, Mikulas; Strharsky, Igor; Hrmo, Igor

    2003-01-01

    A device for measuring the viscosity and density of liquids is presented. It is a Couette-type viscometer that uses a submerged rotor to measure the viscosity without errors originating in the contact of the rotor with the sample/air boundary. The inner cylinder is a glass rotor suspended in the liquid, and the outer cylinder is also made of glass. The rotor is stabilized on the axis of the outer cylinder by an electromagnetic force controlled by feedback from the rotor's vertical position. In the lower part of the rotor is an aluminum cylinder located in a magnetic field generated by rotating permanent magnets. The interaction of this rotating magnetic field with eddy currents generated in the aluminum cylinder causes rotation of the rotor. This rotation is optically detected, and viscosity is calculated from the measured angular velocity of rotor. The density of the liquid is calculated from the applied vertical equilibrating force. A computer controls the whole measurement. The device works at constant temperature or while scanning temperature. The sample volume is 1.6 ml, and the accuracy of measurement of both viscosity and density is ∼0.1%. The range of measured densities is (0.7-1.4) g/ml, and viscosity can be measured in the range (3x10 -4 -0.3) Pa s. The shear rate of the viscosity measurement varies in the range (20-300) s-1. The accuracy of the temperature measurement is 0.02 K

  2. Shear and extensional properties of kefiran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermaría, Judith; Bengoechea, Carlos; Abraham, Analía Graciela; Guerrero, Antonio

    2016-11-05

    Kefiran is a neutral polysaccharide constituted by glucose and galactose produced by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens. It is included into kefir grains and has several health promoting properties. In the present work, shear and extensional properties of different kefiran aqueous dispersions (0.5, 1 and 2% wt.) were assessed and compared to other neutral gums commonly used in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutics industries (methylcellulose, locust bean gum and guar gum). Kefiran showed shear flow characteristics similar to that displayed by other representative neutral gums, although it always yielded lower viscosities at a given concentration. For each gum system it was possible to find a correlation between dynamic and steady shear properties by a master curve including both the apparent and complex viscosities. When studying extensional properties of selected gums at 2% wt. by means of a capillary break-up rheometer, kefiran solutions did not show important extensional properties, displaying a behaviour close the Newtonian. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Magnetically-charged black branes and viscosity/entropy ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hai-Shan [Institute for Advanced Physics & Mathematics,Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310023 (China); George P. & Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Lü, H. [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875 (China); Pope, C.N. [George P. & Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences,Cambridge University, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 OWA (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-19

    We consider asymptotically-AdS n-dimensional black brane solutions in a theory of gravity coupled to a set of Np-form field strengths, in which the field strengths carry magnetic charges. For appropriately chosen charges, the metrics are isotropic in the (n−2) transverse directions. However, in general the field strength configurations break the full Euclidean symmetry of the (n−2)-dimensional transverse space, and the shear viscosity tensor in the dual theory is no longer isotropic. We study the linearised equations for transverse traceless metric perturbations in these backgrounds, and by employing the Kubo formula we obtain expressions for the ratios η/S of the shear viscosity components divided by the entropy density. We find that the KSS bound on the ratios η/S is generally violated in these solutions. We also extend the discussion by including a dilatonic scalar field in the theory, leading to solutions that are asymptotically Lifshitz with hyperscaling violation.

  4. The shear and bulk relaxation times from the general correlation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajka, Alina; Jeon, Sangyong

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we present two quantum field theoretical analyses on the shear and bulk relaxation times. First, we discuss how to find Kubo formulas for the shear and the bulk relaxation times. Next, we provide results on the shear viscosity relaxation time obtained within the diagrammatic approach for the massless λϕ4 theory.

  5. The Influence of Abutment Surface Treatment and the Type of Luting Cement on Shear Bond Strength between Titanium/Cement/Zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Śmielak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the shear bond strength of zirconia cylinders on a modified titanium surface using different luting cement types. Material and Methods. Eighty titanium disks were divided into two groups (n=40, which were treated with either grinding or a combination of sandblasting and grinding. Then, each group was subdivided into 4 groups (n=10 and the disks were bonded to disks of sintered zirconia using one of four cement types (permanent: composite cement; temporary: polycarboxylate cement, zinc-oxide-eugenol cement, and resin cement. Shear bond strength (SBS was measured in a universal testing machine. Fracture pattern and site characteristic were recorded. A fractographic analysis was performed with SEM. The chemical analysis of the composition of the fractures was performed using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The results of the experiment were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc test. Results. The highest mean values of SBS were achieved when grinding was combined with sandblasting and when composite cement was used (18.18 MPa. In the temporary cement group, the highest mean values of SBS were for polycarboxylate cement after grinding (3.57 MPa. Conclusion. The choice of cement has a crucial influence on the titanium-cement-zirconia interface quality.

  6. Viscosity and transient electric birefringence study of clay colloidal aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakk, Audun; Fossum, Jon O; da Silva, Geraldo J; Adland, Hans M; Mikkelsen, Arne; Elgsaeter, Arnljot

    2002-02-01

    We study a synthetic clay suspension of laponite at different particle and NaCl concentrations by measuring stationary shear viscosity and transient electrically induced birefringence (TEB). On one hand the viscosity data are consistent with the particles being spheres and the particles being associated with large amount bound water. On the other hand the viscosity data are also consistent with the particles being asymmetric, consistent with single laponite platelets associated with a very few monolayers of water. We analyze the TEB data by employing two different models of aggregate size (effective hydrodynamic radius) distribution: (1) bidisperse model and (2) log-normal distributed model. Both models fit, in the same manner, fairly well to the experimental TEB data and they indicate that the suspension consists of polydisperse particles. The models also appear to confirm that the aggregates increase in size vs increasing ionic strength. The smallest particles at low salt concentrations seem to be monomers and oligomers.

  7. Temperature Dependence of the Viscosity of Isotropic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadzyn, J.; Czechowski, G.; Lech, T.

    1999-04-01

    Temperature dependence of the shear viscosity measured for isotropic liquids belonging to the three homologous series: 4-(trans-4'-n-alkylcyclohexyl) isothiocyanatobenzenes (Cn H2n+1 CyHx Ph NCS; nCHBT, n=0-12), n-alkylcyanobiphenyls (CnH2n+1 Ph Ph CN; nCB, n=2-12) and 1,n-alkanediols (HO(CH2)nOH; 1,nAD, n=2-10) were analysed with the use of Arrhenius equation and its two modifications: Vogel--Fulcher and proposed in this paper. The extrapolation of the isothermal viscosity of 1,n-alkanediols (n=2-10) to n=1 leads to an interesting conclusion concerning the expected viscosity of methanediol, HOCH2OH, the compound strongly unstable in a pure state.

  8. Shear wave velocities in the upper mantle of the Western Alps: new constraints using array analysis of seismic surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Chao; Pedersen, Helle A.; Paul, Anne; Zhao, Liang; Solarino, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    It remains challenging to obtain absolute shear wave velocities of heterogeneities of small lateral extension in the uppermost mantle. This study presents a cross-section of Vs across the strongly heterogeneous 3-D structure of the western European Alps, based on array analysis of data from 92 broad-band seismic stations from the CIFALPS experiment and from permanent networks in France and Italy. Half of the stations were located along a dense sublinear array. Using a combination of these stations and off-profile stations, fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave dispersion curves were calculated using a combined frequency-time beamforming approach. We calculated dispersion curves for seven arrays of approximately 100 km aperture and 14 arrays of approximately 50 km aperture, the latter with the aim of obtaining a 2-D vertical cross-section of Vs beneath the western Alps. The dispersion curves were inverted for Vs(z), with crustal interfaces imposed from a previous receiver function study. The array approach proved feasible, as Vs(z) from independent arrays vary smoothly across the profile length. Results from the seven large arrays show that the shear velocity of the upper mantle beneath the European plate is overall low compared to AK135 with the lowest velocities in the internal part of the western Alps, and higher velocities east of the Alps beneath the Po plain. The 2-D Vs model is coherent with (i) a ∼100 km thick eastward-dipping European lithosphere west of the Alps, (ii) very high velocities beneath the Po plain, coherent with the presence of the Alpine (European) slab and (iii) a narrow low-velocity anomaly beneath the core of the western Alps (from the Briançonnais to the Dora Maira massif), and approximately colocated with a similar anomaly observed in a recent teleseismic P-wave tomography. This intriguing anomaly is also supported by traveltime variations of subvertically propagating body waves from two teleseismic events that are approximately located on

  9. Evaluation of Surface Characteristics and Shear Bond Strength of Metal Brackets Bonded to Two Different Porcelain Systems (Feldspathic/IPS-Empress-2 treated with Different Surface Conditioning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal S Nair

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Surface conditioning with Co-Jet sand which produced silicatization resulted in a favorable bond strength in both feldspathic and IPS-Empress-2 ceramic surfaces. It was shown that it produced the least surface roughness among all the other surface conditioning groups.

  10. Behavior of pressure and viscosity at high densities for two-dimensional hard and soft granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otsuki, Michio; Hayakawa, Hisao; Luding, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The pressure and the viscosity in two-dimensional sheared granular assemblies are investigated numerically. The behavior of both pressure and viscosity is smoothly changing qualitatively when starting from a mono-disperse hard-disk system without dissipation and moving towards a system of (i)

  11. Viscosity of aluminum under shock-loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiao-Juan; Liu Fu-Sheng; Zhang Ming-Jian; Sun Yan-Yun

    2011-01-01

    A reliable data treatment method is critical for viscosity measurements using the disturbance amplitude damping method of shock waves. In this paper the finite difference method is used to obtain the numerical solutions for the disturbance amplitude damping behaviour of the sinusoidal shock front in a flyer-impact experiment. The disturbance amplitude damping curves are used to depict the numerical solutions of viscous flow. By fitting the experimental data to the numerical solutions of different viscosities, we find that the effective shear viscosity coefficients of shocked aluminum at pressures of 42, 78 and 101 GPa are (1500±100) Pa·s, (2800±100) Pa·s and (3500±100) Pa·s respectively. It is clear that the shear viscosity of aluminum increases with an increase in shock pressure, so aluminum does not melt below a shock pressure of 101 GPa. This conclusion is consistent with the sound velocity measurement. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  12. Bayesian inversion of surface-wave data for radial and azimuthal shear-wave anisotropy, with applications to central Mongolia and west-central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenna, Matteo; Lebedev, Sergei

    2018-04-01

    Seismic anisotropy provides important information on the deformation history of the Earth's interior. Rayleigh and Love surface-waves are sensitive to and can be used to determine both radial and azimuthal shear-wave anisotropies at depth, but parameter trade-offs give rise to substantial model non-uniqueness. Here, we explore the trade-offs between isotropic and anisotropic structure parameters and present a suite of methods for the inversion of surface-wave, phase-velocity curves for radial and azimuthal anisotropies. One Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) implementation inverts Rayleigh and Love dispersion curves for a radially anisotropic shear velocity profile of the crust and upper mantle. Another McMC implementation inverts Rayleigh phase velocities and their azimuthal anisotropy for profiles of vertically polarized shear velocity and its depth-dependent azimuthal anisotropy. The azimuthal anisotropy inversion is fully non-linear, with the forward problem solved numerically at different azimuths for every model realization, which ensures that any linearization biases are avoided. The computations are performed in parallel, in order to reduce the computing time. The often challenging issue of data noise estimation is addressed by means of a Hierarchical Bayesian approach, with the variance of the noise treated as an unknown during the radial anisotropy inversion. In addition to the McMC inversions, we also present faster, non-linear gradient-search inversions for the same anisotropic structure. The results of the two approaches are mutually consistent; the advantage of the McMC inversions is that they provide a measure of uncertainty of the models. Applying the method to broad-band data from the Baikal-central Mongolia region, we determine radial anisotropy from the crust down to the transition-zone depths. Robust negative anisotropy (Vsh < Vsv) in the asthenosphere, at 100-300 km depths, presents strong new evidence for a vertical component of asthenospheric

  13. The viscosity of dimethyl ether

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Jakobsen, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    and NOx traps are installed. The most significant problem encountered when engines are fuelled with DME is that the injection equipment breaks down prematurely due to extensive wear. This tribology issue can be explained by the very low lubricity and viscosity of DME. Recently, laboratory methods have...... appeared capable of measuring these properties of DME. The development of this is rendered difficult because DME has to be pressurised to remain in the liquid state and it dissolves most of the commercially available elastomers. This paper deals fundamentally with the measurement of the viscosity of DME...... and extends the discussion to the difficulty of viscosity establishing of very thin fluids. The main issue here is that it is not easy to calibrate the viscometers in the very low viscosity range corresponding to about one-fifth of that of water. The result is that the low viscosity is measured at high...

  14. Shear flow simulations of biaxial nematic liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarman, Sten

    1997-08-01

    We have calculated the viscosities of a biaxial nematic liquid crystal phase of a variant of the Gay-Berne fluid [J. G. Gay and B. J. Berne, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3316 (1981)] by performing molecular dynamics simulations. The equations of motion have been augmented by a director constraint torque that fixes the orientation of the directors. This makes it possible to fix them at different angles relative to the stream lines in shear flow simulations. In equilibrium simulations the constraints generate a new ensemble. One finds that the Green-Kubo relations for the viscosities become linear combinations of time correlation function integrals in this ensemble whereas they are complicated rational functions in the conventional canonical ensemble. We have evaluated these Green-Kubo relations for all the shear viscosities and all the twist viscosities. We have also calculated the alignment angles, which are functions of the viscosity coefficients. We find that there are three real alignment angles but a linear stability analysis shows that only one of them corresponds to a stable director orientation. The Green-Kubo results have been cross checked by nonequilibrium shear flow simulations. The results from the different methods agree very well. Finally, we have evaluated the Miesowicz viscosities [D. Baalss, Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 45, 7 (1990)]. They vary by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The viscosity is consequently highly orientation dependent.

  15. Effects of Red Blood Cell Aggregation on the Apparent Viscosity of Blood Flow in Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Darren L.; Lowe, Mary L.

    1996-11-01

    In arterioles and venules (20-200μ diameter), the low shear rates enable red blood cells to form aggregate structures of varying sizes and morphology. The size and distribution of the aggregates affect the flow impedance within a microvascular network; this effect may be characterized by an "apparent viscosity". In this study, we measure the apparent viscosity of blood flow in 50μ glass tubes as a function of shear rate and red blood cell volume fraction (hematocrit); for a fixed tube geometry and an imposed flow rate, the viscosity is determined by measuring the pressure drop across the tube. To correlate the apparent viscosity with the size and spatial distribution of the aggregates in the flow, video images of the flow are recorded and analyzed using power spectral techniques. Pig blood and sheep blood are used as the models for aggregating and non-aggregating blood, respectively. Supported by NSF PFF Award CTS-9253633

  16. Impact of viscosity variation and micro rotation on oblique transport of Cu-water fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Rabil; Mehmood, R; Nadeem, S

    2017-09-01

    This study inspects the influence of temperature dependent viscosity on Oblique flow of micropolar nanofluid. Fluid viscosity is considered as an exponential function of temperature. Governing equations are converted into dimensionless forms with aid of suitable transformations. Outcomes of the study are shown in graphical form and discussed in detail. Results revealed that viscosity parameter has pronounced effects on velocity profiles, temperature distribution, micro-rotation, streamlines, shear stress and heat flux. It is found that viscosity parameter enhances the temperature distribution, tangential velocity profile, normal component of micro-rotation and shear stress at the wall while it has decreasing effect on tangential component of micro-rotation and local heat flux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of renal replacement therapy on viscosity in end-stage renal disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriani, M; Kimmel, P L; Kurantsin-Mills, J; Bosch, J P

    1992-02-01

    Viscosity, an important determinant of microcirculatory hemodynamics, is related to hematocrit (HCT), and may be altered by renal failure or its treatment. To assess these factors, we studied the effect of dialysis on the viscosity of whole blood, plasma, and reconstituted 70% HCT blood of eight continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and nine hemodialysis (HD) patients under steady shear flow conditions at different shear rates, before and after dialysis, compared with nine normal subjects. The density of the red blood cells (RBCs), a marker of cell hydration, was measured in HD patients by a nonaqueous differential floatation technique. Whole blood viscosity was higher in controls than patients, and correlated with HCT before treatment (P less than 0.05) at shear rates of 11.5 to 230 s-1) in HD patients, and 23 to 230 s-1 in all end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. In contrast, whole blood viscosity correlated with HCT in CAPD patients only at the lowest shear rates (2.3 and 5.75 s-1, P less than 0.05). Plasma viscosity was higher in CAPD patients than both HD patients before treatment and controls (P less than 0.05, analysis of variance [ANOVA]), despite lower plasma total protein, albumin, and similar fibrinogen concentration compared with HD patients. When all samples were reconstituted to 70% HCT, CAPD patients had higher whole blood viscosity than control subjects'. The high HCT blood viscosity of the ESRD patients was higher than control subjects' at capillary shear rates, suggesting increased RBC aggregation and decreased RBC deformability in patients with renal disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. The Contribution of Red Blood Cell Dynamics to Intrinsic Viscosity and Functional ATP Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Alison; Abkarian, Manouk; Wan, Jiandi; Stone, Howard

    2010-11-01

    In shear flow, red blood cells (RBCs) exhibit a variety of behaviors such as rouleaux formation, tumbling, swinging, and tank-treading. The physiological consequences of these dynamic behaviors are not understood. In vivo, ATP is known to signal vasodilation; however, to our knowledge, no one has deciphered the relevance of RBC microrheology to the functional release of ATP. Previously, we correlated RBC deformation and ATP release in microfluidic constrictions (Wan et al., 2008). In this work, a cone-plate rheometer is used to shear a low hematocrit solution of RBCs at varying viscosity ratios (λ) between the inner cytoplasmic hemoglobin and the outer medium, to determine the intrinsic viscosity of the suspension. Further, using a luciferin-luciferase enzymatic reaction, we report the relative ATP release at varying shear rates. Results indicate that for λ = 1.6, 3.8 and 11.1, ATP release is constant up to 500 s-1, which suggests that the tumbling-tanktreading transition does not alter ATP release in pure shear. For lower viscosity ratios, λ = 1.6 and 3.8, at 500 s-1 a change in slope occurs in the intrinsic viscosity data and is marked by an increase in ATP release. Based on microfluidic observations, this simultaneous change in viscosity and ATP release occurs within the tank-treading regime.

  19. Searching for perfect fluids: quantum viscosity in a universal Fermi gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, C; Elliott, E; Wu, H; Thomas, J E

    2011-01-01

    We measure the shear viscosity in a two-component Fermi gas of atoms, tuned to a broad s-wave collisional (Feshbach) resonance. At resonance, the atoms strongly interact and exhibit universal behavior, where the equilibrium thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients are universal functions of density n and temperature T. We present a new calibration of the temperature as a function of global energy, which is directly measured from the cloud profiles. Using the calibration, the trap-averaged shear viscosity in units of ℎn is determined as a function of the reduced temperature at the trap center, from nearly the ground state to the unitary two-body regime. Low-temperature data are obtained from the damping rate of the radial breathing mode, whereas high-temperature data are obtained from hydrodynamic expansion measurements. We also show that the best fit to the high-temperature expansion data is obtained for a vanishing bulk viscosity. The measured trap-averaged entropy per particle and shear viscosity are used to estimate the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, which is compared with that conjectured for a perfect fluid.

  20. Influence of aluminium sheet surface modification on the self-piercing riveting process and the joint static lap shear strength

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dezhi

    2017-01-01

    Self-piercing riveting (SPR) has been widely used in automotive as one of the major joining technologies for aluminium structures due to its advantages over some of the more traditional joining technologies. Research has shown that friction is a very important factor that influences both the riveting process and the joint strength for SPR, but these influences have not been fully understood. In this paper, AA5754 sheets with different surface textures, such as original with solid wax, hot wat...

  1. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Cadenhead, D A

    1973-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 7 covers the developments in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the theoretical and experimental aspects of the van der Waals forces; the electric double layer on the semiconductor-electrolyte interface; and the long-range and short-range order in adsorbed films. The text also describes the hydrodynamical theory of surface shear viscosity; the structure and properties of monolayers of synthetic polypeptides at the air-water interface; and the structure and molecular dynamics of water. The role of glycoproteins in cell

  2. The Effect of the Operating Conditions on the Apparent Viscosity of Crude Palm Oil During Oil Clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Al-Zuhair, Mirghani I. Ahmed and Yousif A. Abakr

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the apparent viscosity of crude palm oil, using rotary viscometer, under different boundary conditions. It was experimentally shown that the apparent viscosity of palm oil drops with increasing of the shear rate and the temperature.  However, the effect of temperature on the viscosity tends to fade at temperatures beyond 80 oC.  A correlation between the apparent viscosity of crude palm oil and the operating conditions was developed. This correlation can be used in design of crude palm oil settlers and in determining the optimum operating conditions.Key Words:  Crude palm oil, apparent viscosity, shear rate, modelling, separation 

  3. Study of viscosity of aluminum melt during glass transition by molecular dynamics and Green–Kubo formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirova, E M; Pisarev, V V

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics study of shear viscosity behavior of liquid aluminum is performed. The embedded atom method potential is used at the simulation of isobaric cooling. The viscosity is calculated using the Green–Kubo formula. The stress autocorrelation functions are obtained in the range 300-1200 K. The calculated kinematic viscosity is in agreement with the experimental data for the temperatures above melting temperature. The steep change of the shear viscosity is found below 650 K which we associate with the glass transition and is in a good agreement with the temperature which is obtained using the calorimetric criterion Kolotova et al (2015 J. Non-Cryst. Solids 429 98). The viscosity coefficient can not be calculated using the direct atomistic simulations below that temperature. (paper)

  4. Simulation of shear thickening in attractive colloidal suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pednekar, Sidhant; Chun, Jaehun; Morris, Jeffrey F

    2017-03-01

    The influence of attractive forces between particles under conditions of large particle volume fraction, ϕ, is addressed using numerical simulations which account for hydrodynamic, Brownian, conservative and frictional contact forces. The focus is on conditions for which a significant increase in the apparent viscosity at small shear rates, and possibly the development of a yield stress, is observed. The high shear rate behavior for Brownian suspensions has been shown in recent work [R. Mari, R. Seto, J. F. Morris and M. M. Denn PNAS, 2015, 112, 15326-15330] to be captured by the inclusion of pairwise forces of two forms, one a contact frictional interaction and the second a repulsive force often found in stabilized colloidal dispersions. Under such conditions, shear thickening is observed when shear stress is comparable to the sum of the Brownian stress, kT/a 3 , and a characteristic stress based on the combination of interparticle force, i.e. σ ∼ F 0 /a 2 with kT the thermal energy, F 0 the repulsive force scale and a the particle radius. At sufficiently large ϕ, this shear thickening can be very abrupt. Here it is shown that when attractive interactions are present with the noted forces, the shear thickening is obscured, as the viscosity shear thins with increasing shear rate, eventually descending from an infinite value (yield stress conditions) to a plateau at large stress; this plateau is at the same level as the large-shear rate viscosity found in the shear thickened state without attractive forces. It is shown that this behavior is consistent with prior observations in shear thickening suspensions modified to be attractive through depletion flocculation [V. Gopalakrishnan and C. F. Zukoski J. Rheol., 2004, 48, 1321-1344]. The contributions of the contact, attractive, and hydrodynamics forces to the bulk stress are presented, as are the contact networks found at different attractive strengths.

  5. Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps and three-dimensional shear velocity structure of the western US from local non-plane surface wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F.F.; Snoke, J. Arthur

    2010-01-01

    We utilize two-and-three-quarter years of vertical-component recordings made by the Transportable Array (TA) component of Earthscope to constrain three-dimensional (3-D) seismic shear wave velocity structure in the upper 200 km of the western United States. Single-taper spectral estimation is used to compile measurements of complex spectral amplitudes from 44 317 seismograms generated by 123 teleseismic events. In the first step employed to determine the Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity structure, we implement a new tomographic method, which is simpler and more robust than scattering-based methods (e.g. multi-plane surface wave tomography). The TA is effectively implemented as a large number of local arrays by defining a horizontal Gaussian smoothing distance that weights observations near a given target point. The complex spectral-amplitude measurements are interpreted with the spherical Helmholtz equation using local observations about a succession of target points, resulting in Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps at periods over the range of 18–125 s. The derived maps depend on the form of local fits to the Helmholtz equation, which generally involve the nonplane-wave solutions of Friederich et al. In a second step, the phase-velocity maps are used to derive 3-D shear velocity structure. The 3-D velocity images confirm details witnessed in prior body-wave and surface-wave studies and reveal new structures, including a deep (>100 km deep) high-velocity lineament, of width ∼200 km, stretching from the southern Great Valley to northern Utah that may be a relic of plate subduction or, alternatively, either a remnant of the Mojave Precambrian Province or a mantle downwelling. Mantle seismic velocity is highly correlated with heat flow, Holocene volcanism, elastic plate thickness and seismicity. This suggests that shallow mantle structure provides the heat source for associated magmatism, as well as thinning of the thermal lithosphere, leading to relatively high

  6. Turbulent viscosity optimized by data assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Leredde

    Full Text Available As an alternative approach to classical turbulence modelling using a first or second order closure, the data assimilation method of optimal control is applied to estimate a time and space-dependent turbulent viscosity in a three-dimensional oceanic circulation model. The optimal control method, described for a 3-D primitive equation model, involves the minimization of a cost function that quantifies the discrepancies between the simulations and the observations. An iterative algorithm is obtained via the adjoint model resolution. In a first experiment, a k + L model is used to simulate the one-dimensional development of inertial oscillations resulting from a wind stress at the sea surface and with the presence of a halocline. These results are used as synthetic observations to be assimilated. The turbulent viscosity is then recovered without the k + L closure, even with sparse and noisy observations. The problems of controllability and of the dimensions of the control are then discussed. A second experiment consists of a two-dimensional schematic simulation. A 2-D turbulent viscosity field is estimated from data on the initial and final states of a coastal upwelling event.

    Key words. Oceanography: general (numerical modelling · Oceanography: physical (turbulence · diffusion · and mixing processes

  7. Estimation of viscosity based on transverse momentum correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monika

    2010-02-01

    The heavy ion program at RHIC created a paradigm shift in the exploration of strongly interacting hot and dense matter. An important milestone achieved is the discovery of the formation of strongly interacting matter which seemingly flows like a perfect liquid at temperatures on the scale of T ˜ 2 x10^12 K [1]. As a next step, we consider measurements of transport coefficients such as kinematic, shear or bulk viscosity? Many calculations based on event anisotropy measurements indicate that the shear viscosity to the entropy density ratio (η/s) of the fluid formed at RHIC is significantly below that of all known fluids including the superfluid ^4He [2]. Precise determination of η/s ratio is currently a subject of extensive study. We present an alternative technique for the determination of medium viscosity proposed by Gavin and Aziz [3]. Preliminary results of measurements of the evolution of the transverse momentum correlation function with collision centrality of Au + Au interactions at √sNN = 200 GeV will be shown. We present results on differential version of the correlation measure and describe its use for the experimental determination of η/s.[4pt] [1] J. Adams et al., [STAR Collaboration], Nucl. Phys. A 757 (2005) 102.[0pt] [2] R. A. Lacey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 (2007) 092301.[0pt] [3] S. Gavin and M. Abdel-Aziz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 (2006) 162302. )

  8. The influence of viscosity stratification on boundary-layer turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin; Jung, Seo Yoon; Sung, Hyung Jin; Zaki, Tamer A.

    2012-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows over isothermally-heated walls were performed to investigate the influence of viscosity stratification on boundary-layer turbulence and drag. The adopted model for temperature-dependent viscosity was typical of water. The free-stream temperature was set to 30°C, and two wall temperatures, 70°C and 99°C, were simulated. In the heated flows, the mean shear-rate is enhanced near the wall and reduced in the buffer region, which induces a reduction in turbulence production. On the other hand, the turbulence dissipation is enhanced near the wall, despite the the reduction in fluid viscosity. The higher dissipation is attributed to a decrease in the smallest length scales and near-wall fine-scale motions. The combined effect of the reduced production and enhanced dissipation leads to lower Reynolds shear stresses and, as a result, reduction of the skin-friction coefficient. Supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (Grant EP/F034997/1) and partially supported by the Erasmus Mundus Build on Euro-Asian Mobility (EM-BEAM) programme.

  9. Non-homogeneous flow profiles in sheared bacterial suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Devranjan; Cheng, Xiang

    Bacterial suspensions under shear exhibit interesting rheological behaviors including the remarkable ``superfluidic'' state with vanishing viscosity at low shear rates. Theoretical studies have shown that such ``superfluidic'' state is linked with non-homogeneous shear flows, which are induced by coupling between nematic order of active fluids and hydrodynamics of shear flows. However, although bulk rheology of bacterial suspensions has been experimentally studied, shear profiles within bacterial suspensions have not been explored so far. Here, we experimentally investigate the flow behaviors of E. coli suspensions under planar oscillatory shear. Using confocal microscopy and PIV, we measure velocity profiles across gap between two shear plates. We find that with increasing shear rates, high-concentration bacterial suspensions exhibit an array of non-homogeneous flow behaviors like yield-stress flows and shear banding. We show that these non-homogeneous flows are due to collective motion of bacterial suspensions. The phase diagram of sheared bacterial suspensions is systematically mapped as functions of shear rates an bacterial concentrations. Our experiments provide new insights into rheology of bacterial suspensions and shed light on shear induced dynamics of active fluids. Chemical Engineering and Material Science department.

  10. Numerical simulation of bubble induced shear in membrane bioreactors: effects of mixed liquor rheology and membrane configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuefei; Wang, Yuan; Waite, T David; Leslie, Greg

    2015-05-15

    A CFD model, incorporating an empirically determined rheology model and a porous media model, was developed to simulate bubble induced surface shear in membrane bioreactors configured with hollow fibre membranes with outer diameters ranging from 1.3 to 2.4 mm, arranged in vertically orientated modules with packing density from 200 to 560 m(2)/m(3). The rheology model was developed for mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations of 3 to 16 gL(-1) in the presence and absence of coagulant (generated by addition of a ferrous salt) for shear rates ranging from 0 to 500 s(-1). Experimentally determined particle relaxation times for the biological flocs in the mixed liquor, both in the absence and presence of iron, were negligible, consistent with an environment where positive buoyancy forces were greater than negative settling forces thereby allowing the sludge mixture to be modelled as a single continuous phase. The non-Newtonian behaviour of the mixed liquor was incorporated into the CFD simulations using an Ostwald-de Waele rheology model. Interactions between mixed liquor and hollow fibre membranes of different fibre size and packing density were described using a porous media model that was calibrated by empirical measurement of inertial loss coefficients over a range of viscosities (0.8 × 10(-3) to 2.1 × 10(-3) Pa.s) and velocities (0 to 0.35 m/s) typically encountered in full scale MBRs. Experimental results indicated that addition of iron salts resulted in an increase in MLSS and sludge viscosity. Shear stress is affected by both velocity and viscosity. The increase in sludge viscosity resulted in an increase in resistance to flow through the hollow fibre membrane bundles and, as a result, decreased the liquid flow velocities. CFD simulations provided insight on the effects of point of coagulant addition and MLSS concentration on bubble-induced shear over a range of industrially relevant conditions. A 12% increase in shear stress was observed when

  11. Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) Array near a Highway for Traffic Monitoring and Near-Surface Shear-Wave Velocity Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. F.; Fratta, D.; Lancelle, C.; Ak, E. Ms; Lord, N. E.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring traffic is important for many technical reasons. It allows for better design of future roads and assessment of the state of current roads. The number, size, weight, and speed of vehicles control deterioration rate. Also, real-time information supplies data to intelligent information systems to help control traffic. Recently there have been studies looking at monitoring traffic seismically as vibrations from traffic are not sensitive to weather and poor visibility. Furthermore, traffic noise can be used to image S-wave velocity distribution in the near surface by capturing and interpreting Rayleigh and Love waves (Nakata, 2016; Zeng et al. 2016). The capability of DAS for high spatial sampling (1 m), temporal sampling (up to 10 kHz), and distributed nature (tens of kilometers) allows for a closer look at the traffic as it passes and how the speed of the vehicle may change over the length of the array. The potential and difficulties of using DAS for these objectives were studied using two DAS arrays. One at Garner Valley in Southern California (a 700-meter array adjacent to CA Highway 74) and another in Brady Hot Springs, Nevada (an 8700-meter array adjacent to Interstate 80). These studies experimentally evaluated the use of DAS data for monitoring traffic and assessing the use of traffic vibration as non-localized sources for seismic imaging. DAS arrays should also be resilient to issues with lighting conditions that are problematic for video monitoring and it may be sensitive to the weight of a vehicle. This study along a major interstate provides a basis for examining DAS' potential and limitations as a key component of intelligent highway systems.

  12. Comparison of parallel viscosity with neoclassical theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Nakajima, N.

    1996-04-01

    Toroidal rotation profiles are measured with charge exchange spectroscopy for the plasma heated with tangential NBI in CHS heliotron/torsatron device to estimate parallel viscosity. The parallel viscosity derived from the toroidal rotation velocity shows good agreement with the neoclassical parallel viscosity plus the perpendicular viscosity. (μ perpendicular = 2 m 2 /s). (author)

  13. On the behaviour of gelled fibre suspensions in steady shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Bettina [Unilever Corporate Research, Bedford (United Kingdom); University of Nottingham, Division of Food Sciences, Loughborough (United Kingdom); White, Duncan; Melrose, John R.; Frith, William J. [Unilever Corporate Research, Bedford (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    The shear rheological properties of suspensions of gelled agar fibres in a low viscosity Newtonian matrix fluid were investigated. Two classes of fibres, low aspect ratio fibres and high aspect ratio fibres with an aspect ratio of the order of 10 and 100 respectively were included in the investigations. For all fibre phase volumes investigated, from as low as 0.01 upwards, the flow curves are characterised by an apparent yield stress followed by shear-thinning which was independent of the fibre aspect ratio. Based on our analysis of the flow curves, we conclude that the high aspect ratio fibres behave like flexible threads in contrast to the low aspect ratio fibres whose high shear relative viscosity is successfully described by a relation for long rigid rods. These findings are supported by flow visualisation using an optical shearing stage coupled to a light microscope. (orig.)

  14. Real-time monitoring of methanol concentration using a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor for direct methanol fuel cell without reference liquid measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Kyosuke; Nozawa, Takuya; Kondoh, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing demand for sensors that continuously measure liquid concentrations and detect abnormalities in liquid environments. In this study, a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) sensor is applied for the continuous monitoring of liquid concentrations. As the SH-SAW sensor functions using the relative measurement method, it normally needs a reference at each measurement. However, if the sensor is installed in a liquid flow cell, it is difficult to measure a reference liquid. Therefore, it is important to establish an estimation method for liquid concentrations using the SH-SAW sensor without requiring a reference measurement. In this study, the SH-SAW sensor is installed in a direct methanol fuel cell to monitor the methanol concentration. The estimated concentration is compared with a conventional density meter. Moreover, the effect of formic acid is examined. When the fuel temperature is higher than 70 °C, it is necessary to consider the influence of liquid conductivity. Here, an estimation method for these cases is also proposed.

  15. A sensitive dynamic viscometer for measuring the complex shear modulus in a steady shear flow using the method of orthogonal superposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, J.C.H.; Zeegers, Jos; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Blom, C.; Altena, E.G.; Beukema, Gerrit J.; Beukema, G.J.; Mellema, J.

    1995-01-01

    A new instrument to carry out complex viscosity measurements in equilibrium and in a steady shear flow has been developed. A small amplitude harmonic excitation is superimposed orthogonally to the steady shear rate component. It is realized by a thin-walled cylinder, which oscillates in the axial

  16. Shear wave velocity investigation of soil liquefaction sites from the Tangshan, China M7.8 earthquake of 1976 using active and passive surface wave methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, Robert E; Tao, Xiaxin; Shi, Lijing; Shi, Hailiang

    2008-01-01

    An initial investigation of soil liquefaction sites from the July, 28 1976 Tangshan M7.8 earthquake was conducted between 1976 and 1978 by the National Ministry of Railways, China. These data are the basis of the ‘Chinese Method’ for assessment of liquefaction potential of silty-sand deposits, and are an important component of the worldwide data set for modern probabilistic methods for assessment of soil liquefaction using Bayesian updating and system reliability tools. We revisited 26 sites identified in the maps and published 198 report of the Ministry of Railways in order to investigate these locations with a suite of active- and passive-array surface wave methods. These sites are clustered along the north coast of the Bo Hai Sea in three areas: Lutai, Tianjin; Tangshan City and outlying village, Hebei; and Luannan county, Hebei. First, we gathered and evaluated the Rayleigh wave dispersion characteristics of the ground by comparing dispersion curves from the active source harmonic wave-spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) method and the passive array Spatial Auto-Correlation method (SPAC). The dispersive properties of the liquefied ground as measured by these two methods were found to be almost identical. These tests were hybridized and the data sets merged in order to invert of shear wave velocities for analysis of liquefaction potential using a probabilistic framework. The data from high-values of seismic intensity near Tangshan city to low-intensities distant of the event in Luannan County segregate out into clusters of liquefied and non liquefied points clearly separated by liquefaction boundary curves developed from a large global data set of 310 sites

  17. Elongational viscosity of monodisperse and bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    2005-01-01

    The startup and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for two monodisperse polystyrene melts with molecular weights of 52 kg/mole (PS52K) and 103 kg/mole (PS103K), and for three bidisperse polystyrene melts. The bidisperse melts consist of PS103K or PS52K and a monodisperse...... (closed loop proportional regulator) using the laser in such a way that the stretch rate at the neck is kept constant. The rheometer has been described in more detail in (A. Bach, H.K. Rasmussen and O. Hassager, Journal of Rheology, 47 (2003) 429). PS390K show a decrease in the steady viscosity as a power......-law function of the elongational rate (A. Bach, K. Almdal, H.K. Rasmussen and O. Hassager, Macromolecules 36 (2003) 5174). PS52K and PS103K show that the steady viscosity has a maximum that is respectively 100% and 50% above 3 times the zero-shear-rate viscosity. The bidisperse melts show a significant...

  18. Suprathermal viscosity of dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Schwenzer, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the existence of unstable modes of compact stars that eventually grow large, we study the bulk viscosity of dense matter, taking into account non-linear effects arising in the large amplitude regime, where the deviation μ Δ of the chemical potentials from chemical equilibrium fulfills μ Δ > or approx. T. We find that this supra-thermal bulk viscosity can provide a potential mechanism for saturating unstable modes in compact stars since the viscosity is strongly enhanced. Our study confirms previous results on strange quark matter and shows that the suprathermal enhancement is even stronger in the case of hadronic matter. We also comment on the competition of different weak channels and the presence of suprathermal effects in various color superconducting phases of dense quark matter.

  19. Navier-Stokes Computations With One-Equation Turbulence Model for Flows Along Concave Wall Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi R.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the use of a time-marching three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equation numerical solver with a one-equation turbulence model to simulate the flow fields developed along concave wall surfaces without and with a downstream extension flat wall surface. The 3-D Navier- Stokes numerical solver came from the NASA Glenn-HT code. The one-equation turbulence model was derived from the Spalart and Allmaras model. The computational approach was first calibrated with the computations of the velocity and Reynolds shear stress profiles of a steady flat plate boundary layer flow. The computational approach was then used to simulate developing boundary layer flows along concave wall surfaces without and with a downstream extension wall. The author investigated the computational results of surface friction factors, near surface velocity components, near wall temperatures, and a turbulent shear stress component in terms of turbulence modeling, computational mesh configurations, inlet turbulence level, and time iteration step. The computational results were compared with existing measurements of skin friction factors, velocity components, and shear stresses of the developing boundary layer flows. With a fine computational mesh and a one-equation model, the computational approach could predict accurately the skin friction factors, near surface velocity and temperature, and shear stress within the flows. The computed velocity components and shear stresses also showed the vortices effect on the velocity variations over a concave wall. The computed eddy viscosities at the near wall locations were also compared with the results from a two equation turbulence modeling technique. The inlet turbulence length scale was found to have little effect on the eddy viscosities at locations near the concave wall surface. The eddy viscosities, from the one-equation and two-equation modeling, were comparable at most stream-wise stations. The present one

  20. Viscosity Control Experiment Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Heidi E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bradley, Paul Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    Turbulent mix has been invoked to explain many results in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and High Energy Density (HED) physics, such as reduced yield in capsule implosions. Many ICF capsule implosions exhibit interfacial instabilities seeded by the drive shock, but it is not clear that fully developed turbulence results from this. Many simulations use turbulent mix models to help match simulation results to data, but this is not appropriate if turbulence is not present. It would be useful to have an experiment where turbulent mixing could be turned on or off by design. The use of high-Z dopants to modify viscosity and the resulting influence on turbulence is considered here. A complicating factor is that the plasma in some implosions can become strongly coupled, which makes the Spitzer expression for viscosity invalid. We first consider equations that cover a broad parameter space in temperature and density to address regimes for various experimental applications. Next, a previous shock-tube and other ICF experiments that investigate viscosity or use doping to examine the effects on yield are reviewed. How viscosity and dopants play a role in capsule yield depends on the region and process under consideration. Experiments and simulations have been performed to study the effects of viscosity on both the hot spot and the fuel/ablator mix. Increases in yield have been seen for some designs, but not all. We then discuss the effect of adding krypton dopant to the gas region of a typical OMEGA and a 2-shock NIF implosion to determine approximately the effect of adding dopant on the computed Reynolds number. Recommendations for a path forward for possible experiments using high-Z dopants to affect viscosity and turbulence are made.

  1. The effects of size and period of administration of gold nanoparticles on rheological parameters of blood plasma of rats over a wide range of shear rates: In vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhalim Mohamed Anwar K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood viscosity appears to be independent predictor of stroke, carotid intima-media thickening, atherosclerosis and most cardiovascular diseases. In an attempt to understand the toxicity and the potential threat of GNPs therapeutic and diagnostic use, an array of rheological parameters were performed to quantify the blood plasma response to different sizes and administration periods of GNPs over a wide range of shear rates. Methods Healthy, thirty male Wistar-Kyoto rats, 8-12 weeks old (approximately 250 g body weight were divided into control group (NG: n = 10, group 1 (G1A: intraperitoneal infusion of 10 nm GNPs for 3 days, n = 5 and G1B: intraperitoneal infusion of 10 nm GNPs for 7 days, n = 5, group 2 (G2A: intraperitoneal infusion of 50 nm GNPs for 3 days, n = 5 and G2B: intraperitoneal infusion of 50 nm GNPs for 7 days, n = 5. Dose of 100 μl of GNPs was administered to the animals via intraperitoneal injection. Blood samples of nearly 1 ml were obtained from each rat. Various rheological parameters such as torque, shear stress, shear rate, viscosity, plastic velocity, yield stress, consistency index (k and flow index (n were measured in the blood plasma of rats after the intraperitoneal administration of 10 and 50 nm GNP for 3 and 7 days using Brookfield LVDV-III Programmable rheometer. Results The relationship between shear stress and shear rate for control, G1A, G1B, G2A and G2B was linearly related. The plastic viscosity and the yield stress values for G1A, G1B, G2A and G2B significantly (p Conclusions At these particular shear rates, the estimated rheological parameters are not influenced by GNPs size and shape, number of NPs, surface area and administration period of GNPs. This study demonstrates that the highly decrease in blood plasma viscosity was accompanied with the smaller 10 nm GNPs compared with the 50 nm GNPs. The decrease in blood plasma viscosity induced with 10 and 50 nm GNPs may be attributed to

  2. Bulk viscosity and cosmological evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beesham, A.

    1996-01-01

    In a recent interesting paper, Pimentel and Diaz-Rivera (Nuovo Cimento B, 109(1994) 1317) have derived several solutions with bulk viscosity in homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models. They also discussed the properties of these solutions. In this paper the authors relate the solutions of Pimentel and Diaz-Rivera by simple transformations to previous solutions published in the literature, showing that all the solutions can be derived from the known existing ones. Drawbacks to these approaches of studying bulk viscosity are pointed out, and better approaches indicated

  3. Viscosity kernel of molecular fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puscasu, Ruslan; Todd, Billy; Daivis, Peter

    2010-01-01

    , temperature, and chain length dependencies of the reciprocal and real-space viscosity kernels are presented. We find that the density has a major effect on the shape of the kernel. The temperature range and chain lengths considered here have by contrast less impact on the overall normalized shape. Functional...... forms that fit the wave-vector-dependent kernel data over a large density and wave-vector range have also been tested. Finally, a structural normalization of the kernels in physical space is considered. Overall, the real-space viscosity kernel has a width of roughly 3–6 atomic diameters, which means...

  4. Experimental investigation of non-Newtonian droplet collisions : the role of extensional viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finotello, Giulia; De, Shauvik; Vrouwenvelder, Jeroen C.R.; Padding, J.T.; Buist, Kay A.; Jongsma, Alfred; Innings, Fredrik; Kuipers, J.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the collision behaviour of a shear thinning non-Newtonian fluid xanthan, by binary droplet collision experiments. Droplet collisions of non-Newtonian fluids are more complex than their Newtonian counterpart as the viscosity no longer remains constant during the collision process.

  5. Evaluation of Heating and Shearing on the Viscoelastic Properties of Calcium Hydroxyapatite Used in Injection Laryngoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Hossein; Mohraz, Ali; Verma, Sunil P

    2016-03-01

    To compare the viscoelastic properties of calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHA) to carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) injectables used for injection laryngoplasty and determine if they are affected by heating and shearing. Experimental. University laboratory. Vocal fold injection laryngoplasty with CaHA is oftentimes challenging due to the amount of pressure necessary to push the injectate through a needle. Anecdotal techniques, such as heating the product, have been suggested to facilitate injection. The viscoelastic properties of CaHA and CMC were measured with a rheometer. The effects of heating and shearing on sample viscoelasticity were recorded. CaHA was 9.5 times more viscous than CMC (43,100 vs 4540 Pa·s). Heating temporarily decreased the viscosity of CaHA by 32%. However, it also caused the viscosity to subsequently increase after time. Shearing of CaHA reduced its viscosity by 26%. Heating and shearing together temporarily reduced the viscosity of CaHA by 52%. A combination of heating and shearing had a more profound effect than heating or shearing alone on the viscosity of CaHA, potentially making it easier to inject temporarily. Long-term and in vivo studies are required to further analyze the effect of heating and shearing on CaHA injectables. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  6. Equation of state and viscosities from a gravity dual of the gluon plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yaresko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Employing new precision data of the equation of state of the SU(3 Yang–Mills theory (gluon plasma the dilaton potential of a gravity-dual model is adjusted in the temperature range (1–10Tc within a bottom-up approach. The ratio of bulk viscosity to shear viscosity follows then as ζ/η≈πΔvs2 for Δvs2<0.2 and achieves a maximum value of 0.94 at Δvs2≈0.3, where Δvs2≡1/3−vs2 is the non-conformality measure and vs2 is the velocity of sound squared, while the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density is known as (4π−1 for the considered set-up with Hilbert action on the gravity side.

  7. Simulations of Granular Particles Under Cyclic Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, John; Chaikin, Paul

    2012-02-01

    We perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of spherical grains subjected to cyclic, quasi-static shear in a 3D parallelepiped shear cell. This virtual shear cell is constructed out of rough, bumpy walls in order to minimize wall-induced ordering and has an open top surface to allow the packing to readily dilate or compact. Using a standard routine for MD simulations of frictional grains, we simulate over 1000 shear cycles, measuring grain displacements, the local packing density and changes in the contact network. Varying the shear amplitude and the friction coefficient between grains, we map out a phase diagram for the different types of behavior exhibited by these sheared grains. With low friction and high enough shear, the grains can spontaneously order into densely packed crystals. With low shear and increasing friction the packing remains disordered, yet the grains arrange themselves into configurations which exhibit limit cycles where all grains return to the same position after each full shear cycle. At higher shear and friction there is a transition to a diffusive state, where grains continue rearrange and move throughout the shear cell.

  8. Bulk viscosity of molecular fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Frederike; Matar, Omar K.; Müller, Erich A.

    2018-05-01

    The bulk viscosity of molecular models of gases and liquids is determined by molecular simulations as a combination of a dilute gas contribution, arising due to the relaxation of internal degrees of freedom, and a configurational contribution, due to the presence of intermolecular interactions. The dilute gas contribution is evaluated using experimental data for the relaxation times of vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom. The configurational part is calculated using Green-Kubo relations for the fluctuations of the pressure tensor obtained from equilibrium microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations. As a benchmark, the Lennard-Jones fluid is studied. Both atomistic and coarse-grained force fields for water, CO2, and n-decane are considered and tested for their accuracy, and where possible, compared to experimental data. The dilute gas contribution to the bulk viscosity is seen to be significant only in the cases when intramolecular relaxation times are in the μs range, and for low vibrational wave numbers (<1000 cm-1); This explains the abnormally high values of bulk viscosity reported for CO2. In all other cases studied, the dilute gas contribution is negligible and the configurational contribution dominates the overall behavior. In particular, the configurational term is responsible for the enhancement of the bulk viscosity near the critical point.

  9. Fission hindrance and nuclear viscosity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is in exact conformity with all the previous measurements [7,10–13]. The CASCADE calculations (solid lines in figure 1) used in this first level of analysis do not include any viscosity or temperature-dependent nuclear level density parameter a. The γ and particle decay are calculated using the standard prescriptions as ...

  10. Effect of viscosity on seismic response of waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yu; Uras, R.A.; Chang, Yao-Wen.

    1992-06-01

    The dynamic response of liquid-storage tanks subjected to harmonic excitations and earthquake ground motions has been studied. A rigid tank of negligible mass, rigidly supported at the base having a diameter of 50 ft. and fluid height of 20.4 ft. was used in the computer analysis. The liquid is assumed to have a density of 1.5 g/ml. Viscosity values, μ = 60, 200, 100, and 10,000 cP, were used in the numerical analyses to study the effects of viscosity on sloshing wave height, impulsive and convective pressure on the tank wall, base shear and base moments. Harmonic excitations as well as earthquake ground motions were used as input motions. The harmonic excitations used in the analyses covers a wide range of frequencies, including both the resonant and non-resonant frequencies. Two earthquake motions were used. One matches the Newmark-Hall median response spectrum and is anchored at 0.24 g for a rock site with a damping of 2% and a time duration of 10 s. The other is the 1978 Tabas earthquake which had a peak ZPA of 0.81 g and a time duration of 29 s. A small tank, about 1/15 the size of the typical waste storage tank, was used in the harmonic excitation study to investigate the effect of viscosity on the response of liquid-storage tanks and how the viscosity effect is affected by the size of the storage tank. The results of this study show that for the typical waste storage tank subjected to earthquake motions, the effect of viscosity on sloshing wave height and impulsive and convective pressures is very small and can be neglected. For viscosity effect to become noticeable in the response of the typical waste storage tank, the waste viscosity must be greater than 10,000 cP. This value is far greater than the estimated viscosity value of the high level wastes, which may range from 60 to 200 cP for some tanks

  11. Nuclear quadrupole relaxation and viscosity in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmacher, W.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the nuclear quadrupole relaxation rate due to the molecular motions in liquid metals is related to the shear and bulk viscosity and hence to the absorption coefficient of ultrasound. Application of the 'extended liquid phonon' model of Ortoleva and Nelkin - which is the third of a series of continued-fraction-approximations for the van Hove neutron scattering function - gives a relation to the self diffusion constant. The predictions of the theory concerning the temperature dependence are compared with quadrupole relaxation measurements of Riegel et al. and Kerlin et al. in liquid gallium. Agreement is found only with the data of Riegel et al. (orig.) [de

  12. HIGH-RESOLUTION CALCULATION OF THE SOLAR GLOBAL CONVECTION WITH THE REDUCED SPEED OF SOUND TECHNIQUE. II. NEAR SURFACE SHEAR LAYER WITH THE ROTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotta, H.; Rempel, M. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Yokoyama, T., E-mail: hotta@ucar.edu [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    We present a high-resolution, highly stratified numerical simulation of rotating thermal convection in a spherical shell. Our aim is to study in detail the processes that can maintain a near surface shear layer (NSSL) as inferred from helioseismology. Using the reduced speed of sound technique, we can extend our global convection simulation to 0.99 R {sub ☉} and include, near the top of our domain, small-scale convection with short timescales that is only weakly influenced by rotation. We find the formation of an NSSL preferentially in high latitudes in the depth range of r = 0.95-0.975 R {sub ☉}. The maintenance mechanisms are summarized as follows. Convection under the weak influence of rotation leads to Reynolds stresses that transport angular momentum radially inward in all latitudes. This leads to the formation of a strong poleward-directed meridional flow and an NSSL, which is balanced in the meridional plane by forces resulting from the 〈v{sub r}{sup ′}v{sub θ}{sup ′}〉 correlation of turbulent velocities. The origin of the required correlations depends to some degree on latitude. In high latitudes, a positive correlation 〈v{sub r}{sup ′}v{sub θ}{sup ′}〉 is induced in the NSSL by the poleward meridional flow whose amplitude increases with the radius, while a negative correlation is generated by the Coriolis force in bulk of the convection zone. In low latitudes, a positive correlation 〈v{sub r}{sup ′}v{sub θ}{sup ′}〉 results from rotationally aligned convection cells ({sup b}anana cells{sup )}. The force caused by these Reynolds stresses is in balance with the Coriolis force in the NSSL.

  13. Viscosity bound violation in holographic solids and the viscoelastic response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberte, Lasma [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP),Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy); Baggioli, Matteo [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE),The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST),Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Physics, Institute for Condensed Matter Theory, University of Illinois,1110 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Pujolàs, Oriol [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE),The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST),Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-07-14

    We argue that the Kovtun-Son-Starinets (KSS) lower bound on the viscosity to entropy density ratio holds in fluid systems but is violated in solid materials with a non-zero shear elastic modulus. We construct explicit examples of this by applying the standard gauge/gravity duality methods to massive gravity and show that the KSS bound is clearly violated in black brane solutions whenever the massive gravity theories are of solid type. We argue that the physical reason for the bound violation relies on the viscoelastic nature of the mechanical response in these materials. We speculate on whether any real-world materials can violate the bound and discuss a possible generalization of the bound that involves the ratio of the shear elastic modulus to the pressure.

  14. Viscosity bound violation in holographic solids and the viscoelastic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberte, Lasma; Baggioli, Matteo; Pujolàs, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    We argue that the Kovtun-Son-Starinets (KSS) lower bound on the viscosity to entropy density ratio holds in fluid systems but is violated in solid materials with a non-zero shear elastic modulus. We construct explicit examples of this by applying the standard gauge/gravity duality methods to massive gravity and show that the KSS bound is clearly violated in black brane solutions whenever the massive gravity theories are of solid type. We argue that the physical reason for the bound violation relies on the viscoelastic nature of the mechanical response in these materials. We speculate on whether any real-world materials can violate the bound and discuss a possible generalization of the bound that involves the ratio of the shear elastic modulus to the pressure.

  15. Effective viscosity of 2D suspensions - Confinement effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyla, Philippe; Priem, Stephane; Vincent, Doyeux; Farutin, Alexander; Ismail, Mourad

    2014-11-01

    We study the rheology of a sheared 2D suspension of non-Brownian disks in presence of walls. Although, it is of course possible today with modern computers and powerful algorithms to perform direct numerical simulations that fully account for multiparticle 3D interactions, the analysis of the simple case of a 2D suspension, provides valuable insights and helps to understand 3D results. For instance, we examine the role of particle-wall and particle-particle interactions in determining the rheology of confined sheared suspensions. In addition we evaluate the intrinsic viscosity as well as the contribution of hydrodynamic interactions to the dissipation as a function of a wide range of confinements. Thanks to the direct visualisation of the whole 2D Stokes flow, we are able to give a clear interpretation about the rheology of semi-dilute confined suspensions.

  16. Viscosity measurement in the capillary tube viscometer under unsteady flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Heung Jun; Yoo, Sang Sin; Suh, Sang Ho

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to develop a new device that the viscous characteristics of fluids are determined by applying the unsteady flow concept to the traditional capillary tube viscometer. The capillary tube viscometer consists of a small cylindrical reservoir, capillary tube, a load cell system that measures the mass flow rate, interfaces, and computer. Due to the small size of the reservoir the height of liquid in the reservoir decreases as soon as the liquid in the reservoir drains out through the capillary and the mass flow rate in the capillary decreases as the hydrostatic pressure in the reservoir decreases resulting in a decrease of the shear rate in the capillary tube. The instantaneous shear rate and driving force in the capillary tube are determined by measuring the mass flow rate through the capillary, and the fluid viscosity is determined from the measured flow rate and the driving force

  17. A simple model to understand the role of membrane shear elasticity and stress-free shape on the motion of red blood cells in shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallat, Annie; Abkarian, Manouk; Dupire, Jules

    2015-11-01

    The analytical model presented by Keller and Skalak on the dynamics of red blood cells in shear flow described the cell as a fluid ellipsoid of fixed shape. It was extended to introduce shear elasticity of the cell membrane. We further extend the model when the cell discoid physiological shape is not a stress-free shape. We show that spheroid stress-free shapes enables fitting experimental data with values of shear elasticity typical to that found with micropipettes and optical tweezers. For moderate shear rates (when RBCs keep their discoid shape) this model enables to quantitatively determine an effective cell viscosity, that combines membrane and hemoglobin viscosities and an effective shear modulus of the membrane that combines shear modulus and stress-free shape. This model allows determining RBC mechanical parameters both in the tanktreading regime for cells suspended in a high viscosity medium, and in the tumbling regime for cells suspended in a low viscosity medium. In this regime,a transition is predicted between a rigid-like tumbling motion and a fluid-like tumbling motion above a critical shear rate, which is directly related to the mechanical parameters of the cell. A*MIDEX (n ANR-11-IDEX-0001-02) funded by the ''Investissements d'Avenir'', Region Languedoc-Roussillon, Labex NUMEV (ANR-10-LABX-20), BPI France project DataDiag.

  18. Elongational viscosity of photo-oxidated LDPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H.; Wagner, Manfred H.

    2014-05-01

    Sheets of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were photo-oxidatively treated at room temperature, and subsequently characterized rheologically in the melt state by shear and uniaxial extensional experiments. For photo-oxidation, a xenon lamp was used to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Linear-viscoelastic characterization was performed in a temperature range of 130 to 220°C to obtain the master curve at 170°C, the reference temperature at which the elongational viscosities were measured. Linear viscoelasticity is increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by an increasing gel fraction as determined by a solvent extraction method. The elongational measurements reveal a strong enhancement of strain hardening until a saturation level is achieved. The elongational data are analyzed in the frame work of two constitutive equations, the rubber-like liquid and the molecular stress function models. Within the experimental window, timedeformation separability is confirmed for all samples, independent of the degree of photo-oxidation.

  19. Computational modeling for prediction of the shear stress of three-dimensional isotropic and aligned fiber networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seungman

    2017-09-01

    Interstitial flow (IF) is a creeping flow through the interstitial space of the extracellular matrix (ECM). IF plays a key role in diverse biological functions, such as tissue homeostasis, cell function and behavior. Currently, most studies that have characterized IF have focused on the permeability of ECM or shear stress distribution on the cells, but less is known about the prediction of shear stress on the individual fibers or fiber networks despite its significance in the alignment of matrix fibers and cells observed in fibrotic or wound tissues. In this study, I developed a computational model to predict shear stress for different structured fibrous networks. To generate isotropic models, a random growth algorithm and a second-order orientation tensor were employed. Then, a three-dimensional (3D) solid model was created using computer-aided design (CAD) software for the aligned models (i.e., parallel, perpendicular and cubic models). Subsequently, a tetrahedral unstructured mesh was generated and flow solutions were calculated by solving equations for mass and momentum conservation for all models. Through the flow solutions, I estimated permeability using Darcy's law. Average shear stress (ASS) on the fibers was calculated by averaging the wall shear stress of the fibers. By using nonlinear surface fitting of permeability, viscosity, velocity, porosity and ASS, I devised new computational models. Overall, the developed models showed that higher porosity induced higher permeability, as previous empirical and theoretical models have shown. For comparison of the permeability, the present computational models were matched well with previous models, which justify our computational approach. ASS tended to increase linearly with respect to inlet velocity and dynamic viscosity, whereas permeability was almost the same. Finally, the developed model nicely predicted the ASS values that had been directly estimated from computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The present

  20. Determination of the shear impedance of viscoelastic liquids using cylindrical piezoceramic resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiełczyński, Piotr; Pajewski, Wincenty; Szalewski, Marek

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, a new method for determining the rheological parameters of viscoelastic liquids is presented. To this end, we used the perturbation method applied to shear vibrations of cylindrical piezoceramic resonators. The resonator was viscoelastically loaded on the outer cylindrical surface. Due to this loading, the resonant frequency and quality factor of the resonator changed. According to the perturbation method, the change in the complex resonant frequency deltaomega = deltaomega(re) + jdeltaomega(im) is directly proportional to the specific acoustic impedance for cylindrical waves Zc of a viscoelastic liquid surrounding the resonator, i.e., deltaomega is approximately equal to jZc, where j = (-1)1/2. Hence, the measurement of the real and imaginary parts of the complex resonant frequency deltaomega determines the real part, Rc, and imaginary part, Xc, of the complex acoustic impedance for cylindrical waves Zc of an investigated liquid. Furthermore, the specific impedance ZL for plane waves was related to the specific impedance Zc for cylindrical waves. Using theoretical formulas established and the results of the experiments performed, the shear storage modulus mu and the viscosity eta for various liquids (e.g., epoxy resins) were determined. Moreover, the authors derived for cylindrical resonators a formula that relates the shift in resonant frequency to the viscosity of the liquid. This formula is analogous to the Kanazawa-Gordon formula that was derived for planar resonators and Newtonian liquids.

  1. Hydrodynamic characterization and molecular weight estimation of ultrasonically sheared DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casal, J. I.; Garces, F.; Garcia-Sacristan, A.

    1981-01-01

    The sedimentation coefficients and intrinsic viscosities of ultrasonically sheared calf thymus DNA have been determined. The molecular weight estimation according to this parameters have been compared with the ones obtained from the electrophoretic migration rates based on the calibration proposed using the known molecular weight restriction fragments of X-ENA. (Author) 35 refs

  2. Hydrodynamic caracterization and molecular weight stimation of ultrasonically sheared DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garces, F.; Casal, J.I.; Garcia, A.

    1981-01-01

    The sedimentation coefficients and intrinsec viscosities of ultrasonically sheared calf thymus DNA have been determined. The molecular weight stimation according to this parameters have been compared with the ones obtained from the electrophoretic migration rates based on the calibration proposed using the known molecular weight restriction fragments of lambds-DNA. (author) [es

  3. Thermal convection of viscoelastic shear-thinning fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaalbaki, Bashar; Khayat, Roger E; Ahmed, Zahir U

    2016-01-01

    The Rayleigh–Bénard convection for non-Newtonian fluids possessing both viscoelastic and shear-thinning behaviours is examined. The Phan-Thien–Tanner (PTT) constitutive equation is implemented to model the non-Newtonian character of the fluid. It is found that while the shear-thinning and viscoelastic effects could annihilate one another for the steady roll flow, presence of both behaviours restricts the roll stability limit significantly compared to the cases when the fluid is either inelastic shear-thinning or purely viscoelastic with constant viscosity. (paper)

  4. Viscosity of confined two-dimensional Yukawa liquids: A nonequilibrium method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landmann, S.; Kählert, H.; Thomsen, H.; Bonitz, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present a nonequilibrium method that allows one to determine the viscosity of two-dimensional dust clusters in an isotropic confinement. By applying a tangential external force to the outer parts of the cluster (e.g., with lasers), a sheared velocity profile is created. The decay of the angular velocity towards the center of the confinement potential is determined by a balance between internal (viscosity) and external friction (neutral gas damping). The viscosity can then be calculated from a fit of the measured velocity profile to a solution of the Navier-Stokes equation. Langevin dynamics simulations are used to demonstrate the feasibility of the method. We find good agreement of the measured viscosity with previous results for macroscopic Yukawa plasmas

  5. Experimental Research on Boundary Shear Stress in Typical Meandering Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-hua; Xia, Yun-feng; Zhang, Shi-zhao; Wen, Yun-cheng; Xu, Hua

    2018-06-01

    A novel instrument named Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) flexible hot-film shear stress sensor was used to study the boundary shear stress distribution in the generalized natural meandering open channel, and the mean sidewall shear stress distribution along the meandering channel, and the lateral boundary shear stress distribution in the typical cross-section of the meandering channel was analysed. Based on the measurement of the boundary shear stress, a semi-empirical semi-theoretical computing approach of the boundary shear stress was derived including the effects of the secondary flow, sidewall roughness factor, eddy viscosity and the additional Reynolds stress, and more importantly, for the first time, it combined the effects of the cross-section central angle and the Reynolds number into the expressions. Afterwards, a comparison between the previous research and this study was developed. Following the result, we found that the semi-empirical semi-theoretical boundary shear stress distribution algorithm can predict the boundary shear stress distribution precisely. Finally, a single factor analysis was conducted on the relationship between the average sidewall shear stress on the convex and concave bank and the flow rate, water depth, slope ratio, or the cross-section central angle of the open channel bend. The functional relationship with each of the above factors was established, and then the distance from the location of the extreme sidewall shear stress to the bottom of the open channel was deduced based on the statistical theory.

  6. Structure-rheology relationship in a sheared lamellar fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaju, S J; Kumaran, V

    2016-03-01

    The structure-rheology relationship in the shear alignment of a lamellar fluid is studied using a mesoscale model which provides access to the lamellar configurations and the rheology. Based on the equations and free energy functional, the complete set of dimensionless groups that characterize the system are the Reynolds number (ργL(2)/μ), the Schmidt number (μ/ρD), the Ericksen number (μγ/B), the interface sharpness parameter r, the ratio of the viscosities of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts μ(r), and the ratio of the system size and layer spacing (L/λ). Here, ρ and μ are the fluid density and average viscosity, γ is the applied strain rate, D is the coefficient of diffusion, B is the compression modulus, μ(r) is the maximum difference in the viscosity of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts divided by the average viscosity, and L is the system size in the cross-stream direction. The lattice Boltzmann method is used to solve the concentration and momentum equations for a two dimensional system of moderate size (L/λ=32) and for a low Reynolds number, and the other parameters are systematically varied to examine the qualitative features of the structure and viscosity evolution in different regimes. At low Schmidt numbers where mass diffusion is faster than momentum diffusion, there is fast local formation of randomly aligned domains with "grain boundaries," which are rotated by the shear flow to align along the extensional axis as time increases. This configuration offers a high resistance to flow, and the layers do not align in the flow direction even after 1000 strain units, resulting in a viscosity higher than that for an aligned lamellar phase. At high Schmidt numbers where momentum diffusion is fast, the shear flow disrupts layers before they are fully formed by diffusion, and alignment takes place by the breakage and reformation of layers by shear, resulting in defects (edge dislocations) embedded in a background of nearly aligned layers

  7. Nonlinear interaction of Rayleigh--Taylor and shear instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Results on the nonlinear behavior of the Rayleigh--Taylor instability and consequent development of shear flow by the shear instability [Phys. Fluids B 4, 488 (1992)] are presented. It is found that the shear flow is generated at sufficient amplitude to reduce greatly the convective transport. For high viscosity, the time-asymptotic state consists of an equilibrium with shear flow and vortex flow (with islands, or ''cat's eyes''), or a relaxation oscillation involving an interplay between the shear instability and the Rayleigh--Taylor instability in the presence of shear. For low viscosity, the dominant feature is a high-frequency nonlinear standing wave consisting of convective vortices localized near the top and bottom boundaries. The localization of these vortices is due to the smaller shear near the boundary regions. The convective transport is largest around these convective vortices near the boundary and there is a region of good confinement near the center. The possible relevance of this behavior to the H mode and edge-localized modes (ELM's) in the tokamak edge region is discussed

  8. Second viscosity effects in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potupa, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    The object of the investigation is to draw attention to two important aspects in the choice of a substance model, namely an allowance for the viscosity and behaviour of the metrics at the later stages of cosmological evolution. It is shown that in homogeneous cosmological models taking into account the viscosity there are solutions which realize interpolation between the Fridman and steady-state regimes. In a closed model a solution is obtained which corresponds to the ''curvature compensation'' regime with an unboundedly increasing radius. The problem of compensation of singularity at t → o is discussed as well as the choice of the equations of state for the early (hadron) stages of cosmological evolution in connection with the hydrodynamic theory of multiple hadron production

  9. Effect of electrochemical oxidation of a viscose rayon based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A viscose rayon based activated carbon cloth (ACC) was electrochemically oxidised to enhance its cation sorption capacity for comparison with as-received ACC. ACCs were characterised by sodium capacity measurement, pH titration, zeta potential measurement, elemental analysis, Brunauer-Emmet- Teller surface area ...

  10. Effect of viscosity on learned satiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mars, M.; Hogenkamp, P.S.; Gosses, A.M.; Stafleu, A.; Graaf, C.de

    2009-01-01

    A higher viscosity of a food leads to a longer orosensory stimulation. This may facilitate the learned association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. In the current study we investigated the effect of viscosity on learned satiation. In two intervention groups a low viscosity (LV)

  11. Artificial Neural Network Model to Estimate the Viscosity of Polymer Solutions for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Sang Kang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymer flooding is now considered a technically- and commercially-proven method for enhanced oil recovery (EOR. The viscosity of the injected polymer solution is the key property for successful polymer flooding. Given that the viscosity of a polymer solution has a non-linear relationship with various influential parameters (molecular weight, degree of hydrolysis, polymer concentration, cation concentration of polymer solution, shear rate, temperature and that measurement of viscosity based on these parameters is a time-consuming process, the range of solution samples and the measurement conditions need to be limited and precise. Viscosity estimation of the polymer solution is effective for these purposes. An artificial neural network (ANN was applied to the viscosity estimation of FlopaamTM 3330S, FlopaamTM 3630S and AN-125 solutions, three commonly-used EOR polymers. The viscosities measured and estimated by ANN and the Carreau model using Lee’s correlation, the only method for estimating the viscosity of an EOR polymer solution in unmeasured conditions, were compared. Estimation accuracy was evaluated by the average absolute relative deviation, which has been widely used for accuracy evaluation of the results of ANN models. In all conditions, the accuracy of the ANN model is higher than that of the Carreau model using Lee’s correlation.

  12. Rubber friction and force transmission during the shearing process of actively-driven vacuum grippers on rough surfaces; Elastomerreibung und Kraftuebertragung beim Abscheren von aktiv betriebenen Vakuumgreifern auf rauen Oberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, Patrick

    2016-12-21

    Nowadays, vacuum grippers come in many different shapes and sizes. Their stability is guaranteed through specially manufactured metal fittings. These fittings are non-positively and positively connected to the elastic part of the vacuum gripper. The design of the elastic part may vary, though. Elastomer components are used to ensure tightness for the negative pressure in the active cave chamber of the vacuum gripper, as well as for the transfer of shearing forces, which acting parallel to the surface. Some vacuum grippers feature one elastomer for both the sealing function and the transfer of shear forces; other gripper types are equipped with various elastomers for those applications. The vacuum grippers described in this work are equipped with structured rubber friction pads, their tightness being ensured by sealing lips made of a flexible foam rubber. A restraint system consisting of one or several vacuum grippers must be sized prior to its actual practical use. For the transmission of shearing forces, which acting parallel to the surface, it is necessary to take the tribological system, consisting of the suction element's elastomer and the base material, into account since these loads put shearing stress on the vacuum gripper. In practice, however, a standardized value is given for the coefficient of friction μ; i.e. the ratio of transmissible frictional force to the normal force. This does neither include a detailed description of the elastomer used nor of the roughness of the base material. The standardized friction coefficients cannot be applied to the practical design of restraint systems. The present work includes the analysis of the load transmission and the modeling of the friction coefficients μ on rough surfaces during the shearing process of actively-driven vacuum grippers. Based on current theories, the phenomenon of elastomeric friction can be attributed to the two main components of hysteresis and adhesion friction. Both components are

  13. Viscosity sinergism of hydrozypropmethyl and carboxy methyl cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katona Jaroslav M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheology modifiers are common constituents of food, cosmetic and pharmaceutic products. Often, by using two or more of them, better control of the product rheological properties can be achieved. In this work, rheological properties of hydroxypropymethyl cellulose (HPMC and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC solutions of different concentrations were investigated and compared to the flow properties of 1% HPMC/NaCMC binary mixtures at various HPMC/NaCMC mass ratios. Solutions of HPMC and NaCMC were found to be pseudoplastic, where pseudoplasticity increases with increase in the macromolecules concentration. Changes of the degree of pseudoplasticity, n as well as the coefficient of consistency, K with the concentration are more pronounced in HPMC solutions when compared to the NaCMC ones. This is mostly due to the ability of HPMC molecules to associate with each other at concentrations above critical overlap concentration, c , and greater flexibility of macromolecular chains. Binary mixtures of HPMC/NaCMC were also found to be pseudoplastic. Experimentally obtained viscosities of the mixture were proved to be larger than theoretically expected ones, indicating viscosity synergism as a consequence of HPMC-NaCMC interaction. Maximum in synergy was observed when HPMC/NaCMC mass ratio was 0.4/0.6, no matter of the shear rate applied. On the other hand, it was found that relative positive deviation, RPD decreases when shear rate is increased.

  14. An anisotropic shear velocity model of the Earth's mantle using normal modes, body waves, surface waves and long-period waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulik, P.; Ekström, G.

    2014-12-01

    We use normal-mode splitting functions in addition to surface wave phase anomalies, body wave traveltimes and long-period waveforms to construct a 3-D model of anisotropic shear wave velocity in the Earth's mantle. Our modelling approach inverts for mantle velocity and anisotropy as well as transition-zone discontinuity topographies, and incorporates new crustal corrections for the splitting functions that are consistent with the non-linear corrections we employ for the waveforms. Our preferred anisotropic model, S362ANI+M, is an update to the earlier model S362ANI, which did not include normal-mode splitting functions in its derivation. The new model has stronger isotropic velocity anomalies in the transition zone and slightly smaller anomalies in the lowermost mantle, as compared with S362ANI. The differences in the mid- to lowermost mantle are primarily restricted to features in the Southern Hemisphere. We compare the isotropic part of S362ANI+M with other recent global tomographic models and show that the level of agreement is higher now than in the earlier generation of models, especially in the transition zone and the lower mantle. The anisotropic part of S362ANI+M is restricted to the upper 300 km in the mantle and is similar to S362ANI. When radial anisotropy is allowed throughout the mantle, large-scale anisotropic patterns are observed in the lowermost mantle with vSV > vSH beneath Africa and South Pacific and vSH > vSV beneath several circum-Pacific regions. The transition zone exhibits localized anisotropic anomalies of ˜3 per cent vSH > vSV beneath North America and the Northwest Pacific and ˜2 per cent vSV > vSH beneath South America. However, small improvements in fits to the data on adding anisotropy at depth leave the question open on whether large-scale radial anisotropy is required in the transition zone and in the lower mantle. We demonstrate the potential of mode-splitting data in reducing the trade-offs between isotropic velocity and

  15. Separate structure of two branches of sheared slab ηi mode and effects of plasma rotation shear in weak magnetic shear region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiquan Li; Kishimoto, Y.; Tuda, T.

    2000-01-01

    The separate structure of two branches of the sheared slab η i mode near the minimum-q magnetic surface is analysed and the effects of plasma rotation shears are considered in the weak magnetic shear region. Results show that the separation condition depends on the non-monotonous q profile and the deviation of rational surface from the minimum-q surface. Furthermore, it is found that the diamagnetic rotation shear may suppress the perturbation of the sheared slab η i mode at one side of the minimum-q surface, the poloidal rotation shear from the sheared E-vector x B-vector flow has a similar role to the slab mode structure when it possesses a direction same as the diamagnetic shear. A plausible interrelation between the separate structures of the two branches of the sheared slab mode and the discontinuity or gap of the radially global structure of the drift wave near the minimum-q surface observed in the toroidal particle simulation (Kishimoto Y et al 1998 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 40 A663) is discussed. It seems to support such a viewpoint: the double or/and global branches of the sheared slab η i mode near the minimum-q surface may become a bridge to connect the radially global structures of the drift wave at two sides of the minimum-q surface and the discontinuity may originate from the separate structures of these slab modes for a flatter q profile. (author)

  16. Evaluation of stability and viscosity measurement of emulsion from oil from production in northern oilfield in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntarasakul, O.; Maneeintr, K.

    2018-04-01

    Emulsion is normally present in oil due to the mixing occurring during oil recovery. The formation of emulsion can cause some problems in production and transportation. Viscosity and stability of emulsion play a key roles in oil transportation and separation to meet sales specification. Therefore, the aims of this research are to measure the viscosity of oil an emulsion and to evaluate the stability of emulsion of light oil from Fang oilfield in Thailand. The parameters of this study are temperature, shear rate and water cut ranging from 50 to 80 °C, 3.75 to 70 s-1 and 0 to 60%, respectively. These effects of parameters on viscosity and stability of emulsion are required for the design of the process and to increase oil production with various conditions. The results shows that viscosity decreases as temperature and shear rate increase. In contrast, viscosity becomes higher when water cut is lower. Furthermore, droplet sizes of water-in-oil emulsion at different conditions are investigated the stability of emulsion. The droplet sizes become smaller when high shear rate is applied and emulsion becomes more stable. Furthermore, correlations are developed to predict the viscosity and stability of the oil and emulsion from Thailand.

  17. 3-D Upper-Mantle Shear Velocity Model Beneath the Contiguous United States Based on Broadband Surface Wave from Ambient Seismic Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jun; Chu, Risheng; Yang, Yingjie

    2018-05-01

    Ambient noise seismic tomography has been widely used to study crustal and upper-mantle shear velocity structures. Most studies, however, concentrate on short period (structure on a continental scale. We use broadband Rayleigh wave phase velocities to obtain a 3-D V S structures beneath the contiguous United States at period band of 10-150 s. During the inversion, 1-D shear wave velocity profile is parameterized using B-spline at each grid point and is inverted with nonlinear Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Then, a 3-D shear velocity model is constructed by assembling all the 1-D shear velocity profiles. Our model is overall consistent with existing models which are based on multiple datasets or data from earthquakes. Our model along with the other post-USArray models reveal lithosphere structures in the upper mantle, which are consistent with the geological tectonic background (e.g., the craton root and regional upwelling provinces). The model has comparable resolution on lithosphere structures compared with many published results and can be used for future detailed regional or continental studies and analysis.

  18. Using Quartz Crystal Microbalance for Field Measurement of Liquid Viscosities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Bai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The field measurement of liquid viscosities, especially the high viscous liquids, is challenging and often requires expensive equipment, long processing time, and lots of reagent. We use quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs operating in solution which are also sensitive to the viscosity and density of the contacting solution. QCMs are typically investigated for sensor applications in which one surface of QCM completely immersed in Newtonian liquid, but the viscous damping in liquids would cause not only large frequency shifts but also large losses in the quality factor Q leading to instability and even cessation of oscillation. A novel mass-sensitivity-based method for field measurement of liquid viscosities using a QCM is demonstrated in this paper and a model describing the influence of the liquid properties on the oscillation frequency is established as well. Two groups of verified experiments were performed and the experimental results show that the presented method is effective and possesses potential applications.

  19. The effect of gasses on the viscosity of dimethyl ether

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Jakobsen, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    media, but their effect on DME viscosity is unknown. Argon (Ar), nitrogen (NA carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen (H-2) and propane (C3H8) have been investigated at pressure levels of 12-15 bar. A Cannon-Manning semi-micro capillary glass viscometer, size 25, enclosed in a cylindrical pressure container......, of glass, submerged completely in a constant temperature bath, has been used. A distinct reduction of efflux times was found only for the gas, CO2. The reduction in efflux time was about 9%. The kinematic viscosity of pure DME was determined to be: 0.188 +/- 0.001 cSt, 25 degrees C. A previously reported...... viscosity of pure DME has been corrected for the surface tension effect. Viscosity determination was initially based on a direct comparison of efflux times of DME with that of distilled water. The calculation gave a revised viscosity of 0.186 +/- 0.002 cSt, 25 degrees C, consistent with the above...

  20. Large particles increase viscosity and yield stress of pig cecal contents without changing basic viscoelastic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toru; Sakata, Takashi

    2002-05-01

    The viscosity of gut contents should influence digestion and absorption. Earlier investigators measured the viscosity of intestinal contents after the removal of solid particles. However, we previously found that removal of solid particles from pig cecal contents dramatically lowered the viscosity of the contents. Accordingly, we examined the contribution of large solid particles to viscoelastic parameters of gut contents in the present study. We removed large particles from pig cecal contents by filtration through surgical gauze. Then, we reconstructed the cecal contents by returning all, one half or none of the original amount of the large particles to the filtrate. We measured the viscosity, shear stress and shear rate of these reconstructed cecal contents using a tube-flow viscometer. The coefficient of viscosity was larger when the large-particle content was higher (P Bingham plastic nature irrespective of large-particle content. We calculated the yield stress of these fluids assuming that the fluids behave as Bingham plastic. The yield stress of the cecal contents was greater (P Bingham plastic characteristics to pig cecal contents.

  1. Real-time viscosity and mass density sensors requiring microliter sample volume based on nanomechanical resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, Benjamin A; Duempelmann, Luc; Renggli, Kasper; Lang, Hans Peter; Gerber, Christoph; Bruns, Nico; Braun, Thomas

    2013-09-17

    A microcantilever based method for fluid viscosity and mass density measurements with high temporal resolution and microliter sample consumption is presented. Nanomechanical cantilever vibration is driven by photothermal excitation and detected by an optical beam deflection system using two laser beams of different wavelengths. The theoretical framework relating cantilever response to the viscosity and mass density of the surrounding fluid was extended to consider higher flexural modes vibrating at high Reynolds numbers. The performance of the developed sensor and extended theory was validated over a viscosity range of 1-20 mPa·s and a corresponding mass density range of 998-1176 kg/m(3) using reference fluids. Separating sample plugs from the carrier fluid by a two-phase configuration in combination with a microfluidic flow cell, allowed samples of 5 μL to be sequentially measured under continuous flow, opening the method to fast and reliable screening applications. To demonstrate the study of dynamic processes, the viscosity and mass density changes occurring during the free radical polymerization of acrylamide were monitored and compared to published data. Shear-thinning was observed in the viscosity data at higher flexural modes, which vibrate at elevated frequencies. Rheokinetic models allowed the monomer-to-polymer conversion to be tracked in spite of the shear-thinning behavior, and could be applied to study the kinetics of unknown processes.

  2. Designing shear-thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Arif Z.; Ewoldt, Randy H.

    2017-11-01

    Design in fluid mechanics often focuses on optimizing geometry (airfoils, surface textures, microfluid channels), but here we focus on designing fluids themselves. The dramatically shear-thinning ``yield-stress fluid'' is currently the most utilized non-Newtonian fluid phenomenon. These rheologically complex materials, which undergo a reversible transition from solid-like to liquid-like fluid flow, are utilized in pedestrian products such as paint and toothpaste, but also in emerging applications like direct-write 3D printing. We present a paradigm for yield-stress fluid design that considers constitutive model representation, material property databases, available predictive scaling laws, and the many ways to achieve a yield stress fluid, flipping the typical structure-to-rheology analysis to become the inverse: rheology-to-structure with multiple possible materials as solutions. We describe case studies of 3D printing inks and other flow scenarios where designed shear-thinning enables performance remarkably beyond that of Newtonian fluids. This work was supported by Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-1463203.

  3. Influence Of Specific Mechanical Energy On Cornmeal Viscosity Measured By An On-line System During Twin-screw Extrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Y.K.; Martinez-Bustos F.; Park T.S.; Kokini J.L.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of specific mechanical energy (SME) on cornmeal viscosity during the twin-screw extrusion at feed moisture contents of 25 and 30% and screw speeds in the range from 100 to 500 rpm was measured. Cornmeal was extruded in a co-rotating, intermeshing twin-screw coupled to a slit die rheometer. One approach to the on-line rheological measurement is to use a slit die with the extruder. In the present work it was show that shear viscosity decreased as a function of SME. The viscosity o...

  4. Measurement of the temperature-dependent threshold shear-stress of red blood cell aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun-Jung; Nam, Jeong-Hun; Lee, Yong-Jin; Shin, Sehyun

    2009-09-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation is becoming an important hemorheological parameter, which typically exhibits temperature dependence. Quite recently, a critical shear-stress was proposed as a new dimensional index to represent the aggregative and disaggregative behaviors of RBCs. The present study investigated the effect of the temperature on the critical shear-stress that is required to keep RBC aggregates dispersed. The critical shear-stress was measured at various temperatures (4, 10, 20, 30, and 37 degrees C) through the use of a transient microfluidic aggregometry. The critical shear-stress significantly increased as the blood temperature lowered, which accorded with the increase in the low-shear blood viscosity with the lowering of the temperature. Furthermore, the critical shear-stress also showed good agreement with the threshold shear-stress, as measured in a rotational Couette flow. These findings assist in rheologically validating the critical shear-stress, as defined in the microfluidic aggregometry.

  5. Shear weakening for different lithologies observed at different saturation stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diethart-Jauk, Elisabeth; Gegenhuber, Nina

    2018-01-01

    For this study, samples from different lithologies ("Leitha"-limestone, "Dachstein"-limestone, "Haupt"-dolomite, "Bunt"-sandstone, Grey Berea sandstone, granite, quartzite and basalt) were selected. Samples were dried at 70 °C, respectively 105 °C and were saturated with brine. Mass, porosity, permeability, compressional and shear wave velocity were determined from dry and brine saturated samples at laboratory conditions, based on an individual measurement program. Shear modulus was calculated to find out, if shear weakening exists for the dataset. Shear weakening means that shear modulus of dry samples is higher than of saturated samples, but it is assumed that shear modulus is unaffected by saturation. "Dachstein"-limestone and basalt show shear weakening, quartzite samples show both weakening and hardening. Granite samples are affected by temperature, after drying with 105 °C no change can be observed anymore. "Bunt"-sandstone samples show a change in the shear modulus in a small extent, although they may contain clay minerals. The other lithologies show no effect. Explanations for carbonate samples can be the complicated pore structure, for basalt it could be that weathering creates clay minerals which are known as causes for a change of the shear modulus. Fluid viscosity can also be an important factor.

  6. Microstructural evolution of a model, shear-banding micellar solution during shear startup and cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Barrón, Carlos R; Gurnon, A Kate; Eberle, Aaron P R; Porcar, Lionel; Wagner, Norman J

    2014-04-01

    We present direct measurements of the evolution of the segmental-level microstructure of a stable shear-banding polymerlike micelle solution during flow startup and cessation in the plane of flow. These measurements provide a definitive, quantitative microstructural understanding of the stages observed during flow startup: an initial elastic response with limited alignment that yields with a large stress overshoot to a homogeneous flow with associated micellar alignment that persists for approximately three relaxation times. This transient is followed by a shear (kink) band formation with a flow-aligned low-viscosity band that exhibits shear-induced concentration fluctuations and coexists with a nearly isotropic band of homogenous, highly viscoelastic micellar solution. Stable, steady banding flow is achieved only after approximately two reptation times. Flow cessation from this shear-banded state is also found to be nontrivial, exhibiting an initial fast relaxation with only minor structural relaxation, followed by a slower relaxation of the aligned micellar fluid with the equilibrium fluid's characteristic relaxation time. These measurements resolve a controversy in the literature surrounding the mechanism of shear banding in entangled wormlike micelles and, by means of comparison to existing literature, provide further insights into the mechanisms driving shear-banding instabilities in related systems. The methods and instrumentation described should find broad use in exploring complex fluid rheology and testing microstructure-based constitutive equations.

  7. Semiconductor laser shearing interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Hai; Li Ming; Chen Nong; Xie Jiaping

    1988-03-01

    The application of semiconductor laser on grating shearing interferometry is studied experimentally in the present paper. The method measuring the coherence of semiconductor laser beam by ion etching double frequency grating is proposed. The experimental result of lens aberration with semiconductor laser shearing interferometer is given. Talbot shearing interferometry of semiconductor laser is also described. (author). 2 refs, 9 figs

  8. On the stability of a rod adhering to a rigid surface: Shear-induced stable adhesion and the instability of peeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Carmel; O'Reilly, Oliver M.; Williams, John A.

    2012-05-01

    Using variational methods, we establish conditions for the nonlinear stability of adhesive states between an elastica and a rigid halfspace. The treatment produces coupled criteria for adhesion and buckling instabilities by exploiting classical techniques from Legendre and Jacobi. Three examples that arise in a broad range of engineered systems, from microelectronics to biologically inspired fiber array adhesion, are used to illuminate the stability criteria. The first example illustrates buckling instabilities in adhered rods, while the second shows the instability of a peeling process and the third illustrates the stability of a shear-induced adhesion. The latter examples can also be used to explain how microfiber array adhesives can be activated by shearing and deactivated by peeling. The nonlinear stability criteria developed in this paper are also compared to other treatments.

  9. Discontinuous Shear Thickening and Dilatancy: Frictional Effects in Viscous Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeffrey

    2015-03-01

    Shear thickening in concentrated suspensions has been well-known for quite a long time, yet a firm consensus on the basis for very abrupt or ``discontinuous'' shear thickening (DST) seen in suspensions of large solid fraction, ϕ, has not been reached. This work addresses the DST phenomenon, and proposes a simulation method based in the Stokesian Dynamics algorithm to explore the role of various forces between the particles, including hydrodynamic, conservative potential, and frictional interactions. This work shows that allowance for friction between spherical particles suspended in a viscous liquid causes a significant reduction in the jamming solid fraction of the mixture, ϕmax, taken as the maximum fraction at which the suspension will flow. A consequence of this is a shifting of the singularity in the effective viscosity, η, to smaller ϕmax, and the frictional suspension has a larger viscosity than does the frictionless suspension of the same solid fraction, as is clear from the standard empirical modeling of η (ϕ) =(1 - ϕ /ϕmax) - α , α ~ 2 . When a counterbalancing repulsive force between the particles, representative for example of charge-induced repulsion, is incorporated in the dynamics, the mixture undergoes a transition from frictionless to frictional interactions, and from low to high effective viscosity, at a critical shear rate. Comparison with experimental data shows remarkable agreement in the features of DST captured by the method. The basic algorithm and results of both rate-controlled and stress-controlled simulations will be presented. Like the shear stress, the magnitude of the normal stress exerted by the suspended particles also increases abruptly at the critical shear rate, consistent with the long-standing notion that dilatancy and shear-thickening are synonymous. We will show that considering all shear thickening materials as dilatant is a misconception, but demonstrate the validity of the connection of dilatancy with DST in

  10. Confirmation of a change in the global shear velocity pattern at around 1000 km depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, S.; Debayle, E.; Ricard, Y.; Zaroli, C.; Lambotte, S.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we confirm the existence of a change in the shear velocity spectrum around 1000 km depth based on a new shear velocity tomographic model of the Earth's mantle, SEISGLOB2. This model is based on Rayleigh surface wave phase velocities, self- and cross-coupling structure coefficients of spheroidal normal modes and body wave traveltimes which are, for the first time, combined in a tomographic inversion. SEISGLOB2 is developed up to spherical harmonic degree 40 and in 21 radial spline functions. The spectrum of SEISGLOB2 is the flattest (i.e. richest in 'short' wavelengths corresponding to spherical harmonic degrees greater than 10) around 1000 km depth and this flattening occurs between 670 and 1500 km depth. We also confirm various changes in the continuity of slabs and mantle plumes all around 1000 km depth where we also observed the upper boundary of Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces. The existence of a flatter spectrum, richer in short-wavelength heterogeneities, in a region of the mid-mantle can have great impacts on our understanding of the mantle dynamics and should thus be better understood in the future. Although a viscosity increase, a phase change or a compositional change can all concur to induce this change of pattern, its precise origin is still very uncertain.

  11. Drop Spreading with Random Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Jensen, Oliver

    2016-11-01

    Airway mucus acts as a barrier to protect the lung. However as a biological material, its physical properties are known imperfectly and can be spatially heterogeneous. In this study we assess the impact of these uncertainties on the rate of spreading of a drop (representing an inhaled aerosol) over a mucus film. We model the film as Newtonian, having a viscosity that depends linearly on the concentration of a passive solute (a crude proxy for mucin proteins). Given an initial random solute (and hence viscosity) distribution, described as a Gaussian random field with a given correlation structure, we seek to quantify the uncertainties in outcomes as the drop spreads. Using lubrication theory, we describe the spreading of the drop in terms of a system of coupled nonlinear PDEs governing the evolution of film height and the vertically-averaged solute concentration. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to predict the variability in the drop centre location and width (1D) or area (2D). We show how simulation results are well described (at much lower computational cost) by a low-order model using a weak disorder expansion. Our results show for example how variability in the drop location is a non-monotonic function of the solute correlation length increases. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

  12. Research Status on Bonding Behavior of Prefabricated Concrete Shear Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Donghui; Liu, Xudong; Wang, Sheng; Li, Shanshan

    2018-03-01

    Prefabricated shear wall structure adapts to the development and requirements of China’s residential industrialization. The key to the prefabricated concrete shear wall structure is the connection between the prefabricated members, where the reliability of the connection of the concrete joint is related to the overall performance and seismic effect of the structure. In this paper, the microstructures of the joint surface and shear properties are analysed, and the formula for calculating the shear strength of the joint is obtained.

  13. NVP melt/magma viscosity: insight on Mercury lava flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Stefano; Morgavi, Daniele; Namur, Olivier; Vetere, Francesco; Perugini, Diego; Mancinelli, Paolo; Pauselli, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    After more than four years of orbiting Mercury, NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft came to an end in late April 2015. MESSENGER has provided many new and surprising results. This session will again highlight the latest results on Mercury based on MESSENGER observations or updated modelling. The session will further address instrument calibration and science performance both retrospective on MESSENGER and on the ESA/JAXA BepiColombo mission. Papers covering additional themes related to Mercury are also welcomed. Please be aware that this session will be held as a PICO session. This will allow an intensive exchange of expertise and experience between the individual instruments and mission. NVP melt/magma viscosity: insight on Mercury lava flows S. Rossi1, D. Morgavi1, O. Namur2, D. Perugini1, F.Vetere1, P. Mancinelli1 and C. Pauselli1 1 Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, piazza Università 1, 06123 Perugia, Italy 2 Uni Hannover Institut für Mineralogie, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Callinstraβe 3, 30167 Hannover, Germany In this contribution we report new measurements of viscosity of synthetic komatitic melts, used the behaviour of silicate melts erupted at the surface of Mercury. Composition of Mercurian surface magmas was calculated using the most recent maps produced from MESSENGER XRS data (Weider et al., 2015). We focused on the northern hemisphere (Northern Volcanic Province, NVP, the largest lava flow on Mercury and possibly in the Solar System) for which the spatial resolution of MESSENGER measurements is high and individual maps of Mg/Si, Ca/Si, Al/Si and S/Si were combined. The experimental starting material contains high Na2O content (≈7 wt.%) that strongly influences viscosity. High temperature viscosity measurements were carried out at 1 atm using a concentric cylinder apparatus equipped with an Anton Paar RheolabQC viscometer head at the Department of Physics and Geology (PVRG_lab) at the University of Perugia (Perugia, Italy

  14. Achievement report for fiscal 1999. Joint verification research on use for power generation of Omani superhigh-viscosity crude oil remaining unexploited; 1999 nendo Oman koku ni okeru miriyo chokonensei gen'yu no denryoku riyo ni kansuru kyodo jissho kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A Mukhaizna oil field remains to be exploited in Oman, with an estimated reserve of 2.4-billion barrels of very heavy oil with an API (American Petroleum Institute) specific gravity of 15.3. The viscosity of the oil is so high as to be over 100-thousand cP (at 15 degrees C). The extremely high viscosity causes its exploitable rate to be so low as 3%, and makes shipment by pipeline quite difficult. In this survey, a method using water emulsion is proposed for viscosity reduction, which aims to reduce the Mukhaizna crude oil viscosity to 200mm2/s or less. In an experiment using the water emulsion method, oil is mixed with water at a rate of 72 to 28 in a shearing mixer for the production of a water emulsion of crude oil. It is found that a certain degree of stability is acquired using a surface active agent available on the market. Using this emulsion method, the crude oil is converted into a power generator fuel with a heating value of 6,775kcal/kg. The crude oil-turned product is a fine fuel superior to Orimulsion which is a fuel of the same type in terms of viscosity, amount of ash, and vanadium concentration. (NEDO)

  15. Achievement report for fiscal 1999. Joint verification research on use for power generation of Omani superhigh-viscosity crude oil remaining unexploited; 1999 nendo Oman koku ni okeru miriyo chokonensei gen'yu no denryoku riyo ni kansuru kyodo jissho kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A Mukhaizna oil field remains to be exploited in Oman, with an estimated reserve of 2.4-billion barrels of very heavy oil with an API (American Petroleum Institute) specific gravity of 15.3. The viscosity of the oil is so high as to be over 100-thousand cP (at 15 degrees C). The extremely high viscosity causes its exploitable rate to be so low as 3%, and makes shipment by pipeline quite difficult. In this survey, a method using water emulsion is proposed for viscosity reduction, which aims to reduce the Mukhaizna crude oil viscosity to 200mm2/s or less. In an experiment using the water emulsion method, oil is mixed with water at a rate of 72 to 28 in a shearing mixer for the production of a water emulsion of crude oil. It is found that a certain degree of stability is acquired using a surface active agent available on the market. Using this emulsion method, the crude oil is converted into a power generator fuel with a heating value of 6,775kcal/kg. The crude oil-turned product is a fine fuel superior to Orimulsion which is a fuel of the same type in terms of viscosity, amount of ash, and vanadium concentration. (NEDO)

  16. Effective viscosity of two-dimensional suspensions: Confinement effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyeux, Vincent; Priem, Stephane; Jibuti, Levan; Farutin, Alexander; Ismail, Mourad; Peyla, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    We study the rheology of a sheared two-dimensional (2D) suspension of non-Brownian disks in the presence of walls. Although it is of course possible today with modern computers and powerful algorithms to perform direct numerical simulations that fully account for multiparticle 3D interactions in the presence of walls, the analysis of the simple case of a 2D suspension provides valuable insights and helps in the understanding of 3D results. Due to the direct visualization of the whole 2D flow (the shear plane), we are able to give a clear interpretation of the full hydrodynamics of semidilute confined suspensions. For instance, we examine the role of disk-wall and disk-disk interactions to determine the dissipation of confined sheared suspensions whose effective viscosity depends on the area fraction ϕ of the disks as ηeff=η0[1 +[η ] ϕ +β ϕ2+O (ϕ3) ] . We provide numerical estimates of [η ] and β for a wide range of confinements. As a benchmark for our simulations, we compare the numerical results obtained for [η ] and β for very weak confinements with analytical values [η] ∞ and β∞ obtained for an infinite fluid. If the value [η] ∞=2 is well known in the literature, much less is published on the value of β . Here we analytically calculate with very high precision β∞=3.6 . We also reexamine the 3D case in the light of our 2D results.

  17. Effects of addition of surfactants on viscosity of uncured ammonium perchlorate(A/P)/hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, M.; Hagihara, Y. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-08-31

    In production of ammonium perchlorate (AP)/hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellants, it is preferable that the uncured propellant has a low viscosity during the mixing and forming processes. In this study, effects of surfacant on viscosity of the uncured propellant are studied for a total of 11 types of surfacants. It is found that sodium lauryl sulfate decreases viscosity of the AP/HTPB mixture more efficiently than any other surfacants tested. Apparent viscosity decreases by 30%, and its optimum dosage will be 0.005wt% based on the mixture to sufficiently decrease viscosity of the mixture. Viscosity of the mixture can be also decreased by improving wettability between AP and HTPB prepolymer. Sodium lauryl sulfate also shows an effect of delaying the potlife, i.e., time extending from addition of a curing agent to a thermosetting resin until it is cured to be unserviceable. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Determination of Viscosity-Average Molecular Weight of Chitosan using Intrinsic Viscosity Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norzita Yacob; Norhashidah Talip; Maznah Mahmud

    2011-01-01

    Molecular weight of chitosan can be determined by different techniques such as Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), Static Light Scattering (SLS) and intrinsic viscosity measurement. Determination of molecular weight by intrinsic viscosity measurement is a simple method for characterization of chitosan. Different concentrations of chitosan were prepared and measurement was done at room temperature. The flow time data was used to calculate the intrinsic viscosity by extrapolating the reduced viscosity to zero concentration. The value of intrinsic viscosity was then recalculated into the viscosity-average molecular weight using Mark-Houwink equation. (author)

  19. Variation of velocity profile according to blood viscosity in a microfluidic channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Eunseop; Kang, Yang Jun; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2014-11-01

    The shear-thinning effect of blood flows is known to change blood viscosity. Since blood viscosity and motion of red blood cells (RBCs) are closely related, hemorheological variations have a strong influence on hemodynamic characteristics. Therefore, understanding on the relationship between the hemorheological and hemodynamic properties is importance for getting more detailed information on blood circulation in microvessels. In this study, the blood viscosity and velocity profiles in a microfluidic channel were systematically investigated. Rat blood was delivered in the microfluidic device which can measure blood viscosity by monitoring the flow-switching phenomenon. Velocity profiles of blood flows in the microchannel were measured by using a micro-particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. Shape of velocity profiles measured at different flow rates was quantified by using a curve-fitting equation. It was observed that the shape of velocity profiles is highly correlated with blood viscosity. The study on the relation between blood viscosity and velocity profile would be helpful to understand the roles of hemorheological and hemodynamic properties in cardiovascular diseases. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea Government (MSIP) (No. 2008-0061991).

  20. VISCOSITY DICTATES METABOLIC ACTIVITY of Vibrio ruber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja eBoric

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about metabolic activity of bacteria, when viscosity of their environment changes. In this work, bacterial metabolic activity in media with viscosity ranging from 0.8 to 29.4 mPas was studied. Viscosities up to 2.4 mPas did not affect metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber. On the other hand, at 29.4 mPas respiration rate and total dehydrogenase activity increased 8 and 4-fold, respectively. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase increased up to 13-fold at higher viscosities. However, intensified metabolic activity did not result in faster growth rate. Increased viscosity delayed the onset as well as the duration of biosynthesis of prodigiosin. As an adaptation to viscous environment V. ruber increased metabolic flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and reduced synthesis of a secondary metabolite. In addition, V. ruber was able to modify the viscosity of its environment.

  1. Viscosity in Modified Gravity 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iver Brevik

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A bulk viscosity is introduced in the formalism of modified gravity. It is shownthat, based on a natural scaling law for the viscosity, a simple solution can be found forquantities such as the Hubble parameter and the energy density. These solutions mayincorporate a viscosity-induced Big Rip singularity. By introducing a phase transition inthe cosmic fluid, the future singularity can nevertheless in principle be avoided. 

  2. VISCOSITY TEST OF VEHICLE ENGINE OILS

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Prasetyowati

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the value of the kinematic viscosity lubricants motorcycle that has been used at various temperatures and the use of distance. This study also aims to remedy mengtahui how the value of the kinematic viscosity of the lubricant car that has been used in a wide range of temperature variation and distance usage. Viscosity liquid, in this case is the lubricants, can be determined using the Redwood viscometer By using Redwood viscometer, can be measured flow time requir...

  3. The influence of grinding oil viscosity on grinding heat and burn damage in creep-feed grinding{copyright}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen-Change Liu [Shandong Univ. of Technology, Jinan (China); Abe, Satoshi; Noda, Masahiro [Yushiro Chemical Industry Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1995-08-01

    Grinding oils are widely used in precision grinding, such as tool grinding, thread grinding and gear grinding, during which processes grinding burn is the most prevalent damage affecting the integrity of ground surface. This paper discusses the influence of oil viscosity on grinding heat and burn damage in creep-feed-grinding. Experimental results indicated that, under lighter grinding conditions, the effects of oil viscosity was not observed, but under heavy grinding conditions grinding burn occurred when using low viscosity oil. When the viscosity of the oil was increased, grinding heat and burn damage tended to be reduced. As the viscosity was increased to a certain level, grinding burn reduction, by further increasing the viscosity, became less while other problems such as much higher oil pump noise and reduced oil flow occurred. It is clear that a viscosity limit exists for given grinding conditions. 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Increases in core temperature counterbalance effects of haemoconcentration on blood viscosity during prolonged exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Michael J; Krippes, Taylor; Kolkhorst, Fred W; Williams, Alexander T; Cabrales, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of exercise-induced haemoconcentration and hyperthermia on blood viscosity. What is the main finding and its importance? Exercise-induced haemoconcentration, increased plasma viscosity and increased blood aggregation, all of which increased blood viscosity, were counterbalanced by increased red blood cell (RBC) deformability (e.g. RBC membrane shear elastic modulus and elongation index) caused by the hyperthermia. Thus, blood viscosity remained unchanged following prolonged moderate-intensity exercise in the heat. Previous studies have reported that blood viscosity is significantly increased following exercise. However, these studies measured both pre- and postexercise blood viscosity at 37 °C even though core and blood temperatures would be expected to have increased during the exercise. Consequently, the effect of exercise-induced hyperthermia on mitigating change in blood viscosity may have been missed. The purpose of this study was to isolate the effects of exercise-induced haemoconcentration and hyperthermia and to determine their combined effects on blood viscosity. Nine subjects performed 2 h of moderate-intensity exercise in the heat (37 °C, 40% relative humidity), which resulted in significant increases from pre-exercise values for rectal temperature (from 37.11 ± 0.35 to 38.76 ± 0.13 °C), haemoconcentration (haematocrit increased from 43.6 ± 3.6 to 45.6 ± 3.5%) and dehydration (change in body weight = -3.6 ± 0.7%). Exercise-induced haemoconcentration significantly (P blood viscosity by 9% (from 3.97 to 4.33 cP at 300 s(-1)), whereas exercise-induced hyperthermia significantly decreased blood viscosity by 7% (from 3.97 to 3.69 cP at 300 s(-1)). When both factors were considered together, there was no overall change in blood viscosity (from 3.97 to 4.03 cP at 300 s(-1)). The effects of exercise-induced haemoconcentration, increased plasma

  5. A comparative study of shear bond strength of orthodontic bracket after acid-etched and Er:YAG treatment on enamel surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Juliana C.; Mota, Cláudia C. B. O.; Cassimiro-silva, Patricia F.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of teeth prepared for orthodontic bracket bonding with 37% phosphoric acid and Er:YAG laser. Forty bovine incisors were divided into two groups. In Group I, the teeth were conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid and brackets were bonded with Transbond XT; in Group II, the teeth were irradiated with Er:YAG and bonding with Transbond XT. After SBS test, the adhesive remnant index was determined. Adhesion to dental hard tissues after Er:YAG laser etching was inferior to that obtained after acid etching but exceeded what is believed to be clinically sufficient strength, and therefore can be used in patients.

  6. On the viscosity of two 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium ionic liquids: effect of the temperature and pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaciño, Félix M.; Comuñas, María J.P.; Regueira Muñiz, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    to measure viscosities as a function of temperature and pressure fortwo ionic liquids (ILs): 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphateand 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate.Besides, we have measured the flow curves at pressures up to 75 MPa and shear rates up...

  7. The experimental viscosity and calculated relative viscosity of liquid In-Sn allcoys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, A.Q.; Guo, L.J.; Liu, C.S.; Jia, E.G.; Zhu, Z.G.

    2007-01-01

    The experimental measured viscosity of liquid pure Sn, In 20 Sn 80 and In 80 Sn 20 alloys was studied, and to make a comparison, the calculated relative viscosity based on the pair distribution functions, g(r), has also been studied. There is one peak in each experimental viscosity and calculated relative-viscosity curve of liquid pure Sn about 1000 deg. C. One valley appears in each experimental viscosity and calculated viscosity curve of liquid In 20 Sn 80 alloy about 700 deg. C. There is no abnormal behavior on In 80 Sn 20 alloy. The behavior of experimental viscosity and calculated relative viscosity is coincident with each other. Those results conformed that the temperature-induced structure anomalies reported before did take place

  8. Formation of structural steady states in lamellar/sponge phase-separating fluids under shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, P.; Courbin, L.; Cristobal, G.; Rouch, J.; Narayanan, T.

    2003-05-01

    We investigate the effect of shear flow on a lamellar-sponge phase-separating fluid when subjected to shear flow. We show the existence of two different steady states (droplets and ribbons structures) whose nature does not depend on the way to reach the two-phase unstable region of the phase diagram (temperature quench or stirring). The transition between ribbons and droplets is shear thickening and its nature strongly depends on what dynamical variable is imposed. If the stress is fixed, flow visualization shows the existence of shear bands at the transition, characteristic of coexistence in the cell between ribbons and droplets. In this shear-banding region, the viscosity oscillates. When the shear rate is fixed, no shear bands are observed. Instead, the transition exhibits a hysteretic behavior leading to a structural bi-stability of the phase-separating fluid under flow.

  9. Non-Newtonian behavior and molecular structure of Cooee bitumen under shear flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Bailey, Nicholas; Daivis, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The rheology and molecular structure of a model bitumen (Cooee bitumen) under shear are investigated in the non-Newtonian regime using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The shear viscosity, normal stress differences, and pressure of the bitumen mixture are computed at different shear...... rates and different temperatures. The model bitumen is shown to be a shear-thinning fluid at all temperatures. In addition, the Cooee model is able to reproduce experimental results showing the formation of nanoaggregates composed of stacks of flat aromatic molecules in bitumen. These nanoaggregates...

  10. The effect of refining step on the changes in viscosity values of vegetable oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergonul, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the viscosity values of chemically refined vegetable oils (sunflower, corn, soybean and rapeseed) and physically refined vegetable oils (olive and palm) were determined during refining processes. At this point of view, fatty acid compositions and viscosity values of oil samples were determined. The edible vegetable oils presented Newtonian behavior in shear rates at ranges 6.28-20.93 s/sup -1/. It was observed that palm oil is more viscous than the others. During physical refining, the effect of both oil type and refining steps were significantly important, whereas in chemical refining only the effect of oil type was found statistically important (p<0.01). It was observed that correlation among fatty acid compositions and viscosity values of the samples showed differences according to oil type. (author)

  11. An evaluation of the pressure-dependent melt viscosity of Polyphenylsulfone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláček, T.; Hausnerová, B.; Filip, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2014), s. 711-715 ISSN 0032-3888 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/08/1307 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0111 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : polyphenysulfone * shear viscosity * PVT behaviour Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.520, year: 2014

  12. IMAGE ANALYSIS FOR MODELLING SHEAR BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lopez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Through laboratory research performed over the past ten years, many of the critical links between fracture characteristics and hydromechanical and mechanical behaviour have been made for individual fractures. One of the remaining challenges at the laboratory scale is to directly link fracture morphology of shear behaviour with changes in stress and shear direction. A series of laboratory experiments were performed on cement mortar replicas of a granite sample with a natural fracture perpendicular to the axis of the core. Results show that there is a strong relationship between the fracture's geometry and its mechanical behaviour under shear stress and the resulting damage. Image analysis, geostatistical, stereological and directional data techniques are applied in combination to experimental data. The results highlight the role of geometric characteristics of the fracture surfaces (surface roughness, size, shape, locations and orientations of asperities to be damaged in shear behaviour. A notable improvement in shear understanding is that shear behaviour is controlled by the apparent dip in the shear direction of elementary facets forming the fracture.

  13. A Study of Nonlinear Variable Viscosity in Finite-Length Tube with Peristalsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Abd Elmaboud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peristaltic motion of an incompressible Newtonian fluid with variable viscosity induced by periodic sinusoidal traveling wave propagating along the walls of a finite-length tube has been investigated. A perturbation method of solution is sought. The viscosity parameter α (α << 1 is chosen as a perturbation parameter and the governing equations are developed up to the first-order in the viscosity parameter (α. The analytical solution has been derived for the radial velocity at the tube wall, the axial pressure gradient across the length of the tube, and the wall shear stress under the assumption of low Reynolds number and long wavelength approximation. The impacts of physical parameters such as the viscosity and the parameter determining the shape of the constriction on the pressure distribution and on the wall shear stress for integral and non-integral number of waves are illustrated. The main conclusion that can be drawn out of this study is that the peaks of pressure fluctuate with time and attain different values with non-integral numbers of peristaltic waves. The considered problem is very applicable in study of biological flow and industrial flow.

  14. Comparison between apparent viscosity related to irradiation dose for corn starch and black pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casandroiu, T.; Oprita, N.; Ferdes, O.S.

    1999-01-01

    Dose-effect relationship was studied in the rheoviscometric behaviour of geliffied suspensions of irradiated corn starch and black pepper, as the variation of the apparent viscosity and the shear stress related to the dose. Irradiation has been performed up to 16 kGy. Black pepper was ground and sieved to three particle sizes to analyse also the influence of particle size on the apparent viscosity variation by dose. The rheoviscometric measurements have been carried out by a rotationary viscometer on geliffied suspensions of starch and black pepper, into equivalent starch concentration and alkalinised suspensions for pepper. For starch, shear stress variation by dose is exponential, where the coefficients depend on the shear rate. For black pepper, the curves of apparent viscosity relation to dose also fit an exponential equation and the influence of particle size is discussed, too. Viscometric behaviour similar to irradiation of both corn starch and black pepper could be attributed to starch degradation at relatively high doses and should be used to develop an identification and control method for the ionizing treatment of starch-based food materials. (author)

  15. On the bulk viscosity of relativistic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, V.; Hsieh, S.-H.

    1978-01-01

    An expression for the bulk viscosity coefficient in terms of the trace of the hydrodynamic energy-stress tensor is derived from the Kubo formula. This, along with a field-theoretic model of an interacting system of scalar particles, suggests that at high temperatures the bulk viscosity tends to zero, contrary to the often quoted resuls of Iso, Mori and Namiki. (author)

  16. Bulk-viscosity-driven asymmetric inflationary universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waga, I.; Lima, J.A.S.; Portugal, R.

    1987-01-01

    A primordial net bosinic charge is introduced in the context of the bulk-viscosity-driven inflationary models. The analysis is carried through a macroscopic point of view in the framework of the causal thermodynamic theory. The conditions for having exponetial and generalized inflation are obtained. A phenomenological expression for the bulk viscosity coefficient is also derived. (author) [pt

  17. Bioinspired superhydrophobic surfaces, fabricated through simple and scalable roll-to-roll processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Sangeui; Moreira, David; Bandaru, Prabhakar R; Han, InTaek; Yun, Dong-Jin

    2015-10-22

    A simple, scalable, non-lithographic, technique for fabricating durable superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces, based on the fingering instabilities associated with non-Newtonian flow and shear tearing, has been developed. The high viscosity of the nanotube/elastomer paste has been exploited for the fabrication. The fabricated SH surfaces had the appearance of bristled shark skin and were robust with respect to mechanical forces. While flow instability is regarded as adverse to roll-coating processes for fabricating uniform films, we especially use the effect to create the SH surface. Along with their durability and self-cleaning capabilities, we have demonstrated drag reduction effects of the fabricated films through dynamic flow measurements.

  18. Line Crack Subject to Antiplane Shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    shear is obtained for the initiation of fracture. If the concept of the surface tension is usedone is able to calculate the cohesive stress for brittle ...Expression of the Griffith -racture criterion for brittle fracture. We have arrived at this result via the maximum shear-stress hypothesis, rather than...Crescent Beach Road, Glen Cove Prof. G.S. Heller Long Island, New York 11542 Division of Engineering Brown University Prof. Daniel

  19. RheoSAXS studies of anisotropic complex fluids under shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J P de; Petermann, D; Kasmi, B; Imperor-Clerc, M; Davidson, P; Pansu, B; Meneau, F; Perez, J; Paineau, E; Bihannic, I; Michot, L J; Baravian, C

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the application of in-situ rheological small angle X-ray scattering experiments to the study of complex fluids under shear, implemented using custom Couette cylinder rheometers mounted on the SWING beamline of the SOLEIL Synchrotron. We discuss several applications of this technique to the study of phase transitions in nanoparticle doped liquid crystals and shear alignment of clay suspensions. The concurrent capture of rheological and scattering data provides vital information that relates macroscopic properties such as viscosity to the microstructure of the fluid.

  20. The Friction Theory for Viscosity Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisneros, Sergio; Zeberg-Mikkelsen, Claus Kjær; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2001-01-01

    , in the case when experimental information is available a more accurate modeling can be obtained by means of a simple tuning procedure. A tuned f-theory general model can deliver highly accurate viscosity modeling above the saturation pressure and good prediction of the liquid-phase viscosity at pressures......In this work the one-parameter friction theory (f-theory) general models have been extended to the viscosity prediction and modeling of characterized oils. It is demonstrated that these simple models, which take advantage of the repulsive and attractive pressure terms of cubic equations of state...... such as the SRK, PR and PRSV, can provide accurate viscosity prediction and modeling of characterized oils. In the case of light reservoir oils, whose properties are close to those of normal alkanes, the one-parameter f-theory general models can predict the viscosity of these fluids with good accuracy. Yet...

  1. Origins of the anomalous stress behavior in charged colloidal suspensions under shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Higdon, Jonathan J L

    2010-11-01

    Numerical simulations are conducted to determine microstructure and rheology of sheared suspensions of charged colloidal particles at a volume fraction of ϕ=0.33. Over broad ranges of repulsive force strength F0 and Péclet number Pe, dynamic simulations show coexistence of ordered and disordered stable states with the state dependent on the initial condition. In contrast to the common view, at low shear rates, the disordered phase exhibits a lower viscosity (μ(r)) than the ordered phase, while this behavior is reversed at higher shear rates. Analysis shows the stress reversal is associated with different shear induced microstructural distortions in the ordered and disordered systems. Viscosity vs shear rate data over a wide range of F0 and Pe collapses well upon rescaling with the long-time self-diffusivity. Shear thinning viscosity in the ordered phase scaled as μ(r)∼Pe(-0.81) at low shear rates. The microstructural dynamics revealed in these studies explains the anomalous behavior and hysteresis loops in stress data reported in the literature.

  2. Lattice Boltzmann modeling of contact angle and its hysteresis in two-phase flow with large viscosity difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haihu; Ju, Yaping; Wang, Ningning; Xi, Guang; Zhang, Yonghao

    2015-09-01

    Contact angle hysteresis is an important physical phenomenon omnipresent in nature and various industrial processes, but its effects are not considered in many existing multiphase flow simulations due to modeling complexity. In this work, a multiphase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is developed to simulate the contact-line dynamics with consideration of the contact angle hysteresis for a broad range of kinematic viscosity ratios. In this method, the immiscible two-phase flow is described by a color-fluid model, in which the multiple-relaxation-time collision operator is adopted to increase numerical stability and suppress unphysical spurious currents at the contact line. The contact angle hysteresis is introduced using the strategy proposed by Ding and Spelt [Ding and Spelt, J. Fluid Mech. 599, 341 (2008)JFLSA70022-112010.1017/S0022112008000190], and the geometrical wetting boundary condition is enforced to obtain the desired contact angle. This method is first validated by simulations of static contact angle and dynamic capillary intrusion process on ideal (smooth) surfaces. It is then used to simulate the dynamic behavior of a droplet on a nonideal (inhomogeneous) surface subject to a simple shear flow. When the droplet remains pinned on the surface due to hysteresis, the steady interface shapes of the droplet quantitatively agree well with the previous numerical results. Four typical motion modes of contact points, as observed in a recent study, are qualitatively reproduced with varying advancing and receding contact angles. The viscosity ratio is found to have a notable impact on the droplet deformation, breakup, and hysteresis behavior. Finally, this method is extended to simulate the droplet breakup in a microfluidic T junction, with one half of the wall surface ideal and the other half nonideal. Due to the contact angle hysteresis, the droplet asymmetrically breaks up into two daughter droplets with the smaller one in the nonideal branch channel, and the

  3. Determination of viscosity-average molecular weight of chitosan using intrinsic viscosity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norzita Yacob; Norhashidah Talip; Maznah Mahmud; Nurul Aizam Idayu Mat Sani; Nor Akma Samsuddin; Norafifah Ahmad Fabillah

    2013-01-01

    Determination of molecular weight by intrinsic viscosity measurement is a simple method for characterization of chitosan. To study the effect of radiation on molecular weight, chitosan was first irradiated using electron beam at different doses prior to measurement. Different concentrations of chitosan were prepared and measurement was done at room temperature. The flow time data was used to calculate the intrinsic viscosity by extrapolating the reduced viscosity to zero concentration. The value of intrinsic viscosity was then recalculated into the viscosity-average molecular weight using Mark-Houwink equation. (Author)

  4. Effect of magnetic field on thermal conductivity and viscosity of a magnetic nanofluid loaded with carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahsavar, Amin [Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salimpour, Mohammad Reza; Saghafian, Mohsen [Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shafii, M. B. [Sharif University of Technology, Tehran(Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The present work examines experimentally the effect of magnetic field on the viscosity and thermal conductivity of a hybrid nanofluid containing tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and Gum arabic (GA) coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The hybrid nanofluid was prepared by using ultrasonic dispersion method. Magnetic field was created by a pair of spaced apart magnet plates. The effect of temperature on the time variation of thermal conductivity under applied magnetic field was also investigated. According to the results of this study, viscosity of the hybrid nanofluid increases with the strength of magnetic field, while it decreases with the increase of temperature. Additionally, it is found that the hybrid nanofluid behaves as a shear thinning fluid at low shear rates while it exhibits Newtonian behavior at high shear rates. Furthermore, results show that when an external magnetic field is applied to the studied magnetic nanofluids, the thermal conductivity experiences a peak.

  5. Eruptive viscosity and volcano morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posin, S.B.; Greeley, R.

    1988-01-01

    Terrestrial central volcanoes formed predominantly from lava flows were classified as shields, stratovolcanoes, and domes. Shield volcanoes tend to be large in areal extent, have convex slopes, and are characterized by their resemblance to inverted hellenic war shields. Stratovolcanoes have concave slopes, whereas domes are smaller and have gentle convex slopes near the vent that increase near the perimeter. In addition to these differences in morphology, several other variations were observed. The most important is composition: shield volcanoes tend to be basaltic, stratovolcanoes tend to be andesitic, and domes tend to be dacitic. However, important exceptions include Fuji, Pico, Mayon, Izalco, and Fuego which have stratovolcano morphologies but are composed of basaltic lavas. Similarly, Ribkwo is a Kenyan shield volcano composed of trachyte and Suswa and Kilombe are shields composed of phonolite. These exceptions indicate that eruptive conditions, rather than composition, may be the primary factors that determine volcano morphology. The objective of this study is to determine the relationships, if any, between eruptive conditions (viscosity, erupted volume, and effusion rate) and effusive volcano morphology. Moreover, it is the goal of this study to incorporate these relationships into a model to predict the eruptive conditions of extraterrestrial (Martian) volcanoes based on their morphology

  6. Weakly sheared active suspensions: hydrodynamics, stability, and rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhenlu

    2011-03-01

    We present a kinetic model for flowing active suspensions and analyze the behavior of a suspension subjected to a weak steady shear. Asymptotic solutions are sought in Deborah number expansions. At the leading order, we explore the steady states and perform their stability analysis. We predict the rheology of active systems including an activity thickening or thinning behavior of the apparent viscosity and a negative apparent viscosity depending on the particle type, flow alignment, and the anchoring conditions, which can be tested on bacterial suspensions. We find remarkable dualities that show that flow-aligning rodlike contractile (extensile) particles are dynamically and rheologically equivalent to flow-aligning discoid extensile (contractile) particles for both tangential and homeotropic anchoring conditions. Another key prediction of this work is the role of the concentration of active suspensions in controlling the rheological behavior: the apparent viscosity may decrease with the increase of the concentration.

  7. The calculation of viscosity of liquid n-decane and n-hexadecane by the Green-Kubo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, S. T.; Cummings, P. T.; Cochran, H. D.

    This short commentary presents the result of long molecular dynamics simulation calculations of the shear viscosity of liquid n-decane and n-hexadecane using the Green-Kubo integration method. The relaxation time of the stress-stress correlation function is compared with those of rotation and diffusion. The rotational and diffusional relaxation times, which are easy to calculate, provide useful guides for the required simulation time in viscosity calculations. Also, the computational time required for viscosity calculations of these systems by the Green-Kubo method is compared with the time required for previous non-equilibrium molecular dynamics calculations of the same systems. The method of choice for a particular calculation is determined largely by the properties of interest, since the efficiencies of the two methods are comparable for calculation of the zero strain rate viscosity.

  8. Universal behaviour of silica suspensions gelled under shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanley, H J M; Muzny, C D; Bartlett, J; Drabarek, E

    2007-01-01

    The shear-influenced gelation of three aqueous suspensions consisting of silica particles of nominal diameter 7, 12 and 24 nm, respectively, is reported. It is shown that the viscosity/stress of a gelling system increases with time after gel initiation, reaches a maximum, then falls to a plateau value. A very simple relation between this maximum stress and the precursor volume fraction is verified experimentally

  9. Triglyceride glucose index and common carotid wall shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripolino, Cesare; Irace, Concetta; Scavelli, Faustina B; de Franceschi, Maria S; Esposito, Teresa; Carallo, Claudio; Gnasso, Agostino

    2014-02-01

    Alterations in wall shear stress contribute to both clinical and subclinical atherosclerosis. Several conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity can impair shear stress, but the role of insulin resistance has never been investigated. The present study was designed to investigate whether insulin resistance assessed by TyG Index associates with wall shear stress in the common carotid artery. One hundred six individuals were enrolled. Blood pressure, lipids, glucose, and cigarette smoking were evaluated. TyG Index was calculated as log[fasting triglycerides × fasting glucose / 2]. Subjects underwent blood viscosity measurement and echo-Doppler evaluation of carotid arteries to calculate wall shear stress. The association between TyG Index and carotid wall shear stress was assessed by simple and multiple regression analyses. TyG Index was significantly and inversely associated with carotid wall shear stress both in simple (r = -0.44, P glucose greater than 100 mg/dL, and triglycerides greater than 150 mg/dL. The present findings suggest that increasing insulin resistance, as assessed by TyG Index, associates with atherosclerosis-prone shear stress reduction in the common carotid artery.

  10. Excessive Additive Effect On Engine Oil Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Kumbár

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is excessive additive (for oil filling effect on engine oil dynamic viscosity. Research is focused to commercially distribute automotive engine oil with viscosity class 15W–40 designed for vans. There were prepared blends of new and used engine oil without and with oil additive in specific ratio according manufacturer’s recommendations. Dynamic viscosity of blends with additive was compared with pure new and pure used engine oil. The temperature dependence dynamic viscosity of samples was evaluated by using rotary viscometer with standard spindle. Concern was that the oil additive can moves engine oil of several viscosity grades up. It is able to lead to failure in the engine. Mathematical models were used for fitting experimental values of dynamic viscosity. Exponential fit function was selected, which was very accurate because the coefficient of determination R2 achieved high values (0.98–0.99. These models are able to predict viscosity behaviour blends of engine oil and additive.

  11. A mathematical model for the movement of food bolus of varying viscosities through the esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Dharmendra

    2011-09-01

    This mathematical model is designed to study the influence of viscosity on swallowing of food bolus through the esophagus. Food bolus is considered as viscous fluid with variable viscosity. Geometry of esophagus is assumed as finite length channel and flow is induced by peristaltic wave along the length of channel walls. The expressions for axial velocity, transverse velocity, pressure gradient, volume flow rate and stream function are obtained under the assumptions of long wavelength and low Reynolds number. The impacts of viscosity parameter on pressure distribution, local wall shear stress, mechanical efficiency and trapping are numerically discussed with the help of computational results. On the basis of presented study, it is revealed that swallowing of low viscous fluids through esophagus requires less effort in comparison to fluids of higher viscosity. This result is similar to the experimental result obtained by Raut et al. [1], Dodds [2] and Ren et al. [3]. It is further concluded that the pumping efficiency increases while size of trapped bolus reduces when viscosity of fluid is high.

  12. Predicting the viscosity of digesta from the physical characteristics of particle suspensions using existing rheological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardacre, Allan K; Lentle, Roger G; Yap, Sia-Yen; Monro, John A

    2018-05-01

    The measurement of the viscosity of digesta is complicated by settling and compositional changes that accompany digestion. The current work determined whether the apparent and relative viscosities ( η a and η r ) of digesta could be accurately determined from the actual and maximum solid volume fractions ( ϕ and ϕ max , respectively) using the Maron-Pierce equation. The rheological properties of digesta from the small intestine of six pigs were determined at a shear rate of 1 s -1 at 37°C. A series of suspensions of plant fibre in a Newtonian liquid (70% aqueous fructose) were made at viscosities similar to pig digesta by adjusting ϕ The relationships between the apparent and relative viscosities ( η a and η r ) and the plant fibre properties; aspect ratio (AR) and ϕ and ϕ max were then determined for digesta and the suspensions. The ARs for the digesta and plant fibre particles were determined using image analysis of scanning electron micrographs and η a from rheometric flow curves at 37°C, ϕ from image analysis and gas pycnometry, and ϕ max from AR and suspension viscosity. The η r of pig digesta and the test suspensions calculated using the Maron-Pierce equation were, with the exception of two outliers, in proportion with η a determined using a rheometer, indicating that η r could be successfully predicted from the Maron-Pierce equation. © 2018 The Author(s).

  13. Time resolved investigations on flow field and quasi wall shear stress of an impingement configuration with pulsating jets by means of high speed PIV and a surface hot wire array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janetzke, Timm; Nitsche, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    The effects of jet pulsation on flow field and quasi wall shear stress of an impingement configuration were investigated experimentally. The excitation Strouhal number and amplitude were varied as the most influential parameters. A line-array with three submerged air jets, and a confining plate were used. The flow field analysis by means of time resolved particle image velocimetry shows that the controlled excitation can considerably affect the near-field flow of an impinging jet array. These effects are visualized as organization of the coherent flow structures. Augmentation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices in the jet shear layer depends on the Strouhal number and pulsation magnitude and can be associated with pairing of small scale vortices in the jet. A total maximum of vortex strength was observed when exciting with Sr = 0.82 and coincident high amplitudes. Time resolved interaction between impinging vortices and impingement plate boundary layer due to jet excitation was verified by using an array of 5 μm surface hot wires. Corresponding to the global flow field modification due to periodic jet pulsation, the impact of the vortex rings on the wall boundary layer is highly influenced by the above mentioned excitation parameters and reaches a maximum at Sr = 0.82.

  14. Viscosity of particulate soap films: approaching the jamming of 2D capillary suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timounay, Yousra; Rouyer, Florence

    2017-05-14

    We compute the effective viscosity of particulate soap films thanks to local velocity fields obtained by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) during film retraction experiments. We identify the jamming of these 2D capillary suspensions at a critical particle surface fraction (≃0.84) where effective viscosity diverges. Pair correlation function and number of neighbors in contact or close to contact reveal the cohesive nature of this 2D capillary granular media. The experimental 2D dynamic viscosities can be predicted by a model considering viscous dissipation at the liquid interfaces induced by the motion of individual particles.

  15. INCREASES IN CORE TEMPERATURE COUNTERBALANCE EFFECTS OF HEMOCONCENTRATION ON BLOOD VISCOSITY DURING PROLONGED EXERCISE IN THE HEAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Michael J.; Krippes, Taylor; Kolkhorst, Fred W.; Williams, Alexander T.; Cabrales, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that blood viscosity is significantly increased following exercise. However, these studies measured both pre- and post-exercise blood viscosity at 37 °C even though core and blood temperatures would be expected to have increased during the exercise. Consequently, the effect of exercise-induced hyperthermia on mitigating change in blood viscosity may have been missed. The purpose of this study was to isolate the effects of exercise-induced hemoconcentration and hyperthermia, as well as determine their combined effects, on blood viscosity. Nine subjects performed 2 h of moderate-intensity exercise in the heat (37 °C, 40% rH), which resulted in significant increases from pre-exercise values for rectal temperature (37.11 ± 0.35 °C to 38.76 ± 0.13 °C), hemoconcentration (hematocrit = 43.6 ± 3.6% to 45.6 ± 3.5%), and dehydration (Δbody weight = −3.6 ± 0.7%). Exercise-induced hemoconcentration significantly (P viscosity by 9% (3.97 to 4.30 cP at 300 s−1) while exercise-induced hyperthermia significantly decreased blood viscosity by 7% (3.97 to 3.70 cP at 300 s−1). However, when both factors were considered together, there was no overall change in blood viscosity (3.97 to 4.03 cP at 300 s−1). The effects of exercise-induced hemoconcentration, increased plasma viscosity, and increased red blood cell aggregation, all of which increased blood viscosity, were counterbalanced by increased RBC deformability (e.g., RBC membrane shear elastic modulus and elongation index) caused by the hyperthermia. Thus, blood viscosity remained unchanged following prolonged moderate-intensity exercise in the heat. PMID:26682653

  16. Buoyant miscible displacement flow of shear-thinning fluids: Experiments and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale Etrati Khosroshahi, Seyed Ali; Frigaard, Ian

    2017-11-01

    We study displacement flow of two miscible fluids with density and viscosity contrast in an inclined pipe. Our focus is mainly on displacements where transverse mixing is not significant and thus a two-layer, stratified flow develops. Our experiments are carried out in a long pipe, covering a wide range of flow-rates, inclination angles and viscosity ratios. Density and viscosity contrasts are achieved by adding Glycerol and Xanthan gum to water, respectively. At each angle, flow rate and viscosity ratio are varied and density contrast is fixed. We identify and map different flow regimes, instabilities and front dynamics based on Fr , Re / Frcosβ and viscosity ratio m. The problem is also studied numerically to get a better insight into the flow structure and shear-thinning effects. Numerical simulations are completed using OpenFOAM in both pipe and channel geometries and are compared against the experiments. Schlumberger, NSERC.

  17. Bulk viscosity in holographic Lifshitz hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyos, Carlos; Kim, Bom Soo; Oz, Yaron

    2014-01-01

    We compute the bulk viscosity in holographic models dual to theories with Lifshitz scaling and/or hyperscaling violation, using a generalization of the bulk viscosity formula derived in arXiv:1103.1657 from the null focusing equation. We find that only a class of models with massive vector fields are truly Lifshitz scale invariant, and have a vanishing bulk viscosity. For other holographic models with scalars and/or massless vector fields we find a universal formula in terms of the dynamical exponent and the hyperscaling violation exponent

  18. Rapid viscosity measurements of powdered thermosetting resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, H. L.; Burks, H. D.; Dalal, S. K.

    1978-01-01

    A rapid and inexpensive method of obtaining processing-related data on powdered thermosetting resins has been investigated. The method involved viscosity measurements obtained with a small specimen (less than 100 mg) parallel plate plastometer. A data acquisition and reduction system was developed which provided a value of viscosity and strain rate about 12-13 second intervals during a test. The effects of specimen compaction pressure and reduction of adhesion between specimen and parallel plates were examined. The plastometer was used to measure some processing-related viscosity changes of an addition polyimide resin, including changes caused by pre-test heat treatment, test temperature, and strain rate.

  19. Viscosity of liquid sulfur under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasaki, Hidenori; Kato, T; Funakoshi, K; Suzuki, A; Urakawa, S

    2004-01-01

    The viscosity of liquid sulfur up to 9.7 GPa and 1067 K was measured using the in situ x-ray radiography falling sphere method. The viscosity coefficients were found to range from 0.11 to 0.69 Pa s, and decreased continuously with increasing pressure under approximately constant homologous temperature conditions. The observed viscosity variation suggests that a gradual structural change occurs in liquid sulfur with pressure up to 10 GPa. The L-L' transition in liquid sulfur proposed by Brazhkin et al (1991 Phys. Lett. A 154 413) from thermobaric measurements has not been confirmed by the present viscometry

  20. High strength semi-active energy absorbers using shear- and mixedmode operation at high shear rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becnel, Andrew C.

    crew seat. Characterization tests were carried out on the LMEAS using a 40 vol% MRF used in the previous magnetorheometer tests. These were analyzed using both flow curves and apparent viscosity vs. Mason number diagrams. The nondimensionalized Mason number analysis resulted in data for all conditions of temperature, fluid composition, and shear rate, to collapse onto a single characteristic or master curve. Significantly, the temperature corrected Mason number results from both the bench top magnetorheometer and full scale rotary vane MREA collapse to the same master curve. This enhances the ability of designers of MRFs and MREAs to safely and effectively apply characterization data collected in low shear rate, controlled temperature environments to operational environments that may be completely different. Finally, the Searle cell magnetorheometer was modified with an enforced eccentricity to work in both squeeze and shear modes simultaneously to achieve so called squeeze strengthening of the working MRF, thereby increasing the apparent yield stress and the specific energy absorption. By squeezing the active MR fluid, particles undergo compression-assisted aggregation into stronger, more robust columns which resist shear better than single chains. A hybrid model describing the squeeze strengthening behavior is developed, and recommendations are made for using squeeze strengthening to improve practical MREA devices.

  1. Comparison of the surface wave method and the indentation method for measuring the elasticity of gelatin phantoms of different concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Qiang, Bo; Greenleaf, James

    2011-02-01

    The speed of the surface Rayleigh wave, which is related to the viscoelastic properties of the medium, can be measured by noninvasive and noncontact methods. This technique has been applied in biomedical applications such as detecting skin diseases. Static spherical indentation, which quantifies material elasticity through the relationship between loading force and displacement, has been applied in various areas including a number of biomedical applications. This paper compares the results obtained from these two methods on five gelatin phantoms of different concentrations (5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15%). The concentrations are chosen because the elasticity of such gelatin phantoms is close to that of tissue types such as skin. The results show that both the surface wave method and the static spherical indentation method produce the same values for shear elasticity. For example, the shear elasticities measured by the surface wave method are 1.51, 2.75, 5.34, 6.90 and 8.40kPa on the five phantoms, respectively. In addition, by studying the dispersion curve of the surface wave speed, shear viscosity can be extracted. The measured shear viscosities are 0.00, 0.00, 0.13, 0.39 and 1.22Pa.s on the five phantoms, respectively. The results also show that the shear elasticity of the gelatin phantoms increases linearly with their prepared concentrations. The linear regressions between concentration and shear elasticity have R(2) values larger than 0.98 for both methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nondimensional quasi-steady analysis of magnetorheological dampers utilizing a Herschel-Bulkley model with preyield viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Shaju; Wereley, Norman M.

    2003-07-01

    Dampers based on electrorheological (ER) and magnetorheolgical (MR) fluids can be analyzed under assumptions of quasi-steady, fully developed flow behavior. Models that have been used to characterize ER and MR dampers include the Bingham-plastic, the Herschel-Bulkley and biviscous models. In the Bingham-plastic and the Herschel-Bulkley models, the fluid exhibits rigid behavior in the preyield flow region. The difference between these two models lie in the modeling of the postyield behavior. In the case of the Bingham-plastic model, the postyield behavior is such that the shear stress is proportional to the shear rate. In contrast, the Herschel-Bulkley model assumes that the shear stress is proportional to a power law of the shearrate. In the biciscous model, the relationship between the shear stres and shear rate is linear in both the preyield and postyield regions with constant values of viscosities for the two regions. However, the preyield flow behavior exhibits a much high viscosity than that in the postyield. In the propose model, the assumption of preyield rigid behavior within the Herschel-Bulkley model has been relaxed while the postyield relationship based on the power law has been retained. Here the fluid undergoes Newtonian preyield viscous flow and has a non-Newtonian postyield behavior. Based on this model, we have analyzed the performance of a rectangular duct ER or MR valve. Typical results include shear stress and velocity profiles across the valve gap, equivalent damping and damping coefficients.

  3. Haptic Edge Detection Through Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platkiewicz, Jonathan; Lipson, Hod; Hayward, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    Most tactile sensors are based on the assumption that touch depends on measuring pressure. However, the pressure distribution at the surface of a tactile sensor cannot be acquired directly and must be inferred from the deformation field induced by the touched object in the sensor medium. Currently, there is no consensus as to which components of strain are most informative for tactile sensing. Here, we propose that shape-related tactile information is more suitably recovered from shear strain than normal strain. Based on a contact mechanics analysis, we demonstrate that the elastic behavior of a haptic probe provides a robust edge detection mechanism when shear strain is sensed. We used a jamming-based robot gripper as a tactile sensor to empirically validate that shear strain processing gives accurate edge information that is invariant to changes in pressure, as predicted by the contact mechanics study. This result has implications for the design of effective tactile sensors as well as for the understanding of the early somatosensory processing in mammals.

  4. Viscosity effect in Landau's hydrodynamical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, T.F.; Phua, K.K.; Nanyang Univ., Singapore

    1979-01-01

    The Bose-Einstein distribution is used to investigate Landau's hydrodynamical model with viscosity. In case the viscosity dependence on the temperature is T 3 , the correction to the multiplicity behaves like I/E and is found to be negligible for the pp data. A discussion is presented on a possibility of reconciling E 1 / 2 and logE dependence of the multiplicity law. (orig.)

  5. Viscosity of dilute suspensions of rodlike particles: A numerical simulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Satoru; Matsuoka, Takaaki

    1994-02-01

    The recently developed simulation method, named as the particle simulation method (PSM), is extended to predict the viscosity of dilute suspensions of rodlike particles. In this method a rodlike particle is modeled by bonded spheres. Each bond has three types of springs for stretching, bending, and twisting deformation. The rod model can therefore deform by changing the bond distance, bond angle, and torsion angle between paired spheres. The rod model can represent a variety of rigidity by modifying the bond parameters related to Young's modulus and the shear modulus of the real particle. The time evolution of each constituent sphere of the rod model is followed by molecular-dynamics-type approach. The intrinsic viscosity of a suspension of rodlike particles is derived from calculating an increased energy dissipation for each sphere of the rod model in a viscous fluid. With and without deformation of the particle, the motion of the rodlike particle was numerically simulated in a three-dimensional simple shear flow at a low particle Reynolds number and without Brownian motion of particles. The intrinsic viscosity of the suspension of rodlike particles was investigated on orientation angle, rotation orbit, deformation, and aspect ratio of the particle. For the rigid rodlike particle, the simulated rotation orbit compared extremely well with theoretical one which was obtained for a rigid ellipsoidal particle by use of Jeffery's equation. The simulated dependence of the intrinsic viscosity on various factors was also identical with that of theories for suspensions of rigid rodlike particles. For the flexible rodlike particle, the rotation orbit could be obtained by the particle simulation method and it was also cleared that the intrinsic viscosity decreased as occurring of recoverable deformation of the rodlike particle induced by flow.

  6. Thermal conductivity as influenced by the temperature and apparent viscosity of dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, B J; Pereira, C G; Lago, A M T; Gonçalves, C S; Giarola, T M O; Abreu, L R; Resende, J V

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the rheological behavior and thermal conductivity of dairy products, composed of the same chemical components but with different formulations, as a function of temperature. Subsequently, thermal conductivity was related to the apparent viscosity of yogurt, fermented dairy beverage, and fermented milk. Thermal conductivity measures and rheological tests were performed at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C using linear probe heating and an oscillatory rheometer with concentric cylinder geometry, respectively. The results were compared with those calculated using the parallel, series, and Maxwell-Eucken models as a function of temperature, and the discrepancies in the results are discussed. Linear equations were fitted to evaluate the influence of temperature on the thermal conductivity of the dairy products. The rheological behavior, specifically apparent viscosity versus shear rate, was influenced by temperature. Herschel-Bulkley, power law, and Newton's law models were used to fit the experimental data. The Herschel-Bulkley model best described the adjustments for yogurt, the power law model did so for fermented dairy beverages, and Newton's law model did so for fermented milk and was then used to determine the rheological parameters. Fermented milk showed a Newtonian trend, whereas yogurt and fermented dairy beverage were shear thinning. Apparent viscosity was correlated with temperature by the Arrhenius equation. The formulation influenced the effective thermal conductivity. The relationship between the 2 properties was established by fixing the temperature and expressing conductivity as a function of apparent viscosity. Thermal conductivity increased with viscosity and decreased with increasing temperature. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Simple BODIPY-Based Viscosity Probe for Imaging of Cellular Viscosity in Live Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Su

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular viscosity is a fundamental physical parameter that indicates the functioning of cells. In this work, we developed a simple boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY-based probe, BTV, for cellular mitochondria viscosity imaging by coupling a simple BODIPY rotor with a mitochondria-targeting unit. The BTV exhibited a significant fluorescence intensity enhancement of more than 100-fold as the solvent viscosity increased. Also, the probe showed a direct linear relationship between the fluorescence lifetime and the media viscosity, which makes it possible to trace the change of the medium viscosity. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that BTV could achieve practical applicability in the monitoring of mitochondrial viscosity changes in live cells through fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM.

  8. Issue of Changes in Adhesion of Bitumen Sheet to Primary Layer over the Course of Time in Multilayer Waterproofing during Shear Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachý, Jan; Vysoká, Jana; Vejmelka, Radek; Horský, Jan; Vacek, Vítězslav

    2017-10-01

    This paper is based on research dealing with defects that appear on concrete bridge decks with an insulating layer from asphalt strips on the interface between the asphalt strip and its basis. The durability and lifespan of the bearing structure of concrete bridge is determined by insulating layer that constitutes, together with the primary layer and a protective layer, the insulation system of the concrete bridge deck. Paints based on low viscosity epoxy resigns are one of the possibilities of primary layer implementation. These paints may be performed as anchoring-impregnation paints that usually represent single layer paint on the bridge deck surface. Sealing layer is another variant. Sealing layer is a multilayer consisting of anchoring- impregnation paint and sealing paint. The primary layers mainly provide vapour closing of the concrete surface, and partly, through roughening the surface, contribute to adhesion of bitumen (asphalt) insulation (waterproofing) layer. Application of the primary layer has been spreading in the Czech Republic since the 1990s. Now, after approximately 30 years of use defects in these epoxy based sealing layers at the interface between primary layer and waterproofing layer of reinforced bitumen sheets (RBS) are being solved in the Czech Republic. After performance of the first test focusing on breaking-strength, it was found that the strength between the asphalt and the primary belt layer in some types of low-viscosity resin-epoxy decreases and after a certain period of time again increases, depending on the time. Tensile strength test is carried out on a sample of asphalt strip, which is fused onto the substrate with a primer coat. It was therefore proceeded to test the shear adhesion. Testing of the shear adhesion is conducted on the entire concrete deck waterproofing system. It was supposed that the decrease of adhesion at this test become evident in higher extent. Adhesion tests in shear were performed on the primary layer

  9. Viscosity properties of sodium borophosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaylord, S.; Tincher, B.; Petit, L.; Richardson, K.

    2009-01-01

    The viscosity behavior of (1 - x)NaPO 3 -xNa 2 B 4 O 7 glasses (x = 0.05-0.20) have been measured as a function of temperature using beam-bending and parallel-plate viscometry. The viscosity was found to shift to higher temperatures with increasing sodium borate content. The kinetic fragility parameter, m, estimated from the viscosity curve, decreases from 52 to 33 when x increases from 0.05 to 0.20 indicating that the glass network transforms from fragile to strong with the addition of Na 2 B 4 O 7 . The decrease in fragility with increasing x is due to the progressive depolymerization of the phosphate network by the preferred four-coordinated boron atoms present in the low alkali borate glasses. As confirmed by Raman spectroscopy increasing alkali borate leads to enhanced B-O-P linkages realized with the accompanying transition from solely four-coordinated boron (in BO 4 units) to mixed BO 4 /BO 3 structures. The glass viscosity characteristics of the investigated glasses were compared to those of P-SF67 and N-FK5 commercial glasses from SCHOTT. We showed that the dependence of the viscosity of P-SF67 was similar to the investigated glasses due to similar phosphate network organization confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, whereas N-FK5 exhibited a very different viscosity curve and fragility parameter due to its highly coordinated silicate network

  10. The influence of specific mechanical energy on cornmeal viscosity measured by an on-line system during twin-screw extrusion

    OpenAIRE

    CHANG, Y. K.; MARTINEZ-BUSTOS, F.; PARK, T. S.; KOKINI, J .L.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of specific mechanical energy (SME) on cornmeal viscosity during the twin-screw extrusion at feed moisture contents of 25 and 30% and screw speeds in the range from 100 to 500 rpm was measured. Cornmeal was extruded in a co-rotating, intermeshing twin-screw coupled to a slit die rheometer. One approach to the on-line rheological measurement is to use a slit die with the extruder. In the present work it was show that shear viscosity decreased as a function of SME. The viscosity o...

  11. Contribution to viscosity from the structural relaxation via the atomic scale Green-Kubo stress correlation function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levashov, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    We studied the connection between the structural relaxation and viscosity for a binary model of repulsive particles in the supercooled liquid regime. The used approach is based on the decomposition of the macroscopic Green-Kubo stress correlation function into the correlation functions between the atomic level stresses. Previously we used the approach to study an iron-like single component system of particles. The role of vibrational motion has been addressed through the demonstration of the relationship between viscosity and the shear waves propagating over large distances. In our previous considerations, however, we did not discuss the role of the structural relaxation. Here we suggest that the contribution to viscosity from the structural relaxation can be taken into account through the consideration of the contribution from the atomic stress auto-correlation term only. This conclusion, however, does not mean that only the auto-correlation term represents the contribution to viscosity from the structural relaxation. Previously the role of the structural relaxation for viscosity has been addressed through the considerations of the transitions between inherent structures and within the mode-coupling theory by other authors. In the present work, we study the structural relaxation through the considerations of the parent liquid and the atomic level stress correlations in it. The comparison with the results obtained on the inherent structures also is made. Our current results suggest, as our previous observations, that in the supercooled liquid regime, the vibrational contribution to viscosity extends over the times that are much larger than the Einstein's vibrational period and much larger than the times that it takes for the shear waves to propagate over the model systems. Besides addressing the atomic level shear stress correlations, we also studied correlations between the atomic level pressure elements.

  12. How the dispersion of magnesium oxide nanoparticles effects on the viscosity of water-ethylene glycol mixture: Experimental evaluation and correlation development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrand, Masoud; Abedini, Ehsan; Teimouri, Hamid

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, the effect of dispersion of magnesium oxide nanoparticles on viscosity of a mixture of water and ethylene glycol (50-50% vol.) was examined experimentally. Experiments were performed for various nanofluid samples at different temperatures and shear rates. Measurements revealed that the nanofluid samples with volume fractions of less than 1.5% had Newtonian behavior, while the sample with volume fraction of 3% showed non-Newtonian behavior. Results showed that the viscosity of nanofluids enhanced with increasing nanoparticles volume fraction and decreasing temperature. Results of sensitivity analysis revealed that the viscosity sensitivity of nanofluid samples to temperature at higher volume fractions is more than that of at lower volume fractions. Finally, because of the inability of the existing model to predict the viscosity of MgO/EG-water nanofluid, an experimental correlation has been proposed for predicting the viscosity of the nanofluid.

  13. Inference of viscosity jump at 670 km depth and lower mantle viscosity structure from GIA observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Masao; Okuno, Jun'ichi; Irie, Yoshiya

    2018-03-01

    A viscosity model with an exponential profile described by temperature (T) and pressure (P) distributions and constant activation energy (E_{{{um}}}^{{*}} for the upper mantle and E_{{{lm}}}^* for the lower mantle) and volume (V_{{{um}}}^{{*}} and V_{{{lm}}}^*) is employed in inferring the viscosity structure of the Earth's mantle from observations of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). We first construct standard viscosity models with an average upper-mantle viscosity ({\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}}) of 2 × 1020 Pa s, a typical value for the oceanic upper-mantle viscosity, satisfying the observationally derived three GIA-related observables, GIA-induced rate of change of the degree-two zonal harmonic of the geopotential, {\\dot{J}_2}, and differential relative sea level (RSL) changes for the Last Glacial Maximum sea levels at Barbados and Bonaparte Gulf in Australia and for RSL changes at 6 kyr BP for Karumba and Halifax Bay in Australia. Standard viscosity models inferred from three GIA-related observables are characterized by a viscosity of ˜1023 Pa s in the deep mantle for an assumed viscosity at 670 km depth, ηlm(670), of (1 - 50) × 1021 Pa s. Postglacial RSL changes at Southport, Bermuda and Everglades in the intermediate region of the North American ice sheet, largely dependent on its gross melting history, have a crucial potential for inference of a viscosity jump at 670 km depth. The analyses of these RSL changes based on the viscosity models with {\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}} ≥ 2 × 1020 Pa s and lower-mantle viscosity structures for the standard models yield permissible {\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}} and ηlm (670) values, although there is a trade-off between the viscosity and ice history models. Our preferred {\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}} and ηlm (670) values are ˜(7 - 9) × 1020 and ˜1022 Pa s, respectively, and the {\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}} is higher than that for the typical value of oceanic upper mantle, which may reflect a moderate laterally heterogeneous upper

  14. Analysis of Shear Stress and Energy Consumption in a Tubular Airlift Membrane System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Chan, C.C.V.; Berube, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    of fouling by imposing high shear stress near the surface of the membrane. Previously, shear stress histograms (SSH) have been introduced to summarize results from an experimental setup developed to investigate the shear stress imposed on the surface of a membrane under different two-phase flow conditions...

  15. Low-n shear Alfven spectra in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.; Chance, M.S.

    1985-11-01

    In toroidal plasmas, the toroidal magnetic field is nonuniform over a magnetic surface and causes coupling of different poloidal harmonics. It is shown both analytically and numerically that the toroidicity not only breaks up the shear Alfven continuous spectrum, but also creates new, discrete, toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes with frequencies inside the continuum gaps. Potential applications of the low-n toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes on plasma heating and instabilities are addressed. 17 refs., 4 figs

  16. Pressure effects on viscosity and flow stability of polyethylene melts during extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, Enric Santanach; Kissi, Nadia El; Piau, Jean-Michel; Toussaint, Fabrice; Nigen, Sophie [Domaine Universitaire, Laboratoire de Rheologie, Universite Joseph Fourier-Grenoble I, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, CNRS (UMR 5520), B. P. 53, Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, the effects of pressure on the viscosity and flow stability of four commercial grade polyethylenes (PEs) have been studied: linear-low-density polyethylene copolymer, high-density polyethylene, metallocene polyethylenes with short-chain branches (mPE-SCB), and metallocene polyethylenes with long chain branching (mPE-LCB). The range of shear rates considered covers both stable and unstable flow regimes. ''Enhanced exit-pressure'' experiments have been performed attaining pressures of the order of 500 x 10{sup 5} Pa at the die exit. The necessary experimental conditions have been clearly defined so that dissipative heating can be neglected and pressure effects isolated. The results obtained show an exponential increase in both shear and entrance-flow pressure drop with mean pressure when shear rate is fixed and as long as flow is stable. These pressure effects are described by two pressure coefficients, {beta}{sub S} under shear and, {beta}{sub E} under elongation, that are calculated using time-pressure superposition and that are independent of mean pressure and flow rate. For three out of four PE, pressure coefficient values can be considered equal under shear and under elongation. However, for the mPE-LCB, the pressure coefficient under elongation is found to be about 30% lower than under shear. Flow instabilities in the form of oscillating flows or of upstream instabilities appear at lower shear rates as mean pressure increases. Nevertheless, the critical shear stress at which they are triggered remains independent of mean pressure. Moreover, it is found that the {beta}{sub S} values obtained for stable flows do not differ much from the values obtained during upstream instability regimes, and differ really from pressure effects observed under oscillating flow and slip conditions. (orig.)

  17. VISCOSE BASED MAGNETIC YARNS – PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GROSU Marian-Cătălin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the rapid growth in the number of electrical and electronic devices and accessories that emit electromagnetic energy in different frequency bands we present and characterize here several magnetic functionalized viscose twisted yarns. A 100% viscose twisted staple yarn was covered through an in-house developed process with a polymeric solution containing micrometric sized barium hexaferrite magnetic powder. The in-house developed process allows deposition of micrometric thickness polymeric paste layer on the yarn surface. Barium hexaferrite is a hard magnetic material exhibiting high chemical stability and corrosion resistivity, relatively large saturation and residual magnetization and microwave absorbing properties. Five different percentages of the magnetic powder in the polymer solution were used, i.e. ranging from 15 wt% to 45 wt%. Physical characterization shows a very good adherence between the highly hygroscopic viscose staple fibers and the polymeric solution that contains polyvinyl acetate and polyurethane as binders. SEM images evidenced the fact that the polymeric solution penetrated more than 1/3 of the yarn diameter. The concentration of magnetic powder in the polymeric solution has a direct influence on the coating amount, diameter and density. The mechanical characterization of the coated yarns revealed that the breaking force is increasing with increasing magnetic powder content up to o certain value and then decreased because the magnetic layer became stiffer. At the same time, the elongation at brake is decreasing.

  18. Towards adjoint-based inversion of time-dependent mantle convection with nonlinear viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dunzhu; Gurnis, Michael; Stadler, Georg

    2017-04-01

    We develop and study an adjoint-based inversion method for the simultaneous recovery of initial temperature conditions and viscosity parameters in time-dependent mantle convection from the current mantle temperature and historic plate motion. Based on a realistic rheological model with temperature-dependent and strain-rate-dependent viscosity, we formulate the inversion as a PDE-constrained optimization problem. The objective functional includes the misfit of surface velocity (plate motion) history, the misfit of the current mantle temperature, and a regularization for the uncertain initial condition. The gradient of this functional with respect to the initial temperature and the uncertain viscosity parameters is computed by solving the adjoint of the mantle convection equations. This gradient is used in a pre-conditioned quasi-Newton minimization algorithm. We study the prospects and limitations of the inversion, as well as the computational performance of the method using two synthetic problems, a sinking cylinder and a realistic subduction model. The subduction model is characterized by the migration of a ridge toward a trench whereby both plate motions and subduction evolve. The results demonstrate: (1) for known viscosity parameters, the initial temperature can be well recovered, as in previous initial condition-only inversions where the effective viscosity was given; (2) for known initial temperature, viscosity parameters can be recovered accurately, despite the existence of trade-offs due to ill-conditioning; (3) for the joint inversion of initial condition and viscosity parameters, initial condition and effective viscosity can be reasonably recovered, but the high dimension of the parameter space and the resulting ill-posedness may limit recovery of viscosity parameters.

  19. Experimental density and viscosity measurements of di(2ethylhexyl)sebacate at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, Xavier; Fandino, Olivia; Pensado, Alfonso S.; Comunas, Maria J.P.; Fernandez, Josefa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → We measure viscosities for di(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate from (298.15 to 398.15) K and up to 60 MPa. → We measure densities for DEHS from (298.15 to 373.15) K and from (0.1 to 60) MPa. → The reported and lit. data were used in a viscosity correlation from (273 to 491) K and up to 1.1 GPa. → This correlation could be used in industrial equipment that operate at high pressures. - Abstract: Experimental densities and dynamic viscosities of di(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate (DEHS) are the object of study in this work. DEHS could be a useful industrial reference fluid for moderately high viscosity at high pressures as it is often used as a pressure transmitting fluid. At atmospheric pressure the density and viscosity measurements have been performed in a rotational SVM 3000 Stabinger viscometer from (273.15 to 373.15) K, whereas from (0.1 to 60) MPa and from (298.15 to 398.15) K an automated Anton Paar DMA HPM vibrating-tube densimeter, and a high-pressure rolling-ball viscometer were used. Several Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann type equations were used to fit the experimental values of viscosity to the pressure and temperature. The measured viscosity data have been used together with previous data found in the literature to establish a correlation of the viscosity surface η(T, p) of DEHS, covering a temperature range from (273 to 491) K and pressure up to 1.1 GPa. This correlation could be used in industrial equipment like viscometers and other devices that operate at high pressures. Our viscosity data have also been fitted as a function of temperature and volume to the thermodynamic scaling model of Roland et al. [C.M. Roland, S. Bair, R. Casalini, J. Chem. Phys. 125 (2006) 124508].

  20. The microstructure and rheology of a model, thixotropic nanoparticle gel under steady shear and large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Kim, Jung; Kate Gurnon, A.; Wagner, Norman J.; Eberle, Aaron P. R.; Porcar, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure-rheology relationship for a model, thermoreversible nanoparticle gel is investigated using a new technique of time-resolved neutron scattering under steady and time-resolved large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) flows. A 21 vol. % gel is tested with varying strength of interparticle attraction. Shear-induced structural anisotropy is observed as butterfly scattering patterns and quantified through an alignment factor. Measurements in the plane of flow show significant, local anisotropy develops with alignment along the compressional axis of flow, providing new insights into how gels flow. The microstructure-rheology relationship is analyzed through a new type of structure-Lissajous plot that shows how the anisotropic microstructure is responsible for the observed LAOS response, which is beyond a response expected for a purely viscous gel with constant structure. The LAOS shear viscosities are observed to follow the “Delaware-Rutgers” rule. Rheological and microstructural data are successfully compared across a broad range of conditions by scaling the shear rate by the strength of attraction, providing a method to compare behavior between steady shear and LAOS experiments. However, important differences remain between the microstructures measured at comparatively high frequency in LAOS experiments and comparable steady shear experiments that illustrate the importance of measuring the microstructure to properly interpret the nonlinear, dynamic rheological response