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Sample records for surface shape perception

  1. Asymmetric interference between the perception of shape and the perception of surface properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cant, Jonathan S; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2009-05-14

    We previously showed that the processing of shape and the processing of surface properties linked to material properties engage different regions of the ventral stream (J. S. Cant & M. A. Goodale, 2007). Moreover, we recently used Garner's speeded-classification task to show that varying the surface (material) properties of objects does not interfere with shape judgments and vice versa (J. S. Cant, M. E. Large, L. McCall, & M. A. Goodale, 2008). In the present study, we looked at Garner interference when surface cues contributed to the perception of object shape and hypothesized that this would interfere with judgments about the width and the length of the objects. In contrast, we predicted that varying the width and the length of the objects would not interfere with surface-property judgments. This is precisely what we found. These results suggest that the shape and the surface properties of an object cannot be processed independently when both these sets of cues are linked to the perception of the object's overall shape. These observations, together with our previous findings, suggest that the surface cues that contribute to object shape are processed quite separately from the surface cues that are linked to an object's material properties.

  2. Aging and the haptic perception of 3D surface shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, J Farley; Kappers, Astrid M L; Beers, Amanda M; Scott, A Kate; Norman, Hideko F; Koenderink, Jan J

    2011-04-01

    Two experiments evaluated the ability of older and younger adults to perceive the three-dimensional (3D) shape of object surfaces from active touch (haptics). The ages of the older adults ranged from 64 to 84 years, while those of the younger adults ranged from 18 to 27 years. In Experiment 1, the participants haptically judged the shape of large (20 cm diameter) surfaces with an entire hand. In contrast, in Experiment 2, the participants explored the shape of small (5 cm diameter) surfaces with a single finger. The haptic surfaces varied in shape index (Koenderink, Solid shape, 1990; Koenderink, Image and Vision Computing, 10, 557-564, 1992) from -1.0 to +1.0 in steps of 0.25. For both types of surfaces (large and small), the participants were able to judge surface shape reliably. The older participants' judgments of surface shape were just as accurate and precise as those of the younger participants. The results of the current study demonstrate that while older adults do possess reductions in tactile sensitivity and acuity, they nevertheless can effectively perceive 3D surface shape from haptic exploration.

  3. Aging and the haptic perception of 3D surface shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norman, J.F.; Kappers, A.M.L.; Beers, A.M.; Scott, A.K.; Norman, H.F.; Koenderink, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments evaluated the ability of older and younger adults to perceive the three-dimensional (3D) shape of object surfaces from active touch (haptics). The ages of the older adults ranged from 64 to 84 years, while those of the younger adults ranged from 18 to 27 years. In Experiment 1, the p

  4. Aging and the haptic perception of 3D surface shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norman, J.F.; Kappers, A.M.L.; Beers, A.M.; Scott, A.K.; Norman, H.F.; Koenderink, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments evaluated the ability of older and younger adults to perceive the three-dimensional (3D) shape of object surfaces from active touch (haptics). The ages of the older adults ranged from 64 to 84 years, while those of the younger adults ranged from 18 to 27 years. In Experiment 1, the p

  5. The relative contributions of facial shape and surface information to perceptions of attractiveness and dominance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaimie S Torrance

    Full Text Available Although many studies have investigated the facial characteristics that influence perceptions of others' attractiveness and dominance, the majority of these studies have focused on either the effects of shape information or surface information alone. Consequently, the relative contributions of facial shape and surface characteristics to attractiveness and dominance perceptions are unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the relationships between ratings of original versions of faces and ratings of versions in which either surface information had been standardized (i.e., shape-only versions or shape information had been standardized (i.e., surface-only versions. For attractiveness and dominance judgments of both male and female faces, ratings of shape-only and surface-only versions independently predicted ratings of the original versions of faces. The correlations between ratings of original and shape-only versions and between ratings of original and surface-only versions differed only in two instances. For male attractiveness, ratings of original versions were more strongly related to ratings of surface-only than shape-only versions, suggesting that surface information is particularly important for men's facial attractiveness. The opposite was true for female physical dominance, suggesting that shape information is particularly important for women's facial physical dominance. In summary, our results indicate that both facial shape and surface information contribute to judgments of others' attractiveness and dominance, suggesting that it may be important to consider both sources of information in research on these topics.

  6. The relative contributions of facial shape and surface information to perceptions of attractiveness and dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Jaimie S; Wincenciak, Joanna; Hahn, Amanda C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2014-01-01

    Although many studies have investigated the facial characteristics that influence perceptions of others' attractiveness and dominance, the majority of these studies have focused on either the effects of shape information or surface information alone. Consequently, the relative contributions of facial shape and surface characteristics to attractiveness and dominance perceptions are unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the relationships between ratings of original versions of faces and ratings of versions in which either surface information had been standardized (i.e., shape-only versions) or shape information had been standardized (i.e., surface-only versions). For attractiveness and dominance judgments of both male and female faces, ratings of shape-only and surface-only versions independently predicted ratings of the original versions of faces. The correlations between ratings of original and shape-only versions and between ratings of original and surface-only versions differed only in two instances. For male attractiveness, ratings of original versions were more strongly related to ratings of surface-only than shape-only versions, suggesting that surface information is particularly important for men's facial attractiveness. The opposite was true for female physical dominance, suggesting that shape information is particularly important for women's facial physical dominance. In summary, our results indicate that both facial shape and surface information contribute to judgments of others' attractiveness and dominance, suggesting that it may be important to consider both sources of information in research on these topics.

  7. Joint Effects of Illumination Geometry and Object Shape in the Perception of Surface Reflectance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Olkkonen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface properties provide useful information for identifying objects and interacting with them. Effective utilization of this information, however, requires that the perception of object surface properties be relatively constant across changes in illumination and changes in object shape. Such constancy has been studied separately for changes in these factors. Here we ask whether the separate study of the illumination and shape effects is sufficient, by testing whether joint effects of illumination and shape changes can be predicted from the individual effects in a straightforward manner. We found large interactions between illumination and object shape in their effects on perceived glossiness. In addition, analysis of luminance histogram statistics could not account for the interactions.

  8. Differential surface models for tactile perception of shape and on-line tracking of features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemami, H.

    1987-01-01

    Tactile perception of shape involves an on-line controller and a shape perceptor. The purpose of the on-line controller is to maintain gliding or rolling contact with the surface, and collect information, or track specific features of the surface such as edges of a certain sharpness. The shape perceptor uses the information to perceive, estimate the parameters of, or recognize the shape. The differential surface model depends on the information collected and on the a priori information known about the robot and its physical parameters. These differential models are certain functionals that are projections of the dynamics of the robot onto the surface gradient or onto the tangent plane. A number of differential properties may be directly measured from present day tactile sensors. Others may have to be indirectly computed from measurements. Others may constitute design objectives for distributed tactile sensors of the future. A parameterization of the surface leads to linear and nonlinear sequential parameter estimation techniques for identification of the surface. Many interesting compromises between measurement and computation are possible.

  9. Haptic categorical perception of shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaißert, Nina; Waterkamp, Steffen; Fleming, Roland W; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Categorization and categorical perception have been extensively studied, mainly in vision and audition. In the haptic domain, our ability to categorize objects has also been demonstrated in earlier studies. Here we show for the first time that categorical perception also occurs in haptic shape perception. We generated a continuum of complex shapes by morphing between two volumetric objects. Using similarity ratings and multidimensional scaling we ensured that participants could haptically discriminate all objects equally. Next, we performed classification and discrimination tasks. After a short training with the two shape categories, both tasks revealed categorical perception effects. Training leads to between-category expansion resulting in higher discriminability of physical differences between pairs of stimuli straddling the category boundary. Thus, even brief training can alter haptic representations of shape. This suggests that the weights attached to various haptic shape features can be changed dynamically in response to top-down information about class membership.

  10. Fechner, information, and shape perception.

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    Lappin, Joseph S; Norman, J Farley; Phillips, Flip

    2011-11-01

    How do retinal images lead to perceived environmental objects? Vision involves a series of spatial and material transformations--from environmental objects to retinal images, to neurophysiological patterns, and finally to perceptual experience and action. A rationale for understanding functional relations among these physically different systems occurred to Gustav Fechner: Differences in sensation correspond to differences in physical stimulation. The concept of information is similar: Relationships in one system may correspond to, and thus represent, those in another. Criteria for identifying and evaluating information include (a) resolution, or the precision of correspondence; (b) uncertainty about which input (output) produced a given output (input); and (c) invariance, or the preservation of correspondence under transformations of input and output. We apply this framework to psychophysical evidence to identify visual information for perceiving surfaces. The elementary spatial structure shared by objects and images is the second-order differential structure of local surface shape. Experiments have shown that human vision is directly sensitive to this higher-order spatial information from interimage disparities (stereopsis and motion parallax), boundary contours, texture, shading, and combined variables. Psychophysical evidence contradicts other common ideas about retinal information for spatial vision and object perception.

  11. Haptic perception disambiguates visual perception of 3D shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijntjes, M.W.A.; Volcic, R.; Pont, S.C.; Koenderink, J.J.; Kappers, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the influence of haptics on visual perception of three-dimensional shape. Observers were shown pictures of an oblate spheroid in two different orientations. A gauge-figure task was used to measure their perception of the global shape. In the first two sessions only vision was used. The

  12. Haptic perception disambiguates visual perception of 3D shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijntjes, M.W.A.; Volcic, R.; Pont, S.C.; Koenderink, J.J.; Kappers, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the influence of haptics on visual perception of three-dimensional shape. Observers were shown pictures of an oblate spheroid in two different orientations. A gauge-figure task was used to measure their perception of the global shape. In the first two sessions only vision was used. The re

  13. The comparative psychophysics of complex shape perception.

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    Smith, J David; Redford, Joshua S; Haas, Sarah M

    2009-11-01

    The authors compared the complex shape perception of humans and monkeys. Members of both species participated in a Same-Different paradigm in which they judged the similarity of shape pairs that could be variations of the same underlying prototype. For both species, similarity gradients were found to be steep going out from the transformational center of psychological space. In contrast, similarity gradients were found to be flat going from the periphery in toward the center of psychological space. These results show that there are important common principles in the shape-perception and shape-comparison processes of humans and monkeys. The same general organization of psychological space is obtained. The same quantifiable metric of psychological distance is applied. Established methods for creating controlled shape variation have the same effect on both species' similarity judgments. The member of the to-be-judged pair of shapes that is peripheral in psychological space controls the strength of the perceived similarity of the pair. The results have broader implications for the comparative study of perception and categorization.

  14. Apparent surface curvature affects lightness perception.

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    Knill, D C; Kersten, D

    1991-05-16

    The human visual system has the remarkable capacity to perceive accurately the lightness, or relative reflectance, of surfaces, even though much of the variation in image luminance may be caused by other scene attributes, such as shape and illumination. Most physiological, and computational models of lightness perception invoke early sensory mechanisms that act independently of, or before, the estimation of other scene attributes. In contrast to the modularity of lightness perception assumed in these models are experiments that show that supposedly 'higher-order' percepts of planar surface attributes, such as orientation, depth and transparency, can influence perceived lightness. Here we show that perceived surface curvature can also affect perceived lightness. The results of the earlier experiments indicate that perceiving luminance edges as changes in surface attributes other than reflectance can influence lightness. These results suggest that the interpretation of smooth variations in luminance can also affect lightness percepts.

  15. Haptic perception disambiguates visual perception of 3D shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijntjes, Maarten W A; Volcic, Robert; Pont, Sylvia C; Koenderink, Jan J; Kappers, Astrid M L

    2009-03-01

    We studied the influence of haptics on visual perception of three-dimensional shape. Observers were shown pictures of an oblate spheroid in two different orientations. A gauge-figure task was used to measure their perception of the global shape. In the first two sessions only vision was used. The results showed that observers made large errors and interpreted the oblate spheroid as a sphere. They also misinterpreted the rotated oblate spheroid for a prolate spheroid. In two subsequent sessions observers were allowed to touch the stimulus while performing the task. The visual input remained unchanged: the observers were looking at the picture and could not see their hands. The results revealed that observers perceived a shape that was different from the vision-only sessions and closer to the veridical shape. Whereas, in general, vision is subject to ambiguities that arise from interpreting the retinal projection, our study shows that haptic input helps to disambiguate and reinterpret the visual input more veridically.

  16. Millisecond precision spike timing shapes tactile perception.

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    Mackevicius, Emily L; Best, Matthew D; Saal, Hannes P; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2012-10-31

    In primates, the sense of touch has traditionally been considered to be a spatial modality, drawing an analogy to the visual system. In this view, stimuli are encoded in spatial patterns of activity over the sheet of receptors embedded in the skin. We propose that the spatial processing mode is complemented by a temporal one. Indeed, the transduction and processing of complex, high-frequency skin vibrations have been shown to play an important role in tactile texture perception, and the frequency composition of vibrations shapes the evoked percept. Mechanoreceptive afferents innervating the glabrous skin exhibit temporal patterning in their responses, but the importance and behavioral relevance of spike timing, particularly for naturalistic stimuli, remains to be elucidated. Based on neurophysiological recordings from Rhesus macaques, we show that spike timing conveys information about the frequency composition of skin vibrations, both for individual afferents and for afferent populations, and that the temporal fidelity varies across afferent class. Furthermore, the perception of skin vibrations, measured in human subjects, is better predicted when spike timing is taken into account, and the resolution that predicts perception best matches the optimal resolution of the respective afferent classes. In light of these results, the peripheral representation of complex skin vibrations draws a powerful analogy with the auditory and vibrissal systems.

  17. The perception of 3D shape from planar cut contours.

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    Egan, Eric J L; Todd, James T; Phillips, Flip

    2011-10-01

    A new computational analysis is described for estimating 3D shapes from orthographic images of surfaces that are textured with planar cut contours. For any given contour pattern, this model provides a family of possible interpretations that are all related by affine scaling and shearing transformations in depth, depending on the specific values of its free parameters that are used to compute the shape estimate. Two psychophysical experiments were performed in an effort to compare the model predictions with observers' judgments of 3D shape for developable and non-developable surfaces. The results reveal that observers' perceptions can be systematically distorted by affine scaling and shearing transformations in depth and that the magnitude and direction of these distortions vary systematically with the 3D orientations of the contour planes.

  18. Investigating shape perception by classification images.

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    Kurki, Ilmari; Saarinen, Jussi; Hyvärinen, Aapo

    2014-10-23

    Radial frequency (RF) patterns are circular contours where the radius is modulated sinusoidally. These stimuli can represent a wide range of common shapes and have been popular for investigating human shape perception. Theories postulate a multistage model where a global contour integration mechanism integrates the outputs of local curvature-sensitive mechanisms. However, studies on how the local contour features are processed have been mostly based on indirect experimental manipulations. Here, we use a novel way to explore the contour integration, using the classification image (a psychophysical reverse-correlation) method. RF contours were composed of local elements, and random "radial position noise" offsets were added to element radial positions. We analyzed the relationship between trial-to-trial variations in radial noise and corresponding behavioral responses, resulting in a "shape template": an estimate of the contour parts and features that the visual system uses in the shape discrimination task. Integration of contour features in a global template-like model explains our data well, and we show that observer performance for different shapes can be predicted from the classification images. Classification images show that observers used most of the contour parts. Further analysis suggests linear rather than probability summation of contour parts. Convex forms were detected better than concave forms and the corresponding templates had better sampling efficiency. With sufficient presentation time, we found no systematic preferences for a certain class of contour features (such as corners or sides). However, when the presentation time was very short, the visual system might prefer corner features over side features.

  19. Shape Perception and Navigation in Blind Adults

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    Gori, Monica; Cappagli, Giulia; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Finocchietti, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Different sensory systems interact to generate a representation of space and to navigate. Vision plays a critical role in the representation of space development. During navigation, vision is integrated with auditory and mobility cues. In blind individuals, visual experience is not available and navigation therefore lacks this important sensory signal. In blind individuals, compensatory mechanisms can be adopted to improve spatial and navigation skills. On the other hand, the limitations of these compensatory mechanisms are not completely clear. Both enhanced and impaired reliance on auditory cues in blind individuals have been reported. Here, we develop a new paradigm to test both auditory perception and navigation skills in blind and sighted individuals and to investigate the effect that visual experience has on the ability to reproduce simple and complex paths. During the navigation task, early blind, late blind and sighted individuals were required first to listen to an audio shape and then to recognize and reproduce it by walking. After each audio shape was presented, a static sound was played and the participants were asked to reach it. Movements were recorded with a motion tracking system. Our results show three main impairments specific to early blind individuals. The first is the tendency to compress the shapes reproduced during navigation. The second is the difficulty to recognize complex audio stimuli, and finally, the third is the difficulty in reproducing the desired shape: early blind participants occasionally reported perceiving a square but they actually reproduced a circle during the navigation task. We discuss these results in terms of compromised spatial reference frames due to lack of visual input during the early period of development. PMID:28144226

  20. Generalized Models for Rock Joint Surface Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigui Du

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized models of joint surface shapes are the foundation for mechanism studies on the mechanical effects of rock joint surface shapes. Based on extensive field investigations of rock joint surface shapes, generalized models for three level shapes named macroscopic outline, surface undulating shape, and microcosmic roughness were established through statistical analyses of 20,078 rock joint surface profiles. The relative amplitude of profile curves was used as a borderline for the division of different level shapes. The study results show that the macroscopic outline has three basic features such as planar, arc-shaped, and stepped; the surface undulating shape has three basic features such as planar, undulating, and stepped; and the microcosmic roughness has two basic features such as smooth and rough.

  1. Kansei, surfaces and perception engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, B.-G.; Eriksson, L.; Bergman, M.

    2016-09-01

    The aesthetic and pleasing properties of a product are important and add significantly to the meaning and relevance of a product. Customer sensation and perception are largely about psychological factors. There has been a strong industrial and academic need and interest for methods and tools to quantify and link product properties to the human response but a lack of studies of the impact of surfaces. In this study, affective surface engineering is used to illustrate and model the link between customer expectations and perception to controllable product surface properties. The results highlight the use of the soft metrology concept for linking physical and human factors contributing to the perception of products. Examples of surface applications of the Kansei methodology are presented from sauna bath, health care, architectural and hygiene tissue application areas to illustrate, discuss and confirm the strength of the methodology. In the conclusions of the study, future research in soft metrology is proposed to allow understanding and modelling of product perception and sensations in combination with a development of the Kansei surface engineering methodology and software tools.

  2. Visual perception of surface wrinkles.

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    Fan, Jintu; Liu, Fu

    2005-12-01

    To study the relationship between visual perception of magnitude of wrinkles and geometrical parameters of surfaces, four potentially relevant parameters of the surface profile were considered: the variance (sigma2), the cutting frequency (Fc), the effective disparity curvature (Dce) of the wrinkled surface over the eyeball distance of the observer, and the frequency component of the disparity curvature (Dcf). Analysis of garment seams with varying amount of pucker showed that, while the logarithm for each of these four parameters has a strong linear relationship with the visually perceived magnitude of wrinkles, following the Fechner Law, the effective disparity curvature (Dce) and the frequency component of the disparity curvature (Dcf) with visual perception appeared stronger. This modeling may be an objective method for measuring magnitude of surface wrinkles.

  3. Path integration in tactile perception of shapes.

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    Moscatelli, Alessandro; Naceri, Abdeldjallil; Ernst, Marc O

    2014-11-01

    Whenever we move the hand across a surface, tactile signals provide information about the relative velocity between the skin and the surface. If the system were able to integrate the tactile velocity information over time, cutaneous touch may provide an estimate of the relative displacement between the hand and the surface. Here, we asked whether humans are able to form a reliable representation of the motion path from tactile cues only, integrating motion information over time. In order to address this issue, we conducted three experiments using tactile motion and asked participants (1) to estimate the length of a simulated triangle, (2) to reproduce the shape of a simulated triangular path, and (3) to estimate the angle between two-line segments. Participants were able to accurately indicate the length of the path, whereas the perceived direction was affected by a direction bias (inward bias). The response pattern was thus qualitatively similar to the ones reported in classical path integration studies involving locomotion. However, we explain the directional biases as the result of a tactile motion aftereffect.

  4. Spatial imagery in haptic shape perception.

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    Lacey, Simon; Stilla, Randall; Sreenivasan, Karthik; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Sathian, K

    2014-07-01

    We have proposed that haptic activation of the shape-selective lateral occipital complex (LOC) reflects a model of multisensory object representation in which the role of visual imagery is modulated by object familiarity. Supporting this, a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study from our laboratory used inter-task correlations of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal magnitude and effective connectivity (EC) patterns based on the BOLD signals to show that the neural processes underlying visual object imagery (objIMG) are more similar to those mediating haptic perception of familiar (fHS) than unfamiliar (uHS) shapes. Here we employed fMRI to test a further hypothesis derived from our model, that spatial imagery (spIMG) would evoke activation and effective connectivity patterns more related to uHS than fHS. We found that few of the regions conjointly activated by spIMG and either fHS or uHS showed inter-task correlations of BOLD signal magnitudes, with parietal foci featuring in both sets of correlations. This may indicate some involvement of spIMG in HS regardless of object familiarity, contrary to our hypothesis, although we cannot rule out alternative explanations for the commonalities between the networks, such as generic imagery or spatial processes. EC analyses, based on inferred neuronal time series obtained by deconvolution of the hemodynamic response function from the measured BOLD time series, showed that spIMG shared more common paths with uHS than fHS. Re-analysis of our previous data, using the same EC methods as those used here, showed that, by contrast, objIMG shared more common paths with fHS than uHS. Thus, although our model requires some refinement, its basic architecture is supported: a stronger relationship between spIMG and uHS compared to fHS, and a stronger relationship between objIMG and fHS compared to uHS.

  5. How little do we need for 3-D shape perception?

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    Nandakumar, Chetan; Torralba, Antonio; Malik, Jitendra

    2011-01-01

    How little do we need to perceive 3-D shape in monocular natural images? The shape-from-texture and shape-from-shading perspectives would motivate that 3-D perception vanishes once low-level cues are disrupted. Is this the case in human vision? Or can top-down influences salvage the percept? In this study we probe this question by employing a gauge-figure paradigm similar to that used by Koenderink et al (1992, Perception & Psychophysics 52 487-496). Subjects were presented degraded natural images and instructed to make local assessments of slant and tilt at various locations thereby quantifying their internal 3-D percept. Analysis of subjects' responses reveals recognition to be a significant influence thereby allowing subjects to perceive 3-D shape at high levels of degradation. Specifically, we identify the 'medium-blur' condition, images approximately 32 pixels on a side, to be the limit for accurate 3-D shape perception. In addition, we find that degradation affects the perceived slant of point-estimates making images look flatter as degradation increases. A subsequent condition that eliminates texture and shading but preserves contour and recognition reveals how bottom-up and top-down cues can combine for accurate 3-D shape perception.

  6. Inhibitory Competition between Shape Properties in Figure-Ground Perception

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    Peterson, Mary A.; Skow, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Theories of figure-ground perception entail inhibitory competition between either low-level units (edge or feature units) or high-level shape properties. Extant computational models instantiate the 1st type of theory. The authors investigated a prediction of the 2nd type of theory: that shape properties suggested on the ground side of an edge are…

  7. How prior expectations shape multisensory perception.

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    Gau, Remi; Noppeney, Uta

    2016-01-01

    The brain generates a representation of our environment by integrating signals from a common source, but segregating signals from different sources. This fMRI study investigated how the brain arbitrates between perceptual integration and segregation based on top-down congruency expectations and bottom-up stimulus-bound congruency cues. Participants were presented audiovisual movies of phonologically congruent, incongruent or McGurk syllables that can be integrated into an illusory percept (e.g. "ti" percept for visual «ki» with auditory /pi/). They reported the syllable they perceived. Critically, we manipulated participants' top-down congruency expectations by presenting McGurk stimuli embedded in blocks of congruent or incongruent syllables. Behaviorally, participants were more likely to fuse audiovisual signals into an illusory McGurk percept in congruent than incongruent contexts. At the neural level, the left inferior frontal sulcus (lIFS) showed increased activations for bottom-up incongruent relative to congruent inputs. Moreover, lIFS activations were increased for physically identical McGurk stimuli, when participants segregated the audiovisual signals and reported their auditory percept. Critically, this activation increase for perceptual segregation was amplified when participants expected audiovisually incongruent signals based on prior sensory experience. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the lIFS combines top-down prior (in)congruency expectations with bottom-up (in)congruency cues to arbitrate between multisensory integration and segregation.

  8. Object familiarity modulates effective connectivity during haptic shape perception.

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    Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Hu, Xiaoping; Lacey, Simon; Stilla, Randall; Sathian, K

    2010-02-01

    In the preceding paper (Lacey, S., Flueckiger, P., Stilla, R., Lava, M., Sathian, K., 2009a. Object familiarity modulates involvement of visual imagery in haptic shape perception), we showed that the activations evoked by visual imagery overlapped more extensively, and their magnitudes were more correlated, with those evoked during haptic shape perception of familiar, compared to unfamiliar, objects. Here we used task-specific analyses of functional and effective connectivity to provide convergent evidence. These analyses showed that the visual imagery and familiar haptic shape tasks activated similar networks, whereas the unfamiliar haptic shape task activated a different network. Multivariate Granger causality analyses of effective connectivity, in both a conventional form and one purged of zero-lag correlations, showed that the visual imagery and familiar haptic shape networks involved top-down paths from prefrontal cortex into the lateral occipital complex (LOC), whereas the unfamiliar haptic shape network was characterized by bottom-up, somatosensory inputs into the LOC. We conclude that shape representations in the LOC are flexibly accessible, either top-down or bottom-up, according to task demands, and that visual imagery is more involved in LOC activation during haptic shape perception when objects are familiar, compared to unfamiliar.

  9. Millisecond Precision Spike Timing Shapes Tactile Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Mackevicius, Emily L.; Best, Matthew D.; Hannes P Saal; Bensmaia, Sliman J.

    2012-01-01

    In primates, the sense of touch has traditionally been considered to be a spatial modality, drawing an analogy to the visual system. In this view, stimuli are encoded in spatial patterns of activity over the sheet of receptors embedded in the skin. We propose that the spatial processing mode is complemented by a temporal one. Indeed, the transduction and processing of complex, high-frequency skin vibrations have been shown to play an important role in tactile texture perception, and the frequ...

  10. Droplet Motion on a Shape Gradient Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanfen; Cheng, Jiang; Zhou, Cailong; Xing, Haiting; Wen, Xiufang; Pi, Pihui; Xu, Shouping

    2017-05-02

    We demonstrate a facile method to induce water droplet motion on an wedge-shaped superhydrophobic copper surface combining with a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) oil layer on it. The unbalanced interfacial tension from the shape gradient offers the actuating force. The superhydrophobicity critically eliminates the droplet contact line pinning and the slippery PDMS oil layer lubricates the droplet motion, which makes the droplet move easily. The maximum velocity and furthest position of droplet motion were recorded and found to be influenced by the gradient angle. The mechanism of droplet motion on the shape gradient surface is systematically discussed, and the theoretical model analysis is well matched with the experimental results.

  11. Shape, gravity, and the perception of the right angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniatis, Lydia M

    2010-01-01

    Past efforts to determine whether orientation-dependent sensitivity to right angles is due to retinal or environmental/gravitational frames of reference have produced conflicting conclusions. I attempt to show that the chief factor underlying this phenomenon is, rather, the shape of the object containing the angle. This shape mediates the typical orientation of the object in a ground- gravity context and the consequent force-structure of the incorporated angle-a force structure that is reflected in the percept.

  12. Seeing the tipping point: Balance perception and visual shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Chaz; Keil, Frank C

    2016-07-01

    In a brief glance at an object or shape, we can appreciate a rich suite of its functional properties, including the organization of the object's parts, its optimal contact points for grasping, and its center of mass, or balancing point. However, in the real world and the laboratory, balance perception shows systematic biases whereby observers may misjudge a shape's center of mass by a severe margin. Are such biases simply quirks of physical reasoning? Or might they instead reflect more fundamental principles of object representation? Here we demonstrate systematically biased center-of-mass estimation for two-dimensional (2D) shapes (Study 1) and advance a surprising explanation of such biases. We suggest that the mind implicitly represents ordinary 2D shapes as rich, volumetric, three-dimensional (3D) objects, and that these "inflated" shape representations intrude on and bias perception of the 2D shape's geometric properties. Such "inflation" is a computer-graphics technique for segmenting shapes into parts, and we show that a model derived from this technique best accounts for the biases in center-of-mass estimation in Study 1. Further supporting this account, we show that reducing the need for inflated shape representations diminishes such biases: Center-of-mass estimation improved when cues to shapehood were attenuated (Study 2) and when shapes' depths were explicitly depicted using real-life objects laser-cut from wood (Study 3). We suggest that the technique of shape inflation is actually implemented in the mind; thus, biases in our impressions of balance reflect a more general functional characteristic of object perception. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. A biologically plausible model of human shape symmetry perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Frédéric J A M; Wilson, Hugh R

    2010-01-19

    Symmetry is usually computationally expensive to encode reliably, and yet it is relatively effortless to perceive. Here, we extend F. J. A. M. Poirier and H. R. Wilson's (2006) model for shape perception to account for H. R. Wilson and F. Wilkinson's (2002) data on shape symmetry. Because the model already accounts for shape perception, only minimal neural circuitry is required to enable it to encode shape symmetry as well. The model is composed of three main parts: (1) recovery of object position using large-scale non-Fourier V4-like concentric units that respond at the center of concentric contour segments across orientations, (2) around that recovered object center, curvature mechanisms combine multiplicatively the responses of oriented filters to encode object-centric local shape information, with a preference for convexities, and (3) object-centric symmetry mechanisms. Model and human performances are comparable for symmetry perception of shapes. Moreover, with some improvement of edge recovery, the model can encode symmetry axes in natural images such as faces.

  14. Salient features in 3-D haptic shape perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, M.A.; Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Shape is an important cue for recognising an object by touch. Several features like edges, curvature, surface area and aspect ratio are associated with three-dimensional shape. To investigate saliency of three-dimensional shape features we developed a haptic search task. The target and distractor it

  15. Divided attention limits perception of 3-D object shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Alec; Palmer, John; Moore, Cathleen M

    2013-01-01

    Can one perceive multiple object shapes at once? We tested two benchmark models of object shape perception under divided attention: an unlimited-capacity and a fixed-capacity model. Under unlimited-capacity models, shapes are analyzed independently and in parallel. Under fixed-capacity models, shapes are processed at a fixed rate (as in a serial model). To distinguish these models, we compared conditions in which observers were presented with simultaneous or sequential presentations of a fixed number of objects (The extended simultaneous-sequential method: Scharff, Palmer, & Moore, 2011a, 2011b). We used novel physical objects as stimuli, minimizing the role of semantic categorization in the task. Observers searched for a specific object among similar objects. We ensured that non-shape stimulus properties such as color and texture could not be used to complete the task. Unpredictable viewing angles were used to preclude image-matching strategies. The results rejected unlimited-capacity models for object shape perception and were consistent with the predictions of a fixed-capacity model. In contrast, a task that required observers to recognize 2-D shapes with predictable viewing angles yielded an unlimited capacity result. Further experiments ruled out alternative explanations for the capacity limit, leading us to conclude that there is a fixed-capacity limit on the ability to perceive 3-D object shapes.

  16. Continuous perception of motion and shape across saccadic eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracasso, Alessio; Caramazza, Alfonso; Melcher, David

    2010-11-24

    Although our naïve experience of visual perception is that it is smooth and coherent, the actual input from the retina involves brief and discrete fixations separated by saccadic eye movements. This raises the question of whether our impression of stable and continuous vision is merely an illusion. To test this, we examined whether motion perception can "bridge" a saccade in a two-frame apparent motion display in which the two frames were separated by a saccade. We found that transformational apparent motion, in which an object is seen to change shape and even move in three dimensions during the motion trajectory, continues across saccades. Moreover, participants preferred an interpretation of motion in spatial, rather than retinal, coordinates. The strength of the motion percept depended on the temporal delay between the two motion frames and was sufficient to give rise to a motion-from-shape aftereffect, even when the motion was defined by a second-order shape cue ("phantom transformational apparent motion"). These findings suggest that motion and shape information are integrated across saccades into a single, coherent percept of a moving object.

  17. Behavioral responses to noxious stimuli shape the perception of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Elisabeth S; Tiemann, Laura; Schmidt, Paul; Nickel, Moritz M; Wiedemann, Nina; Dresel, Christian; Sorg, Christian; Ploner, Markus

    2017-03-09

    Pain serves vital protective functions. To fulfill these functions, a noxious stimulus might induce a percept which, in turn, induces a behavioral response. Here, we investigated an alternative view in which behavioral responses do not exclusively depend on but themselves shape perception. We tested this hypothesis in an experiment in which healthy human subjects performed a reaction time task and provided perceptual ratings of noxious and tactile stimuli. A multi-level moderated mediation analysis revealed that behavioral responses are significantly involved in the translation of a stimulus into perception. This involvement was significantly stronger for noxious than for tactile stimuli. These findings show that the influence of behavioral responses on perception is particularly strong for pain which likely reflects the utmost relevance of behavioral responses to protect the body. These observations parallel recent concepts of emotions and entail implications for the understanding and treatment of pain.

  18. Genetic Fuzzy Modelling of User Perception of 3D Shapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiche, Sofiane; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2011-01-01

    Defining the aesthetic and emotional value of a product is an important consideration for its design. Furthermore, if several designers are faced with the task of creating an object that describe a certain emotion/perception (aggressive, soft, heavy, etc.), each is most likely to interpret...... the emotion/perception with different shapes composed of a set of different geometric features. In this paper, the authors propose an automatic approach to formalize the relationships between geometric information of 3D objects and the intended emotional content using fuzzy logic. In addition...

  19. Dominance of orientation over frequency in the perception of 3-D slant and shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Danny M; Shin, Ji; Li, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In images of textured three-dimensional surfaces, pattern changes can be characterized as changes in orientation and spatial frequency, features for which neurons in primary visual cortex are classically selective. Previously, we have demonstrated that correct 3-D shape perception is contingent on the visibility of orientation flows that run parallel to the surface curvature. We sought to determine the relative contributions of orientation modulations (OMs) and frequency modulations (FMs) for the detection of slant and shape from 3-D surfaces. Results show that 1) when OM and FM indicate inconsistent degrees of surface slant or curvature, observer responses were consistent with the slant or curvature specified by OM even if the FM indicated a slant or curvature in the opposite direction to the same degree. 2) For slanted surfaces, OM information dictates slant perception at both shallow and steep slants while FM information is effective only for steep slants. Together these results point to a dominant role of OM information in the perception of 3-D slant and shape.

  20. Shape perception in human and computer vision an interdisciplinary perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Dickinson, Sven J

    2013-01-01

    This comprehensive and authoritative text/reference presents a unique, multidisciplinary perspective on Shape Perception in Human and Computer Vision. Rather than focusing purely on the state of the art, the book provides viewpoints from world-class researchers reflecting broadly on the issues that have shaped the field. Drawing upon many years of experience, each contributor discusses the trends followed and the progress made, in addition to identifying the major challenges that still lie ahead. Topics and features: examines each topic from a range of viewpoints, rather than promoting a speci

  1. Seeing and feeling volumes: The influence of shape on volume perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrimanovic, Mirela; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M; Kappers, Astrid M L

    2010-07-01

    The volume of common objects can be perceived visually, haptically or by a combination of both senses. The present study shows large effects of the object's shape on volume perception within all these modalities, with an average bias of 36%. In all conditions, the volume of a tetrahedron was overestimated compared to that of a cube or a sphere, and the volume of a cube was overestimated compared to that of a sphere. Additional analyses revealed that the biases could be explained by the dependence of the volume judgment on different geometric properties. During visual volume perception, the strategies depended on the objects that were compared and they were also subject-dependent. However, analysis of the haptic and bimodal data showed more consistent results and revealed that surface area of the stimuli influenced haptic as well as bimodal volume perception. This suggests that bimodal volume perception is more influenced by haptic input than by visual information.

  2. The perception of shape from shading in a new light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    How do humans see three-dimensional shape based on two-dimensional shading? Much research has assumed that a 'light from above' bias solves the ambiguity of shape from shading. Counter to the 'light from above' bias, studies of Bayesian priors have found that such a bias can be swayed by other light cues. Despite the persuasive power of the Bayesian models, many new studies and books cite the original 'light from above' findings. Here I present a version of the Bayesian result that can be experienced. The perception of shape-from-shading was found here to be influenced by an external light source, even when the light was obstructed and did not directly illuminate a two-dimensional stimulus. The results imply that this effect is robust and not low-level in nature. The perception of shape from shading is not necessarily based on a hard-wired internal representation of lighting direction, but rather assesses the direction of lighting in the scene adaptively. Here, for the first time, is an experiential opportunity to see what the Bayesian models have supported all along.

  3. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Třebický, Vít; Fialová, Jitka; Kleisner, Karel; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm) affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males) participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM). Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  4. Stars advantages vs parallel coordinates: shape perception as visualization reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, Vladimir; Kovalerchuk, Boris

    2013-12-01

    Although shape perception is the main information channel for brain, it has been poor used by recent visualization techniques. The difficulties of its modeling are key obstacles for visualization theory and application. Known experimental estimates of shape perception capabilities have been made for low data dimension, and they were usually not connected with data structures. More applied approach for certain data structures detection by means of shape displays are considered by the example of analytical and experimental comparison of popular now Parallel Coordinates (PCs), i.e. 2D Cartesian displays of data vectors, with polar displays known as stars. Advantages of stars vs. PCs by Gestalt Laws are shown. About twice faster feature selection and classification with stars than PCs are showed by psychological experiments for hyper-tubes structures detection in data space with dimension up to 100-200 and its subspaces. This demonstrates great reserves of visualization enhancement in comparison with many recent techniques usually focused on few data attributes analysis.

  5. A Tactile Stimulator for Studying Passive Shape Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John W.; Fitzgerald, Paul J.; Yau, Jeffrey M.; Pembeci, Izzet; Hsiao, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a computer-controlled tactile stimulator for use in human psychophysical and monkey neurophysiological studies of 3-D shape perception. The stimulator is constructed primarily of commercially available parts, as well as a few custom-built pieces for which we will supply diagrams upon request. There are two components to the stimulator: a tactile component and a hand positioner component. The tactile component consists of multiple stimulating units that move about in a Cartesian plane above the restrained hand. Each stimulating unit contains a servo-controlled linear motor with an attached small rotary stepper motor, allowing arbitrary stimulus shapes to contact the skin through vibration, static indentation, or scanning. The hand positioner component modifies the conformation of the restrained hand through a set of mechanical linkages under motorized control. The present design controls the amount of spread between digits two and three, the spread between digits four and three, and the degree to which digit three is flexed or extended, thereby simulating different conformations of the hand in contact with objects. This design is easily modified to suit the needs of the experimenter. Because the two components of the stimulator are independently controlled, the stimulator allows for parametric study of the mechanoreceptive and proprioceptive contributions to 3-D tactile shape perception. PMID:19800916

  6. Feeling form: the neural basis of haptic shape perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Jeffrey M; Kim, Sung Soo; Thakur, Pramodsingh H; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2016-02-01

    The tactile perception of the shape of objects critically guides our ability to interact with them. In this review, we describe how shape information is processed as it ascends the somatosensory neuraxis of primates. At the somatosensory periphery, spatial form is represented in the spatial patterns of activation evoked across populations of mechanoreceptive afferents. In the cerebral cortex, neurons respond selectively to particular spatial features, like orientation and curvature. While feature selectivity of neurons in the earlier processing stages can be understood in terms of linear receptive field models, higher order somatosensory neurons exhibit nonlinear response properties that result in tuning for more complex geometrical features. In fact, tactile shape processing bears remarkable analogies to its visual counterpart and the two may rely on shared neural circuitry. Furthermore, one of the unique aspects of primate somatosensation is that it contains a deformable sensory sheet. Because the relative positions of cutaneous mechanoreceptors depend on the conformation of the hand, the haptic perception of three-dimensional objects requires the integration of cutaneous and proprioceptive signals, an integration that is observed throughout somatosensory cortex.

  7. Feeling form: the neural basis of haptic shape perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Soo; Thakur, Pramodsingh H.; Bensmaia, Sliman J.

    2015-01-01

    The tactile perception of the shape of objects critically guides our ability to interact with them. In this review, we describe how shape information is processed as it ascends the somatosensory neuraxis of primates. At the somatosensory periphery, spatial form is represented in the spatial patterns of activation evoked across populations of mechanoreceptive afferents. In the cerebral cortex, neurons respond selectively to particular spatial features, like orientation and curvature. While feature selectivity of neurons in the earlier processing stages can be understood in terms of linear receptive field models, higher order somatosensory neurons exhibit nonlinear response properties that result in tuning for more complex geometrical features. In fact, tactile shape processing bears remarkable analogies to its visual counterpart and the two may rely on shared neural circuitry. Furthermore, one of the unique aspects of primate somatosensation is that it contains a deformable sensory sheet. Because the relative positions of cutaneous mechanoreceptors depend on the conformation of the hand, the haptic perception of three-dimensional objects requires the integration of cutaneous and proprioceptive signals, an integration that is observed throughout somatosensory cortex. PMID:26581869

  8. When circles become triangular: how transsaccadic predictions shape the perception of shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwig, Arvid; Weiss, Katharina; Schneider, Werner X

    2015-03-01

    Human vision is characterized by a consistent pattern of saccadic eye movements. With each saccade, internal object representations change their retinal position and spatial resolution. This raises the question as to how peripheral perception is affected by imminent saccadic eye movements. Here, we suggest that saccades are accompanied by a prediction of their perceptual consequences (i.e., the foveation of the target object). Accordingly, peripheral perception should be biased toward previously associated foveal input. In this study, we first exposed participants to an altered visual stimulation where one object systematically changed its shape during saccades. Subsequently, participants had to judge the shape of briefly presented peripheral saccade targets. The results showed that targets were perceived as less curved for objects that previously changed from more circular in the periphery to more triangular in the fovea. Similarly, shapes were perceived as more curved for objects that previously changed from triangular to circular. Thus, peripheral perception seems to depend not solely on the current input but also on memorized experiences, enabling predictions about the perceptual consequences of saccadic eye movements.

  9. Effects of texture component orientation on orientation flow visibility for 3-D shape perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Michelle L; Li, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In images of textured 3-D surfaces, orientation flows created by the texture components parallel to the surface slant play a critical role in conveying the surface slant and shape. This study examines the visibility of these orientation flows in complex patterns. Specifically, we examine the effect of orientation of neighboring texture components on orientation flow visibility. Complex plaids consisting of gratings equally spaced in orientation were mapped onto planar and curved surfaces. The visibility of the component that creates the orientation flows was quantified by measuring its contrast threshold (CT) while varying the combination of neighboring components present in the pattern. CTs were consistently lowest only when components closest in orientation to that of the orientation flows were subtracted from the pattern. This finding suggests that a previously reported frequency-selective cross-orientation suppression mechanism involved with the perception of 3-D shape from texture is affected by proximity in orientation of concurrent texture components.

  10. Effects of texture component orientation on orientation flow visibility for 3-D shape perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Fowler

    Full Text Available In images of textured 3-D surfaces, orientation flows created by the texture components parallel to the surface slant play a critical role in conveying the surface slant and shape. This study examines the visibility of these orientation flows in complex patterns. Specifically, we examine the effect of orientation of neighboring texture components on orientation flow visibility. Complex plaids consisting of gratings equally spaced in orientation were mapped onto planar and curved surfaces. The visibility of the component that creates the orientation flows was quantified by measuring its contrast threshold (CT while varying the combination of neighboring components present in the pattern. CTs were consistently lowest only when components closest in orientation to that of the orientation flows were subtracted from the pattern. This finding suggests that a previously reported frequency-selective cross-orientation suppression mechanism involved with the perception of 3-D shape from texture is affected by proximity in orientation of concurrent texture components.

  11. The effect of age upon the perception of 3-D shape from motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, J Farley; Cheeseman, Jacob R; Pyles, Jessica; Baxter, Michael W; Thomason, Kelsey E; Calloway, Autum B

    2013-12-18

    Two experiments evaluated the ability of 50 older, middle-aged, and younger adults to discriminate the 3-dimensional (3-D) shape of curved surfaces defined by optical motion. In Experiment 1, temporal correspondence was disrupted by limiting the lifetimes of the moving surface points. In order to discriminate 3-D surface shape reliably, the younger and middle-aged adults needed a surface point lifetime of approximately 4 views (in the apparent motion sequences). In contrast, the older adults needed a much longer surface point lifetime of approximately 9 views in order to reliably perform the same task. In Experiment 2, the negative effect of age upon 3-D shape discrimination from motion was replicated. In this experiment, however, the participants' abilities to discriminate grating orientation and speed were also assessed. Edden et al. (2009) have recently demonstrated that behavioral grating orientation discrimination correlates with GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid) concentration in human visual cortex. Our results demonstrate that the negative effect of age upon 3-D shape perception from motion is not caused by impairments in the ability to perceive motion per se, but does correlate significantly with grating orientation discrimination. This result suggests that the age-related decline in 3-D shape discrimination from motion is related to decline in GABA concentration in visual cortex.

  12. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Třebický

    Full Text Available Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM. Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  13. Investigations of OTR screen surfaces and shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Welsch, C P; Lefèvre, T

    2006-01-01

    Optical transition radiation (OTR) has proven to be a flexible and effective tool for measuring a wide range of beam parameters, in particular the beam divergence and the transverse beam profile. It is today an established and widely used diagnostic method providing linear real-time measurements. Measurements in the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) showed that the performance of the present profile monitors is limited by the optical acceptance of the imaging system. In this paper, two methods to improve the systems' performance are presented and results from measurements are shown. First, the influence of the surface quality of the OTR screen itself is addressed. Several possible screen materials have been tested to which different surface treatment techniques were applied. Results from the measured optical characteristics are given. Second, a parabolic-shaped screen support was investigated with the aim of providing an initial focusing of the emitted radiation and thus to reduce the problem of aperture limitation.

  14. Perception of simulated local shapes using active and passive touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allan M; Chapman, C Elaine; Donati, François; Fortier-Poisson, Pascal; Hayward, Vincent

    2009-12-01

    This study reexamined the perceptual equivalence of active and passive touch using a computer-controlled force-feedback device. Nine subjects explored a 6 x 10-cm workspace, with the index finger resting on a mobile flat plate, and experienced simulated Gaussian ridges and troughs (width, 15 mm; amplitude, 0.5 to 4.5 mm). The device simulated shapes by modulating either lateral resistance with no vertical movement or by vertical movement with no lateral forces, as a function of the digit position in the horizontal workspace. The force profiles and displacements recorded during active touch were played back to the stationary finger in the passive condition, ensuring that stimulation conditions were identical. For the passive condition, shapes simulated by vertical displacements of the finger had lower categorization thresholds and higher magnitude estimates compared with those of active touch. In contrast, the results with the lateral force fields showed that with passive touch, subjects recognized that a stimulus was present but were unable to correctly categorize its shape as convex or concave. This result suggests that feedback from the motor command can play an important role in processing sensory inputs during tactile exploration. Finally, subjects were administered a ring-block anesthesia of the digital nerves of the index finger and subsequently retested. Removing skin sensation significantly increased the categorization threshold for the perception of shapes generated by lateral force fields, but not for those generated by displacement fields.

  15. Looking the part: social status cues shape race perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jonathan B; Penner, Andrew M; Saperstein, Aliya; Scheutz, Matthias; Ambady, Nalini

    2011-01-01

    It is commonly believed that race is perceived through another's facial features, such as skin color. In the present research, we demonstrate that cues to social status that often surround a face systematically change the perception of its race. Participants categorized the race of faces that varied along White-Black morph continua and that were presented with high-status or low-status attire. Low-status attire increased the likelihood of categorization as Black, whereas high-status attire increased the likelihood of categorization as White; and this influence grew stronger as race became more ambiguous (Experiment 1). When faces with high-status attire were categorized as Black or faces with low-status attire were categorized as White, participants' hand movements nevertheless revealed a simultaneous attraction to select the other race-category response (stereotypically tied to the status cue) before arriving at a final categorization. Further, this attraction effect grew as race became more ambiguous (Experiment 2). Computational simulations then demonstrated that these effects may be accounted for by a neurally plausible person categorization system, in which contextual cues come to trigger stereotypes that in turn influence race perception. Together, the findings show how stereotypes interact with physical cues to shape person categorization, and suggest that social and contextual factors guide the perception of race.

  16. New approach to the perception of 3D shape based on veridicality, complexity, symmetry and volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizlo, Zygmunt; Sawada, Tadamasa; Li, Yunfeng; Kropatsch, Walter G; Steinman, Robert M

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews recent progress towards understanding 3D shape perception made possible by appreciating the significant role that veridicality and complexity play in the natural visual environment. The ability to see objects as they really are "out there" is derived from the complexity inherent in the 3D object's shape. The importance of both veridicality and complexity was ignored in most prior research. Appreciating their importance made it possible to devise a computational model that recovers the 3D shape of an object from only one of its 2D images. This model uses a simplicity principle consisting of only four a priori constraints representing properties of 3D shapes, primarily their symmetry and volume. The model recovers 3D shapes from a single 2D image as well, and sometimes even better, than a human being. In the rare recoveries in which errors are observed, the errors made by the model and human subjects are very similar. The model makes no use of depth, surfaces or learning. Recent elaborations of this model include: (i) the recovery of the shapes of natural objects, including human and animal bodies with limbs in varying positions (ii) providing the model with two input images that allowed it to achieve virtually perfect shape constancy from almost all viewing directions. The review concludes with a comparison of some of the highlights of our novel, successful approach to the recovery of 3D shape from a 2D image with prior, less successful approaches.

  17. The influence of shape-from-shading information on the perception of global motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuu, Sieu K; Khambiye, Shazaan

    2012-02-15

    The visual system is able to infer three-dimensional (3D) shape from the surface shading-gradient of objects. Using Global Dot Motion (GDM) stimuli, we investigated the influence of shape from shading on the perception of coherent local and global motion. In Experiment 1, we report that the visual system is unable to detect the local motion of dots that undergo a change in 3D shape (convex to concave shape) from frame to frame. For this condition, GDM detection thresholds were approximately four times higher than when dots do not change shape. However, when shaded dots were perceptually two-dimensional (as with bipartite and horizontally shaded dots) GDM the visual system was able to detect the global motion regardless of a change in shading direction. Finally in Experiment 3, we demonstrated that the addition of noise dots interferes with the detection of global motion only when they have same 3D shape as signal dots. GDM detection thresholds were unaffected if additional noise dots were of the opposite 3D shape. The findings of the present study demonstrate that 3D shape from shading information impacts of GDM detection, particularly, that this depth form-cue is used as a basis for independent motion analysis at both local and global levels of processing.

  18. Contribution of inferior temporal and posterior parietal activity to three-dimensional shape perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Bram-Ernst; Vogels, Rufin; Janssen, Peter

    2010-05-25

    One of the fundamental goals of neuroscience is to understand how perception arises from the activity of neurons in the brain. Stereopsis is a type of three-dimensional (3D) perception that relies on two slightly different projections of the world onto the retinas of the two eyes, i.e., binocular disparity. Neurons selective for curved surfaces defined by binocular disparity may contribute to the perception of an object's 3D structure. Such neurons have been observed in both the anterior lower bank of the superior temporal sulcus (TEs, part of the inferior temporal cortex [IT]) and the anterior intraparietal area (AIP). However, the specific contributions of IT and AIP to depth perception remain unknown. We simultaneously recorded multiunit activity in IT and AIP while monkeys discriminated between concave and convex 3D shapes. We observed a correlation between the neural activity and behavioral choice that arose early and during perceptual decision formation in IT but later and after perceptual decision formation in AIP. These results suggest a role for IT, but not AIP, in 3D shape discrimination. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that similar neuronal stimulus selectivities in two areas do not imply a similar function.

  19. Shape-memory-actuated compliant control surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Brian J.; Carpenter, Bernie F.; Draper, Jerry L.; Misra, Mohan S.

    1993-09-01

    Advanced submarine stern configurations require a variety of control surfaces to actively manage aftbody boundary layer flow, vorticity, propulsor inflow and intrapropulsor flow, as well as vehicle attitude. Two necessary attributes of advanced control surface designs include (1) integrated actuation to provide placement flexibility at remote locations with minimal structural interfacing and control interconnects, and (2) improved lift efficiency and flow using variable or adaptive camber control. To demonstrate these attributes, a shape memory alloy (SMA) actuated compliant control fin (CCF) with a planform area of 620 sq. cm was developed for evaluation as rudder and sternplane appendages on a radio control submarine model at velocities up to 5.1 m/s (Reynolds No. approximately equals 1,000,000) and up to 0.2 Hz full cycle actuation. A completely fixed root design was developed to reduce turbulence at the hull/fine interface, with compliant deformation of the foil to improve flow characteristics over the baseline full-flying and trailing-edge-flap designs.

  20. Effects of surface reflectance on local second order shape estimation in dynamic scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dövencioglu, D.N.; Wijntjes, M.W.A.; Ben-Sharar, O.; Doerschner, K.

    2015-01-01

    In dynamic scenes, relative motion between the object, the observer, and/or the environment projects as dynamic visual information onto the retina (optic flow) that facilitates 3D shape perception. When the object is diffusely reflective, e.g. a matte painted surface, this optic flow is directly lin

  1. Object familiarity modulates the relationship between visual object imagery and haptic shape perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Simon; Flueckiger, Peter; Stilla, Randall; Lava, Michael; Sathian, K

    2010-02-01

    Although visual cortical engagement in haptic shape perception is well established, its relationship with visual imagery remains controversial. We addressed this using functional magnetic resonance imaging during separate visual object imagery and haptic shape perception tasks. Two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, the haptic shape task employed unfamiliar, meaningless objects, whereas familiar objects were used in the second experiment. The activations evoked by visual object imagery overlapped more extensively, and their magnitudes were more correlated, with those evoked during haptic shape perception of familiar, compared to unfamiliar, objects. In the companion paper (Deshpande et al., this issue), we used task-specific functional and effective connectivity analyses to provide convergent evidence: these analyses showed that the neural networks underlying visual imagery were similar to those underlying haptic shape perception of familiar, but not unfamiliar, objects. We conclude that visual object imagery is more closely linked to haptic shape perception when objects are familiar, compared to when they are unfamiliar.

  2. Shape perception enhances perceived contrast: evidence for excitatory predictive feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Biao; VanRullen, Rufin

    2016-03-14

    Predictive coding theory suggests that predictable responses are "explained away" (i.e., reduced) by feedback. Experimental evidence for feedback inhibition, however, is inconsistent: most neuroimaging studies show reduced activity by predictive feedback, while neurophysiology indicates that most inter-areal cortical feedback is excitatory and targets excitatory neurons. In this study, we asked subjects to judge the luminance of two gray disks containing stimulus outlines: one enabling predictive feedback (a 3D-shape) and one impeding it (random-lines). These outlines were comparable to those used in past neuroimaging studies. All 14 subjects consistently perceived the disk with a 3D-shape stimulus brighter; thus, predictive feedback enhanced perceived contrast. Since early visual cortex activity at the population level has been shown to have a monotonic relationship with subjective contrast perception, we speculate that the perceived contrast enhancement could reflect an increase in neuronal activity. In other words, predictive feedback may have had an excitatory influence on neuronal responses. Control experiments ruled out attention bias, local feature differences and response bias as alternate explanations.

  3. Large continuous perspective transformations are necessary and sufficient for accurate perception of metric shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Geoffrey P; Lind, Mats

    2008-04-01

    We investigated the ability to perceive the metric shape of elliptical cylinders. A large number of previous studies have shown that small perspective variations (perception of metric shape. If space perception is affine (Koenderink & van Doom, 1991), observers are unable to compare or relate lengths in depth to frontoparallel lengths (i.e., widths). Frontoparallel lengths can be perceived correctly, whereas lengths in depth generally are not. We measured reaches to evaluate shape perception and investigated whether larger perspective variations would allow accurate perception of shape. In Experiment 1, we replicated previous results showing poor perception with small perspective variations. In Experiment 2, we found that a 90 degrees continuous change in perspective, which swapped depth and width, allowed accurate perception of the depth/width aspect ratio. In Experiment 3, we found that discrete views differing by 90 degrees were insufficient to allow accurate perception of metric shape and that perception of a continuous perspective change was required. In Experiment 4, we investigated continuous perspective changes of 30 degrees, 45 degrees, 60 degrees, and 90 degrees and discovered that a 45 degrees change or greater allowed accurate perception of the aspect ratio and that less than this did not. In conclusion, we found that perception of metric shape is possible with continuous perspective transformations somewhat larger than those investigated in the substantial number of previous studies.

  4. Mathematical and computer modeling of component surface shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyashkov, A.

    2016-04-01

    The process of shaping technical surfaces is an interaction of a tool (a shape element) and a component (a formable element or a workpiece) in their relative movements. It was established that the main objects of formation are: 1) a discriminant of a surfaces family, formed by the movement of the shape element relatively the workpiece; 2) an enveloping model of the real component surface obtained after machining, including transition curves and undercut lines; 3) The model of cut-off layers obtained in the process of shaping. When modeling shaping objects there are a lot of insufficiently solved or unsolved issues that make up a single scientific problem - a problem of qualitative shaping of the surface of the tool and then the component surface produced by this tool. The improvement of known metal-cutting tools, intensive development of systems of their computer-aided design requires further improvement of the methods of shaping the mating surfaces. In this regard, an important role is played by the study of the processes of shaping of technical surfaces with the use of the positive aspects of analytical and numerical mathematical methods and techniques associated with the use of mathematical and computer modeling. The author of the paper has posed and has solved the problem of development of mathematical, geometric and algorithmic support of computer-aided design of cutting tools based on computer simulation of the shaping process of surfaces.

  5. Research on Complexity of Surface Undulating Shapes of Rock Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The surface undulating shapes of rock joints have been described qualitatively or experimental-quantitatively for a long time. The non-determined describing method can not fit quantitative evaluation of mechanical parameters of rock joints in engineering. In this paper, relative amplitude (RA) is chosen as a quantitative-describing index of surface measurement of 1 023 surface undulating curves which conducted by profile curve device(PCD). We discuss the nonuniformity,anisotropy and unhomogeneity of surface undulating shapes of joints. A new method that analyzes the complexity of surface undulating shapes of rock joints directional-statistically in various rock joints is also put forward.

  6. Robust Segmentation of Voxel Shapes using Medial Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Dennie; Telea, Alexandru

    2008-01-01

    We present a new patch-type segmentation method for 3D voxel shapes based on the medial surface, also called surface skeleton. The boundaries of the simplified fore- and background skeletons map one-to-one to increasingly fuzzy, soft convex, respectively concave, edges of the shape. Using this prope

  7. Infant Perception of Incongruent Shapes in Cast Shadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Sato

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A cast shadow occurs when an object blocks the light from an illumination and projects a dark region onto a surface. Previous studies have reported that adults are slower to identify an object when the object has an incongruent cast shadow than when it has a congruent cast shadow (Castiello, 2001. Here, we used the familiarization-novelty preference procedure to examine whether 5- to 8-month-old infants could detect the relationship between object shapes and cast shadows. In Experiment 1, we examined the infants' ability to detect incongruency between objects and cast shadows. Results showed that 7- to 8-month olds could detect incongruence between the object shapes and the cast shadows, whereas 5- to 6-month olds did not. Yet, our control experiment showed that infants could not detect this incongruence from stimuli in which a white outline had been added to the original cast shadow to decrease the possibility of it being perceived as a cast shadow (Experiment 2. The results of these experiments demonstrate that 7- to 8-month olds responded to the congruence of cast shadows and to consistent contrast polarity between the cast shadow and its background.

  8. Poor shape perception is the reason reaches-to-grasp are visually guided online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Lim; Crabtree, Charles E; Norman, J Farley; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2008-08-01

    Both judgment studies and studies of feedforward reaching have shown that the visual perception of object distance, size, and shape are inaccurate. However, feedback has been shown to calibrate feedfoward reaches-to-grasp to make them accurate with respect to object distance and size. We now investigate whether shape perception (in particular, the aspect ratio of object depth to width) can be calibrated in the context of reaches-to-grasp. We used cylindrical objects with elliptical cross-sections of varying eccentricity. Our participants reached to grasp the width or the depth of these objects with the index finger and thumb. The maximum grasp aperture and the terminal grasp aperture were used to evaluate perception. Both occur before the hand has contacted an object. In Experiments 1 and 2, we investigated whether perceived shape is recalibrated by distorted haptic feedback. Although somewhat equivocal, the results suggest that it is not. In Experiment 3, we tested the accuracy of feedforward grasping with respect to shape with haptic feedback to allow calibration. Grasping was inaccurate in ways comparable to findings in shape perception judgment studies. In Experiment 4, we hypothesized that online guidance is needed for accurate grasping. Participants reached to grasp either with or without vision of the hand. The result was that the former was accurate, whereas the latter was not. We conclude that shape perception is not calibrated by feedback from reaches-to-grasp and that online visual guidance is required for accurate grasping because shape perception is poor.

  9. Shape perception simultaneously up- and downregulates neural activity in the primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Peter; de Lange, Floris P

    2014-07-07

    An essential part of visual perception is the grouping of local elements (such as edges and lines) into coherent shapes. Previous studies have shown that this grouping process modulates neural activity in the primary visual cortex (V1) that is signaling the local elements [1-4]. However, the nature of this modulation is controversial. Some studies find that shape perception reduces neural activity in V1 [2, 5, 6], while others report increased V1 activity during shape perception [1, 3, 4, 7-10]. Neurocomputational theories that cast perception as a generative process [11-13] propose that feedback connections carry predictions (i.e., the generative model), while feedforward connections signal the mismatch between top-down predictions and bottom-up inputs. Within this framework, the effect of feedback on early visual cortex may be either enhancing or suppressive, depending on whether the feedback signal is met by congruent bottom-up input. Here, we tested this hypothesis by quantifying the spatial profile of neural activity in V1 during the perception of illusory shapes using population receptive field mapping. We find that shape perception concurrently increases neural activity in regions of V1 that have a receptive field on the shape but do not receive bottom-up input and suppresses activity in regions of V1 that receive bottom-up input that is predicted by the shape. These effects were not modulated by task requirements. Together, these findings suggest that shape perception changes lower-order sensory representations in a highly specific and automatic manner, in line with theories that cast perception in terms of hierarchical generative models.

  10. Microstructured shape memory polymer surfaces with reversible dry adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhaure, Jeffrey D; Xie, Tao; Varghese, Stephen; Kim, Seok

    2013-08-28

    We present a shape memory polymer (SMP) surface with repeatable, very strong (>18 atm), and extremely reversible (strong to weak adhesion ratio of >1 × 10(4)) dry adhesion to a glass substrate. This was achieved by exploiting bulk material properties of SMP and surface microstructuring. Its exceptional dry adhesive performance is attributed to the SMP's rigidity change in response to temperature and its capabilities of temporary shape locking and permanent shape recovery, which when combined with a microtip surface design enables time-independent control of contact area.

  11. SHAPE BIFURCATION OF AN ELASTIC WAFER DUE TO SURFACE STRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫琨; 何陵辉; 刘人怀

    2003-01-01

    A geometrically nonlinear analysis was proposed for the deformation of a freestanding elastically isotropic wafer caused by the surface stress change on one surface. Thelink between the curvature and the change in surface stress was obtained analytically fromenergetic consideration. In contrast to the existing linear analysis, a remarkableconsequence is that, when the wafer is very thin or the surface stress difference between thetwo major surfaces is large enough, the shape of the wafer will bifurcate.

  12. A Finger-Shaped Tactile Sensor for Fabric Surfaces Evaluation by 2-Dimensional Active Sliding Touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihua Hu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sliding tactile perception is a basic function for human beings to determine the mechanical properties of object surfaces and recognize materials. Imitating this process, this paper proposes a novel finger-shaped tactile sensor based on a thin piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF film for surface texture measurement. A parallelogram mechanism is designed to ensure that the sensor applies a constant contact force perpendicular to the object surface, and a 2-dimensional movable mechanical structure is utilized to generate the relative motion at a certain speed between the sensor and the object surface. By controlling the 2-dimensional motion of the finger-shaped sensor along the object surface, small height/depth variation of surface texture changes the output charge of PVDF film then surface texture can be measured. In this paper, the finger-shaped tactile sensor is used to evaluate and classify five different kinds of linen. Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT is utilized to get original attribute data of surface in the frequency domain, and principal component analysis (PCA is used to compress the attribute data and extract feature information. Finally, low dimensional features are classified by Support Vector Machine (SVM. The experimental results show that this finger-shaped tactile sensor is effective and high accurate for discriminating the five textures.

  13. Effects of surface characteristics on the plantar shape of feet and subjects' perceived sensations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witana, Channa P; Goonetilleke, Ravindra S; Xiong, Shuping; Au, Emily Y L

    2009-03-01

    Orthotics and other types of shoe inserts are primarily designed to reduce injury and improve comfort. The interaction between the plantar surface of the foot and the load-bearing surface contributes to foot and surface deformations and hence to perceived comfort, discomfort or pain. The plantar shapes of 16 participants' feet were captured when standing on three support surfaces that had different cushioning properties in the mid-foot region. Foot shape deformations were quantified using 3D laser scans. A questionnaire was used to evaluate the participant's perceptions of perceived shape and perceived feeling. The results showed that the structure in the mid-foot could change shape, independent of the rear-foot and forefoot regions. Participants were capable of identifying the shape changes with distinct preferences towards certain shapes. The cushioning properties of the mid-foot materials also have a direct influence on perceived feelings. This research has strong implications for the design and material selection of orthotics, insoles and footwear.

  14. Perception of 3D shape in context: contrast and assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooij, Katinka; te Pas, Susan F

    2009-03-01

    Whereas integration of shape and surround is held to occur through cue-dependent representations, we show that both cue-invariant and cue-dependent representations are involved. A central hinged plane and larger flanking plane were defined by either binocular disparity or motion. In a 'within-cue' condition, shape and surround were defined by the same cue and in a 'cross-cue' condition they were defined by a different cue. Observers compared the dihedral angle of the central shape with a constant reference. When the central shape was defined by disparity, the surround stimuli invoked a contrast bias in the within-cue condition, but shape assimilation occurred in the cross-cue condition. When the central shape was defined by motion there were overall no significant results, but if a contrast bias was observed, it was in the within-cue condition where integration could occur through cue-dependent representations.

  15. The Bicycle Illusion: Sidewalk Science Informs the Integration of Motion and Shape Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Michael E. J.; Dodd, Michael D.; Enns, James T.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe a new visual illusion first discovered in a natural setting. A cyclist riding beside a pair of sagging chains that connect fence posts appears to move up and down with the chains. In this illusion, a static shape (the chains) affects the perception of a moving shape (the bicycle), and this influence involves assimilation…

  16. Perception of Object Shape and Texture in Human Newborns: Evidence from Cross-Modal Transfer Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sann, Coralie; Streri, Arlette

    2007-01-01

    The present research investigates newborn infants' perceptions of the shape and texture of objects through studies of the bi-directionality of cross-modal transfer between vision and touch. Using an intersensory procedure, four experiments were performed in newborns to study their ability to transfer shape and texture information from vision to…

  17. The role of shape-from-shading information in the perception of local and global form in Glass patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuu, Sieu K; Moreland, Amy; Phu, Jack

    2011-06-28

    Three-dimensional (3D) shape can be inferred from the surface shading gradient of objects. Using Glass patterns, we investigated the importance of shape-from-shading information to the perception of global form. We examined whether different 3D shapes inferred from shading affect the extraction of local dipole orientations (local analysis) and the integration of dipoles in the perception of Glass structure (global analysis). In Experiment 1, we showed that incongruence in shading between partner dots prevents the recovery of the dipole orientation: partner dots with different 3D shapes are not paired to recover the dipole orientation. However, when incongruent "bipartite" partner dots (that have the same contrast polarity as shaded dots, but are two-dimensional) were used, the visual system was able to extract the local dipole orientation and detect the global pattern (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, we showed that additional noise dipoles affect the detection of Glass structure regardless of the 3D shape difference between signal and additional noise dipoles. This demonstrates that the visual system combines different oriented 3D dipoles to detect Glass structure. Our findings show that shape-from-shading information impacts on the ability to detect form structure but in different ways at local and global stages of processing.

  18. Perception of shape and space across rigid transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Filipp; Spröte, Patrick; Fleming, Roland W

    2016-09-01

    Objects in our environment are subject to manifold transformations, either of the physical objects themselves or of the object images on the retina. Despite drastic effects on the objects' physical appearances, we are often able to identify stable objects across transformations and have strong subjective impressions of the transformations themselves. This suggests the brain is equipped with sophisticated mechanisms for inferring both object constancy, and objects' causal history. We employed a dot-matching task to study in geometrical detail the effects of rigid transformations on representations of shape and space. We presented an untransformed 'base shape' on the left side of the screen and its transformed counterpart on the right (rotated, scaled, or both). On each trial, a dot was superimposed at a given location on the contour (Experiment 1) or within and around the shape (Experiment 2). The participant's task was to place a dot at the corresponding location on the right side of the screen. By analyzing correspondence between responses and physical transformations, we tested for object constancy, causal history, and transformation of space. We find that shape representations are remarkably robust against rotation and scaling. Performance is modulated by the type and amount of transformation, as well as by contour saliency. We also find that the representation of space within and around a shape is transformed in line with the shape transformation, as if shape features establish an object-centered reference frame. These findings suggest robust mechanisms for the inference of shape, space and correspondence across transformations.

  19. Photonic surfaces for designable nonlinear power shaping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Roshni, E-mail: rbiswas@usc.edu; Povinelli, Michelle L. [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

    2015-02-09

    We propose a method for designing nonlinear input-output power response based on absorptive resonances of nanostructured surfaces. We show that various power transmission trends can be obtained by placing a photonic resonance mode at the appropriate detuning from the laser wavelength. We demonstrate our results in a silicon photonic crystal slab at a laser wavelength of 808 nm. We quantify the overall spectral red shift as a function of laser power. The shift results from absorptive heating and the thermo-optic effect. We then demonstrate devices with increasing, decreasing, and non-monotonic transmission as a function of laser power. The transmission changes are up to 7.5 times larger than in unpatterned silicon. The strong nonlinear transmission is due to a combination of resonantly enhanced absorption, reduced thermal conductivity, and the resonant transmission lineshape. Our results illustrate the possibility of designing different nonlinear power trends within a single materials platform at a given wavelength of interest.

  20. Simulating anisotropic droplet shapes on chemically striped patterned surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.P.; Bliznyuk, O.; Kooij, E.S.; Poelsema, B.; Zandvliet, H.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    The equilibrium shape of droplets on surfaces, functionalized with stripes of alternating wettability, have been investigated using simulations employing a finite element method. Experiments show that a droplet deposited on a surface with relatively narrow hydrophobic stripes compared to the hydroph

  1. Does Language Shape the Production and Perception of Gestures?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Y.; Mol, L.; Hoetjes, M.W.; Swerts, M.G.J.; Bello, P.; Guarini, M.; McShane, M.; Scassellati, B.

    2014-01-01

    Does language influence the production and perception of gestures? The metaphorical use of language in representing time is deeply interlinked with actions in space, such as gestures. In Chinese, speakers can talk and gesture about time as if it were horizontal, sagittal, or vertical. In English,

  2. Shape of a large drop on a rough hydrophobic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonsik; Park, Jaebum; Lim, Hyuneui; Kim, Ho-Young

    2013-02-01

    Large drops on solid surfaces tend to flatten due to gravitational effect. Their shapes can be predicted by solving the Young-Laplace equation when their apparent contact angles are precisely given. However, for large drops sitting on rough surfaces, the apparent contact angles are often unavailable a priori and hard to define. Here we develop a model to predict the shape of a given volume of large drop placed on a rough hydrophobic surface using an overlapping geometry of double spheroids and the free energy minimization principle. The drop shape depends on the wetting state, thus our model can be used not only to predict the shape of a drop but also to infer the wetting state of a large drop through the comparison of theory and experiment. The experimental measurements of the shape of large water drops on various micropillar arrays agree well with the model predictions. Our theoretical model is particularly useful in predicting and controlling shapes of large drops on surfaces artificially patterned in microscopic scales, which are frequently used in microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip technology.

  3. From sound to shape: auditory perception of drawing movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoret, Etienne; Aramaki, Mitsuko; Kronland-Martinet, Richard; Velay, Jean-Luc; Ystad, Sølvi

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates the human ability to perceive biological movements through friction sounds produced by drawings and, furthermore, the ability to recover drawn shapes from the friction sounds generated. In a first experiment, friction sounds, real-time synthesized and modulated by the velocity profile of the drawing gesture, revealed that subjects associated a biological movement to those sounds whose timbre variations were generated by velocity profiles following the 1/3 power law. This finding demonstrates that sounds can adequately inform about human movements if their acoustic characteristics are in accordance with the kinematic rule governing actual movements. Further investigations of our ability to recognize drawn shapes were carried out in 2 association tasks in which both recorded and synthesized sounds had to be associated to both distinct and similar visual shapes. Results revealed that, for both synthesized and recorded sounds, subjects made correct associations for distinct shapes, although some confusion was observed for similar shapes. The comparisons made between recorded and synthesized sounds lead to conclude that the timbre variations induced by the velocity profile enabled the shape recognition. The results are discussed in the context of the ecological and ideomotor frameworks.

  4. Depth cues versus the simplicity principle in 3D shape perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunfeng; Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2011-10-01

    Two experiments were performed to explore the mechanisms of human 3D shape perception. In Experiment 1, the subjects' performance in a shape constancy task in the presence of several cues (edges, binocular disparity, shading and texture) was tested. The results show that edges and binocular disparity, but not shading or texture, are important in 3D shape perception. Experiment 2 tested the effect of several simplicity constraints, such as symmetry and planarity on subjects' performance in a shape constancy task. The 3D shapes were represented by edges or vertices only. The results show that performance with or without binocular disparity is at chance level, unless the 3D shape is symmetric and/or its faces are planar. In both experiments, there was a correlation between the subjects' performance with and without binocular disparity. Our study suggests that simplicity constraints, not depth cues, play the primary role in both monocular and binocular 3D shape perception. These results are consistent with our computational model of 3D shape recovery. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Eating behavior and perception of body shape in Japanese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Kumiko; Kato, Yoshiko; Mase, Tomoki; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Miyawaki, Chiemi; Fujita, Yuki; Okita, Yoshimitsu; Nakamura, Harunobu

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the relationship between eating behavior measured by the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) and perception of body shape, examining the current physical status and 'ideal' physical parameters in females and males. The participants, 548 Japanese university students (age 19.2 ± 0.9 years, mean ± SD; 252 males, 296 females), completed a questionnaire which asked for their current physical status (e.g., weight and height), their ideal physical parameters, their perception of their current body shape, their ideal body shape, and their eating behaviors. The ideal weight and ideal body mass index (BMI) were significantly higher than the current weight and BMI in the males, but significantly lower in the females. Among the females, the ideal body shape was smaller than their perception of current body shape. The DEBQ scores for restrained, emotional, and external eating were higher in the females than the males among the normal-weight participants, and among the underweight participants, the restrained eating and external eating scores were higher in the females than the males. Restrained eating was negatively associated with the discrepancy between the current and ideal weight, BMI, and body shape in both the males and females. Emotional eating was negatively associated with the discrepancy in current/ideal BMI and body shape only in the females. At least in Japanese university students, the gender differences in ideal body shape are related to eating behavior.

  6. Aging and the integration of orientation and position in shape perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudaia, Eugenie; Sekuler, Allison B; Bennett, Patrick J

    2014-05-30

    The current experiments examined the effect of healthy aging on the integration of orientation and position information in shape perception. Following Day and Loffler (2009), conflicting contours were created by sampling the orientations of one shape (e.g., a rounded pentagon) with Gabors, and positioning them on the circumference of a different shape (e.g., a circle). In Experiment 1, subjects judged whether the conflicting contour looked more circular than a rounded pentagon of varying amplitude, which allowed us to estimate the perceived shape of the conflicting contour. The relative amount of position and orientation information was manipulated by varying the number of Gabors comprising the target contour. Orientation information dominated the percept for contours sampled with 15-40 elements, producing a strong shape illusion, but position information determined the shape with denser sampling. The magnitude of this orientation dominance effect was equal in younger and older subjects across all sampling levels. In Experiment 2, subjects discriminated five contours that differed in orientation and/or position information. Both groups showed poor discrimination between conflicting contours and their perceptually equivalent radial frequency patterns, confirming the main finding of Experiment 1. In addition, older subjects showed worse discrimination between two noncircular radial frequency patterns than younger subjects. In sum, integration of orientation and position information in shape perception is preserved with aging; however, older adults are less able to make fine shape discriminations between noncircular sampled contours.

  7. Surface color perception and equivalent illumination models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, David H; Maloney, Laurence T

    2011-05-02

    Vision provides information about the properties and identity of objects. The ease with which we perceive object properties belies the difficulty of the underlying information-processing task. In the case of object color, retinal information about object reflectance is confounded with information about the illumination as well as about the object's shape and pose. There is no obvious rule that allows transformation of the retinal image to a color representation that depends primarily on object surface reflectance. Under many circumstances, however, object color appearance is remarkably stable across scenes in which the object is viewed. Here, we review a line of experiments and theory that aim to understand how the visual system stabilizes object color appearance. Our emphasis is on models derived from explicit analysis of the computational problem of estimating the physical properties of illuminants and surfaces from the retinal image, and experiments that test these models. We argue that this approach has considerable promise for allowing generalization from simplified laboratory experiments to richer scenes that more closely approximate natural viewing. We discuss the relation between the work we review and other theoretical approaches available in the literature.

  8. Terrain Perception in a Shape Shifting Rolling-Crawling Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchida Masataka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Terrain perception greatly enhances the performance of robots, providing them with essential information on the nature of terrain being traversed. Several living beings in nature offer interesting inspirations which adopt different gait patterns according to nature of terrain. In this paper, we present a novel terrain perception system for our bioinspired robot, Scorpio, to classify the terrain based on visual features and autonomously choose appropriate locomotion mode. Our Scorpio robot is capable of crawling and rolling locomotion modes, mimicking Cebrenus Rechenburgi, a member of the huntsman spider family. Our terrain perception system uses Speeded Up Robust Feature (SURF description method along with color information. Feature extraction is followed by Bag of Word method (BoW and Support Vector Machine (SVM for terrain classification. Experiments were conducted with our Scorpio robot to establish the efficacy and validity of the proposed approach. In our experiments, we achieved a recognition accuracy of over 90% across four terrain types namely grass, gravel, wooden deck, and concrete.

  9. A new look at emotion perception: Concepts speed and shape facial emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nook, Erik C; Lindquist, Kristen A; Zaki, Jamil

    2015-10-01

    Decades ago, the "New Look" movement challenged how scientists thought about vision by suggesting that conceptual processes shape visual perceptions. Currently, affective scientists are likewise debating the role of concepts in emotion perception. Here, we utilized a repetition-priming paradigm in conjunction with signal detection and individual difference analyses to examine how providing emotion labels-which correspond to discrete emotion concepts-affects emotion recognition. In Study 1, pairing emotional faces with emotion labels (e.g., "sad") increased individuals' speed and sensitivity in recognizing emotions. Additionally, individuals with alexithymia-who have difficulty labeling their own emotions-struggled to recognize emotions based on visual cues alone, but not when emotion labels were provided. Study 2 replicated these findings and further demonstrated that emotion concepts can shape perceptions of facial expressions. Together, these results suggest that emotion perception involves conceptual processing. We discuss the implications of these findings for affective, social, and clinical psychology.

  10. A social Bayesian brain: How social knowledge can shape visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Marte; Seth, Anil K; Pinto, Yair

    2017-03-01

    A growing body of research suggests that social contextual factors such as desires and goals, affective states and stereotypes can shape early perceptual processes. We suggest that a generative Bayesian approach towards perception provides a powerful theoretical framework to accommodate how such high-level social factors can influence low-level perceptual processes in their earliest stages. We review experimental findings that show how social factors shape the perception and evaluation of people, behaviour, and socially relevant objects or information. Subsequently, we summarize the generative view of perception within the 'Bayesian brain', and show how such a framework can account for the pervasive effects of top-down social knowledge on social cognition. Finally, we sketch the theoretical and experimental implications of social predictive perception, indicating new directions for research on the effects and neurocognitive underpinnings of social cognition.

  11. Monocular occlusions determine the perceived shape and depth of occluding surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, Inna; Wilcox, Laurie M; Allison, Robert S

    2010-06-01

    Recent experiments have established that monocular areas arising due to occlusion of one object by another contribute to stereoscopic depth perception. It has been suggested that the primary role of monocular occlusions is to define depth discontinuities and object boundaries in depth. Here we use a carefully designed stimulus to demonstrate empirically that monocular occlusions play an important role in localizing depth edges and defining the shape of the occluding surfaces in depth. We show that the depth perceived via occlusion in our stimuli is not due to the presence of binocular disparity at the boundary and discuss the quantitative nature of depth perception in our stimuli. Our data suggest that the visual system can use monocular information to estimate not only the sign of the depth of the occluding surface but also its magnitude. We also provide preliminary evidence that perceived depth of illusory occluders derived from monocular information can be biased by binocular features.

  12. Predicting Nanocrystal Shape through Consideration of Surface-Ligand Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Bealing, Clive R.

    2012-03-27

    Density functional calculations for the binding energy of oleic acid-based ligands on Pb-rich {100} and {111} facets of PbSe nanocrystals determine the surface energies as a function of ligand coverage. Oleic acid is expected to bind to the nanocrystal surface in the form of lead oleate. The Wulff construction predicts the thermodynamic equilibrium shape of the PbSe nanocrystals. The equilibrium shape is a function of the ligand surface coverage, which can be controlled by changing the concentration of oleic acid during synthesis. The different binding energy of the ligand on the {100} and {111} facets results in different equilibrium ligand coverages on the facets, and a transition in the equilibrium shape from octahedral to cubic is predicted when increasing the ligand concentration during synthesis. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  13. Drop shape visualization and contact angle measurement on curved surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilizzoni, Manfredo

    2011-12-01

    The shape and contact angles of drops on curved surfaces is experimentally investigated. Image processing, spline fitting and numerical integration are used to extract the drop contour in a number of cross-sections. The three-dimensional surfaces which describe the surface-air and drop-air interfaces can be visualized and a simple procedure to determine the equilibrium contact angle starting from measurements on curved surfaces is proposed. Contact angles on flat surfaces serve as a reference term and a procedure to measure them is proposed. Such procedure is not as accurate as the axisymmetric drop shape analysis algorithms, but it has the advantage of requiring only a side view of the drop-surface couple and no further information. It can therefore be used also for fluids with unknown surface tension and there is no need to measure the drop volume. Examples of application of the proposed techniques for distilled water drops on gemstones confirm that they can be useful for drop shape analysis and contact angle measurement on three-dimensional sculptured surfaces.

  14. Conveying the 3D Shape of Transparent Surfaces Via Texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interrante, Victoria; Fuchs, Henry; Pizer, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    Transparency can be a useful device for depicting multiple overlapping surfaces in a single image. The challenge is to render the transparent surfaces in such a way that their three-dimensional shape can be readily understood and their depth distance from underlying structures clearly perceived. This paper describes our investigations into the use of sparsely-distributed discrete, opaque texture as an 'artistic device' for more explicitly indicating the relative depth of a transparent surface and for communicating the essential features of its 3D shape in an intuitively meaningful and minimally occluding way. The driving application for this work is the visualization of layered surfaces in radiation therapy treatment planning data, and the technique is illustrated on transparent isointensity surfaces of radiation dose. We describe the perceptual motivation and artistic inspiration for defining a stroke texture that is locally oriented in the direction of greatest normal curvature (and in which individual strokes are of a length proportional to the magnitude of the curvature in the direction they indicate), and discuss several alternative methods for applying this texture to isointensity surfaces defined in a volume. We propose an experimental paradigm for objectively measuring observers' ability to judge the shape and depth of a layered transparent surface, in the course of a task relevant to the needs of radiotherapy treatment planning, and use this paradigm to evaluate the practical effectiveness of our approach through a controlled observer experiment based on images generated from actual clinical data.

  15. Screening with rubber screen surfaces with variously shaped apertures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, B.; Kraemer, T.

    1984-07-01

    Rubber screen surfaces are advantageous for bulk materials screening because of their low rate of wear and low noise emission and because they tend to prevent clogging. Screens with four different aperture shapes and sizes were available for experimental research. The cut sizes were determined in relation to the above-mentioned parameters with round and with crushed feed materials.

  16. The Shape Parameter in the Shifted Surface Spline

    CERN Document Server

    Luh, Lin-Tian

    2010-01-01

    There is a constant c contained in the famous radial basis function shifted surface spline. It's called shape parameter. RBF people only know that this constant is very influential, while its optimal choice is unknown. This paper presents criteria of its optimal choice.

  17. Ventral and dorsal visual stream contributions to the perception of object shape and object location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariou, Valentinos; Klatzky, Roberta; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the functional specialization of the two cortical visual pathways may not be as distinct as originally proposed. Here, we explore possible contributions of the dorsal "where/how" visual stream to shape perception and, conversely, contributions of the ventral "what" visual stream to location perception in human adults. Participants performed a shape detection task and a location detection task while undergoing fMRI. For shape detection, comparable BOLD activation in the ventral and dorsal visual streams was observed, and the magnitude of this activation was correlated with behavioral performance. For location detection, cortical activation was significantly stronger in the dorsal than ventral visual pathway and did not correlate with the behavioral outcome. This asymmetry in cortical profile across tasks is particularly noteworthy given that the visual input was identical and that the tasks were matched for difficulty in performance. We confirmed the asymmetry in a subsequent psychophysical experiment in which participants detected changes in either object location or shape, while ignoring the other, task-irrelevant dimension. Detection of a location change was slowed by an irrelevant shape change matched for difficulty, but the reverse did not hold. We conclude that both ventral and dorsal visual streams contribute to shape perception, but that location processing appears to be essentially a function of the dorsal visual pathway.

  18. Behavioral Differences in the Upper and Lower Visual Hemifields in Shape and Motion Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Giuseppe A; Cazzoli, Dario; Müri, René M; Mosimann, Urs P; Nef, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual accuracy is known to be influenced by stimuli location within the visual field. In particular, it seems to be enhanced in the lower visual hemifield (VH) for motion and space processing, and in the upper VH for object and face processing. The origins of such asymmetries are attributed to attentional biases across the visual field, and in the functional organization of the visual system. In this article, we tested content-dependent perceptual asymmetries in different regions of the visual field. Twenty-five healthy volunteers participated in this study. They performed three visual tests involving perception of shapes, orientation and motion, in the four quadrants of the visual field. The results of the visual tests showed that perceptual accuracy was better in the lower than in the upper visual field for motion perception, and better in the upper than in the lower visual field for shape perception. Orientation perception did not show any vertical bias. No difference was found when comparing right and left VHs. The functional organization of the visual system seems to indicate that the dorsal and the ventral visual streams, responsible for motion and shape perception, respectively, show a bias for the lower and upper VHs, respectively. Such a bias depends on the content of the visual information.

  19. "Shaping the Future", Black History and Diversity: Teacher Perceptions and Implications for Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study provides an evaluation of history subject leader's perceptions of a project called "Shaping the Future", together with their attitudes towards Black History and diversity. It found that primary subject leaders were less likely to attach importance to these dimensions than their counterparts in secondary schools, whilst only a…

  20. Shape Perception in 3-D Scatterplots Using Constant Visual Angle Glyphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2012-01-01

    When viewing 3-D scatterplots in immersive virtual environments, one commonly encountered problem is the presence of clutter, which obscures the view of any structures of interest in the visualization. In order to solve this problem, we propose to render the 3-D glyphs such that they always cover...... the prospect of dealing with clutter, but also the prospect of allowing for a better perception of the continuous shapes of structures in 3-D scatterplots. In a formal user evaluation of CVA glyphs, the results indicate that such glyphs do allow for better perception of shapes in 3-D scatterplots compared...... to regular perspective glyphs, especially when a large amount of clutter is present. Furthermore, our evaluation revealed that perception of structures in 3-D scatterplots is significantly affected by the volumetric density of the glyphs in the plot....

  1. Genetic Fuzzy Prediction of Mass Perception in Non-Functional 3D Shapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiche, Sofiane

    2010-01-01

    and it is argued that human attributes originate from three different levels of the brain: the visceral level; the behavioral level and the reflective level. This paper focuses upon the visceral level of reaction by automatically building a link between geometric properties of non-functional 3D shapes...... and their perception by observers. The link between geometry and human perception is created using a genetic learning algorithm combined with a fuzzy logic decision support system. Human evaluations of the non-functional 3D shapes against two contrary perception adjectives (massive versus lightweight) are used...... by the author and five (5) genetically generated. The fuzzy models were constructed using different sets of inputs of quantitative geometric properties. Combination of the different inputs resulted in different sets of fuzzy rules that can eventually be used as design guidelines for designers. The results...

  2. RECONSTRUCTION OF WELD POOL SURFACE BASED ON SHAPE FROM SHADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Quanying; CHEN Shanben; LIN Tao

    2006-01-01

    A valid image-processing algorithm of weld pool surface reconstruction according to an input image of weld pool based on shape from shading (SFS) in computer vision is presented. The weld pool surface information is related to the backside weld width, which is crucial to the quality of weldjoint. The image of weld pool is recorded with an optical sensing method. Firstly, the reflectance map model, which specifies the imaging process, is estimated. Then, the algorithm of weld pool surface reconstruction based on SFS is implemented by iteration scheme and speeded by hierarchical structure. The results indicate the accuracy and effectiveness of the approach.

  3. Perception Shapes Experience: The Influence of Actual and Perceived Classroom Environment Dimensions on Girls' Motivations for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, Juliette; Watt, Helen M. G.

    2013-01-01

    The classroom environment influences students' academic outcomes, but it is often students' perceptions that shape their classroom experiences. Our study examined the extent to which observed classroom environment features shaped perceptions of the classroom, and explained levels of, and changes in, girls' motivation in junior secondary school…

  4. An illusion predicted by V1 population activity implicates cortical topography in shape perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Melchi M; Chen, Yuzhi; Geisler, Wilson S; Seidemann, Eyal

    2013-10-01

    Mammalian primary visual cortex (V1) is topographically organized such that the pattern of neural activation in V1 reflects the location and spatial extent of visual elements in the retinal image, but it is unclear whether this organization contributes to visual perception. We combined computational modeling, voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) in behaving monkeys and behavioral measurements in humans to investigate whether the large-scale topography of V1 population responses influences shape judgments. Specifically, we used a computational model to design visual stimuli that had the same physical shape, but were predicted to elicit variable V1 response spread. We confirmed these predictions with VSDI. Finally, we designed a behavioral task in which human observers judged the shapes of these stimuli and found that their judgments were systematically distorted by the spread of V1 activity. This illusion suggests that the topographic pattern of neural population responses in visual cortex contributes to visual perception.

  5. Aging and the visual, haptic, and cross-modal perception of natural object shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, J Farley; Crabtree, Charles E; Norman, Hideko F; Moncrief, Brandon K; Herrmann, Molly; Kapley, Noah

    2006-01-01

    One hundred observers participated in two experiments designed to investigate aging and the perception of natural object shape. In the experiments, younger and older observers performed either a same/different shape discrimination task (experiment 1) or a cross-modal matching task (experiment 2). Quantitative effects of age were found in both experiments. The effect of age in experiment 1 was limited to cross-modal shape discrimination: there was no effect of age upon unimodal (ie within a single perceptual modality) shape discrimination. The effect of age in experiment 2 was eliminated when the older observers were either given an unlimited amount of time to perform the task or when the number of response alternatives was decreased. Overall, the results of the experiments reveal that older observers can effectively perceive 3-D shape from both vision and haptics.

  6. Surface reproduction of elastomeric materials: viscosity and groove shape effects

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, N.; Abu Kasim, N.H.; Azuddin, M.; Kasim, N.L. Abu

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of viscosity and type of grooves on surface detail reproduction of elastomeric impression materials. Methods: Express putty/light-, Impregum medium- and heavy/light-bodied and Aquasil medium- and putty/light-bodied elastomeric impression materials were chosen for this study. Five impressions were made using a cylindrical aluminum reference block with U- and V- shaped grooves and to produce 35 master dies. Each master die was immersed in distilled water at 370...

  7. Alignment with the horizontal plane: evidence for an orientation constraint in the perception of shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniatis, Lydia M

    2010-01-01

    In order to convert a 2-D image to a 3-D percept, the visual system must apply constraints that maximize the chances that the result will be unique and veridical. Previously proposed constraints include one that maximizes the symmetry of the percept, and one that maximizes its compactness (Li et al, 2009 Vision Research 49 979-991). Analysis of the 3-D percepts elicited by certain 2-D forms suggests the action of an additional constraint, favoring the alignment of the surfaces and/or axis of symmetry of the perceived object with the horizontal plane.

  8. The perception of surface folding in static and animated displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massironi, M; Bruno, N

    1997-01-01

    How do we interpret outline drawings of surfaces? Although pictorial depictions are projectively ambiguous, observers demonstrate definite preferences of interpretation. Additionally, they commit typical errors. A study is reported of one specific arrangement of surfaces as it is represented in outline drawings, namely the arrangement that results when two arbitrary surfaces are joined at a common edge to form an angle in 3-D ('phenomenic folding'). With some of these arrangements, observers report that the angle formed by the two surfaces is zero (complete folding). With others, they report that the angles are greater than zero (incomplete folding). Both interpretations are actually valid. Several investigators have proposed that observer preferences such as these are due t a tendency to prefer a 3-D interpretation that will make the depicted 3-D shape regular. Three experiments were performed to test this regularisation hypothesis. In the first, observers were shown pairs of four-sided polygons joined at one equal side. Their task was to imagine how the smaller polygon could be folded completely towards the larger, and, subsequently, to report on its position after the ('mental folding'). Reported positions were consistent with 3-D interpretations that caused figural regularisations, In the second and third experiments, observers were shown drawings of diamonds and parallelograms folded along a number of differently positioned and oriented segment ('folding edge'). Their task was to estimate verbally the extent of the dihedral angle formed by the two surfaces. Results indicated that the perception of incomplete folding is determined by 3-D interpretation of the orientation of the drawing with respect of the picture plane. In a fourth experiment, observers were asked whether projective equivalences might be disambiguated by animating two kinds of displays that yield the 'incomplete folding' effect but that should be distinguishable on the basis of the trajectories

  9. Determination of ocean surface wave shape from forward scattered sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstead, Sean P; Deane, Grant B

    2016-08-01

    Forward scattered sound from the ocean surface is inverted for wave shape during three periods: low wind, mix of wind and swell, and stormy. Derived wave profiles are spatially limited to a Fresnel region at or near the nominal surface specular reflection point. In some cases, the surface wave profiles exhibit unrealistic temporal and spatial properties. To remedy this, the spatial gradient of inverted waves is constrained to a maximum slope of 0.88. Under this global constraint, only surface waves during low wind conditions result in a modeled surface multipath that accurately matches data. The power spectral density of the inverted surface wave field saturates around a frequency of 8 Hz while upward looking SONAR saturates at 1 Hz. Each shows a high frequency spectral slope of -4 that is in agreement with various empirical ocean wave spectra. The improved high frequency resolution provided by the scattering inversion indicates that it is possible to remotely gain information about high frequency components of ocean waves. The inability of the inversion algorithm to determine physically realistic surface waves in periods of high wind indicates that bubbles and out of plane scattering become important in those operating scenarios.

  10. Influence of the shape on the consumers perception of the packaging attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojko Vladić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Packaging for fast moving consumer goods (FMCG demands constant attention in order to stay competitive in modern dynamic markets. FMCG consumers do not think about the purchasing product until they enter the place of purchase. This emphasizes importance of the communication in a place of purchase. Alongside promotional banners, displays and counters, packaging can be used for this purpose. While in-store promotional banners, displays and counters represent additional cost, the packaging as the integral part of the product can be used as an important marketing tool that does not add to product cost. Thus packaging becomes an important marketing tool that does not add to product cost. Marketers, distributors and researchers as well must take into consideration the complexity of consumer behaviour to achieve desired results. Alongside graphic design, material, colour, etc. packaging shape is considered as an important tool for product differentiation and promotion. Having this in mind, it is unclear why the influence of the packaging shape on the consumer remains the least examined of all packaging characteristics. The aim of this research is to understand the influence of packaging shape design on the consumer’s perception. The survey study conducted among the consumers of the fast moving consumer goods gave clear insight into the influence of packaging shape on the perception of packaging characteristics. The results can help to improve packaging shape design in order to achieve better market impact.

  11. When the Spatial and Ideological Collide: Metaphorical Conflict Shapes Social Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Tali; Stern, Chadly; Trope, Yaacov

    2016-03-01

    In the present article, we introduce the concept of metaphorical conflict-a conflict between the concrete and abstract aspects of a metaphor. We used the association between the concrete (spatial) and abstract (ideological) components of the political left-right metaphor to demonstrate that metaphorical conflict has marked implications for cognitive processing and social perception. Specifically, we showed that creating conflict between a spatial location and a metaphorically linked concept reduces perceived differences between the attitudes of partisans who are generally viewed as possessing fundamentally different worldviews (Democrats and Republicans). We further demonstrated that metaphorical conflict reduces perceived attitude differences by creating a mind-set in which categories are represented as possessing broader boundaries than when concepts are metaphorically compatible. These results suggest that metaphorical conflict shapes social perception by making members of distinct groups appear more similar than they are generally thought to be. These findings have important implications for research on conflict, embodied cognition, and social perception.

  12. Micro-Shaping of Nanopatterned Surfaces by Electron Beam Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Angulo Barrios

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We show that planar nanopatterned thin films on standard polycarbonate (PC compact discs (CD can be micro-shaped in a non-contact manner via direct e-beam exposure. The shape of the film can be controlled by proper selection of the e-beam parameters. As an example of application, we demonstrate a two-dimensional (2D array of micro-lenses/reservoirs conformally covered by an Al 2D nanohole array (NHA film on a PC CD substrate. It is also shown that such a curvilinear Al NHA layer can be easily transferred onto a flexible polymeric support. The presented technique provides a new tool for creating lab-on-CD architectures and developing multifunctional (flexible non-planar nanostructured films and surfaces.

  13. Specular image structure modulates the perception of three-dimensional shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Scott W J; Anderson, Barton L

    2014-11-17

    Retinal images are produced by interactions between a surface's 3D shape, material properties, and surrounding light field. In order to recover the 3D geometry of a surface, the visual system must somehow separate aspects of image structure generated by a surface's shape from structure generated by its material properties or the light field in which it is embedded. Attributing image structure to the wrong physical source would cause the visual system to interpret changes in one physical property (such as reflectance) as changes in another (such as shape). Many previous studies have shown that the visual system does not conflate image structure generated by specular reflectance with 3D shape, but they did not assess the physical conditions where it would be computationally most difficult to disentangle these different sources of image structure. Here, we show that varying the specular roughness and curvature of surfaces embedded in natural light fields can strongly modulate perceived shape. Despite the complexity of these interactions, we show how an image's gradient structure mediates its interpretation as a specular reflection or a change in 3D shape. Our findings provide a coherent explanation of when and why specular reflections impact perceived shape and reveal how the static surface properties, simplified light fields, and experimental methods used in previous studies may explain their inconsistent results.

  14. Attentional-shaping as a means to improve emotion perception deficits in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Dennis R; Tosheva, Aneta; Penn, David L; Basso, Michael R; Wanner, Jill L; Laib, Kristen

    2008-10-01

    Inability to recognize emotional expressions of others (emotion perception) is one of the most common impairments observed among individuals with schizophrenia. Such deficits presumably contribute much to the social dysfunction characteristic of schizophrenia. This study examined the efficacy of a novel attentional-shaping intervention to improve emotion perception abilities. Sixty participants with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to one of three intervention conditions: 1) attentional-shaping, 2) contingent monetary reinforcement, or 3) repeated practice. Participants completed the Face Emotion Identification Test (FEIT) at pre-test, intervention, post-test, and one week follow-up. Participants also completed the Bell-Lysaker Emotion Recognition Test (BLERT) and the Social Behavior Scale at pre-test and follow-up to measure generalization. The results showed that the attentional-shaping condition had significantly higher scores on the FEIT at intervention, post-test, and follow-up compared to monetary reinforcement and repeated practice. Improvement was also found on the BLERT and a trend was found for improved social behaviors at one-week follow-up. Results will be discussed in terms of face scanning and attentional deficits present in schizophrenia and potential uses of this intervention in the remediation of emotion perception deficits.

  15. Overlapping activity periods in early visual cortex and posterior intraparietal area in conscious visual shape perception: a TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Mika; Lähteenmäki, Mikko; Kaasinen, Valtteri; Parkkola, Riitta; Railo, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Parietal cortex is often activated in brain imaging studies on conscious visual processing, but its causal role and timing in conscious and nonconscious perception are poorly understood. We studied the role of posterior intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and early visual areas (V1/V2) in conscious and nonconscious vision by interfering with their functioning with MRI-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The observers made binary forced-choice decisions concerning the shape or color of the metacontrast masked targets and rated the quality of their conscious perception. TMS was applied 30, 60, 90, or 120ms after stimulus-onset. In the shape discrimination task, TMS of V1/V2 impaired conscious perception at 60, 90, and 120ms and nonconscious perception at 90ms. TMS of IPS impaired only conscious shape perception, also around 90ms. Conscious color perception was facilitated or suppressed depending on the strength of the TMS-induced electric field in V1/V2 at 90ms. The results suggest that simultaneous activity in V1/V2 and IPS around 90ms is necessary for visual awareness of shape but not for nonconscious perception. The overlapping activity periods of IPS and V1/V2 may reflect recurrent interaction between parietal cortex and V1 in conscious shape perception.

  16. Surface Characterization of Laser Surface Melted NiTi Shape Memory Alloy in Hanks' Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUIZhen-duo; ZHUSheng-li; MANHauchung; YANGXian-jin

    2004-01-01

    The surface of Ti-50.8Ni at% shape memory alloy was melted by an Nd-YAG laser. The Ti/Ni and Ti4+/ Tiatomic concentration ratios at the surface were changed significantly. The Ni ion release rate of the laser melted surface was much lower than that of the mechanical polished samples. A calcium-phosphorous layer with high Ca/P ratio was detected after immersion in Hanks' solution.

  17. Surface Characterization of Laser Surface Melted NiTi Shape Memory Alloy in Hanks' Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Zhen-duo; ZHU Sheng-li; MAN Hauchung; YANG Xian-jin

    2004-01-01

    The surface of Ti-50.8Ni at% shape memory alloy was melted by an Nd-YAG laser. The Ti/Ni and Ti4+/Ti atomic concentration ratios at the surface were changed significantly. The Ni ion release rate of the laser melted surface was much lower than that of the mechanical polished samples. A calcium-phosphorous layer with high Ca/P ratio was detected after immersion in Hanks' solution.

  18. Texture Gradient Effectiveness in the Perception of Surface Slant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinski, Richard R.; Levine, Nancy Parker

    1976-01-01

    To assess the development of monocular slant perception as well as the relative effectiveness of different sources of information, 90 children in first, third, and fifth grades and 30 college adults were asked to make judgments of surface slant on the basis of monocular texture gradient information. (Author/JH)

  19. Does the Shape of the Drinking Receptacle Influence Taste/Flavour Perception? A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Spence

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the latest evidence demonstrating that the shape and feel of the glassware (and other receptacles that we drink from can influence our perception of the taste/flavour of the contents. Such results, traditionally obtained in the world of wine, have often been interpreted in terms of changes in physico-chemical properties (resulting from the retention, or release, of specific volatile aromatic molecules, or the differing ways in which the shape of the glassware funnels the flow of the liquid across the tongue. It is, however, not always clear that any such physico-chemical differences do, in fact, lead to perceptible differences. Others, meanwhile, have stressed the importance of cultural factors, and the perceived appropriateness, or congruency, of the receptacle to the drink, based on prior experience. Here, though, we argue that there is also a much more fundamental association at work between shape properties and taste/flavour. In particular, the suggestion is made that the shape properties of the drinking receptacle (e.g., whether it be more rounded or angular—regardless of whether the receptacle is seen, felt, or both—can prime certain expectations in the mind of the drinker. And, based on the theory of crossmodal correspondence, this priming is thought to accentuate certain aspects of the tasting experience, likely as a result of a taster’s attention being focused on the attributes that have been subtly primed.

  20. Weber's Illusion and Body Shape: Anisotropy of Tactile Size Perception on the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Matthew R.; Haggard, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The perceived distance between touches on a single skin surface is larger on regions of high tactile sensitivity than those with lower acuity, an effect known as "Weber's illusion". This illusion suggests that tactile size perception involves a representation of the perceived size of body parts preserving characteristics of the somatosensory…

  1. Pulse shapes and surface effects in segmented germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, Daniel

    2010-03-24

    It is well established that at least two neutrinos are massive. The absolute neutrino mass scale and the neutrino hierarchy are still unknown. In addition, it is not known whether the neutrino is a Dirac or a Majorana particle. The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) will be used to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. The discovery of this decay could help to answer the open questions. In the GERDA experiment, germanium detectors enriched in the isotope {sup 76}Ge are used as source and detector at the same time. The experiment is planned in two phases. In the first, phase existing detectors are deployed. In the second phase, additional detectors will be added. These detectors can be segmented. A low background index around the Q value of the decay is important to maximize the sensitivity of the experiment. This can be achieved through anti-coincidences between segments and through pulse shape analysis. The background index due to radioactive decays in the detector strings and the detectors themselves was estimated, using Monte Carlo simulations for a nominal GERDA Phase II array with 18-fold segmented germanium detectors. A pulse shape simulation package was developed for segmented high-purity germanium detectors. The pulse shape simulation was validated with data taken with an 19-fold segmented high-purity germanium detector. The main part of the detector is 18-fold segmented, 6-fold in the azimuthal angle and 3-fold in the height. A 19th segment of 5mm thickness was created on the top surface of the detector. The detector was characterized and events with energy deposited in the top segment were studied in detail. It was found that the metalization close to the end of the detector is very important with respect to the length of the of the pulses observed. In addition indications for n-type and p-type surface channels were found. (orig.)

  2. Knowledge and Perception about Clinical Research Shapes Behavior: Face to Face Survey in Korean General Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Jung; Beck, Sung-Ho; Kang, Woon Yong; Yoo, Soyoung; Kim, Seong-Yoon; Lee, Ji Sung; Burt, Tal; Kim, Tae Won

    2016-05-01

    Considering general public as potential patients, identifying factors that hinder public participation poses great importance, especially in a research environment where demands for clinical trial participants outpace the supply. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge and perception about clinical research in general public. A total of 400 Seoul residents with no previous experience of clinical trial participation were selected, as representative of population in Seoul in terms of age and sex. To minimize selection bias, every fifth passer-by was invited to interview, and if in a cluster, person on the very right side was asked. To ensure the uniform use of survey, written instructions have been added to the questionnaire. Followed by pilot test in 40 subjects, the survey was administered face-to-face in December 2014. To investigate how perception shapes behavior, we compared perception scores in those who expressed willingness to participate and those who did not. Remarkably higher percentage of responders stated that they have heard of clinical research, and knew someone who participated (both, P perceptions and lack of knowledge will be effective in enhancing public engaged in clinical research.

  3. Shape Error Analysis of Functional Surface Based on Isogeometrical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    YUAN, Pei; LIU, Zhenyu; TAN, Jianrong

    2017-05-01

    The construction of traditional finite element geometry (i.e., the meshing procedure) is time consuming and creates geometric errors. The drawbacks can be overcame by the Isogeometric Analysis (IGA), which integrates the computer aided design and structural analysis in a unified way. A new IGA beam element is developed by integrating the displacement field of the element, which is approximated by the NURBS basis, with the internal work formula of Euler-Bernoulli beam theory with the small deformation and elastic assumptions. Two cases of the strong coupling of IGA elements, "beam to beam" and "beam to shell", are also discussed. The maximum relative errors of the deformation in the three directions of cantilever beam benchmark problem between analytical solutions and IGA solutions are less than 0.1%, which illustrate the good performance of the developed IGA beam element. In addition, the application of the developed IGA beam element in the Root Mean Square (RMS) error analysis of reflector antenna surface, which is a kind of typical functional surface whose precision is closely related to the product's performance, indicates that no matter how coarse the discretization is, the IGA method is able to achieve the accurate solution with less degrees of freedom than standard Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The proposed research provides an effective alternative to standard FEA for shape error analysis of functional surface.

  4. Innovative changes in the cylinder liners surface shaping methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruszka Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main directions of changes in new internal combustion engine designs are determined not only by legislation on the toxic components emission in the exhaust gases, but also by the changes resulting from technological development, which are the results of research and development activities. One of the basic systems that has undergone intensive development recently is the piston-rings-cylinder (PRC node. This article contains an original analysis of the direction of changes in cylinder surface shaping in terms of the cylinder’s main functional features in the PRC system (the casting material and the opening surface topography after the finishing process. The results of the research on cast iron materials for cylinder liner castings with strength of Rm > 300 MPa were analyzed based on the centrifugal casting method and their finishing stage in the finishing process meeting the criteria for reduction of oil consumption and particle emissions for new HDD type engine designs. The author also points to innovations in surface structure metrology based on new 3D optical measurement methods and the quality rating method by Mercedes company.

  5. Estimation of shape model parameters for 3D surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen; Darkner, Sune; Fripp, Jurgen;

    2008-01-01

    Statistical shape models are widely used as a compact way of representing shape variation. Fitting a shape model to unseen data enables characterizing the data in terms of the model parameters. In this paper a Gauss-Newton optimization scheme is proposed to estimate shape model parameters of 3D s...

  6. Surface shape analysis with an application to brain surface asymmetry in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignell, Christopher J; Dryden, Ian L; Gattone, S Antonio; Park, Bert; Leask, Stuart; Browne, William J; Flynn, Sean

    2010-10-01

    Some methods for the statistical analysis of surface shapes and asymmetry are introduced. We focus on a case study where magnetic resonance images of the brain are available from groups of 30 schizophrenia patients and 38 controls, and we investigate large-scale brain surface shape differences. Key aspects of shape analysis are to remove nuisance transformations by registration and to identify which parts of one object correspond with the parts of another object. We introduce maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods for registering brain images and providing large-scale correspondences of the brain surfaces. Brain surface size-and-shape analysis is considered using random field theory, and also dimension reduction is carried out using principal and independent components analysis. Some small but significant differences are observed between the the patient and control groups. We then investigate a particular type of asymmetry called torque. Differences in asymmetry are observed between the control and patient groups, which add strength to other observations in the literature. Further investigations of the midline plane location in the 2 groups and the fitting of nonplanar curved midlines are also considered.

  7. Surface formation and depth in monocular scene perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, M K

    1999-01-01

    The visual perception of monocular stimuli perceived as 3-D objects has received considerable attention from researchers in human and machine vision. However, most previous research has focused on how individual 3-D objects are perceived. Here this is extended to a study of how the structure of 3-D scenes containing multiple, possibly disconnected objects and features is perceived. Da Vinci stereopsis, stereo capture, and other surface formation and interpolation phenomena in stereopsis and structure-from-motion suggest that small features having ambiguous depth may be assigned depth by interpolation with features having unambiguous depth. I investigated whether vision may use similar mechanisms to assign relative depth to multiple objects and features in sparse monocular images, such as line drawings, especially when other depth cues are absent. I propose that vision tends to organize disconnected objects and features into common surfaces to construct 3-D-scene interpretations. Interpolations that are too weak to generate a visible surface percept may still be strong enough to assign relative depth to objects within a scene. When there exists more than one possible surface interpolation in a scene, the visual system's preference for one interpolation over another seems to be influenced by a number of factors, including: (i) proximity, (ii) smoothness, (iii) a preference for roughly frontoparallel surfaces and 'ground' surfaces, (iv) attention and fixation, and (v) higher-level factors. I present a variety of demonstrations and an experiment to support this surface-formation hypothesis.

  8. Early development of dynamic shape perception under slit-viewing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, Tomoko; Shirai, Nobu

    2014-01-01

    The developmental processes underpinning global shape and global motion perception in infancy have been relatively well described. However, the development of the ability to integrate both global motion and global shape information has remained unclear. In this study we employed a slit-viewing task to investigate the ability to integrate spatiotemporal information among infants ranging in age from 3 to 12 months. In experiment 1 each infant was familiarised with a moving object that was only partly visible through a slit. One of the two objects in the test trial was a novel object, and the other object had appeared previously in familiarisation trials. The findings suggested that infants aged 5 months and over looked longer at the novel drawings compared with the more familiar objects in the test trials. This implies that the infants recognised the whole shape of the object under the slit-viewing condition. In experiment 2 each infant was presented with partial images in a random order. In this case the infants were unable to distinguish the whole shape of the object. The findings suggest that infants did not rely on the local cues provided in experiment .

  9. Suppressive and enhancing effects in early visual cortex during illusory shape perception: A comment on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    In a recent functional magnetic resonance imaging study, Kok and de Lange (2014) observed that BOLD activity for a Kanizsa illusory shape stimulus, in which pacmen-like inducers elicit an illusory shape percept, was either enhanced or suppressed relative to a nonillusory control configuration depending on whether the spatial profile of BOLD activity in early visual cortex was related to the illusory shape or the inducers, respectively. The authors argued that these findings fit well with the predictive coding framework, because top-down predictions related to the illusory shape are not met with bottom-up sensory input and hence the feedforward error signal is enhanced. Conversely, for the inducing elements, there is a match between top-down predictions and input, leading to a decrease in error. Rather than invoking predictive coding as the explanatory framework, the suppressive effect related to the inducers might be caused by neural adaptation to perceptually stable input due to the trial sequence used in the experiment.

  10. Functional dissociation between action and perception of object shape in developmental visual object agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Erez; Ganel, Tzvi; Avidan, Galia; Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon

    2016-03-01

    According to the two visual systems model, the cortical visual system is segregated into a ventral pathway mediating object recognition, and a dorsal pathway mediating visuomotor control. In the present study we examined whether the visual control of action could develop normally even when visual perceptual abilities are compromised from early childhood onward. Using his fingers, LG, an individual with a rare developmental visual object agnosia, manually estimated (perceptual condition) the width of blocks that varied in width and length (but not in overall size), or simply picked them up across their width (grasping condition). LG's perceptual sensitivity to target width was profoundly impaired in the manual estimation task compared to matched controls. In contrast, the sensitivity to object shape during grasping, as measured by maximum grip aperture (MGA), the time to reach the MGA, the reaction time and the total movement time were all normal in LG. Further analysis, however, revealed that LG's sensitivity to object shape during grasping emerged at a later time stage during the movement compared to controls. Taken together, these results demonstrate a dissociation between action and perception of object shape, and also point to a distinction between different stages of the grasping movement, namely planning versus online control. Moreover, the present study implies that visuomotor abilities can develop normally even when perceptual abilities developed in a profoundly impaired fashion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The interaction of luminance, velocity, and shape information in the perception of motion transparency, coherence, and non-rigid motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinschi, R; Rosenfeld, A; Araújo, H J

    1993-01-01

    The perception of luminance transparency for superimposed patterns depends on how luminance, figural, and topological conditions are simultaneously satisfied. Motion transparency or coherence for two superimposed patterns, which correspond to the perception of both patterns moving across one another or to the perception of compound motion of the regions of pattern intersection, depends on the relation between the local velocity, luminance, and shape information. This study analyzes how luminance, shape, and local velocity interact in the perception of motion transparency and coherence. Psychophysical experiments done with sinusoidally modulated bar patterns are presented which show that the perception of motion transparency or coherence can be described as the result of the interaction of two integration modules: the velocity-luminance and the velocity-shape processes. The velocity-luminance process describes the integration of the local velocity with luminance information. When the luminance transparency rules are satisfied this process always generates the perception of motion transparency independently of the shape or contour information. On the other hand, when the luminance transparency rules are violated one can either perceive motion coherence or non-rigid motion; one perceives motion coherence when the patterns have small or zero amplitude, and non-rigid motion when the patterns have large amplitude. The velocity-shape process describes the integration of local velocity with shape information, and this depends on the relation between the error in the extraction of the local velocity and the magnitude of the contour amplitude. As a result of these experiments it is conjectured that the velocity-luminance and the velocity-shape processes do interact constructively or destructively. The constructive interaction occurs when the luminance transparency rules are satisfied. The destructive interaction occurs when the luminance transparency rules are violated, and

  12. Receptor Polymorphism and Genomic Structure Interact to Shape Bitter Taste Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudnitzky, Natacha; Behrens, Maik; Engel, Anika; Kohl, Susann; Thalmann, Sophie; Hübner, Sandra; Lossow, Kristina; Wooding, Stephen P; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The ability to taste bitterness evolved to safeguard most animals, including humans, against potentially toxic substances, thereby leading to food rejection. Nonetheless, bitter perception is subject to individual variations due to the presence of genetic functional polymorphisms in bitter taste receptor (TAS2R) genes, such as the long-known association between genetic polymorphisms in TAS2R38 and bitter taste perception of phenylthiocarbamide. Yet, due to overlaps in specificities across receptors, such associations with a single TAS2R locus are uncommon. Therefore, to investigate more complex associations, we examined taste responses to six structurally diverse compounds (absinthin, amarogentin, cascarillin, grosheimin, quassin, and quinine) in a sample of the Caucasian population. By sequencing all bitter receptor loci, inferring long-range haplotypes, mapping their effects on phenotype variation, and characterizing functionally causal allelic variants, we deciphered at the molecular level how a subjects' genotype for the whole-family of TAS2R genes shapes variation in bitter taste perception. Within each haplotype block implicated in phenotypic variation, we provided evidence for at least one locus harboring functional polymorphic alleles, e.g. one locus for sensitivity to amarogentin, one of the most bitter natural compounds known, and two loci for sensitivity to grosheimin, one of the bitter compounds of artichoke. Our analyses revealed also, besides simple associations, complex associations of bitterness sensitivity across TAS2R loci. Indeed, even if several putative loci harbored both high- and low-sensitivity alleles, phenotypic variation depended on linkage between these alleles. When sensitive alleles for bitter compounds were maintained in the same linkage phase, genetically driven perceptual differences were obvious, e.g. for grosheimin. On the contrary, when sensitive alleles were in opposite phase, only weak genotype-phenotype associations were seen

  13. War or Peace? How the Subjective Perception of Great Power Interdependence Shapes Preemptive Defensive Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Jing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Why do great powers with benign intentions end up fighting each other in wars they do not seek? We utilize an incentivized, two-person “Preemptive Strike Game” (PSG to explore how the subjective perception of great power interdependence shapes defensive aggression against persons from rival great powers. In Study 1, college students from the United States (N = 115, China (N = 106, and Japan (N = 99 made PSG decisions facing each other. This natural experiment revealed that Chinese and Japanese participants (a made more preemptive attacks against each other and Americans than against their compatriots, and that (b greater preexisting perceptions of bilateral competition increased intergroup attack rates. In Study 2, adult Americans (N = 127 watched real CNN expert interviews portraying United States–China economic interdependence as more positive or negative. This randomized experiment revealed that the more positive portrayal reduced preemptive American strikes against Chinese (but not Japanese, while the more negative portrayal amplified American anger about China’s rise, increasing preemptive attacks against Chinese. We also found, however, that preemptive strikes were primarily defensive and not offensive. Interventions to reduce defensive aggression and promote great power peace are discussed.

  14. Predation Risk Perception, Food Density and Conspecific Cues Shape Foraging Decisions in a Tropical Lizard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Drakeley

    Full Text Available When foraging, animals can maximize their fitness if they are able to tailor their foraging decisions to current environmental conditions. When making foraging decisions, individuals need to assess the benefits of foraging while accounting for the potential risks of being captured by a predator. However, whether and how different factors interact to shape these decisions is not yet well understood, especially in individual foragers. Here we present a standardized set of manipulative field experiments in the form of foraging assays in the tropical lizard Anolis cristatellus in Puerto Rico. We presented male lizards with foraging opportunities to test how the presence of conspecifics, predation-risk perception, the abundance of food, and interactions among these factors determines the outcome of foraging decisions. In Experiment 1, anoles foraged faster when food was scarce and other conspecifics were present near the feeding tray, while they took longer to feed when food was abundant and when no conspecifics were present. These results suggest that foraging decisions in anoles are the result of a complex process in which individuals assess predation risk by using information from conspecific individuals while taking into account food abundance. In Experiment 2, a simulated increase in predation risk (i.e., distance to the feeding tray confirmed the relevance of risk perception by showing that the use of available perches is strongly correlated with the latency to feed. We found Puerto Rican crested anoles integrate instantaneous ecological information about food abundance, conspecific activity and predation risk, and adjust their foraging behavior accordingly.

  15. Predation Risk Perception, Food Density and Conspecific Cues Shape Foraging Decisions in a Tropical Lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakeley, Maximilian; Lapiedra, Oriol; Kolbe, Jason J

    2015-01-01

    When foraging, animals can maximize their fitness if they are able to tailor their foraging decisions to current environmental conditions. When making foraging decisions, individuals need to assess the benefits of foraging while accounting for the potential risks of being captured by a predator. However, whether and how different factors interact to shape these decisions is not yet well understood, especially in individual foragers. Here we present a standardized set of manipulative field experiments in the form of foraging assays in the tropical lizard Anolis cristatellus in Puerto Rico. We presented male lizards with foraging opportunities to test how the presence of conspecifics, predation-risk perception, the abundance of food, and interactions among these factors determines the outcome of foraging decisions. In Experiment 1, anoles foraged faster when food was scarce and other conspecifics were present near the feeding tray, while they took longer to feed when food was abundant and when no conspecifics were present. These results suggest that foraging decisions in anoles are the result of a complex process in which individuals assess predation risk by using information from conspecific individuals while taking into account food abundance. In Experiment 2, a simulated increase in predation risk (i.e., distance to the feeding tray) confirmed the relevance of risk perception by showing that the use of available perches is strongly correlated with the latency to feed. We found Puerto Rican crested anoles integrate instantaneous ecological information about food abundance, conspecific activity and predation risk, and adjust their foraging behavior accordingly.

  16. The shaping of social perception by stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Emily S; Ramsey, Richard; Liepelt, Roman; Prinz, Wolfgang; de C Hamilton, Antonia F

    2016-01-19

    Although robots are becoming an ever-growing presence in society, we do not hold the same expectations for robots as we do for humans, nor do we treat them the same. As such, the ability to recognize cues to human animacy is fundamental for guiding social interactions. We review literature that demonstrates cortical networks associated with person perception, action observation and mentalizing are sensitive to human animacy information. In addition, we show that most prior research has explored stimulus properties of artificial agents (humanness of appearance or motion), with less investigation into knowledge cues (whether an agent is believed to have human or artificial origins). Therefore, currently little is known about the relationship between stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy in terms of cognitive and brain mechanisms. Using fMRI, an elaborate belief manipulation, and human and robot avatars, we found that knowledge cues to human animacy modulate engagement of person perception and mentalizing networks, while stimulus cues to human animacy had less impact on social brain networks. These findings demonstrate that self-other similarities are not only grounded in physical features but are also shaped by prior knowledge. More broadly, as artificial agents fulfil increasingly social roles, a challenge for roboticists will be to manage the impact of pre-conceived beliefs while optimizing human-like design.

  17. A comparative study of food habits and body shape perception of university students in Japan and Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Sakamaki, Ruka; Amamoto, Rie; Mochida, Yoshie; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Toyama, Kenji

    2005-01-01

    Background Abnormal body weight, dietary concerns, and unhealthy weight loss behaviors are increasingly being observed in young females in Japan. Our previous research has shown that the irregular lifestyles of female Japanese and Chinese students are significantly related to their desire to be thinner. In the present study, we compare the food habits and body shape preferences of female university students in South Korea and Japan to explore body shape perceptions in those populations. Metho...

  18. A comparative study of food habits and body shape perception of university students in Japan and Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Shinfuku Naotaka; Mochida Yoshie; Amamoto Rie; Sakamaki Ruka; Toyama Kenji

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Abnormal body weight, dietary concerns, and unhealthy weight loss behaviors are increasingly being observed in young females in Japan. Our previous research has shown that the irregular lifestyles of female Japanese and Chinese students are significantly related to their desire to be thinner. In the present study, we compare the food habits and body shape preferences of female university students in South Korea and Japan to explore body shape perceptions in those populatio...

  19. Affine operations plus symmetry yield perception of metric shape with large perspective changes (≥45°): data and model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Mats; Lee, Young Lim; Mazanowski, Janusz; Kountouriotis, Georgios K; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2014-02-01

    G. P. Bingham and M. Lind (2008, Large continuous perspective transformations are necessary and sufficient for accurate perception of metric shape, Perception & Psychophysics, Vol. 70, pp. 524-540) showed that observers could perceive metric shape, given perspective changes ≥ 45° relative to a principal axis of elliptical cylinders. In this article, we tested (a) arbitrary perspective changes of 45°, (b) whether perception gradually improves with more perspective change, (c) speed of rotation, (d) whether this works with other shapes (asymmetric polyhedrons), (e) different slants, and (f) perspective changes >45°. Experiment 1 compared 45° perspective change away from, versus centered on, a principal axis. Observers adjusted an ellipse to match the cross-section of an elliptical cylinder viewed in a stereo-motion display. Experiment 2 tested whether performance would improve gradually with increases in perspective change, or suddenly with a 45° change. We also tested speed of rotation. Experiment 3 tested (a) asymmetric polyhedrons, (b) perspective change beyond 45°, and (c) the effect of slant. The results showed (a) a particular perspective was not required, (b) judgments only improved with ≥ 45° change, (c) speed was not relevant, (d) it worked with asymmetric polyhedrons, (e) slant was not relevant, and (f) judgments remained accurate beyond 45° of change. A model shows how affine operations, together with a symmetry yielded by 45° perspective change, bootstrap perception of metric shape.

  20. Gatekeepers of the American Dream: how teachers' perceptions shape the academic outcomes of immigrant and language-minority students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Sarah; Muller, Chandra

    2015-05-01

    High school teachers evaluate and offer guidance to students as they approach the transition to college based in part on their perceptions of the student's hard work and potential to succeed in college. Their perceptions may be especially crucial for immigrant and language-minority students navigating the U.S. educational system. Using the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002), we consider how the intersection of nativity and language-minority status may (1) inform teachers' perceptions of students' effort and college potential, and (2) shape the link between teachers' perceptions and students' academic progress towards college (grades and likelihood of advancing to more demanding math courses). We find that teachers perceive immigrant language-minority students as hard workers, and that their grades reflect that perception. However, these same students are less likely than others to advance in math between the sophomore and junior years, a critical point for preparing for college. Language-minority students born in the U.S. are more likely to be negatively perceived. Yet, when their teachers see them as hard workers, they advance in math at the same rates as nonimmigrant native English speaking peers. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering both language-minority and immigrant status as social dimensions of students' background that moderate the way that high school teachers' perceptions shape students' preparation for college.

  1. Improved shape hardening function for bounding surface model for cohesive soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Nieto-Leal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A shape hardening function is developed that improves the predictive capabilities of the generalized bounding surface model for cohesive soils, especially when applied to overconsolidated specimens. This improvement is realized without any changes to the simple elliptical shape of the bounding surface, and actually reduces the number of parameters associated with the model by one.

  2. Patch-type Segmentation of Voxel Shapes using Simplified Surface Skeletons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Dennie; Telea, Alexandru

    2008-01-01

    We present a new method for decomposing a 3D voxel shape into disjoint segments using the shape’s simplified surface-skeleton. The surface skeleton of a shape consists of 2D manifolds inside its volume. Each skeleton point has a maximally inscribed ball that touches the boundary in at least two cont

  3. Improved shape hardening function for bounding surface model for cohesive soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrés Nieto-Leal; Victor N.Kaliakin

    2014-01-01

    A shape hardening function is developed that improves the predictive capabilities of the generalized bounding surface model for cohesive soils, especially when applied to overconsolidated specimens. This improvement is realized without any changes to the simple elliptical shape of the bounding surface, and actually reduces the number of parameters associated with the model by one.

  4. Investigation of mechanical responses to the tactile perception of surfaces with different textures using the finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Tang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tactile perception is essential for humans to perceive the world, and it usually results in mechanical responses from the finger. In this study, a nonlinear, viscoelastic, and multilayered finite element model of the finger was developed. The relationship between the mechanical responses within the finger and tactile perception while the finger scanned different surface textures was studied. The results showed that the sensitivity of tactile perception is affected by the peak value of von Mises stress, which is itself determined by the shape and density of a given texture. The von Mises stress varies periodically with time, and this variation depends on the periodicity of the texture. Displacement signals around Pacinian corpuscles have periodic variation. The period of displacement decreases as the density of the texture increases. The spectral centroid increases as the spacing of the texture decreases. The related mechanisms are discussed in this article.

  5. Early differential sensitivity of evoked-potentials to local and global shape during the perception of three-dimensional objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leek, E Charles; Roberts, Mark; Oliver, Zoe J; Cristino, Filipe; Pegna, Alan J

    2016-08-01

    Here we investigated the time course underlying differential processing of local and global shape information during the perception of complex three-dimensional (3D) objects. Observers made shape matching judgments about pairs of sequentially presented multi-part novel objects. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to measure perceptual sensitivity to 3D shape differences in terms of local part structure and global shape configuration - based on predictions derived from hierarchical structural description models of object recognition. There were three types of different object trials in which stimulus pairs (1) shared local parts but differed in global shape configuration; (2) contained different local parts but shared global configuration or (3) shared neither local parts nor global configuration. Analyses of the ERP data showed differential amplitude modulation as a function of shape similarity as early as the N1 component between 146-215ms post-stimulus onset. These negative amplitude deflections were more similar between objects sharing global shape configuration than local part structure. Differentiation among all stimulus types was reflected in N2 amplitude modulations between 276-330ms. sLORETA inverse solutions showed stronger involvement of left occipitotemporal areas during the N1 for object discrimination weighted towards local part structure. The results suggest that the perception of 3D object shape involves parallel processing of information at local and global scales. This processing is characterised by relatively slow derivation of 'fine-grained' local shape structure, and fast derivation of 'coarse-grained' global shape configuration. We propose that the rapid early derivation of global shape attributes underlies the observed patterns of N1 amplitude modulations.

  6. Contributions of feature shapes and surface cues to the recognition of facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormaz, Mladen; Young, Andrew W; Andrews, Timothy J

    2016-10-01

    Theoretical accounts of face processing often emphasise feature shapes as the primary visual cue to the recognition of facial expressions. However, changes in facial expression also affect the surface properties of the face. In this study, we investigated whether this surface information can also be used in the recognition of facial expression. First, participants identified facial expressions (fear, anger, disgust, sadness, happiness) from images that were manipulated such that they varied mainly in shape or mainly in surface properties. We found that the categorization of facial expression is possible in either type of image, but that different expressions are relatively dependent on surface or shape properties. Next, we investigated the relative contributions of shape and surface information to the categorization of facial expressions. This employed a complementary method that involved combining the surface properties of one expression with the shape properties from a different expression. Our results showed that the categorization of facial expressions in these hybrid images was equally dependent on the surface and shape properties of the image. Together, these findings provide a direct demonstration that both feature shape and surface information make significant contributions to the recognition of facial expressions.

  7. Large perspective changes yield perception of metric shape that allows accurate feedforward reaches-to-grasp and it persists after the optic flow has stopped!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Lim; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2010-08-01

    Lee et al. (Percept Psychophys 70:1032-1046, 2008a) investigated whether visual perception of metric shape could be calibrated when used to guide feedforward reaches-to-grasp. It could not. Seated participants viewed target objects (elliptical cylinders) in normal lighting using stereo vision and free head movements that allowed small (approximately 10 degrees) perspective changes. The authors concluded that poor perception of metric shape was the reason reaches-to-grasp should be visually guided online. However, Bingham and Lind (Percept Psychophys 70:524-540, 2008) showed that large perspective changes (> or =45 degrees) yield good perception of metric shape. So, now we repeated the Lee et al.'s study with the addition of information from large perspective changes. The results were accurate feedforward reaches-to-grasp reflecting accurate perception of both metric shape and metric size. Large perspective changes occur when one locomotes into a workspace in which reaches-to-grasp are subsequently performed. Does the resulting perception of metric shape persist after the large perspective changes have ceased? Experiments 2 and 3 tested reaches-to-grasp with delays (Exp. 2, 5-s delay; Exp. 3, approximately 16-s delay) and multiple objects to be grasped after a single viewing. Perception of metric shape and metric size persisted yielding accurate reaches-to-grasp. We advocate the study of nested actions using a dynamic approach to perception/action.

  8. Shape selection of surface-bound helical filaments: biopolymers on curved membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Quint, D A; Grason, G M

    2016-01-01

    Motivated to understand the behavior of biological filaments interacting with membranes of various types, we study a theoretical model for the shape and thermodynamics of intrinsically-helical filaments bound to curved membranes. We show filament-surface interactions lead to a host of non-uniform shape equilibria, in which filaments progressively unwind from their native twist with increasing surface interaction and surface curvature, ultimately adopting uniform-contact curved shapes. The latter effect is due to non-linear coupling between elastic twist and bending of filaments on anisotropically-curved surfaces, such as the cylindrical surfaces considered here. Via a combination of numerical solutions and asymptotic analysis of shape equilibria we show that filament conformations are critically sensitive to the surface curvature in both the strong- and weak-binding limits. These results suggest that local structure of membrane-bound chiral filaments is generically sensitive to the curvature-radius of the sur...

  9. Receptor Polymorphism and Genomic Structure Interact to Shape Bitter Taste Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Roudnitzky

    Full Text Available The ability to taste bitterness evolved to safeguard most animals, including humans, against potentially toxic substances, thereby leading to food rejection. Nonetheless, bitter perception is subject to individual variations due to the presence of genetic functional polymorphisms in bitter taste receptor (TAS2R genes, such as the long-known association between genetic polymorphisms in TAS2R38 and bitter taste perception of phenylthiocarbamide. Yet, due to overlaps in specificities across receptors, such associations with a single TAS2R locus are uncommon. Therefore, to investigate more complex associations, we examined taste responses to six structurally diverse compounds (absinthin, amarogentin, cascarillin, grosheimin, quassin, and quinine in a sample of the Caucasian population. By sequencing all bitter receptor loci, inferring long-range haplotypes, mapping their effects on phenotype variation, and characterizing functionally causal allelic variants, we deciphered at the molecular level how a subjects' genotype for the whole-family of TAS2R genes shapes variation in bitter taste perception. Within each haplotype block implicated in phenotypic variation, we provided evidence for at least one locus harboring functional polymorphic alleles, e.g. one locus for sensitivity to amarogentin, one of the most bitter natural compounds known, and two loci for sensitivity to grosheimin, one of the bitter compounds of artichoke. Our analyses revealed also, besides simple associations, complex associations of bitterness sensitivity across TAS2R loci. Indeed, even if several putative loci harbored both high- and low-sensitivity alleles, phenotypic variation depended on linkage between these alleles. When sensitive alleles for bitter compounds were maintained in the same linkage phase, genetically driven perceptual differences were obvious, e.g. for grosheimin. On the contrary, when sensitive alleles were in opposite phase, only weak genotype

  10. Effect of shape of protrusions and roughness on the hydrophilicity of a surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sheelan Sengupta; Pandey, Prithvi Raj; Kumar, Rajnish; Roy, Sudip

    2017-10-01

    We have investigated wetting of model rough surfaces made up of hydrophilic triangular and hexagonal pillars (protrusions). The surface roughnesses are altered by varying the area of the rough surface, the height of the pillars, and the surface interactions to the water. We have established a correlation between structure i.e., the shape of a pillar, which actually depends on the number of edges (due to shape), and the wetting phenomena. We have found that surface with higher number of edges repels water at lower roughness value. We explain the correlation by analyzing the variation of interactions energy components and density profiles of water on the structured surfaces.

  11. Somatosensory feedback refines the perception of hand shape with respect to external constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winges, S A

    2015-05-07

    Motor commands issued by the CNS are based upon memories of past experiences with similar objects, the current state of the hand and arm postures, and sensory input. Thus widespread somatosensory information is available to form precise representations of hand shape on which to base motor commands to match a desired posture or movement. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which somatosensory information reflecting external influences on independent finger movement is incorporated into the perception of hand shape driving the motor command. To address this issue, a matching task was performed while pairs of fingers in the grasping hand were constrained to move in tandem when grasping familiar objects. The hypothesis was that motor commands would be driven by comparison of the online sensory information from the matching hand to a desired somatosensory state determined by the current somatosensory input from the grasping hand. The results demonstrated that multi-muscle patterns of activation and hand postures were altered with respect to the external constraint on independent finger movement. A secondary aim of this study was to examine the influence of sensory information on the structure of the multi-muscle patterns. The hypothesis was that the same synergies (patterns of activation across muscles) would be used to complete the task but would be rescaled with respect to condition. The results demonstrated that rescaling the patterns of multi-muscle activity from the unconstrained condition could not equivalently represent those from the constrained conditions. Thus it appears that external restriction of independent finger movement was signaled by somatosensory feedback and incorporated into the desired state driving the motor command resulting in selective activation of groups of muscles.

  12. How staff and patient experience shapes our perception of spiritual care in a psychiatric setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffay, Julian

    2014-10-01

    To explore how our understanding of care practice is shaped by the extent of our engagement with staff and patient experience. In spite of the fact that service users desire good spiritual care and that government guidelines recognize its importance, frontline staff in psychiatric settings often find current spiritual assessment tools hard to use and the concept of spirituality difficult to comprehend. A database search was conducted, the grey literature analysed, spirituality assessment tools were explored, and an approach based on user experience was considered. Each of these four perspectives resulted in different perceptions of care. By engaging patient and staff experience, we begin to see spiritual care very differently. There may be rich opportunities for research into the lived experience of the support systems that service users create for each other on wards when they experience staff as inaccessible. Deeper engagement with patients and staff and their concerns is likely to result in breakthroughs in both the understanding and the practice of spiritual care as well as potentially other areas of nursing care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Contributions of feature shapes and surface cues to the recognition and neural representation of facial identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Timothy J; Baseler, Heidi; Jenkins, Rob; Burton, A Mike; Young, Andrew W

    2016-10-01

    A full understanding of face recognition will involve identifying the visual information that is used to discriminate different identities and how this is represented in the brain. The aim of this study was to explore the importance of shape and surface properties in the recognition and neural representation of familiar faces. We used image morphing techniques to generate hybrid faces that mixed shape properties (more specifically, second order spatial configural information as defined by feature positions in the 2D-image) from one identity and surface properties from a different identity. Behavioural responses showed that recognition and matching of these hybrid faces was primarily based on their surface properties. These behavioural findings contrasted with neural responses recorded using a block design fMRI adaptation paradigm to test the sensitivity of Haxby et al.'s (2000) core face-selective regions in the human brain to the shape or surface properties of the face. The fusiform face area (FFA) and occipital face area (OFA) showed a lower response (adaptation) to repeated images of the same face (same shape, same surface) compared to different faces (different shapes, different surfaces). From the behavioural data indicating the critical contribution of surface properties to the recognition of identity, we predicted that brain regions responsible for familiar face recognition should continue to adapt to faces that vary in shape but not surface properties, but show a release from adaptation to faces that vary in surface properties but not shape. However, we found that the FFA and OFA showed an equivalent release from adaptation to changes in both shape and surface properties. The dissociation between the neural and perceptual responses suggests that, although they may play a role in the process, these core face regions are not solely responsible for the recognition of facial identity.

  14. Detection of Veneer Moisture Content by Surface-circle-shaped Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sa Chao; Du Hongbo; Zhang Biguang; Wang Guozhu

    2003-01-01

    This paper, with veneer as a particularly detected target, deals with a new method for detecting veneer moisture content. Surface resistance is measured by the fixed pressure, circle-shaped point and surface-touched detector. With the help of the computer, the veneer moisture and its distribution will be detected in a faster way with no harm to the veneer surface.

  15. Light capsules shaped by curvilinear meta-surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Naserpour, Mahin; Zakery, A; Miret, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    We propose a simple yet efficient method for generating in-plane hollow beams with a nearly-full circular light shell without the contribution of backward propagating waves. The method relies on modulating the phase in the near field of a centro-symmetric optical wavefront, such as that from a high-numericalaperture focused wave field. We illustrate how beam acceleration may be carried out by using an ultranarrow non-flat meta-surface formed by engineered plasmonic nanoslits. A mirrorsymmetric, with respect to the optical axis, circular caustic surface is numerically demonstrated that can be used as an optical bottle.

  16. Airfoil-shaped micro-mixers for reducing fouling on membrane surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Clifford K; Altman, Susan J; Clem, Paul G; Hibbs, Michael; Cook, Adam W

    2012-10-23

    An array of airfoil-shaped micro-mixers that enhances fluid mixing within permeable membrane channels, such as used in reverse-osmosis filtration units, while minimizing additional pressure drop. The enhanced mixing reduces fouling of the membrane surfaces. The airfoil-shaped micro-mixer can also be coated with or comprised of biofouling-resistant (biocidal/germicidal) ingredients.

  17. Contribution of disparity to the perception of 3D shape as revealed by bistability of stereoscopic Necker cubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkelens, C J

    2012-01-01

    The Necker cube is a famous demonstration of ambiguity in visual perception of 3D shape. Its bistability is attributed to indecisiveness because monocular cues do not allow the observer to infer one particular 3D shape from the 2D image. A remarkable but not appreciated observation is that Necker cubes are bistable during binocular viewing. One would expect disparity information to veto bistability. To investigate the effect of zero and non-zero disparity on perceptual bistability in detail, perceptual dominance durations were measured for luminance- and disparity-defined Necker cubes. Luminance-defined Necker cubes were bistable for all tested disparities between the front and back faces of the cubes. Absence of an effect of disparity on dominance durations suggested the suppression of disparity information. Judgments of depth between the front and back sides of the Necker cubes, however, showed that disparity affected perceived depth. Disparity-defined Necker cubes were also bistable but dominance durations showed different distributions. I propose a framework for 3D shape perception in which 3D shape is inferred from pictorial cues acting on luminance- and disparity-defined 2D shapes.

  18. On the Interaction of Capillary Shapes with Solid Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, M.

    2015-01-01

    Control over the interaction of droplets with solid surfaces is commonplace in nature. Famous examples are the water-shedding capabilities of the lotus leaf and the water-harvesting skin of certain types of beetles. To date, this type of control remains a challenge in engineering applications. Consi

  19. On the Interaction of Capillary Shapes with Solid Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, M.

    2015-01-01

    Control over the interaction of droplets with solid surfaces is commonplace in nature. Famous examples are the water-shedding capabilities of the lotus leaf and the water-harvesting skin of certain types of beetles. To date, this type of control remains a challenge in engineering applications.

  20. Visual processing of configuration-dependent spatial characteristics of shapes and patterns. A model useful in the study of the role of the departure from circularity or dispersion of shapes in human visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonciocat, C A; Grosu, G; Ghiţă, S

    1997-01-01

    In this work a theoretical model was used in combination with testings on normal subjects to get more insight in the role of the departure from circularity or dispersion of the shapes in visual perception. The model was inspired by the observation that the intensity of the effect of a given level of contrast of a shape usually increases, for the same area, with the shape being better concentrated around a center. The model introduces as a measurable characteristic the degree of concentration or dispersion of a shape with respect to a center. The measure was based on the maximum of the convolution integral of the characteristic function of the shape with the weighting function 1/2 pi r, r being the distance between the point of convolution and the surface element to be integrated. A program for the calculation of the degree of concentration of figures and other related processing operations was developed in Turbo Pascal language on a 486 PC. The program included the possibility to generate various figures and to operate on them various transformations such as strangulation, fragmentation with separation of fragments. The model introduces a center of the figure, the point best surrounded by the whole figure, with a geometric and visual significance, as resulting from the good concordance between its calculated and perceived positioning in different relatively simple shapes. In symmetrical compact figures subjected to a central separation or narrowing two centres appear entering the two resulting nuclear parts; a good concordance between model and perception was again observed in this transition to two centres and their subsequent positions in the two nuclear parts. In accord to model prediction, testings showed a very pronounced dependence of the summation efficiency over a contrasting area on the degree of dispersion of the area. This is reflected in the drastic decrease upon figure dispersion of the intensity with which a given brightness or colour contrast is

  1. Translational symmetry of high order tokamak flux surface shaping in gyrokinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Justin; Barnes, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A particular translational symmetry of the local nonlinear $\\delta f$ gyrokinetic model is demonstrated analytically and verified numerically. This symmetry shows that poloidally translating all the flux surface shaping effects with large poloidal mode number by a single tilt angle has an exponentially small effect on the transport properties of a tokamak. This is shown using a generalization of the Miller local equilibrium model to specify an arbitrary flux surface geometry. With this geometry specification we find that, when performing an expansion in large flux surface shaping mode number, the governing equations of gyrokinetics are symmetric in the poloidal translation of the high order shaping effects. This allows us to take the fluxes from a single configuration and calculate the fluxes in any configuration that can be produced by translating the large mode number shaping effects. This creates a distinction between tokamaks with mirror symmetric flux surfaces and tokamaks without mirror symmetry, which ...

  2. Contrasting accounts of direction and shape perception in short-range motion: Counterchange compared with motion energy detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Joseph; Hock, Howard; Schöner, Gregor

    2014-07-01

    It has long been thought (e.g., Cavanagh & Mather, 1989) that first-order motion-energy extraction via space-time comparator-type models (e.g., the elaborated Reichardt detector) is sufficient to account for human performance in the short-range motion paradigm (Braddick, 1974), including the perception of reverse-phi motion when the luminance polarity of the visual elements is inverted during successive frames. Human observers' ability to discriminate motion direction and use coherent motion information to segregate a region of a random cinematogram and determine its shape was tested; they performed better in the same-, as compared with the inverted-, polarity condition. Computational analyses of short-range motion perception based on the elaborated Reichardt motion energy detector (van Santen & Sperling, 1985) predict, incorrectly, that symmetrical results will be obtained for the same- and inverted-polarity conditions. In contrast, the counterchange detector (Hock, Schöner, & Gilroy, 2009) predicts an asymmetry quite similar to that of human observers in both motion direction and shape discrimination. The further advantage of counterchange, as compared with motion energy, detection for the perception of spatial shape- and depth-from-motion is discussed.

  3. Land surface temperature shaped by urban fractions in megacity region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Hu, Yonghong; Jia, Gensuo; Hou, Meiting; Fan, Yanguo; Sun, Zhongchang; Zhu, Yuxiang

    2017-02-01

    Large areas of cropland and natural vegetation have been replaced by impervious surfaces during the recent rapid urbanization in China, which has resulted in intensified urban heat island effects and modified local or regional warming trends. However, it is unclear how urban expansion contributes to local temperature change. In this study, we investigated the relationship between land surface temperature (LST) change and the increase of urban land signals. The megacity of Tianjin was chosen for the case study because it is representative of the urbanization process in northern China. A combined analysis of LST and urban land information was conducted based on an urban-rural transect derived from Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), and QuickBird images. The results indicated that the density of urban land signals has intensified within a 1-km2 grid in the urban center with an impervious land fraction >60 %. However, the construction on urban land is quite different with low-/mid-rise buildings outnumbering high-rise buildings in the urban-rural transect. Based on a statistical moving window analysis, positive correlation ( R 2 > 0.9) is found between LST and urban land signals. Surface temperature change (ΔLST) increases by 0.062 °C, which was probably caused by the 1 % increase of urbanized land (ΔIF) in this case region.

  4. Photogrammetry research for FAST eleven-meter reflector panel surface shape measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rongwei; Zhu, Lichun; Li, Weimin; Hu, Jingwen; Zhai, Xuebing

    2010-10-01

    In order to design and manufacture the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST) active reflector measuring equipment, measurement on each reflector panel surface shape was presented, static measurement of the whole neutral spherical network of nodes was performed, real-time dynamic measurement at the cable network dynamic deformation was undertaken. In the implementation process of the FAST, reflector panel surface shape detection was completed before eleven-meter reflector panel installation. Binocular vision system was constructed based on the method of binocular stereo vision in machine vision, eleven-meter reflector panel surface shape was measured with photogrammetry method. Cameras were calibrated with the feature points. Under the linearity camera model, the lighting spot array was used as calibration standard pattern, and the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters were acquired. The images were collected for digital image processing and analyzing with two cameras, feature points were extracted with the detection algorithm of characteristic points, and those characteristic points were matched based on epipolar constraint method. Three-dimensional reconstruction coordinates of feature points were analyzed and reflective panel surface shape structure was established by curve and surface fitting method. The error of reflector panel surface shape was calculated to realize automatic measurement on reflector panel surface shape. The results show that unit reflector panel surface inspection accuracy was 2.30mm, within the standard deviation error of 5.00mm. Compared with the requirement of reflector panel machining precision, photogrammetry has fine precision and operation feasibility on eleven-meter reflector panel surface shape measurement for FAST.

  5. Formation of Combined Surface Features of Protrusion Array and Wrinkles atop Shape-Memory Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Zhao, Y.; Huang, W. M.; Tong, T. H.

    We demonstrate a simple and cost-effective approach to realize two combined surface features of different scales together, namely submillimeter-sized protrusion array and microwrinkles, atop a polystyrene shape-memory polymer. Two different types of protrusions, namely flat-top protrusion and crown-shaped protrusion, were studied. The array of protrusions was produced by the Indentation-Polishing-Heating (IPH) process. Compactly packed steel balls were used for making array of indents. A thin gold layer was sputter deposited atop the polymer surface right after polishing. After heating for shape recovery, array of protrusions with wrinkles on the top due to the buckling of gold layer was produced.

  6. Surface tension driven shaping of adhesive microfluidic channel walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janting, Jakob; Storm, Elisabeth K.; Geschke, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of making microfluidic channels with different wall geometries using adjacent lines of dispensed adhesive between substrates has been studied. Important parameters for the geometry have been identified to be: surface tension (adhesive / substrates), adhesive viscosity / thixotropy......, line height and distance, and temperature. Focus of the work has been on predicting the equilibrium geometries with FEM simulations using as input measured adhesive wetting angles, different adhesive line distances and height. The studied substrates are glass microscope slides, PEEK and PMMA....... The studied adhesives are DYMAX 9-20318-F, 3070, 9001 version 3.5, and Sylgard 184 PDMS....

  7. New Possibilities of Shaping the Surface Properties in Austempered Ductile Iron Castings

    OpenAIRE

    D. Myszka

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents recent developments concerning the formation of surface layer in austempered ductile iron castings. It was found thatthe traditional methods used to change the properties of the surface layer, i.e. the effect of protective atmosphere during austenitising or shot peening, are not fully satisfactory to meet the demands of commercial applications. Therefore, new ways to shape the surface layer and the surface properties of austempered ductile iron castings are searched for, to...

  8. Predation Risk Perception, Food Density and Conspecific Cues Shape Foraging Decisions in a Tropical Lizard

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drakeley, Maximilian; Lapiedra, Oriol; Kolbe, Jason J

    2015-01-01

    .... We presented male lizards with foraging opportunities to test how the presence of conspecifics, predation-risk perception, the abundance of food, and interactions among these factors determines...

  9. The darker-is-deeper heuristic for the perception of 3D shape from shading: Is it perceptually or ecologically valid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, James T; Egan, Eric J L; Kallie, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    The darker-is-deeper heuristic was originally proposed by Langer and Zucker (1994) for approximating 3D shape from shading under conditions of diffuse illumination that typically occur for outdoor scenes on a cloudy day, and it is based on the assumption that vignetting is the primary source of luminance variation under those conditions. It was later rejected as a model of human perception by Langer and Bülthoff (2000), because points in concavities that appear to be the deepest are most often located on local luminance maxima. Despite that result, this heuristic has continued to be described in the literature as a viable model of human perception (e.g., Chen & Tyler, 2015; Tyler, 1998), based entirely on the appearance of image intensity gratings, which have little or no connection to real 3D surfaces or patterns of illumination. In this article we will present a large number of examples to show what actually happens when surfaces are viewed under directional and diffuse illuminations. The results will highlight a number of well-known phenomena in addition to vignetting that can influence the pattern of shading on a surface under diffuse illumination, and they will also demonstrate that the darker-is-deeper heuristic is generally invalid for all types of illumination, except in unusual circumstances.

  10. Polymeric Shape-Memory Micro-Patterned Surface for Switching Wettability with Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria García-Huete

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An innovative method to switch the wettability of a micropatterned polymeric surface by thermally induced shape memory effect is presented. For this purpose, first polycyclooctene (PCO is crosslinked with dycumil peroxide (DCP and its melting temperature, which corresponds with the switching transition temperature (Ttrans, is measured by Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA in tension mode. Later, the shape memory behavior of the bulk material is analyzed under different experimental conditions employing a cyclic thermomechanical analysis (TMA. Finally, after creating shape memory micropillars by laser ablation of crosslinked thermo-active polycyclooctene (PCO, shape memory response and associated effect on water contact angle is analyzed. Thus, deformed micropillars cause lower contact angle on the surface from reduced roughness, but the original hydrophobicity is restored by thermally induced recovery of the original surface structure.

  11. Surface-preserving robust watermarking of 3-D shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Bors, Adrian G

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes a new statistical approach for watermarking mesh representations of 3-D graphical objects. A robust digital watermarking method has to mitigate among the requirements of watermark invisibility, robustness, embedding capacity and key security. The proposed method employs a mesh propagation distance metric procedure called the fast marching method (FMM), which defines regions of equal geodesic distance width calculated with respect to a reference location on the mesh. Each of these regions is used for embedding a single bit. The embedding is performed by changing the normalized distribution of local geodesic distances from within each region. Two different embedding methods are used by changing the mean or the variance of geodesic distance distributions. Geodesic distances are slightly modified statistically by displacing the vertices in their existing triangle planes. The vertex displacements, performed according to the FMM, ensure a minimal surface distortion while embedding the watermark code. Robustness to a variety of attacks is shown according to experimental results.

  12. Shaping Perceptions of Delaware Technical & Community College through a Comprehensive Brand Marketing Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciple, Judith A.

    2010-01-01

    Community colleges are an integral part of the American higher education system, providing open access to postsecondary education to all who have the ability to benefit. These institutions, however, often suffer from negative perceptions regarding their effectiveness and quality of instruction. Community colleges can address these perceptions by…

  13. Shaping Perceptions of Delaware Technical & Community College through a Comprehensive Brand Marketing Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciple, Judith A.

    2010-01-01

    Community colleges are an integral part of the American higher education system, providing open access to postsecondary education to all who have the ability to benefit. These institutions, however, often suffer from negative perceptions regarding their effectiveness and quality of instruction. Community colleges can address these perceptions by…

  14. Shape correction of optical surfaces using plasma chemical vaporization machining with a hemispherical tip electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takino, Hideo; Yamamura, Kazuya; Sano, Yasuhisa; Mori, Yuzo

    2012-01-20

    We propose a plasma chemical vaporization machining device with a hemispherical tip electrode for optical fabrication. Radio-frequency plasma is generated close to the electrode under atmospheric conditions, and a workpiece is scanned relative to the stationary electrode under three-axis motion control to remove target areas on a workpiece surface. Experimental results demonstrate that surface removal progresses although process gas is not forcibly supplied to the plasma. The correction of shape errors on conventionally polished spheres is performed. As a result, highly accurate smooth surfaces with the desired rms shape accuracy of 3 nm are successfully obtained, which confirms that the device is effective for the fabrication of optics.

  15. Role of nanoparticle size, shape and surface chemistry in oral drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amrita; Qi, Jianping; Gogoi, Rohan; Wong, Jessica; Mitragotri, Samir

    2016-09-28

    Nanoparticles find intriguing applications in oral drug delivery since they present a large surface area for interactions with the gastrointestinal tract and can be modified in various ways to address the barriers associated with oral delivery. The size, shape and surface chemistry of nanoparticles can greatly impact cellular uptake and efficacy of the treatment. However, the interplay between particle size, shape and surface chemistry has not been well investigated especially for oral drug delivery. To this end, we prepared sphere-, rod- and disc-shaped nanoparticles and conjugated them with targeting ligands to study the influence of size, shape and surface chemistry on their uptake and transport across intestinal cells. A triple co-culture model of intestinal cells was utilized to more closely mimic the intestinal epithelium. Results demonstrated higher cellular uptake of rod-shaped nanoparticles in the co-culture compared to spheres regardless of the presence of active targeting moieties. Transport of nanorods across the intestinal co-culture was also significantly higher than spheres. The findings indicate that nanoparticle-mediated oral drug delivery can be potentially improved with departure from spherical shape which has been traditionally utilized for the design of nanoparticles. We believe that understanding the role of nanoparticle geometry in intestinal uptake and transport will bring forth a paradigm shift in nanoparticle engineering for oral delivery and non-spherical nanoparticles should be further investigated and considered for oral delivery of therapeutic drugs and diagnostic materials.

  16. Experience shapes our odor perception but depends on the initial perceptual processing of the stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinding, Charlotte; Coureaud, Gérard; Bervialle, Boris; Martin, Christophe; Schaal, Benoist; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry

    2015-07-01

    The questions of whether configural and elemental perceptions are competitive or exclusive perceptual processes and whether they rely on independent or dependent mechanisms are poorly understood. To examine these questions, we modified perceptual experience through preexposure to mixed or single odors and measured the resulting variation in the levels of configural and elemental perception of target odor mixtures. We used target mixtures that were spontaneously processed in a configural or an elemental manner. The AB binary mixture spontaneously involved the configural perception of a pineapple odor, whereas component A smelled like strawberry and component B smelled like caramel. The CD mixture produced the elemental perceptions of banana (C) and smoky (D) odors. Perceptual experience was manipulated through repeated exposure to either a mixture (AB or CD) or the components (A and B or C and D). The odor typicality rating data recorded after exposure revealed different influences of experience on odor mixtures and single-component perception, depending both on the type of exposure (components or mixture) and the mixture's initial perceptual property (configural or elemental). Although preexposure to A and B decreased the pineapple typicality of the configural AB mixture, preexposure to AB did not modify its odor quality. In contrast, preexposure to the CD elemental mixture induced a quality transfer between the components. These results emphasize the relative plasticity of odor mixture perception, which is prone to experience-induced modulations but depends on the stimulus's initial perceptual properties, suggesting that configural and elemental forms of odor mixture perception rely on rather independent processes.

  17. The curved shape of Caulobacter crescentus enhances surface colonization in flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persat, Alexandre; Stone, Howard A.; Gitai, Zemer

    2014-05-01

    Each bacterial species has a characteristic shape, but the benefits of specific morphologies remain largely unknown. To understand potential functions for cell shape, we focused on the curved bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. Paradoxically, C. crescentus curvature is robustly maintained in the wild but straight mutants have no known disadvantage in standard laboratory conditions. Here we demonstrate that cell curvature enhances C. crescentus surface colonization in flow. Imaging the formation of microcolonies at high spatial and temporal resolution indicates that flow causes curved cells to orient such that they arc over the surface, thereby decreasing the distance between the surface and polar adhesive pili, and orienting pili to face the surface. C. crescentus thus repurposes pilus retraction, typically used for surface motility, for surface attachment. The benefit provided by curvature is eliminated at high flow intensity, raising the possibility that diversity in curvature adapts related species for life in different flow environments.

  18. Shape Selection of Surface-Bound Helical Filaments: Biopolymers on Curved Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quint, David A; Gopinathan, Ajay; Grason, Gregory M

    2016-10-04

    Motivated to understand the behavior of biological filaments interacting with membranes of various types, we employ a theoretical model for the shape and thermodynamics of intrinsically helical filaments bound to curved membranes. We show that filament-surface interactions lead to a host of nonuniform shape equilibria, in which filaments progressively unwind from their native twist with increasing surface interaction and surface curvature, ultimately adopting uniform-contact curved shapes. The latter effect is due to nonlinear coupling between elastic twist and bending of filaments on anisotropically curved surfaces such as the cylindrical surfaces considered here. Via a combination of numerical solutions and asymptotic analysis of shape equilibria, we show that filament conformations are critically sensitive to the surface curvature in both the strong- and weak-binding limits. These results suggest that local structure of membrane-bound chiral filaments is generically sensitive to the curvature radius of the surface to which it is bound, even when that radius is much larger than the filament's intrinsic pitch. Typical values of elastic parameters and interaction energies for several prokaryotic and eukaryotic filaments indicate that biopolymers are inherently very sensitive to the coupling between twist, interactions, and geometry and that this could be exploited for regulation of a variety of processes such as the targeted exertion of forces, signaling, and self-assembly in response to geometric cues including the local mean and Gaussian curvatures. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of surface charge convection and shape deformation on the dielectrophoretic motion of a liquid drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shubhadeep; Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Chakraborty, Suman

    2016-04-01

    The dielectrophoretic motion and shape deformation of a Newtonian liquid drop in an otherwise quiescent Newtonian liquid medium in the presence of an axisymmetric nonuniform dc electric field consisting of uniform and quadrupole components is investigated. The theory put forward by Feng [J. Q. Feng, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4438 (1996), 10.1103/PhysRevE.54.4438] is generalized by incorporating the following two nonlinear effects—surface charge convection and shape deformation—towards determining the drop velocity. This two-way coupled moving boundary problem is solved analytically by considering small values of electric Reynolds number (ratio of charge relaxation time scale to the convection time scale) and electric capillary number (ratio of electrical stress to the surface tension) under the framework of the leaky dielectric model. We focus on investigating the effects of charge convection and shape deformation for different drop-medium combinations. A perfectly conducting drop suspended in a leaky (or perfectly) dielectric medium always deforms to a prolate shape and this kind of shape deformation always augments the dielectrophoretic drop velocity. For a perfectly dielectric drop suspended in a perfectly dielectric medium, the shape deformation leads to either increase (for prolate shape) or decrease (for oblate shape) in the dielectrophoretic drop velocity. Both surface charge convection and shape deformation affect the drop motion for leaky dielectric drops. The combined effect of these can significantly increase or decrease the dielectrophoretic drop velocity depending on the electrohydrodynamic properties of both the liquids and the relative strength of the electric Reynolds number and electric capillary number. Finally, comparison with the existing experiments reveals better agreement with the present theory.

  20. A Mathematical Model for Calculating Deviations of the Shape, Size and Geometric Relationship of Flat Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Kravchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a variety of objectives for measuring deviations of flatness, size and mutual arrangement of flat surfaces, namely: processing accuracy control, machinery condition monitoring, treatment process control in terms of shape deviation, comparative analysis of machine rigidity. If for a processing accuracy control it is sufficient to obtain the flatness deviation, as the maximum adjoining surface deviation, the choice of the adjoining surface as a zero reference datum deviation leads to considerable difficulties in creating devices and in particular devices for measuring size and shape variations. The flat surface is characterized by mutual arrangement of its points and can be represented by equation in the selected coordinate system. The objective of this work is to provide analytical construction of the vector field F, which describes the real surface with an appropriate approximation upon modelling the face milling of the flat surfaces of body parts in conditions of anisotropic rigidity of technological system. To determine the numerical value of shape and size deviation characteristics the average surfaces can serve a basis for the zero reference values of vectors. A mean value theorem allows to obtain measurement information about deviations in shape, size and arrangement of processed flat surfaces in terms of metrology, as well as about the process parameters such as depth of cut, feed, cutting speed, anisotropic rigidity of technological system that characterize the specific processing conditions. The machining center MS 12-250 was used to carry out a number of experiments with processing the surfaces of the prism-shaped body parts (300x300x250 and the subsequent measurements of flatness on the IS-49 optical line to prove the correlation between expected and observed values of the vectors of flatness deviations.

  1. The role of surface-based representations of shape in visual object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppa, Irene; Greville, W James; Leek, E Charles

    2015-01-01

    This study contrasted the role of surfaces and volumetric shape primitives in three-dimensional object recognition. Observers (N = 50) matched subsets of closed contour fragments, surfaces, or volumetric parts to whole novel objects during a whole-part matching task. Three factors were further manipulated: part viewpoint (either same or different between component parts and whole objects), surface occlusion (comparison parts contained either visible surfaces only, or a surface that was fully or partially occluded in the whole object), and target-distractor similarity. Similarity was varied in terms of systematic variation in nonaccidental (NAP) or metric (MP) properties of individual parts. Analysis of sensitivity (d') showed a whole-part matching advantage for surface-based parts and volumes over closed contour fragments--but no benefit for volumetric parts over surfaces. We also found a performance cost in matching volumetric parts to wholes when the volumes showed surfaces that were occluded in the whole object. The same pattern was found for both same and different viewpoints, and regardless of target-distractor similarity. These findings challenge models in which recognition is mediated by volumetric part-based shape representations. Instead, we argue that the results are consistent with a surface-based model of high-level shape representation for recognition.

  2. Surface profiling of X-ray mirrors for shaping focused beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundy, David; Alianelli, Lucia; Sutter, John; Evans, Gwyndaf; Sawhney, Kawal

    2015-01-26

    Grazing incidence mirrors are a standard optic for focusing X-rays. Active mirrors, whose surface profile can be finely adjusted, allow control of beam shape and size at the sample. However, progress towards their routine use for beam shaping has been hampered by the strong striations in reflected beams away from the focal plane. Re-entrant (partly concave and partly convex) surface modifications are proposed for shaping X-ray beams to a top-hat in the focal plane while reducing the striations caused by unavoidable polishing errors. A method for constructing such surfaces with continuous height and slope (but only piecewise continuous curvature) will be provided. Ray tracing and wave propagation calculations confirm its effectiveness. A mirror system is proposed allowing vertical beam sizes in the range 0.5 to 10μm. A prototype will be fabricated and is expected to have applications on many synchrotron X-ray beamlines.

  3. AFM characterization of the shape of surface structures with localization factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonyár, Attila

    2016-08-01

    Although with the use of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) methods the topographical imaging of surfaces is now widely available, the characterization of surface structures, especially their shape, and the processes which change these features is not trivial with the existing surface describing parameters. In this work the application of a parameter called localization factor is demonstrated for the quantitative characterization of surface structures and for processes which alter the shape of these structures. The theory and optimal operation range of this parameter are discussed with three application examples: microstructure characterization of gold thin films, characterization of the changes in the grain structure of these films during thermal annealing, and finally, characterization of the oxidation processes on a polished tin surface.

  4. DIAGONAL POINT BY POINT SURFACE DEVELOPMENT METHOD BASED ON NURBS SURFACE FOR BLANK SHAPE ESTIMATION OF COVER PANEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yuqin; Li Fuzhu; Jiang Hong; Wang Xiaochun

    2005-01-01

    According to the characteristics of a complex cover panel, its geometry shape is described by the NURBS surface with great description capability. With the reference to the surface classification determined by Gauss curvature, the proportion of the mid-surface area between before and after being developed is derived from the displacement variation of the mid-surface in the normal vector direction of the sheet metal during the sheet metal forming process. Hereby, based on the curve development theory in differential geometry, a novel diagonal point by point surface development method is put forward to estimate a complex cover panel's blank contour efficiently. By comparing the sample's development result of diagonal point by point surface development method with that of available one-step method, the validity of the proposed surface development method is verified.

  5. Shape beyond recognition: form-derived directionality and its effects on visual attention and motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Heida M; Michalak, Suzanne M; Sheinberg, David L

    2014-02-01

    The shape of an object restricts its movements and therefore its future location. The rules governing selective sampling of the environment likely incorporate any available data, including shape, that provide information about where important things are going to be in the near future so that the object can be located, tracked, and sampled for information. We asked people to assess in which direction several novel objects pointed or directed them. With independent groups of people, we investigated whether their attention and sense of motion were systematically biased in this direction. Our work shows that nearly any novel object has intrinsic directionality derived from its shape. This shape information is swiftly and automatically incorporated into the allocation of overt and covert visual orienting and the detection of motion, processes that themselves are inherently directional. The observed connection between form and space suggests that shape processing goes beyond recognition alone and may help explain why shape is a relevant dimension throughout the visual brain.

  6. Improved Displacement Transfer Functions for Structure Deformed Shape Predictions Using Discretely Distributed Surface Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran

    2012-01-01

    In the formulations of earlier Displacement Transfer Functions for structure shape predictions, the surface strain distributions, along a strain-sensing line, were represented with piecewise linear functions. To improve the shape-prediction accuracies, Improved Displacement Transfer Functions were formulated using piecewise nonlinear strain representations. Through discretization of an embedded beam (depth-wise cross section of a structure along a strain-sensing line) into multiple small domains, piecewise nonlinear functions were used to describe the surface strain distributions along the discretized embedded beam. Such piecewise approach enabled the piecewise integrations of the embedded beam curvature equations to yield slope and deflection equations in recursive forms. The resulting Improved Displacement Transfer Functions, written in summation forms, were expressed in terms of beam geometrical parameters and surface strains along the strain-sensing line. By feeding the surface strains into the Improved Displacement Transfer Functions, structural deflections could be calculated at multiple points for mapping out the overall structural deformed shapes for visual display. The shape-prediction accuracies of the Improved Displacement Transfer Functions were then examined in view of finite-element-calculated deflections using different tapered cantilever tubular beams. It was found that by using the piecewise nonlinear strain representations, the shape-prediction accuracies could be greatly improved, especially for highly-tapered cantilever tubular beams.

  7. Surface-enhanced Raman imaging of fractal shaped periodic metal nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beermann, Jonas; Novikov, Sergey Mikhailovich; Albrektsen, Ole;

    2009-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) from Rhodamine 6G (R6G) homogenously adsorbed on fractal shaped 170-nm-period square arrays formed by 50-nm-high gold nanoparticles (diameters of 80, 100, or 120 nm are constant within each array), fabricated on a smooth gold film by electron-beam lithogra......Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) from Rhodamine 6G (R6G) homogenously adsorbed on fractal shaped 170-nm-period square arrays formed by 50-nm-high gold nanoparticles (diameters of 80, 100, or 120 nm are constant within each array), fabricated on a smooth gold film by electron...

  8. Continuously Tunable Wettability by Using Surface Patterned Shape Memory Polymers with Giant Deformability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lingyu; Zhao, Jun; Liu, Yayun; Guo, Yufeng; Zhang, Liangpei; Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhong

    2016-06-01

    Designing smart surfaces with tunable wettability has drawn much attention in recent years for academic research and practical applications. Most of the previous methods to achieve such surfaces demand some particular materials that inherently have special features or complicated structures which are usually not easy to obtain. A novel strategy to achieve such smart surfaces is proposed by using the surface patterned shape memory polymers of chemically crosslinked polycyclooctene which shows a giant deformability of up to ≈730% strain. The smart surfaces possess the ability to continuously tune the wettability by controlling the recovery temperature and/or time. Coating the modified titanium dioxide nanoparticles onto such surfaces renders the surface superhydrophobicity and expands the tunable range of contact angles (CAs). Theoretical calculations of the CAs at different strains via modified Cassie model well explain the tunable wettability behaviors of such smart surfaces.

  9. A novel method about online monitoring surface shape of optical elements in continuous polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jin; Zhu, Jianqiang; Jiao, Xiang; Wu, Yongzhong

    2016-10-01

    In conventional continuous polishing process, the surface shape of work-piece was measured by an optical plane template after being placed in such environment with constant temperature for 1 to 2 hours. During this period, uncertain influence may occur on the polishing pad due to the change of system state. Meanwhile, the regular off-line testing may cause re-processing. In this paper, a new method about on-line monitoring surface shape of optical elements is proposed by the theory of run sphere, and the change in curvature radius of the work-piece which lead to its radial tilt angle change. The change in work-piece surface shape indirectly obtain by the correction plate small angle with respect to the horizontal, and the angle were detected on line by the high-precision goniometer with the resolution 0.04 ''. According to theoretical calculations, the diameter of 200mm precision work-piece PV value up to 0.02λ (λ = 632.8nm). The fused quartz glass was measured by above method. The test results showed that the surface accuracy and processing efficiency were significantly promoted, and also improving the controllability of surface shape of work-piece based on this method.

  10. Plasma immersion ion implantation of polyurethane shape memory polymer: Surface properties and protein immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xinying; Kondyurin, Alexey; Bao, Shisan; Bilek, Marcela M. M.; Ye, Lin

    2017-09-01

    Polyurethane-type shape memory polymers (SMPU) are promising biomedical implant materials due to their ability to recover to a predetermined shape from a temporary shape induced by thermal activation close to human body temperature and their advantageous mechanical properties including large recovery strains and low recovery stresses. Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) is a surface modification process using energetic ions that generates radicals in polymer surfaces leading to carbonisation and oxidation and the ability to covalently immobilise proteins without the need for wet chemistry. Here we show that PIII treatment of SMPU significantly enhances its bioactivity making SMPU suitable for applications in permanent implantable biomedical devices. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), contact angle measurements, surface energy measurements, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterise the PIII modified surface, including its after treatment aging kinetics and its capability to covalently immobilise protein directly from solution. The results show a substantial improvement in wettability and dramatic changes of surface chemical composition dependent on treatment duration, due to the generation of radicals and subsequent oxidation. The SMPU surface, PIII treated for 200s, achieved a saturated level of covalently immobilized protein indicating that a full monolayer coverage was achieved. We conclude that PIII is a promising and efficient surface modification method to enhance the biocompatibility of SMPU for use in medical applications that demand bioactivity for tissue integration and stability in vivo.

  11. Wavefront shaping with an electrowetting liquid lens using surface harmonics (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Matthias; Konijnenberg, Sander; Shao, Yifeng; Urbach, H. Paul

    2017-02-01

    Liquid lenses are used to correct for low order wavefront aberrations. Electrowetting liquid lenses can nowadays control defocus and astigmatism effectively, so they start being used for ophthalmology applications. To increase the performance and applicability, we introduce a new driving mechanism to create, detect and correct higher order aberrations using standing waves on the liquid interface. The speed of a liquid lens is in general limited, because the liquid surface cannot follow fast voltage changes, while providing a spherical surface. Surface waves are created instead and with them undesired aberrations. We try to control those surface waves to turn them into an effective wavefront shaping tool. We introduce a model, which treats the liquid lens as a circular vibrating membrane with adjusted boundary conditions. Similar to tunable acoustic gradient (TAG) lenses, the nature of the surface modes are predicted to be Bessel functions. Since Bessel functions are a full set of orthogonal basis functions any surface can be created as a linear combination of different Bessel functions. The model was investigated experimentally in two setups. First the point spread functions were studied and compared to a simulation of the intensity distribution created by Fresnel propagated Bessel surfaces. Second the wavefronts were measured directly using a spatial light modulator. The surface resonance frequencies confirm the predictions made by the model as well as the wavefront measurements. By superposition of known surface modes, it is possible to create new surface shapes, which can be used to simulate and measure the human eye.

  12. Study for region-regenerating shape of the granular medium surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousheng Yu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available When an object rolls on the surface of the mountain, the structure of surface may be destroyed subsequently with a regeneration region. Corresponding experimental simulation presents that the regenerating region exists three regions: compression, thin, and accumulation regions; the shape of regeneration region, as a quasi-parabola, is related to the size and initial velocity of the sphere as well as the slope of surface. Our study suggests that the length maximum of regenerating region is not associated with the initial velocity of sphere; it is found that the length of thin region increases with both the sphere size and the slope of surface.

  13. New Possibilities of Shaping the Surface Properties in Austempered Ductile Iron Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Myszka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents recent developments concerning the formation of surface layer in austempered ductile iron castings. It was found thatthe traditional methods used to change the properties of the surface layer, i.e. the effect of protective atmosphere during austenitising or shot peening, are not fully satisfactory to meet the demands of commercial applications. Therefore, new ways to shape the surface layer and the surface properties of austempered ductile iron castings are searched for, to mention only detonation spraying, carbonitriding, CVD methods, etc.

  14. Multidimensionally constrained covariant density functional theories—nuclear shapes and potential energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shan-Gui

    2016-06-01

    The intrinsic nuclear shapes deviating from a sphere not only manifest themselves in nuclear collective states but also play important roles in determining nuclear potential energy surfaces (PES’s) and fission barriers. In order to describe microscopically and self-consistently nuclear shapes and PES’s with as many shape degrees of freedom as possible included, we developed multidimensionally constrained covariant density functional theories (MDC-CDFTs). In MDC-CDFTs, the axial symmetry and the reflection symmetry are both broken and all deformations characterized by {β }λ μ with even μ are considered. We have used the MDC-CDFTs to study PES’s and fission barriers of actinides, the non-axial octupole Y 32 correlations in N = 150 isotones and shapes of hypernuclei. In this Review we will give briefly the formalism of MDC-CDFTs and present the applications to normal nuclei.

  15. Multidimensionally-constrained covariant density functional theories --- nuclear shapes and potential energy surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Shan-Gui

    2016-01-01

    The intrinsic nuclear shapes deviating from a sphere not only manifest themselves in nuclear collective states but also play important roles in determining nuclear potential energy surfaces (PES's) and fission barriers. In order to describe microscopically and self-consistently nuclear shapes and PES's with as many shape degrees of freedom as possible included, we developed multidimensionally-constrained covariant density functional theories (MDC-CDFTs). In MDC-CDFTs, the axial symmetry and the reflection symmetry are both broken and all deformations characterized by $\\beta_{\\lambda\\mu}$ with even $\\mu$ are considered. We have used the MDC-CDFTs to study PES's and fission barriers of actinides, the non-axial octupole $Y_{32}$ correlations in $N = 150$ isotones and shapes of hypernuclei. In this Review we will give briefly the formalism of MDC-CDFTs and present the applications to normal nuclei.

  16. EFFECT OF PLASMA CUTTING PARAMETERS UPON SHAPES OF BEARING CURVE OF C45 STEEL SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Skoczylas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies on the effect of plasma cutting technological parameters upon the shape of bearing curves and the parameters of the curve. The topography of surface formed by plasma cutting were analyzed. For measuring surface roughness and determining the bearing curve the appliance T8000 RC120 – 400 by Hommel-Etamic was used together with software.

  17. The influence of shape cues on the perception of lighting direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, James P; Agrawala, Maneesh; Banks, Martin S

    2010-10-18

    Three scene properties determine the luminances in the image of a shaded object: the material reflectance, the illuminant position, and the object's shape. Because all three properties determine the image, one cannot solve for any one property without knowing the other two. Nevertheless, people perceive consistent 3D shape and consistent lighting in shaded images; they must therefore be making assumptions about the unknown properties. We conducted two psychophysical experiments to determine how viewers use shape information to estimate the lighting direction from shaded images. In the first experiment, we confirmed that observers use 3D shape information when estimating lighting direction. In the second experiment, we investigated how different shape cues affect lighting direction estimates. Observers can accurately determine lighting direction when a host of shape cues specify the objects. When shading is the only cue, observers always set lighting direction to be from above. We modeled the results in a Bayesian framework that included a prior distribution describing the assumed lighting direction. The estimated prior was slightly counterclockwise from above at a ∼30° slant. Our model showed that an assumption of convexity provides an accurate estimate of lighting direction when the shape is globally, but not locally, consistent with convexity.

  18. 3D shape measurement of optical free-form surface based on fringe projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaohui; Liu, Shugui; Zhang, Hongwei

    2011-05-01

    Present a novel method of 3D shape measurement of optical free-from surface based on fringe projection. A virtual reference surface is proposed which can be used to improve the detection efficiency and realize the automation of measuring process. Sinusoidal fringe patterns are projected to the high reflected surface of the measured object. The deflection fringe patterns that modulated by the object surface are captured by the CCD camera. The slope information can be obtained by analyzing the relationship between the phase deflectometry and the slope of the object surface. The wave-front reconstruction method is used to reconstruct the surface. With the application of fringe projection technology the accuracy of optical free-form surfaces measurement could reach the level of tens of micrometer or even micrometer.

  19. Shaping of steel mold surface of lens array by electrical discharge machining with spherical ball electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takino, Hideo; Hosaka, Takahiro

    2016-06-20

    We propose a method for fabricating a spherical lens array mold by electrical discharge machining (EDM) with a ball-type electrode. The electrode is constructed by arranging conductive spherical balls in an array. To fundamentally examine the applicability of the proposed EDM method to the fabrication of lens array molds, we use an electrode having a single ball to shape a lens array mold made of stainless steel with 16 spherical elements, each having a maximum depth of 0.5 mm. As a result, a mold surface is successfully shaped with a peak-to-valley shape accuracy of approximately 10 μm, and an average surface roughness of 0.85 μm.

  20. Size effects in the magnetic anisotropy of embedded cobalt nanoparticles: from shape to surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, Simón; Tamion, Alexandre; Tournus, Florent; Dupuis, Véronique; Hillenkamp, Matthias

    2015-10-06

    Strong size-dependent variations of the magnetic anisotropy of embedded cobalt clusters are evidenced quantitatively by combining magnetic experiments and advanced data treatment. The obtained values are discussed in the frame of two theoretical models that demonstrate the decisive role of the shape in larger nanoparticles and the predominant role of the surface anisotropy in clusters below 3 nm diameter.

  1. Size effects in the magnetic anisotropy of embedded cobalt nanoparticles: from shape to surface

    OpenAIRE

    Simón Oyarzún; Alexandre Tamion; Florent Tournus; Véronique Dupuis; Matthias Hillenkamp

    2015-01-01

    Strong size-dependent variations of the magnetic anisotropy of embedded cobalt clusters are evidenced quantitatively by combining magnetic experiments and advanced data treatment. The obtained values are discussed in the frame of two theoretical models that demonstrate the decisive role of the shape in larger nanoparticles and the predominant role of the surface anisotropy in clusters below 3 nm diameter.

  2. The influence of size, shape, and surface coating on the stability of aqueous nanoparticle suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulvihill, M.J.; Habas, S.E.; La Plante, I.J.; Wan, J.; Mokari, T.

    2010-09-03

    In response to the rapid development and emerging commercialization of nanoparticles, fundamental studies concerning the fate of nanoparticles in the environment are needed. Precise control over the nanoparticle size, shape, and surface coating of cadmium selenide particles modified with thiolate ligands has been used to analyze the effects of nanoparticle design on their stability in aqueous environments. Nanoparticle stability was quantified using the concept of critical coagulation concentration (CCC) in solutions of sodium chloride. These investigations characterized the instability of the ligand coatings, which varied directly with chain length of the capping ligands. The stability of the ligand coatings were characterized as a function of time, pH, and ionic strength. Ligand dissociation has been shown to be a primary mechanism for nanoparticle aggregation when short-chain (C2-C6) ligands are used in the ligand shell. Stable nanoparticle suspensions prepared with long chain ligands (C11) were used to characterize nanoparticle stability as a function of size and shape. A linear relationship between particle surface area and the CCC was discovered and was found to be independent of nanoparticle shape. Quantitative analysis of nanoparticle size, shape, and surface coating demonstrated the importance of ligand stability and particle surface area for the prediction of nanoparticle stability.

  3. Finite-difference time domain solution of light scattering by arbitrarily shaped particles and surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Sun, Wenbo

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews the fundamental methods and some of the applications of the three-dimensional (3D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique for the modeling of light scattering by arbitrarily shaped dielectric particles and surfaces. The emphasis is on the details of the FDTD algorithms...

  4. Tuning kinetics to control droplet shapes on chemically stripe patterned surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.P.; Sotthewes, K.; Ganser, C.; Teichert, C.; Zandvliet, H.J.W.; Kooij, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    The typically elongated shape of droplets on chemically microstriped surfaces has been suggested to depend strongly on the kinetics during deposition. Here, we unequivocally establish the importance of impact kinetics by comparing the geometry of pico- to microliter droplets deposited from an inkjet

  5. Finite-difference time domain solution of light scattering by arbitrarily shaped particles and surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Sun, Wenbo

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews the fundamental methods and some of the applications of the three-dimensional (3D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique for the modeling of light scattering by arbitrarily shaped dielectric particles and surfaces. The emphasis is on the details of the FDTD algorithms...

  6. Skill transfer specificity shapes perception and action under varying environmental constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Ludovic; Wattebled, Léo; Orth, Dominic; L'Hermette, Maxime; Boulanger, Jérémie; Davids, Keith

    2016-08-01

    Using an ecological dynamics framework, this study investigated the generality and specificity of skill transfer processes in organisation of perception and action using climbing as a task vehicle. Fluency of hip trajectory and orientation was assessed using normalized jerk coefficients exhibited by participants as they adapted perception and action under varying environmental constraints. Twelve recreational climbers were divided into two groups: one completing a 10-m high route on an indoor climbing wall; a second undertaking a 10-m high route on an icefall in a top-rope condition. We maintained the same level of difficulty between these two performance environments. An inertial measurement unit was attached each climber's hips to collect 3D acceleration and 3D orientation data to compute jerk coefficient values. Video footage was used to record the ratio of exploratory/performatory movements. Results showed higher jerk coefficient values and number of exploratory movements for performance on the icefall route, perhaps due to greater functional complexity in perception and action required when climbing icefalls, which involves use of specific tools for anchorage. Findings demonstrated how individuals solve different motor problems, exploiting positive general transfer processes enabling participants to explore the pick-up of information for the perception of affordances specific to icefall climbing.

  7. Shape-aware surface reconstruction from sparse 3D point-clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Florian; Salamanca, Luis; Thunberg, Johan; Tack, Alexander; Jentsch, Dennis; Lamecker, Hans; Zachow, Stefan; Hertel, Frank; Goncalves, Jorge; Gemmar, Peter

    2017-05-01

    The reconstruction of an object's shape or surface from a set of 3D points plays an important role in medical image analysis, e.g. in anatomy reconstruction from tomographic measurements or in the process of aligning intra-operative navigation and preoperative planning data. In such scenarios, one usually has to deal with sparse data, which significantly aggravates the problem of reconstruction. However, medical applications often provide contextual information about the 3D point data that allow to incorporate prior knowledge about the shape that is to be reconstructed. To this end, we propose the use of a statistical shape model (SSM) as a prior for surface reconstruction. The SSM is represented by a point distribution model (PDM), which is associated with a surface mesh. Using the shape distribution that is modelled by the PDM, we formulate the problem of surface reconstruction from a probabilistic perspective based on a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). In order to do so, the given points are interpreted as samples of the GMM. By using mixture components with anisotropic covariances that are "oriented" according to the surface normals at the PDM points, a surface-based fitting is accomplished. Estimating the parameters of the GMM in a maximum a posteriori manner yields the reconstruction of the surface from the given data points. We compare our method to the extensively used Iterative Closest Points method on several different anatomical datasets/SSMs (brain, femur, tibia, hip, liver) and demonstrate superior accuracy and robustness on sparse data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Survey of Surface Modification Techniques for Next-Generation Shape Memory Polymer Stent Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Govindarajan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The search for a single material with ideal surface properties and necessary mechanical properties is on-going, especially with regard to cardiovascular stent materials. Since the majority of stent problems arise from surface issues rather than bulk material deficiencies, surface optimization of a material that already contains the necessary bulk properties is an active area of research. Polymers can be surface-modified using a variety of methods to increase hemocompatibilty by reducing either late-stage restenosis or acute thrombogenicity, or both. These modification methods can be extended to shape memory polymers (SMPs, in an effort to make these materials more surface compatible, based on the application. This review focuses on the role of surface modification of materials, mainly polymers, to improve the hemocompatibility of stent materials; additional discussion of other materials commonly used in stents is also provided. Although shape memory polymers are not yet extensively used for stents, they offer numerous benefits that may make them good candidates for next-generation stents. Surface modification techniques discussed here include roughening, patterning, chemical modification, and surface modification for biomolecule and drug delivery.

  9. SHAPE RESTORATIONS OF OBJECT SURFACE ON POLARIZATION STRUCTURE OF REFLECTED ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A problem of electromagnetic wave backscattering on a chosen 3D object is solved. A differential equation which is linked change of polarization coefficient of reflected wave with variation of matrix elements of object scattering is ob- tained. Obtained relation enables to develop algorithms of fast numerical solution of inverse problem of scattering on this object that is determination of complex function of object surface scattering and restoration of unknown object shape on phase distribution of reflected wave. The method uses ray representation of scattering fields based on principle Huygens- Fresnel. The algorithm of object shape restoration on phase of reflected wave allows to restore not only smooth surfaces, but also object surfaces with smaller roughness than a wave length.

  10. Errors in Moral Forecasting: Perceptions of Affect Shape the Gap Between Moral Behaviors and Moral Forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teper, Rimma; Tullett, Alexa M; Page-Gould, Elizabeth; Inzlicht, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Research in moral decision making has shown that there may not be a one-to-one relationship between peoples' moral forecasts and behaviors. Although past work suggests that physiological arousal may account for part of the behavior-forecasting discrepancy, whether or not perceptions of affect play an important determinant remains unclear. Here, we investigate whether this discrepancy may arise because people fail to anticipate how they will feel in morally significant situations. In Study 1, forecasters predicted cheating significantly more on a test than participants in a behavior condition actually cheated. Importantly, forecasters who received false somatic feedback, indicative of high arousal, produced forecasts that aligned more closely with behaviors. In Study 2, forecasters who misattributed their arousal to an extraneous source forecasted cheating significantly more. In Study 3, higher dispositional emotional awareness was related to less forecasted cheating. These findings suggest that perceptions of affect play a key role in the behavior-forecasting dissociation.

  11. The Design of Case Products’ Shape Form Information Database Based on NURBS Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Liu, Guo-zhong; Xu, Nuo-qi; Zhang, Wei-she

    2017-07-01

    In order to improve the computer design of product shape design,applying the Non-uniform Rational B-splines(NURBS) of curves and surfaces surface to the representation of the product shape helps designers to design the product effectively.On the basis of the typical product image contour extraction and using Pro/Engineer(Pro/E) to extract the geometric feature of scanning mold,in order to structure the information data base system of value point,control point and node vector parameter information,this paper put forward a unified expression method of using NURBS curves and surfaces to describe products’ geometric shape and using matrix laboratory(MATLAB) to simulate when products have the same or similar function.A case study of electric vehicle’s front cover illustrates the access process of geometric shape information of case product in this paper.This method can not only greatly reduce the capacity of information debate,but also improve the effectiveness of computer aided geometric innovation modeling.

  12. Development of Control Models and a Robust Multivariable Controller for Surface Shape Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, Scott Eric [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2003-06-18

    Surface shape control techniques are applied to many diverse disciplines, such as adaptive optics, noise control, aircraft flutter control and satellites, with an objective to achieve a desirable shape for an elastic body by the application of distributed control forces. Achieving the desirable shape is influenced by many factors, such as, actuator locations, sensor locations, surface precision and controller performance. Building prototypes to complete design optimizations or controller development can be costly or impractical. This shortfall, puts significant value in developing accurate modeling and control simulation approaches. This thesis focuses on the field of adaptive optics, although these developments have the potential for application in many other fields. A static finite element model is developed and validated using a large aperture interferometer system. This model is then integrated into a control model using a linear least squares algorithm and Shack-Hartmann sensor. The model is successfully exercised showing functionality for various wavefront aberrations. Utilizing a verified model shows significant value in simulating static surface shape control problems with quantifiable uncertainties. A new dynamic model for a seven actuator deformable mirror is presented and its accuracy is proven through experiment. Bond graph techniques are used to generate the state space model of the multi-actuator deformable mirror including piezo-electric actuator dynamics. Using this verified model, a robust multi-input multi-output (MIMO) H controller is designed and implemented. This controller proved superior performance as compared to a standard proportional-integral controller (PI) design.

  13. On the Acoustic Absorption of Porous Materials with Different Surface Shapes and Perforated Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHEN, WEN-HWA; LEE, FAN-CHING; CHIANG, DAR-MING

    2000-10-01

    In architectural acoustic design, perforated plates are often used to protect porous materials from erosion. Although porous materials are usually applied to passive noise control, the effects of their surface shapes are seldom studied. To study the acoustic absorption of porous materials with different surface shapes and perforated plates, an efficient finite element procedure, which is derived by the Galerkin residual method and Helmholtz wave propagation equation, is used in this work. The two-microphone transfer function method and the modified Ingard and Dear impedance tube testing system are employed to measure the parameters deemed necessary for the finite element analysis, such as complex wave propagation constant, characteristic impedance and flow resistivity. For verifying the finite element results, the two-microphone transfer function method is also applied to measure the absorption coefficients of the discussed acoustic absorbers. Four surface shapes of commercially available porous materials, i.e., triangle, semicircle, convex rectangle and plate shapes, are chosen for analysis. The porosity of perforated plates is then evaluated. Finally, the distinct effect of the flow resistivity of porous materials on the acoustic absorption is demonstrated.

  14. Flow, heat transfer, and free surface shape during the optical fiber drawing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhihui

    1997-12-01

    A two-dimensional finite element model is introduced for analyzing glass and gas flows, heat transfer, and fiber formation during the optical fiber drawing process. This study consists of simulations in three different areas: the upper region, the tip region, and the whole furnace region. Conjugating the glass and gas flows and heat transfer, the shapes of an optical fiber as free surfaces in the upper neck-down and the tip regions are separately obtained by solving the coupled continuity, momentum, and energy equations. In the upper region simulation, a surface-to-surface radiation model is used for the enclosure which consists of the wall and the glass surface, and the Rosseland approximation radiation model is employed to account for the radiation effect in the glass region. In the tip region simulation, only the glass fiber region is considered and a convective heat transfer model on the fiber surface is employed to account for the energy exchange between the fiber surface and the purge gas. In the fiber, radiation in the axial direction is included. The whole furnace simulation uses a calculated fiber neck-down shape and an assumed fiber tip shape as a fixed interface and computes the convective heat transfer coefficient profile in the tip region which was used in the tip region simulation. The glass viscosity is temperature-dependent and significantly affects the fiber shape. The finite element code FIDAP is used in the study. The effects of various operating conditions such as draw speed, wall temperature distribution, and gas flow rate are studied.

  15. To what extent do politeness expectations shape risk perception? Even numerical probabilities are under their spell!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirota, Miroslav; Juanchich, Marie

    2012-11-01

    Politeness theory posits that uncertainty quantifiers can be interpreted as hedging strategies and thus be perceived as communicating greater certainty than when they are interpreted as likelihood-communication devices. This has only been tested with verbal probabilities (e.g., it is possible). The present paper aims to test whether numerical probabilities can also be interpreted as face-management devices and to investigate the effect of such an interpretation on risk perception. Four experiments focused on the effect of interpretations of numerical probabilities in negative outcome predictions on risk perception (e.g., there is a 50% probability that your stocks will lose their value). Politeness expectation was manipulated by the personality of the speaker (i.e., blunt vs. tactful, Experiments 1 and 2) and according to the conversational partners' need for politeness (Experiments 3 and 4). Results show that numerical probabilities, like verbal ones, were interpreted as likelihood-communication or face-management devices and that the two interpretations led to different risk perceptions. Findings were replicated with different formats, such as percentage (e.g., 50%) and chance ratio (e.g., 1 chance in 3) and with different degrees of certainty (e.g., .30, .50 and .70). Theoretical and practical implications relevant to risk communication are presented and discussed.

  16. Frabrication of Au Nanoparticles in Various Shapes and Their Application in Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-yang XUE; Hui-juan WANG; Yong-feng LIANG; Rong CHEN; Jun LIU

    2010-01-01

    Anisotropic metallic Nanoparticles (NPs) have unique optical properties, such as Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS)spectroscopy. In this paper, star-shaped and sphere gold NPs were prepared by seed-mediated growth and Frence methods respectively. The reaction process and the effect of reagent in seed-mediated growth of gold nanostar particles were systematically described. After fabricating NPs the authors test their Raman enhancement using Crystal Violet (CV) molecules apart. The experimental results indicated that star-shaped Au NPs had stronger Raman enhancement spectrum than that of sphere Au NPs.

  17. 3D shape matching and Teichm\\"uller spaces of pointed Riemann surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Fontanari, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Shape matching represents a challenging problem in both information engineering and computer science, exhibiting not only a wide spectrum of multimedia applications, but also a deep relation with conformal geometry. After reviewing the theoretical foundations and the practical issues involved in this fashinating subject, we focus on two state-of-the-art approaches relying respectively on local features (landmark points) and on global properties (conformal parameterizations). Finally, we introduce the Teichm\\"uller space of n-pointed Riemann surfaces of genus g into the realm of multimedia, showing that its beautiful geometry provides a natural unified framework for three-dimensional shape matching.

  18. Estimation of surface curvature from full-field shape data using principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sameer; Vinuchakravarthy, S.; Subramanian, S. J.

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) is a popular image-based experimental technique for estimating surface shape, displacements and strains of deforming objects. In this technique, a calibrated stereo rig is used to obtain and stereo-match pairs of images of the object of interest from which the shapes of the imaged surface are then computed using the calibration parameters of the rig. Displacements are obtained by performing an additional temporal correlation of the shapes obtained at various stages of deformation and strains by smoothing and numerically differentiating the displacement data. Since strains are of primary importance in solid mechanics, significant efforts have been put into computation of strains from the measured displacement fields; however, much less attention has been paid to date to computation of curvature from the measured 3D surfaces. In this work, we address this gap by proposing a new method of computing curvature from full-field shape measurements using principal component analysis (PCA) along the lines of a similar work recently proposed to measure strains (Grama and Subramanian 2014 Exp. Mech. 54 913-33). PCA is a multivariate analysis tool that is widely used to reveal relationships between a large number of variables, reduce dimensionality and achieve significant denoising. This technique is applied here to identify dominant principal components in the shape fields measured by 3D-DIC and these principal components are then differentiated systematically to obtain the first and second fundamental forms used in the curvature calculation. The proposed method is first verified using synthetically generated noisy surfaces and then validated experimentally on some real world objects with known ground-truth curvatures.

  19. Inspection of Complex Internal Surface Shape with Fiber-optic Sensor II: for Specular Tilted Surface Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Complex surface shape measurement has been a focus topic in the CAD/CAM field. A popular method for measuring dimensional information is using a 3D coordinate measuring machine (CMM)with a touch trigger probe. The measurement set up with CMM, however, is a time consuming task and the accuracy of the measurement deteriorates as the speed of measurement increase. Non-contact measurement is favored since high speed measurement can be achieved and problems with vibration and friction can be eliminated. Although much research has been conducted in non-contact measurement using image capturing and processing schemes, accuracy is poor and measurement is limited. Some optical technologies developed provide a good accuracy but the dynamic range and versatility is very limited. A novel fiber-optic sensor used for the inspection of complex internal contours is presented in this paper, which is able to measure a surface shape in a non-contact manner with high accuracy and high speed, and is compact and flexible to be incorporated into a CMM. Modulation functions for tilted surface shape measurement, based on the Gaussian distribution of the emitting beam from single-mode fiber (SMF), were derived for specular reflection. The feasibility of the proposed measurement principle was verified by simulations.

  20. Sensory and Emotional Perception of Wooden Surfaces through Fingertip Touch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Shiv R.; Tiippana, Kaisa; Vahtikari, Katja; Hughes, Mark; Kyttä, Marketta

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on tactile experiences have investigated a wide range of material surfaces across various skin sites of the human body in self-touch or other touch modes. Here, we investigate whether the sensory and emotional aspects of touch are related when evaluating wooden surfaces using fingertips in the absence of other sensory modalities. Twenty participants evaluated eight different pine and oak wood surfaces, using sensory and emotional touch descriptors, through the lateral motion of active fingertip exploration. The data showed that natural and smooth wood surfaces were perceived more positively in emotional touch than coated surfaces. We highlight the importance of preserving the naturalness of the surface texture in the process of wood-surface treatment so as to improve positive touch experiences, as well as avoid negative ones. We argue that the results may offer possibilities in the design of wood-based interior products with a view to improving consumer touch experiences. PMID:28348541

  1. The color of night: Surface color perception under dim illuminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Joel; Lutze, Margaret; Cao, Dingcai; Zele, Andrew J

    2006-01-01

    Several studies document rudimentary color vision under dim illumination. Here, hue perceptions of paper color samples were determined for a wide range of light levels, including very low light levels where rods alone mediate vision. The appearances of 24 paper color samples from the OSA Uniform Color Scales were gauged under successively dimmer illuminations from 10-0.0003 Lux. Triads of samples were chosen representing each of eight basic color categories; red, pink, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, and gray. Samples within each triad varied in lightness. Observers sorted samples into groups that they could categorize with specific color names. Above 0.32 Lux, observers sorted the samples into the originally chosen color groups with few exceptions. For 0.1-0.01 Lux, the red and orange samples were usually correctly identified as either red or orange. The remaining samples tended to be grouped into two categories, associated with the scotopic sample reflectance. The lowest reflectance samples were below threshold and were named black. The higher reflectance group was named predominately as green or blue-green (three observers; the fourth observer used blue or achromatic). At the three dimmest levels (< or = 0.0032 Lux) there continued to be conspicuous color percepts. Color categories were reliably assigned based on relative sample scotopic lightness. Of the samples above threshold, those with lower reflectance were classified as red or orange (all observers) and the higher reflectance samples as green or blue-green (three observers) or achromatic or blue (the fourth observer). Rods and L-cones presumably mediated color percepts at the intermediate light levels used in the study. At the three lowest light levels there were distinct color appearances mediated exclusively by rods. We speculate that at these light levels the visual system estimates probable colors based on prior natural experience.

  2. Extrusion Honed Surface Characteristics of Inconel 625 Fabricated By EDM for Square Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L. Murali Krishna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Extrusion Honing (EH is also known as Abrasive flow machining (AFM is an effective method that is used to deburr, clean, polish, remove recast layer and micro cracks by flowing pressurized semisolid abrasive laden visco-elastic media over those surfaces. Inconel 625 is one of the most difficult-to-cut materials because of its low thermal diffusive property, high hardness and high strength at elevated temperature. In this paper, the influence of the process parameters on surface roughness is investigated on Inconel 625 material of square shape fabricated by Electric discharge machining (EDM. The processed surfaces were measured and analyzed with the help of surface roughness tester and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Results show a significant improvement in surface finish and EH/AFM is capable of removing the micro cracks and recast layer.

  3. The influence of CNC milling and ball burnishing on shaping complex 3D surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachtiak-Radka, Emilia; Dudzińska, Sara; Grochała, Daniel; Berczyński, Stefan; Olszak, Wiesław

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid techniques for surface treatment should ensure compliance with exterior layer state and stress requirements. The more factors which influence final treatment effects, the more difficult it is to conduct a technological process combining different treatment methods. A combination of shaping milling with finishing burnishing can provide very good smoothness and satisfactory stress conditions. However, implementation of predefined geometric surface specifications (GPS) is very difficult. This article presents the results of the effect of technological parameters of both treatments combined into a single operation on surface topography. A new surface geometry evaluation approach, combining both relative and absolute changes of isotropy and surface roughness, enabling an objective efficiency comparison of machining operations combined in a single operation, is presented.

  4. Using CFD Surface Solutions to Shape Sonic Boom Signatures Propagated from Off-Body Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordaz, Irian; Li, Wu

    2013-01-01

    The conceptual design of a low-boom and low-drag supersonic aircraft remains a challenge despite significant progress in recent years. Inverse design using reversed equivalent area and adjoint methods have been demonstrated to be effective in shaping the ground signature propagated from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) off-body pressure distributions. However, there is still a need to reduce the computational cost in the early stages of design to obtain a baseline that is feasible for low-boom shaping, and in the search for a robust low-boom design over the entire sonic boom footprint. The proposed design method addresses the need to reduce the computational cost for robust low-boom design by using surface pressure distributions from CFD solutions to shape sonic boom ground signatures propagated from CFD off-body pressure.

  5. Microgenetic analysis of transparency perception

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    In this study the microgenesis of transparency perception was investigated. Two intersecting squares were used as a basic stimulus model. Three surfaces was defined: surface which had the shape of capital Greek letter gamma, surface which had the shape of mirrored L and the little square nested between gamma and L. The gray levels of these surfaces were varied, whereas the background was constantly black. The gray levels variation can produce either transparency, spotlight or mosaic perceptio...

  6. The curved shape of the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus enhances colonization of surfaces in flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persat, Alexandre; Gitai, Zemer; Stone, Howard

    2014-11-01

    Bacteria thrive in all types of fluid environments; flow is thus a ubiquitous aspect of their lives. Bacteria have evolved a variety of cellular components contributing to their growth in specific environments. However, cellular features that help them survive and develop in flow have been rarely characterized. Here, we show that Caulobacter crescentus may have evolved its curved shape to enhance the colonization of surfaces in flow. C. crescentus curvature is preserved in the wild but straight mutants have no known growth disadvantage in standard laboratory conditions. Leveraging microfluidics and single-cell imaging, we demonstrate that curvature enhances surface colonization in flow, promoting the formation of larger microcolonies. Cells attach to a surface from a single pole, so that flow affects their orientation. In flow, viscous forces generate a torque on the curved cell body, which reorients the cell in the direction of the flow. The curved cell appears to arc above the surface, optimally orienting its unattached pole towards the surface. This reduces the distance between the surface and the pole, thereby enhancing attachment of its progeny. Additionally, we show that curved shape enhances colony spreading across the direction of the flow, generating more robust biofilm compared to straight mutants.

  7. Controlled wettability based on reversible micro-cracking on a shape memory polymer surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yu; Liu, Yuxuan; Wang, Wenxin; Leng, Jinsong; Jin, Peng

    2016-03-14

    Wettability modification on a polymer surface is of immense importance for flexible electronics and biomedical applications. Herein, controlled wettability of a styrene-based shape memory polymer has been realized by introducing micro-cracks on the polymer surface for the first time. The cracks were purposely prepared by thin metal film constrained deformation on the polymer. After the removal of the metallic film, wettability was dramatically enhanced by showing a remarkable reduction in the contact angle with water droplets from 85° to 25°. Subsequent systematic characterization techniques like XPS and SEM revealed that such observation could be attributed to the increased density of hydrophilic groups and the roughened surface. In addition, by controlling the temperature for annealing the treated polymer, the surface could be switched reversely to water-repellent. Therefore, this paper offers a smart tactic to manipulate the surface wettability of a shape memory polymer freely. The features of the controlled wettability surface such as high tenability, high stability and easy fabrication are promising for microfluidic switching and molecule/cell capture-release.

  8. Near-field radiative heat transfer between arbitrarily-shaped objects and a surface

    CERN Document Server

    Edalatpour, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    A fluctuational electrodynamics-based formalism for calculating near-field radiative heat transfer between objects of arbitrary size and shape and an infinite surface is presented. The surface interactions are treated analytically via Sommerfeld's theory of electric dipole radiation above an infinite plane. The volume integral equation for the electric field is discretized using the thermal discrete dipole approximation (T-DDA). The framework is verified against exact results in the sphere-surface configuration, and is applied to analyze near-field radiative heat transfer between a complex-shaped probe and an infinite plane both made of silica. It is found that when the probe tip size is approximately equal to or smaller than the gap d separating the probe and the surface, coupled localized surface phonon (LSPh)-surface phonon-polariton (SPhP) mediated heat transfer occurs. In this regime, the net spectral heat rate exhibits four resonant modes due to LSPhs along the minor axis of the probe while the net tota...

  9. Three-dimensional surface reconstruction via a robust binary shape-coded structured light method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Suming; Zhang, Xu; Song, Zhan; Jiang, Hualie; Nie, Lei

    2017-01-01

    A binary shape-coded structured light method for single-shot three-dimensional reconstruction is presented. The projected structured pattern is composed with eight geometrical shapes with a coding window size of 2×2. The pattern element is designed as rhombic with embedded geometrical shapes. The pattern feature point is defined as the intersection of two adjacent rhombic shapes, and a multitemplate-based feature detector is presented for its robust detection and precise localization. Based on the extracted grid-points, a topological structure is constructed to separate the pattern elements from the obtained image. In the decoding stage, a training dataset is first established from training samples that are collected from a variety of target surfaces. Then, the deep neural network technique is applied for the classification of pattern elements. Finally, an error correction algorithm is introduced based on the epipolar and neighboring constraints to refine the decoding results. The experimental results show that the proposed method not only owns high measurement precision but also has strong robustness to surface color and texture.

  10. A Statistical Theory for Shape Analysis of Curves and Surfaces with Applications in Image Analysis, Biometrics, Bioinformatics and Medical Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    targets in noisy/corrupted images (Bayesian active contours), finding shape models in point clouds derived from images, shape analysis of facial surfaces...Srivastava and I. H. Jermyn, Bayesian Classification of Shapes Hidden in Point Clouds , Proceedings of 13th Digital Signal Processing Workshop, Marco...CA, June 2010. 18. J. Su, Z. Zhu, F. Huffer, and A. Srivastava, Detecting Shapes in 2D Point Clouds Generated from Images, International Conference on

  11. Optimal wavy surface to suppress vortex shedding using second-order sensitivity to shape changes

    CERN Document Server

    Tammisola, Outi

    2016-01-01

    A method to find optimal 2nd-order perturbations is presented, and applied to find the optimal spanwise-wavy surface for suppression of cylinder wake instability. Second-order perturbations are required to capture the stabilizing effect of spanwise waviness, which is ignored by standard adjoint-based sensitivity analyses. Here, previous methods are extended so that (i) 2nd-order sensitivity is formulated for base flow changes satisfying linearised Navier-Stokes, and (ii) the resulting method is applicable to a 2D global instability problem. This makes it possible to formulate 2nd-order sensitivity to shape modifications. Using this formulation, we find the optimal shape to suppress the a cylinder wake instability. The optimal shape is then perturbed by random distributions in full 3D stability analysis to confirm that it is a local optimal at the given amplitude and wavelength. Furthermore, it is shown that none of the 10 random wavy shapes alone stabilize the wake flow at Re=50, while the optimal shape does....

  12. Effects of contact cap dimension on dry adhesion of bioinspired mushroom-shaped surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng; Li, Xiangming; Tian, Hongmiao; Hu, Hong

    2015-03-01

    Dry adhesion observed in small creatures, such as spiders, insects, and geckos, has many great advantages such as repeatability and strong adhesiveness. In order to mimic these unique performances, fibrillar surface with a mushroom shaped end has drawn lots of attentions because of its advantage in efficiently enhancing adhesion compared with other sphere or simple flat ends. Here, in order to study the effects of contact cap dimension on adhesion strength, patterned surfaces of mushroom-shaped micropillars with differing cap diameters are fabricated based on the conventional photolithography and molding. The normal adhesion strength of these dry adhesives with varying cap diameters is measured with home-built equipment. The strength increases with the rise of cap diameter, and interestingly it becomes strongest when the mushroom caps join together.

  13. Simultaneous measurement of surface shape and optical thickness using wavelength tuning and a polynomial window function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yangjin; Hibino, Kenichi; Sugita, Naohiko; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    2015-12-14

    In this study, a 6N - 5 phase shifting algorithm comprising a polynomial window function and discrete Fourier transform is developed for the simultaneous measurement of the surface shape and optical thickness of a transparent plate with suppression of the coupling errors between the higher harmonics and phase shift error. The characteristics of the 6N - 5 algorithm were estimated by connection with the Fourier representation in the frequency domain. The phase error of the measurements performed using the 6N - 5 algorithm is discussed and compared with those of measurements obtained using other algorithms. Finally, the surface shape and optical thickness of a transparent plate were measured simultaneously using the 6N - 5 algorithm and a wavelength tuning interferometer.

  14. Native reading direction influences lateral biases in the perception of shape from shading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Austen K; Szelest, Izabela; Friedrich, Trista E; Elias, Lorin J

    2015-01-01

    Although neurologically normal individuals often exhibit leftward biases of perception and attention, known as pseudoneglect, factors such as lighting, spatial location and native reading direction have been found to modulate these biases. To investigate lighting and spatial biases in left-to-right and right-to-left readers search times were measured in a target finding task where lighting and target locations were manipulated. Target search times under upper-left lighting were significantly shorter than lower-left, upper-right and lower-right lighting among left-to-right readers. Right-to-left readers did not display the same leftward bias, even displaying significantly shorter search times under upper-right lighting than those of left-to-right readers. Significantly shorter search times for targets located in the upper-left quadrant (compared to other quadrants) were observed for left-to-right readers, while search times for upper-right located targets were significantly shorter for right-to-left readers compared to those of left-to-right readers. Participant scan times of stimuli divided into equal quadrants were monitored by an eye-tracking camera. Both groups displayed greater scan times in upper quadrants. These findings suggest that native reading direction modulates spatial and light perception biases resulting in weaker leftward, or a lack of lateral biases among right-to-left readers.

  15. How active perception and attractor dynamics shape perceptual categorization: a computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenacci Volpi, Nicola; Quinton, Jean Charles; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    We propose a computational model of perceptual categorization that fuses elements of grounded and sensorimotor theories of cognition with dynamic models of decision-making. We assume that category information consists in anticipated patterns of agent-environment interactions that can be elicited through overt or covert (simulated) eye movements, object manipulation, etc. This information is firstly encoded when category information is acquired, and then re-enacted during perceptual categorization. The perceptual categorization consists in a dynamic competition between attractors that encode the sensorimotor patterns typical of each category; action prediction success counts as "evidence" for a given category and contributes to falling into the corresponding attractor. The evidence accumulation process is guided by an active perception loop, and the active exploration of objects (e.g., visual exploration) aims at eliciting expected sensorimotor patterns that count as evidence for the object category. We present a computational model incorporating these elements and describing action prediction, active perception, and attractor dynamics as key elements of perceptual categorizations. We test the model in three simulated perceptual categorization tasks, and we discuss its relevance for grounded and sensorimotor theories of cognition.

  16. Adult neurogenesis in the olfactory system shapes odor memory and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheusi, Gilles; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2014-01-01

    The olfactory system is a dynamic place. In mammals, not only are sensory neurons located in the sensory organ renewed through adult life, but also its first central relay is reconstructed by continuous neuronal recruitment. Despite these numerous morphological and physiological changes, olfaction is a unique sensory modality endowed with a privileged link to memory. This raises a clear conundrum; how does the olfactory system balance its neuronal turnover with its participation in long-term memory? This review concentrates on the functional aspects of adult neurogenesis, addressing how the integration of late-born neurons participates in olfactory perception and memory. After outlining the properties of adult neurogenesis in the olfactory system, and after describing their regulation by internal and environmental factors, we ask how the process of odorant perception can be influenced by constant neuronal turnover. We then explore the possible functional roles that newborn neurons might have for olfactory memory. Throughout this review, and as we concentrate almost exclusively on mammalian models, we stress the idea that adult neurogenesis is yet another form of plasticity used by the brain to copes with a constantly changing olfactory world.

  17. 3D shape reconstruction of specular surfaces by using phase measuring deflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian; Chen, Kun; Wei, Haoyun; Li, Yan

    2016-10-01

    The existing estimation methods for recovering height information from surface gradient are mainly divided into Modal and Zonal techniques. Since specular surfaces used in the industry always have complex and large areas, considerations must be given to both the improvement of measurement accuracy and the acceleration of on-line processing speed, which beyond the capacity of existing estimations. Incorporating the Modal and Zonal approaches into a unifying scheme, we introduce an improved 3D shape reconstruction version of specular surfaces based on Phase Measuring Deflectometry in this paper. The Modal estimation is firstly implemented to derive the coarse height information of the measured surface as initial iteration values. Then the real shape can be recovered utilizing a modified Zonal wave-front reconstruction algorithm. By combining the advantages of Modal and Zonal estimations, the proposed method simultaneously achieves consistently high accuracy and dramatically rapid convergence. Moreover, the iterative process based on an advanced successive overrelaxation technique shows a consistent rejection of measurement errors, guaranteeing the stability and robustness in practical applications. Both simulation and experimentally measurement demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed improved method. According to the experimental result, the computation time decreases approximately 74.92% in contrast to the Zonal estimation and the surface error is about 6.68 μm with reconstruction points of 391×529 pixels of an experimentally measured sphere mirror. In general, this method can be conducted with fast convergence speed and high accuracy, providing an efficient, stable and real-time approach for the shape reconstruction of specular surfaces in practical situations.

  18. Capturing the surface texture and shape of pollen: a comparison of microscopy techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayandi Sivaguru

    Full Text Available Research on the comparative morphology of pollen grains depends crucially on the application of appropriate microscopy techniques. Information on the performance of microscopy techniques can be used to inform that choice. We compared the ability of several microscopy techniques to provide information on the shape and surface texture of three pollen types with differing morphologies. These techniques are: widefield, apotome, confocal and two-photon microscopy (reflected light techniques, and brightfield and differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC (transmitted light techniques. We also provide a first view of pollen using super-resolution microscopy. The three pollen types used to contrast the performance of each technique are: Croton hirtus (Euphorbiaceae, Mabea occidentalis (Euphorbiaceae and Agropyron repens (Poaceae. No single microscopy technique provided an adequate picture of both the shape and surface texture of any of the three pollen types investigated here. The wavelength of incident light, photon-collection ability of the optical technique, signal-to-noise ratio, and the thickness and light absorption characteristics of the exine profoundly affect the recovery of morphological information by a given optical microscopy technique. Reflected light techniques, particularly confocal and two-photon microscopy, best capture pollen shape but provide limited information on very fine surface texture. In contrast, transmitted light techniques, particularly differential interference contrast microscopy, can resolve very fine surface texture but provide limited information on shape. Texture comprising sculptural elements that are spaced near the diffraction limit of light (~250 nm; NDL presents an acute challenge to optical microscopy. Super-resolution structured illumination microscopy provides data on the NDL texture of A. repens that is more comparable to textural data from scanning electron microscopy than any other optical

  19. Substrate Integrated Waveguide Leaky-Wave Antenna Conforming to Conical Shape Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. N. Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A conical conformal leaky-wave antenna based on substrate integrated waveguide (SIW technology is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. This antenna conforms to a conical shape surface with the angle of 40°. It has a narrow beam that scans from 80° to 97° with varying frequency (34 GHz~37 GHz. Both conformal and nonconformal antennas are fabricated through the standard PCB process. Their performances are compared within the desired frequency.

  20. Experimental study of slot jet impingement heat transfer on a wedge-shaped surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Mostafa; Irani, Mohammad

    2012-12-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the convective heat transfer rate from a wedge-shaped surface to a rectangular subsonic air jet impinging onto the apex of the wedge. The jet Reynolds number, nozzle-to-surface distance and the wedge angle were considered as the main parameters. Jet Reynolds number was ranged from 5,000 to 20,000 and two dimensionless nozzle-to-surface distances h/w = 4 and 10 were examined. The apex angle of the wedge ranged from 30° to 180° where the latter case corresponds with that of a flat surface. Velocity profile and turbulence intensity were provided for free jet flow using hot wire anemometer. Local and average Nusselt numbers on the impinged surface are presented for all the configurations. Based on the results presented, the local Nusselt number at the stagnation region increases as the wedge angle is decreased but, it then decreases over the remaining area of the impinged surface. Average Nusselt number over the whole surface is maximum when the wedge angle is 180° (i.e. plane surface) for any jet and nozzle-to-surface configuration.

  1. Going for distance and going for speed: effort and optical variables shape information for distance perception from observation to response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajnal, Alen; Bunch, David A; Kelty-Stephen, Damian G

    2014-05-01

    Visually guided distance perception reflects a relationship of geometrical optical variables with the effort required when traversing the distance. We probed how the representations encoding optical variables might define this relationship. Participants visually judged distances on sloped surfaces and reproduced these distances over flat terrain by walking while blindfolded. We examined the responses for the effects of optical variables (i.e., angular declinations from eye height) and tested whether four measures of trial-by-trial effort moderated the use of the represented optical variables. We predicted that observation time and response speed relative to the observed distance would accentuate the effects of encoded optical variables, and that response time and response speed relative to the traversed distance would reduce the effects of those variables. The results confirmed all of the effects except those of observation time. Given the benefits of longer study for strengthening a memory trace, the failure of observation time to predict the use of optical variables raises questions about the representational encoding of visual traces for distance perception. Relationships among optical variables and other effort measures implicate the interaction of processes across multiple time scales, as in cascade dynamics. Cascade dynamics may provide new directions for accounts of visually guided distance perception.

  2. How religiosity shapes health perceptions and behaviors of Latina immigrants: is it an enabling or prohibitive factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The study examines how religiosity shapes the health perceptions and health-related behaviors of 50 Latina immigrants from El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico and Bolivia. Between May and August 2011, focus groups were conducted with participants representing each country of origin. Qualitative content analysis was the analytic strategy adopted in the study. The meta-theme, Religiosity Contributes to Positive Perceptions of Health and Health-Promoting Behaviors, is associated with six emerging themes: (1) Religiosity promotes a sense of personal responsibility for one's health; (2) Religiosity promotes a holistic view of health; (3) Religiosity promotes the view that health is a priority; (4) Religiosity promotes the view that health enables one to perform necessary tasks; (5) Religiosity promotes health-seeking behavior; and (6) Religiosity provides intrinsic health benefits. Findings do not follow the clear-cut dichotomy of the health locus of control model and challenge simplified notions that Latinas hold a purely external health locus of control toward their health and health care. Latinas rely on both God and themselves in managing their health and engaging in health-promoting actions, which are prompted in large part by their religiosity. Implications for culturally appropriate health communication and interventions are discussed.

  3. Gender differences in global-local perception? Evidence from orientation and shape judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, Ruth; Amishav, Rama; Sulitzeanu-Kenan, Anat

    2009-01-01

    Direct examinations of gender differences in global-local processing are sparse, and the results are inconsistent. We examined this issue with a visuospatial judgment task and with a shape judgment task. Women and men were presented with hierarchical stimuli that varied in closure (open or closed shape) or in line orientation (oblique or horizontal/vertical) at the global or local level. The task was to classify the stimuli on the basis of the variation at the global level (global classification) or at the local level (local classification). Women's classification by closure (global or local) was more accurate than men's for stimuli that varied in closure on both levels, suggesting a female advantage in discriminating shape properties. No gender differences were observed in global-local processing bias. Women and men exhibited a global advantage, and they did not differ in their speed of global or local classification, with only one exception. Women were slower than men in local classification by orientation when the to-be-classified lines were embedded in a global line with a different orientation. This finding suggests that women are more distracted than men by misleading global oriented context when performing local orientation judgments, perhaps because women and men differ in their ability to use cognitive schemes to compensate for the distracting effects of the global context. Our findings further suggest that whether or not gender differences arise depends not only on the nature of the visual task but also on the visual context.

  4. Shaping of steel mold surface of lens array by electrical discharge machining with single rod electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takino, Hideo; Hosaka, Takahiro

    2014-11-20

    We propose a method for fabricating a lens array mold by electrical discharge machining (EDM). In this method, the tips of rods are machined individually to form a specific surface, and then a number of the machined rods are arranged to construct an electrode for EDM. The repetition of the EDM process using the electrode enables a number of lens elements to be produced on the mold surface. The effectiveness of our proposed method is demonstrated by shaping a lens array mold made of stainless steel with 16 spherical elements, in which the EDM process with a single rod electrode is repeatedly conducted.

  5. Influences of peers’ and family members’ body shapes on perception of body image and desire for thinness in Japanese female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mase T

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomoki Mase,1 Kumiko Ohara,2,3 Chiemi Miyawaki,4 Katsuyasu Kouda,5 Harunobu Nakamura2 1Department of Childhood Education, Kyoto Seibo College, Kyoto, Japan; 2Graduate School of Human Development and Environment, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan; 3Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Early Childhood Education, Heian Jogakuin (St Agnes’ College, Kyoto, Japan; 5Department of Public Health, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osakasayama, Japan Purpose: The present study investigated the influence of peers’ and family members’ body shapes on the perception of body image and desire for thinness in Japanese female students.Methods: The study included 342 female, Japanese university students between the ages of 18 years and 22 years. They completed an anonymous questionnaire, which included questions related to anthropometry and body perception. Eating behavior was assessed by the Japanese version of the Eating Attitude Test-26.Results: Many students overestimated their body shape (81.2% of underweight students and 74.6% of normal students and had a desire for thinness (41.0% of underweight students, 88.2% of normal students, and 100% of overweight students. One of the main reasons for the overestimation of their body shape was comparison with others. Participants who were interested in a friend’s body shape were almost three times more likely to have a desire for thinness than those who were not interested in a female friend’s body shape (odds ratio: 3.06, P=0.014.Conclusion: The results indicate a possibility that a female Japanese student’s young female friends’ body shapes, influences her desire for thinness or her perception of her own body shape. Keywords: body perception, body shape, desire for thinness, female students 

  6. Extracting the Shape and Size of Biomolecules Attached to a Surface as Suspended Discrete Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milioni, Dimitra; Tsortos, Achilleas; Velez, Marisela; Gizeli, Electra

    2017-03-22

    The ability to derive information on the conformation of surface attached biomolecules by using simple techniques such as biosensors is currently considered of great importance in the fields of surface science and nanotechnology. Here we present a nanoshape sensitive biosensor where a simple mathematical expression is used to relate acoustic measurements to the geometrical features of a surface-attached biomolecule. The underlying scientific principle is that the acoustic ratio (ΔD/ΔF) is a measure of the hydrodynamic volume of the attached entity, mathematically expressed by its intrinsic viscosity [η]. A methodology is presented in order to produce surfaces with discretely bound biomolecules where their native conformation is maintained. Using DNA anchors we attached a spherical protein (streptavidin) and a rod-shaped DNA (47bp) to a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) device in a suspended way and predicted correctly through acoustic measurements their conformation, i.e., shape and length. The methodology can be widely applied to draw conclusions on the conformation of any biomolecule or nanoentity upon specific binding on the surface of an acoustic wave device.

  7. Optical feather and foil for shape and dynamic load sensing of critical flight surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Richard J.; Costa, Joannes M.; Faridian, Fereydoun; Moslehi, Behzad; Pakmehr, Mehrdad; Schlavin, Jon; Sotoudeh, Vahid; Zagrai, Andrei

    2014-04-01

    Future flight vehicles may comprise complex flight surfaces requiring coordinated in-situ sensing and actuation. Inspired by the complexity of the flight surfaces on the wings and tail of a bird, it is argued that increasing the number of interdependent flight surfaces from just a few, as is normal in an airplane, to many, as in the feathers of a bird, can significantly enlarge the flight envelope. To enable elements of an eco-inspired Dynamic Servo-Elastic (DSE) flight control system, IFOS is developing a multiple functionality-sensing element analogous to a feather, consisting of a very thin tube with optical fiber based strain sensors and algorithms for deducing the shape of the "feather" by measuring strain at multiple points. It is envisaged that the "feather" will act as a unit of sensing and/or actuation for establishing shape, position, static and dynamic loads on flight surfaces and in critical parts. Advanced sensing hardware and software control algorithms will enable the proposed DSE flight control concept. The hardware development involves an array of optical fiber based sensorized needle tubes for attachment to key parts for dynamic flight surface measurement. Once installed the optical fiber sensors, which can be interrogated over a wide frequency range, also allow damage detection and structural health monitoring.

  8. Effect of shape of elastic beam hair on its adhesion with wavy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemthavy, Pasomphone; Yazaki, Takehiko; Wang, Boqing; Sekiguchi, Yu; Takahashi, Kunio

    2014-08-01

    An analysis on a tapered elastic beam whose side surface partially adhered to a rigid surface was carried out to study the effect of the beam shape on the gripping force. Considering the total energy of the system, the relation between the gripping force and the displacement was obtained analytically in closed form. The analytical result is significant because it provides an intuitive picture of the gripping force. Although, an individually tapered beam can generate less gripping force for flat or slightly wavy surfaces, compared to a rectangular beam, the analysis result suggests that the tapered beam has more ability to absorb surface waviness. This result can be applied to a multi-beam structure.

  9. The Effects of Different Electrode Types for Obtaining Surface Machining Shape on Shape Memory Alloy Using Electrochemical Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. G.; Kim, S. H.; Choi, W. K.; Moon, G. C.; Lee, E. S.

    2017-06-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) is important material used for the medicine and aerospace industry due to its characteristics called the shape memory effect, which involves the recovery of deformed alloy to its original state through the application of temperature or stress. Consumers in modern society demand stability in parts. Electrochemical machining is one of the methods for obtained these stabilities in parts requirements. These parts of shape memory alloy require fine patterns in some applications. In order to machine a fine pattern, the electrochemical machining method is suitable. For precision electrochemical machining using different shape electrodes, the current density should be controlled precisely. And electrode shape is required for precise electrochemical machining. It is possible to obtain precise square holes on the SMA if the insulation layer controlled the unnecessary current between electrode and workpiece. If it is adjusting the unnecessary current to obtain the desired shape, it will be a great contribution to the medical industry and the aerospace industry. It is possible to process a desired shape to the shape memory alloy by micro controlling the unnecessary current. In case of the square electrode without insulation layer, it derives inexact square holes due to the unnecessary current. The results using the insulated electrode in only side show precise square holes. The removal rate improved in case of insulated electrode than others because insulation layer concentrate the applied current to the machining zone.

  10. When interdependence shapes social perception: cooperation and competition moderate implicit gender stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lemus, Soledad; Bukowski, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of interdependence goals on the accessibility of implicit gender stereotypical associations. Participants were asked to cooperate with or compete against a woman on a mathematical abilities task and subsequently the relative activation of positive and negative warmth and competence traits was measured using a primed categorization task. Results showed that female primes (vs. male primes) facilitated the activation of low warmth and high competence in the competition condition, whereas high warmth was activated in the cooperation condition and no differences were found for competence traits. These results are discussed referring to the stereotype content model and the compensation effect in person perception. The goal dependent nature of implicit gender stereotypes is emphasized.

  11. How community environment shapes physical activity: perceptions revealed through the PhotoVoice method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belon, Ana Paula; Nieuwendyk, Laura M; Vallianatos, Helen; Nykiforuk, Candace I J

    2014-09-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that community environment plays an important role in individuals' physical activity engagement. However, while attributes of the physical environment are widely investigated, sociocultural, political, and economic aspects of the environment are often neglected. This article helps to fill these knowledge gaps by providing a more comprehensive understanding of multiple dimensions of the community environment relative to physical activity. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore how people's experiences and perceptions of their community environments affect their abilities to engage in physical activity. A PhotoVoice method was used to identify barriers to and opportunities for physical activity among residents in four communities in the province of Alberta, Canada, in 2009. After taking pictures, the thirty-five participants shared their perceptions of those opportunities and barriers in their community environments during individual interviews. Using the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework, themes emerging from these photo-elicited interviews were organized in four environment types: physical, sociocultural, economic, and political. The data show that themes linked to the physical (56.6%) and sociocultural (31.4%) environments were discussed more frequently than the themes of the economic (5.9%) and political (6.1%) environments. Participants identified nuanced barriers and opportunities for physical activity, which are illustrated by their quotes and photographs. The findings suggest that a myriad of factors from physical, sociocultural, economic, and political environments influence people's abilities to be physically active in their communities. Therefore, adoption of a broad, ecological perspective is needed to address the barriers and build upon the opportunities described by participants to make communities more healthy and active.

  12. Beyond face value: does involuntary emotional anticipation shape the perception of dynamic facial expressions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Palumbo

    Full Text Available Emotional facial expressions are immediate indicators of the affective dispositions of others. Recently it has been shown that early stages of social perception can already be influenced by (implicit attributions made by the observer about the agent's mental state and intentions. In the current study possible mechanisms underpinning distortions in the perception of dynamic, ecologically-valid, facial expressions were explored. In four experiments we examined to what extent basic perceptual processes such as contrast/context effects, adaptation and representational momentum underpinned the perceptual distortions, and to what extent 'emotional anticipation', i.e. the involuntary anticipation of the other's emotional state of mind on the basis of the immediate perceptual history, might have played a role. Neutral facial expressions displayed at the end of short video-clips, in which an initial facial expression of joy or anger gradually morphed into a neutral expression, were misjudged as being slightly angry or slightly happy, respectively (Experiment 1. This response bias disappeared when the actor's identity changed in the final neutral expression (Experiment 2. Videos depicting neutral-to-joy-to-neutral and neutral-to-anger-to-neutral sequences again produced biases but in opposite direction (Experiment 3. The bias survived insertion of a 400 ms blank (Experiment 4. These results suggested that the perceptual distortions were not caused by any of the low-level perceptual mechanisms (adaptation, representational momentum and contrast effects. We speculate that especially when presented with dynamic, facial expressions, perceptual distortions occur that reflect 'emotional anticipation' (a low-level mindreading mechanism, which overrules low-level visual mechanisms. Underpinning neural mechanisms are discussed in relation to the current debate on action and emotion understanding.

  13. Beyond face value: does involuntary emotional anticipation shape the perception of dynamic facial expressions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Letizia; Jellema, Tjeerd

    2013-01-01

    Emotional facial expressions are immediate indicators of the affective dispositions of others. Recently it has been shown that early stages of social perception can already be influenced by (implicit) attributions made by the observer about the agent's mental state and intentions. In the current study possible mechanisms underpinning distortions in the perception of dynamic, ecologically-valid, facial expressions were explored. In four experiments we examined to what extent basic perceptual processes such as contrast/context effects, adaptation and representational momentum underpinned the perceptual distortions, and to what extent 'emotional anticipation', i.e. the involuntary anticipation of the other's emotional state of mind on the basis of the immediate perceptual history, might have played a role. Neutral facial expressions displayed at the end of short video-clips, in which an initial facial expression of joy or anger gradually morphed into a neutral expression, were misjudged as being slightly angry or slightly happy, respectively (Experiment 1). This response bias disappeared when the actor's identity changed in the final neutral expression (Experiment 2). Videos depicting neutral-to-joy-to-neutral and neutral-to-anger-to-neutral sequences again produced biases but in opposite direction (Experiment 3). The bias survived insertion of a 400 ms blank (Experiment 4). These results suggested that the perceptual distortions were not caused by any of the low-level perceptual mechanisms (adaptation, representational momentum and contrast effects). We speculate that especially when presented with dynamic, facial expressions, perceptual distortions occur that reflect 'emotional anticipation' (a low-level mindreading mechanism), which overrules low-level visual mechanisms. Underpinning neural mechanisms are discussed in relation to the current debate on action and emotion understanding.

  14. Comparison of Shape, Space, and Time Judgments in Expert Dancers and Novices: Evidence that Production Enhances Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Matthew Kenney

    2015-09-01

    Neuroimaging and behavioral studies have indicated that expertise in dance is associated with differences in the visual processing of dance movements. This study sought to determine if dance expertise was also associated with the ability to recognize visual differences between dance movements. Participants (20 dancers and 20 non-dancers) watched pairs of video clips showing dance phrases. Within each pair of phrases a manipulation was made to a single movement in the categories of shape (25%), time (25%), or space (25%), or there was no manipulation made between the two videos (25%). After viewing each pair, participants used pencil and paper to indicate if they observed a difference between the phrases and, if so, in which category. Group differences were compared for each category with four separate t-tests. Results showed that dancers were better at recognizing manipulations of space, time, and trials with no change but did not differ from non-dancers at recognizing manipulations of shape. Results are discussed in reference to the tested hypothesis that the ability and experience to produce an action is associated with enhanced perception of similar actions.

  15. Surface displacement based shape analysis of central brain structures in preterm-born children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amanmeet; Grunau, Ruth E.; Popuri, Karteek; Miller, Steven; Bjornson, Bruce; Poskitt, Kenneth J.; Beg, Mirza Faisal

    2016-03-01

    Many studies using T1 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data have found associations between changes in global metrics (e.g. volume) of brain structures and preterm birth. In this work, we use the surface displacement feature extracted from the deformations of the surface models of the third ventricle, fourth ventricle and brainstem to capture the variation in shape in these structures at 8 years of age that may be due to differences in the trajectory of brain development as a result of very preterm birth (24-32 weeks gestation). Understanding the spatial patterns of shape alterations in these structures in children who were born very preterm as compared to those who were born at full term may lead to better insights into mechanisms of differing brain development between these two groups. The T1 MRI data for the brain was acquired from children born full term (FT, n=14, 8 males) and preterm (PT, n=51, 22 males) at age 8-years. Accurate segmentation labels for these structures were obtained via a multi-template fusion based segmentation method. A high dimensional non-rigid registration algorithm was utilized to register the target segmentation labels to a set of segmentation labels defined on an average-template. The surface displacement data for the brainstem and the third ventricle were found to be significantly different (p spatially localized clusters with inward and outward deformation were found to be associated with lower gestational age. The results from this study present a shape analysis method for pediatric MRI data and reveal shape changes that may be due to preterm birth.

  16. Laser forming of a bowl shaped surface with a stationary laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shitanshu Shekhar; More, Harshit; Nath, Ashish Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Despite a lot of research done in the field of laser forming, generation of a symmetric bowl shaped surface by this process is still a challenge mainly because only a portion of the sheet is momentarily deformed in this process, unlike conventional sheet metal forming like deep drawing where the entire blank undergoes forming simultaneously reducing asymmetry to a minimum. The motion of laser beam also makes the process asymmetric. To counter these limitations this work proposes a new approach for laser forming of a bowl shaped surface by irradiating the centre of a flat circular blank with a stationary laser beam. With high power lasers, power density sufficient for laser forming, can be availed at reasonably large spot sizes. This advantage is exploited in this technique. Effects of duration of laser irradiation and beam spot diameter on the amount of bending and asymmetry in the formed surface were investigated. Laser power was kept constant while varying irradiation time. While varying laser spot diameter laser power was chosen so as to keep the surface temperature nearly constant at just below melting. Experimental conditions promoted almost uniform heating through sheet thickness. The amount of bending increased with irradiation time and spot diameter. It was interesting to observe that blanks bent towards the laser beam for smaller laser beam diameters and the reverse happened for larger spot diameters (~10 times of the sheet thickness). Effect of spot diameter variation has been explained with the help of coupled thermal-structural finite element simulations.

  17. Influence of Surface Topography on ICESat/GLAS Forest Height Estimation and Waveform Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Hilbert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores ICESat/GLAS waveform data in Thuringian Forest, a low mountain range located in central Germany. Lidar remote sensing has been proven to directly derive tree height as a key variable of forest structure. The GLAS signal is, however, very sensitive to surface topography because of the large footprint size. This study therefore focuses on forests in a mountainous area to assess the potential of GLAS data to derive terrain elevation and tree height. The work enhances the empirical knowledge about the interaction between GLAS waveform and landscape structure regarding a special temperate forest site with a complex terrain. An algorithm to retrieve tree height directly from GLA01 waveform data is proposed and compared to an approach using GLA14 Gaussian parameters. The results revealed that GLAS height estimates were accurate for areas with a slope up to 10° whereas waveforms of areas above 15° were problematic. Slopes between 10–15° have been found to be a critical crossover. Further, different waveform shape types and landscape structure classes were developed as a new possibility to explore the waveform in its whole structure. Based on the detailed analysis of some waveform examples, it could be demonstrated that the waveform shape can be regarded as a product of the complex interaction between surface and canopy structure. Consequently, there is a great variety of waveform shapes which in turn considerably hampers GLAS tree height extraction in areas with steep slopes and complex forest conditions.

  18. Tetrahedral shape and surface density wave of $^{16}$O caused by $\\alpha$-cluster correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    $\\alpha$-cluster correlations in the $0^+_1$ and $3^-_1$ states of $^{12}$C and $^{16}$O are studied using the method of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics, with which nuclear structures are described from nucleon degrees of freedom without assuming existence of clusters. The intrinsic states of $^{12}$C and $^{16}$O have triangle and tetrahedral shapes, respectively, because of the $\\alpha$-cluster correlations. These shapes can be understood as spontaneous symmetry breaking of rotational invariance, and the resultant surface density oscillation is associated with density wave (DW) caused by the instability of Fermi surface with respect to particle-hole correlations with the wave number $\\lambda=3$. $^{16}$O($0^+_1$) and $^{16}$O($3^-_1$) are regarded as a set of parity partners constructed from the rigid tetrahedral intrinsic state, whereas $^{12}$C($0^+_1$) and $^{12}$C($3^-_1$) are not good parity partners as they have triangle intrinsic states of different sizes with significant shape fluctuation because...

  19. Surface structure and properties of biomedical NiTi shape memory alloy after Fenton's oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C L; Hu, T; Wu, S L; Dong, Y S; Yin, L H; Pu, Y P; Lin, P H; Chung, C Y; Yeung, K W K; Chu, Paul K

    2007-09-01

    Fenton's oxidation is traditionally used to remove inorganic and organic pollutants from water in waster water treatment. It is an advanced oxidation process in which H2O2 is catalytically decomposed by ferrous irons into hydroxyl radicals (*OH) which have a higher oxidation potential (2.8V) than H2O2. In the work reported here, we for the first time use Fenton's oxidation to modify the surface of biomedical NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA). The influences of Fenton's oxidation on the surface microstructure, blood compatibility, leaching of harmful Ni ions and corrosion resistance in simulated body fluids is assessed using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, electrochemical tests, hemolysis analysis and the blood platelet adhesion test. The mechanical stability of the surface titania film produced by Fenton's oxidation as well as their effects on the shape memory behavior of the SMA are studied by bending tests. Our results show that Fenton's oxidation produces a novel nanostructured titania gel film with a graded structure on the NiTi substrate without an intermediate Ni-rich layer that is typical of high-temperature oxidation. Moreover, there is a clear Ni-free zone near the top surface of the titania film. The surface structural changes introduced by Fenton's oxidation improve the electrochemical corrosion resistance and mitigate Ni release. The latter effects are comparable to those observed after oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation reported previously and better than those of high-temperature oxidation. Aging in boiling water improves the crystallinity of the titania film and further reduces Ni leaching. Blood platelet adhesion is remarkably reduced after Fenton's oxidation, suggesting that the treated SMA has improved thrombo resistance. Enhancement of blood compatibility is believed to stem from the improved hemolysis resistance, the surface wettability and the

  20. Influence of Er:YAG laser ablation on cavity surface and cavity shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinkova, Helena; Dostalova, Tatjana; Krejsa, Otakar; Hamal, Karel; Kubelka, Jiri; Prochazka, Stanislav

    1996-04-01

    The cavity surface and shape after Er:YAG laser ablation at different energies, number of pulses and at a different repetition rate were observed. Longitudinal sections of extracted human incisors and transverse sections of ivory tusk were cut and polished to flat and glazed surfaces. The samples thickness was from 3 to 5 mm. The Er:YAG laser was operating in a free-running (long pulse) mode. The laser radiation was focused onto the tooth surface by CaF2 lens (f equals 55 mm). During the experiment, the teeth were steady and the radiation was delivered by a special mechanical arm fixed in a special holder; fine water mist was also used (water-mJ/min, a pressure of two atm, air-pressure three atm). The shapes of the prepared cavities were studied either by using a varying laser energies (from 70 mJ to 500 mJ) for a constant number of pulses, or a varying number of pulses (from one to thirty) for constant laser energy. The repetition rate was changed from 1 to 2 Hz. For evaluating the surfaces, shapes, and profiles, scanning electron microscopy and photographs from a light microscope were used. The results were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. It is seen that there is no linear relation between the radiation pulse energy and the size of the prepared holes. With increasing the incident energy the cavity depth growth is limited. There exists some saturation not only in the enamel and dentin but especially in the homogeneous ivory.

  1. Shape, thermal and surface properties determination of a candidate spacecraft target asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, LiangLiang; Ji, Jianghui; Wang, Su

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, a 3D convex shape model of (175706) 1996 FG3, which consists of 2040 triangle facets and 1022 vertices, is derived from the known light curves. The best-fitting orientation of the asteroid's spin axis is determined to be λ = 237.27° and β = -83.8° considering the observation uncertainties, and its rotation period is ˜3.5935 h. Using the derived shape model, we adopt the so-called advanced thermophysical model (ATPM) to fit three published sets of mid-infrared observations of 1996 FG3, so as to evaluate its surface properties. Assuming the primary and the secondary bear identical shape, albedo, thermal inertia and surface roughness, the best-fitting parameters are obtained from the observations. The geometric albedo and effective diameter of the asteroid are reckoned to be pv = 0.045 ± 0.002, D_eff=1.69^{+0.05}_{-0.02} km. The diameters of the primary and secondary are determined to be D1=1.63^{+0.04}_{-0.03} km and D2=0.45^{+0.04}_{-0.03} km, respectively. The surface thermal inertia Γ is derived to be a low value of 80 ± 40 Jm-2 s-0.5 K-1 with a roughness fraction fR of 0.8^{+0.2}_{-0.4}. This indicates that the primary possibly has a regolith layer on its surface, which is likely to be covered by a mixture of dust, fragmentary rocky debris and sand. The minimum regolith depth is estimated to be 5-20 mm from the simulations of subsurface temperature distribution, indicating that 1996 FG3 could be a very suitable target for a sample return mission.

  2. How Social Status Shapes Person Perception and Evaluation: A Social Neuroscience Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattan, Bradley D; Kubota, Jennifer T; Cloutier, Jasmin

    2017-05-01

    Inferring the relative rank (i.e., status) of others is essential to navigating social hierarchies. A survey of the expanding social psychological and neuroscience literatures on status reveals a diversity of focuses (e.g., perceiver vs. agent), operationalizations (e.g., status as dominance vs. wealth), and methodologies (e.g., behavioral, neuroscientific). Accommodating this burgeoning literature on status in person perception, the present review offers a novel social neuroscientific framework that integrates existing work with theoretical clarity. This framework distinguishes between five key concepts: (1) strategic pathways to status acquisition for agents, (2) status antecedents (i.e., perceptual and knowledge-based cues that confer status rank), (3) status dimensions (i.e., domains in which an individual may be ranked, such as wealth), (4) status level (i.e., one's rank along a given dimension), and (5) the relative importance of a given status dimension, dependent on perceiver and context characteristics. Against the backdrop of this framework, we review multiple dimensions of status in the nonhuman and human primate literatures. We then review the behavioral and neuroscientific literatures on the consequences of perceived status for attention and evaluation. Finally, after proposing a social neuroscience framework, we highlight innovative directions for future social status research in social psychology and neuroscience.

  3. Effects of temporal shapes of sound markers on the perception of interonset time intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasuo, Emi; Nakajima, Yoshitaka; Osawa, Satoshi; Fujishima, Hiroyuki

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated how the temporal characteristics, particularly durations, of sounds affect the perceived duration of very short interonset time intervals (120-360 ms), which is important for rhythm perception in speech and music. In four experiments, the subjective duration of single time intervals marked by two sounds was measured utilizing the method of adjustment, while the markers' durations, amplitude difference (which accompanied the duration change), and sound energy distribution in time were varied. Lengthening the duration of the second marker in the range of 20-100 ms increased the subjective duration of the time interval in a stable manner. Lengthening the first marker tended to increase the subjective duration, but unstably; an opposite effect sometimes appeared for the shortest time interval of 120 ms. The effects of varying the amplitude and the sound energy distribution in time of either marker were very small in the present experimental conditions, thus proving the effects of marker durations per se.

  4. Aerodynamic shape optimization of a HSCT type configuration with improved surface definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Almuttil M.; Tiwari, Surendra N.

    1994-01-01

    Two distinct parametrization procedures of generating free-form surfaces to represent aerospace vehicles are presented. The first procedure is the representation using spline functions such as nonuniform rational b-splines (NURBS) and the second is a novel (geometrical) parametrization using solutions to a suitably chosen partial differential equation. The main idea is to develop a surface which is more versatile and can be used in an optimization process. Unstructured volume grid is generated by an advancing front algorithm and solutions obtained using an Euler solver. Grid sensitivity with respect to surface design parameters and aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients based on potential flow is obtained using an automatic differentiator precompiler software tool. Aerodynamic shape optimization of a complete aircraft with twenty four design variables is performed. High speed civil transport aircraft (HSCT) configurations are targeted to demonstrate the process.

  5. Apparatus and method for atmospheric pressure reactive atom plasma processing for shaping of damage free surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr; Jeffrey W.

    2009-03-31

    Fabrication apparatus and methods are disclosed for shaping and finishing difficult materials with no subsurface damage. The apparatus and methods use an atmospheric pressure mixed gas plasma discharge as a sub-aperture polisher of, for example, fused silica and single crystal silicon, silicon carbide and other materials. In one example, workpiece material is removed at the atomic level through reaction with fluorine atoms. In this example, these reactive species are produced by a noble gas plasma from trace constituent fluorocarbons or other fluorine containing gases added to the host argon matrix. The products of the reaction are gas phase compounds that flow from the surface of the workpiece, exposing fresh material to the etchant without condensation and redeposition on the newly created surface. The discharge provides a stable and predictable distribution of reactive species permitting the generation of a predetermined surface by translating the plasma across the workpiece along a calculated path.

  6. The Favourable Choice of the Shape of Billet's Contact Surface to Quality of Extruded Aluminium Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Skorulski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical and experimental method of optimization the aluminium billet’s contact surface during extrusion have been presented inthis paper. The theoretical assumption, based on welding criteria, have been confirmed by experimental researches. The technique ofmeasurement has been shown as well. Experiments are made using plasticine as a substiute material. Some kind of different variants have been investigated. The theory and experiments have been provided to optimize the modeling shape and may help in design and technology.The theory has been tested experimentally using a plasticine as a substitute material and a plexiglass die such that the velocity fields at the surfaces could be observed and measured during plastic flow, allowing the empirical coefficients in the mathematical formulation to be estimated. On the basis of the theory and experiments an optimal billet’s contact surface was proposed.

  7. Accuracy of surface tension measurement from drop shapes: the role of image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantarian, Ali; Saad, Sameh M I; Neumann, A Wilhelm

    2013-11-01

    Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis (ADSA) has been extensively used for surface tension measurement. In essence, ADSA works by matching a theoretical profile of the drop to the extracted experimental profile, taking surface tension as an adjustable parameter. Of the three main building blocks of ADSA, i.e. edge detection, the numerical integration of the Laplace equation for generating theoretical curves and the optimization procedure, only edge detection (that extracts the drop profile line from the drop image) needs extensive study. For the purpose of this article, the numerical integration of the Laplace equation for generating theoretical curves and the optimization procedure will only require a minor effort. It is the aim of this paper to investigate how far the surface tension accuracy of drop shape techniques can be pushed by fine tuning and optimizing edge detection strategies for a given drop image. Two different aspects of edge detection are pursued here: sub-pixel resolution and pixel resolution. The effect of two sub-pixel resolution strategies, i.e. spline and sigmoid, on the accuracy of surface tension measurement is investigated. It is found that the number of pixel points in the fitting procedure of the sub-pixel resolution techniques is crucial, and its value should be determined based on the contrast of the image, i.e. the gray level difference between the drop and the background. On the pixel resolution side, two suitable and reliable edge detectors, i.e. Canny and SUSAN, are explored, and the effect of user-specified parameters of the edge detector on the accuracy of surface tension measurement is scrutinized. Based on the contrast of the image, an optimum value of the user-specified parameter of the edge detector, SUSAN, is suggested. Overall, an accuracy of 0.01mJ/m(2) is achievable for the surface tension determination by careful fine tuning of edge detection algorithms.

  8. Geometry- and Length Scale-Dependent Deformation and Recovery on Micro- and Nanopatterned Shape Memory Polymer Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei Li; Low, Hong Yee

    2016-03-01

    Micro- and nanoscale surface textures, when optimally designed, present a unique approach to improve surface functionalities. Coupling surface texture with shape memory polymers may generate reversibly tuneable surface properties. A shape memory polyetherurethane is used to prepare various surface textures including 2 μm- and 200 nm-gratings, 250 nm-pillars and 200 nm-holes. The mechanical deformation via stretching and recovery of the surface texture are investigated as a function of length scales and shapes. Results show the 200 nm-grating exhibiting more deformation than 2 μm-grating. Grating imparts anisotropic and surface area-to-volume effects, causing different degree of deformation between gratings and pillars under the same applied macroscopic strain. Full distribution of stress within the film causes the holes to deform more substantially than the pillars. In the recovery study, unlike a nearly complete recovery for the gratings after 10 transformation cycles, the high contribution of surface energy impedes the recovery of holes and pillars. The surface textures are shown to perform a switchable wetting function. This study provides insights into how geometric features of shape memory surface patterns can be designed to modulate the shape programming and recovery, and how the control of reversibly deformable surface textures can be applied to transfer microdroplets.

  9. Application specific beam profiles: new surface and thin-film refinement processes using beam shaping technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    Today, the use of laser photons for materials processing is a key technology in nearly all industries. Most of the applications use circular beam shapes with Gaussian intensity distribution that is given by the resonator of the laser or by the power delivery via optical fibre. These beam shapes can be typically used for material removal with cutting or drilling and for selective removal of material layers with ablation processes. In addition to the removal of materials, it is possible to modify and improve the material properties in case the dose of laser photons and the resulting light-material interaction addresses a defined window of energy and dwell-time. These process windows have typically dwell-times between µs and s because of using sintering, melting, thermal diffusion or photon induced chemical and physical reaction mechanisms. Using beam shaping technologies the laser beam profiles can be adapted to the material properties and time-temperature and the space-temperature envelopes can be modified to enable selective annealing or crystallization of layers or surfaces. Especially the control of the process energy inside the beam and at its edges opens a large area of laser applications that can be addressed only with an optimized spatial and angular beam profile with down to sub-percent intensity variation used in e.g. immersion lithography tools with ArF laser sources. LIMO will present examples for new beam shapes and related material refinement processes even on large surfaces and give an overview about new mechanisms in laser material processing for current and coming industrial applications.

  10. Physician perceptions of primary prevention: qualitative base for the conceptual shaping of a practice intervention tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Christina L

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A practice intervention must have its basis in an understanding of the physician and practice to secure its benefit and relevancy. We used a formative process to characterize primary care physician attitudes, needs, and practice obstacles regarding primary prevention. The characterization will provide the conceptual framework for the development of a practice tool to facilitate routine delivery of primary preventive care. Methods A focus group of primary care physician Opinion Leaders was audio-taped, transcribed, and qualitatively analyzed to identify emergent themes that described physicians' perceptions of prevention in daily practice. Results The conceptual worth of primary prevention, including behavioral counseling, was high, but its practice was significantly countered by the predominant clinical emphasis on and rewards for secondary care. In addition, lack of health behavior training, perceived low self-efficacy, and patient resistance to change were key deterrents to primary prevention delivery. Also, the preventive focus in primary care is not on cancer, but on predominant chronic nonmalignant conditions. Conclusions The success of the future practice tool will be largely dependent on its ability to "fit" primary prevention into the clinical culture of diagnoses and treatment sustained by physicians, patients, and payers. The tool's message output must be formatted to facilitate physician delivery of patient-tailored behavioral counseling in an accurate, confident, and efficacious manner. Also, the tool's health behavior messages should be behavior-specific, not disease-specific, to draw on shared risk behaviors of numerous diseases and increase the likelihood of perceived salience and utility of the tool in primary care.

  11. EarthShape: A Strategy for Investigating the Role of Biota on Surface Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Übernickel, Kirstin; Ehlers, Todd Alan; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Paulino, Leandro

    2017-04-01

    EarthShape - "Earth surface shaping by biota" is a 6-year priority research program funded by the German science foundation (DFG-SPP 1803) that performs soil- and landscape-scale critical zone research at 4 locations along a climate gradient in Chile, South America. The program is in its first year and involves an interdisciplinary collaboration between geologists, geomorphologists, ecologists, soil scientists, microbiologists, geophysicists, geochemists, hydrogeologists and climatologists including 18 German and 8 Chilean institutions. EarthShape is composed of 4 research clusters representing the process chain from weathering of substrate to deposition of eroded material. Cluster 1 explores micro-biota as the "weathering engine". Investigations in this cluster quantify different mechanisms of biogenic weathering whereby plants, fungi, and bacteria interact with rock in the production of soil. Cluster 2 explores bio-mediated redistribution of material within the weathering zone. Studies in this cluster focus on soil catenas along hill slope profiles to investigate the modification of matter along its transport path. Cluster 3 explores biotic modulation of erosion and sediment routing at the catchment scale. Investigations in this cluster explore the effects of vegetation cover on solute and sediment transport from hill slopes to the channel network. Cluster 4 explores the depositional legacy of coupled biogenic and Earth surface systems. This cluster investigates records of vegetation-land surface interactions in different depositional settings. A final component of EarthShape lies in the integration of results from these 4 clusters using numerical models to bridging between the diverse times scales used by different disciplines. The Chilean Coastal Cordillera between 25° and 40°S was selected to carry out this research because its north-south orientation captures a large ecological and climate gradient. This gradient ranges from hyper-arid (Atacama desert) to

  12. Light scattering resonances in arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reentrant surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrete-Regagnon, Pedro; Hernandez-Walls, Rafael; Ruiz-Cortes, Victor

    2000-09-01

    Multiple scattering and shape-related effects are an active and important field of research in the area of diffraction and scattering of electromagnetic waves by rough surfaces. Most of the rigorous numerical techniques for dealing with this problem were limited to the treatment of single-valued surfaces. We have extended the formulation of Mendoza- Suarez and Mendez (1997) for dealing with multi-valued profile functions in order to study the scattering of reentrant surfaces or cavities in both, the near and far-field. We have evaluated the near-field in circular cavities with narrow entrances, as well as in the case of clusters of rods or cylinders. Resonant frequencies are clearly identified for these structures. We have also found that our model could be useful to predict wave-induced oscillations in harbors of arbitrary geometry. This comes form the fact that the mathematical formulation of the problem of light scattering by cavities (in the case of p polarization) is similar to the one employed in the case of harbors of arbitrary shape, when a water wave arrives at its entrance (Hwang and Tuck, 1970; Lee, 1971). The results obtained with our model are in close agreement with previously reported theories and experimental data.

  13. A smart car for the surface shape measurement of large antenna based on laser tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yonggang; Hu, Jing; Jin, Yi; Zhai, Chao

    2012-09-01

    The geometric accuracy of the surface shape of large antenna is an important indicator of antenna’s quality. Currently, high-precision measurement of large antenna surface shape can be performed in two ways: photogrammetry and laser tracker. Photogrammetry is a rapid method, but its accuracy is not enough good. Laser tracker can achieve high precision, but it is very inconvenient to move the reflector (target mirror) on the surface of the antenna by hand during the measurement. So, a smart car is designed to carry the reflector in this paper. The car, controlled by wireless, has a small weight and a strong ability for climbing, and there is a holding bracket gripping the reflector and controlling reflector rise up and drop down on the car. During the measurement of laser tracker, the laser beam between laser tracker and the reflector must not be interrupted, so two high-precision three-dimensional miniature electronic compasses, which can real-time monitor the relative angle between the holding bracket and the laser tracker’s head, are both equipped on the car and the head of laser tracker to achieve automatic alignment between reflector and laser beam. With the aid of the smart car, the measurement of laser tracker has the advantages of high precision and rapidity.

  14. Superhydrophobic Surface With Shape Memory Micro/Nanostructure and Its Application in Rewritable Chip for Droplet Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Tong; Cheng, Zhongjun; Zhang, Dongjie; Zhang, Enshuang; Zhao, Qianlong; Liu, Yuyan; Jiang, Lei

    2016-09-21

    Recently, superhydrophobic surfaces with tunable wettability have aroused much attention. Noticeably, almost all present smart performances rely on the variation of surface chemistry on static micro/nanostructure, to obtain a surface with dynamically tunable micro/nanostructure, especially that can memorize and keep different micro/nanostructures and related wettabilities, is still a challenge. Herein, by creating micro/nanostructured arrays on shape memory polymer, a superhydrophobic surface that has shape memory ability in changing and recovering its hierarchical structures and related wettabilities was reported. Meanwhile, the surface was successfully used in the rewritable functional chip for droplet storage by designing microstructure-dependent patterns, which breaks through current research that structure patterns cannot be reprogrammed. This article advances a superhydrophobic surface with shape memory hierarchical structure and the application in rewritable functional chip, which could start some fresh ideas for the development of smart superhydrophobic surface.

  15. A Neuroelectrical Brain Imaging Study on the Perception of Figurative Paintings against Only their Color or Shape Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton G. Maglione

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the cortical activity correlated with the perception and appreciation of different set of pictures was estimated by using neuroelectric brain activity and graph theory methodologies in a group of artistic educated persons. The pictures shown to the subjects consisted of original pictures of Titian's and a contemporary artist's paintings (Orig dataset plus two sets of additional pictures. These additional datasets were obtained from the previous paintings by removing all but the colors or the shapes employed (Color and Style dataset, respectively. Results suggest that the verbal appreciation of Orig dataset when compared to Color and Style ones was mainly correlated to the neuroelectric indexes estimated during the first 10 s of observation of the pictures. Always in the first 10 s of observation: (1 Orig dataset induced more emotion and is perceived with more appreciation than the other two Color and Style datasets; (2 Style dataset is perceived with more attentional effort than the other investigated datasets. During the whole period of observation of 30 s: (1 emotion induced by Color and Style datasets increased across the time while that induced of the Orig dataset remain stable; (2 Color and Style dataset were perceived with more attentional effort than the Orig dataset. During the entire experience, there is evidence of a cortical flow of activity from the parietal and central areas toward the prefrontal and frontal areas during the observation of the images of all the datasets. This is coherent from the notion that active perception of the images with sustained cognitive attention in parietal and central areas caused the generation of the judgment about their aesthetic appreciation in frontal areas.

  16. A Neuroelectrical Brain Imaging Study on the Perception of Figurative Paintings against Only their Color or Shape Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Anton G.; Brizi, Ambra; Vecchiato, Giovanni; Rossi, Dario; Trettel, Arianna; Modica, Enrica; Babiloni, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the cortical activity correlated with the perception and appreciation of different set of pictures was estimated by using neuroelectric brain activity and graph theory methodologies in a group of artistic educated persons. The pictures shown to the subjects consisted of original pictures of Titian's and a contemporary artist's paintings (Orig dataset) plus two sets of additional pictures. These additional datasets were obtained from the previous paintings by removing all but the colors or the shapes employed (Color and Style dataset, respectively). Results suggest that the verbal appreciation of Orig dataset when compared to Color and Style ones was mainly correlated to the neuroelectric indexes estimated during the first 10 s of observation of the pictures. Always in the first 10 s of observation: (1) Orig dataset induced more emotion and is perceived with more appreciation than the other two Color and Style datasets; (2) Style dataset is perceived with more attentional effort than the other investigated datasets. During the whole period of observation of 30 s: (1) emotion induced by Color and Style datasets increased across the time while that induced of the Orig dataset remain stable; (2) Color and Style dataset were perceived with more attentional effort than the Orig dataset. During the entire experience, there is evidence of a cortical flow of activity from the parietal and central areas toward the prefrontal and frontal areas during the observation of the images of all the datasets. This is coherent from the notion that active perception of the images with sustained cognitive attention in parietal and central areas caused the generation of the judgment about their aesthetic appreciation in frontal areas. PMID:28790907

  17. Vision is superior to touch in shape perception even with equivalent peripheral input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoonju; Craig, J C; Hsiao, S S; Bensmaia, S J

    2016-01-01

    Results from previous studies suggest that two-dimensional spatial patterns are processed similarly in vision and touch when the patterns are equated for effective size or when visual stimuli are blurred to mimic the spatial filtering of the skin. In the present study, we measured subjects' ability to perceive the shape of familiar and unfamiliar visual and tactile patterns to compare form processing in the two modalities. As had been previously done, the two-dimensional tactile and visual patterns were adjusted in size to stimulate an equivalent number of receptors in the two modalities. We also distorted the visual patterns, using a filter that accurately mimics the spatial filtering effected by the skin to further equate the peripheral images in the two modalities. We found that vision consistently outperformed touch regardless of the precise perceptual task and of how familiar the patterns were. Based on an examination of both the earlier and present data, we conclude that visual processing of both familiar and unfamiliar two-dimensional patterns is superior to its tactile counterpart except under very restricted conditions.

  18. Application of nondiffracting Bessel beams for shaping of surface metal microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drampyan, Rafael; Leonov, Nikita; Vartanyan, Tigran

    2016-08-01

    A novel method of laser-controlled shaping of metal microstructures based on the processes of metal atoms adsorption on the surface of crystalline substrate and simultaneous control of photostimulated desorption of atoms by spatially modulated nondiffracting laser beam illumination is presented. The experiments were performed for sodium atoms deposition to the sapphire substrate, which was illuminated by Bessel beam at 532 nm wavelength and 2 W/cm2 intensity. Experiments showed that the optical pattern was well reproduced in the sodium deposits thus creating the annularly microstructured metal film with few tens nanometre thickness.

  19. The shape and surface variation of 2 Pallas from the Hubble Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B E; Thomas, P C; Bauer, J M; Li, J-Y; McFadden, L A; Mutchler, M J; Radcliffe, S C; Rivkin, A S; Russell, C T; Parker, J Wm; Stern, S A

    2009-10-09

    We obtained Hubble Space Telescope images of 2 Pallas in September 2007 that reveal distinct color and albedo variations across the surface of this large asteroid. Pallas's shape is an ellipsoid with radii of 291 (+/-9), 278 (+/-9), and 250 (+/-9) kilometers, implying a density of 2400 (+/-250) kilograms per cubic meter-a value consistent with a body that formed from water-rich material. Our observations are consistent with the presence of an impact feature, 240 (+/-25) kilometers in diameter, within Pallas's ultraviolet-dark terrain. Our observations imply that Pallas is an intact protoplanet that has undergone impact excavation and probable internal alteration.

  20. An optical pressure sensor based on π-shaped surface plasmon polariton resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Gaoyan; Lang, Peilin; Wang, Lulu; Yu, Li; Xiao, Jinghua

    2016-07-01

    We propose a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure which consists of a π-shaped resonator and a surface plasmon polariton (SPP) waveguide. The finite element method (FEM) is employed in the simulation. The results show that this structure forms an optical pressure sensor. The transmission spectra have a redshift with increasing pressure, and the relation between the wavelength shift and the pressure is linear. The nanoscale pressure sensor shows a high sensitivity and may have potential applications in biological and biomedical engineering.

  1. Gap plasmon resonator arrays for unidirectional launching and shaping of surface plasmon polaritons

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Zeyu

    2015-01-01

    We report the design and experimental realization of a kind of miniaturized devices for efficient unidirectional launching and shaping of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Each device consists of an array of evenly spaced gap plasmon resonators with varying dimensions. Particle swarm optimization is used to achieve a theoretical two dimensional launching efficiency of about 51%, under the normal illumination of a 5-{\\mu}m waist Gaussian beam at 780 nm. By modifying the wavefront of the SPPs, unidirectional SPPs with focused, Bessel and Airy profiles are launched and imaged with leakage radiation microscopy.

  2. The effect of nanoparticle size, shape, and surface chemistry on biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Alexandre; Tang, Peter S; Chan, Warren C W

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the interactions between nanoparticles and biological systems is of significant interest. Studies aimed at correlating the properties of nanomaterials such as size, shape, chemical functionality, surface charge, and composition with biomolecular signaling, biological kinetics, transportation, and toxicity in both cell culture and animal experiments are under way. These fundamental studies will provide a foundation for engineering the next generation of nanoscale devices. Here, we provide rationales for these studies, review the current progress in studies of the interactions of nanomaterials with biological systems, and provide a perspective on the long-term implications of these findings.

  3. Shape matching algorithm to validate the tracing protocol of placental chorionic surface vessel networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R.G.; Salafia, C.M.; Girardi, T.; Conrad, L.; Keaty, K.

    2015-01-01

    Variability in placental chorionic surface vessel networks (PCSVNs) may mark developmental and functional changes in fetal health. Here we report a protocol of manually tracing PCSVNs from digital 2D images of post-delivery placentas and its validation by a shape matching method to compare the similarity between paint-injected and unmanipulated (uninjected and deflated vessels) tracings of PCSVNs. We show that tracings of unmanipulated vessels produce networks that are very comparable to the networks obtained by tracing paint-injected PCSVNs. We suggest that manual tracings of unmanipulated PCSVNs can extract features of PCSVN growth and structure that may impact fetal wellbeing. PMID:26100723

  4. Surface quality of extruding metal special-shape products and frictional behavior in optimized die cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Hong-yuan; ZHU Heng-jun

    2004-01-01

    With the help of Complex Function Mapping theory, the complicated three-dimensional deformation problems are transferred into two-dimensional problems, and the function of strain ratio field is analyzed in the metal plastic extruding deformation. Taking the strain-hardening effect of metal deformation into account, the relationship between friction behavior and optimized mathematical model is analyzed by the numerical analysis friction energy dissipation function. As a result, the method of lowering the material hardening and decreasing the reduction ratio over multi-procedures can be used to improve the surface quality of metal special-shape extrusion products.

  5. Laplacian drop shapes and effect of random perturbations on accuracy of surface tension measurement for different drop constellations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Sameh M I; Neumann, A Wilhelm

    2015-08-01

    Theoretical drop shapes are calculated for three drop constellations: pendant drops, constrained sessile drops, and unconstrained sessile drops. Based on total Gaussian curvature, shape parameter and critical shape parameter are discussed as a function of different drop sizes and surface tensions. The shape parameter is linked to physical parameters for every drop constellation. The as yet unavailable detailed dimensional analysis for the unconstrained sessile drop is presented. Results show that the unconstrained sessile drop shape depends on a dimensionless volume term and the contact angle. Random perturbations are introduced and the accuracy of surface tension measurement is assessed for precise and perturbed profiles of the three drop constellations. It is concluded that pendant drops are the best method for accurate surface tension measurement, followed by constrained sessile drops. The unconstrained sessile drops come last because they tend to be more spherical at low and moderate contact angles. Of course, unconstrained sessile drops are the only option if contact angles are to be measured.

  6. Laser surface alloying fabricated porous coating on NiTi shape memory alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Song; ZHANG Chun-hua; MAN Hau-chung; LIU Chang-sheng

    2007-01-01

    Laser surface alloying technique was applied to fabricate a metallic porous coating on a solid NiTi shape memory alloy. By laser surface alloying a 40%TiH2-60%NiTi powder mixture on the surface of NiTi alloy using optimized laser process parameters, a porous but crack-free NiTi layer can be fabricated on the NiTi substrate. The porous coating is metallurgically bonded to the substrate NiTi alloy. The pores are uniformly distributed and are interconnected with each other in the coating. An average pore size of less than 10 μm is achieved. The Ni content of the porous layer is much less than that of the original NiTi surface. The existence of the porous coating on the NiTi alloy causes a 37% reduction of the tensile strength and 55% reduction of the strain as compared with the NiTi alloy. Possible biomedical or other applications for this porous surface with good mechanical strength provided by the substrate are prospective.

  7. Application of software for the optimization of the surface shape of nets for chestnut harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Formato

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research conveyance nets for the chestnuts harvest have been considered and the optimization of the surface shape of the chestnuts harvest nets has been performed. Indeed, a steep zone with chestnut trees has been considered, with maximum length of 90 m and maximum width of 60 m and the geometric model of the considered zone has been obtained, by mean GIS system and “Archicad 14” program code, obtaining also the soil local slope distribution. The chestnuts fallen have been simulated by mean a “rain device” available in “Sitetopo” program code. This program has allowed to evaluate the rain draining in function of the considered surface slope. Further, the zone with lower quote, for the considered surface, is the zone in that the chestnuts have to be convoyed, “basin zone”. Indeed, by mean “Sitetopo” program code, it has been possible to evaluate the rain draining contour-plot, and the conveyance effect, that is, where the rain flow is convoyed. This has been obtained by changing of the net surface slope on that, the rain (simulating the chestnuts fallen. Indeed the nets have been located following the determined optimal surface. In such way all the fallen chestnuts have been convoyed and picked in a determined zone, “basin zone”, and subsequently they have been loaded on the truck for the following workmanships. The evaluated losses have been of around 6-8 % due to chestnuts entangle or little branches obstacle.

  8. A comparative study of food habits and body shape perception of university students in Japan and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinfuku Naotaka

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal body weight, dietary concerns, and unhealthy weight loss behaviors are increasingly being observed in young females in Japan. Our previous research has shown that the irregular lifestyles of female Japanese and Chinese students are significantly related to their desire to be thinner. In the present study, we compare the food habits and body shape preferences of female university students in South Korea and Japan to explore body shape perceptions in those populations. Methods A total of 265 female university students aged 19 – 25 years participated in this study. University students in Korea (n = 141 and university students in Japan (n = 124 completed a self-reported questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software. Descriptive statistics were used to identify the demographic characteristics of the students and parametric variables were analyzed using the Student's t-test. Chi-square analyses were conducted for non-parametric variables. Results Comparison of body mass index (BMI distributions in Japan and Korea showed the highest value in the normal category (74% together with a very low obesity rate (1.2%. Significant differences were observed between the two countries in terms of eating patterns, with more Japanese eating breakfast daily and with Japanese students eating meals more regularly than Korean students. A difference was also observed in frequency of meals, where Korean students reported eating meals two times per day (59% and the majority of Japanese students reported eating meals three times per day (81%. Although most subjects belonged to the normal BMI category, their ideal BMI classification was the underweight category (BMI: 18.4 ± 3.4. Conclusion Few studies have compared the health related practices of Japanese and Korean university students. The present results suggest the necessity of nutrition and health promotion programs for university students, especially programs

  9. A comparative study of food habits and body shape perception of university students in Japan and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamaki, Ruka; Amamoto, Rie; Mochida, Yoshie; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Toyama, Kenji

    2005-10-31

    Abnormal body weight, dietary concerns, and unhealthy weight loss behaviors are increasingly being observed in young females in Japan. Our previous research has shown that the irregular lifestyles of female Japanese and Chinese students are significantly related to their desire to be thinner. In the present study, we compare the food habits and body shape preferences of female university students in South Korea and Japan to explore body shape perceptions in those populations. A total of 265 female university students aged 19-25 years participated in this study. University students in Korea (n = 141) and university students in Japan (n = 124) completed a self-reported questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software. Descriptive statistics were used to identify the demographic characteristics of the students and parametric variables were analyzed using the Student's t-test. Chi-square analyses were conducted for non-parametric variables. Comparison of body mass index (BMI) distributions in Japan and Korea showed the highest value in the normal category (74%) together with a very low obesity rate (1.2%). Significant differences were observed between the two countries in terms of eating patterns, with more Japanese eating breakfast daily and with Japanese students eating meals more regularly than Korean students. A difference was also observed in frequency of meals, where Korean students reported eating meals two times per day (59%) and the majority of Japanese students reported eating meals three times per day (81%). Although most subjects belonged to the normal BMI category, their ideal BMI classification was the underweight category (BMI: 18.4 +/- 3.4). Few studies have compared the health related practices of Japanese and Korean university students. The present results suggest the necessity of nutrition and health promotion programs for university students, especially programs emphasizing weight management.

  10. Root surface strain during canal shaping and its influence on apical microcrack development: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamleh, A; Komabayashi, T; Ebihara, A; Nassar, M; Watanabe, S; Yoshioka, T; Miyara, K; Suda, H

    2015-12-01

    To determine the root surface strain (RSS) generated during root canal shaping and its effects on apical microcrack development. Twenty-five extracted human mandibular premolars were selected and decoronated. The teeth were instrumented with either the ProTaper (PT) or WaveOne (WO) (Dentsply Maillefer) NiTi rotary systems (n = 10 per group) or used as controls (n = 5). Instrumented root canals were enlarged to ProTaper F4 (size 40, 0.06 taper) or using WaveOne LARGE (size 40, 0.08 taper) instruments according to the manufacturer's instructions. An electrical strain gage (KFG02-120-C1-16, Kyowa Dengyo, Tokyo, Japan) was fixed on the proximal root surface and connected to a strain amplifier via a bridge box in order to measure RSS. During canal shaping, the strain output of the amplifier was recorded. The instantaneous RSS induced by each instrument and the maximum RSSs were determined. All teeth were then stained with contrast media and imaged with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) at an isotropic resolution of 10 μm to detect microcracks. The mean maximum RSS values (microstrain) and mean number of microcracks recorded for both groups were tested for statistical significance using Mann-Whitney U-test. Presence/absence of microcracks in both groups was compared by chi-square tests. Increased baseline RSS from strain accumulation during canal shaping was observed, with similar maximum RSS (mean ± SD) for PT (416.6 ± 185.1 μstrain) and WO (398.2 ± 163.8 μstrain) (P = 0.94). The interevaluator reliability for microcrack detection using micro-CT had a kappa value of 0.998. Compared to the PT group, there was a trend for fewer samples with microcracks in the WO group (P = 0.051). On the micro-CT images, apical microcracks were detected in 20 PT and 11 WO samples (P = 0.10). The microcracks were observed in the buccolingual direction in all WO and 81% of PT samples. No vertical root fractures were found. The maximum RSS obtained during canal

  11. Controlling Nanocrystal Superlattice Symmetry and Shape-Anisotropic Interactions through Variable Ligand Surface Coverage

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.

    2011-03-09

    The assembly of colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) into superstructures with long-range translational and orientational order is sensitive to the molecular interactions between ligands bound to the NC surface. We illustrate how ligand coverage on colloidal PbS NCs can be exploited as a tunable parameter to direct the self-assembly of superlattices with predefined symmetry. We show that PbS NCs with dense ligand coverage assemble into face-centered cubic (fcc) superlattices whereas NCs with sparse ligand coverage assemble into body-centered cubic (bcc) superlattices which also exhibit orientational ordering of NCs in their lattice sites. Surface chemistry characterization combined with density functional theory calculations suggest that the loss of ligands occurs preferentially on {100} than on reconstructed {111} NC facets. The resulting anisotropic ligand distribution amplifies the role of NC shape in the assembly and leads to the formation of superlattices with translational and orientational order. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  12. A surface plasmon resonance sensor based on a single mode D-shape polymer optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasior, Katarzyna; Martynkien, Tadeusz; Napiorkowski, Maciej; Zolnacz, Kinga; Mergo, Pawel; Urbanczyk, Waclaw

    2017-02-01

    For the first time to our knowledge, we report a successful fabrication of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors in a specially developed single-mode birefringent polymer D-shape fiber with a core made of PMMA/PS copolymer. A small distance between the core and the cladding boundary allows to deposit a gold layer directly onto the flat fiber surface, which significantly simplifies the sensors fabrication process. The developed SPR sensor exhibits a sensitivity of 2765 nm RIU-1 for the refractive index of external medium equal to 1.410, which is similar to the sensitivity of the SPR sensors based on conventional side-polished single-mode silica fibers. Using the finite element method, we also numerically studied the sensor performance. The sensor characteristics obtained in the simulations are in a relatively good agreement with the experimental results.

  13. Morphology modification of gold nanoparticles from nanoshell to C-shape: Improved surface enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ting-Yang; Zhu, Jian; Li, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Jun-Wu

    2016-06-01

    Morphology modification of nanostructures is of great interest, because it can be used to fabricate nanostructures which are hard to be done using other methods. Different from traditional lithographic technique which is slow and expensive, morphology modification is easy, cheap, and reproducible. In this paper, modification of the optical and morphological properties of a hollow gold nanoshell (HGNS) is achieved by using H2O2 as an oxidizer. The reshaping of these nanostructures has been demonstrated as a consequence of an oxidation process in which HGNSs are dissolved by H2O2 under the acidic conditions provided by HCl. We investigate the oxidation process by a transmission electron microscope and propose a reshaping model involving four different shapes (HGNS, HGNS with hole, gold nanoring, and C-shaped gold nanoparticle) which are corresponding to the oxidation products of HGNSs at different pH values. Besides, the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of each oxidation product has been evaluated by using rhodamine 6G as the Raman active probe. It has been observed that the C-shaped gold nanoparticles which are corresponding to the oxidation products at the minimum pH value have the highest SERS activity and this result can also be interpreted by discrete-dipole approximation simulations. We demonstrate that the morphology modification of HGNSs becomes possible in a controlled manner using wet chemistry and can be used in preparation of gold nanoparticles such as HGNS with hole, gold nanoring, and C-shaped gold nanoparticle with large SERS activity. These nanostructures must have potential use in many plasmonic areas, including sensing, catalysis, and biomedicine.

  14. Influences of stress dilation on shape of failure surface for shallow tunnels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小礼; 王金明

    2008-01-01

    For shallow tunnels of single-lane railway and four-lane road,numerical simulation using finite differential code was conducted.The mechanical behavior of loose rock masses was studied considering the influences of shear dilation on the shape of the failure surface for the shallow tunnels,and the break angles using numerical simulation was compared with those using the Rankine’s analytical solutions and design code.From the comparisons,it is found that the difference between the break angle by numerical simulation and the design code is small when the shear dilation angle is equal to 0,with the maximum relative difference being less than 0.2% in road tunnels.With the dilation angle’s increase,the loose plasticity zone area of surrounding rock reduces obviously,and the break angle increases gradually.When the dilation angle is equal to the internal friction angle,the materials follow associated flow rule,and the numerical solution of the break angle is larger than the analytical solution,with the maximum relative difference being greater than 16.7% in road tunnels.Therefore,associated flow rule leads to overestimating break angle,and the dilation angle has an important influence on the failure surface shape for shallow tunnels in the loose surrounding rocks.

  15. Laser induced periodic surface structuring on Si by temporal shaped femtosecond pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, G F B; Martins, R J; Otuka, A J G; Siqueira, J P; Mendonca, C R

    2015-10-19

    We investigated the effect of temporal shaped femtosecond pulses on silicon laser micromachining. By using sinusoidal spectral phases, pulse trains composed of sub-pulses with distinct temporal separations were generated and applied to the silicon surface to produce Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS). The LIPSS obtained with different sub-pulse separation were analyzed by comparing the intensity of the two-dimensional fast Fourier Transform (2D-FFT) of the AFM images of the ripples (LIPSS). It was observed that LIPSS amplitude is more emphasized for the pulse train with sub-pulses separation of 128 fs, even when compared with the Fourier transform limited pulse. By estimating the carrier density achieved at the end of each pulse train, we have been able to interpret our results with the Sipe-Drude model, that predicts that LIPSS efficacy is higher for a specific induced carrier density. Hence, our results indicate that temporal shaping of the excitation pulse, performed by spectral phase modulation, can be explored in fs-laser microstructuring.

  16. Performance of PRD Welled Surfaces in T Shape Noise Barriers for Controlling Environmental Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Momen Bellah

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: There is a considerable notice in the use of noise barriers in recent years. Noise barriers as a control noise solution can increase the insertion loss to protect receivers. This paper presents the results of an investigation about the acoustic efficiency of primitive root sequence diffuser (PRD on environmental single T-shape barrier."nMaterials and Methods: A 2D boundary element method (BEM is used to predict the insertion loss of the tested barriers. The results of rigid and with quadratic residue diffuser (QRD coverage are also predicted for comparison."nResults: It is found that decreasing the design frequency of PRD shifts the frequency effects towards lower frequencies, and therefore the overall A-weighted insertion loss is improved. It is also found that using wire mesh with reasonably efficient resistivity on the top surface of PRD improves the efficiency of the reactive barriers; however utilizing wire meshes with flow resistivity higher than specific acoustic impedance of air on the PRD top of a diffuser barrier significantly reduces the performance of the barrier within the frequency bandwidth of the diffuser. The performance of PRD covered T-shape barrier at 200 Hz was found to be higher than that of its equivalent QRD barriers in both the far field and areas close to the ground. The amount of improvement compared made by PRD barrier compared with its equivalent rigid barrier at far field is about 2 to 3 dB, while this improvement relative to barrier model .QR4. can reach up to 4- 6 dB."nConclusion: Employing PRD on the top surface of T-shape barrier is found to improve the performance of barriers compared with using rigid and QRD coverage at the examined receiver locations.

  17. Rapid social perception is flexible: Approach and avoidance motivational states shape P100 responses to other-race faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eCunningham

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on person categorization suggests that people automatically and inflexibly categorize others according to group memberships, such as race. Consistent with this view, research using electroencephalography (EEG has found that White participants tend to show an early difference in processing Black versus White faces. Yet, new research has shown that these ostensibly automatic biases may not be as inevitable as once thought and that motivational influences may be able to eliminate these biases. It is unclear, however, whether motivational influences shape the initial biases or whether these biases can only be modulated by later, controlled processes. Using EEG to examine the time course of biased processing, we manipulated approach and avoidance motivational states by having participants pull or push a joystick, respectively, while viewing White or Black faces. Consistent with previous work on own-race bias, we observed a greater P100 response to White than Black faces; however, this racial bias was attenuated in the approach condition. These data suggest that rapid social perception may be flexible and can be modulated by motivational states.

  18. Reference Frames and 3-D Shape Perception of Pictured Objects: On Verticality and Viewpoint-From-Above.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Els V K; van Doorn, Andrea J; Wagemans, Johan

    2016-05-01

    Research on the influence of reference frames has generally focused on visual phenomena such as the oblique effect, the subjective visual vertical, the perceptual upright, and ambiguous figures. Another line of research concerns mental rotation studies in which participants had to discriminate between familiar or previously seen 2-D figures or pictures of 3-D objects and their rotated versions. In the present study, we disentangled the influence of the environmental and the viewer-centered reference frame, as classically done, by comparing the performances obtained in various picture and participant orientations. However, this time, the performance is the pictorial relief: the probed 3-D shape percept of the depicted object reconstructed from the local attitude settings of the participant. Comparisons between the pictorial reliefs based on different picture and participant orientations led to two major findings. First, in general, the pictorial reliefs were highly similar if the orientation of the depicted object was vertical with regard to the environmental or the viewer-centered reference frame. Second, a viewpoint-from-above interpretation could almost completely account for the shears occurring between the pictorial reliefs. More specifically, the shears could largely be considered as combinations of slants generated from the viewpoint-from-above, which was determined by the environmental as well as by the viewer-centered reference frame.

  19. Long-range surface plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering on X-shaped gold plasmonic nanohole arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chao; Galvan, Daniel David; Meng, Guowen; Yu, Qiuming

    2017-09-13

    A multilayered architecture including a thin Au film supporting an X-shaped nanohole array and a thick continuous Au film separated by a Cytop dielectric layer is reported in this work. Long-range surface plasmon resonance (LR-SPR) was generated at the top Au/water interface, which also resulted in a long-range surface-enhanced Raman scattering (LR-SERS) effect. LR-SPR originates from the coupling of surface plasmons (SPs) propagating along the opposite sides of the thin Au film embedded in a symmetric refractive index environment with Cytop (n = 1.34) and water (n = 1.33). The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation method was used to investigate the optimal dimensions of the substrate by studying the reflectance spectra and electric field profiles. The calculated optimal structure was then fabricated via electron beam lithography, and its LR-SERS performance was demonstrated by detecting rhodamine 6G and 4-mercaptobenzoic acid in the refractive index-matched environment. We believe that this structure as a LR-SPR or LR-SERS substrate can have broad applications in biosensing.

  20. Surface structure and biomedical properties of chemically polished and electropolished NiTi shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, C.L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189 (China)], E-mail: clchu@seu.edu.cn; Wang, R.M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189 (China); Hu, T. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Yin, L.H.; Pu, Y.P. [School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Lin, P.H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189 (China); Wu, S.L.; Chung, C.Y.; Yeung, K.W.K.; Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2008-12-01

    The surface structure and biomedical properties of NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) samples after undergoing electropolishing and chemical polishing are determined and compared employing scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry, hemolysis analysis, blood platelet adhesion test, and MTT test. The results indicate that after chemical polishing, there is still a high Ni concentration on the surface of the NiTi SMA. On the other hand, electropolishing can form a thin surface titanium oxide film (about 10 nm thickness) with depleted Ni. In addition to the TiO{sub 2} phase, some titanium suboxides (TiO and Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}) are found in the surface film. Compared to chemical polishing, electropolishing can more effectively mitigate out-diffusion of Ni ions and the wettability, blood compatibility, and thromboresistance are also better. However, no difference on the cytocompatibility can be observed from samples that have been chemically polished or electropolished.

  1. A novel method of aligning molecules by local surface shape similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. A.; Bayada, D. M.; Johnson, A. P.

    2000-08-01

    A novel shape-based method has been developed for overlaying a series of molecule surfaces into a common reference frame. The surfaces are represented by a set of circular patches of approximately constant curvature. Two molecules are overlaid using a clique-detection algorithm to find a set of patches in the two surfaces that correspond, and overlaying the molecules so that the similar patches on the two surfaces are coincident. The method is thus able to detect areas of local, rather than global, similarity. A consensus overlay for a group of molecules is performed by examining the scores of all pairwise overlays and performing a set of overlays with the highest scores. The utility of the method has been examined by comparing the overlaid and experimental configurations of 4 sets of molecules for which there are X-ray crystal structures of the molecules bound to a protein active site. Results for the overlays are generally encouraging. Of particular note is the correct prediction of the `reverse orientation' for ligands binding to human rhinovirus coat protein HRV14.

  2. Surface characterizations of laser modified biomedical grade NiTi shape memory alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pequegnat, A; Michael, A; Wang, J; Lian, K; Zhou, Y; Khan, M I

    2015-05-01

    Laser processing of shape memory alloys (SMAs) promises to enable the multifunctional capabilities needed for medical device applications. Prior to clinical implementation, the surface characterisation of laser processed SMA is essential in order to understand any adverse biological interaction that may occur. The current study systematically investigated two Ni-49.8 at.% Ti SMA laser processed surface finishes, including as-processed and polished, while comparing them to a chemically etched parent material. Spectrographic characterisation of the surface included; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and Raman spectroscopy. Corrosion performance and Ni ion release were also assessed using potentiodynamic cyclic polarization testing and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), respectively. Results showed that surface defects, including increased roughness, crystallinity and presence of volatile oxide species, overshadowed any possible performance improvements from an increased Ti/Ni ratio or inclusion dissolution imparted by laser processing. However, post-laser process mechanical polishing was shown to remove these defects and restore the performance, making it comparable to chemically etched NiTi material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Laser shock wave assisted patterning on NiTi shape memory alloy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyitliyev, Dovletgeldi; Li, Peizhen; Kholikov, Khomidkhodza; Grant, Byron; Karaca, Haluk E.; Er, Ali O.

    2017-02-01

    An advanced direct imprinting method with low cost, quick, and less environmental impact to create thermally controllable surface pattern using the laser pulses is reported. Patterned micro indents were generated on Ni50Ti50 shape memory alloys (SMA) using an Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm combined with suitable transparent overlay, a sacrificial layer of graphite, and copper grid. Laser pulses at different energy densities which generates pressure pulses up to 10 GPa on the surface was focused through the confinement medium, ablating the copper grid to create plasma and transferring the grid pattern onto the NiTi surface. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope images of square pattern with different sizes were studied. One dimensional profile analysis shows that the depth of the patterned sample initially increase linearly with the laser energy until 125 mJ/pulse where the plasma further absorbs and reflects the laser beam. In addition, light the microscope image show that the surface of NiTi alloy was damaged due to the high power laser energy which removes the graphite layer.

  4. Shape and surface effects on the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles: Gold nanospheres versus gold nanostars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favi, Pelagie Marlene; Gao, Ming; Johana Sepúlveda Arango, Liuda; Ospina, Sandra Patricia; Morales, Mariana; Pavon, Juan Jose; Webster, Thomas Jay

    2015-11-01

    Gold nanoparticles are materials with unique optical properties that have made them very attractive for numerous biomedical applications. With the increasing discovery of techniques to synthesize novel nanoparticles such as star-shaped gold nanoparticles for biomedical applications, the safety and performance of these new nanomaterials must be systematically assessed before use. In this study, gold nanostars (AuNSTs) with multibranched surface structures were synthesized, and their influence on the cytotoxicity of human skin fibroblasts and rat fat pad endothelial cells (RFPECs) were assessed and compared with that of gold nanospheres (AuNSPs) with unbranched surfaces. Results showed that the AuNSPs with diameters of approximately 61.46 nm showed greater toxicity with fibroblast cells and RFPECs compared with the synthesized AuNSTs with diameters of approximately 33.69 nm. The AuNSPs were lethal at concentrations of 40 μg/mL for both cell lines, whereas the AuNSTs were less toxic at higher concentrations (400 μg/mL). The calculated IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) values of the AuNSPs exposed to fibroblast cells were greater at 1 and 4 days of culture (26.4 and 27.7 μg/mL, respectively) compared with the RFPECs (13.6 and 13.8 μg/mL, respectively), indicating that the AuNSPs have a greater toxicity to endothelial cells. It was proposed that possible factors that could be promoting the reduced toxicity effects of the AuNSTs to fibroblast cells and RFPECs, compared with the AuNSPs may be size, surface chemistry, and shape of the gold nanoparticles. The reduced cell toxicity observed with the AuNSTs suggests that AuNSTs may be a promising material for use in biomedical applications.

  5. Measurement of shape by ultrasonic waves and surface inspection of the cold neutron source vertical hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kook Nam; Choi, Chang Oong; Sim, Cheul Mu; Choi, Young Hyun; Koo, Kil Mo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Considerations in design of CNS containment, which will be put into the CNS installation hole, should be taken into obtaining the maximum gain by minimizing thickness of water film existing between walls of CN hole and the inserted containment and easy maintenance of the in-pile structures including the containment. In this experiment, inside diameter and thickness of the CN hole were measured and the possibility of the surface degradation was inspected in Hanaro which has been operated for about 4 years since its criticality in Feb, 1995. The result will be used in the design of containment. The data were obtained by measuring inside diameter and thickness for 550 points of CN hole using 2 channels of ultrasonic sensor. The result showed that the thickness is in the range of 3.3 {approx} 6.7 mm and inside diameter is in the range of {phi} 156 {approx} {phi} 165 mm. And this result was analyzed using plots and tables for making the visual shape understood better. Status of surface treatment and corrosion during 4 years of operation in highly radiated water was investigated through the surface inspection and the result was recorded on video-tape. This report will be used in design of the CNS containment, and the experiment for inserting the containment model will be followed next year. The 4-axis measuring manipulator developed in this measurement will be used for measuring shape of other experimental holes of Hanaro reactor, and also for detecting some indications in the radiation zone. This device will be applied in the other useful inspections in pool water during Hanaro ISI(In-service Inspection) after introducing automatic system for acquisition of ultrasonic signals. The 4-axis measuring manipulator will be applied for a patent with ultrasonic measuring system. (author). 19 refs., 99 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Minimum energy shapes of one-side-pinned static drops on inclined surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampi, Sumesh P; Govindarajan, Rama

    2011-10-01

    The shape that a liquid drop will assume when resting statically on a solid surface inclined to the horizontal is studied here in two dimensions. Earlier experimental and numerical studies yield multiple solutions primarily because of inherent differences in surface characteristics. On a solid surface capable of sustaining any amount of hysteresis, we obtain the global, and hence unique, minimum energy shape as a function of equilibrium contact angle, drop volume, and plate inclination. It is shown, in the energy minimization procedure, how the potential energy of this system is dependent on the basis chosen to measure it from, and two realistic bases, front-pinned and back-pinned, are chosen for consideration. This is at variance with previous numerical investigations where both ends of the contact line are pinned. It is found that the free end always assumes Young's equilibrium angle. Using this, simple equations that describe the angles and the maximum volume are then derived. The range of parameters where static drops are possible is presented. We introduce a detailed force balance for this problem and study the role of the wall in supporting the drop. We show that a portion of the wall reaction can oppose gravity while the other portion aids it. This determines the maximum drop volume that can be supported at a given plate inclination. This maximum volume is the least for a vertical wall, and is higher for all other wall inclinations. This study can be extended to three-dimensional drops in a straightforward manner and, even without this, lends itself to experimental verification of several of its predictions.

  7. Influence of Installing Error on the Surface Shape Precision of the Axial Symmetry Aspheric Workpiece in Lapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Chun-min; ZHANG Dong-mei; YANG Jian-dong; ZHANG Xin-ming

    2006-01-01

    A method to calculate the surface shape error, which is caused by the installing error between the workpiece and the lapping tool in the process of form lapping, is proposed. The mathematical model which the installing translation error influences on the workpiece surface shape error is established. The changing rule of the error is simulated through the calculating example of the paraboloid workpiece. The results indicate that the surface shape error of the workpiece is increasing with the increase of the installing translation error, it is also increasing gradually along the center point of the curve surface to the edge, and the influence is severer to the curve surface with great curvature than that of the small curvature when the translation error is the same.

  8. The influence of tennis court surfaces on player perceptions and biomechanical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, Chelsea; Damm, Loïc; Clarke, James; Carré, Matt; Capel-Davis, Jamie; Miller, Stuart; Stiles, Victoria; Dixon, Sharon

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to examine player perceptions and biomechanical responses to tennis surfaces and to evaluate the influence of prior clay court experience. Two groups with different clay experiences (experience group, n = 5 and low-experience group, n = 5) performed a 180° turning movement. Three-dimensional ankle and knee movements (50 Hz), plantar pressure of the turning step (100 Hz) and perception data (visual analogue scale questionnaire) were collected for two tennis courts (acrylic and clay). Greater initial knee flexion (acrylic 20. 8 ± 11.2° and clay 32.5 ± 9.4°) and a more upright position were reported on the clay compared to the acrylic court (P < 0.05). This suggests adaptations to increase player stability on clay. Greater hallux pressures and lower midfoot pressures were observed on the clay court, allowing for sliding whilst providing grip at the forefoot. Players with prior clay court experience exhibited later peak knee flexion compared to those with low experience. All participants perceived the differences in surface properties between courts and thus responded appropriately to these differences. The level of previous clay court experience did not influence players' perceptions of the surfaces; however, those with greater clay court experience may reduce injury risk as a result of reduced loading through later peak knee flexion.

  9. Impact of cell shape in hierarchically structured plant surfaces on the attachment of male Colorado potato beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Prüm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant surfaces showing hierarchical structuring are frequently found in plant organs such as leaves, petals, fruits and stems. In our study we focus on the level of cell shape and on the level of superimposed microstructuring, leading to hierarchical surfaces if both levels are present. While it has been shown that epicuticular wax crystals and cuticular folds strongly reduce insect attachment, and that smooth papillate epidermal cells in petals improve the grip of pollinators, the impact of hierarchical surface structuring of plant surfaces possessing convex or papillate cells on insect attachment remains unclear. We performed traction experiments with male Colorado potato beetles on nine different plant surfaces with different structures. The selected plant surfaces showed epidermal cells with either tabular, convex or papillate cell shape, covered either with flat films of wax, epicuticular wax crystals or with cuticular folds. On surfaces possessing either superimposed wax crystals or cuticular folds we found traction forces to be almost one order of magnitude lower than on surfaces covered only with flat films of wax. Independent of superimposed microstructures we found that convex and papillate epidermal cell shapes slightly enhance the attachment ability of the beetles. Thus, in plant surfaces, cell shape and superimposed microstructuring yield contrary effects on the attachment of the Colorado potato beetle, with convex or papillate cells enhancing attachment and both wax crystals or cuticular folds reducing attachment. However, the overall magnitude of traction force mainly depends on the presence or absence of superimposed microstructuring.

  10. Style perception-oriented product family shape gene design%面向风格意象的产品族外形基因设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅业焘; 罗仕鉴

    2012-01-01

    为继承和传递工业设计中的产品族外形知识,保持特殊的产品族外形和风格,塑造差异化品牌形象,将生物界基因遗传与变异理论引入产品族外形设计中,提出一种面向风格意象的产品族外形基因设计方法。通过分析产品族风格意象,构建产品族外形基因体系,划分了基因层次,建立了产品族风格意象(心理的意象特征)和外形基因(物理的外形特征)之间的映射模型。以电话机产品为例,提取了风格意象和外形基因,计算了外形基因在各风格意象中的贡献率,基于映射模型构建了面向风格意象的产品族外形基因建模与设计系统,实现了产品族外形基因与风格意象之间的双向推理。该系统能提高电话机的开发设计效率,验证了面向风格意象的产品族外形基因理论体系。%To inherit and transform shape knowledge of product family in industrial design, keep the unique shape and design style of product family and build different brand image, a perception-oriented product family shape gene de- sign method was proposed by introducing the gene theory and variability theory of biology into product family shape design. Through analyzing the perception of product family, the construction system of product family shape gene was constructed, the gene representation level was divided and the mapping model between style perception(mental perception)and shape gene(physical appearance)was set up. The telephone product was taken as an example, the style perception and shape gene were extracted, and the contribution rate of shape gene was calculated in style per- ception. Based on the mapping model, a style perception-oriented gene rapid modeling and design system was built to support the bidirectional reasoning between product family shape gene and style perception. Through this system, the design performance of telephone shape could be improved, and the theory

  11. Pulmonary lobe segmentation based on ridge surface sampling and shape model fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, James C., E-mail: jross@bwh.harvard.edu [Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Surgical Planning Lab, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Laboratory of Mathematics in Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02126 (United States); Kindlmann, Gordon L. [Computer Science Department and Computation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Okajima, Yuka; Hatabu, Hiroto [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Díaz, Alejandro A. [Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 and Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Silverman, Edwin K. [Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 and Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Washko, George R. [Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Dy, Jennifer [ECE Department, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Estépar, Raúl San José [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Surgical Planning Lab, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Laboratory of Mathematics in Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02126 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Performing lobe-based quantitative analysis of the lung in computed tomography (CT) scans can assist in efforts to better characterize complex diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). While airways and vessels can help to indicate the location of lobe boundaries, segmentations of these structures are not always available, so methods to define the lobes in the absence of these structures are desirable. Methods: The authors present a fully automatic lung lobe segmentation algorithm that is effective in volumetric inspiratory and expiratory computed tomography (CT) datasets. The authors rely on ridge surface image features indicating fissure locations and a novel approach to modeling shape variation in the surfaces defining the lobe boundaries. The authors employ a particle system that efficiently samples ridge surfaces in the image domain and provides a set of candidate fissure locations based on the Hessian matrix. Following this, lobe boundary shape models generated from principal component analysis (PCA) are fit to the particles data to discriminate between fissure and nonfissure candidates. The resulting set of particle points are used to fit thin plate spline (TPS) interpolating surfaces to form the final boundaries between the lung lobes. Results: The authors tested algorithm performance on 50 inspiratory and 50 expiratory CT scans taken from the COPDGene study. Results indicate that the authors' algorithm performs comparably to pulmonologist-generated lung lobe segmentations and can produce good results in cases with accessory fissures, incomplete fissures, advanced emphysema, and low dose acquisition protocols. Dice scores indicate that only 29 out of 500 (5.85%) lobes showed Dice scores lower than 0.9. Two different approaches for evaluating lobe boundary surface discrepancies were applied and indicate that algorithm boundary identification is most accurate in the vicinity of fissures detectable on CT. Conclusions: The

  12. Equilibrium shape of liquid lenses and correlations of beating cilia on the surface of frog embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Fawn Mitsu

    This thesis reports the results of two unrelated projects: liquid lenses and cilia motion. A liquid lens is the equilibrium configuration of a non-wetting 3-fluid system, and the profile of the 3 interfaces can, in principle, be determined by solving the Young-Laplace differential equation for each interface if the surface tensions of all three interfaces are accurately known. Fluid interfacial tensions are not tabulated and are spectacularly sensitive to impurities, so in practice these quantities must be measured. We have developed a method of measuring these parameters by comparing the observed shape of liquid lenses to calculated equilibrium shapes. We have experimentally studied lenses of alkanes floating on water. These results were compared with various liquid lens systems. The profile of these lens systems was measured using ray tracing and Morie imaging, and found to be in excellent agreement with the calculated lens shapes for pure fluids. Upon the introduction of a surfactant, dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide(DTAB), we find that there is a minimum in the dihedral angle of the lens as a function of surfactant concentration, corresponding to the transition from partial-wetting to pseudo-partial wetting. The development and orientation of ciliated cells on Xenopus laevis larval skin was examined using high speed video microscopy. The intercellular orientation of wild-type, dominant negative mutants, and Vangl2MO morpholinos was studied by scoring the beating direction of ciliated cells and measuring the correlation with nearest neighbors. No significant difference between the mutant and wild type was found. Time lapse videos of developing cilia indicate that intracellular ordering is non-existent in early development, with ordering occurring by maturity. Further work needs to be done to determine what role fluid flow plays in that ordering.

  13. Experimental investigation of Lissajous figure shapes in planar and surface dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, I.; Barni, R.; Gurioli, A.; Pertile, R.; Riccardi, C.

    2014-11-01

    Dielectric Barrier Discharges (DBDs) operating in air at atmospheric pressure are widely employed as cold plasma sources for plasma processing and applications, in both volume and surface configurations. Surface dielectric barrier discharges, however, are mainly known for the manipulation of the boundary layer of an airflow surrounding a body, and thus for aeronautical applications. Lissajous figures, obtained by means of a high-voltage and a capacitive probes, are usually adopted for both these types of DBDs as a method for measuring the power consumption by the discharge. In this work, we propose to integrate this diagnostic tool with the measurement of current pulses, which are associated to microdischarges that usually develop in these plasmas because of the presence of the dielectric barrier. We have studied both planar and surface DBDs in presence of a continuous sinusoidal voltage feeding, and we have demonstrated that this method is promising in order to gain additional information about the discharge characteristics from the shape of the Lissajous figures.

  14. Simulation of imperfections in plastic lenses - transferring local refractive index changes into surface shape modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasa, Josep; Pizarro, Carles; Blanco, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    Injection molded plastic lenses have continuously improved their performance regarding optical quality and nowadays are as usual as glass lenses in image forming devices. However, during the manufacturing process unavoidable fluctuations in material density occur, resulting in local changes in the distribution of refractive index, which degrade the imaging properties of the polymer lens. Such material density fluctuations correlate to phase delays, which opens a path for their mapping. However, it is difficult to transfer the measured variations in refractive index into conventional optical simulation tool. Thus, we propose a method to convert the local variations in refractive index into local changes of one surface of the lens, which can then be described as a free-form surface, easy to introduce in conventional simulation tools. The proposed method was tested on a commercial gradient index (GRIN) lens for a set of six different object positions, using the MTF sagittal and tangential cuts to compare the differences between the real lens and a lens with homogenous refractive index, and the last surface converted into a free-form shape containing the internal refractive index changes. The same procedure was used to reproduce the local refractive index changes of an injected plastic lens with local index changes measured using an in-house built polariscopic arrangement, showing the capability of the method to provide successful results.

  15. Surface characterization through shape oscillations of drops in microgravity and 1-g

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfel, Robert E.; Holt, R. Glynn; Tian, Yuren; Shi, Tao; Zheng, Xiao-Yu

    1994-01-01

    The goal of these experiments is to determine the rheological properties of liquid drops of single or multiple components in the presence or absence of surface active materials by exciting drops into their quadrupole resonance and observing their free decay. The resulting data coupled with appropriate theory should give a better description of the physics of the underlying phenomena, providing a better foundation than earlier empirical results could. The space environment makes an idealized geometry available (spherical drops) so that theory and experiment can be properly compared, and allows a 'clean' environment, by which is meant an environment in which no solid surfaces come in contact with the drops during the test period. Moreover, by considering the oscillations of intentionally deformed drops in microgravity, a baseline is established for interpreting surface characterization experiments done on the ground by other groups and ours. Experiments performed on the United States Microgravity Laboratory Laboratory (USML-1) demonstrated that shape oscillation experiments could be performed over a wide parameter range, and with a variety of surfactant materials. Results, however, were compromised by an unexpected, slow drop tumbling, some problems with droplet injection, and the presence of bubbles in the drop samples. Nevertheless, initial data suggests that the space environment will be useful in providing baseline data that can serve to validate theory and permit quantitative materials characterization at 1-g.

  16. Three-dimensional surface scanners compared with standard anthropometric measurements for head shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Caroline A A; Knoops, Paul G M; Borghi, Alessandro; Jeelani, N U Owase; Koudstaal, Maarten J; Schievano, Silvia; Dunaway, David J; Rodriguez-Florez, Naiara

    2017-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging devices designed to capture and quantify craniofacial surface morphology are becoming more common in clinical environments. Such scanners overcome the limitations of two-dimensional photographs while avoiding the ionizing radiation of computed tomography. The purpose of this study was to compare standard anthropometric cranial measurements with measurements taken from images acquired with 3D surface scanners. Two 3D scanners of different cost were used to acquire head shape data from thirteen adult volunteers: M4D scan and Structure Sensor. Head circumference and cephalic index were measured directly on the patients as well as on 3D scans acquired with the two scanners. To compare head volume measurements with a gold standard, magnetic resonance imaging scans were used. Repeatability and accuracy of both devices were evaluated. Intra-rater repeatability for both scanners was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficients > 0.99, p < 0.001). Direct and digital measures of head circumference, cephalic index and head volume were strongly correlated (0.85 < r < 0.91, p < 0.001). Compared to direct measurements, accuracy was highest for M4D scan. Both 3D scanners provide reproducible data of head circumference, cephalic index and head volume and show a strong correlation with traditional measurements. However, care must be taken when using absolute values. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Surface nanostructures orienting self-protection of an orthodontic nickel-titanium shape memory alloys wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) have been applied to a wide variety of applications in a number of different fields such as aeronautical applications, sensors/actuators, medical sciences as well as orthodontics. It is a hot topic to enhance the anti-corrosion ability of orthodontic wires for clinical applications. In this letter, a very nice fractal structure, micro-domains with identical nanometer sized grooves, was obtained on the surfaces of the orthodontic wires with an oxygen plasma and acid corrosion. The concave parts of the grooves were dominated by titanium and convex parts were the same as the bulk wires. The micro-nano fractal structure generated a hydrophobic surface with the largest contact angle to water being about 157°. The titanium dominated nanolayer and the hydrophobicity of the surface resulted in jointly the great improvement of the anti-corrosion ability of the orthodontic wires. Because the fractal structures of the wires were formed automatically when they immersed in acidic environment, hence, the self-protection of the oxygen plasma-treated orthodontic wires in acidic environment indicates their potential applications in orthodontics, and should be also inspirable for other applications of SMA materials.

  18. 3D shape measurement of objects with high dynamic range of surface reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gui-hua; Liu, Xian-Yong; Feng, Quan-Yuan

    2011-08-10

    This paper presents a method that allows a conventional dual-camera structured light system to directly acquire the three-dimensional shape of the whole surface of an object with high dynamic range of surface reflectivity. To reduce the degradation in area-based correlation caused by specular highlights and diffused darkness, we first disregard these highly specular and dark pixels. Then, to solve this problem and further obtain unmatched area data, this binocular vision system was also used as two camera-projector monocular systems operated from different viewing angles at the same time to fill in missing data of the binocular reconstruction. This method involves producing measurable images by integrating such techniques as multiple exposures and high dynamic range imaging to ensure the capture of high-quality phase of each point. An image-segmentation technique was also introduced to distinguish which monocular system is suitable to reconstruct a certain lost point accurately. Our experiments demonstrate that these techniques extended the measurable areas on the high dynamic range of surface reflectivity such as specular objects or scenes with high contrast to the whole projector-illuminated field.

  19. Three-Dimensional Mapping of Gyral Shape and Cortical Surface Asymmetries in Schizophrenia: Gender Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narr, Katherine L.; Thompson, Paul M.; Sharma, Tonmoy; Moussai, Jacob; Zoumalan, Chris; Rayman, Janice; Toga, Arthur W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective People with schizophrenia exhibit abnormalities in brain structure, often in the left hemisphere. Disturbed structural lateralization is controversial, however, and effects appear mediated by gender. The authors mapped differences between schizophrenic and normal subjects in gyral asymmetries, complexity, and variability across the entire cortex. Method Asymmetry and shape profiles for 25 schizophrenic patients (15 men) and 28 demographically similar normal subjects (15 men) were obtained for 38 gyral regions, including the sylvian fissure and temporal and postcentral gyri, by using magnetic resonance data and a novel surface-based mesh-modeling approach. Cortical complexity was examined for sex and diagnosis effects in lobar regions. Intragroup variability was quantified and visualized to assess regional group abnormalities at the cortical surface. Results The patients showed greater variability in frontal areas than the comparison subjects. They also had significant deviations in gyral complexity asymmetry in the superior frontal cortex. In temporoparietal regions, significant gyral asymmetries were present in both groups. Sex differences were apparent in superior temporal gyral measures, and cortical complexity in inferior frontal regions was significantly greater in men. Conclusions Cortical variability and complexity show regional abnormalities in the frontal cortex potentially specific to schizophrenia. The results indicate highly significant temporoparietal gyral asymmetries in both diagnostic groups, contrary to reports of less lateralization in schizophrenia. Substantially larger study groups are necessary to isolate smaller deviations in surface asymmetries, if present in schizophrenia, suggesting their diagnostic value is minimal. PMID:11156807

  20. Laser and Surface Processes of NiTi Shape Memory Elements for Micro-actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespoli, Adelaide; Biffi, Carlo Alberto; Previtali, Barbara; Villa, Elena; Tuissi, Ausonio

    2014-04-01

    In the current microtechnology for actuation field, shape memory alloys (SMA) are considered one of the best candidates for the production of mini/micro devices thanks to their high power-to-weight ratio as function of the actuator weight and hence for their capability of generating high mechanical performance in very limited spaces. In the microscale the most suitable conformation of a SMA actuator is given by a planar wavy formed arrangement, i.e., the snake-like shape, which allows high strokes, considerable forces, and devices with very low sizes. This uncommon and complex geometry becomes more difficult to be realized when the actuator dimensions are scaled down to micrometric values. In this work, micro-snake-like actuators are laser machined using a nanosecond pulsed fiber laser, starting from a 120- μm-thick NiTi sheet. Chemical and electrochemical surface polishes are also investigated for the removal of the thermal damages of the laser process. Calorimetric and thermo-mechanical tests are accomplished to assess the NiTi microdevice performance after each step of the working process. It is shown that laser machining has to be followed by some post-processes in order to obtain a micro-actuator with good thermo-mechanical properties.

  1. Bond–slip behavior of superelastic shape memory alloys for near-surface-mounted strengthening applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghash, Sherif M.; Ozbulut, Osman E.

    2017-03-01

    The use of superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) bars in the near-surface-mounted (NSM) strengthening application can offer advantages such as improved bond behavior, enhanced deformation capacity, and post-event functionality. This study investigates bond characteristics and load transfer mechanisms between NSM SMA reinforcement and concrete. A modified pull-out test specimen that consists of a C-shaped concrete block, where the NSM reinforcement are placed at the center of gravity of the block, was used for experimental investigations. The effects of various parameters such as epoxy type, bonded length, bar diameter, and mechanical anchorage on the bond behavior were studied. The slip of the SMA reinforcement relative to concrete was measured using an optical measurement system and the bond–slip curves were developed. Results indicate that the sandblasted SMA bars exhibit satisfactory bond behavior when used with the correct filling material in NSM strengthening applications, while the mechanical anchorage of SMA bars can significantly increase the bond resistance.

  2. Thickness of Lipid Deposition on Oral Surfaces Depending on Oil Content and Its Influence on Mouthfeel Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Pivk Kupirovič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid content in food strongly influences food perception on the level of textural properties. Lipids in contact with the tongue and palate are substantially responsible for the sensory impact of a product. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of oil content on the thickness of lipid deposition on oral surface as well as on the mouthfeel perception. The fluorescent probe method was used to study the thickness of lipid deposition on oral surface. We observed an increase in the thickness of lipid deposition depending on the increase of oil content in oil/water dispersions. Clear correlation was shown between the thickness of lipid deposition on oral surfaces and the perception of mouthfeel. A direct measure of undisrupted deposition of food components on oral surface contributes to the understanding of the behaviour of food components in the mouth and their influence on mouthfeel perception.

  3. Surface-plasmon resonances of arbitrarily shaped nanometallic structures in the small-Fermi-wavelength limit

    CERN Document Server

    Schnitzer, Ory; Maier, Stefan A; Craster, Richard V

    2016-01-01

    Surface-plasmon resonances of metallic nanostructures blueshift owing to the nonlocal response of the metal's electron gas. The Fermi wavelength, characterising the nonlocal effect, is often small relative to the overall dimensions of the metallic structure, which enables us to derive a coarse-grained nonlocal description using matched asymptotic expansions; a perturbation theory for the blueshifts of arbitrary shaped nanometallic structures is then developed. The effect of nonlocality is not always a perturbation and we present a detailed analysis of the "bonding" modes of a dimer of nearly touching nanowires where the leading-order eigenfrequencies and eigenmode distributions are shown to be a renormalisation of those predicted assuming a local metal permittivity.

  4. Effect of surface free energy of ceramic glaze on oil droplet shape and its behavior in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Jin-sheng; MENG Jun-ping; LIANG Guang-chuan; WANG Li-juan; ZHANG Jin; LI Ji-yuan

    2006-01-01

    A super-hydrophilic functional ceramic was prepared by adjusting the chemical components of ceramic glaze. Effect of surface free energy of ceramic glaze on oil droplet shape and its behavior in water were studied. The results show that water can spread on ceramic surface with high surface free energy,and oil droplet can aggregate rapidly and separate from the ceramic surface in water. For the ceramic with lower surface free energy,the polar shares are dependant on its easy-cleaning property. The higher the polar shares,the better the easy-cleaning property,and the easier the droplet separates from the ceramic surface in water.

  5. Local perceptions, cultural beliefs and practices that shape umbilical cord care: a qualitative study in Southern Province, Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M Herlihy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Global policy regarding optimal umbilical cord care to prevent neonatal illness is an active discussion among researchers and policy makers. In preparation for a large cluster-randomized control trial to measure the impact of 4% chlorhexidine as an umbilical wash versus dry cord care on neonatal mortality in Southern Province, Zambia, we performed a qualitative study to determine local perceptions of cord health and illness and the cultural belief system that shapes umbilical cord care knowledge, attitudes, and practices. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study consisted of 36 focus group discussions with breastfeeding mothers, grandmothers, and traditional birth attendants, and 42 in-depth interviews with key community informants. Semi-structured field guides were used to lead discussions and interviews at urban and rural sites. A wide variation in knowledge, beliefs, and practices surrounding cord care was discovered. For home deliveries, cords were cut with non-sterile razor blades or local grass. Cord applications included drying agents (e.g., charcoal, baby powder, dust, lubricating agents (e.g., Vaseline, cooking oil, used motor oil and agents intended for medicinal/protective purposes (e.g., breast milk, cow dung, chicken feces. Concerns regarding the length of time until cord detachment were universally expressed. Blood clots in the umbilical cord, bulongo-longo, were perceived to foreshadow neonatal illness. Management of bulongo-longo or infected umbilical cords included multiple traditional remedies and treatment at government health centers. CONCLUSION: Umbilical cord care practices and beliefs were diverse. Dry cord care, as recommended by the World Health Organization at the time of the study, is not widely practiced in Southern Province, Zambia. A cultural health systems model that depicts all stakeholders is proposed as an approach for policy makers and program implementers to work synergistically with existing cultural

  6. Self-Restoration of Superhydrophobicity on Shape Memory Polymer Arrays with Both Crushed Microstructure and Damaged Surface Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Tong; Cheng, Zhongjun; Zhang, Enshuang; Kang, Hongjun; Liu, Yuyan; Jiang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Recently, self-healing superhydrophobic surfaces have become a new research focus due to their recoverable wetting performances and wide applications. However, until now, on almost all reported surfaces, only one factor (surface chemistry or microstructure) can be restored. In this paper, a new superhydrophobic surface with self-healing ability in both crushed microstructure and damaged surface chemistry is prepared by creating lotus-leaves-like microstructure on the epoxy shape memory polymer (SMP). Through a simple heating process, the crushed surface microstructure, the damaged surface chemistry, and the surface superhydrophobicity that are destroyed under the external pressure and/or O2 plasma action can be recovered, demonstrating that the obtained superhydrophobic surface has a good self-healing ability in both of the two factors that govern the surface wettability. The special self-healing ability is ascribed to the good shape memory effect of the polymer and the reorganization effect of surface molecules. This paper reports the first use of SMP material to demonstrate the self-healing ability of surface superhydrophobicity, which opens up some new perspectives in designing self-healing superhydrophobic surfaces. Given the properties of this surface, it could be used in many applications, such as self-cleaning coatings, microfluidic devices, and biodetection.

  7. Silicone hydrogel contact lens surface analysis by atomic force microscopy: shape parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldez, M. J.; Garcia-Resua, C.; Lira, M.; Sánchez-Sellero, C.; Yebra-Pimentel, E.

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: Average roughness (Ra) is generally used to quantify roughness; however it makes no distinction between spikes and troughs. Shape parameters as kurtosis (Rku) and skewness (Rsk) serve to distinguish between two profiles with the same Ra. They have been reported in many biomedical fields, but they were no applied to contact lenses before. The aim of this study is to analyze surface properties of four silicone hydrogel contact lenses (CL) by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) evaluating Ra, Rku and Rsk. Methods: CL used in this study were disposable silicone hydrogel senofilcon A, comfilcon A, balafilcon A and lotrafilcon B. Unworn CL surfaces roughness and topography were measured by AFM (Veeco, multimode-nanoscope V) in tapping modeTM. Ra, Rku and Rsk for 25 and 196 μm2 areas were determined. Results: Surface topography and parameters showed different characteristics depending on the own nature of the contact lens (Ra/Rku/Rsk for 25 and 196 μm2 areas were: senofilcon A 3,33/3,74/0,74 and 3,76/18,16/1,75; comfilcon A: 1,56/31,09/2,93 and 2,76/45,82/3,60; balafilcon A: 2,01/33,62/-2,14 and 2,54/23,36/-1,96; lotrafilcon B: 26,97/4,11/-0,34 and 29,25/2,82/-0,23). In lotrafilcon B, with the highest Ra, Rku showed a lower degree of peakedness of its distribution. Negative Rsk value obtained for balafilcon A showed a clear predominance of valleys in this lens. Conclusions: Kku and Rsk are two statistical parameters useful to analyse CL surfaces, which complete information from Ra. Differences in values distribution and symmetry were observed between CL.

  8. Predation Risk Perception, Food Density and Conspecific Cues Shape Foraging Decisions in a Tropical Lizard: e0138016

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maximilian Drakeley; Oriol Lapiedra; Jason J Kolbe

    2015-01-01

    .... We presented male lizards with foraging opportunities to test how the presence of conspecifics, predation-risk perception, the abundance of food, and interactions among these factors determines...

  9. Structure and properties of nitrided surface layer produced on NiTi shape memory alloy by low temperature plasma nitriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czarnowska, Elżbieta [Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Pathology Department, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland); Borowski, Tomasz [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Sowińska, Agnieszka [Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Pathology Department, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland); Lelątko, Józef [Silesia University, Faculty of Computer Science and Materials Science, 75 Pułku Piechoty 1A, 41-500 Chorzów (Poland); Oleksiak, Justyna; Kamiński, Janusz; Tarnowski, Michał [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Wierzchoń, Tadeusz, E-mail: twierz@inmat.pw.edu.pl [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Low temperature plasma nitriding process of NiTi shape memory alloy is presented. • The possibility of treatment details of sophisticated shape. • TiN surface layer has diffusive character. • TiN surface layer increases corrosion resistance of NiTi alloy. • Produced TiN layer modify the biological properties of NiTi alloy. - Abstract: NiTi shape memory alloys are used for bone and cardiological implants. However, on account of the metallosis effect, i.e. the release of the alloy elements into surrounding tissues, they are subjected to various surface treatment processes in order to improve their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility without influencing the required shape memory properties. In this paper, the microstructure, topography and morphology of TiN surface layer on NiTi alloy, and corrosion resistance, both before and after nitriding in low-temperature plasma at 290 °C, are presented. Examinations with the use of the potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods were carried out and show an increase of corrosion resistance in Ringer's solution after glow-discharge nitriding. This surface titanium nitride layer also improved the adhesion of platelets and the proliferation of osteoblasts, which was investigated in in vitro experiments with human cells. Experimental data revealed that nitriding NiTi shape memory alloy under low-temperature plasma improves its properties for bone implant applications.

  10. PHOTOMETRIC STEREO SHAPE-AND-ALBEDO-FROM-SHADING FOR PIXEL-LEVEL RESOLUTION LUNAR SURFACE RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Shape and Albedo from Shading (SAfS techniques recover pixel-wise surface details based on the relationship between terrain slopes, illumination and imaging geometry, and the energy response (i.e., image intensity captured by the sensing system. Multiple images with different illumination geometries (i.e., photometric stereo can provide better SAfS surface reconstruction due to the increase in observations. Photometric stereo SAfS is suitable for detailed surface reconstruction of the Moon and other extra-terrestrial bodies due to the availability of photometric stereo and the less complex surface reflecting properties (i.e., albedo of the target bodies as compared to the Earth. Considering only one photometric stereo pair (i.e., two images, pixel-variant albedo is still a major obstacle to satisfactory reconstruction and it needs to be regulated by the SAfS algorithm. The illumination directional difference between the two images also becomes an important factor affecting the reconstruction quality. This paper presents a photometric stereo SAfS algorithm for pixel-level resolution lunar surface reconstruction. The algorithm includes a hierarchical optimization architecture for handling pixel-variant albedo and improving performance. With the use of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera - Narrow Angle Camera (LROC NAC photometric stereo images, the reconstructed topography (i.e., the DEM is compared with the DEM produced independently by photogrammetric methods. This paper also addresses the effect of illumination directional difference in between one photometric stereo pair on the reconstruction quality of the proposed algorithm by both mathematical and experimental analysis. In this case, LROC NAC images under multiple illumination directions are utilized by the proposed algorithm for experimental comparison. The mathematical derivation suggests an illumination azimuthal difference of 90 degrees between two images is recommended to achieve

  11. Surface treatment of NiTi shape memory alloy by modified advanced oxidation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Cheng-lin; WANG Ru-meng; YIN Li-hong; PU Yue-pu; DONG Yin-sheng; GUO Chao; SHENG Xiao-bo; LIN Ping-hua; CHU Paul-K

    2009-01-01

    A modified advanced oxidation process(AOP) utilizing a UV/electrochemically-generated peroxide system was used to fabricate titania films on chemically polished NiTi shape memory alloy(SMA). The microstructure and biomedical properties of the film were characterized by scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS), inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICPMS), hemolysis analysis, and blood platelet adhesion test. It is found that the modified AOP has a high processing effectiveness and can result in the formation of a dense titania film with a Ni-free zone near its top surface. In comparison, Ni can still be detected on the outer NiTi surface by the conventional AOP using the UV/H2O2 system. The depth profiles of O, Ni, Ti show that the film possesses a smooth graded interface structure next to the NiTi substrate and this structure enhances the mechanical stability of titania film. The titania film can dramatically reduce toxic Ni ion release and also improve the hemolysis resistance and thromboresistance of biomedical NiTi SMA.

  12. Fabrication and surface photovoltage study of hematite microparticles with hollow spindle-shaped structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Zhao, Qidong; Li, Xinyong; Shi, Yong; Chen, Guohua

    2012-07-01

    Hematite (α-Fe2O3) particles with hollow spindle-shaped microstructure were successfully synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal approach in large scale. The structural properties of the sample were systematically investigated by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrum, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction techniques, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy techniques. The characterization results revealed that the α-Fe2O3 microparticles with a single-domain crystalline structure was mainly grown along the (1 0 4) crystal plane. The valence states and the surface chemical compositions of α-Fe2O3 were further identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The feature of photo-induced charge separation on spectrum was demonstrated by the surface photovoltage measurement under different external biases. The observed photoelectric characteristics of the as-fabricated material are beneficial for various optical and electronic applications.

  13. A novel binary shape context for 3D local surface description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhen; Yang, Bisheng; Liu, Yuan; Liang, Fuxun; Li, Bijun; Zang, Yufu

    2017-08-01

    3D local surface description is now at the core of many computer vision technologies, such as 3D object recognition, intelligent driving, and 3D model reconstruction. However, most of the existing 3D feature descriptors still suffer from low descriptiveness, weak robustness, and inefficiency in both time and memory. To overcome these challenges, this paper presents a robust and descriptive 3D Binary Shape Context (BSC) descriptor with high efficiency in both time and memory. First, a novel BSC descriptor is generated for 3D local surface description, and the performance of the BSC descriptor under different settings of its parameters is analyzed. Next, the descriptiveness, robustness, and efficiency in both time and memory of the BSC descriptor are evaluated and compared to those of several state-of-the-art 3D feature descriptors. Finally, the performance of the BSC descriptor for 3D object recognition is also evaluated on a number of popular benchmark datasets, and an urban-scene dataset is collected by a terrestrial laser scanner system. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed BSC descriptor obtained high descriptiveness, strong robustness, and high efficiency in both time and memory and achieved high recognition rates of 94.8%, 94.1% and 82.1% on the considered UWA, Queen, and WHU datasets, respectively.

  14. Gold Nanoparticles With Special Shapes: Controlled Synthesis, Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering, and The Application in Biodetection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghong Li

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Specially shaped gold nanoparticles have intrigued considerable attention becausethey usually possess high-sensitivity surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS and thusresult in large advantages in trace biodetermination. In this article, starch-capped goldnanoparticles with hexagon and boot shapes were prepared through using a nontoxic andbiologically benign aqueous-phase synthetic route. Shape effects of gold nanoparticles onSERS properties were mainly investigated, and found that different-shaped goldnanoparticles possess different SERS properties. Especially, the boot-shaped nanoparticlescould induce more 100-fold SERS enhancements in sensitivity as compared with those fromgold nanospheres. The extremely strong SERS properties of gold nanoboots have beensuccessfully applied to the detection of avidin. The unique nanoboots with high-sensitivitySERS properties are also expected to find use in many other fields such as biolabel,bioassay, biodiagnosis, and even clinical diagnosis and therapy.

  15. Effects of surface shape on the geometry and surface topography of the melt pool in low-power density laser melting

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2011-04-15

    The quantitative correlations between workpiece volume and melt pool geometry, as well as the flow and thermal features of the melt pool are established. Thermocapillary convections in melt pool with a deformable free surface are investigated with respect to surface shape and laser intensity. When the contact angle between the tangent to the top surface and the vertical wall at the hot center is acute, the free surface flattens, compared with that of the initial free surface. Otherwise, the free surface forms a bowl-like shape with a deep crater and a low peripheral rim when the contact angle at the hot center is obtuse. Increasing the workpiece volume at a fixed laser intensity and a negative radial height gradient cause linear decreases in the geometric size and magnitude of flow and temperature of the melt pool. Conversely, linear increases are observed with a positive radial height gradient. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  16. Melt-spun shaped fibers with enhanced surface effects: fiber fabrication, characterization and application to woven scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S J; Lee, B-K; Na, M H; Kim, D S

    2013-08-01

    Scaffolds with a high surface-area-to-volume ratio (SA:V) are advantageous with regard to the attachment and proliferation of cells in the field of tissue engineering. This paper reports on the development of novel melt-spun fibers with a high SA:V, which enhanced the surface effects of a fiber-based scaffold while maintaining its mechanical strength. The cross-section of the fibers was altered to a non-circular shape, producing a higher SA:V for a similar cross-sectional area. To obtain fibers with non-circular cross-sectional shape, or shaped fibers, three different types of metal spinnerets were fabricated for the melt-spinning process, each with circular, triangular or cruciform capillaries, using deep X-ray lithography followed by nickel electroforming. Using these spinnerets, circular and shaped fibers were manufactured with biodegradable polyester, polycaprolactone. The SA:V increase in the shaped fibers was experimentally investigated under different processing conditions. Tensile tests on the fibers and indentation tests on the woven fiber scaffolds were performed. The tested fibers and scaffolds exhibited similar mechanical characteristics, due to the similar cross-sectional area of the fibers. The degradation of the shaped fibers was notably faster than that of circular fibers, because of the enlarged surface area of the shaped fibers. The woven scaffolds composed of the shaped fibers significantly increased the proliferation of human osteosarcoma MG63 cells. This approach to increase the SA:V in shaped fibers could be useful for the fabrication of programmable, biodegradable fiber-based scaffolds in tissue engineering.

  17. The effects of smooth occlusions and directions of illumination on the visual perception of 3-D shape from shading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Eric J L; Todd, James T

    2015-02-24

    Human observers made local orientation judgments of smoothly shaded surfaces illuminated from different directions by large area lights, both with and without visible smooth occlusion contours. Test-retest correlations between the first and second halves of the experiment revealed that observers' judgments were highly reliable, with a residual error of only 2%. Over 88% of the variance between observers' judgments and the simulated objects could be accounted for by an affine correlation, but there was also a systematic nonaffine component that accounted for approximately 10% of the perceptual error. The presence or absence of visible smooth occlusion contours had a negligible effect on performance, but there was a small effect of the illumination direction, such that the response surfaces were sheared slightly toward the light source. These shearing effects were much smaller, however, than the effects produced by changes in illumination on the overall pattern of luminance or luminance gradients. Implications of these results for current models of estimating 3-D shape from shading are considered.

  18. What Shapes Adolescents' Future Perceptions? The Effects of Hearing Loss, Social Affiliation, and Career Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Rinat; Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Most, Tova

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the contribution of hearing loss, social affiliation, and career self-efficacy to adolescents' future perceptions. Participants were 191 11th and 12th grade students: 60 who were deaf, 36 who were deaf or hard of hearing, and 95 who were hearing. They completed the Future Perceptions Scale, the Career Decision-Making…

  19. Variable-Domain Displacement Transfer Functions for Converting Surface Strains into Deflections for Structural Deformed Shape Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran

    2015-01-01

    Variable-Domain Displacement Transfer Functions were formulated for shape predictions of complex wing structures, for which surface strain-sensing stations must be properly distributed to avoid jointed junctures, and must be increased in the high strain gradient region. Each embedded beam (depth-wise cross section of structure along a surface strain-sensing line) was discretized into small variable domains. Thus, the surface strain distribution can be described with a piecewise linear or a piecewise nonlinear function. Through discretization, the embedded beam curvature equation can be piece-wisely integrated to obtain the Variable-Domain Displacement Transfer Functions (for each embedded beam), which are expressed in terms of geometrical parameters of the embedded beam and the surface strains along the strain-sensing line. By inputting the surface strain data into the Displacement Transfer Functions, slopes and deflections along each embedded beam can be calculated for mapping out overall structural deformed shapes. A long tapered cantilever tubular beam was chosen for shape prediction analysis. The input surface strains were analytically generated from finite-element analysis. The shape prediction accuracies of the Variable- Domain Displacement Transfer Functions were then determined in light of the finite-element generated slopes and deflections, and were fofound to be comparable to the accuracies of the constant-domain Displacement Transfer Functions

  20. Efficient Measurement of Shape Dissimilarity between 3D Models Using Z-Buffer and Surface Roving Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Kyu Park

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of the shape dissimilarity between 3D models is a very important problem in both computer vision and graphics for 3D surface reconstruction, modeling, matching, and compression. In this paper, we propose a novel method called surface roving technique to estimate the shape dissimilarity between 3D models. Unlike conventional methods, our surface roving approach exploits a virtual camera and Z-buffer, which is commonly used in 3D graphics. The corresponding points on different 3D models can be easily identified, and also the distance between them is determined efficiently, regardless of the representation types of the 3D models. Moreover, by employing the viewpoint sampling technique, the overall computation can be greatly reduced so that the dissimilarity is obtained rapidly without loss of accuracy. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves fast and accurate measurement of shape dissimilarity for different types of 3D object models.

  1. Surface properties of bionic micro-pillar arrays with various shapes of tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dapeng; Zhao, Aiwu; Jiang, Rui; Li, Da; Zhang, Maofeng; Gan, Zibao; Tao, Wenyu; Guo, Hongyan; Mei, Tao

    2012-10-01

    Gecko-inspired micro-pillar arrays with various tip structures including spatular, spherical and concave tips were fabricated by a facile soft-molding method. The tip structures of micro-pillar arrays strongly depend on different curing processes in soft-molding using the same template. The adhesion and the wetting properties of these micro-pillar arrays are investigated by means of triboindenter and optical contact angle measurement. The results suggest that the surface properties are determined by different tip structures of micro-pillars. The spatular tip and concave tip are helpful for the adhesion enhancement and the shape of tip can control the contact angles and stabilities of water droplets on the micro-pillar arrays. In addition, the procedures demonstrate that the present route to fabricate gecko-inspired micro-pillar arrays with various tip structures is reliable and convenient. We believe that this research may pave the road to further understanding the gecko-inspired attachment systems and designing new artificial structures for dry adhesives.

  2. SYNTHESIS OF AMPHIPHILIC COMB-SHAPED COPOLYMERS USED FOR SURFACE MODIFICATION OF PVDF MEMBRANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-hua Li; You-yi Xu; Jian-hua Wang; Chun-hui Du

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of a novel amphiphilic comb-shaped copolymer consisting of a main chain of styrene-(N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) maleimide) (SHMI) copolymer and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) side groups was achieved by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The amphiphilic copolymers were characterized by ~1H-NMR, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). From thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the decomposition temperature of SHMI-g-PEGMA is lower than that of SHMI, and the graft ratio of PEGMA in the SHMI is 18.6%. The experimental results of solubilities showed that SHMI, SHMI-Br and SHMI-g-PEGMA had excellent solubility in polar solvents, such as DMF, DMSO and NMP. SHMI-g-PEGMA had higher solubilities in H_2O and methanol, while lower solubility in CHCl_3 than SHMI and SHMI-Br. PVDF blend membranes were prepared via the standard immersion precipitation phase inversion process, using amphiphilic SHMI-g-PEGMA copolymer as additives. The morphology and hydrophilicity of the blend membrane surfaces were characterized by SEM and water contact angle. It is demonstrated that the blend membranes display enhanced hydrophilicity compared to unmodified PVDF membranes. Finally, the permeation and anti-fouling properties were investigated. The result shows that amphiphilic SHMI-g-PEGMA copolymer increases the permeatability and anti-fouling property of PVDF membranes greatly.

  3. Motion and shape of partially non-wetting drops on inclined surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthenveettil, Baburaj A.; Senthilkumar K, Vijaya; Hopfinger, E. J.; IIT Madras-LEGI Collaboration

    2011-11-01

    We study high Reynolds number (Re) motion of partially non- wetting liquid drops on inclined surfaces using (i) water on Fluoro-Alkyl Silane (FAS) coated glass and (ii) mercury on glass. The high hysteresis (35°) water drop experiments have been conducted for a range of inclination angles 26° mercury on glass experiments, 5 .5° >103 for water and Re >> 19 for mercury, the observed velocities are accounted for by a boundary layer flow model. The dimensionless velocity in the inertial regime, Ca√{ Re } scales as the modified Bond number (Bom), while Ca Bom at low Re . We show that even at high Re , the dynamic contact angles (θd) depend only on Ca , similar to that in low Re drops. Only the model by Shikhmurzaev is consistent with the variation of dynamic contact angles in both mercury and water drops. We show that the corner transition at the rear of the mercury drop occurs at a finite, receding contact angle, which is predicted by a wedge flow model that we propose. For water drops, there is a direct transition to a rivulet from the oval shape at a critical ratio of receding to static contact angles.

  4. Multi-resolution Shape Analysis via Non-Euclidean Wavelets: Applications to Mesh Segmentation and Surface Alignment Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Hwa; Chung, Moo K; Singh, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of 3-D shape meshes is a fundamental problem in computer vision, graphics, and medical imaging. Frequently, the needs of the application require that our analysis take a multi-resolution view of the shape's local and global topology, and that the solution is consistent across multiple scales. Unfortunately, the preferred mathematical construct which offers this behavior in classical image/signal processing, Wavelets, is no longer applicable in this general setting (data with non-uniform topology). In particular, the traditional definition does not allow writing out an expansion for graphs that do not correspond to the uniformly sampled lattice (e.g., images). In this paper, we adapt recent results in harmonic analysis, to derive Non-Euclidean Wavelets based algorithms for a range of shape analysis problems in vision and medical imaging. We show how descriptors derived from the dual domain representation offer native multi-resolution behavior for characterizing local/global topology around vertices. With only minor modifications, the framework yields a method for extracting interest/key points from shapes, a surprisingly simple algorithm for 3-D shape segmentation (competitive with state of the art), and a method for surface alignment (without landmarks). We give an extensive set of comparison results on a large shape segmentation benchmark and derive a uniqueness theorem for the surface alignment problem.

  5. Growth and characterization of ZnO multipods on functional surfaces with different sizes and shapes of Ag particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Kamalianfar; S A Halim; Mahmoud Godarz Naseri; M Navasery; Fasih Ud Din; J A M Zahedi; Kasra Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional ZnO multipods are successfully synthesized on functional substrates using the vapor transport method in a quartz tube.The functional surfaces,which include two different distributions of Ag nanoparticles and a layer of commercial Ag nanowires,are coated onto silicon substrates before the growth of ZnO nanostructures.The structures and morphologies of the ZnO/Ag heterostructures are investigated using X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy.The sizes and shapes of the Ag particles affect the growth rates and initial nucleations of the ZnO structures,resulting in different numbers and shapes of multipods.They also influence the orientation and growth quality of the rods.The optical properties are studied by photoluminescence,UV-vis,and Raman spectroscopy.The results indicate that the surface plasmon resonance strongly depends on the sizes and shapes of the Ag particles.

  6. Relative humidity sensor based on surface plasmon resonance of D-shaped fiber with polyvinyl alcohol embedding Au grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haitao; Han, Daofu; Li, Ming; Lin, Bo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a D-shaped fiber coated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) embedding an Au grating-based relative humidity (RH) sensor. The Au grating is fabricated on a D-shaped fiber to match the wave-vector and excite the surface plasmon, and the PVA is embedded in the Au grating as a sensitive cladding film. The refractive index of PVA changes with the ambient humidity. Measurements in a controlled environment show that the RH sensor can achieve a sensitivity of 5.4 nm per relative humidity unit in the RH range from 0% to 70% RH. Moreover, the surface plasmon resonance can be realized and used for RH sensing at the C band of optical fiber communication instead of the visible light band due to the metallic grating microstructure on the D-shaped fiber.

  7. Observation and simulation of microdroplet shapes on surface-energy-patterned substrates: Contact line engineering for printed electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Yuki; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Minemawari, Hiromi; Yamada, Toshikazu; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2013-07-01

    Equilibrium microdroplet shapes on hydrophilic/hydrophobic patterned surfaces were investigated both by experimental observation using an inkjet printing technique and by computer simulation. We demonstrated that the hybrid energy minimization simulation can accurately reproduce the equilibrium shapes of observed microdroplets, including the droplet contact line in the vicinity of a sharp corner in the hydrophilic region. We found that the relative ratio of nonwetting areas by the droplets around a rectangular corner can be used as a useful index to check the reliability of the simulation as well as to estimate the surface-energy distribution within the hydrophilic region. Based on the estimation of the additional local force acting on the contact lines, we discuss the design rules for printed electronics circuits, such as the shapes of the integrated electrode to realize the ideal spreading.

  8. Role of nanoclay shape and surface characteristics on the morphology and thermal properties of polystyrene nanocomposites synthesized via emulsion polymerization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greesh, N

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the role of the surface properties and shape of clay type on the morphology, thermal, and thermo-mechanical properties of the polystyrene (PS)/clay nanocomposites prepared via free-radical emulsion polymerization. Attapulgite...

  9. Approach to solution of coupled heat transfer problem on the surface of hypersonic vehicle of arbitrary shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocharov, A. N.; Bityurin, V. A.; Golovin, N. N.; Evstigneev, N. M.; Petrovskiy, V. P.; Ryabkov, O. I.; Teplyakov, I. O.; Shustov, A. A.; Solomonov, Yu S.; Fortov, V. E.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, an approach to solve conjugate heat- and mass-transfer problems is considered to be applied to hypersonic vehicle surface of arbitrary shape. The approach under developing should satisfy the following demands. (i) The surface of the body of interest may have arbitrary geometrical shape. (ii) The shape of the body can change during calculation. (iii) The flight characteristics may vary in a wide range, specifically flight altitude, free-stream Mach number, angle-of-attack, etc. (iv) The approach should be realized with using the high-performance-computing (HPC) technologies. The approach is based on coupled solution of 3D unsteady hypersonic flow equations and 3D unsteady heat conductance problem for the thick wall. Iterative process is applied to account for ablation of wall material and, consequently, mass injection from the surface and changes in the surface shape. While iterations, unstructured computational grids both in the flow region and within the wall interior are adapted to the current geometry and flow conditions. The flow computations are done on HPC platform and are most time-consuming part of the whole problem, while heat conductance problem can be solved on many kinds of computers.

  10. Decorin core protein (decoron shape complements collagen fibril surface structure and mediates its binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P R O Orgel

    Full Text Available Decorin is the archetypal small leucine rich repeat proteoglycan of the vertebrate extracellular matrix (ECM. With its glycosaminoglycuronan chain, it is responsible for stabilizing inter-fibrillar organization. Type I collagen is the predominant member of the fibrillar collagen family, fulfilling both organizational and structural roles in animal ECMs. In this study, interactions between decoron (the decorin core protein and binding sites in the d and e(1 bands of the type I collagen fibril were investigated through molecular modeling of their respective X-ray diffraction structures. Previously, it was proposed that a model-based, highly curved concave decoron interacts with a single collagen molecule, which would form extensive van der Waals contacts and give rise to strong non-specific binding. However, the large well-ordered aggregate that is the collagen fibril places significant restraints on modes of ligand binding and necessitates multi-collagen molecular contacts. We present here a relatively high-resolution model of the decoron-fibril collagen complex. We find that the respective crystal structures complement each other well, although it is the monomeric form of decoron that shows the most appropriate shape complementarity with the fibril surface and favorable calculated energies of interaction. One molecule of decoron interacts with four to six collagen molecules, and the binding specificity relies on a large number of hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions, primarily with the collagen motifs KXGDRGE and AKGDRGE (d and e(1 bands. This work helps us to understand collagen-decorin interactions and the molecular architecture of the fibrillar ECM in health and disease.

  11. Recoverable stress induced two-way shape memory effect on NiTi surface using laser-produced shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyitliyev, Dovletgeldi; Li, Peizhen; Kholikov, Khomidkhodza; Grant, Byron; Thomas, Zachary; Alal, Orhan; Karaca, Haluk E.; Er, Ali O.

    2017-02-01

    The surfaces of Ni50Ti50 shape memory alloys (SMAs) were patterned by laser scribing. This method is more simplistic and efficient than traditional indentation techniques, and has also shown to be an effective method in patterning these materials. Different laser energy densities ranging from 5 mJ/pulse to 56 mJ/pulse were used to observe recovery on SMA surface. The temperature dependent heat profiles of the NiTi surfaces after laser scribing at 56 mJ/pulse show the partially-recovered indents, which indicate a "shape memory effect (SME)" Experimental data is in good agreement with theoretical simulation of laser induced shock wave propagation inside NiTi SMAs. Stress wave closely followed the rise time of the laser pulse to its peak values and initial decay. Further investigations are underway to improve the SME such that the indents are recovered to a greater extent.

  12. STUDY ON THE TANTALIZING ON THE SURFACE OF TITANIUM ALLOY BY NET-SHAPE CATHODE GLOW DISCHARGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. Chen; H. Zhou; Y.F. Zhang; J.D. Pan

    2005-01-01

    A new net-shape cathode sputtering target which has a simple structure and a high sputtering was put forward. The multiple-structure made of alloying and coating layers of tantalum was achieved on the surface of TC4 (Ti6Al4V) using this method in double glow surface alloying process. The tantalized samples were investigated by SEM, XRD and electrochemical corrosion method .Results show the complicated tissue of pure tantalizing layer and diffusion layer was successfully formed on the surface of TC4 with the method of net-shape cathode glow discharge, which further improved the corrosion-resistance of TC4 and formed good corrosion-resistant alloys.

  13. The dynamic specification of surfaces and boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, D W; Shipley, T F; Kellman, P J

    1998-01-01

    Sequential changes in small separated texture elements can produce perception of a moving form with continuous boundaries. This process of spatiotemporal boundary formation may exist to provide a robust means of detecting moving objects that occlude more distant textured surfaces. Whereas most research on spatiotemporal boundary formation has been focused on boundary and shape perception, two experiments are reported here on the perception of surface qualities in spatiotemporal boundary formation. In experiment 1 a free-report procedure was used to investigate whether surface perception can be determined by dynamic information alone, apart from static spatial differences. Results showed that dynamic information was sufficient to determine the appearance of a surface. This dynamic information may play an important role in other aspects of perception. In experiment 2, it was shown that dynamically specifying an extended, opaque surface facilitated edge perception. Implications for the relation of boundary and surface perception and for theories of perceptual transparency are discussed.

  14. Three-dimensional shape measurement technique for shiny surfaces by adaptive pixel-wise projection intensity adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Gao, Jian; Mei, Qing; Zhang, Guanjin; He, Yunbo; Chen, Xin

    2017-04-01

    Conventional methods based on analyses of the absolute gray levels of pixels in fringe pattern images are affected by the problems of image saturation, interreflection, and high sensitivity to noise when obtaining three-dimensional (3D) shape measurements of shiny surfaces. This study presents a robust, adaptive, and fast 3D shape measurement technique, which adaptively adjusts the pixel-wise intensity of the projected patterns, thus it avoids image saturation and has a high signal to noise ratio (SNR) during 3D shape measurement for shiny surfaces. Compared with previous time-consuming methods using multiple exposures and the projection of fringe patterns with multiple intensities, where a large number of fringe pattern images need to be captured, the proposed technique needs to capture far fewer pattern images for measurement. In addition, it can greatly reduce the time costs to obtain the optimal projection intensities by the fusion of uniform gray level patterns and coordinates mapping. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique can achieve highly accurate and efficient 3D shape measurement for shiny surfaces.

  15. First-and Second-Order Displacement Transfer Functions for Structural Shape Calculations Using Analytically Predicted Surface Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran

    2012-01-01

    New first- and second-order displacement transfer functions have been developed for deformed shape calculations of nonuniform cross-sectional beam structures such as aircraft wings. The displacement transfer functions are expressed explicitly in terms of beam geometrical parameters and surface strains (uniaxial bending strains) obtained at equally spaced strain stations along the surface of the beam structure. By inputting the measured or analytically calculated surface strains into the displacement transfer functions, one could calculate local slopes, deflections, and cross-sectional twist angles of the nonuniform beam structure for mapping the overall structural deformed shapes for visual display. The accuracy of deformed shape calculations by the first- and second-order displacement transfer functions are determined by comparing these values to the analytically predicted values obtained from finite element analyses. This comparison shows that the new displacement transfer functions could quite accurately calculate the deformed shapes of tapered cantilever tubular beams with different tapered angles. The accuracy of the present displacement transfer functions also are compared to those of the previously developed displacement transfer functions.

  16. Model-based inverse estimation for active contraction stresses of tongue muscles using 3D surface shape in speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Narihiko; Ii, Satoshi; Yoshinaga, Tsukasa; Nozaki, Kazunori; Wada, Shigeo

    2017-09-14

    This paper presents a novel inverse estimation approach for the active contraction stresses of tongue muscles during speech. The proposed method is based on variational data assimilation using a mechanical tongue model and 3D tongue surface shapes for speech production. The mechanical tongue model considers nonlinear hyperelasticity, finite deformation, actual geometry from computed tomography (CT) images, and anisotropic active contraction by muscle fibers, the orientations of which are ideally determined using anatomical drawings. The tongue deformation is obtained by solving a stationary force-equilibrium equation using a finite element method. An inverse problem is established to find the combination of muscle contraction stresses that minimizes the Euclidean distance of the tongue surfaces between the mechanical analysis and CT results of speech production, where a signed-distance function represents the tongue surface. Our approach is validated through an ideal numerical example and extended to the real-world case of two Japanese vowels, /ʉ/ and /ɯ/. The results capture the target shape completely and provide an excellent estimation of the active contraction stresses in the ideal case, and exhibit similar tendencies as in previous observations and simulations for the actual vowel cases. The present approach can reveal the relative relationship among the muscle contraction stresses in similar utterances with different tongue shapes, and enables the investigation of the coordination of tongue muscles during speech using only the deformed tongue shape obtained from medical images. This will enhance our understanding of speech motor control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Curve/surface representation and evolution using vector level sets with application to the shape-based segmentation problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Munim, Hossam E; Farag, Aly A

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, we revisit the implicit front representation and evolution using the vector level set function (VLSF) proposed in [1]. Unlike conventional scalar level sets, this function is designed to have a vector form. The distance from any point to the nearest point on the front has components (projections) in the coordinate directions included in the vector function. This kind of representation is used to evolve closed planar curves and 3D surfaces as well. Maintaining the VLSF property as the distance projections through evolution will be considered together with a detailed derivation of the vector partial differential equation (PDE) for such evolution. A shape-based segmentation framework will be demonstrated as an application of the given implicit representation. The proposed level set function system will be used to represent shapes to give a dissimilarity measure in a variational object registration process. This kind of formulation permits us to better control the process of shape registration, which is an important part in the shape-based segmentation framework. The method depends on a set of training shapes used to build a parametric shape model. The color is taken into consideration besides the shape prior information. The shape model is fitted to the image volume by registration through an energy minimization problem. The approach overcomes the conventional methods problems like point correspondences and weighing coefficients tuning of the evolution (PDEs). It is also suitable for multidimensional data and computationally efficient. Results in 2D and 3D of real and synthetic data will demonstrate the efficiency of the framework.

  18. Determination of the Dissolution Slowness Surface by Study of Etched Shapes: II. Comparison of 2D Experimental and Theoretical Etching Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblois, T.; Tellier, C. R.; Messaoudi, T.

    1997-03-01

    The anisotropic etching behavior of quartz crystal in concentrated ammonium bifluoride solution is studied and analyzed in the framework of a tensorial model. This model allows to simulate bi- or three-dimensional etching shapes from the equation for the representative surface of the dissolution slowness. In this paper, we present experimental results such as surface profile and initially circular cross-sectional profiles of differently singly- or doubly-rotated cuts. The polar diagrams of the dissolution slowness vector in several planes are deduced from experimental data. The comparison between predicted surface and cross-sectional profiles and experimental results is detailed and shows a good agreement. In particular, several examples give evidence that the final etched shapes are correlated to the extrema of the dissolution slowness. However, in several cases, experimental shapes cannot be simply correlated to the presence of extrema. Simulation gives effectively evidence for an important role played by more progressive changes in the curvature of the slowness surface. Consequently, analysis of data merits to be treated carefully. Nous nous proposons d'étudier et d'analyser à l'aide du modèle tensoriel de la dissolution l'attaque chimique anisotrope du cristal de quartz dans une solution concentrée de bifluorure d'ammonium. Ce modèle permet de simuler des formes usinées à deux ou trois dimensions à partir de l'équation de la surface représentative de la lenteur de dissolution du cristal de quartz. Dans cet article, nous présentons des résultats expérimentaux concernant des profils de surface et des sections initialement cylindriques de coupes à simple et double rotation. Les diagrammes polaires du vecteur lenteur de dissolution dans différents plans sont déduits de données expérimentales. La comparaison entre les profils de surface et de section théoriques et les résultats expérimentaux est détaillée et montre un bon accord. En

  19. Dynamic cortical activity during the perception of three-dimensional object shape from two-dimensional random-dot motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaki, Sunao; Bonmassar, Giorgio; Belliveau, John W

    2013-09-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies implicate that both the dorsal and ventral visual pathways, as well as the middle temporal (MT) areas which are critical for the perception of visual motion, are involved in the perception of three-dimensional (3D) structure from two-dimensional (2D) motion (3D-SFM). However, the neural dynamics underlying the reconstruction of a 3D object from 2D optic flow is not known. Here we combined magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional MRI (fMRI) measurements to investigate the spatiotemporal brain dynamics during 3D-SFM. We manipulated parametrically the coherence of randomly moving groups of dots to create different levels of 3D perception and to study the associated changes in brain activity. At different latencies, the posterior infero-temporal (pIT), the parieto-occipital (PO), and the intraparietal (IP) regions showed increased neural activity during highly coherent motion conditions in which subjects perceived a robust 3D object. Causality analysis between these regions indicated significant causal influence from IP to pIT and from pIT to PO only in conditions where subjects perceived a robust 3D object. Current results suggest that the perception of a 3D object from 2D motion includes integration of global motion and 3D mental image processing, as well as object recognition that are accomplished by interactions between the dorsal and ventral visual pathways.

  20. Turbulent momentum transport due to the beating between different tokamak flux surface shaping effects

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Introducing up-down asymmetry into the tokamak magnetic equilibria appears to be a feasible method to drive fast intrinsic toroidal rotation in future large devices. In this paper we investigate how the intrinsic momentum transport generated by up-down asymmetric shaping scales with the mode number of the shaping effects. Making use the gyrokinetic tilting symmetry (Ball et al (2016) Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58 045023), we study the effect of envelopes created by the beating of different high-order shaping effects. This reveals that the presence of an envelope can change the scaling of the momentum flux from exponentially small in the limit of large shaping mode number to just polynomially small. This enhancement of the momentum transport requires the envelope to be both up-down asymmetric and have a spatial scale on the order of the minor radius.

  1. Turbulent momentum transport due to the beating between different tokamak flux surface shaping effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Justin; Parra, Felix I.

    2017-02-01

    Introducing up-down asymmetry into the tokamak magnetic equilibria appears to be a feasible method to drive fast intrinsic toroidal rotation in future large devices. In this paper we investigate how the intrinsic momentum transport generated by up-down asymmetric shaping scales with the mode number of the shaping effects. Making use the gyrokinetic tilting symmetry (Ball et al 2016 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58 045023), we study the effect of envelopes created by the beating of different high-order shaping effects. This reveals that the presence of an envelope can change the scaling of the momentum flux from exponentially small in the limit of large shaping mode number to just polynomially small. This enhancement of the momentum transport requires the envelope to be both up-down asymmetric and have a spatial scale on the order of the minor radius.

  2. Online tomato sorting based on shape, maturity, size, and surface defects using machine vision

    OpenAIRE

    ARJENAKI, Omid Omidi; MOGHADDAM, Parviz Ahmadi; MOTLAGH, Asad Moddares

    2013-01-01

    Online sorting of tomatoes according to their features is an important postharvest procedure. The purpose of this research was to develop an efficient machine vision-based experimental sorting system for tomatoes. Relevant sorting parameters included shape (oblong and circular), size (small and large), maturity (color), and defects. The variables defining shape, maturity, and size of the tomatoes were eccentricity, average of color components, and 2-D pixel area, respectively. Tomato defects ...

  3. Theoretical modelling of a bi-dimensional U-shaped surface plasmon resonance based fibre optic sensor for sensitivity enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, R K; Gupta, B D [Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016 (India)], E-mail: bdgupta@physics.iitd.ernet.in

    2008-05-07

    Theoretical analysis of a surface plasmon resonance based fibre optic sensor with a uniform semi-metal coated U-shaped probe is carried out using a bi-dimensional model. All the rays of the p-polarized light launched in the fibre and their electric vectors are assumed to be confined in the plane of bending of the U-shaped probe. The effect of the bending radius of the probe on the sensitivity of the sensor is studied. The study shows that as the bending radius of the probe decreases the sensitivity of the sensor increases. For the light launching conditions used, the maximum sensitivity achieved is several times more than that reported for a fibre optic tapered probe. In addition to high sensitivity, the most advantageous feature of a U-shaped probe is that it can be used as a point sensor.

  4. Screening sensitive nanosensors via the investigation of shape-dependent localized surface plasmon resonance of single Ag nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of differently shaped plasmonic nanoparticles benefits screening and designing highly sensitive single nanoparticle sensors. Herein, in the present work, we systematically investigated the shape-dependent scattering light colours and refractive index (RI) sensitivity of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) at the single nanoparticle level using conventional dark-field light scattering microscopy and spectroscopy. AgNPs in various shapes and scattering colourful light were synthesized, and the shape effect on the scattering light colour was determined by the colocalization of the same nanoparticles with dark-field microscopy (DFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the AgNPs that scattered blue, cyan, yellow, and red light are spheres, cubes, triangular bipyramids, and rods, respectively, which enable us to directly recognize the shape of AgNPs through dark-field microscopy instead of electron microscopy. Further studies on investigation of the scattering spectral responses of single AgNPs to their surrounding solvents show that the RI sensitivity of AgNPs of different shapes followed the order of rods > cubes > triangular bipyramids > spheres. Among the commonly studied AgNPs, Ag nanorods have the highest RI sensitivity, which increases as the aspect ratio increases. Then, AgNPs of various shapes were used as single nanoparticle sensors for probing the adsorption of small molecules.Understanding the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of differently shaped plasmonic nanoparticles benefits screening and designing highly sensitive single nanoparticle sensors. Herein, in the present work, we systematically investigated the shape-dependent scattering light colours and refractive index (RI) sensitivity of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) at the single nanoparticle level using conventional dark-field light scattering microscopy and spectroscopy. AgNPs in various shapes and scattering colourful

  5. Phases of the Isobaric Surface Shapes in the Geostrophic State of the Atmosphere and Connection to the Polar Vortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Zakinyan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical study of the disturbed isobaric surface shape in the geostrophic state of the atmosphere. It has been shown that, depending on the overheat sign at the equator, the isobaric surface has the shape of an oblate or prolate geoid. If the geostrophic wind velocity is nonzero at the poles, the local pressure extrema (minima for oblate geoid and maxima for prolate geoid appear at the poles in the geostrophic state. This result correlates with the well-known polar vortex phenomenon and possibly can refine our understanding and interpretation of the phenomenon. In other words, the existence of polar minima and maxima of the pressure field can be the peculiarity of the geostrophic state of the atmosphere. It has been found that air must be colder than the surrounding atmosphere for initiation of the zonal eastward transport. For warm air mass, only easterly winds will be observed.

  6. Texture design for skin friction and touch perception of stainless steel surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Tactile perception a concept with mechanical, physiological and psychological perspective, is of particular concern to the industrial companies and research area. The hedonic attributes of tactile perception are influential to our daily life like wearing clothes, using personal care products,

  7. Influence of implant shape, surface morphology, surgical technique and bone quality on the primary stability of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Carlos Nelson; Rocha, Felipe Assis; Nascimento, Ana Lucia; Coelho, Paulo Guilherme

    2012-12-01

    The primary stability of dental implants has been investigated before, but a study of the influence of implant shape, size and surface morphology (machined, acid etched or anodized), surgical technique (press-fit or undersized) and substrate (natural or simulated bone) on the primary stability of dental implants has not been reported. The present work intends to fill this gap. In this work, six different dental implants were inserted into and removed from synthetic and natural bone while measuring the torque. A total of 255 dental implants with three shapes, four sizes and three surface topographies were inserted into pig rib, PTFE and polyurethane. The implant sites were prepared using straight and tapered drills. The primary stability was estimated from the maximum insertion torque. Comparisons between samples were based on the maximum insertion torque (MIT), the maximum removal torque (MRT) and the torque ratio (TR=MRT/MIT). The insertion torque into pig ribs showed larger dispersion. All parameters (shape, size and surface morphology of the implant, surgical technique and substrate type) were found to have a significant influence on primary stability. The insertion of a tapered implant requires a higher torque than the insertion of a straight implant. Surface treatments improve the primary stability. The influence of the surgical technique is smaller than that of implant size and shape. The highest insertion torque was that of anodized tapered implants inserted into undersized sites. Finally, the primary stability of dental implants is highly dependent on implant design, surgical technique and substrate type. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. RETRACTION: Surface impedance determination of an object located over a planar PEC surface and its use in shape reconstruction Surface impedance determination of an object located over a planar PEC surface and its use in shape reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda Ünal, Gül; Yapar, Ali; Akduman, Ibrahim

    2009-06-01

    This paper has substantial overlap with the paper 'Reconstruction of surface impedance of an object located over a planar PEC surface' by Gül Seda Ünal, Mehmet Çayören and Evrim Tetik (2008 Journal of Physics: Conference Series 135 012099). Therefore this article has been retracted by IOP Publishing and by the authors, Gül Seda Ünal, Ali Yapar and Ibrahim Akduman.

  9. Surface corrosion enhancement of passive films on NiTi shape memory alloy in different solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinlong, Lv; Tongxiang, Liang; Chen, Wang; Limin, Dong

    2016-06-01

    The corrosion behaviors of NiTi shape memory alloy in NaCl solution, H2SO4 solution and borate buffer solution were investigated. It was found that TiO2 in passive film improved the corrosion resistance of NiTi shape memory. However, low corrosion resistance of passive film was observed in low pH value acidic solution due to TiO2 dissolution. Moreover, the corrosion resistance of NiTi shape memory alloy decreased with the increasing of passivated potential in the three solutions. The donor density in passive film increased with the increasing of passivated potential. Different solutions affect the semiconductor characteristics of the passive film. The reducing in the corrosion resistance was attributed to the more donor concentrations in passive film and thinner thickness of the passive film.

  10. The effect of drop volume and micropillar shape on the apparent contact angle of ordered microstructured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afferrante, Luciano; Carbone, Giuseppe

    2014-06-14

    In the present paper, we propose a new theoretical approach to evaluate the shape and apparent contact angle (ACA) of a drop gently deposited on microstructured superhydrophobic surfaces. We exploit the very large separation of scales between the drop size and the features of the micromorphology of the interface to propose a numerical methodology to calculate the apparent contact area and apparent contact angle. In agreement with very recent experiments, calculations show that, in the case of surfaces made of conical micropillars, the ACA may take values very close to 180° not depending on the size of the liquid drop. At large drop volumes, the shape of the drop deviates from the spherical one as a result of the gravity effects, but it is noteworthy that the apparent contact angle does not change at all. Our calculations shows that this holds true also for different pillar shapes, showing that, for any given Young contact angle of the solid constituting the pillars, the ACA is an intrinsic property of the surface microgeometry.

  11. Optical Feather and Foil for Shape and Dynamic Load Sensing of Critical Flight Surfaces Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future flight vehicles may comprise complex flight surfaces requiring coordinated in-situ sensing and actuation. Inspired by the complexity of the flight surfaces on...

  12. Study on image acquisition in 3-D sensor system of arc welding pool surface shape using grating projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Xiaopu; Liu, Nansheng; Wei, Yiqing; Hu, Xian; Wei, Sheng; Liu, Xiaorui

    2009-11-01

    Detecting 3-D information on welding pool surface shape is difficult due to the arc light interference, high temperature radiation and pool surface specular reflection. The characteristics of mirror like reflection on pool of liquid surface are studied. Besides the way to obtain clear information-rich image of the pool area is discussed under the strong arc light. Because of the strong arc light above the pool will affect the imaging of the relatively weaker laser stripes seriously, we need to choose a suitable shooting angle and shooting distance to achieve well image. According to all these factors, the optimal combination of the sensing structure parameters in theory is deduced. Based on this work, a vision detecting of arc welding pool surface topography system was putted up in our laboratory, also actual measurement was carried out to obtain more clear images of deformation laser stripes in welding pool. This will provide the three-dimensional reconstruction a strong support.

  13. Particle shapes and surface structures of olivine NaFePO₄ in comparison to LiFePO₄.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Alexander; Fisher, Craig A J; Parker, Stephen C; Islam, M Saiful

    2014-10-21

    The expansion of batteries into electric vehicle and grid storage applications has driven the development of new battery materials and chemistries, such as olivine phosphate cathodes and sodium-ion batteries. Here we present atomistic simulations of the surfaces of olivine-structured NaFePO4 as a sodium-ion battery cathode, and discuss differences in its morphology compared to the lithium analogue LiFePO4. The calculated equilibrium morphology is mostly isometric in appearance, with (010), (201) and (011) faces dominant. Exposure of the (010) surface is vital because it is normal to the one-dimensional ion-conduction pathway. Platelet and cube-like shapes observed by previous microscopy studies are reproduced by adjusting surface energies. The results indicate that a variety of (nano)particle morphologies can be achieved by tuning surface stabilities, which depend on synthesis methods and solvent conditions, and will be important in optimising electrochemical performance.

  14. Simultaneous measurement of contact angle and surface tension using axisymmetric drop-shape analysis-no apex (ADSA-NA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantarian, A; David, R; Chen, J; Neumann, A W

    2011-04-05

    Axisymmetric drop-shape analysis-no apex (ADSA-NA) is a recent drop-shape method that allows the simultaneous measurement of contact angles and surface tensions of drop configurations without an apex (i.e., a sessile drop with a capillary protruding into the drop). Although ADSA-NA significantly enhanced the accuracy of contact angle and surface tension measurements compared to that of original ADSA using a drop with an apex, it is still not as accurate as a surface tension measurement using a pendant drop suspended from a holder. In this article, the computational and experimental aspects of ADSA-NA were scrutinized to improve the accuracy of the simultaneous measurement of surface tensions and contact angles. It was found that the results are relatively insensitive to different optimization methods and edge detectors. The precision of contact angle measurement was enhanced by improving the location of the contact points of the liquid meniscus with the solid substrate to subpixel resolution. To optimize the experimental design, the capillary was replaced with an inverted sharp-edged pedestal, or holder, to control the drop height and to ensure the axisymmetry of the drops. It was shown that the drop height is the most important experimental parameter affecting the accuracy of the surface tension measurement, and larger drop heights yield lower surface tension errors. It is suggested that a minimum nondimensional drop height (drop height divided by capillary length) of 1.7 is required to reach an error of less than 0.2 mJ/m(2) for the measured surface tension. As an example, the surface tension of water was measured to be 72.46 ± 0.04 at 24 °C by ADSA-NA, compared to 72.39 ± 0.01 mJ/m(2) obtained with pendant drop experiments.

  15. Combined Effect of Surface Tension, Gravity and van der Waals Force Induced by a Non-Contact Probe Tip on the Shape of Liquid Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Nan; BAI Yi-Long; XIA Meng-Fen; KE Fu-Jiu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Aiming at understanding how a liquid film on a substrate affects the atomic force microscopic image in experiments, we present an analytical representation of the shape of liquid surface under van der Waals interaction induced by a non-contact probe tip. The analytical expression shows good consistence with the corresponding numerical results. According to the expression, we find that the vertical scale of the liquid dome is mainly gov erned by a combination of van der Waals force, surface tension and probe tip radius, and is weekly related to gravity. However, its horizontal extension is determined by the capillary length.

  16. Triggering cell adhesion, migration or shape change with a dynamic surface coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Stijn F M; Maiuri, Paolo; Marie, Emmanuelle; Tribet, Christophe; Piel, Matthieu

    2013-03-25

    There's an APP for that: cell-repellent APP (azido-[polylysine-g-PEG]) is used to create substrates for spatially controlled dynamic cell adhesion. The simple addition of a functional peptide to the culture medium rapidly triggers cell adhesion. This highly accessible yet powerful technique allows diverse applications, demonstrated through tissue motility assays, patterned coculturing and triggered cell shape change.

  17. Tactile Perception and Friction-Induced Vibrations: Discrimination of Similarly Patterned Wood-Like Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacleu Ndengue, Jessica; Cesini, B Ilaria; Faucheu, C Jenny; Chatelet, D Eric; Zahouani, E Hassan; Delafosse, F David; Massi, G Francesco

    2016-12-22

    The tactile perception of a surface texture is mediated by factors such as material, topography and vibrations induced by the sliding contact. In this paper, sensory characterizations are developed together with topographical and tribo-tactile characterizations to relate perceived features with objective measurements of tribological and dynamic signals. Two sets of surface samples are used in this study: the first set is made of a commercial floor covering tiles that aim at counter-typing natural wood flooring, with both a visual and a tactile texture mimicking wood. A second set is custom-made by replicating the first set using a plain purple polyurethane resin. The comparison between tribo-tactile signals and sensory analysis allowed the identification of objective indices for textures with slight topographical differences. Even though the topography of the replicated samples is the same as their corresponding commercial products, the fact that the material is different, induces differences in the contact and vibrational parameters. This in turn modifies the discrimination performances during the sensory experiment. Tactile characteristics collected during sensory procedures are found to be in agreement with objective indices such as friction coefficients and induced vibrations.

  18. Three-dimensional shape measurement of a highly reflected, specular surface with structured light method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongwei; Ji, Lishuan; Liu, Shugui; Li, Shaohui; Han, Shujian; Zhang, Xiaojie

    2012-11-01

    This paper proposes a mathematical measurement model of a highly reflected, specular surface with structured light method. In the measurement, an auxiliary fringe pattern named amplitude perturbation is adopted to be projected onto the measured surface. The amplitude perturbation can ease the procedure of searching the corresponding points between the phase map of the measured surface and that of the reference plane by locking up the most reliable point as the starting unwrapping point whose true phase can be calculated accurately. The proposed method is also suitable for measuring the step surfaces such as gauge blocks with different heights. Furthermore, the image segmentation technology is introduced in the phase unwrapping procedure to increase the speed. Based on the unwrapped phase map, zonal wave-front reconstruction algorithm is implemented to realize three-dimensional, highly reflected, specular surface reconstruction. Experimental studies show that the developed methodology displays accuracy and high stability for highly reflected, specular surface measurement.

  19. Effect of micro-arc oxidation surface modification on the properties of the NiTi shape memory alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J L; Zhong, Z C; Yu, D Z; Liu, F; Luo, J M

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the effects of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) surface modification (alumina coatings) on the phase transformation behavior, shape memory characteristics, in vitro haemocopatibility and cytocompatibility of the biomedical NiTi alloy were investigated respectively by differential scanning calorimetry, bending test, hemolysis ratio test, dynamic blood clotting test, platelet adhesion test and cytotoxicity testing by human osteoblasts (Hobs). The results showed that there were no obvious changes of the phase transformation temperatures and shape memory characteristics of the NiTi alloy after the MAO surface modification and the coating could withstand the thermal shock and volume change caused by martensite-austenite phase transformation. Compared to the uncoated NiTi alloys, the MAO surface modification could effectively improve the haemocopatibility of the coated NiTi alloys by the reduced hemolysis ratio, the prolonged dynamic clotting time and the decreased number of platelet adhesion; and the rough and porous alumina coatings could obviously promote the adherence, spread and proliferation of the Hobs with the significant increase of proliferation number of Hobs adhered on the surface of the coated NiTi alloys (P < 0.05).

  20. Stationary ideal flow on a free surface of a given shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tophøj, Laust Emil Hjerrild; Bohr, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    a covariant formulation using Riemannian geometry and we show how to include surface tension and velocity-dependent forces such as the Coriolis force. We write down explicitly the equations for cases where the surface elevation can be written as function of either Cartesian or polar coordinates in the plane...... that the surface can be foliated by a family of non-intersecting geodesic curves....

  1. Global shape information increases but color information decreases the composite face effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retter, Talia L; Rossion, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The separation of visual shape and surface information may be useful for understanding holistic face perception--that is, the perception of a face as a single unit (Jiang, Blanz, & Rossion, 2011, Visual Cognition, 19, 1003-1034). A widely used measure of holistic face perception is the composite face effect (CFE), in which identical top face halves appear different when aligned with bottom face halves from different identities. In the present study the influences of global face shape (ie contour of the face) and color information on the CFE are investigated, with the hypothesis that global face shape supports but color impairs holistic face perception as measured in this paradigm. In experiment 1 the CFE is significantly increased when face stimuli possess natural global shape information than when cropped to a generic (ie oval) global shape; this effect is not found when the stimuli are presented inverted. In experiment 2 the CFE is significantly decreased when face stimuli are presented with color information than when presented in grayscale. These findings indicate that grayscale stimuli maintaining natural global face shape information provide the most adept measure of holistic face perception in the behavioral composite face paradigm. More generally, they show that reducing different types of information diagnostic for individual face perception can have opposite effects on the CFE, illustrating the functional dissociation between shape and surface information in face perception.

  2. Variable Camber Continuous Aerodynamic Control Surfaces and Methods for Active Wing Shaping Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An aerodynamic control apparatus for an air vehicle improves various aerodynamic performance metrics by employing multiple spanwise flap segments that jointly form a continuous or a piecewise continuous trailing edge to minimize drag induced by lift or vortices. At least one of the multiple spanwise flap segments includes a variable camber flap subsystem having multiple chordwise flap segments that may be independently actuated. Some embodiments also employ a continuous leading edge slat system that includes multiple spanwise slat segments, each of which has one or more chordwise slat segment. A method and an apparatus for implementing active control of a wing shape are also described and include the determination of desired lift distribution to determine the improved aerodynamic deflection of the wings. Flap deflections are determined and control signals are generated to actively control the wing shape to approximate the desired deflection.

  3. Surface shape control of the workpiece in a double-spindle triple-workstation wafer grinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianglong, Zhu; Renke, Kang; Zhigang, Dong; Guang, Feng

    2011-10-01

    Double-spindle triple-workstation (DSTW) ultra precision grinders are mainly used in production lines for manufacturing and back thinning large diameter (>= 300 mm) silicon wafers for integrated circuits. It is important, but insufficiently studied, to control the wafer shape ground on a DSTW grinder by adjusting the inclination angles of the spindles and work tables. In this paper, the requirements of the inclination angle adjustment of the grinding spindles and work tables in DSTW wafer grinders are analyzed. A reasonable configuration of the grinding spindles and work tables in DSTW wafer grinders are proposed. Based on the proposed configuration, an adjustment method of the inclination angle of grinding spindles and work tables for DSTW wafer grinders is put forward. The mathematical models of wafer shape with the adjustment amount of inclination angles for both fine and rough grinding spindles are derived. The proposed grinder configuration and adjustment method will provide helpful instruction for DSTW wafer grinder design.

  4. A study of trapped mode resonances in asymmetric X-shape resonator for frequency selective surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kejian; Liu, Hong; Wang, Yiqi; Zhu, Yiming

    2013-08-01

    FSS is a two-dimensional periodic array of resonating metallic-dielectric structures, When FSS device steps into Terahertz range from microwave range, it is studied as THz functional components (such as Terahertz filter, Terahertz biochemical sensor, etc.) to promote the functionality of the THz spectroscopy/imaging system. When the device requires a narrow band transmission window for frequency selecting or a high electric field concentration in certain area to improve its sensitivity for sensing, normally, a high quality (Q) resonant structure can give helps. Recently, high-Q resonance induced by trapped mode resonance i studied widely in FSS research areas. To induce trapped mode resonance, one can simply break the symmetric of the unit structure of FSS. In this paper, several asymmetric X-shaped resonators for FSS working in terahertz range have been studied numerically. To compare the behaviour of X-shape resonator under different conditions (with additional part: Heart lines, Shoulder lines, Wrap or Shoes squares), a common platform (θ=60, θis angle of X shape) which is suitable for most of cases was used to make the study more meaningful. As the field enhancement behaviour is related to the trapped mode introduced by the asymmetric structure, we propose such kind of device to be used as a high quality filter or as a sensing element for biochemical samples.

  5. Three-dimensional surface scanners compared with standard anthropometric measurements for head shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaumont, C.A.A. (Caroline A.A.); Knoops, P.G.M. (Paul G.M.); Borghi, A. (Alessandro); Jeelani, N.U.O. (N.U. Owase); M.J. Koudstaal (Maarten); S. Schievano (Silvia); D.J. Dunaway (David); Rodriguez-Florez, N. (Naiara)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThree-dimensional (3D) surface imaging devices designed to capture and quantify craniofacial surface morphology are becoming more common in clinical environments. Such scanners overcome the limitations of two-dimensional photographs while avoiding the ionizing radiation of computed

  6. Three-dimensional surface scanners compared with standard anthropometric measurements for head shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaumont, C.A.A. (Caroline A.A.); Knoops, P.G.M. (Paul G.M.); Borghi, A. (Alessandro); Jeelani, N.U.O. (N.U. Owase); M.J. Koudstaal (Maarten); S. Schievano (Silvia); D.J. Dunaway (David); Rodriguez-Florez, N. (Naiara)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThree-dimensional (3D) surface imaging devices designed to capture and quantify craniofacial surface morphology are becoming more common in clinical environments. Such scanners overcome the limitations of two-dimensional photographs while avoiding the ionizing radiation of computed

  7. Shape-selective n-alkane hydroconversion at exterior zeolite surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maesen, Th.L.M.; Krishna, R.; van Baten, J.M.; Smit, B.; Calero, S.; Castillo Sanchez, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    A critical review of the adsorption and catalysis of n- and methylalkanes demonstrates that the interior surface of TON- and MTT-type zeolites dominates both adsorption and catalysis, and that the contribution from the exterior surface is negligible. For both n- and methylalkane isomers, the experim

  8. Simple Verification of the Parabolic Shape of a Rotating Liquid and a Boat on Its Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatka, Z.; Dvorak, L.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a simple and inexpensive way to create and to verify the parabolic surface of a rotating liquid. The liquid is water. The second part of the article deals with the problem of a boat on the surface of a rotating liquid. (Contains 1 table, 10 figures and 5 footnotes.)

  9. Simple Verification of the Parabolic Shape of a Rotating Liquid and a Boat on Its Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatka, Z.; Dvorak, L.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a simple and inexpensive way to create and to verify the parabolic surface of a rotating liquid. The liquid is water. The second part of the article deals with the problem of a boat on the surface of a rotating liquid. (Contains 1 table, 10 figures and 5 footnotes.)

  10. Investigation of surface integrity in high-speed ball end milling of cantilever shaped thin plate of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Bhopale

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the effects of cutting speed and feed on the work piece deflection and surface integrity during milling of cantilever shaped Inconel 718 plate under different cutter orientations. The experiments were conducted on a CNC vertical milling machine using 10 mm diameter TiAlN coated solid carbide ball end milling cutter. Surface integrity is assessed in terms of micro hardness beneath the machined surface. The micro-hardness profile shows different patterns at various cutting parameters. It is observed that at large cutting speed as well as feeds, thicker work piece with larger work piece inclination shows higher micro hardness as compared to the other machining conditions.

  11. Cell shape and spreading of stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells cultured on fibronectin coated gold and hydroxyapatite surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolatshahi-Pirouz, A; Jensen, Thomas Hartvig Lindkjær; Kolind, Kristian;

    2011-01-01

    In order to identify the cellular mechanisms leading to the biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite implants, we studied the interaction of human bone marrow derived stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSCs) with fibronectin-coated gold (Au) and hydroxyapatite (HA) surfaces. The adsorption of fibronectin...... the number of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies directed against the cell-binding domain (CB-domain) on the fibronectin (Fn) is significantly larger on the (HA) surfaces. Moreover, a higher number of antibodies bound to the fibronectin coatings formed from the highest bulk fibronection concentration....... In subsequent cell studies with hMSC's we studied the cell spreading, cytoskeletal organization and cell morphology on the respective surfaces. When the cells were adsorbed on the uncoated substrates, a diffuse cell actin cytoskeleton was revealed, and the cells had a highly elongated shape. On the fibronectin...

  12. Effect of Ag shapes and surface compositions on the photocatalytic performance of Ag/ZnO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jia [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for High-efficiency Utilization of Solar Energy, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Green Materials for Light Industry, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan (China); Wang, Huihu, E-mail: wanghuihu@mail.hbut.edu.cn [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for High-efficiency Utilization of Solar Energy, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Green Materials for Light Industry, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan (China); Dong, Shijie [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Green Materials for Light Industry, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan (China); Wang, Fanqiang; Dong, Yifan [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2014-12-25

    Highlights: • Ag/ZnO nanorods were synthesized via photoreduction and hydrothermal methods. • Ag presents nanosheet and nanoparticle shapes in different synthesis methods. • SPR effect and Ag{sup +} is observed only for Ag/ZnO prepared by hydrothermal method. • Ag nanosheets modified ZnO shows the high activity under UV–Vis. irradiation. • Only Ag nanoparticles modified ZnO nanorods has the visible-light-driven activity. - Abstract: Photoreduction and hydrothermal methods were used respectively to prepare Ag surface modified ZnO nanorods in this paper. The surface microstructure and photocatalytic performance of Ag/ZnO nanorods for methyl orange degradation were evaluated in detail. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–Vis. diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) were used for microstructure analysis of as-prepared Ag/ZnO nanorods. FESEM images showed that Ag presented nanosheets in Ag/ZnO sample (AZP) prepared by photoreduction method, while it exhibited nanoparticles in the sample (AZH) using hydrothermal method. DRS studies clearly displayed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of Ag in AZH samples. Furthermore, there was a red shift on absorption edge for AZH samples compared with bare ZnO and AZP samples. The XPS results revealed that Ag{sup +} ions existed on the surface of AZH samples. In contrast to AZH sample, AZP sample demonstrated the higher photocatalytic activity under UV–Vis. light illumination. However, it was interesting that AZH samples exhibited the visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity, which may be due to the cooperation role of the existence of Ag{sup +} ions and SPR effect of Ag nanoparticles. All these results illustrated that the shapes and surface compositions of Ag may be important factors that influence the photocatalytic performance of Ag/ZnO nanorods. The surface microstructure related photocatalytic mechanism was finally

  13. Brownian shape motion on five-dimensional potential-energy surfaces:nuclear fission-fragment mass distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrup, Jørgen; Möller, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Although nuclear fission can be understood qualitatively as an evolution of the nuclear shape, a quantitative description has proven to be very elusive. In particular, until now, there existed no model with demonstrated predictive power for the fission-fragment mass yields. Exploiting the expected strongly damped character of nuclear dynamics, we treat the nuclear shape evolution in analogy with Brownian motion and perform random walks on five-dimensional fission potential-energy surfaces which were calculated previously and are the most comprehensive available. Test applications give good reproduction of highly variable experimental mass yields. This novel general approach requires only a single new global parameter, namely, the critical neck size at which the mass split is frozen in, and the results are remarkably insensitive to its specific value.

  14. Brownian shape motion on five-dimensional potential-energy surfaces: Nuclear fission-fragment mass distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Randrup, Jorgen

    2011-01-01

    Although nuclear fission can be understood qualitatively as an evolution of the nuclear shape, a quantitative description has proven to be very elusive. In particular, until now, there exists no model with demonstrated predictive power for the fission fragment mass yields. Exploiting the expected strongly damped character of nuclear dynamics, we treat the nuclear shape evolution in analogy with Brownian motion and perform random walks on five-dimensional fission potential-energy surfaces which were calculated previously and are the most comprehensive available. Test applications give good reproduction of highly variable experimental mass yields. This novel general approach requires only a single new global parameter, namely the critical neck size at which the mass split is frozen in, and the results are remarkably insensitive to its specific value.

  15. The role of monocularly visible regions in depth and surface perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Julie M; Wilcox, Laurie M

    2009-11-01

    The mainstream of binocular vision research has long been focused on understanding how binocular disparity is used for depth perception. In recent years, researchers have begun to explore how monocular regions in binocularly viewed scenes contribute to our perception of the three-dimensional world. Here we review the field as it currently stands, with a focus on understanding the extent to which the role of monocular regions in depth perception can be understood using extant theories of binocular vision.

  16. Diffraction line-shapes, Fermi surface nesting, and quantum criticality in antiferromagnetic chromium at high pressure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, R.; Feng, Y.; Rosenbaum, T. F.; Harvard Univ.; Univ. of Chicago

    2010-05-01

    We explore the behavior of the nested bandstructure of chromium as a function of temperature and pressure to the point where magnetism disappears. X-ray diffraction measurements of the charge order parameter suggest that the nesting condition is maintained at high pressure, where the spin density wave ground state is destabilized by a continuous quantum phase transition. By comparing diffraction line-shapes measured throughout the temperature-pressure phase diagram we are able to identify and describe three regimes: thermal near-critical, weak coupling ground state, and quantum critical.

  17. Surface properties of nitrogen-ion-implanted TiNi shape memory alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD), auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the surface properties of the N+-ion-implanted TiNi alloy.There is a high nitrogen content region at the outermost surface of the N+-ion-implanted TiNi alloy.The detected nitrogen exists mainly in the form of TiN.Small amounts of Ti3O5 and TiO2 also exist on the surface of the N+-ion-implanted TiNi sample.The modified layer of the N+-ion-implanted sample can work as an obstacle layer of the nickel's dissolution, which obstructs Ni dissolving from the TiNi surface effectively.

  18. Surface shape control of the workpiece in a double-spindle triple-workstation wafer grinder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Xianglong; Kang Renke; Dong Zhigang; Feng Guang

    2011-01-01

    Double-spindle triple-workstation (DSTW) ultra precision grinders are mainly used in production lines for manufacturing and back thinning large diameter (≥ 300 mm) silicon wafers for integrated circuits.It is important,but insufficiently studied,to control the wafer shape ground on a DSTW grinder by adjusting the inclination angles of the spindles and work tables.In this paper,the requirements of the inclination angle adjustment of the grinding spindles and work tables in DSTW wafer grinders are analyzed.A reasonable configuration of the grinding spindles and work tables in DSTW wafer grinders are proposed.Based on the proposed configuration,an adjustment method of the inclination angle of grinding spindles and work tables for DSTW wafer grinders is put forward.The mathematical models of wafer shape with the adjustment amount of inclination angles for both fine and rough grinding spindles are derived.The proposed grinder configuration and adjustment method will provide helpful instruction for DSTW wafer grinder design.

  19. Teager-Kaiser Energy and Higher-Order Operators in White-Light Interference Microscopy for Surface Shape Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Ouahab Boudraa

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In white-light interference microscopy, measurement of surface shape generally requires peak extraction of the fringe function envelope. In this paper the Teager-Kaiser energy and higher-order energy operators are proposed for efficient extraction of the fringe envelope. These energy operators are compared in terms of precision, robustness to noise, and subsampling. Flexible energy operators, depending on order and lag parameters, can be obtained. Results show that smoothing and interpolation of envelope approximation using spline model performs better than Gaussian-based approach.

  20. Recognizing familiar objects by hand and foot: Haptic shape perception generalizes to inputs from unusual locations and untrained body parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Rebecca

    2014-02-01

    The limits of generalization of our 3-D shape recognition system to identifying objects by touch was investigated by testing exploration at unusual locations and using untrained effectors. In Experiments 1 and 2, people found identification by hand of real objects, plastic 3-D models of objects, and raised line drawings placed in front of themselves no easier than when exploration was behind their back. Experiment 3 compared one-handed, two-handed, one-footed, and two-footed haptic object recognition of familiar objects. Recognition by foot was slower (7 vs. 13 s) and much less accurate (9 % vs. 47 % errors) than recognition by either one or both hands. Nevertheless, item difficulty was similar across hand and foot exploration, and there was a strong correlation between an individual's hand and foot performance. Furthermore, foot recognition was better with the largest 20 of the 80 items (32 % errors), suggesting that physical limitations hampered exploration by foot. Thus, object recognition by hand generalized efficiently across the spatial location of stimuli, while object recognition by foot seemed surprisingly good given that no prior training was provided. Active touch (haptics) thus efficiently extracts 3-D shape information and accesses stored representations of familiar objects from novel modes of input.

  1. Texture design for skin friction and touch perception of stainless steel surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Tactile perception a concept with mechanical, physiological and psychological perspective, is of particular concern to the industrial companies and research area. The hedonic attributes of tactile perception are influential to our daily life like wearing clothes, using personal care products, holdin

  2. [A geometrical analysis of the shape of the response surface in ecologico-toxicologic experiments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, V N; Kadomtsev, S V; Korsak, M N; Lifshits, A V

    1989-01-01

    A new method of working up results of factorial toxicological experiments is put forward and illustrated by a number of examples. It is based on the profound comparison of values of reactions as consequences of toxic influence and aimed at revealing the combinations of toxicant concentrations that break the monotonous character of a surface which graphically depicts the effect of pollutants. The geometrical analysis allows us to have a new vision of numerous results of factorial experiments, gives some complimentary possibilities for quantitative evaluation of impact of pollutants by mean of surface diagrams and for experimental assessment of environmental parameters of natural communities.

  3. The Effect of Surface Finish on Sculptured Shape Utilizing Scanned Data – Reversed Engineering (CATIA V5 & DELCAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrul Azwan Sundi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate aim of this study was to investigate the effect of surface finish for a machined part which was programmed by two popular CAD/CAM software namely Catia V5 and Delcam using scanned data obtained from one of the Reverse Engineering methods namely Three-Dimensional (3D scanning process. A gaming mouse was chosen as the physical part to be scanned and machined because of its sculptured shape and wavy looks. In this study, simultaneous three-axis machining programs were created and machined using three-axis Computer Numerical Control (CNC Milling machine. Initially, the physical gaming mouse gone through the first process called scanning process using a 3D scanner; model 700 CX in order to capture the 3D CAD data in points cloud form. The raw scanning data then gone through editing process to obtain better surfaces. Moreover, the stable and edited CAD model then undergone CAD/CAM programming process for both mentioned software respectively. There were ten random points chosen to be analyzed for the surface roughness analysis. The arithmetic mean value (Ra was used as the roughness value reference. The results reveal that the average surface roughness for the ten points was 0.232 μm for Catia V5 whilst for Delcam was around 0.274 μm. Ultimately, Catia V5 producing better surface finish compared to Delcam software concluded from the analysis carried out as presented in this paper.

  4. Effect of Size, Shape, and Surface Modification on Cytotoxicity of Gold Nanoparticles to Human HEp-2 and Canine MDCK Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been increasing interests in applying gold nanoparticles in biological research, drug delivery, and therapy. As the interaction of gold nanoparticles with cells relies on properties of nanoparticles, the cytotoxicity is complex and still under debating. In this work, we investigate the cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles of different encapsulations, surface charge states, sizes and shapes to both human HEp-2 and canine MDCK cells. We found that cetyltrimethylammonium-bromide- (CTAB- encapsulated gold nanorods (GNRs were relatively higher cytotoxic than GNRs undergone further polymer coating and citrate stabilized gold nanospheres (GNSs. The toxicity of CTAB-encapsulated GNRs was mainly caused by CTAB on GNRs' surface but not free CTAB in the solution. No obvious difference was found among GNRs of different aspect ratios. Time-lapse study revealed that cell death caused by GNRs occurred predominately within one hour through apoptosis, whereas cell death by free CTAB was in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Both positively and negatively surface-charged polymer-coated GNRs (PSS-GNRs and PAH-PSS-GNRs showed similar levels of cytotoxic, suggesting the significance of surface functionality rather than surface charge in this case.

  5. Controlled Heterogeneous Stem Cell Differentiation on a Shape Memory Hydrogel Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yanjiao; Bai, Tao; Liu, Wenguang

    2014-01-01

    The success of stem cell therapies is highly dependent on the ability to control their programmed differentiation. So far, it is commonly believed that the differentiation behavior of stem cells is supposed to be identical when they are cultured on the same homogeneous platform. However, in this report, we show that this is not always true. By utilizing a double-ion-triggered shape memory effect, the pre-seeded hMSCs were controllably located in different growth positions. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the differentiation behavior of hMSCs is highly sensitive to their growth position on a hydrogel scaffold. This work will not only enrich the mechanisms for controlling the differentiation of stem cells, but also offer a one-of-a-kind platform to achieve a heterogeneously differentiated stem cell-seeded hydrogel scaffold for complex biological applications. PMID:25068211

  6. Electrochemical behavior of Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy after surface modification by electroless plated Ni-P

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Chenghao; CHEN Bangyi; CHEN Wan; WANG Hua

    2004-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy (SMA) with and without electroless plated Ni-P was investigated by electrochemical methods in artificial Tyrode's solution. The results showed that Cu-Zn-Al SMA engendered dezincification corrosion in Tyrode's solution. The anodic active current densities as well as electrochemical dissolution sensitivity of the electroless plated Ni-P Cu-Zn-Al SMA increased with NaCl concentration rising, pH of solution decreasing and environmental temperature uprising. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that after surface modification by electroless plated Ni-P, an amorphous plated film formed on the surface of Cu-Zn-Al SMA. This film can effectively isolate matrix metal from corrosion media and significantly improve the electrochemical property of Cu-Zn-Al SMA in artificial Tyrode's solution.

  7. MODEL FOR THE SHAPES OF ISLANDS AND PITS ON (111)-SURFACES OF FCC METALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BARKEMA, GT; NEWMAN, MEJ; BREEMAN, M

    1994-01-01

    It is experimentally observed that adsorbate atoms and vacancies on (111) surfaces of fee metals cluster into islands which are approximately hexagonal, but which on closer inspection turn out to have equilibrium facets that alternate in length ABABAB around the six sides of the island. By contrast,

  8. Study on extracting method of single slope surface shape based on DEM:taking Wanzhou district of three gorges reservoir area as example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qi-gang; YUAN Li-feng

    2007-01-01

    This paper focused on the extracting method of single slope shape. Applying the software of ARCGIS 9.0, DEM (digital elevation model) was established. From the DEM, topographic characters, including valleys and ridges were extracted. Some valley lines were extended in order to intersect with the ridges nearby. All slope were divided into different slope surface, which enclosed by valleys and ridges. And the slope surface shapes were defined three types, Line Slope, Upper-concave and lower-convex slope, Upper-convex and lower-concave slope, according to their functions. And the judge formula of single slope surface shape was brought forward. Taking Wanzhou District as test area, it indicates that auto-extracting method of single slope surface shape has high precision relatively. This study can provide references to the studies of region geological disasters prevention and cure.

  9. Self-recovery of worn surface of TiNi shape memory alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guanghai; Zhang, Dongya; Zhang, Junfeng; Lin, Ping; Dong, Guangneng

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the thermally induced deformation recovery of TiNi alloy worn surface under dry sliding condition was examined. Surface deformations were simulated under various normal loads and sliding frequencies by a ball-on-disk tribometer system at room temperature. Surface profiles of wear scars were obtained before and after heating in air at 80 °C for 10 min, and the experimental results showed that partial recovery of the worn surface was observed. The partial deformation recovery is relative to recovery of the martensitic transformation-induced slip-dislocations and thermally-induced martensite reorientation variants to austenite. The recovery ratio, which is defined as the deformation recovery in the depth direction, was influenced by normal loads and reciprocating frequencies. As the normal load increased from 2 N to 6 N, the deformation recovery ratio of TiNi alloy decreased from 21.4% to 6.4%. With further increasing to 8 N, the recovery ratio was declined to 4.8%. These observations were explained and discussed with respect to the corresponding wear mechanisms and contact stress distribution during sliding wear tests. For different frequencies, the deformation recovery ratio tended to decrease as the reciprocating frequency increased. In addition, the deformation recovery of worn surface was also simulated by indentation in conjunction with a mechanical polishing process. The results showed that spherical protrusion morphology was observed, and its height (18 μm) was around 50% of the depth of initial indent. It confirmed that the deformation recovery existed under wear conditions, and opened up potential engineering applications of textures.

  10. Natural sunlight shapes crude oil-degradingbacterial communities in northern Gulf of Mexico surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando P Bacosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH spill in 2010, an enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Surface waters are characterized by intense sunlight and high temperature during summer. While the oil-degrading bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of natural sunlight on those in oil polluted surface waters remains unexplored to date. In this study, we incubated surface water from the DWH site with amendments of crude oil, Corexit dispersant, or both for 36 d under natural sunlight in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bacterial community was analyzed over time for total abundance, density of alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders, and community composition via pyrosequencing. Our results showed that, for treatments with oil and/or Corexit, sunlight significantly reduced bacterial diversity and evenness and was a key driver of shifts in bacterial community structure. In samples containing oil or dispersant, sunlight greatly reduced abundance of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus but increased the relative abundances of Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Labrenzia, Sandarakinotalea, Bartonella, and Halomonas. Dark samples with oil were represented by members of Thalassobius, Winogradskyella, Alcanivorax, Formosa, Pseudomonas, Eubacterium, Erythrobacter, Natronocella, and Coxiella. Both oil and Corexit inhibited the Candidatus Pelagibacter with or without sunlight exposure. For the first time, we demonstrated the effects of light in structuring microbial communities in water with oil and/or Corexit. Overall, our findings improve understanding of oil pollution in surface water, and provide unequivocal evidence that sunlight is a key factor in determining bacterial community composition and dynamics in oil polluted marine waters.

  11. In vitro release of cupric ion from intrauterine devices: influence of frame, shape, copper surface area and indomethacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuangshuang; Li, Ying; Yu, Panpan; Chen, Tong; Zhou, Weisai; Zhang, Wenli; Liu, Jianping

    2015-02-01

    The release of cupric ion from copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) in human uterus is essential for contraception. However, excessive cupric ion will cause cytotoxic effect. In this paper, we investigated the influence of device characteristics (frame, copper surface area, shape, copper type and indomethacin) on copper release for the efficacy and adverse effects vary with IUD types which may correlate to their different release behaviors. Nine types of Cu-IUDs were selected and incubated in simulated uterine fluid. They were paired for comparison based on the device properties and the release of cupric ion was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometer for about 160 days. The result showed that there was a burst release during the first month and the release rate tends to slow down and become steady afterwards. In addition, the copper release was mainly influenced by frame, indomethacin and copper type (copper wire and copper sleeve) while the shape variation had little effect on copper release throughout the experiment. Moreover, the influence of copper surface area was only noticeable during the first month. These findings were seldom reported before and may provide some useful information for the design of Cu-IUDs.

  12. Buoyancy-driven detachment of a wall-bound pendant drop: Interface shape at pinchoff and nonequilibrium surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamorgese, A.; Mauri, R.

    2015-09-01

    We present numerical results from phase-field simulations of the buoyancy-driven detachment of an isolated, wall-bound pendant emulsion droplet acted upon by surface tension and wall-normal buoyancy forces alone. Our theoretical approach follows a diffuse-interface model for partially miscible binary mixtures which has been extended to include the influence of static contact angles other than 90∘, based on a Hermite interpolation formulation of the Cahn boundary condition as first proposed by Jacqmin [J. Fluid Mech. 402, 57 (2000), 10.1017/S0022112099006874]. In a previous work, this model has been successfully employed for simulating triphase contact line problems in stable emulsions with nearly immiscible components, and, in particular, applied to the determination of critical Bond numbers for buoyancy-driven detachment as a function of static contact angle. Herein, the shapes of interfaces at pinchoff are investigated as a function of static contact angle and distance to the critical condition. Furthermore, we show numerical results on the nonequilibrium surface tension that help to explain the discrepancy between our numerically determined static contact angle dependence of the critical Bond number and its sharp-interface counterpart based on a static stability analysis of equilibrium shapes after numerical integration of the Young-Laplace equation. Finally, we show the influence of static contact angle and distance to the critical condition on the temporal evolution of the minimum neck radius in the necking regime of drop detachment.

  13. Buoyancy-driven detachment of a wall-bound pendant drop: interface shape at pinchoff and nonequilibrium surface tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamorgese, A; Mauri, R

    2015-09-01

    We present numerical results from phase-field simulations of the buoyancy-driven detachment of an isolated, wall-bound pendant emulsion droplet acted upon by surface tension and wall-normal buoyancy forces alone. Our theoretical approach follows a diffuse-interface model for partially miscible binary mixtures which has been extended to include the influence of static contact angles other than 90^{∘}, based on a Hermite interpolation formulation of the Cahn boundary condition as first proposed by Jacqmin [J. Fluid Mech. 402, 57 (2000)JFLSA70022-112010.1017/S0022112099006874]. In a previous work, this model has been successfully employed for simulating triphase contact line problems in stable emulsions with nearly immiscible components, and, in particular, applied to the determination of critical Bond numbers for buoyancy-driven detachment as a function of static contact angle. Herein, the shapes of interfaces at pinchoff are investigated as a function of static contact angle and distance to the critical condition. Furthermore, we show numerical results on the nonequilibrium surface tension that help to explain the discrepancy between our numerically determined static contact angle dependence of the critical Bond number and its sharp-interface counterpart based on a static stability analysis of equilibrium shapes after numerical integration of the Young-Laplace equation. Finally, we show the influence of static contact angle and distance to the critical condition on the temporal evolution of the minimum neck radius in the necking regime of drop detachment.

  14. Modeling and simulating of V-shaped piezoelectric micro-cantilevers using MCS theory considering the various surface geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korayem, A. H.; Kianfar, A.; Korayem, M. H.

    2016-10-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is widely used as a tool in studying surfaces and mechanical properties of materials at nanoscale. This paper deals with mechanical and vibration analysis of AFM vibration in the non-contact and tapping modes for V-shaped piezoelectric micro-cantilever (MC) with geometric discontinuities and cross section variation in the air ambient. In the vibration analysis, Euler-Bernoulli beam theory based on modified couple stress (MCS) theory has been used. The governing equation of motion has been derived by using Hamilton's principle. By adopting finite element method (FEM), the MC differential equation has been solved. Damping matrix was considered in the modal space. Frequency response was obtained by using Laplace transform, and it has been compared with experimental results. Newmark algorithm has been used based on constant average acceleration to analyze time response of MC, and then time response results in the vibration mode, far from the sample surface have been compared with experimental data. In vicinity of sample surface, MC is influenced by various nonlinear forces between the probe tip and sample surface, including van der Waals, contact, and capillary forces. Time response was examined at different distances between MC base and sample surface, and the best distance was selected for topography. Topography results of different types of roughness showed that piezoelectric MC has been improved in the air ambient. Topography showed more accurate forms of roughness, when MC passes through sample surface at higher frequencies. The surface topography investigation for tapping and non-contact modes showed that using of these two modes are suitable for topography.

  15. Plasma effect on weld pool surface reconstruction by shape-from-polarization analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coniglio, N.; Mathieu, A., E-mail: alexandre.mathieu@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS/Université de Bourgogne, 12 rue de la Fonderie, 71200 Le Creusot (France); Aubreton, O.; Stolz, C. [Université de Bourgogne Laboratoire Le2i UMR CNRS 6306, allée Alain Savary, 21000 Dijon (France)

    2014-03-31

    The polarimetric state of the thermal radiations emitted by the weld metal contains geometric information about the emitting surface. Even though the analysed thermal radiation has a wavelength corresponding to a blind spectral window of the arc plasma, the physical presence of the arc plasma itself interferes with the rays radiated by the weld pool surface before attaining the polarimeter, thus modifying the geometric information transported by the ray. In the present work, the effect of the arc plasma-surrounding zone on the polarimetric state and propagation direction of the radiated ray is analyzed. The interaction with the arc plasma zone induces a drop in ray intensity and a refraction of ray optical path.

  16. Do skeletal cephalometric characteristics correlate with condylar volume, surface and shape? A 3D analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saccucci Matteo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the condylar volume in subjects with different mandibular divergence and skeletal class using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT and analysis software. Materials and methods For 94 patients (46 females and 48 males; mean age 24.3 ± 6.5 years, resultant rendering reconstructions of the left and right temporal mandibular joints (TMJs were obtained. Subjects were then classified on the base of ANB angle the GoGn-SN angle in three classes (I, II, III . The data of the different classes were compared. Results No significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left sides in condylar volume. The analysis of mean volume among low, normal and high mandibular plane angles revealed a significantly higher volume and surface in low angle subjects (p  Class III subjects also tended to show a higher condylar volume and surface than class I and class II subjects, although the difference was not significant. Conclusions Higher condylar volume was a common characteristic of low angle subjects compared to normal and high mandibular plane angle subjects. Skeletal class also appears to be associated to condylar volume and surface.

  17. Adhesion mechanisms on solar glass: Effects of relative humidity, surface roughness, and particle shape and size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moutinho, Helio R.; Jiang, Cun -Sheng; To, Bobby; Perkins, Craig; Muller, Mattthew; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M.; Simpson, Lin J.

    2017-12-01

    To better understand and quantify soiling rates on solar panels, we are investigating the adhesion mechanisms between dust particles and solar glass. In this work, we report on two of the fundamental adhesion mechanisms: van der Waals and capillary adhesion forces. The adhesion was determined using force versus distance (F-z) measurements performed with an atomic force microscope (AFM). To emulate dust interacting with the front surface of a solar panel, we measured how oxidized AFM tips, SiO2 glass spheres, and real dust particles adhered to actual solar glass. The van der Waals forces were evaluated by measurements performed with zero relative humidity in a glove box, and the capillary forces were measured in a stable environment created inside the AFM enclosure with relative humidity values ranging from 18% to 80%. To simulate topographic features of the solar panels caused by factors such as cleaning and abrasion, we induced different degrees of surface roughness in the solar glass. We were able to 1) identify and quantify both the van der Waals and capillary forces, 2) establish the effects of surface roughness, relative humidity, and particle size on the adhesion mechanisms, and 3) compare adhesion forces between well-controlled particles (AFM tips and glass spheres) and real dust particles.

  18. Characterization of Breast Implant Surfaces, Shapes, and Biomechanics: A Comparison of High Cohesive Anatomically Shaped Textured Silicone, Breast Implants from Three Different Manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlan, Michael; Bigerelle, Maxence; Larreta-garde, Véronique; Hindié, Mathilde; Hedén, Per

    2016-02-01

    Several companies offer anatomically shaped breast implants but differences among manufacturers are often misunderstood. The shell texture is a crucial parameter for anatomically shaped implants to prevent rotation and to decrease the risk of capsular contracture, even though concerns have recently been raised concerning the complications associated with textured breast implants. The aim of this study was to characterize differences in terms of texture, cell adhesion, shape, and stiffness between some commonly used anatomically shaped implants from three different manufacturers. Five commercially available anatomically shaped breast implants from 3 different manufacturers (Allergan, Mentor, and Sebbin) were used. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microtomography, and scanning mechanical microscopy were used to characterize the shell texture. Human fibroblast adhesion onto the shells was evaluated. 3D models of the implants were obtained using CT-scan acquisitions to analyze their shape. Implant stiffness was evaluated using a tractiometer. Major differences were observed in the topography of the textures of the shells, but this was not conveyed by a statistically significant fibroblast adhesion difference. However, fibroblasts adhered better on anatomically shaped textured implants than on smooth implants (p Book Reviews, and manuscripts that concern Basic Science, Animal Studies, Cadaver Studies, and Experimental Studies. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  19. Evaluation of the surface strength of glass plates shaped by hot slumping process

    CERN Document Server

    Proserpio, L; Borsa, F; Citterio, O; Civitani, M; Ghigo, M; Pareschi, G; Salmaso, B; Sironi, G; Spiga, D; Tagliaferri, G; D'Este, A; Dall'Igna, R; Silvestri, M; Parodi, G; Martelli, F; Bavdaz, M; Wille, E

    2014-01-01

    The Hot Slumping Technology is under development by several research groups in the world for the realization of grazing-incidence segmented mirrors for X-ray astronomy, based on thin glass plates shaped over a mould at temperatures above the transformation point. The performed thermal cycle and related operations might have effects on the strength characteristics of the glass, with consequences on the structural design of the elemental optical modules and consecutively on the entire X-ray optic for large astronomical missions like IXO and ATHENA. The mechanical strength of glass plates after they underwent the slumping process was tested through destructive double-ring tests in the context of a study performed by the Astronomical Observatory of Brera with the collaboration of Stazione Sperimentale del Vetro and BCV Progetti. The entire study has been realized on more than 200 D263 Schott borosilicate glass specimens of dimension 100 mm x 100 mm and thickness 0.4 mm, either flat or bent at a Radius of Curvatur...

  20. Evaluation of the surface strength of glass plates shaped by hot slumping process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proserpio, Laura; Basso, Stefano; Borsa, Francesco; Citterio, Oberto; Civitani, Marta; Ghigo, Mauro; Pareschi, Giovanni; Salmaso, Bianca; Sironi, Giorgia; Spiga, Daniele; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; D'Este, Alberto; Dall'Igna, Roberto; Silvestri, Mirko; Parodi, Giancarlo; Martelli, Francesco; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Hot slumping technology is under development by several research groups in the world for the realization of grazing-incidence segmented mirrors for x-ray astronomy, based on thin glass plates shaped over a mold at temperatures above the transformation point. The performed thermal cycle and related operations might have effects on the strength of the glass, with consequences for the structural design of the elemental optical modules and, consequently, on the entire x-ray optic for large astronomical missions such as IXO and ATHENA. The mechanical strength of glass plates after they underwent the slumping process was tested through destructive double-ring tests in the context of a study performed by the Astronomical Observatory of Brera with the collaboration of Stazione Sperimentale del Vetro and BCV Progetti. The entire study was done on more than 200 D263 Schott borosilicate glass specimens of dimensions 100 mm×100 mm and a thickness 0.4 mm, either flat or bent at a radius of curvature of 1000 mm through the pressure-assisted hot slumping process developed by INAF-OAB. The collected experimental data have been compared with nonlinear finite element model analyses and treated with the Weibull statistic to assess the current IXO glass x-ray telescope design, in terms of survival probability, when subjected to static and acoustic loads characteristic of the launch phase. The paper describes the activities performed and presents the obtained results.

  1. 3-D shape analysis of palatal surface in patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusková, Hana; Bejdová, Sárka; Peterka, Miroslav; Krajíček, Václav; Velemínská, Jana

    2014-07-01

    Facial development of patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCLP) is associated with many problems including deformity of the palate. The aim of this study was to evaluate palatal morphology and variability in patients with UCLP compared with Czech norms using methods of geometric morphometrics. The study was based on virtual dental cast analysis of 29 UCLP patients and 29 control individuals at the age of 15 years. The variability of palatal shape in UCLP patients was greater than that in nonclefted palates. Only 24% of clefted palates fell within the variability of controls. The palatal form of UCLP patients (range from 11.8 to 17.2 years) was not correlated with age. Compared with control palates, palates of UCLP patients were narrower, more anteriorly than posteriorly. Apart from the praemaxilla region, they were also shallower, and the difference increased posteriorly. The UCLP palate was characterised by the asymmetry of its vault. The maximum height of the palatal vault was anterior on the clefted side, whereas it was posterior on the nonclefted side. The slope of the UCLP palate was more inclined compared with the control group. The praemaxilla was therefore situated more inferiorly.

  2. Wind and sunlight shape microbial diversity in surface waters of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jessica A; Aylward, Frank O; Eppley, John M; Karl, David M; Church, Matthew J; DeLong, Edward F

    2016-01-01

    Few microbial time-series studies have been conducted in open ocean habitats having low seasonal variability such as the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG), where surface waters experience comparatively mild seasonal variation. To better describe microbial seasonal variability in this habitat, we analyzed rRNA amplicon and shotgun metagenomic data over two years at the Hawaii Ocean Time-series Station ALOHA. We postulated that this relatively stable habitat might reveal different environmental factors that influence planktonic microbial community diversity than those previously observed in more seasonally dynamic habitats. Unexpectedly, the data showed that microbial diversity at 25 m was positively correlated with average wind speed 3 to 10 days prior to sampling. In addition, microbial community composition at 25 m exhibited significant correlations with solar irradiance. Many bacterial groups whose relative abundances varied with solar radiation corresponded to taxa known to exhibit strong seasonality in other oceanic regions. Network co-correlation analysis of 25 m communities showed seasonal transitions in composition, and distinct successional cohorts of co-occurring phylogenetic groups. Similar network analyses of metagenomic data also indicated distinct seasonality in genes originating from cyanophage, and several bacterial clades including SAR116 and SAR324. At 500 m, microbial community diversity and composition did not vary significantly with any measured environmental parameters. The minimal seasonal variability in the NPSG facilitated detection of more subtle environmental influences, such as episodic wind variation, on surface water microbial diversity. Community composition in NPSG surface waters varied in response to solar irradiance, but less dramatically than reported in other ocean provinces. PMID:26645474

  3. The role of the interplanetary shock surface fluctuations in shaping energetic storm particle events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lario, D.; Decker, R. B.

    2006-12-01

    Solar cycle 23 has provided us with a large variety of shocks and associated energetic particle storm (ESP) events. Statistical analysis of shocks and ESP events detected by ACE has shown a tendency for observing more quasi-perpendicular shocks; whereas the most common types of event are those that do not display any >47 keV ion intensity increase [Lario et al., 2005a; Proc. SW11, ESA SP-592, pp. 81-86]. Faster and stronger shocks have greater effects on the particle intensities at their passage by 1 AU, but the shock parameters do not determine unequivocally the characteristics of the ESP events. A few of these events show characteristics similar to those predicted by the theory of diffusive shock acceleration, although detailed analysis reveals significant inconsistencies between observations and theory [Lario et al., 2005b; Proc. 4th IGPP Conf., AIP-781, pp. 180-184]. A common type of event has irregular structure, showing multiple intensity bursts before and/or after the shock passage. We present both the observations of one of these events and the results of a test-particle, full-orbit-integration simulation of ion shock-acceleration in a corrugated shock surface [Decker, 1990; JGR 95, pp. 11993-12003]. Although meso-scale fluctuations of the shock surface or in magnetic field direction, or both, can produce similar features in shock-accelerated particle distributions, we invoke the rippled shock model in this case because the measured pre-shock field is relatively steady. These simulations allow us to reproduce not only the evolution of the ion intensities but also the observed ion anisotropies and energy spectra. Fluctuations of both the solar wind plasma where the shock travels and of the shock surface may determine the main features of those ESP events with irregular variations of intensities and angular distributions. This presentation constitutes a progress report on NASA LWS TR{&}T grant NAG5-13487.

  4. Experimental investigation of the influences of shape and surface area on the EGR cooler efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sanghoon; Park, Sangki; Choi, Kapseung; Kim, Hyungman

    2011-06-01

    The cooled EGR system is one of the most effective techniques currently available for reducing NOx emissions. In this study, engine dynamometer experiments were performed to investigate the efficiencies of the shell and tube-type and stack-type EGR coolers. The results show that the heat exchange of the stack-type EGR cooler is much more effective than that of the shell and tube type because of the increased surface area and better mixing of the coolant flow, and also more PM is produced at low exhaust gas temperature than at high temperature.

  5. Nematic liquid crystals on spherical surfaces: Control of defect configurations by temperature, density, and rod shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Subas; Solis, Francisco J.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2012-07-01

    Recent experiments have shown that defect conformations in spherical nematic liquid crystals can be controlled through variations of temperature, shell thickness, and other environmental parameters. These modifications can be understood as a result of the induced changes in the effective elastic constants of the system. To characterize the relation between defect conformations and elastic anisotropy, we carry out Monte Carlo simulations of a nematic on a spherical surface. As the anisotropy is increased, the defects flow from a tetrahedral arrangement to two coalescing pairs and then to a great circle configuration. We also analyze this flow using a variational method based on harmonic configurations.

  6. Surface coatings shape the protein corona of SPIONs with relevance to their application in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovszky-Hajdú, Angéla; Bombelli, Francesca Baldelli; Monopoli, Marco P; Tombácz, Etelka; Dawson, Kenneth A

    2012-10-23

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have proved their use in many biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, hyperthermia, and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) contrast agents. Due to their instability in fluids, several surface coatings have been used to both stabilize and tune the properties of these nanoparticles (NPs) according to their applications. These coatings will strongly modify their surface properties and influence their interaction with the environment proteins in a relevant biological medium with a clear impact on their function. It is well-accepted that a protein corona is immediately formed when nanoparticles come in contact with a biological milieu, and the emergent bionano interface represents the biological identity of the particles. Here, we investigate how a different coating on the same magnetic core can influence the protein corona composition and structure with clear relevance to application of these NPs in medicine. In particular, we have studied the structure and composition of the protein corona-SPION complexes of magnetite nanoparticles stabilized with citric acid, poly(acrylic acid), or double layer oleic acid by a range of approaches, including dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle tracking analysis, differential centrifugal sedimentation, infrared spectroscopy, 1-D SDS gel electrophoresis, and mass spectroscopy.

  7. Robotic path planning for non-destructive testing of complex shaped surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineo, Carmelo; Pierce, Stephen Gareth; Wright, Ben; Nicholson, Pascual Ian; Cooper, Ian

    2015-03-01

    The requirement to increase inspection speeds for non-destructive testing (NDT) of composite aerospace parts is common to many manufacturers. The prevalence of complex curved surfaces in the industry provides significant motivation for the use of 6 axis robots for deployment of NDT probes in these inspections. A new system for robot deployed ultrasonic inspection of composite aerospace components is presented. The key novelty of the approach is through the accommodation of flexible robotic trajectory planning, coordinated with the NDT data acquisition. Using a flexible approach in MATLAB, the authors have developed a high level custom toolbox that utilizes external control of an industrial 6 axis manipulator to achieve complex path planning and provide synchronization of the employed ultrasonic phase array inspection system. The developed software maintains a high level approach to the robot programming, in order to ease the programming complexity for an NDT inspection operator. Crucially the approach provides a pathway for a conditional programming approach and the capability for multiple robot control (a significant limitation in many current off-line programming applications). Ultrasonic and experimental data has been collected for the validation of the inspection technique. The path trajectory generation for a large, curved carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) aerofoil component has been proven and is presented. The path error relative to a raster-scan tool-path, suitable for ultrasonic phased array inspection, has been measured to be within + 2mm over the 1.6 m2 area of the component surface.

  8. Cooperation in carbon source degradation shapes spatial self-organization of microbial consortia on hydrated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecon, Robin; Or, Dani

    2017-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that natural microbial communities exhibit a high level of spatial organization at the micrometric scale that facilitate ecological interactions and support biogeochemical cycles. Microbial patterns are difficult to study definitively in natural environments due to complex biodiversity, observability and variable physicochemical factors. Here, we examine how trophic dependencies give rise to self-organized spatial patterns of a well-defined bacterial consortium grown on hydrated surfaces. The model consortium consisted of two Pseudomonas putida mutant strains that can fully degrade the aromatic hydrocarbon toluene. We demonstrated that obligate cooperation in toluene degradation (cooperative mutualism) favored convergence of 1:1 partner ratio and strong intermixing at the microscale (10–100 μm). In contrast, competition for benzoate, a compound degraded independently by both strains, led to distinct segregation patterns. Emergence of a persistent spatial pattern has been predicted for surface attached microbial activity in liquid films that mediate diffusive exchanges while permitting limited cell movement (colony expansion). This study of a simple microbial consortium offers mechanistic glimpses into the rules governing the assembly and functioning of complex sessile communities, and points to general principles of spatial organization with potential applications for natural and engineered microbial systems. PMID:28262696

  9. Preparation and formation mechanisms of metallic particles with controlled size, shape, structure and surface functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu

    Due to their excellent conductivity and chemical stability, particles of silver (Ag), gold (Au), copper (Cu) and their alloys are widely used in the electronic industry. Other unique properties extend their uses to the biomedical, optical and catalysis fields. All of these applications rely on particles with well controlled size, morphology, structure, and surface properties. Chemical precipitation from homogeneous solutions was selected as the synthetic route for the investigations described in this work. Based on the evaluation of key process parameters (temperature, reactant concentrations, reactant addition rate, mixing, etc.) the general formation mechanisms of metallic particles in various selected precipitation systems were investigated and elucidated. Five different systems for preparing particles with controlled size, morphology, structure and surface functionality are discussed. The first system involves the precipitation of Ag nanoparticles with spherical and anisotropic (platy or fiber-like) morphology. It will be shown that the formation of a stable Ag/Daxad complex has a significant impact on the reaction kinetics, and that the chromonic properties of Daxad molecules are responsible for the particle anisotropy. In the second system, Au-Ag core-shell nanoparticles were prepared in aqueous solution by a two-step precipitation process. The optical properties of these particles can be tailored by varying the thickness of the Ag shell. It was also determined that the stability of the bimetallic metallic sols depends on the Cl-ion concentration in solution. The third system discussed deals with preparation by the polyol process of well dispersed Cu nanospheres with high crystallinity and excellent oxidation resistance. We show that the heterogeneous nucleation (seeding) approach has significant merit in controlling particle size and uniformity. The functionalization of Au nanoparticle surfaces with glutathione molecules is discussed in the next section. The

  10. Investigation of the Influence of Shapes-Texture on Surface Deformation of UHMWPE as a Bearing Material in Static Normal Load and Rolling Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, W. D.; Ismail, R.; Jamari, J.; Bayuseno, A. P.

    2017-05-01

    Surface texture is a common method for improving wear properties of a tribo-pair of soft and hard bearing material. The reduction of wear rates on the contacting surface material is becoming important issues. In the present study, analysis of the contact pressure on the flat surface of UHMWPE (Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene) under the static- and rolling motion with the surface of steel ball used the 3D finite element method (FEM) (the ABAQUS software version 6.12). Five shaped-texture models (square, circle, ellipse, triangle, and chevron) were presented on the flat surface for analysis. The normal load of 17, 30 and 50 N was deliberately set-up for static and rolling contact analysis. The contact pressure was determined to predict the wear behavior of the shaped-texture on the flat surface of UHMWPE. The results have shown that the static normal load yielded the lowest von-Mises stress distribution on the shaped-texture of the ellipse for all values applied a load, while the square shape experienced the highest stress distribution. Under rolling contact, however, the increasing load yielded the increasing von Mises stress distribution for the texture with a triangle shape. Moreover, the texture shapes for circle, ellipse, and chevron respectively, may undergo the lowest stress distribution for all load. The wear calculation provided that the circle and square shape may undergo the highest wear rates. Obviously, the surface texture of circle, ellipse, and chevron may experience the lowest wear rates and is potential for use in the surface engineering of bearing materials.

  11. Metal-macrocycle framework (MMF): supramolecular nano-channel surfaces with shape sorting capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Shohei; Kubota, Ryou; Shionoya, Mitsuhiko

    2012-02-08

    Hollow nanostructures for the functional assembly of chemical groups with inner surface geometry and regulable stoichiometry enable steric design of interior reaction centers. Herein we report a metal-macrocycle framework (MMF) that forms single-crystalline nanochannels with five distinct enantiomeric pairs of guest binding pockets. During crystal-soaking experiments, the MMF crystals can encapsulate aromatic molecules with high site selectivity. First, constitutional isomers of dibromobenzene are captured and sorted into different binding pockets. Second, each of the optical isomers of (1R/1S)-1-(3-chlorophenyl)ethanol is included diastereoselectively into one of an enantiomeric pair of binding pockets. An advantage of this strategy is that the interior walls can be "repainted" via replacement of the trapped molecules with alternatives. Such guest uptake behaviors would allow highly regioselective or stereoselective reactions within the nanochannel.

  12. Wind flow and wind loads on the surface of a tower- shaped building: Numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Flow structure and wind pressure distribution caused by obtuse obstacles are usually the focuses in Computational Wind Engineer researches (CWE). By solving the non- hydrostatical dynamic equations, PUMA model (Peking University Model of Atmospheric Environment) was developed and applied to simulating the flow structure and wind pressure distribution around a tower-shaped building. Evaluation about the wind environment and wind loads around the building was obtained through the analysis of the numerical simulation results and wind tunnel data. Comparisons between the simulation and wind tunnel study indicate that numerical simulation results agree well in the flow field and wind pressure distribution around the tower-shaped building. On the other hand, the horizontal grid interval of 2 m and the vertical grid of 3 m were still too crude to simulate the flow structure and wind pressure distribution on the building surface more exactly in detail; and the absence of suitable pressure perturbation parameterization scheme between the solid and the adjacent space also limits the accuracy of the numerical simulation. The numerical simulation model can be used to evaluate the wind environment and wind load around high buildings.

  13. Refractive index sensing characteristics of D-shape double core photonic crystal fiber based on surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Li, Shi-tao; Guo, Xuan

    2016-10-01

    A refractive index (RI) sensor and its sensing characteristics based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of D-shape double core photonic crystal fiber (DC-PCF) are researched theoretically in this letter. The basic sensor principle is the SPR light intensity modulation of polished D-shape DC-PCF. The influence of the polished angle and depth on the DC-PCF SPR characteristics is discussed extensively by using the finite element method (FEM). The effects of the coated metal type and its layer thickness on the resonant intensity are also analyzed. The relationship between the analyte RI and resonant wavelength is numerically simulated. The theoretical results show that the sensor's RI sensitivity exhibits about 2000 nm/RIU with the structure parameters of 60° polished angle, 58.5μm polished depth and 70nm thickness of the silver layer. Furthermore, if the single wavelength laser is chosen, the detection of the two core light intensity difference will improve the ability of resistance to environmental interference. The simple sensor structure and high sensitivity can make this technology for online refractive index measurement in widespread areas.

  14. One-step Synthesis of Shape-controllable Gold Nanoparticles and Their Application in Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lanlan Sun; Dongxu Zhao; Meng Ding; Haifeng Zhao; Zhenzhong Zhang; Binghui Li; Dezhen Shen

    2013-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (NPs) of various shapes were synthesized by a one-step method at ambient temperature in the presence of NaCl.2-mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) was used as both reducing agent and stabilizing agent.The shapes of gold NPs were controllable by simply tuning S/Au ratio (S is from MSA molecule,and S/Au ratio is controlled by tuning the volume of added MSA solution),and triangle,polygonal and spherical nanoparticles were obtained.This result suggested a new way to consider the effects of MSA on the growth of nanoparticles,which showed that MSA is a strong capping agent and facilitates more uniform growth of nanoparticles in every dimension.And other important factors on nanoparticles growth including NaCl and temperature were discussed.Furthermore,a typical probe molecule,4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) was used to test the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of these gold NPs and the results indicated good Raman activity on these substrates.And the enhancement factor (EF) at 1078 cm-1 (a1) was estimated to be as large as 6.3 × 104 and 5.5 × 104 for triangular plates and truncated particles,respectively.

  15. Template-Free Electroless Plating of Gold Nanowires: Direct Surface Functionalization with Shape-Selective Nanostructures for Electrochemical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Falk; Schaefer, Sandra; Hagelüken, Lorenz; Molina-Luna, Leopoldo; Duerrschnabel, Michael; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim; Brötz, Joachim; Vaskevich, Alexander; Rubinstein, Israel; Ensinger, Wolfgang

    2017-09-13

    Metal nanowires (NWs) represent a prominent nanomaterial class, the interest in which is fueled by their tunable properties as well as their excellent performance in, for example, sensing, catalysis, and plasmonics. Synthetic approaches to obtain metal NWs mostly produce colloids or rely on templates. Integrating such nanowires into devices necessitates additional fabrication steps, such as template removal, nanostructure purification, or attachment. Here, we describe the development of a facile electroless plating protocol for the direct deposition of gold nanowire films, requiring neither templates nor complex instrumentation. The method is general, producing three-dimensional nanowire structures on substrates of varying shape and composition, with different seed types. The aqueous plating bath is prepared by ligand exchange and partial reduction of tetrachloroauric acid in the presence of 4-dimethylaminopyridine and formaldehyde. Gold deposition proceeds by nucleation of new grains on existing nanostructure tips and thus selectively produces curvy, polycrystalline nanowires of high aspect ratio. The nanofabrication potential of this method is demonstrated by producing a sensor electrode, whose performance is comparable to that of known nanostructures and discussed in terms of the catalyst architecture. Due to its flexibility and simplicity, shape-selective electroless plating is a promising new tool for functionalizing surfaces with anisotropic metal nanostructures.

  16. Response surface method optimization of V-shaped fin assisted latent heat thermal energy storage system during discharging process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Lohrasbi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Systems (LHTESS containing Phase Change Material (PCM are used to establish balance between energy supply and demand. PCMs have high latent heat but low thermal conductivity, which affects their heat transfer performance. In this paper, a novel fin array has been optimized by multi-objective Response Surface Method (RSM based on discharging process of PCM, and then this fin configuration is applied on LHTESS, and comparison between full discharging time by applying this fin array and LHTESS with other fin structures has been carried out. The employed numerical method in this paper is Standard Galerkin Finite Element Method. Adaptive grid refinement is used to solve the equations. Since the enhancement technique, which has been employed in the present study reduces the employed PCM mass, maximum energy storage capacity variations have been considered. Therefore phase change expedition and maximum energy storage capacity have been considered as the objectives of optimization and the importance of second objective is indicated which is proposed as the novelty here. Results indicate that considering maximum energy storage capacity as the objective of optimization procedure leads to efficient shape design of LHTESS. Also employing optimized V-shaped fin in LHTESS, expedites discharging process considerably in comparison with the LHTESS without fin.

  17. Experimental evidence of dust-induced shaping of surface dissolved organic matter in the oligotrophic ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Villena, Elvira; Djaoudi, Kahina; Barani, Aude; Charrière, Bruno; Delmont, Anne; Hélias-Nunige, Sandra; Marc, Tedetti; Wambeke France, Van

    2016-04-01

    Recent research has shown that dust deposition may impact the functioning of the microbial loop. On one hand, it enhances bacterial mineralization of dissolved organic matter (DOM), and so may limit the carbon export. On the other hand, the interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and DOM in the surface ocean can increase the residence time of DOM, promoting its export and sequestration in the deep ocean. The main goal of this study was to experimentally assess whether the bacterial response to dust deposition is prone to have an effect on the residence time of the DOM pool by modifying its bioavailability. The bacterial degradation of DOM was followed on dust-amended and control treatments during long-term incubations. Dissolved organic carbon concentration decreased by 9 μmol L-1 over the course of the experiment in both control and dust-enriched conditions, with no significant differences between treatments. However, significant differences in DOM optical properties appeared at the latest stage of the incubations suggesting an accumulation of DOM of high molecular weight in the dust-amended treatment. At the end of the incubations, the remaining water was filtered and re-used as a new culture medium for a bacterial natural assemblage. Bacterial abundance and production was lower in the treatment previously submitted to dust enrichment, suggesting a decrease in DOM lability after a dust deposition event. These preliminary results point to a new link between dust and ocean carbon cycle through the modification of the residence time of the DOM pool.

  18. A study on the surface shape and roughness of aluminum alloy for heat exchanger using ball end milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E.; Kim, Y.; jeong, H.; Chung, H.

    2015-09-01

    Aluminum alloy is a material with a high strength-weight ratio and excellent thermal conductivity. It neither readily corrodes nor quickly weakens at low temperatures, but can be easily recycled. Because of these features, aluminum heat exchangers are widely used in aluminum alloy. In addition, the aluminum alloy used in other areas is expected to gradually increase. As a result, researchers have been continuously studying the cutting patterns of aluminium alloy. However, such studies are fewer than those on the cutting patterns of ordinary steel. Moreover, the research on ball end milling with aluminium alloys has not received much attention. Therefore, in this study, an attempt was made to find the optimal cutting pattern among the seven cutting patterns for the machining of the commonly used aluminum alloy using ball end milling for a heat exchanger. The optimal pattern was found by comparing the different shapes and surface roughness values produced by the seven patterns.

  19. The effect of PeakForce tapping mode AFM imaging on the apparent shape of surface nanobubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczyk, Wiktoria; Schön, Peter M; Schönherr, Holger

    2013-05-08

    Until now, TM AFM (tapping mode or intermittent contact mode atomic force microscopy) has been the most often applied direct imaging technique to analyze surface nanobubbles at the solid-aqueous interface. While the presence and number density of nanobubbles can be unequivocally detected and estimated, it remains unclear how much the a priori invasive nature of AFM affects the apparent shapes and dimensions of the nanobubbles. To be able to successfully address the unsolved questions in this field, the accurate knowledge of the nanobubbles' dimensions, radii of curvature etc is necessary. In this contribution we present a comparative study of surface nanobubbles on HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) in water acquired with (i) TM AFM and (ii) the recently introduced PFT (PeakForce tapping) mode, in which the force exerted on the nanobubbles rather than the amplitude of the resonating cantilever is used as the AFM feedback parameter during imaging. In particular, we analyzed how the apparent size and shape of nanobubbles depend on the maximum applied force in PFT AFM. Even for forces as small as 73 pN, the nanobubbles appeared smaller than their true size, which was estimated from an extrapolation of the bubble height to zero applied force. In addition, the size underestimation was found to be more pronounced for larger bubbles. The extrapolated true nanoscopic contact angles for nanobubbles on HOPG, measured in PFT AFM, ranged from 145° to 175° and were only slightly underestimated by scanning with non-zero forces. This result was comparable to the nanoscopic contact angles of 160°-175° measured using TM AFM in the same set of experiments. Both values disagree, in accordance with the literature, with the macroscopic contact angle of water on HOPG, measured here to be 63° ± 2°.

  20. Fusion of spectral and shape features for identification of urban surface cover types using reflective and thermal hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segl, K.; Roessner, S.; Heiden, U.; Kaufmann, H.

    The urban environment is characterized by an intense multifunctional use of available spaces, where the preservation of open green spaces is of special importance. For this purpose, area-wide urban biotope mapping based on CIR aerial photographs has been carried out for the large cities in Germany during the last 10 years. Because of dynamic urban development and high mapping costs, the municipal authorities are interested in effective methods for mapping urban surface cover types, which can be used for evaluation of ecological conditions in urban structures and supporting updates of biotope maps. Against this background, airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data of the DAIS 7915 instrument have been analyzed for a test site in the city of Dresden (Germany) with regard to their potential for automated material-oriented identification of urban surface cover types. Previous investigations have shown that the high spectral and spatial variabilities of these data require the development of special methods, which are capable of dealing with the resulting mixed-pixel problem in its specific characteristics in urban areas. Earlier, methodological developments led to an approach based on a combination of spectral classification and pixel-oriented unmixing techniques to facilitate sensible endmember selection based on the reflective bands of the DAIS instrument. This approach is now extended by a shape-based classification technique including the thermal bands of the DAIS instrument to improve the detection of buildings during the process of identifying seedling pixels, which represent the starting points for linear spectral unmixing. This new approach increases the reliability of differentiation between buildings and open spaces, leading to more accurate results for the spatial distribution of surface cover types. Thus, the new approach significantly enhances the exploitation of the information potential of the hyperspectral DAIS 7915 data for an area-wide identification

  1. Congruence and Incongruence in Adolescents' and Parents' Perceptions of the Family: Using Response Surface Analysis to Examine Links with Adolescents' Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Lauren J; Dirks, Melanie A; DeLongis, Anita; Chen, Edith

    2016-10-01

    Parents and adolescents often hold discrepant views about the family environment and these discrepancies may in turn influence adolescents' psychological adjustment. The current study examined how adolescent-parent perceptions of family routines and chaos, and their congruence and incongruence, relate to adolescents' self-reported psychological adjustment (depressive symptoms and perceived stress), both concurrently (N dyads = 261; 53 % female) and 2 years later (N dyads = 118; 50 % female). Using polynomial regression and response surface analysis, results indicated that adolescents' perceptions of the family environment were a stronger predictor of adolescents' adjustment than parents' perceptions (76 % mothers), concurrently and over time. However, both congruence and incongruence in adolescent-parent perceptions were also related to adolescents' adjustment. Specifically, congruently negative adolescent-parent perceptions were associated with worse concurrent adolescent adjustment. Further, incongruence defined by more negativity in adolescents' versus parents' perceptions was associated with worse adolescent psychological adjustment, concurrently and over time. In sum, in addition to the strong links between adolescents' perceptions of the family and their own psychological adjustment, examining how congruent and incongruent adolescents' perceptions are with parents' perceptions may shed additional light on how the family environment relates to adolescent adjustment.

  2. Transient stability and control of wind turbine generation based on Hamiltonian surface shaping and power flow control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, David G.; Robinett, Rush D. III [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy, Resources and Systems Analysis Center

    2010-07-01

    The swing equations for renewable generators connected to the grid are developed and a simple wind turbine with UPFC is used as an example. The swing equations for renewable generator are formulated as a natural Hamiltonian system with externally applied non-conservative forces. A two-step process referred to as Hamiltonian Surface Shaping and Power Flow Control (HSSPFC) is used to analyze and design feedback controllers for the renewable generators system. This formulation extends previous results on the analytical verification of the Potential Energy Boundary Surface (PEBS) method to nonlinear control analysis and design and justifies the decomposition of the system into conservative and nonconservative systems to enable a two-step, serial analysis and design procedure. This paper presents the analysis and numerical simulation results for a nonlinear control design example that includes the One-Machine Infinite Bus (OMIB) system with a Unified Power Flow Control (UPEC) and applied to a simplified wind turbine generator. The needed power and energy storage/charging responses are also determined. (orig.)

  3. Structure Of TiN/Hydroxyapatite Multilayers Deposited On Surface Of NiTi Shape Memory Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek K.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve a corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of NiTi shape memory alloys, the surface of the NiTi alloy was covered by protective layers. The paper presents results of the layers composed of titanium nitride and hydroxyapatite (HAp. The TiN layers were deposited using the glow discharge technique and then the bioactive hydroxyapatite layer was formed from simulated body fluids solution. The results of the structure studies and microscopic observations confirmed that on the surface of the NiTi alloy a thin titanium nitride layer 35-50 nm thick (depending on the glow discharge technique parameters was obtained. The structure of the deposited layers was studied by means of the X-ray diffraction technique. Also, mechanical parameters of obtained layers were characterized using nanoindentation. On the top of the titanium nitride, a layer consisted of hydroxyapatite and NaCl was formed. Applied parameters of deposition process did not lead to decomposition of the NiTi parent phase (B2 to the equilibrium ones.

  4. Solution-based direct readout surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) detection of ultra-low levels of thiram with dogbone shaped gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saute, Benjamin; Narayanan, Radha

    2011-02-07

    We report the use of two different sizes of dogbone shaped gold nanoparticles as colloidal substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based detection of ultra-low levels of thiram, a dithiocarbamate fungicide. We demonstrate the ability to use a solution based, direct readout SERS method as a quantitative tool for the detection of ultra-low levels of thiram. The two different sizes of dogbone shaped gold nanoparticles are synthesized by using the seed-mediated growth method and characterized by using UV-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The smaller dogbone shaped nanoparticles have an average size of 43 ± 13 nm. The larger dogbone shaped gold nanoparticles have an average size of 65 ± 15 nm. The nanoparticle concentration is 1.25 × 10(11) nanoparticles per mL for the smaller dogbone shaped gold nanoparticles and is 1.13 × 10(11) nanoparticles per mL for the larger dogbone shaped gold nanoparticles. Different concentrations of thiram are allowed to bind to the two different sizes of dogbone shaped gold nanoparticles and the SERS spectra are obtained. From the calibration curve, the limit of detection for thiram is 43.9 ± 6.2 nM when the smaller dogbone shaped gold nanoparticles are used as colloidal SERS substrates In the case of the larger dogbone shaped gold nanoparticles, the limit of detection for thiram is 11.8 ± 3.2 nM. The lower limit of detection obtained by using the larger dogbone shaped gold nanoparticles as colloidal substrates is due to the lightning rod effect, higher contributions from the electromagnetic enhancement effect, and larger number of surface sites for thiram to bind.

  5. Dynamic 3D shape of the plantar surface of the foot using coded structured light: a technical report

    KAUST Repository

    Thabet, Ali Kassem

    2014-01-23

    Background The foot provides a crucial contribution to the balance and stability of the musculoskeletal system, and accurate foot measurements are important in applications such as designing custom insoles/footwear. With better understanding of the dynamic behavior of the foot, dynamic foot reconstruction techniques are surfacing as useful ways to properly measure the shape of the foot. This paper presents a novel design and implementation of a structured-light prototype system providing dense three dimensional (3D) measurements of the foot in motion. The input to the system is a video sequence of a foot during a single step; the output is a 3D reconstruction of the plantar surface of the foot for each frame of the input. Methods Engineering and clinical tests were carried out to test the accuracy and repeatability of the system. Accuracy experiments involved imaging a planar surface from different orientations and elevations and measuring the fitting errors of the data to a plane. Repeatability experiments were done using reconstructions from 27 different subjects, where for each one both right and left feet were reconstructed in static and dynamic conditions over two different days. Results The static accuracy of the system was found to be 0.3 mm with planar test objects. In tests with real feet, the system proved repeatable, with reconstruction differences between trials one week apart averaging 2.4 mm (static case) and 2.8 mm (dynamic case). Conclusion The results obtained in the experiments show positive accuracy and repeatability results when compared to current literature. The design also shows to be superior to the systems available in the literature in several factors. Further studies need to be done to quantify the reliability of the system in clinical environments.

  6. An Approach to 3d Digital Modeling of Surfaces with Poor Texture by Range Imaging Techniques. `SHAPE from Stereo' VS. `SHAPE from Silhouette' in Digitizing Jorge Oteiza's Sculptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fernández, J.; Álvaro Tordesillas, A.; Barba, S.

    2015-02-01

    Despite eminent development of digital range imaging techniques, difficulties persist in the virtualization of objects with poor radiometric information, in other words, objects consisting of homogeneous colours (totally white, black, etc.), repetitive patterns, translucence, or materials with specular reflection. This is the case for much of the Jorge Oteiza's works, particularly in the sculpture collection of the Museo Fundación Jorge Oteiza (Navarra, Spain). The present study intend to analyse and asses the performance of two digital 3D-modeling methods based on imaging techniques, facing cultural heritage in singular cases, determined by radiometric characteristics as mentioned: Shape from Silhouette and Shape from Stereo. On the other hand, the text proposes the definition of a documentation workflow and presents the results of its application in the collection of sculptures created by Oteiza.

  7. Quantitative model of cellulite: three-dimensional skin surface topography, biophysical characterization, and relationship to human perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalls, Lola K; Lee, Caroline Y; Whitestone, Jennifer; Kitzmiller, W John; Wickett, R Randall; Visscher, Marty O

    2005-01-01

    Gynoid lipodystrophy (cellulite) is the irregular, dimpled skin surface of the thighs, abdomen, and buttocks in 85% of post-adolescent women. The distinctive surface morphology is believed to result when subcutaneous adipose tissue protrudes into the lower reticular dermis, thereby creating irregularities at the surface. The biomechanical properties of epidermal and dermal tissue may also influence severity. Cellulite-affected thigh sites were measured in 51 females with varying degrees of cellulite, in 11 non-cellulite controls, and in 10 male controls. A non-contact high-resolution three-dimensional laser surface scanner was used to quantify the skin surface morphology and determine specific roughness values. The scans were evaluated by experts and naive judges (n=62). Body composition was evaluated via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; dermal thickness and the dermal-subcutaneous junction were evaluated via high-resolution 3D ultrasound and surface photography under compression. Biomechanical properties were also measured. The roughness parameters Svm (mean depth of the lowest valleys) and Sdr (ratio between the roughness surface area and the area of the xy plane) were highly correlated to the expert image grades and, therefore, designated as the quantitative measures of cellulite severity. The strength of the correlations among naive grades, expert grades, and roughness values confirmed that the data quantitatively evaluate the human perception of cellulite. Cellulite severity was correlated to BMI, thigh circumference, percent thigh fat, architecture of the dermal-subcutaneous border (ultrasound surface area, red-band SD from compressed images), compliance, and stiffness (negative correlation). Cellulite severity was predicted by the percent fat and the area of the dermal-subcutaneous border. The biomechanical properties did not significantly contribute to the prediction. Comparison of the parameters for females and males further suggest that percent thigh fat

  8. Reinforced Airfoil Shaped Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to an airfoil shaped body with a leading edge and a trailing edge extending along the longitudinal extension of the body and defining a profile chord, the airfoil shaped body comprising an airfoil shaped facing that forms the outer surface of the airfoil shaped body...

  9. Shape-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering in gold-Raman probe-silica sandwiched nanoparticles for biocompatible applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Cushing, Scott K; Zhang, Jianming; Lankford, Jessica; Aguilar, Zoraida P; Ma, Dongling; Wu, Nianqiang

    2012-03-23

    To meet the requirement of Raman probes (labels) for biocompatible applications, a synthetic approach has been developed to sandwich the Raman-probe (malachite green isothiocyanate, MGITC) molecules between the gold core and the silica shell in gold-SiO₂ composite nanoparticles. The gold-MGITC-SiO₂ sandwiched structure not only prevents the Raman probe from leaking out but also improves the solubility of the nanoparticles in organic solvents and in aqueous solutions even with high ionic strength. To amplify the Raman signal, three types of core, gold nanospheres, nanorods and nanostars, have been chosen as the substrates of the Raman probe. The effect of the core shape on the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been investigated. The colloidal nanostars showed the highest SERS enhancement factor while the nanospheres possessed the lowest SERS activity under excitation with 532 and 785 nm lasers. Three-dimensional finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulation showed significant differences in the local electromagnetic field distributions surrounding the nanospheres, nanorods, and nanostars, which were induced by the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The electromagnetic field was enhanced remarkably around the two ends of the nanorods and around the sharp tips of the nanostars. This local electromagnetic enhancement made the dominant contribution to the SERS enhancement. Both the experiments and the simulation revealed the order nanostars > nanorods > nanospheres in terms of the enhancement factor. Finally, the biological application of the nanostar-MGITC-SiO₂ nanoparticles has been demonstrated in the monitoring of DNA hybridization. In short, the gold–MGITC-SiO₂ sandwiched nanoparticles can be used as a Raman probe that features high sensitivity, good water solubility and stability, low-background fluorescence, and the absence of photobleaching for future biological applications.

  10. Stream/bounce event perception reveals a temporal limit of motion correspondence based on surface feature over space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, Yousuke; Kawabe, Takahiro; Gyoba, Jiro

    2011-01-01

    We examined how stream/bounce event perception is affected by motion correspondence based on the surface features of moving objects passing behind an occlusion. In the stream/bounce display two identical objects moving across each other in a two-dimensional display can be perceived as either streaming through or bouncing off each other at coincidence. Here, surface features such as colour (Experiments 1 and 2) or luminance (Experiment 3) were switched between the two objects at coincidence. The moment of coincidence was invisible to observers due to an occluder. Additionally, the presentation of the moving objects was manipulated in duration after the feature switch at coincidence. The results revealed that a postcoincidence duration of approximately 200 ms was required for the visual system to stabilize judgments of stream/bounce events by determining motion correspondence between the objects across the occlusion on the basis of the surface feature. The critical duration was similar across motion speeds of objects and types of surface features. Moreover, controls (Experiments 4a-4c) showed that cognitive bias based on feature (colour/luminance) congruency across the occlusion could not fully account for the effects of surface features on the stream/bounce judgments. We discuss the roles of motion correspondence, visual feature processing, and attentive tracking in the stream/bounce judgments.

  11. The influence of an artificial playing surface on injury risk and perceptions of muscle soreness in elite Rugby Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S; Trewartha, G; Kemp, S P T; Michell, R; Stokes, K A

    2016-01-01

    This prospective cohort study investigated the influence of an artificial playing surface on injury risk and perceptions of muscle soreness in elite English Premiership Rugby Union players. Time loss (from 39.5 matches) and abrasion (from 27 matches) injury risk was compared between matches played on artificial turf and natural grass. Muscle soreness was reported over the 4 days following one match played on each surface by 95 visiting players (i.e., normally play on natural grass surfaces). There was a likely trivial difference in the overall injury burden relating to time-loss injuries between playing surfaces [rate ratio = 1.01, 90% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-1.38]. Abrasions were substantially more common on artificial turf (rate ratio = 7.92, 90% CI: 4.39-14.28), although the majority of these were minor and only two resulted in any reported time loss. Muscle soreness was consistently higher over the 4 days following a match on artificial turf in comparison with natural grass, although the magnitude of this effect was small (effect sizes ranging from 0.26 to 0.40). These results suggest that overall injury risk is similar for the two playing surfaces, but further surveillance is required before inferences regarding specific injury diagnoses and smaller differences in overall injury risk can be made.

  12. Stream/Bounce Event Perception Reveals a Temporal Limit of Motion Correspondence Based on Surface Feature over Space and Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuke Kawachi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined how stream/bounce event perception is affected by motion correspondence based on the surface features of moving objects passing behind an occlusion. In the stream/bounce display two identical objects moving across each other in a two-dimensional display can be perceived as either streaming through or bouncing off each other at coincidence. Here, surface features such as colour (Experiments 1 and 2 or luminance (Experiment 3 were switched between the two objects at coincidence. The moment of coincidence was invisible to observers due to an occluder. Additionally, the presentation of the moving objects was manipulated in duration after the feature switch at coincidence. The results revealed that a postcoincidence duration of approximately 200 ms was required for the visual system to stabilize judgments of stream/bounce events by determining motion correspondence between the objects across the occlusion on the basis of the surface feature. The critical duration was similar across motion speeds of objects and types of surface features. Moreover, controls (Experiments 4a–4c showed that cognitive bias based on feature (colour/luminance congruency across the occlusion could not fully account for the effects of surface features on the stream/bounce judgments. We discuss the roles of motion correspondence, visual feature processing, and attentive tracking in the stream/bounce judgments.

  13. The perception of object versus objectless motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Howard S; Nichols, David F

    2013-05-01

    Wertheimer, M. (Zeitschrift für Psychologie und Physiologie der Sinnesorgane, 61:161-265, 1912) classical distinction between beta (object) and phi (objectless) motion is elaborated here in a series of experiments concerning competition between two qualitatively different motion percepts, induced by sequential changes in luminance for two-dimensional geometric objects composed of rectangular surfaces. One of these percepts is of spreading-luminance motion that continuously sweeps across the entire object; it exhibits shape invariance and is perceived most strongly for fast speeds. Significantly for the characterization of phi as objectless motion, the spreading luminance does not involve surface boundaries or any other feature; the percept is driven solely by spatiotemporal changes in luminance. Alternatively, and for relatively slow speeds, a discrete series of edge motions can be perceived in the direction opposite to spreading-luminance motion. Akin to beta motion, the edges appear to move through intermediate positions within the object's changing surfaces. Significantly for the characterization of beta as object motion, edge motion exhibits shape dependence and is based on the detection of oppositely signed changes in contrast (i.e., counterchange) for features essential to the determination of an object's shape, the boundaries separating its surfaces. These results are consistent with area MT neurons that differ with respect to speed preference Newsome et al (Journal of Neurophysiology, 55:1340-1351, 1986) and shape dependence Zeki (Journal of Physiology, 236:549-573, 1974).

  14. Laser Beam Shaping For Lithography on Inclined and Curved Surfaces Using a liquid crystal Spatial Light Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatabi, Javad R.; Geerts, Wilhelmus; Tamir, Dan; Pandey, Kumar

    2013-03-01

    An exposure tool for lithography on non-flat substrates that includes a real time photoresist thickness and surface topography monitor is under development at Texas State University. Exposure dose and focusing are corrected on curved parts of the sample using novel laser beam shaping techniques: two approaches using a Holoeye liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM) are being investigated: (1) the implementation of multiple lenses with different focal lengths to split the beam into several parts and keeping each part in focus depending on sample topography; (2) the implementation of a tilted lens function resulting in a tilt of the image plane. Image quality is limited by quantization aberration, caused by the phase modulator's bit depth limitation, and pixelation aberration, caused by the modulator's pixel size. A statistical analysis on lenses with different focal lengths provides a detailed description of the mentioned aberrations. The image quality, i.e. resolution and contrast of both techniques, are determined from developed photoresist patterns on curved samples and compared to the theory.

  15. Quantitative modelling of the surface plasmon resonances of metal nanoclusters sandwiched between dielectric layers: the influence of nanocluster size, shape and organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toudert, J; Babonneau, D; Simonot, L; Camelio, S; Girardeau, T [PHYMAT, UMR CNRS 6630, Batiment SP2MI, Boulevard Marie et Pierre Curie, 86962 Futuroscope Chasseneuil (France)], E-mail: johann.toudert@gmail.com

    2008-03-26

    The effects of size, shape and organization on the surface plasmon resonances of Ag nanoclusters sandwiched between Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} layers are studied by transmission electron microscopy and anisotropic spectroscopic ellipsometry. We present an easy-to-handle model that quantitatively links the nanostructure and optical response of the films, which are considered as dielectric/metal:dielectric/dielectric trilayers, with the central nanocomposite layer being an effective medium whose optical properties are described by an anisotropic dielectric tensor. The components of this tensor are calculated using a generalization of the Yamaguchi theory taking into account the real organization, size and shape distributions of ellipsoidal nanoclusters, whose electronic properties are assumed to reflect shape-dependent finite size effects. Using this model, it is shown that the optical response of the films in the visible range is dominated by the excitation of the surface plasmon resonance of the clusters along their in-plane long axis, while no surface plasmon resonance resulting from an excitation along their in-plane short axis can be observed due to damping effects. Moreover, the spectral position of this resonance appears to be mainly affected by the average shape of the clusters, and weakly by their size, their shape distribution and the electromagnetic interaction between them.

  16. Biopolymer coated gold nanocrystals prepared using the green chemistry approach and their shape-dependent catalytic and surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Wei; Hsieh, Hui-Hsuan; Hseu, You-Cheng; Chen, Ko-Shao; Wang, Gou-Jen; Chang, Hsien-Chang; Pan, Yong-Li; Wei, Yi-Syuan; Chang, Ko Hsin; Harn, Yeu-Wei

    2013-07-21

    This study deals with the preparation of multi-shaped nanoscale gold crystals under synthetically simple, green, and efficient conditions using a seed-mediated growth approach in the presence of hyaluronic acid (HA). These highly biocompatible multi-shaped gold nanocrystals were examined to evaluate their catalytic and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) properties. The results show that the size and shape of the nanocrystals are mainly correlated to the amount of seed, seed size, HA concentration, and reaction temperature. Gold seeds accelerate the reduction of the gold precursor to form gold nanocrystals using HA. The HA serves as a reducing agent and a growth template for the reduction of Au(III) and nanocrystal stabilization. The multi-shaped gold nanocrystals showed superior catalytic properties and higher SERS performance. The simple, green approach efficiently controls the nanocrystals and creates many opportunities for future applications.

  17. Transient stability and control of renewable generators based on Hamiltonian surface shaping and power flow control. Part II, analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, Rush D., III; Wilson, David Gerald

    2010-11-01

    The swing equations for renewable generators connected to the grid are developed and a wind turbine is used as an example. The swing equations for the renewable generators are formulated as a natural Hamiltonian system with externally applied non-conservative forces. A two-step process referred to as Hamiltonian Surface Shaping and Power Flow Control (HSSPFC) is used to analyze and design feedback controllers for the renewable generators system. This formulation extends previous results on the analytical verification of the Potential Energy Boundary Surface (PEBS) method to nonlinear control analysis and design and justifies the decomposition of the system into conservative and non-conservative systems to enable a two-step, serial analysis and design procedure. The first step is to analyze the system as a conservative natural Hamiltonian system with no externally applied non-conservative forces. The Hamiltonian surface of the swing equations is related to the Equal-Area Criterion and the PEBS method to formulate the nonlinear transient stability problem. This formulation demonstrates the effectiveness of proportional feedback control to expand the stability region. The second step is to analyze the system as natural Hamiltonian system with externally applied non-conservative forces. The time derivative of the Hamiltonian produces the work/rate (power flow) equation which is used to ensure balanced power flows from the renewable generators to the loads. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is applied to the power flow equations to determine the stability boundaries (limit cycles) of the renewable generators system and enable design of feedback controllers that meet stability requirements while maximizing the power generation and flow to the load. Necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of renewable generators systems are determined based on the concepts of Hamiltonian systems, power flow, exergy (the maximum work that can be extracted from an energy flow) rate

  18. The influence of yield surface shape and damage in the depth-dependent response of bone tissue to nanoindentation using spherical and Berkovich indenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiedrzik, Johann Jakob; Zysset, Philippe Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Prevention and treatment of osteoporosis rely on understanding of the micromechanical behaviour of bone and its influence on fracture toughness and cell-mediated adaptation processes. Postyield properties may be assessed by nonlinear finite element simulations of nanoindentation using elastoplastic and damage models. This computational study aims at determining the influence of yield surface shape and damage on the depth-dependent response of bone to nanoindentation using spherical and conical tips. Yield surface shape and damage were shown to have a major impact on the indentation curves. Their influence on indentation modulus, hardness, their ratio as well as the elastic-to-total work ratio is well described by multilinear regressions for both tip shapes. For conical tips, indentation depth was not statistically significant (p damage was not a significant parameter (p < 0.0001). The gained knowledge can be used for developing an inverse method for identification of postelastic properties of bone from nanoindentation.

  19. Author's rights in the digital age: how Internet and peer-to-peer file sharing technology shape the perception of copyrights and copywrongs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijana Micunovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Author's rights and copyright law have gone through quite a few changes in the 'post-print' culture of binary systems, digital formations and techno-practices. Technological development supports new concept of author's rights by promoting free internet and digital market, as well as new contemporary experience of culture that is being rooted in digital technology, mass communication and the world of multimedia and virtuality. Though computer and digital technology have served both authors and users in various ways, they have also served as a very fertile ground for sharing copyrighted content thus leading to numerous copyright infringements and conflicts with the copyright law. The aim of this paper is to identify and analyze the ways in which computer and digital technology have given rise to new trends in the production (e.g. remix culture and consumption (e.g. peer-to-peer file sharing technology of culture, but also to determine how new forms of distribution, use and sharing of digital content changed and shaped the perception of authorship in the 21st century. In order to analyze the dynamic, nature and structure by which new digital and networking technologies are affecting the concept of authorship and author's rights and to test the consistency of previously established hypotheses, we conducted a survey amongst general public. Altogether 535 questionnaires were completed. Data was analyzed using SPSS tool and quantitative method of analysis. In the analysis special attention was given to both, the concept of authorship in the digital environment and the concept of peer-to-peer file sharing technology as not so new, but still very popular networked architecture for distributing, using and sharing digital content. Results have shown that most of the respondents use peer-to-peer file sharing technology to access, consume and/or share different cultural content (e.g. movies, music, books, etc. while violating the rights of copyright holders

  20. Controlling the Transient Interface Shape and Deposition Profile Left by Desiccation of Colloidal Droplets on Multiple Polymer Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Peter David

    . Implementation of this technique requires that the colloidal droplet be separated from the active electrode by a dielectric layer to prevent electrolysis. A variety of polymer layers have been used in EWOD devices for a variety of applications. In applications that involve desiccation of colloidal suspensions, the material for this layer should be chosen carefully as it can play an important role in the resulting deposition pattern. An experimental method to monitor the transient evolution of the shape of an evaporating colloidal droplet and optically quantify the resultant deposition pattern is presented. Unactuated colloidal suspensions will be desiccated on a variety of substrates commonly used in EWOD applications. Transient image profiles and particle deposition patterns are examined for droplets containing fluorescent micro-particles. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons of these results will be used to compare multiple different cases in an effort to provide insight into the effects of polymer selection on the drying dynamics and resultant deposition patterns of desiccated colloidal materials. It was found that the equilibrium and receding contact angles between the surface and the droplet play a key role in the evaporation dynamics and the resulting deposition patterns left by a desiccated colloidal suspension. The equilibrium contact angle controls the initial contact diameter for a droplet of a given volume. As a droplet on a surface evaporates, the evolution of the interface shape and the contact diameter can generally be described by three different regimes. The Constant Contact Radius (CCR) regime occurs when the contact line is pinned while the contact angle decreases. The Constant Contact Angle (CCA) regime occurs when the contact line recedes while the contact angle remains constant. The Mixed regime occurs when the contact radius and angle both reduce over time. The presence of the CCA regime allows the contact line to recede creating a more uniform

  1. High-Level Systemic Expression of Conserved Influenza Epitope in Plants on the Surface of Rod-Shaped Chimeric Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Petukhova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant viruses based on the cDNA copy of the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV genome carrying different versions of the conserved M2e epitope from influenza virus A cloned into the coat protein (CP gene were obtained and partially characterized by our group previously; cysteines in the human consensus M2e sequence were changed to serine residues. This work intends to show some biological properties of these viruses following plant infections. Agroinfiltration experiments on Nicotiana benthamiana confirmed the efficient systemic expression of M2e peptides, and two point amino acid substitutions in recombinant CPs significantly influenced the symptoms and development of viral infections. Joint expression of RNA interference suppressor protein p19 from tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV did not affect the accumulation of CP-M2e-ser recombinant protein in non-inoculated leaves. RT-PCR analysis of RNA isolated from either infected leaves or purified TMV-M2e particles proved the genetic stability of TMV‑based viral vectors. Immunoelectron microscopy of crude plant extracts demonstrated that foreign epitopes are located on the surface of chimeric virions. The rod‑shaped geometry of plant-produced M2e epitopes is different from the icosahedral or helical filamentous arrangement of M2e antigens on the carrier virus-like particles (VLP described earlier. Thereby, we created a simple and efficient system that employs agrobacteria and plant viral vectors in order to produce a candidate broad-spectrum flu vaccine.

  2. Model based evaluation of human perception of stereoscopically visualized semi-transparent surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiber, Michael; Winkelholz, Carsten; Kinder, Verena

    2009-02-01

    Depicting three dimensional surfaces in such a way that distances between these surfaces can be estimated quickly and accurately is a challenging task. A promising approach is the use of semi-transparent textures i.e. only some parts of the surface are colored. We conducted an experiment to determine the performance of subjects in perceiving distances between an opaque ground surface and specific points on an overlayed surface which was visualized using isolines and curvature oriented strokes. The results show that response times for curvature oriented strokes were faster compared to isolines. For a trusted interpretation of these results, a plausible explanation has to be given. We hypothesize that users visually integrate the available three dimensional positions and thereby come to an estimate. Further experiments were carried out in order to formulate a model which describes the involved perceptual process as several attention shifts between three dimensional positions. The results of the experiments are reported here.

  3. High-precision drop shape analysis on inclining flat surfaces: Introduction and comparison of this special method with commercial contact angle analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Michael; Heib, Florian

    2013-10-01

    Drop shape analysis is one of the most important and frequently used methods to characterise surfaces in the scientific and industrial communities. An especially large number of studies, which use contact angle measurements to analyse surfaces, are characterised by incorrect or misdirected conclusions such as the determination of surface energies from poorly performed contact angle determinations. In particular, the characterisation of surfaces, which leads to correlations between the contact angle and other effects, must be critically validated for some publications. A large number of works exist concerning the theoretical and thermodynamic aspects of two- and tri-phase boundaries. The linkage between theory and experiment is generally performed by an axisymmetric drop shape analysis, that is, simulations of the theoretical drop profiles by numerical integration onto a number of points of the drop meniscus (approximately 20). These methods work very well for axisymmetric profiles such as those obtained by pendant drop measurements, but in the case of a sessile drop onto real surfaces, additional unknown and misunderstood effects on the dependence of the surface must be considered. We present a special experimental and practical investigation as another way to transition from experiment to theory. This procedure was developed to be especially sensitive to small variations in the dependence of the dynamic contact angle on the surface; as a result, this procedure will allow the properties of the surface to be monitored with a higher precession and sensitivity. In this context, water drops onto a 111 silicon wafer are dynamically measured by video recording and by inclining the surface, which results in a sequence of non-axisymmetric drops. The drop profiles are analysed by commercial software and by the developed and presented high-precision drop shape analysis. In addition to the enhanced sensitivity for contact angle determination, this analysis technique, in

  4. High-precision drop shape analysis on inclining flat surfaces: introduction and comparison of this special method with commercial contact angle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Michael; Heib, Florian

    2013-10-07

    Drop shape analysis is one of the most important and frequently used methods to characterise surfaces in the scientific and industrial communities. An especially large number of studies, which use contact angle measurements to analyse surfaces, are characterised by incorrect or misdirected conclusions such as the determination of surface energies from poorly performed contact angle determinations. In particular, the characterisation of surfaces, which leads to correlations between the contact angle and other effects, must be critically validated for some publications. A large number of works exist concerning the theoretical and thermodynamic aspects of two- and tri-phase boundaries. The linkage between theory and experiment is generally performed by an axisymmetric drop shape analysis, that is, simulations of the theoretical drop profiles by numerical integration onto a number of points of the drop meniscus (approximately 20). These methods work very well for axisymmetric profiles such as those obtained by pendant drop measurements, but in the case of a sessile drop onto real surfaces, additional unknown and misunderstood effects on the dependence of the surface must be considered. We present a special experimental and practical investigation as another way to transition from experiment to theory. This procedure was developed to be especially sensitive to small variations in the dependence of the dynamic contact angle on the surface; as a result, this procedure will allow the properties of the surface to be monitored with a higher precession and sensitivity. In this context, water drops onto a 111 silicon wafer are dynamically measured by video recording and by inclining the surface, which results in a sequence of non-axisymmetric drops. The drop profiles are analysed by commercial software and by the developed and presented high-precision drop shape analysis. In addition to the enhanced sensitivity for contact angle determination, this analysis technique, in

  5. Microgenetic analysis of transparency perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the microgenesis of transparency perception was investigated. Two intersecting squares were used as a basic stimulus model. Three surfaces was defined: surface which had the shape of capital Greek letter gamma, surface which had the shape of mirrored L and the little square nested between gamma and L. The gray levels of these surfaces were varied, whereas the background was constantly black. The gray levels variation can produce either transparency, spotlight or mosaic perception. All three categories can be described both locally (three juxtaposed surfaces and globally (two overlapping squares. The primed matching paradigm and the same-different task were used. The global (squares and the local (gammas or mirrored Ls test stimuli were given as same or different pairs. There were the two prime types: identical (equal to test stimuli and perceptual (related to the transparency, spotlight or mosaic. Prime duration were 50 ms and 400 ms, and the ISI was 30 ms. Ten subjects were asked to respond whether the test stimuli are same or different. The main result indicate that the difference in RT between perceptually primed global and local test stimuli is highly significant in both prime duration conditions and for transparency and spotlight patterns, and is marginally significant for mosaic patterns. The difference was such that the global tests were processed faster than the local tests. These results suggest that complex perceptual descriptions (transparency and the spotlight are generated very early in the perceptual process (50 ms.

  6. 平面壁附近高分子链的尺寸和形状%Size and Shape of Polymer Chain near a Flat Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建花; 胡慧俊; 蒋文华; 韩世钧

    2002-01-01

    The size and the shape of non-reversal random-walking polymer chains near an impenetrable, non-interacting flat surface are investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulation on the simple cubic lattice. It wasfound that both size and shape are dependent on the normal-to-surface distance z0 of the first segment of chain. Wefind that the size and shape of chains, characterized by mean square radius of gyration and mean asphericityparameter respectively, show similar dependence on distance z0. Both and reach the maximum atz0 = 0, then decrease with the increase of z0 and soon reach the minimum values, afterwards they go up continuouslyand approach to the limit values of free chain. The similar dependence of and on z0 can be explained by apositive correlation between A and S2. However, the dependence of the correlation coefficient CA,S2 on z0 is verycomplicated and deserves further study. The overall density probability of segments is also investigated. Resultsshow that segments near the surface are relatively less, and the symmetrical distribution disappears when the chainlocates near the surface.

  7. Acoustic surface perception from naturally occurring step sounds of a dexterous hexapod robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuneyitoglu Ozkul, Mine; Saranli, Afsar; Yazicioglu, Yigit

    2013-10-01

    Legged robots that exhibit dynamic dexterity naturally interact with the surface to generate complex acoustic signals carrying rich information on the surface as well as the robot platform itself. However, the nature of a legged robot, which is a complex, hybrid dynamic system, renders the more common approach of model-based system identification impractical. The present paper focuses on acoustic surface identification and proposes a non-model-based analysis and classification approach adopted from the speech processing literature. A novel feature set composed of spectral band energies augmented by their vector time derivatives and time-domain averaged zero crossing rate is proposed. Using a multi-dimensional vector classifier, these features carry enough information to accurately classify a range of commonly occurring indoor and outdoor surfaces without using of any mechanical system model. A comparative experimental study is carried out and classification performance and computational complexity are characterized. Different feature combinations, classifiers and changes in critical design parameters are investigated. A realistic and representative acoustic data set is collected with the robot moving at different speeds on a number of surfaces. The study demonstrates promising performance of this non-model-based approach, even in an acoustically uncontrolled environment. The approach also has good chance of performing in real-time.

  8. The relative weight of shape and non-rigid motion cues in object perception: a model of the parameters underlying dynamic object discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quoc C; Friedman, Alinda; Read, Jenny C A

    2012-03-16

    Shape and motion are two dominant cues for object recognition, but it can be difficult to investigate their relative quantitative contribution to the recognition process. In the present study, we combined shape and non-rigid motion morphing to investigate the relative contributions of both types of cues to the discrimination of dynamic objects. In Experiment 1, we validated a novel parameter-based motion morphing technique using a single-part three-dimensional object. We then combined shape morphing with the novel motion morphing technique to pairs of multipart objects to create a joint shape and motion similarity space. In Experiment 2, participants were shown pairs of morphed objects from this space and responded "same" on the basis of motion-only, shape-only, or both cues. Both cue types influenced judgments: When responding to only one cue, the other cue could be ignored, although shape cues were more difficult to ignore. When responding on the basis of both cues, there was an overall bias to weight shape cues more than motion cues. Overall, our results suggest that shape influences discrimination more than motion even when both cue types have been made quantitatively equivalent in terms of their individual discriminability.

  9. The combination of digital surface scanners and cone beam computed tomography technology for guided implant surgery using 3Shape implant studio software: a case history report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanis, Alejandro; Álvarez Del Canto, Orlando

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of virtual engineering into dentistry and the digitization of information are providing new perspectives and innovative alternatives for dental treatment modalities. The use of digital surface scanners with surgical planning software allows for the combination of the radiographic, prosthetic, surgical, and laboratory fields under a common virtual scenario, permitting complete digital treatment planning. In this article, the authors present a clinical case in which a guided implant surgery was performed based on a complete digital surgical plan combining the information from a cone beam computed tomography scan and the virtual simulation obtained from the 3Shape TRIOS intraoral surface scanner. The information was imported to and combined in the 3Shape Implant Studio software for guided implant surgery planning. A surgical guide was obtained by a 3D printer, and the surgical procedure was done using the Biohorizons Guided Surgery Kit and its protocol.

  10. Biosonar resolving power: Echo-acoustic perception of surface structures in the submillimeter range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph eSimon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The minimum distance for which two points still can be separated from each other defines the resolving power of a visual system. In an echo-acoustic context, the resolving power is usually measured as the smallest perceivable distance of two reflecting surfaces on the range axis and is found to be around half a millimetre for bats employing frequency modulated echolocation calls. Only few studies measured such thresholds with physical objects, most often bats were trained on virtual echoes i.e. echoes generated and played back by a computer; moreover, bats were sitting while they received the stimuli. In these studies differences in structure depth between 200 µm and 340 µm were found. However, these low thresholds were never verified for free-flying bats and real physical objects. Here, we show behavioural evidence that the echo-acoustic resolving power for surface structures in fact can be as low as measured for computer generated echoes and even lower, sometimes below 100 µm. We found this exceptional fine discrimination ability only when one of the targets showed spectral interferences in the frequency range of the bats' echolocation call while the other target did not. This result indicates that surface structure is likely to be perceived as a spectral quality rather than being perceived strictly in the time domain. Further, it points out that sonar resolving power directly depends on the highest frequency/shortest wavelength of the signal employed.

  11. Local Solid Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Koenderink

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Local solid shape applies to the surface curvature of small surface patches—essentially regions of approximately constant curvatures—of volumetric objects that are smooth volumetric regions in Euclidean 3-space. This should be distinguished from local shape in pictorial space. The difference is categorical. Although local solid shape has naturally been explored in haptics, results in vision are not forthcoming. We describe a simple experiment in which observers judge shape quality and magnitude of cinematographic presentations. Without prior training, observers readily use continuous shape index and Casorati curvature scales with reasonable resolution.

  12. Differences in Perceptions of the Importance of Subject Matter Knowledge and How These Shaped Supervision and Assessment of Student Teachers on Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudavanhu, Young

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to establish lecturers and student teachers' perceptions of the importance of subject matter knowledge and how these views affected supervision and assessment of pre-service and in-service science teachers at University of Mashonaland (pseudonym) in Zimbabwe. The study was largely qualitative and used group…

  13. Determination of position and shape of flexible mri surface coils using the Microsoft Kinect for attenuation correction in PET/MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frohwein, Lynn; He, Mirco; Buther, Florian; Safers, Klaus [European Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of Muenster (Germany)

    2015-05-18

    Due to the varying position and shape of flexible MRI RF surface coils, the creation of attenuation maps for these coils is a challenging task. Nevertheless, coil material (metal, plastic, rubber) attenuates the PET signal to a considerable amount. Thus, including a coil μ-map into the human μ-map is essential. In this work, we present a method to determine the position and shape of flexible coils with the help of the Microsoft Kinect depth camera. Phantom PET/MRI (Siemens Biograph mMR) and CT scans (Siemens Biograph mCT) were performed with and without the flexible 32-channel coil equipped with 15 markers visible in CT and Kinect. Prior to the PET/MRI acquisition, Kinect data is acquired of the phantom with the coil on top. The manually extracted marker positions from CT and Kinect are used to non-rigidly transform the template CT according to the Kinect marker positions describing the shape of the coil during PET/MRI acquisition. An appropriate μ-map can then be calculated from the transformed CT dataset. Subsequently, the μ-map is placed in relation to the patient table according to the Kinect-derived marker positions. First results show that the coil shape can be determined with the help of the Kinect camera. The transformation of the template CT dataset according to Kinect marker positions during PET/MRI leads to appropriate results. Furthermore, the position of the coil can also be determined for an accurate placement of the μ-map in relation to the patient table. The determination of position and shape of flexible surface coils using the Kinect camera can be a way to include the CT-based coil μ-map in PET/MRI acquisitions without the need for additional MRI scans. Accuracy and practicability of the method have to be tested in further experiments.

  14. Local solid shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070864543; van Doorn, A.J.; Wagemans, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Local solid shape applies to the surface curvature of small surface patches-essentially regions of approximately constant curvatures-of volumetric objects that are smooth volumetric regions in Euclidean 3-space. This should be distinguished from local shape in pictorial space. The difference is cate

  15. Non-destructive testing of objects of complex shape using infrared thermography: rear surface reconstruction by temporal tracking of the thermal front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djupkep Dizeu, F. B.; Laurendeau, Denis; Bendada, Abdelhakim

    2016-12-01

    Infrared thermography allows contactless non-destructive testing of objects based on their thermal behavior. Quantitative inspection of an object aims to characterize its internal defects by estimating their size and their depth. In the field, a one-dimensional thermal model has been used for depth estimation. Unfortunately, the methods based on this model become inaccurate when the inspected object has a high thermal diffusivity, a complex shape, or when the defects, like corrosion, have a complex geometry. For such cases, a 3D formulation of the problem is needed. In this paper, we consider the defect characterization as an inverse geometry problem and we propose a new method: the rear surface reconstruction by temporal tracking of the thermal front. The idea is to follow the thermal front while it propagates inside the object. Referring to the duality time-depth, at every moment, the penetration depth of the thermal front can be estimated. As soon as the thermal front reaches the rear surface, a temperature change will be noticeable on the frontal surface. It is then possible to update the internal geometry of the object at each time step in such a way that the difference between the theoretical temperature, obtained by a 3D solver, and the experimental temperature, recorded by an infrared camera, is minimized. The proposed method shows accurate results and can address situations involving rear surfaces with complex geometry and objects with high thermal diffusivity and a complex shape.

  16. The Intrinsic Shapes of Low-Surface-Brightness Dwarf Irregular Galaxies and Comparison to Other Types of Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sung, E C; Ryden, S; Patterson, J; Chun, M S; Kim, H I; Lee, W B; Sung, Eon-Chang; Han, Cheongho; Chun, Moon-Suk; Kim, Ho-Il; Lee, Woo-Baik

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we measure the ellipticities of 30 LSB dI galaxies and compare the ellipticity distribution with that of 80 dEs (Ryden & Terndrup 1994; Ryden et al. 1998) and 62 BCDs (Sung et al. 1998). We find that the ellipticity distribution of LSB dIs is very similar to that of BCDs, and marginally different from that of dEs. We then determine the distribution of intrinsic shapes of dI galaxies and compare to those of other type dwarf galaxies under various assumptions. First, we assume that LSB dIs are either all oblate or all prolate, and use non-parametric analysis to find the best-fitting distribution of intrinsic shapes. With this assumption, we find that the scarcity of nearly circular LSB dIs implies, at the 99% confidence level, that they cannot be a population of randomly oriented oblate or prolate objects. Next, we assume that dIs are triaxial, and use parametric analysis to find permissible distributions of intrinsic shapes. We find that if the intrinsic axis ratios, $\\beta$ and parameters f...

  17. The role of health care experience and consumer information efficacy in shaping privacy and security perceptions of medical records: national consumer survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vaishali; Beckjord, Ellen; Moser, Richard P; Hughes, Penelope; Hesse, Bradford W

    2015-04-02

    Providers' adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) is increasing and consumers have expressed concerns about the potential effects of EHRs on privacy and security. Yet, we lack a comprehensive understanding regarding factors that affect individuals' perceptions regarding the privacy and security of their medical information. The aim of this study was to describe national perceptions regarding the privacy and security of medical records and identify a comprehensive set of factors associated with these perceptions. Using a nationally representative 2011-2012 survey, we reported on adults' perceptions regarding privacy and security of medical records and sharing of health information between providers, and whether adults withheld information from a health care provider due to privacy or security concerns. We used multivariable models to examine the association between these outcomes and sociodemographic characteristics, health and health care experience, information efficacy, and technology-related variables. Approximately one-quarter of American adults (weighted n=235,217,323; unweighted n=3959) indicated they were very confident (n=989) and approximately half indicated they were somewhat confident (n=1597) in the privacy of their medical records; we found similar results regarding adults' confidence in the security of medical records (very confident: n=828; somewhat confident: n=1742). In all, 12.33% (520/3904) withheld information from a health care provider and 59.06% (2100/3459) expressed concerns about the security of both faxed and electronic health information. Adjusting for other characteristics, adults who reported higher quality of care had significantly greater confidence in the privacy and security of their medical records and were less likely to withhold information from their health care provider due to privacy or security concerns. Adults with higher information efficacy had significantly greater confidence in the privacy and security of medical

  18. Hidden surface microstructures on Carboniferous insect Brodioptera sinensis (Megasecoptera) enlighten functional morphology and sensorial perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Jakub; Pecharová, Martina; Ren, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Megasecoptera are insects with haustellate mouthparts and petiolate wings closely related to Palaeodictyoptera and one of the few insect groups that didn’t survive the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Recent discovery of Brodioptera sinensis in early Pennsylvanian deposits at Xiaheyan in northern China has increased our knowledge of its external morphology using conventional optical stereomicroscopy. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) of structures, such as antennae, mouthparts, wing surfaces, external copulatory organs and cerci have shed light on their micromorphology and supposed function. A comparative study has shown an unexpected dense pattern of setae on the wing membrane of B. sinensis. In addition, unlike the results obtained by stereomicroscopy it revealed that the male and female external genitalia clearly differ in their fine structure and setation. Therefore, the present study resulted in a closer examination of the microstructure and function of previously poorly studied parts of the body of Paleozoic insects and a comparison with homologous structures occurring in other Palaeodictyopteroida, Odonatoptera and Ephemerida. This indicates, that the role and presumptive function of these integumental protuberances is likely to have been a sensory one in the coordination of mouthparts and manipulation of stylets, escape from predators, enhancement of aerodynamic properties and copulatory behaviour. PMID:27321551

  19. In-situ observation of transition between surface relief and wrinkling in thin film shape memory alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y Q; Sanjabi, S; Barber, Z H; Huang, W M; Cai, M; Zhang, S; Luo, J K; Flewitt, A J; Milne, W I

    2008-05-01

    Significant surface morphology evolution between relief and wrinkling was observed on a 3.5 microm thick TiNiCu film sputter-deposited on a silicon substrate. At room temperature, variation in surface relief morphology (from separated martensite crystals embedded in amorphous matrix to fully interweaved martensite plates) was observed with slight change in film composition. The phenomenon was attributed to variations in crystallization temperatures of as-deposited amorphous films during annealing because of the compositional difference. During thermal cycling between room temperature and 100 degrees C, reversible surface morphology changes can be observed between surface relief and wrinkling patterns. The formation of the surface wrinkling is attributed to the large compressive stress in the film during high temperature post-annealing and crystallization, whereas surface relief is caused by the martensitic transformation to relieve the large tensile stress in the film. Compositional effect on this surface morphology evolution is discussed. Results also indicate that there is a critical dimension for the wrinkling to occur, and a small circular island can only relax by in-plane expansion.

  20. Bell-shaped superhydrophilic-superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic double transformation on a pH-responsive smart surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mengjiao; Liu, Qian; Ju, Guannan; Zhang, Yajun; Jiang, Lei; Shi, Feng

    2014-01-15

    Superhydrophobic to neutral water droplets, superhydrophilic to acidic or basic. This double transition of surface wettability in response to a single stimulus - pH - is demonstrated for the first time. The smart surface is composed of a rough gold surface modified with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) containing three thiols, HS(CH2 )11 CH3 , HS(CH2 )10 COOH, and HS(CH2 )11 NH2 . A ternary diagram is generated that describes wettability as a function of the SAM composition and the pH of the surrounding solution. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Graded index profiles and loss-induced single-mode characteristics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with petal-shape holey structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu An-Jin; Qu Hong-Wei; Chen Wei; Jiang Bin; Zhou Wen-Jun; Xing Ming-Xin; Zheng Wan-Hua

    2011-01-01

    The 850-nm oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with petal-shape holey structures are presented. An area-weighted average refractive index model is given to analyse their effective index profiles, and the graded index distribution in the holey region is demonstrated. The index step between the optical aperture and the holey region is obtained which is related merely to the etching depth. Four types of holey vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with different parameters are fabricated as well as the conventional oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser. Compared with the conventional oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser without etched holes, the holey vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser possesses an improved beam quality due to its graded index distribution, but has a lower output power, higher threshold current and lower slope efficiency. With the hole number increased, the holey vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser can realize the single-mode operation throughout the entire current range, and reduces the beam divergence further. The loss mechanism is used to explain the single-mode characteristic, and the reduced beam divergence is attributed to the shallow etching. High coupling efficiency of 86% to a multi-mode fibre is achieved for the single-mode device in the experiment.

  2. Method and system for laser-based formation of micro-shapes in surfaces of optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Isaac Louis; Guss, Gabriel Mark

    2013-03-05

    A method of forming a surface feature extending into a sample includes providing a laser operable to emit an output beam and modulating the output beam to form a pulse train having a plurality of pulses. The method also includes a) directing the pulse train along an optical path intersecting an exposed portion of the sample at a position i and b) focusing a first portion of the plurality of pulses to impinge on the sample at the position i. Each of the plurality of pulses is characterized by a spot size at the sample. The method further includes c) ablating at least a portion of the sample at the position i to form a portion of the surface feature and d) incrementing counter i. The method includes e) repeating steps a) through d) to form the surface feature. The sample is free of a rim surrounding the surface feature.

  3. Surface Coating of NiTi Shape Memory Alloys with Calcium Phosphates by Dip-coating or Plasma-spraying-biological Characterization Examined by in vitro Testing Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The influence of different surface coatings of NiTi shape memory alloys was examined using in vitro testing methods. Plates of superelastic nickel-titanium shape memory alloy (NiTi) were coated with calcium phosphates (hydroxyapatite) by high-temperature plasma-spraying or by dip-coating. The biocompatibility was tested in vitro by cultivation of isolated human granulocytes and whole blood cells. As substrates, pure NiTi,plasma-spray-coated NiTi and dip-coated NiTi were used. Isolated granulocytes showed an increased adhesion to both calcium phosphate-coated NiTi samples. Compared to non-coated NiTi or dip-coated NiTi, the number of dead granulocytes adherent to plasma-sprayed surfaces was significantly increased (p < 0.01). Whether the differences in apoptosis of granulocytes on dip-coated vs plasma-sprayed coatings observed are due to differences in material surface morphologies bas to be analyzed in further studies. Because of the cellular interactions with the coating layers, it is likely that the results obtained are not caused by the underlying NiTi but due to the coating itself.

  4. An Improved Surface Simplification Method for Facial Expression Animation Based on Homogeneous Coordinate Transformation Matrix and Maximum Shape Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juin-Ling Tseng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial animation is one of the most popular 3D animation topics researched in recent years. However, when using facial animation, a 3D facial animation model has to be stored. This 3D facial animation model requires many triangles to accurately describe and demonstrate facial expression animation because the face often presents a number of different expressions. Consequently, the costs associated with facial animation have increased rapidly. In an effort to reduce storage costs, researchers have sought to simplify 3D animation models using techniques such as Deformation Sensitive Decimation and Feature Edge Quadric. The studies conducted have examined the problems in the homogeneity of the local coordinate system between different expression models and in the retainment of simplified model characteristics. This paper proposes a method that applies Homogeneous Coordinate Transformation Matrix to solve the problem of homogeneity of the local coordinate system and Maximum Shape Operator to detect shape changes in facial animation so as to properly preserve the features of facial expressions. Further, root mean square error and perceived quality error are used to compare the errors generated by different simplification methods in experiments. Experimental results show that, compared with Deformation Sensitive Decimation and Feature Edge Quadric, our method can not only reduce the errors caused by simplification of facial animation, but also retain more facial features.

  5. Quantitative Morphologic Analysis of Boulder Shape and Surface Texture to Infer Environmental History: A Case Study of Rock Breakdown at the Ephrata Fan, Channeled Scabland, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Viles, Heather A.; Bourke, Mary C.

    2008-01-01

    Boulder morphology reflects both lithology and climate and is dictated by the combined effects of erosion, transport, and weathering. At present, morphologic information at the boulder scale is underutilized as a recorder of environmental processes, partly because of the lack of a systematic quantitative parameter set for reporting and comparing data sets. We develop such a parameter set, incorporating a range of measures of boulder form and surface texture. We use standard shape metrics measured in the field and fractal and morphometric classification methods borrowed from landscape analysis and applied to laser-scanned molds. The parameter set was pilot tested on three populations of basalt boulders with distinct breakdown histories in the Channeled Scabland, Washington: (1) basalt outcrop talus; (2) flood-transported boulders recently excavated from a quarry; and (3) flood-transported boulders, extensively weathered in situ on the Ephrata Fan surface. Size and shape data were found to distinguish between flood-transported and untransported boulders. Size and edge angles (approximately 120 degrees) of flood-transported boulders suggest removal by preferential fracturing along preexisting columnar joints, and curvature data indicate rounding relative to outcrop boulders. Surface textural data show that boulders which have been exposed at the surface are significantly rougher than those buried by fan sediments. Past signatures diagnostic of flood transport still persist on surface boulders, despite ongoing overprinting by processes in the present breakdown environment through roughening and fracturing in situ. Further use of this quantitative boulder parameter set at other terrestrial and planetary sites will aid in cataloging and understanding morphologic signatures of environmental processes.

  6. Quantitative Morphologic Analysis of Boulder Shape and Surface Texture to Infer Environmental History: A Case Study of Rock Breakdown at the Ephrata Fan, Channeled Scabland, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Viles, Heather A.; Bourke, Mary C.

    2008-01-01

    Boulder morphology reflects both lithology and climate and is dictated by the combined effects of erosion, transport, and weathering. At present, morphologic information at the boulder scale is underutilized as a recorder of environmental processes, partly because of the lack of a systematic quantitative parameter set for reporting and comparing data sets. We develop such a parameter set, incorporating a range of measures of boulder form and surface texture. We use standard shape metrics measured in the field and fractal and morphometric classification methods borrowed from landscape analysis and applied to laser-scanned molds. The parameter set was pilot tested on three populations of basalt boulders with distinct breakdown histories in the Channeled Scabland, Washington: (1) basalt outcrop talus; (2) flood-transported boulders recently excavated from a quarry; and (3) flood-transported boulders, extensively weathered in situ on the Ephrata Fan surface. Size and shape data were found to distinguish between flood-transported and untransported boulders. Size and edge angles (approximately 120 degrees) of flood-transported boulders suggest removal by preferential fracturing along preexisting columnar joints, and curvature data indicate rounding relative to outcrop boulders. Surface textural data show that boulders which have been exposed at the surface are significantly rougher than those buried by fan sediments. Past signatures diagnostic of flood transport still persist on surface boulders, despite ongoing overprinting by processes in the present breakdown environment through roughening and fracturing in situ. Further use of this quantitative boulder parameter set at other terrestrial and planetary sites will aid in cataloging and understanding morphologic signatures of environmental processes.

  7. Application of Aerodynamic Shape Deformation based on NURBS Surface%NURBS曲面在气动外形变形中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓永; 张彦军; 雷武涛

    2014-01-01

    针对翼吊布局飞机复杂气动外形,建立了基于样条(NURBS,非均匀有理B样条)曲面和曲面叠加技术的曲面变形方法。在对样条曲线性质分析的基础上,以DLR-F6飞机为实例,对其机翼翼根、短舱挂架局部进行曲面网格变形,结果表明该方法能有效表述其复杂几何外形及型面变化特性,并且具有较好的局域性、可控性和光滑性。该方法可有效应用于吊舱挂架等复杂气动外形的建模、表面网格变形及气动外形优化设计等。%A free deformation method based on the B-Spline (NURBS, Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline) and surface superposition technique was presented for complex aerodynamic shape such as wing mounted nacelle-pylon conifguration. The characteristic of parameters were analyzed with B-Spline curves case, and the application instances of surface grids deformation on wing and pylon of DLR-F6 plane shows that the method could describe complex surfaces and its deformation characteristic effectively, the control parameter only change its local surface, and it is easy to carry out. The method is feasible and applicable to model representation, surface grids deformation and aerodynamic shape optimization etc.

  8. Shaped Recess Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Vikram (Inventor); Poinsatte, Philip (Inventor); Thurman, Douglas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    One or more embodiments of techniques or systems for shaped recess flow control are provided herein. A shaped recess or cavity can be formed on a surface associated with fluid flow. The shaped recess can be configured to create or induce fluid effects, temperature effects, or shedding effects that interact with a free stream or other structures. The shaped recess can be formed at an angle to a free stream flow and may be substantially "V" shaped. The shaped recess can be coupled with a cooling channel, for example. The shaped recess can be upstream or downstream from a cooling channel and aligned in a variety of manners. Due to the fluid effects, shedding effects, and temperature effects created by a shaped recess, lift-off or separation of cooling jets of cooling channels can be mitigated, thereby enhancing film cooling effectiveness.

  9. Transformation of β-Ni(OH2to NiO nano-sheets via surface nanocrystalline zirconia coating: Shape and size retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ming-Yao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractShape and size of the synthesized NiO nano-sheets were retained during transformation of sheet-like β-Ni(OH2to NiO at elevated temperatures via nano-sized zirconia coating on the surface of β-Ni(OH2. The average grain size was 6.42 nm after 600 °C treatment and slightly increased to 10 nm after 1000 °C treatment, showing effective sintering retardation between NiO nano-sheets. The excellent thermal stability revealed potential application at elevated temperatures, especially for high temperature catalysts and solid-state electrochemical devices.

  10. 3-D Imaging Method for Lunar Surface Perception Radar%月面态势感知雷达三维成像方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢宏华; 栗苹; 傅雄军; 高梅国

    2011-01-01

    为实现月球探测器软着陆前在悬停状态下对局部月面起伏态势的有效感知,提出一种基于高度维宽带高分辨以及平面二维接收数字波束形成的雷达三维成像方法.该方法的突出特点是不需要雷达与目标间的相对运动便能实现三维成像.根据成像原理,对雷达发射波形、天线形式及尺寸进行了研究和设计;探讨了成像高度以及场景栅格扫描时的波位步进量问题;给出完整的成像处理流程并进行仿真验证.仿真结果表明,采用该方法可以获得强散射中心三维坐标,重构出场景区域的三维图像.%To realize perception of local lunar surface under the condition of relative stationary before soft landing during moon discovery, a novel 3-D imaging method is proposed. The method is based on range high-resolution in altitude dimensional and 2-D receiving digital beam forming to radar scene floor. The outstanding feature is this method can realize 3-D imaging without relative motion between radar and target. According to imaging principle, the transmitting waveforms, antenna shape and size has been researched and designed; the choosing of imaging height and stepping size for scene scan were also discussed; the whole imaging processing flow was given and has been simulated using computer. Simulation results indicate that it can obtain 3D coordinates of strong scattering centers accurately and reconstruct 3-D image of scene successfully.

  11. The Friction Reducing Effect of Square-Shaped Surface Textures under Lubricated Line-Contacts—An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Lu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface texturing has been shown to be an effective modification approach for improving tribological performance. This study examined the friction reduction effect generated by square dimples of different sizes and geometries. Dimples were fabricated on the surface of ASP2023 steel plates using femtosecond laser-assisted surface texturing techniques, and reciprocating sliding line contact tests were carried out on a Plint TE77 tribometer using a smooth 52100 bearing steel roller and textured ASP2023 steel plates. The tribological characterization of the friction properties indicated that the textured samples had significantly lowered the friction coefficient in both boundary (15% improvement and mixed lubrication regimes (13% improvement. Moreover, the high data sampling rate results indicated that the dimples work as lubricant reservoirs in the boundary lubrication regime.

  12. Investigations of nitrogen oxide plasmas: Fundamental chemistry and surface reactivity and monitoring student perceptions in a general chemistry recitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechle, Joshua M.

    Part I of this dissertation focuses on investigations of nitrogen oxide plasma systems. With increasing concerns over the environmental presence of NxOy species, there is growing interest in utilizing plasma-assisted conversion techniques. Advances, however, have been limited because of the lack of knowledge regarding the fundamental chemistry of these plasma systems. Understanding the kinetics and thermodynamics of processes in these systems is vital to realizing their potential in a range of applications. Unraveling the complex chemical nature of these systems, however, presents numerous challenges. As such, this work serves as a foundational step in the diagnostics and assessment of these NxOy plasmas. The partitioning of energy within the plasma system is essential to unraveling these complications as it provides insight into both gas and surface reactivity. To obtain this information, techniques such as optical emission spectroscopy (OES), broadband absorption spectroscopy (BAS), and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) were utilized to determine species energetics (vibrational, rotational, translational temperatures). These temperature data provide mechanistic insight and establish the relationships between system parameters and energetic outcomes. Additionally, these data are also correlated to surface reactivity data collected with the Imaging of Radicals Interacting with Surfaces (IRIS) technique. IRIS data demonstrate the relationship between internal temperatures of radicals and their observed surface scatter coefficients (S), the latter of which is directly related to surface reactivity (R) [R = 1-S]. Furthermore, time-resolved (TR) spectroscopic techniques, specifically TR-OES, revealed kinetic trends in NO and N2 formation from a range of precursors (NO, N2O, N2/O2). By examining the rate constants associated with the generation and destruction of various plasma species we can investigate possible mechanistic implications. All told, such data provides

  13. Correction of dental artifacts within the anatomical surface in PET/MRI using Active Shape Models and k-Nearest-Neighbors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged, Claes N.; Andersen, Flemming L.; Keller, Sune H.;

    2014-01-01

    n combined PET/MR, attenuation correction (AC) is performed indirectly based on the available MR image information. Metal implant-induced susceptibility artifacts and subsequent signal voids challenge MR-based AC. Several papers acknowledge the problem in PET attenuation correction when dental...... artifacts are ignored, but none of them attempts to solve the problem. We propose a clinically feasible correction method which combines Active Shape Models (ASM) and k- Nearest-Neighbors (kNN) into a simple approach which finds and corrects the dental artifacts within the surface boundaries of the patient...... vector, and fill the artifact voxels with a value representing soft tissue. We tested the method using fourteen patients without artifacts, and eighteen patients with dental artifacts of varying sizes within the anatomical surface of the head/neck region. Though the method wrongly filled a small volume...

  14. Using information theory to determine optimum pixel size and shape for ecological studies: Aggregating land surface characteristics in arctic ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoy, P.C.; Williams, M.; Spadavecchia, L.; Bell, R.A.; Prieto-Blanco, A.; Evans, J.G.; Wijk, van M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Quantifying vegetation structure and function is critical for modeling ecological processes, and an emerging challenge is to apply models at multiple spatial scales. Land surface heterogeneity is commonly characterized using rectangular pixels, whose length scale reflects that of remote sensing meas

  15. Magnetically labeled cells with surface-modified fe3 o4 spherical and rod-shaped magnetic nanoparticles for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Sara; Correia, Clara R; Mano, João F

    2015-04-22

    Magnetically targeted cells with internalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) could allow the success of cell transplantation and cell-based therapies, overcoming low cell retention that occurs when delivering cells by intravenous or local injection. Upon magnetization, these cells could then accumulate and stimulate the regeneration of the tissue in situ. Magnetic targeting of cells requires a detailed knowledge between interactions of engineered nanomaterials and cells, in particular the influence of shape and surface functionalization of MNPs. For the first time, cellular internalization of amino surface-modified iron oxide nanoparticles of two different shapes (nanospheres or nanorods) is studied. MNPs show high cellular uptake and labeled cells could exhibit a strong reaction with external magnetic fields. Compared to nanorods, nanospheres show better internalization efficiency, and labeled cells exhibit strong transportation reaction with external magnetic fields. Contiguous viable cell-sheets are developed by magnetic-force-based tissue engineering. The results confirm that the developed magnetic-responsive nano-biomaterials have potential applicability in tissue engineering or cellular therapies.

  16. Nanochemistry on silicon(100): surface biofunctionalization by amino-containing bifunctional molecules, and shape control of copper core-shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Abdullah

    The present research involves two projects: a surface science study of the room-temperature adsorption and thermal evolution of allylamine and ethanolamine on Si(100)2x1, studied by using temperature-dependent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS), as well as Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations; and a materials science study on the shape control of copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) deposited on H-terminated Si(100) substrate with an extended size regime of 5-400 nm, by using a simple, one-step electrochemical method. The Cu NPs of three primary shapes were characterized with scanning-electron microscopy (SEM), glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and XPS. In the first surface science study, the presence of broad N 1s XPS features at 398.9-399.1 eV, corresponding to N-Si bonds, indicates N-H dissociative adsorption for both allylamine and ethanolamine on Si(100)2x1. For allylamine, the presence of C 1s features at 284.6 eV and 286.2 eV, corresponding to C=C and C-N, respectively, and the absence of the Si-C feature expected at 283.5 eV show that the reactions involving the ethenyl group such as the [2+2] C=C cycloaddition or those producing the [N, C, C] tridentate adstructures do not occur at room temperature. For ethanolamine, the O 1s feature at 533.1 eV indicates the formation of Si-O bond and O-H dissociation, which confirms an [O, N] bidentate adstructure and excludes the N-H and O-H dissociation unidentate structures. These XPS data are consistent with the N-H unidentate, and N-H and O-H double dissociation [O, N] bidentate adstructures for allylamine and ethanolamine, respectively, as predicted by the DFT calculations. TDS and temperature-dependent XPS data further show the desorption of propene and ethylene at 580 K and of acetylene at 700 K for allylamine and the desorption of ethylene at 615 K for ethanolamine, while the lack of N- or O-containing desorbates suggests that the dissociated N and O

  17. An Approach for Predicting the Shape and Size of a Buried Basic Object on Surface Ground Penetrating Radar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Rachmana Syambas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface ground-penetrating radar (GPR is one of the radar technology that is widely used in many applications. It is nondestructive remote sensing method to detect underground buried objects. However, the output target is only hyperbolic representation. This research develops a system to identify a buried object on surface GPR based on decision tree method. GPR data of many basic objects (with circular, triangular, and rectangular cross-section are classified and extracted to generate data training model as a unique template for each type of basic object. The pattern of object under test will be known by comparing its data with the training data using a decision tree method. A simple powerful algorithm to extract feature parameters of object which is based on linear extrapolation is proposed. The result showed that tested buried basic objects can be correctly predicted and the developed system works properly.

  18. Regularities of shaping of a wheel profile as a result of deterioration of the rolling surface in exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander VORON’KO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the